WorldWideScience

Sample records for calculated vaporized volume

  1. Water vapor pressure calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J R; Brouillard, R G

    1985-06-01

    Accurate calculation of water vapor pressure for systems saturated with water vapor can be performed using the Goff-Gratch equation. A form of the equation that can be adapted for computer programming and for use in electronic databases is provided. PMID:4008425

  2. Calculation of vapor pressure of fission product fluorides and oxyfluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equilibrium diagrams of the condensed phases - solid and liquid - and vapor phase are collected for the principal fluorides and oxyfluorides of fission product elements (atomic number from 30 to 66). These diagrams are used more particularly in fuel reprocessing by fluoride volatility process. Calculations and curves (vapor pressure in function of temperature) are processed using a computer program given in this report

  3. Calculated Atomic Volumes of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H.; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium.......The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium....

  4. 46 CFR 69.65 - Calculation of volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of volumes. 69.65 Section 69.65 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.65 Calculation of volumes. (a) Volumes V and Vc used... other calculations which relate to the form of the vessel (such as displacement volumes and center...

  5. Theoretical Calculation and Validation of the Water Vapor Continuum Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiancheng; Tipping, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an improved parameterization of the water vapor continuum absorption through the refinement and validation of our existing theoretical formalism. The chief advantage of our approach is the self-consistent, first principles, basis of the formalism which allows us to predict the frequency, temperature and pressure dependence of the continuum absorption as well as provide insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the continuum absorption. Moreover, our approach is such that the calculated continuum absorption can be easily incorporated into satellite retrieval algorithms and climate models. Accurate determination of the water vapor continuum is essential for the next generation of retrieval algorithms which propose to use the combined constraints of multi-spectral measurements such as those under development for EOS data analysis (e.g., retrieval algorithms based on MODIS and AIRS measurements); current Pathfinder activities which seek to use the combined constraints of infrared and microwave (e.g., HIRS and MSU) measurements to improve temperature and water profile retrievals, and field campaigns which seek to reconcile spectrally-resolved and broad-band measurements such as those obtained as part of FIRE. Current widely used continuum treatments have been shown to produce spectrally dependent errors, with the magnitude of the error dependent on temperature and abundance which produces errors with a seasonal and latitude dependence. Translated into flux, current water vapor continuum parameterizations produce flux errors of order 10 W/ml, which compared to the 4 W/m' magnitude of the greenhouse gas forcing and the 1-2 W/m' estimated aerosol forcing is certainly climatologically significant and unacceptably large. While it is possible to tune the empirical formalisms, the paucity of laboratory measurements, especially at temperatures of interest for atmospheric applications, preclude tuning

  6. Considerations on the calculation of volumes in two planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discrepancies in the calculation of the same volume between different planning systems impact on dose-volume histograms and therefore clinical assessment of dosimetry for patients. The transfer, by a local network, tomographic study (CT) and contours of critical organs of patients, between our two planning systems allows us to evaluate the calculation of identical volumes.

  7. Modeling droplet vaporization and combustion with the volume of fluid method at a small Reynolds number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-bin ZHANG; Wei ZHANG; Xue-jun ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    The volume of fluid (VOF) formulation is applied to model the combustion process of a single droplet in a hightemperature convective air free stream environment.The calculations solve the flow field for both phases,and consider the droplet deformation based on an axisymmetrical model.The chemical reaction is modeled with one-step finite-rate mechanism and the thcrmo-physica1 properties for the gas mixture are species and temperature dependence.A mass transfer model applicable to the VOF calculations due to vaporization of the liquid phases is developed in consideration with the fluctuation of the liquid surface.The model is validated by examining the burning rate constants at different convective air temperatures,which accord well with experimental data of previous studies.Other phenomena from the simulations,such as the transient history of droplet deformation and flame structure,are also qualitatively accordant with the descriptions of other numerical results.However,a different droplet deformation mechanism for the low Reynolds number is explained compared with that for the high Reynolds number.The calculations verified the feasibility of the VOF computational fluid dynamics (CFD) formulation as well as the mass transfer model due to vaporization.

  8. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION IN VOLUME CALCULATION OF IRREGULAR ANTICLINES

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Malvić; Rajna Rajić; Petra Slavinić; Kristina Novak Zelenika

    2014-01-01

    The volume of geological structures is often calculated by using the definite integral. Though in some cases the integral can be solved analytically, in practice we usually approximate its value by numerical integration techniques. The application of definite integral in volume calculation is illustrated by two examples. The volume of Mount Fuji, the world-known “conic” geomorphological structure, is calculated by analytical integration. Two basic numerical integration methods, that is, the t...

  9. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION IN VOLUME CALCULATION OF IRREGULAR ANTICLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Malvić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The volume of geological structures is often calculated by using the definite integral. Though in some cases the integral can be solved analytically, in practice we usually approximate its value by numerical integration techniques. The application of definite integral in volume calculation is illustrated by two examples. The volume of Mount Fuji, the world-known “conic” geomorphological structure, is calculated by analytical integration. Two basic numerical integration methods, that is, the trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule are applied to subsurface hydrocarbon reservoir volume calculation, where irregular anticline is approximated by a frustum of a right circular cone.

  10. Calculation of transport coefficients of air-water vapor mixtures thermal plasmas used in circuit breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOHIO Niéssan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we calculate the transport coefficients of plasmas formed by air and water vapor mixtures. The calculation, which assume local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE are performed in the temperature range from 500 to 12000 K. We use the Gibbs free energy minimization method to determine the equilibrium composition of the plasmas, which is necessary to calculate the transport coefficients. We use the Chapman-Enskog method to calculate the transport coefficients. The results are presented and discussed according to the rate of water vapor. The results of the total thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity show in particular that the increasing of the rate of water vapor in air can be interesting for power cut. This could be improve the performance of plasma during current breaking in air contaminate by the water vapor.

  11. Developing a program for calculating the volume of earthwork

    OpenAIRE

    Žuber, Iztok

    2015-01-01

    When constructing a facility, earthworks have a great impact on the cost of the project. Calculating the volume of earthwork is therefore a common procedure in the field of Geodesy. Because of the frequency of the procedure it is smart to make it as efficient and automated as possible. This bachelor thesis deals with calculating volumes of excavations and volumes of embankments. The emphasis of the thesis is in the practical case study where we developed a computer program for cal...

  12. Vapor-liquid (VLE) and liquid-liquid (LLE) phase equilibria calculations for polystyrene plus methyleyclohexane and polystyrene plus cyclohexane solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilczura-Wachnik, H.; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the vapor-liquid (VLE) and liquid-liquid (LLE) phase equilibria predictions for polystyrene in two theta solvents: cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. VLE calculations were performed with the Elbro free volume method and a modified version of the PC-SAFT method, as well as with...

  13. Vapor-liquid (VLE) and liquid-liquid (LLE) phase equilibria calculations for polystyrene plus methyleyclohexane and polystyrene plus cyclohexane solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilczura-Wachnik, H.; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the vapor-liquid (VLE) and liquid-liquid (LLE) phase equilibria predictions for polystyrene in two theta solvents: cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. VLE calculations were performed with the Elbro free volume method and a modified version of the PC-SAFT method, as well as with...... three UNIFAC type group contribution models: Entropic Free Volume + UNIFAC VLE 1 coeff., Entropic Free Volume + UNIFAC VLE 2coeff., and Oishi-Prausnitz + UNIFAC VLE 2coeff. Solvent activities were calculated for the polystyrene + cyclohexane and polystyrene + methylcyclohcxane solutions, and compared...

  14. Calculation of cell volumes and surface areas in MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCNP is a general Monte Carlo neutron-photon particle transport code which treats an arbitrary three-dimensional configuration of materials in geometric cells bounded by first- and second-degree surfaces, and some special fourth-degree surfaces. It is necessary to calculate cell volumes and surface areas so that cell masses, fluxes, and other important information can be determined. The volume/area calculation in MCNP computes cell volumes and surface areas for cells and surfaces rotationally symmetric about any arbitrary axis. 5 figures, 1 table

  15. Calculation of Liquid Water-Hydrate-Methane Vapor Phase Equilibria from Molecular Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kaj; von Solms, Nicolas;

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation methods for determining fluid- and crystal-phase chemical potentials are used for the first time to calculate liquid water-methane hydrate-methane vapor phase equilibria from knowledge of atomistic interaction potentials alone. The water and methane molecules are modeled...... using the TIP4P/ice potential and a united-atom Lennard-Jones potential. respectively. The equilibrium calculation method for this system has three components, (i) thermodynamic integration from a supercritical ideal gas to obtain the fluid-phase chemical potentials. (ii) calculation of the chemical...

  16. Free volume and water vapor permeability properties in polyurethane membranes studied by positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the soft segment and temperature on the free volume and gas permeability have been studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) in polyurethane membranes based on polybutylene adipate (PBA), polytetramethylene glycol (PTMG) and polycaprolactone (PCL) as soft segments. The wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results indicated that PBA-PU and PCL-PU had crystalline region except for PTMG-PU. The PALS results indicated that the free-volume hole size increased rapidly as the crystals melted. The water vapor permeability (WVP) coefficients followed Arrhenius temperature dependence in the molten and rubbery state for all membranes. High free volume gave rise to the negative value of the apparent activation energy of permeation (Ep). Correlations between the free volume and gas transport properties have been discussed. We found that WVP was controlled by not only free volume but also hydrophilicity of polymer

  17. Vapor pressure isotope effects of water studied by molecular orbital calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H/D and 16O/18O fractionation factors between liquid water and water vapor in the temperature range of 0 to 100degC were calculated using the reduced partition function ratios of small water clusters, (H2O)n with n=1 to 10, obtained at the HF/6-31G(d) and B3LYP/6-311G(d) levels of theory. The calculated fractionation factor values were heavily dependent on the choice of the MO theory and the basis set. Both the calculation levels showed that the formation of hydrogen bonds in liquid water caused the heavier isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen to be preferentially fractionated into the liquid water phase. While the HF/6-31G(d) level calculations yielded better results of the absolute values of the H/D and 16O/18O fractionation factors, the B3LYP/6-311G(d) level calculations reproduced the slopes of their temperature dependence better than the HF/6-31G(d) level calculations. As a whole, the quantitative agreements between the experiment and the present calculations were not satisfactory. It was indicated that a proper choice of MO theory, the basis set and the number of hydrogen bonds per molecule in liquid water may reproduce well the experimental vapor pressure isotope effect data of water. (author)

  18. Convection in tropical cyclones associated with vapor volume reduction - a new concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardhekar, D.

    2010-09-01

    Low pressure zone formation due to convection in a tropical cyclone is associated by a newly discovered phenomenon. The explanation is based on Avogadro's law. According to the law 18 grams (molecular weight expressed in grams) of water when evaporated occupies 22.414 litres of vapor at standard temperature and pressure (STP). Therefore, 1.0 gram of water in the vapor form will occupy 1.245 litres. That is, 1245 ml volume of vapor at STP when condensed will form 1.0 ml volume of water. Due to the phase change that is from water vapor to liquid water, huge reduction in volume occurs. The process of condensation of vapor into liquid water from the vapor component of the vapor-rich air is continuously taking place in a tropical cyclone particularly in the eye wall on a very large scale. The condensed water precipitates as rain or forms clouds. Each ml of the rain leaves behind a vacant space equal to 1245 ml forming a low-pressure zone and consequently a pressure gradient force is formed. Therefore, when there are continuous heavy rains in the eye wall, the magnitude of the low pressure zone and the pressure gradient force forming continuously in the condensation regions of the eye wall is gigantic. At the same time the latent heat released in the condensation process is absorbed by the remaining air component, it becomes warmer and buoyant, therefore ascends and ultimately escapes from the top of the cyclone as the outflow, again forming a low pressure zone. Thus, continuous condensation and continuous ascent and escape of warm air from the top together form a continuous pressure gradient and the vapour-rich air is continuously sucked up from below, that is from above the sea surface in the region of the eye wall due to the continuously forming pressure gradient force maintaining the near sea surface convergence of the vapour rich air. The value 1245 changes with change in temperature and pressure, but it does not affect the presented concept. The formation of the

  19. Calculation of the water vapor line intensities for rotational transitions between high-excited energy levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, O. V.; Voitsekhovskaya, O. K.; Kashirskii, D. E.

    2015-11-01

    The intensities of water vapor in the range of pure rotational transitions were calculated up to high quantum numbers (Jmax ~ 30 and Ka max ~ 25). The diagonalization of the effective rotational Hamiltonian, approximated by Pade-Borel method, is applied to obtain the eigenvectors. The centrifugal distortion perturbations in line intensities were taken into account by the traditional equations for matrix elements of the transformed dipole moment, including eight parameters, and previously developed by authors Pade approximant. Moreover, to conduct the calculations, the rotational wavefunctions of the symmetric rotor molecule were applied. The results were compared with the known theoretical data.

  20. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of two neutrons in finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Klos, P; Tews, I; Gandolfi, S; Gezerlis, A; Hammer, H -W; Hoferichter, M; Schwenk, A

    2016-01-01

    Ab initio calculations provide direct access to the properties of pure neutron systems that are challenging to study experimentally. In addition to their importance for fundamental physics, their properties are required as input for effective field theories of the strong interaction. In this work, we perform auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of the ground and first excited state of two neutrons in a finite box, considering a simple contact potential as well as chiral effective field theory interactions. We compare the results against exact diagonalizations and present a detailed analysis of the finite-volume effects, whose understanding is crucial for determining observables from the calculated energies. Using the L\\"uscher formula, we extract the low-energy S-wave scattering parameters from ground- and excited-state energies for different box sizes.

  1. Efficient Error Calculation for Multiresolution Texture-Based Volume Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMar, E; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2001-10-16

    Multiresolution texture-based volume visualization is an excellent technique to enable interactive rendering of massive data sets. Interactive manipulation of a transfer function is necessary for proper exploration of a data set. However, multiresolution techniques require assessing the accuracy of the resulting images, and re-computing the error after each change in a transfer function is very expensive. They extend their existing multiresolution volume visualization method by introducing a method for accelerating error calculations for multiresolution volume approximations. Computing the error for an approximation requires adding individual error terms. One error value must be computed once for each original voxel and its corresponding approximating voxel. For byte data, i.e., data sets where integer function values between 0 and 255 are given, they observe that the set of error pairs can be quite large, yet the set of unique error pairs is small. instead of evaluating the error function for each original voxel, they construct a table of the unique combinations and the number of their occurrences. To evaluate the error, they add the products of the error function for each unique error pair and the frequency of each error pair. This approach dramatically reduces the amount of computation time involved and allows them to re-compute the error associated with a new transfer function quickly.

  2. Influence of the temperature, volume and type of solution in the mercury vaporization of dental amalgam residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the qualitative methods for the identification of mercury vapor is what it occurs as a way of chemical reaction between palladium chloride and metallic mercury. Palladium chloride ribbons with yellowish coloration put in contact with the vaporized mercury of dental amalgam residue, liberates palladium and forms mercury chloride in your surface, and starts to have black coloration; this form identify the presence of the mercury vapor in the system. This work studies the influence of temperature, volume and type of barrier-solution in the vaporization of mercury during the period of storage of dental amalgam residues, aiming to establish the best conditions for storage of these residues. It was found that for all tested solutions, the longest storage times without any occurrence of mercury vaporization were obtained in the lowest temperatures tested and the largest solution volumes of barrier-solution. The radiographic effluent presented bigger efficacy in the reduction of the volatilization, increasing the period when the residue was stored, however the analysis of this solution after the vaporization test showed the presence of organic mercury. These results show that water is the most efficient barrier against the vaporization of mercury, since it did not result in organic mercury formation in the effluent solution from the storage process

  3. Influence of the temperature, volume and type of solution in the mercury vaporization of dental amalgam residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Raquel dalla [Department of Chemical Engineering, State University of Maringa, Maringa - PR (Brazil)], E-mail: raqueldc_eng@yahoo.com.br; Cossich, Eneida Sala; Tavares, Celia Regina Granhen [Department of Chemical Engineering, State University of Maringa, Maringa - PR (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    One of the qualitative methods for the identification of mercury vapor is what it occurs as a way of chemical reaction between palladium chloride and metallic mercury. Palladium chloride ribbons with yellowish coloration put in contact with the vaporized mercury of dental amalgam residue, liberates palladium and forms mercury chloride in your surface, and starts to have black coloration; this form identify the presence of the mercury vapor in the system. This work studies the influence of temperature, volume and type of barrier-solution in the vaporization of mercury during the period of storage of dental amalgam residues, aiming to establish the best conditions for storage of these residues. It was found that for all tested solutions, the longest storage times without any occurrence of mercury vaporization were obtained in the lowest temperatures tested and the largest solution volumes of barrier-solution. The radiographic effluent presented bigger efficacy in the reduction of the volatilization, increasing the period when the residue was stored, however the analysis of this solution after the vaporization test showed the presence of organic mercury. These results show that water is the most efficient barrier against the vaporization of mercury, since it did not result in organic mercury formation in the effluent solution from the storage process.

  4. Theoretical investigation of lead vapor adsorption on kaolinite surfaces with DFT calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinye [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Huang, Yaji, E-mail: heyyj@seu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Pan, Zhigang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Yongxing; Liu, Changqi [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Al surface after dehydroxylation is active while Si surface is inert. • The active sites are the unsaturated Al atoms and O atoms losing H atom. • PbO is the most suitable species for adsorption. • Increasing the activities of Al atoms can enhance the performance of kaolinite. • Produce of amorphous silica is a potential path to enhance the performance of kaolinite. - Abstract: Kaolinite can be used as the in-furnace sorbent/additive to adsorb lead (Pb) vapor at high temperature. In this paper, the adsorptions of Pb atom, PbO molecule and PbCl{sub 2} molecule on kaolinie surfaces were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. Si surface is inert to Pb vapor adsorption while Al surfaces with dehydroxylation are active for the unsaturated Al atoms and the O atoms losing H atoms. The adsorption energy of PbO is much higher than that of Pb atom and PbCl{sub 2}. Considering the energy barriers, it is easy for PbO and PbCl{sub 2} to adsorb on Al surfaces but difficult to escape. The high energy barriers of de–HCl process cause the difficulties of PbCl{sub 2} to form PbO·Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}·2SiO{sub 2} with kaolinite. Considering the inertia of Si atoms and the activity of Al atoms after dehydroxylation, calcination, acid/alkali treatment and some other treatment aiming at amorphous silica producing and Al activity enhancement can be used as the modification measures to improve the performance of kaolinite as the in-furnace metal capture sorbent.

  5. Theoretical investigation of lead vapor adsorption on kaolinite surfaces with DFT calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Al surface after dehydroxylation is active while Si surface is inert. • The active sites are the unsaturated Al atoms and O atoms losing H atom. • PbO is the most suitable species for adsorption. • Increasing the activities of Al atoms can enhance the performance of kaolinite. • Produce of amorphous silica is a potential path to enhance the performance of kaolinite. - Abstract: Kaolinite can be used as the in-furnace sorbent/additive to adsorb lead (Pb) vapor at high temperature. In this paper, the adsorptions of Pb atom, PbO molecule and PbCl2 molecule on kaolinie surfaces were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. Si surface is inert to Pb vapor adsorption while Al surfaces with dehydroxylation are active for the unsaturated Al atoms and the O atoms losing H atoms. The adsorption energy of PbO is much higher than that of Pb atom and PbCl2. Considering the energy barriers, it is easy for PbO and PbCl2 to adsorb on Al surfaces but difficult to escape. The high energy barriers of de–HCl process cause the difficulties of PbCl2 to form PbO·Al2O3·2SiO2 with kaolinite. Considering the inertia of Si atoms and the activity of Al atoms after dehydroxylation, calcination, acid/alkali treatment and some other treatment aiming at amorphous silica producing and Al activity enhancement can be used as the modification measures to improve the performance of kaolinite as the in-furnace metal capture sorbent

  6. Theoretical Calculation of the Real Vapor Pressure of Al during ISM Processing of Ni-xAl (at.pct)(x=25~50) Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjie GUO; Guizhong LIU; Yanqing SU; Jun JIA; Hengzhi FU

    2004-01-01

    A new model was established to calculate the real vapor pressure of Al in the molten Ni-xAI (at. Pct) (x=25~50)alloy. The effects of the holding time, chamber pressure, mole fraction of Al and melting temperature on the real vapor pressure of Al in the vacuum chamber were analyzed. Because of the impeding effect of the real vapor pressure on the evaporation loss rate, within a short time (less than 10 s), the real vapor pressure tends to a constant value.When the chamber pressure is less than the saturated vapor pressure of Al, the real vapor pressure of Al is equal to the chamber pressure. While when the chamber pressure is higher than the saturated vapor pressure, the real vapor pressure of Al approaches to the saturated vapor pressure of Al of the same condition.

  7. A unified equation for calculating methane vapor pressures in the CH4-H2O system with measured Raman shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.; Song, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A unified equation has been derived by using all available data for calculating methane vapor pressures with measured Raman shifts of C-H symmetric stretching band (??1) in the vapor phase of sample fluids near room temperature. This equation eliminates discrepancies among the existing data sets and can be applied at any Raman laboratory. Raman shifts of C-H symmetric stretching band of methane in the vapor phase of CH4-H2O mixtures prepared in a high-pressure optical cell were also measured at temperatures between room temperature and 200 ??C, and pressures up to 37 MPa. The results show that the CH4 ??1 band position shifts to higher wavenumber as temperature increases. We also demonstrated that this Raman band shift is a simple function of methane vapor density, and, therefore, when combined with equation of state of methane, methane vapor pressures in the sample fluids at elevated temperatures can be calculated from measured Raman peak positions. This method can be applied to determine the pressure of CH4-bearing systems, such as methane-rich fluid inclusions from sedimentary basins or experimental fluids in hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell or other types of optical cell. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New nuclear medicine method of calculating left ventricular stroke volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieschke, R.; Luig, H.; Reuter, R.; Figulla, H.R.

    1983-12-01

    A new non-invasive nuclear medicine procedure for determining the left ventricular stroke volume is described. The procedure exhibits the following features: 1. individual calibration of scintigraphic counts in activity by first-pass evaluation; 2. no need for a delta-shaped bolus injection; and 3. determination of different stroke volumes, e.g. during different grades of exercise, by only one injection and by only one blood sample. 36 results obtained at rest and during exercise are compared with corresponding results of the thermodilution method (r = 0.86).

  9. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of two neutrons in finite volume

    OpenAIRE

    Klos, P.; Lynn, J. E.; Tews, I.; Gandolfi, S.; Gezerlis, A.; Hammer, H. -W.; Hoferichter, M.; Schwenk, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ab initio calculations provide direct access to the properties of pure neutron systems that are challenging to study experimentally. In addition to their importance for fundamental physics, their properties are required as input for effective field theories of the strong interaction. In this work, we perform auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of the ground and first excited state of two neutrons in a finite box, considering a simple contact potential as well as chiral effectiv...

  10. Volume calculations of coarse woody debris; evaluation of coarse woody debris volume calculations and consequences for coarse woody debris volume estimates in forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Vaessen, O.H.B.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Olsthoorn, A.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Dead wood is recognized as one of the key indicators for sustainable forest management and biodiversity. Accurate assessments of dead wood volume are thus necessary. In this study New volume models were designed based on actual volume measurements of coarse woody debris. The New generic model accura

  11. On the accuracy of HITEMP-2010 calculated emissivities of Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, M.; Weber, R.; Mancini, M.;

    Nowadays, spectral Line-by-Line calculations using either HITRAN or HITEMP data bases are frequently used for calculating gas radiation properties like absorption coefficients or emissivities. Such calculations are computationally very expensive because of the vast number of spectral lines and...

  12. The calculation of volume and mass of the 14x14 type KOFA components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Systematic procedure for the calculation of the mass and volume of the 14x14 type KOFA components has been established in this report. And also the mass for the fuel assembly components from the commercial products has been measured and compared with the calculation results. (Author)

  13. The calculation of volume and mass of the 16x16 type KOFA components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic procedure for the calculation of the mass and volume of the 16x16 type KOFA components has been established in this report. In addition the mass for the fuel assembly components from the commercial products has been measured and compared with the calculation results. (Author)

  14. Slope excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation in hydraulic projects based on laser scanning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Slope excavation is one of the most crucial steps in the construction of a hydraulic project. Excavation project quality assessment and excavated volume calculation are critical in construction management. The positioning of excavation projects using traditional instruments is inefficient and may cause error. To improve the efficiency and precision of calculation and assessment, three-dimensional laser scanning technology was used for slope excavation quality assessment. An efficient data acquisition, processing, and management workflow was presented in this study. Based on the quality control indices, including the average gradient, slope toe elevation, and overbreak and underbreak, cross-sectional quality assessment and holistic quality assessment methods were proposed to assess the slope excavation quality with laser-scanned data. An algorithm was also presented to calculate the excavated volume with laser-scanned data. A field application and a laboratory experiment were carried out to verify the feasibility of these methods for excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation. The results show that the quality assessment indices can be obtained rapidly and accurately with design parameters and scanned data, and the results of holistic quality assessment are consistent with those of cross-sectional quality assessment. In addition, the time consumption in excavation project quality assessment with the laser scanning technology can be reduced by 70%−90%, as compared with the traditional method. The excavated volume calculated with the scanned data only slightly differs from measured data, demonstrating the applicability of the excavated volume calculation method presented in this study.

  15. On the accuracy of HITEMP-2010 calculated emissivities of Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Michael; Weber, Roman; Mancini, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    Line-by-line (LbL) calculations using either HITRAN or HITEMP spectral data bases are often used for predicting gas radiation properties like absorption coefficients or emissivities. Due to the large size of these data bases, calculations are computationally too expensive to be used in regular CFD...

  16. A simple and efficient GIS tool for volume calculations of submarine landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, David Julius

    2010-10-01

    A numeric tool is presented for calculating volumes of topographic voids such as slump scars of landslides, canyons or craters (negative/concave morphology), or alternatively, bumps and hills (positive/convex morphology) by means of digital elevation models embedded within a geographical information system (GIS). In this study, it has been used to calculate landslide volumes. The basic idea is that a (singular) event (landslide, meteorite impact, volcanic eruption) has disturbed an intact surface such that it is still possible to distinguish between the former (undisturbed) landscape and the disturbance (crater, slide scar, debris avalanche). In such cases, it is possible to reconstruct the paleo-surface and to calculate the volume difference between both surfaces, thereby approximating the volume gain or loss caused by the event. I tested the approach using synthetically generated land surfaces that were created on the basis of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data. Also, I show the application to two real cases, (1) the calculation of the volume of the Masaya Slide, a submarine landslide on the Pacific continental slope of Nicaragua, and (2) the calculation of the void of a segment of the Fish River Canyon, Namibia. The tool is provided as a script file for the free GIS GRASS. It performs with little effort, and offers a range of interpolation parameters. Testing with different sets of interpolation parameters results in a small range of uncertainty. This tool should prove useful in surface studies not exclusively on earth.

  17. Fast near-field calculation for volume integral equations for layered media

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2005-01-01

    An efficient technique based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for calculating near-field scattering by dielectric objects in layered media is presented. A higher or-der method of moments technique is employed to solve the volume integral equation for the unknown induced volume current density. Afterwards, the scattered electric field can be easily computed at a regular rectangular grid on any horizontal plane us-ing a 2-dimensional FFT. This approach provides significant speedup in the nea...

  18. Thermodynamic calculations for chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide using ethyltrichlorosilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code SOLGASMIX-PV, which is based on the free energy minimization method, was used to calculate the equilibrium composition of the C2H5SiCl3-H2-Ar system. In the C2H5SiCl3-H2 system, the calculation results showed that β-SiC+C, β-SiC, β-SiC+Si(1), Si(1), β-SiC+Si(s), and Si(s) would be deposited, whereas β-SiC+C and C would be deposited in the C2H5SiCl3-Ar system. By comparing the calculated results with the experimental results from the literature, in the region calculated as β-SiC+C to be deposited, β-SiC+C, β-SiC, or β-SiC+Si(s) was deposited in the experiments. The calculations revealed that the gas mole ratios for CVD were optimum when the (Ar+H2)/C2H5SiCl3 took a value between 1000 and 10000, and the Ar/H2 between 0.43 and 1.5. The deposition temperature was optimum between 1100-1500K. In this region, the Si atoms were most effectively used as source materials, and formed a single phase of β-SiC on the substrate. (author)

  19. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of fuel-vapor species from spectroscopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measured spectroscopic data, estimated molecular parameters, and a densty-of-states model for electronic structure have been used to calculate thermodynamic functions for gaseous ThO, ThO2, UO, UO2, UO3, PuO, and PuO2. Various methods for estimating parameters have been considered and numerically evaluated. The sensitivity of the calculated thermodynamic functions to molecular parameters has been examined quantitatively. New values of the standard enthalpies of formation at 298.150K have been derived from the best available ΔG0/sub f/ equations and the calculated thermodynamic functions. Estimates of the uncertainties have been made for measured and estimated data as well as for various mathematical and physical approximations. Tables of the thermodynamic functions to 60000K are recommended for gaseous thorium, uranium, and plutonium oxides

  20. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses: 1958 to 1982. Volume 1. Lookup tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains - in chronological order - the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  1. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses: 1958 to 1982. Volume 1. Lookup tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains - in chronological order - the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41

  2. First vapor explosion calculations performed with MC3D thermal-hydraulic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brayer, C.; Berthoud, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the first calculations performed with the `explosion` module of the multiphase computer code MC3D, which is devoted to the fine fragmentation and explosion phase of a fuel coolant interaction. A complete description of the physical laws included in this module is given. The fragmentation models, taking into account two fragmentation mechanisms, a thermal one and an hydrodynamic one, are also developed here. Results to some calculations to test the numerical behavior of MC3D and to test the explosion models in 1D or 2D are also presented. (author)

  3. 3D CT modeling of hepatic vessel architecture and volume calculation in living donated liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a software tool for non-invasive preoperative volumetric assessment of potential donors in living donated liver transplantation (LDLT). Biphasic helical CT was performed in 56 potential donors. Data sets were post-processed using a non-commercial software tool for segmentation, volumetric analysis and visualisation of liver segments. Semi-automatic definition of liver margins allowed the segmentation of parenchyma. Hepatic vessels were delineated using a region-growing algorithm with automatically determined thresholds. Volumes and shapes of liver segments were calculated automatically based on individual portal-venous branches. Results were visualised three-dimensionally and statistically compared with conventional volumetry and the intraoperative findings in 27 transplanted cases. Image processing was easy to perform within 23 min. Of the 56 potential donors, 27 were excluded from LDLT because of inappropriate liver parenchyma or vascular architecture. Two recipients were not transplanted due to poor clinical conditions. In the 27 transplanted cases, preoperatively visualised vessels were confirmed, and only one undetected accessory hepatic vein was revealed. Calculated graft volumes were 1110±180 ml for right lobes, 820 ml for the left lobe and 270±30 ml for segments II+III. The calculated volumes and intraoperatively measured graft volumes correlated significantly. No significant differences between the presented automatic volumetry and the conventional volumetry were observed. A novel image processing technique was evaluated which allows a semi-automatic volume calculation and 3D visualisation of the different liver segments. (orig.)

  4. Model calculation of the characteristic mass for convective and diffusive vapor transport in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of former convective–diffusive vapor-transport models is described to extend the calculation scheme for sensitivity (characteristic mass — m0) in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). This approach encompasses the influence of forced convection of the internal furnace gas (mini-flow) combined with concentration diffusion of the analyte atoms on the residence time in a spatially isothermal furnace, i.e., the standard design of the transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA). A couple of relationships for the diffusional and convectional residence times were studied and compared, including in factors accounting for the effects of the sample/platform dimension and the dosing hole. These model approaches were subsequently applied for the particular cases of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn analytes. For the verification of the accuracy of the calculations, the experimental m0 values were determined with the application of a standard THGA furnace, operating either under stopped, or mini-flow (50 cm3 min−1) of the internal sheath gas during atomization. The theoretical and experimental ratios of m0(mini-flow)-to-m0(stop-flow) were closely similar for each study analyte. Likewise, the calculated m0 data gave a fairly good agreement with the corresponding experimental m0 values for stopped and mini-flow conditions, i.e., it ranged between 0.62 and 1.8 with an average of 1.05 ± 0.27. This indicates the usability of the current model calculations for checking the operation of a given GFAAS instrument and the applied methodology. - Highlights: • A calculation scheme for convective–diffusive vapor loss in GFAAS is described. • Residence time (τ) formulas were compared for sensitivity (m0) in a THGA furnace. • Effects of the sample/platform dimension and dosing hole on τ were assessed. • Theoretical m0 of 18 analytes were calculated for stopped & mini furnace gas flows. • Experimental

  5. Model calculation of the characteristic mass for convective and diffusive vapor transport in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencs, László, E-mail: bencs.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Laczai, Nikoletta [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Ajtony, Zsolt [Institute of Food Science, University of West Hungary, H-9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Lucsony utca 15–17 (Hungary)

    2015-07-01

    A combination of former convective–diffusive vapor-transport models is described to extend the calculation scheme for sensitivity (characteristic mass — m{sub 0}) in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). This approach encompasses the influence of forced convection of the internal furnace gas (mini-flow) combined with concentration diffusion of the analyte atoms on the residence time in a spatially isothermal furnace, i.e., the standard design of the transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA). A couple of relationships for the diffusional and convectional residence times were studied and compared, including in factors accounting for the effects of the sample/platform dimension and the dosing hole. These model approaches were subsequently applied for the particular cases of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn analytes. For the verification of the accuracy of the calculations, the experimental m{sub 0} values were determined with the application of a standard THGA furnace, operating either under stopped, or mini-flow (50 cm{sup 3} min{sup −1}) of the internal sheath gas during atomization. The theoretical and experimental ratios of m{sub 0}(mini-flow)-to-m{sub 0}(stop-flow) were closely similar for each study analyte. Likewise, the calculated m{sub 0} data gave a fairly good agreement with the corresponding experimental m{sub 0} values for stopped and mini-flow conditions, i.e., it ranged between 0.62 and 1.8 with an average of 1.05 ± 0.27. This indicates the usability of the current model calculations for checking the operation of a given GFAAS instrument and the applied methodology. - Highlights: • A calculation scheme for convective–diffusive vapor loss in GFAAS is described. • Residence time (τ) formulas were compared for sensitivity (m{sub 0}) in a THGA furnace. • Effects of the sample/platform dimension and dosing hole on τ were assessed. • Theoretical m{sub 0} of 18 analytes were

  6. Fast Near-Field Calculation for Volume Integral Equations for Layered Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    An efficient technique based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for calculating near-field scattering by dielectric objects in layered media is presented. A higher or-der method of moments technique is employed to solve the volume integral equation for the unknown induced volume current density....... Afterwards, the scattered electric field can be easily computed at a regular rectangular grid on any horizontal plane us-ing a 2-dimensional FFT. This approach provides significant speedup in the near-field calculation in comparison to a straightforward numerical evaluation of the ra-diation integral since...

  7. Calculation of the Residual Blood Volume after Acute, Non-Ongoing Hemorrhage Using Serial Hematocrit Measurements and the Volume of Isotonic Fluid Infused: Theoretical Hypothesis Generating Study

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Won Sup; Chon, Sung-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation, hemostasis, and transfusion is essential in care of hemorrhagic shock. Although estimation of the residual blood volume is crucial, the standard measuring methods are impractical or unsafe. Vital signs, central venous or pulmonary artery pressures are inaccurate. We hypothesized that the residual blood volume for acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage was calculable using serial hematocrit measurements and the volume of isotonic solution infused. Blood volume is the sum of volumes...

  8. Volume calculation of subsurface structures and traps in hydrocarbon exploration — a comparison between numerical integration and cell based models

    OpenAIRE

    Slavinić Petra; Cvetković Marko

    2016-01-01

    The volume calculation of geological structures is one of the primary goals of interest when dealing with exploration or production of oil and gas in general. Most of those calculations are done using advanced software packages but still the mathematical workflow (equations) has to be used and understood for the initial volume calculation process. In this paper a comparison is given between bulk volume calculations of geological structures using trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule and the ones obt...

  9. Evaluation of methods for calculating volume fraction in Eulerian-Lagrangian multiphase flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Angela; Balachandar, S.

    2016-05-01

    The present work addresses numerical methods required to compute particle volume fraction or number density. Local volume fraction of the lth particle, αl, is the quantity of foremost importance in calculating the gas-mediated particle-particle interaction effect in multiphase flows. A general multiphase flow with a distribution of Lagrangian particles inside a fluid flow discretized on an Eulerian grid is considered. Particle volume fraction is needed both as a Lagrangian quantity associated with each particle and also as an Eulerian quantity associated with the grid cell for Eulerian-Lagrangian simulations. In Grid-Based (GB) methods the particle volume fraction is first obtained within each grid cell as an Eulerian quantity and then the local particle volume fraction associated with any Lagrangian particle can be obtained from interpolation. The second class of methods presented are Particle-Based (PB) methods, where particle volume fraction will first be obtained at each particle as a Lagrangian quantity, which then can be projected onto the Eulerian grid. Traditionally, the GB methods are used in multiphase flow, but sub-grid resolution can be obtained through use of the PB methods. By evaluating the total error, and its discretization, bias and statistical error components, the performance of the different PB methods is compared against several common GB methods of calculating volume fraction. The standard von Neumann error analysis technique has been adapted for evaluation of rate of convergence of the different methods. The discussion and error analysis presented focus on the volume fraction calculation, but the methods can be extended to obtain field representations of other Lagrangian quantities, such as particle velocity and temperature.

  10. Model calculation of the characteristic mass for convective and diffusive vapor transport in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencs, László; Laczai, Nikoletta; Ajtony, Zsolt

    2015-07-01

    A combination of former convective-diffusive vapor-transport models is described to extend the calculation scheme for sensitivity (characteristic mass - m0) in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). This approach encompasses the influence of forced convection of the internal furnace gas (mini-flow) combined with concentration diffusion of the analyte atoms on the residence time in a spatially isothermal furnace, i.e., the standard design of the transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA). A couple of relationships for the diffusional and convectional residence times were studied and compared, including in factors accounting for the effects of the sample/platform dimension and the dosing hole. These model approaches were subsequently applied for the particular cases of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn analytes. For the verification of the accuracy of the calculations, the experimental m0 values were determined with the application of a standard THGA furnace, operating either under stopped, or mini-flow (50 cm3 min- 1) of the internal sheath gas during atomization. The theoretical and experimental ratios of m0(mini-flow)-to-m0(stop-flow) were closely similar for each study analyte. Likewise, the calculated m0 data gave a fairly good agreement with the corresponding experimental m0 values for stopped and mini-flow conditions, i.e., it ranged between 0.62 and 1.8 with an average of 1.05 ± 0.27. This indicates the usability of the current model calculations for checking the operation of a given GFAAS instrument and the applied methodology.

  11. Investigations on the necessity of dose calculations for several planes of the target volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiotherapy planning, the shape of a target volume can at present be exactly delimited by means of computed tomography. A method often applied is to project the largest target volume scan on the plane of the central ray and to calculate the dose in this plane. This method does not allow to take into account any change of the target volume scan which will be mainly due to the body contours of the patient. The results of dose calculations made in several planes for pharyngeal and laryngeal tumors are presented. With this procedure, 33 out of 60 irradiation techniques for nine tumor sites meet the requirements with regard to the central ray plane. If several planes are regarded, this is only true for ten irradiation plans. If is therefore absolutely necessary to calculate the doses of several planes if the target volume has an irregular shape or if the body contours vary considerably. This is the only way to prevent a false treatment caused by possibly severe dose excesses or dose insufficiencies in radiotherapy. (orig.)

  12. Approaches of output improvement for a cesium vapor laser pumped by a volume-Bragg-grating coupled laser-diode-array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the approaches of output improvement for a cesium vapor laser, which was pumped by a volume-Bragg-grating (VBG) coupled broad-area laser-diode-array (LDA) with the quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) drive mode, in adopting an appropriate heating procedure and improving the pump configuration

  13. Calculation of mean dose deposited in expended volume around an ion path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXiao-Wei; ZhangChun-Xiang

    1998-01-01

    Using the relation of radial dose distributioin which is inverse proportion to suqare of radial distance,and considering angular distribution of secondary electrons,an analytical formula of mean dose deposited in extended volume around an ion is given and the inactivation cross sections of heavy ions are calculated.The results are in reasonable agreement with experimental data.Compared to the numerical integral methods,the method using analytical formulae is straightforward and simple.

  14. IMRT: Improvement in treatment planning efficiency using NTCP calculation independent of the dose-volume-histogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) is a predictor of radiobiological effect for organs at risk (OAR). The calculation of the NTCP is based on the dose-volume-histogram (DVH) which is generated by the treatment planning system after calculation of the 3D dose distribution. Including the NTCP in the objective function for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan optimization would make the planning more effective in reducing the postradiation effects. However, doing so would lengthen the total planning time. The purpose of this work is to establish a method for NTCP determination, independent of a DVH calculation, as a quality assurance check and also as a mean of improving the treatment planning efficiency. In the study, the CTs of ten randomly selected prostate patients were used. IMRT optimization was performed with a PINNACLE3 V 6.2b planning system, using planning target volume (PTV) with margins in the range of 2 to 10 mm. The DVH control points of the PTV and OAR were adapted from the prescriptions of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol P-0126 for an escalated prescribed dose of 82 Gy. This paper presents a new model for the determination of the rectal NTCP (RNTCP). The method uses a special function, named GVN (from Gy, Volume, NTCP), which describes the RNTCP if 1 cm3 of the volume of intersection of the PTV and rectum (Rint) is irradiated uniformly by a dose of 1 Gy. The function was 'geometrically' normalized using a prostate-prostate ratio (PPR) of the patients' prostates. A correction of the RNTCP for different prescribed doses, ranging from 70 to 82 Gy, was employed in our model. The argument of the normalized function is the Rint, and parameters are the prescribed dose, prostate volume, PTV margin, and PPR. The RNTCPs of another group of patients were calculated by the new method and the resulting difference was <±5% in comparison to the NTCP calculated by the PINNACLE3 software where Kutcher's dose-response model for

  15. Ab initio calculation of the interaction potentials of helium, neon, and methane as well as theoretical studies on their thermophysical properties and those of water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermophysical properties of the pure gases helium, neon, methane and water vapor were calculated for low densities over wide temperature ranges. Statistical thermodynamics was used for the determination of the pressure virial coefficients. The kinetic theory of gases was utilized for the calculation of the transport and relaxation properties. So far kinetic theory was limited to linear molecules and has now been extended to molecules of arbitrary geometry to enable calculations on methane and water vapor. The interaction potentials, which are needed for all computations, were determined for helium, neon and methane from the supermolecular approach using quantum chemical ab initio methods. For water the interaction potentials were taken from the literature. The calculated values of the thermophysical properties for the four gases show very good agreement with the best experimental data. At very low and very high temperatures the theoretical values are more accurate than experimental data. (orig.)

  16. Algorithm for the calculation of a steam generator efficiency; Algoritmo para el calculo de la eficiencia de un generador de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, David; Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The efficiency calculation of steam generators is not always simple. The purpose of this paper is to propose an algorithm for the calculation of steam generators efficiency, easy to understand and carry out, in the form of a series of steps to be followed. It takes as starting point that the person in charge of applying these calculations has knowledge of the combustion processes and thermodynamic principles that rule such processes. [Espanol] El calculo de la eficiencia de los generadores de vapor no siempre es sencillo, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el de proponer un algoritmo de calculo de eficiencia de generadores de vapor, el cual sea facil de entender y de llevar a cabo, en forma de una serie de pasos a seguir. Se toma como punto de partida, que la persona encargada de aplicar estos calculos tenga el conocimiento de los procesos de combustion y principios termodinamicos que rigen tales procesos.

  17. Variations on calculating left-ventricular volume with the radionuclide count-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various methods for the calculation of left-ventricular volume by the count-based method utilizing red-blood-cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc and a parallel-hole collimator are evaluated. Attenuation correction, linked to an additional left posterior oblique view, is utilized for all 26 patients. The authors examine (1) two methods of calculating depth, (2) the use of a pair of attenuation coefficients, (3) the optimization of attenuation coefficients, and (4) the employment of an automated program for expansion of the region of interest. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) from the correlation of the radionuclide volumes with the contrast-angiography volumes, and the root-mean-square difference between the two volume sets at the minimum SEE are computed. It is found that optimizing a single linear attenuation coefficient assumed for attenuation correction best reduces the value of the SEE. The average of the optimum value from the end-diastolic data and that from the end-systolic data is 0.11 cm-1. This value agrees with the mean minus one standard deviation value determined independently from computed tomography scans (0.13-0.02 cm-1). It is also found that expansion of the region of interest beyond the second-derivative edge with an automated program, in order to correctly include more counts, does not lower the SEE as hoped. This result is in contrast to the results of others with different data and a manual method. Possible causes for the difference are given

  18. From an instantaneous point source to a continuous volume source. Calculation of pollutant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion of pollutants in gaseous or liquid media is investigated. At first, the molecular diffusion is studied using the continuous point source model. Pollutant concentration is determined by means of Green's function. Then follows the investigation of turbulent diffusion in a flowing medium. The K-theory is applied in order to calculate the pollutant concentrations for short-time or continuous point source, line source, large-area source, or volume source in a flow field of an anisotropic medium. The extensive differential equations and their analytical solutions are explained in detail. (KW)

  19. Recording and Calculating Gunshot Sound—Change of the Volume in Reference to the Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaos, Tsiatis E.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in an open practice ground (shooting range) regarding the recording of the sound of gunshots. Shots were fired using various types of firearms (seven pistols, five revolvers, two submachine guns, one rifle, and one shotgun) in different calibers, from several various distances with reference to the recording sources. Both, a conventional sound level meter (device) and a measurement microphone were used, having been placed in a fixed point behind the shooting line. The sound of each shot was recorded (from the device). At the same time the signal received by the microphone was transferred to a connected computer through an appropriate audio interface with a pre-amplifier. Each sound wave was stored and depicted as a wave function. After the physic-mathematical analysis of these depictions, the volume was calculated in the accepted engineering units(Decibels or dB) of Sound Pressure Level (SPL). The distances from the recording sources were 9.60 meters, 14.40 m, 19.20 m, and 38.40 m. The experiment was carried out by using the following calibers: .22 LR, 6.35 mm(.25 AUTO), 7.62 mm Tokarev(7,62×25), 7.65 mm(.32 AUTO), 9 mm Parabellum(9×19), 9 mm Short(9×17), 9 mm Makarov(9×18), .45 AUTO, .32 S&W, .38 S&W, .38 SPECIAL, .357 Magnum, 7,62 mm Kalashnikov(7,62×39) and 12 GA. Tables are given for the environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, altitude & barometric pressure), the length of the barrel of each gun, technical characteristics of the used ammunition, as well as for the volume taken from the SLM. The data for the sound intensity were collected after 168 gunshots (158 single shot & 10 bursts). According to the results, a decreasing of the volume, equivalent to the increasing of the distance, was remarked, as it was expected. Values seem to follow the Inverse square Law. For every doubling of the distance from the sound source, the sound intensity diminishes by 5.9904±0.2325 decibels (on average). In addition, we have the

  20. Matching excluded-volume hadron-resonance gas models and perturbative QCD to lattice calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, M.; Kapusta, J.; Young, C.

    2014-08-01

    We match three hadronic equations of state at low energy densities to a perturbatively computed equation of state of quarks and gluons at high energy densities. One of them includes all known hadrons treated as point particles, which approximates attractive interactions among hadrons. The other two include, in addition, repulsive interactions in the form of excluded volumes occupied by the hadrons. A switching function is employed to make the crossover transition from one phase to another without introducing a thermodynamic phase transition. A χ2 fit to accurate lattice calculations with temperature 100physically reasonable models include the excluded-volume effect. Not only do they include the effects of attractive and repulsive interactions among hadrons, but they also achieve better agreement with lattice QCD calculations of the equation of state. The equations of state constructed in this paper do not result in a phase transition, at least not for the temperatures and baryon chemical potentials investigated. It remains to be seen how well these equations of state will represent experimental data on high-energy heavy-ion collisions when implemented in hydrodynamic simulations.

  1. Finite Volume Numerical Methods for Aeroheating Rate Calculations from Infrared Thermographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Nowak, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of multi-dimensional finite volume heat conduction techniques for calculating aeroheating rates from measured global surface temperatures on hypersonic wind tunnel models was investigated. Both direct and inverse finite volume techniques were investigated and compared with the standard one-dimensional semi-infinite technique. Global transient surface temperatures were measured using an infrared thermographic technique on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air tunnel. In these tests the effectiveness of vortices generated via gas injection for initiating hypersonic transition on the Hyper-X forebody was investigated. An array of streamwise-orientated heating striations was generated and visualized downstream of the gas injection sites. In regions without significant spatial temperature gradients, one-dimensional techniques provided accurate aeroheating rates. In regions with sharp temperature gradients caused by striation patterns multi-dimensional heat transfer techniques were necessary to obtain more accurate heating rates. The use of the one-dimensional technique resulted in differences of 20% in the calculated heating rates compared to 2-D analysis because it did not account for lateral heat conduction in the model.

  2. Modeling Atmospheric Emissions and Calculating Mortality Rates Associated with High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Alyssa

    Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are a growing pollution concern throughout the global community, as they have been linked to numerous health issues. The freight transportation sector is a large source of these emissions and is expected to continue growing as globalization persists. Within the US, the expanding development of the natural gas industry is helping to support many industries and leading to increased transportation. The process of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) is one of the newer advanced extraction techniques that is increasing natural gas and oil reserves dramatically within the US, however the technique is very resource intensive. HVHF requires large volumes of water and sand per well, which is primarily transported by trucks in rural areas. Trucks are also used to transport waste away from HVHF well sites. This study focused on the emissions generated from the transportation of HVHF materials to remote well sites, dispersion, and subsequent health impacts. The Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was used in this analysis within ArcGIS to identify roadways with high volume traffic and emissions. High traffic road segments were used as emissions sources to determine the atmospheric dispersion of particulate matter using AERMOD, an EPA model that calculates geographic dispersion and concentrations of pollutants. Output from AERMOD was overlaid with census data to determine which communities may be impacted by increased emissions from HVHF transport. The anticipated number of mortalities within the impacted communities was calculated, and mortality rates from these additional emissions were computed to be 1 in 10 million people for a simulated truck fleet meeting stricter 2007 emission standards, representing a best case scenario. Mortality rates due to increased truck emissions from average, in-use vehicles, which represent a mixed age truck fleet, are expected to be higher (1 death per 341,000 people annually).

  3. Condensation of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the jet exhausts of rocket engines: 1. Model calculation of the physical conditions in a jet exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platov, Yu. V.; Alpatov, V. V.; Klyushnikov, V. Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Model calculations have been performed for the temperature and pressure of combustion products in the jet exhaust of rocket engines of last stages of Proton, Molniya, and Start launchers operating in the upper atmosphere at altitudes above 120 km. It has been shown that the condensation of water vapor and carbon dioxide can begin at distances of 100-150 and 450-650 m away from the engine nozzle, respectively.

  4. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 1, Calculations, Final design for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume one contains calculations for: embankment design--embankment material properties; Union Carbide site--bedrock contours; vicinity properties--origin of contamination; North Continent and Union Carbide sites contaminated materials--excavation quantities; and demolition debris--quantity estimate

  5. Volume Transport Stream Function Calculated from World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13-VTSF) and Climatological Wind (NCEI Accession 0138646)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of calculated annual and monthly mean ocean volume transport stream function on 1 degree resolution using the WOA13 (T, S) and corresponding...

  6. A method of calculating a lung clinical target volume DVH for IMRT with intrafractional motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, J H; Zygmanski, P; Choi, N; Chen, G T Y

    2003-06-01

    The motion of lung tumors from respiration has been reported in the literature to be as large as 1-2 cm. This motion requires an additional margin between the Clinical Target Volume (CTV) and the Planning Target Volume (PTV). In Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), while such a margin is necessary, the margin may not be sufficient to avoid unintended high and low dose regions to the interior on moving CTV. Gated treatment has been proposed to improve normal tissues sparing as well as to ensure accurate dose coverage of the tumor volume. The following questions have not been addressed in the literature: (a) what is the dose error to a target volume without a gated IMRT treatment? (b) What is an acceptable gating window for such a treatment. In this study, we address these questions by proposing a novel technique for calculating the three-dimensional (3-D) dose error that would result if a lung IMRT plan were delivered without a gated linac beam. The method is also generalized for gated treatment with an arbitrary triggering window. IMRT plans for three patients with lung tumors were studied. The treatment plans were generated with HELIOS for delivery with 6 MV on a CL2100 Varian linear accelerator with a 26 pair MLC. A CTV to PTV margin of 1 cm was used. An IMRT planning system searches for an optimized fluence map phi(x,y) for each port, which is then converted into a dynamic MLC file (DMLC). The DMLC file contains information about MLC subfield shapes and the fractional Monitor Units (MUs) to be delivered for each subfield. With a lung tumor, a CTV that executes a quasiperiodic motion z(t) does not receive phi(x,y), but rather an Effective Incident Fluence EIF(x,y). We numerically evaluate the EIF(x,y) from a given DMLC file by a coordinate transformation to the Target's Eye View (TEV). In the TEV coordinate system, the CTV itself is stationary, and the MLC is seen to execute a motion -z(t) that is superimposed on the DMLC motion. The resulting EIF(x,y) is

  7. A method of calculating a lung clinical target volume DVH for IMRT with intrafractional motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The motion of lung tumors from respiration has been reported in the literature to be as large as 1-2 cm. This motion requires an additional margin between the Clinical Target Volume (CTV) and the Planning Target Volume (PTV). In Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), while such a margin is necessary, the margin may not be sufficient to avoid unintended high and low dose regions to the interior on moving CTV. Gated treatment has been proposed to improve normal tissues sparing as well as to ensure accurate dose coverage of the tumor volume. The following questions have not been addressed in the literature: (a) what is the dose error to a target volume without a gated IMRT treatment? (b) What is an acceptable gating window for such a treatment. In this study, we address these questions by proposing a novel technique for calculating the three-dimensional (3-D) dose error that would result if a lung IMRT plan were delivered without a gated linac beam. The method is also generalized for gated treatment with an arbitrary triggering window. IMRT plans for three patients with lung tumors were studied. The treatment plans were generated with HELIOS for delivery with 6 MV on a CL2100 Varian linear accelerator with a 26 pair MLC. A CTV to PTV margin of 1 cm was used. An IMRT planning system searches for an optimized fluence map Φ(x,y) for each port, which is then converted into a dynamic MLC file (DMLC). The DMLC file contains information about MLC subfield shapes and the fractional Monitor Units (MUs) to be delivered for each subfield. With a lung tumor, a CTV that executes a quasiperiodic motion z(t) does not receive Φ(x,y), but rather an Effective Incident Fluence EIF(x,y). We numerically evaluate the EIF(x,y) from a given DMLC file by a coordinate transformation to the Target's Eye View (TEV). In the TEV coordinate system, the CTV itself is stationary, and the MLC is seen to execute a motion -z(t) that is superimposed on the DMLC motion. The resulting EIF(x,y) is input

  8. Exact calculation of the overlap volume of spheres and mesh elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Severin; Formella, Arno; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    An algorithm for the exact calculation of the overlap volume of a sphere and a tetrahedron, wedge, or hexahedron is described. The method can be used to determine the exact local solid fractions for a system of spherical, non-overlapping particles contained in a complex mesh, a question of significant relevance for the numerical solution of many fluid-solid interaction problems. While challenging due to the limited machine precision, a numerically robust version of the calculation maintaining high computational efficiency is devised. The method is evaluated with respect to the numerical precision and computational cost. It is shown that the exact calculation is only limited by the machine precision and can be applied to a wide range of size ratios, contrary to previously published methods. Eliminating this constraint enables the usage of meshes with higher resolution near the system boundaries for coupled CFD-DEM simulations. The numerical robustness is further illustrated by applying the method to highly deformed mesh elements. The full source code of the reference implementation is made available under an open-source license.

  9. Volume calculation of subsurface structures and traps in hydrocarbon exploration — a comparison between numerical integration and cell based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavinić, Petra; Cvetković, Marko

    2016-01-01

    The volume calculation of geological structures is one of the primary goals of interest when dealing with exploration or production of oil and gas in general. Most of those calculations are done using advanced software packages but still the mathematical workflow (equations) has to be used and understood for the initial volume calculation process. In this paper a comparison is given between bulk volume calculations of geological structures using trapezoidal and Simpson's rule and the ones obtained from cell-based models. Comparison in calculation is illustrated with four models; dome - 1/2 of ball/sphere, elongated anticline, stratigraphic trap due to lateral facies change and faulted anticline trap. Results show that Simpson's and trapezoidal rules give a very accurate volume calculation even with a few inputs(isopach areas - ordinates). A test of cell based model volume calculation precision against grid resolution is presented for various cases. For high accuracy, less the 1% of an error from coarsening, a cell area has to be 0.0008% of the reservoir area

  10. Matching Excluded Volume Hadron Resonance Gas Models and Perturbative QCD to Lattice Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, M; Young, C

    2014-01-01

    We match three hadronic equations of state at low energy densities to a perturbatively computed equation of state of quarks and gluons at high energy densities. One of them includes all known hadrons treated as point particles, which approximates attractive interactions among hadrons. The other two include, in addition, repulsive interactions in the form of excluded volumes occupied by the hadrons. A switching function is employed to make the crossover transition from one phase to another without introducing a thermodynamic phase transition. A chi-square fit to accurate lattice calculations with temperature $100 < T < 1000$ MeV determines the parameters. These parameters quantify the behavior of the QCD running gauge coupling and the hard core radius of protons and neutrons, which turns out to be $0.62 \\pm 0.04$ fm. The most physically reasonable models include the excluded volume effect. Not only do they include the effects of attractive and repulsive interactions among hadrons, but they also achieve b...

  11. Estimating the impact of high-production-volume chemicals on remote ecosystems by toxic pressure calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbers, Jasper V; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Posthuma, Leo; Van de Meent, Dik

    2006-03-01

    Although many chemicals are in use, the environmental impacts of only a few have been established, usually on per-chemical basis. Uncertainty remains about the overall impact of chemicals. This paper estimates combined toxic pressure on coastal North Sea ecosystems from 343 high-production-volume chemicals used within the catchment of rivers Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt. Multimedia fate modeling and species sensitivity distribution-based effects estimation are applied. Calculations start from production volumes and emission rates and use physicochemical substance properties and aquatic ecotoxicity data. Parameter uncertainty is addressed by Monte Carlo simulations. Results suggest that the procedure is technically feasible. Combined toxic pressure of all 343 chemicals in coastal North Seawater is 0.025 (2.5% of the species are exposed to concentration levels above EC50 values), with a wide confidence interval of nearly 0-1. This uncertainty appears to be largely due to uncertainties in interspecies variances of aquatic toxicities and, to a lesser extent, to uncertainties in emissions and degradation rates. Due to these uncertainties, the results support gross ranking of chemicals in categories: negligible and possibly relevant contributions only. With 95% confidence, 283 of the 343 chemicals (83%) contribute negligibly (less than 0.1%) to overall toxic pressure, and only 60 (17%) need further consideration. PMID:16568772

  12. Ab initio calculation for an initial growth process of GaN on (0001) and (0000 anti 1) surfaces by vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Hikari; Togashi, Rie [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo (Japan); Murakami, Hisashi; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Koukitu, Akinori [Division of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The adsorption processes of group-III and group-V sources used in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) were investigated using ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) to understand the initial growth process of GaN on GaN(0001) and (000 anti 1) substrates. In order to understand the influence from the decomposition of ammonia, NH{sub 2}, NH and N were considered as adsorption species. We assume group-V source preflow in the case of GaN(0001) and group-III preflow in the case of GaN(000 anti 1). From the calculations, the initial GaN growth process in the vapor phase epitaxy is clarified. When GaN is grown on the GaN(0001) substrate, NH{sub 3} molecules adsorb to the on-top site or NH{sub 2} molecules adsorb to the bridge site. Also, it was found that the surface structures with both NH{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} are stable under a hydrogen atmosphere. When GaN is grown on the GaN(000 anti 1) substrate, Ga atoms adsorb to the H3 site in the case of MOVPE and GaCl molecules adsorb to the H3 site with the Ga atom facing the surface in the case of HVPE. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. A modified free-volume-based model for predicting vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria for size asymmetric systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radfarnia, H.R.; Ghotbi, C.; Taghikhani, V.;

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to present a free-volume combinatorial term in predicting vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) and solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) of polymer/solvent and light and heavy hydrocarbon/hydrocarbon mixtures. The proposed term is based on a modification of the original Freed...... Flory-Huggins model, replacing the molar volume with a free-volume (FV) term. Using an extensive database for athermal polymer solutions at finite dilution, the single parameter of the model has been well adjusted. The results obtained from the model proposed in this work were favorably compared with...... those obtained from the well-established entropic-FV based models, i.e., the original entropic-FV (EFV) and the modified entropic-FV (MEFV) models. The results were also compared with those of the original UNIFAC-FV model as well as a modified UNIFAC-FV model, Kannan-FV, recently proposed model by...

  14. Calculation of the Radius of Gyration for a Linear Flexible Polymer Chain with Excluded Volume Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanes, Fredrick Charles

    1990-01-01

    We have calculated the radius of gyration for a three dimensional linear flexible polymer chain with excluded volume interaction. The resulting is written as a perturbation series in the dimensionless excluded volume parameter z, and the series is written to O(z ^4) as = (Ll/6)(1 + 1.276190476z - 2.081948603z^2 + 6.564897382z^3 - 26.70629003z^4 + ...) where z = (3/2pil) ^{3/2}omegaL^ {1/2} with l the effective segment length, L the contour length, and omegal^2 the effective binary cluster integral for a pair of segments. The perturbation theory used to calculate has recently been applied to the mean square end-to-end distance for a linear flexible polymer chain by Muthukumar and Nickel. The theory essentially uses the continuum limit of the two -parameter model, Laplace transforms, and a diagrammatic expansion in conjunction with field theory methods. The perturbation theory was found to be much simpler to implement than the usual cluster expansion method, and thus we were able to extend the series from the previously known O(z^2) to O(z^4 ). The perturbation series for and are divergent, and are only valid for small z values. However, the most interesting information about these properties occurs for large z values. The large z limit of the and series were extracted by using the direct renormalization method, and estimates for the critical exponents and scaling amplitudes were obtained. A quantity that is of theoretical interest is the large z limit of the ratio 6/, since it is believed to be a universal constant (i.e., independent of the model). We calculated the ratio by applying four different renormalization schemes to the perturbation series for and , and we obtained a final estimate of 6 / = 0.9631 +/- 0.0003. We also analysed the Monte Carlo self-avoiding walk data for the ratio and found the large chain limit of 6 / = 0.9602 +/- 0.0002. The discrepancy between the two results could be due to the averaging procedure that we used to obtain the two

  15. In situ measurement of reaction volume and calculation of pH of weak acid buffer solutions under high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Stephen K; Samaranayake, Chaminda P; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2011-05-26

    Direct measurements of reaction volume, so far, have been limited to atmospheric pressure. This study describes a method for in situ reaction volume measurements under pressure using a variable volume piezometer. Reaction volumes for protonic ionization of weak acid buffering agents (MES, citric acid, sulfanilic acid, and phosphoric acid) were measured in situ under pressure up to 400 MPa at 25 °C. The methodology involved initial separation of buffering agents within the piezometer using gelatin capsules. Under pressure, the volume of the reactants was measured at 25 °C, and the contents were heated to 40 °C to dissolve the gelatin and allow the reaction to occur, and cooled to 25 °C, where the volume of products was measured. Reaction volumes were used to calculate pH of the buffer solutions as a function of pressure. The results show that the measured reaction volumes as well as the calculated pH values generally quite agree with their respective theoretically predicted values up to 100 MPa. The results of this study highlight the need for a comprehensive theory to describe the pressure behavior of ionization reactions in realistic systems especially at higher pressures. PMID:21542618

  16. Mathematical modeling of kinetics of volume condensation of water and sulfuric acid vapors during electron-beam purification of power plant flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetic equations system, describing the volume condensation process of water and purification of power plant flue gases is developed. The role of water and sulfuric acid vapors nucleation, the drops growth on the account of H2O and H2SO4 molecule condensation thereon and drops coagulation due to their Brownian movement in the summary process is analyzed. It is shown that dissolution of other gaseous compounds (SO2, NH3, etc.) in the molecule drops may be considered in the approximation of the gas-liquid quasi-equilibrium

  17. Calculating Skempton constant of aquifer from volume strain and water level response to seismic waves at Changping seismic station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Rui; CHEN Yong; GAO Fu-wang; HUANG Fu-qiong

    2008-01-01

    Based on linear poroelastic theory of ideal poroelastic media, we apply the mathematic expression between pore pressure and volume strain for well-aquifer system to analyzing the observed data of water level and volume strain changes aroused by Sumatra Ms8.7 (determined by China Seismic Networks Center) seismic waves at Changping, Beijing, station on December 26, 2004 from both time and frequency domain. The response coefficients of water level fluctuation to volume strain are also calculated when seismic waves were passing through confined aquifer. A method for estimating Skempton constant B is put forward, which provide an approach for understanding of the characteristics of aquifer.

  18. Saturated vapor pressure above the amalgam of alkali metals in discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrish, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    A theoretical and numerical analysis of the evaporation process of two-component compounds in vapors of alkali metals in discharge lamps is presented. Based on the developed mathematical model of calculation of saturated vapor pressure of the metal above the amalgam, dependences of mass fractions of the components in the discharge volume on design parameters and thermophysical characteristics of the lamp are obtained.

  19. Considerations on the calculation of volumes in two planning systems; Consideraciones sobre el calculo de volumenes en dos sistemas de planificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Tenedor Alonso, S.; Rincon Perez, M.; Penedo Cobos, J. M.; Garcia Castejon, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    The discrepancies in the calculation of the same volume between different planning systems impact on dose-volume histograms and therefore clinical assessment of dosimetry for patients. The transfer, by a local network, tomographic study (CT) and contours of critical organs of patients, between our two planning systems allows us to evaluate the calculation of identical volumes.

  20. Calculation of Volume Properties for Saturated Vapour by Using the Modified Truncated Virial Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingshanTong; GuanghuaGao

    1995-01-01

    In this paper,a molecular gaaregation function which represents the degree of molecular aggregation is derived based on statistical mechanic method.Then,a trucated virial equation is modified by the molecular aggregation theory.THe propsed extended equation of state gives good representation of the PVT properties of sturated vapors for some strong polar fluids including water,alcohols and carboxylic acid etc.

  1. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1, Volume 4. Calculations, Final design for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume four contains calculations for: Borrow areas--site evaluation; temporary facilities--material quantities; embankment quantities--excavation and cover materials; Burro Canyon site excavation quantities--rippable and unrippable materials; site restoration--earthwork quantities and seeding; and bid schedule quantities and material balance

  2. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 2, Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Volume two contains calculations for: embankment design--slope stability analysis; embankment design--excavation stability; embankment design--settlement and cover cracking analysis; radon barrier design--statistical analysis of ra-226 concentrations for North Continent and Union Carbide sites; radon barrier design--RAECOM input data; radon barrier design--design thickness; and cover design--frost penetration depth.

  3. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 2, Calculations, Final design for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume two contains calculations for: embankment design--slope stability analysis; embankment design--excavation stability; embankment design--settlement and cover cracking analysis; radon barrier design--statistical analysis of ra-226 concentrations for North Continent and Union Carbide sites; radon barrier design--RAECOM input data; radon barrier design--design thickness; and cover design--frost penetration depth

  4. 3-D volume rendering visualization for calculated distributions of diesel spray; Diesel funmu kyodo suchi keisan kekka no sanjigen volume rendering hyoji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizaki, T.; Imanishi, H.; Nishida, K.; Yamashita, H.; Hiroyasu, H.; Kaneda, K. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Three dimensional visualization technique based on volume rendering method has been developed in order to translate calculated results of diesel combustion simulation into realistically spray and flame images. This paper presents an overview of diesel combustion model which has been developed at Hiroshima University, a description of the three dimensional visualization technique, and some examples of spray and flame image generated by this visualization technique. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. 40 CFR 80.1107 - How is the Renewable Volume Obligation calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or the transmix blended into gasoline by a transmix blender, under 40 CFR 80.84. ... gasoline volume for a refiner, blender, or importer for a given year, GVi, specified in paragraph (a) of... the RFS program under § 80.1143. (6) For blenders, the volume of finished gasoline, RBOB, or CBOB...

  6. Calculating excess volumes of binary solutions with allowance for structural differences between mixed components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balankina, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    Analytical dependences of a volume's properties on the differences between the geometric structures of initial monosystems are obtained for binary systems simulated by a grain medium. The effect of microstructural parameter k (the ratio of volumes of molecules of mixed components) on the concentration behavior of the relative excess molar volume of different types of real binary solutions is analyzed. It is established that the contribution due to differences between the volumes of molecules and coefficients of the packing density of mixed components is ~80-100% for mutual solutions of n-alkanes and ~55-80% of the experimental value of the relative excess molar volume for water solutions of n-alcohols.

  7. Expanded Lever Rule for Phase Volume Fraction Calculation of High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel in Thermal Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xuanwei; Huang, Jihua; Chen, Shuhai; Zhao, Xingke

    2016-06-01

    The principle of the lever rule on the dilatation curve and its application to the corresponding differential dilatation curve were introduced in a nonoverlapped two-phase continuous cooling process. The lever rule was further expanded in the case of an overlapped two-phase process. The application of the expanded lever rule was based on the approximate symmetry treatment on the differential dilatation curve, which shows reasonably both on the theoretical calculation and in the experimental results. High-strength low-alloy steels were thermal simulated with Gleeble 3500. The transformed phase volume fractions in different cooling processes were calculated by the expanded lever rule and metallography analysis. The results showed the expanded lever rule could calculate reliable phase volume fractions as metallography analysis.

  8. Calculation of the elastic scattering properties in an ultra cold Fermi-Bose and Bose-Bose FR vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculations of the elastic scattering properties of ultracold-francium isotopes are reported in the detail. The improved potentials for both the triplet and singlet molecular states of the Fr2 are represented, and using these potentials, the scattering lengths at and the effective range re are calculated with help of WKB and Numerov methods for Fr-Fr in the triplet and singlet state. The convergence of these scattering properties as the depending on a K0 parameter is also investigated using Quantum Defect Theory

  9. Postoperative lung volume calculated by chest computed tomography in patients with esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that, due to the severe surgical stress of thoracotomy, respiratory function after esophagectomy under thoracotomy worsened as late as a month after surgery. To investigate the mechanism of the reduction of the respiratory function, we utilized chest CT to analyze separately the changes in the lung volume of the thoracotomized side and the other side. Here, we reported the results of our comparative study of lung volume and respiratory function, which was performed by spirogram before esophagectomy and 6 months afterwards. We selected twenty-three patients who had undergone esophagectomy under right thoracotomy. Fourteen of the selectees received standard thoracotomy, while the other nine had the anterior serratus muscle and the latissimus dorsi muscle preserved. Total lung volume was found to have decreased from a preoperative value of 4077±674 ml (mean±SD) to a postoperative value of 3964±774 ml, and right-lung volume significantly decreased from 2229±397 to 2023±397 ml, while left-lung volume tended to increase. While right-lung volume in standard thoracotomy displayed a significant decrease from 2264±334 to 1949±424 ml, that in muscle-preserving thoracotomy showed almost no change. Spirogram revealed that vital capacity had decreased from 3574±601 to 2666±576 ml, and forced expiratory volume in the first second showed a significant decrease from 2680±500 to 2249±485 ml. Comparing the decreasing rate, the correlation coefficients between right-lung volume and % VC was 0.58. These results suggested that a change of lung volume in the thoracotomized side could play a role in the post-operative decrease of vital capacity and that muscle-preserving thoracotomy might induce less surgical stress than standard thoracotomy. (author)

  10. Postoperative lung volume calculated by chest computed tomography in patients with esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Kiyotomi; Kitamura, Michihiko; Izumi, Keiichi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Saito, Reijiro; Ogawa, Junichi [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-05-01

    It has been reported that, due to the severe surgical stress of thoracotomy, respiratory function after esophagectomy under thoracotomy worsened as late as a month after surgery. To investigate the mechanism of the reduction of the respiratory function, we utilized chest CT to analyze separately the changes in the lung volume of the thoracotomized side and the other side. Here, we reported the results of our comparative study of lung volume and respiratory function, which was performed by spirogram before esophagectomy and 6 months afterwards. We selected twenty-three patients who had undergone esophagectomy under right thoracotomy. Fourteen of the selectees received standard thoracotomy, while the other nine had the anterior serratus muscle and the latissimus dorsi muscle preserved. Total lung volume was found to have decreased from a preoperative value of 4077{+-}674 ml (mean{+-}SD) to a postoperative value of 3964{+-}774 ml, and right-lung volume significantly decreased from 2229{+-}397 to 2023{+-}397 ml, while left-lung volume tended to increase. While right-lung volume in standard thoracotomy displayed a significant decrease from 2264{+-}334 to 1949{+-}424 ml, that in muscle-preserving thoracotomy showed almost no change. Spirogram revealed that vital capacity had decreased from 3574{+-}601 to 2666{+-}576 ml, and forced expiratory volume in the first second showed a significant decrease from 2680{+-}500 to 2249{+-}485 ml. Comparing the decreasing rate, the correlation coefficients between right-lung volume and % VC was 0.58. These results suggested that a change of lung volume in the thoracotomized side could play a role in the post-operative decrease of vital capacity and that muscle-preserving thoracotomy might induce less surgical stress than standard thoracotomy. (author)

  11. VAPOR PRESSURES, LIQUID MOLAR VOLUMES, VAPOR NON- IDEALITIES, AND CRITICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME FLUORINATED ETHERS: CF3OCF2OCF3, CF3OCF2 CF2H, c-CF2CF2CF2O, CF3OCF2H, AND CF3OCH3; AND OF CCl3F AND CF2ClH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor pressures, compressibilities, expansivities, and molar volumes of the liquid phase have been measured between room temperature and the critical temperature for a series of fluorinated ethers: CF3OCF2OCF3, CF3OCF2CF2H, c-CF2CF2CF2O, CF3OCF2H, and CF3OCH3. Vapor-phase non-ide...

  12. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1, Volume 3. Calculations, Final design for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume three contains calculations for: site hydrology--rainfall intensity, duration, and frequency relations; site hydrology-- probable maximum precipitation; erosion protection--rock quality evaluation; erosion protection--embankment top and side slope; erosion protection--embankment toe apron; erosion protection-- gradations and layer thicknesses; Union Carbide site--temporary drainage ditch design; Union Carbide site--retention basin sediment volume; Union Carbide site--retention basin sizing; Burro Canyon site temporary drainage--temporary drainage facilities; and Union Carbide site temporary drainage--water balance

  13. Calcul statistique du volume des blocs matriciels d'un gisement fissuré The Statistical Computing of Matrix Block Volume in a Fissured Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guez F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La recherche des conditions optimales d'exploitation d'un gisement fissuré repose sur une bonne description de la fissuration. En conséquence il est nécessaire de définir les dimensions et volumes des blocs matriciels en chaque point d'une structure. Or la géométrie du milieu (juxtaposition et formes des blocs est généralement trop complexe pour se prêter au calcul. Aussi, dans une précédente communication, avons-nous dû tourner cette difficulté par un raisonnement sur des moyennes (pendages, azimuts, espacement des fissures qui nous a conduits à un ordre de grandeur des volumes. Cependant un volume moyen ne peut pas rendre compte d'une loi de répartition des volumes des blocs. Or c'est cette répartition qui conditionne le choix d'une ou plusieurs méthodes successives de récupération. Aussi présentons-nous ici une méthode originale de calcul statistique de la loi de distribution des volumes des blocs matriciels, applicable en tout point d'un gisement. La part de gisement concernée par les blocs de volume donné en est déduite. La connaissance générale du phénomène de la fracturation sert de base au modèle. Les observations de subsurface sur la fracturation du gisement en fournissent les données (histogramme d'orientation et d'espacement des fissures.Une application au gisement d'Eschau (Alsace, France est rapportée ici pour illustrer la méthode. The search for optimum production conditions for a fissured reservoir depends on having a good description of the fissure pattern. Hence the sizes and volumes of the matrix blocks must be defined at all points in a structure. However, the geometry of the medium (juxtaposition and shapes of blocks in usually too complex for such computation. This is why, in a previous paper, we got around this problem by reasoning on the bases of averages (clips, azimuths, fissure spacing, and thot led us to an order of magnitude of the volumes. Yet a mean volume cannot be used to explain

  14. Metodología de cálculo de la eficiencia térmica de generadores de vapor Methodology to calculate thermal efficiency of steam boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Golato

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método matemático determinístico de procesamiento de registros experimentales, aplicable a un sistema generador de vapor-precalentador de aire en estado estacionario, que opere con uno o dos combustibles simultáneamente, para determinar la eficiencia térmica del mismo y la eficiencia con la que se oxida el combustible, como así también el rendimiento del intercambiador de calor. La mecánica de procesamiento se basa en la resolución de los balances de materia y energía sobre los diferentes equipos que conforman el sistema. Esta metodología es aplicable a aquellos generadores de vapor que empleen, como combustible, bagazo, gas natural o ambos (caldera mixta. Se ilustran, como ejemplos de aplicación, los resultados del cálculo de la eficiencia térmica de diferentes generadores de vapor para cada tipo de combustible procesado, empleando para ello datos de diversos ensayos experimentales. La resolución de los balances de materia y energía en una caldera que quema bagazo, dio como resultado un rendimiento térmico del 53,2% y un índice de generación de 1,38 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Para una caldera cuyo combustible es gas natural, se obtuvo un rendimiento térmico del 76,7% y un índice de generación de 9,8 kg de vapor/ Nm³ de gas natural. Para una caldera que quema en forma simultánea bagazo y gas natural, se determinó un rendimiento del 68,3% y un índice de generación de 1,87 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo equivalente. Como validación de esta metodología, se contrastan estos valores de eficiencia con los obtenidos según el código propuesto por la American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME.A deterministic mathematical method for processing experimental data, applied to a steam generator-air heater system in stationary state which operates with one or two fuels simultaneously, was developed to determine the thermal of the system, as well as fuel combustion and heat exchanger efficiency. The methodology is

  15. Particle lithography with vapor deposition of organosilanes: A molecular toolkit for studying confined surface reactions in nanoscale liquid volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combining particle lithography with molecular self-assembly provides a practical approach for producing 2D arrays of organosilane nanostructures with well-defined geometries and designated surface coverage. By combining heated chemical vapor deposition with particle lithography, the binding of organosilanes on substrates is narrowly confined to the locations of water residues surrounding the base of latex spheres. Localized meniscus sites of water designate specific locations for the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of organosilanes. With particle lithography, billions of regular nanopatterns can be generated with high throughput to provide exquisite nanoscale control of the geometry, density and surface coverage of organosilane nanostructures. In this report, examples of organosilane nanopatterns presenting different terminal groups and chain lengths are demonstrated with atomic force microscopy images. The effect of the terminal moieties of organosilanes was investigated for nanostructures prepared by particle lithography by evaluating parameters of the number density, surface coverage and thickness of layers formed.

  16. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Piping calculations. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The objective of this calculation is to perform the hydraulic analysis on the slurry line and the supernate line for W-320. This calculation will use the As-Built conditions of the slurry line and the supernate line. Booster Pump Curves vs System Curves shall be generated for the supernate system and the slurry system

  17. Calculation of Intercepted Volume of Sewer Overflows: a Model for Control of Nonpoint Pollution Sources in Urban Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. Choi; D. I. Jung; C. H. Won; J. M. Rim

    2006-01-01

    The authors discovered large differences in the characteristics of overflows by the calculation of 1) intercepting volume of overflows for sewer systems using SWMM model which takes into consideration the runoff and pollutants from rainfalls and 2) the intercepted volume in the total flow at an investigation site. The intercepting rate at the investigation point of CSOs showed higher values than the SSDs. Based on the modeling of the receiving water quality after calculating the intercepting amount of overflows by considering the characteristics of outflows for a proper management of the overflow of sewer systems with rainfalls, it is clear that the BOD decreased by 82.9%-94.0% for the discharge after intercepting a specific amount of flows compared to the discharge from unprocessed overflows.

  18. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing HVAC calculations, Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-30

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. The report contains the following design calculations: Cooling load in pump pit 241-AY-102; Pressure relief seal loop design; Process building piping stress analysis; Exhaust skid maximum allowable leakage criteria; and Recirculation heat, N509 duct requirements.

  19. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing HVAC calculations, Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. The report contains the following design calculations: Cooling load in pump pit 241-AY-102; Pressure relief seal loop design; Process building piping stress analysis; Exhaust skid maximum allowable leakage criteria; and Recirculation heat, N509 duct requirements

  20. Calculated Specific Volumes and Magnetic Moments of the 3d Transition Metal Monoxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    We have performed self-consistent, spin-polarized band structure calculations as a function of the lattice spacing for the 3d metal monoxides in order to obtain the equilibrium lattice constants. The calculated binding from the 3d electrons and the occurrence of antiferromagnetism account...

  1. Calculation of absorbed doses in sphere volumes around the Mammosite using the Monte Carlo simulation code MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to investigate the changes observed in the absorbed doses in mammary gland tissue when irradiated with a equipment of high dose rate known as Mammosite and introducing material resources contrary to the tissue that constitutes the mammary gland. The modeling study is performed with the code MCNPX, 2005 version, the equipment and the mammary gland and calculating the absorbed doses in tissue when introduced small volumes of air or calcium in the system. (Author)

  2. AB070. Comparison of photoselective vaporization versus holmium laser enucleation for treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia in a small prostate volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woong Jin; Bashraheel, Fahad; Choi, Sae Woong; Kim, Su Jin; Yoon, Byung Il; Kim, Sae Woong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) using GreenLight and Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is an important surgical technique for management of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). We aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of PVP using a 120 W GreenLight laser with HoLEP in a small prostate volume. Methods Patients who underwent PVP or HoLEP surgery for BPH at our institutions were reviewed from May 2009 to December 2014 in this retrospective study. Among them, patients with prostate volumes <40 mL based on preoperative trans-rectal ultrasonography were included in this study. Peri-operative and post-operative parameters—such as International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual urine volume (PVR), and complications—were compared between the groups. Results PVP was performed in 176 patients and HoLEP in162 patients. Preoperative demographic data were similar in both groups, with the exception of PVR. Operative time and catheter duration did not show significant difference. Significant improvements compared to preoperative values were verified at the postoperative evaluation in both groups in terms of IPSS, QoL, Qmax, and PVR. Comparison of the postoperative parameters between the PVP and HoLEP groups demonstrated no significant difference, with the exception of IPSS voiding subscore at one month postoperatively (5.9 vs. 3.8, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Conclusions Our data suggest that PVP and HoLEP are efficient and safe surgical treatment options for patients with small prostate volume.

  3. Volume fraction calculation in multiphase system such as oil-water-gas using neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-phase flows are common in diverse industrial sectors and the attainment of the volume fraction of each element that composes the flow system presents difficulties for the engineering process, therefore, to determine them is very important. In this work is presented methodology for determination of volume fractions in annular three-phase flow systems, such as oil-water-gas, based on the use of nuclear techniques and artificial intelligence. Using the principle of the fast-neutron transmission/scattering, come from an isotopic 241Am-Be source, and two point detectors, is gotten measured that they are influenced by the variations of the volume fractions of each phase present in the flow. An artificial neural network is trained to correlate such measures with the respective volume fractions. In order to get the data for training of the artificial neural network without necessity to carry through experiments, MCNP-X code is used, that simulates computational of the neutrons transport. The methodology is sufficiently advantageous, therefore, allows to develop a measurement system capable to determine the fractions of the phases (oil-water-gas), with proper requirements of each petroliferous installation and with national technology contributing, possibly, with reduction of costs and increase of productivity. (author)

  4. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing HVAC calculations, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-08-07

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. The report contains the following calculations: Exhaust airflow sizing for Tank 241-C-106; Equipment sizing and selection recirculation fan; Sizing high efficiency mist eliminator; Sizing electric heating coil; Equipment sizing and selection of recirculation condenser; Chiller skid system sizing and selection; High efficiency metal filter shielding input and flushing frequency; and Exhaust skid stack sizing and fan sizing.

  5. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing HVAC calculations, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. The report contains the following calculations: Exhaust airflow sizing for Tank 241-C-106; Equipment sizing and selection recirculation fan; Sizing high efficiency mist eliminator; Sizing electric heating coil; Equipment sizing and selection of recirculation condenser; Chiller skid system sizing and selection; High efficiency metal filter shielding input and flushing frequency; and Exhaust skid stack sizing and fan sizing

  6. Comparisons of polymer/gas partition coefficients calculated from responses of thickness shear mode and surface acoustic wave vapor sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grate, J W; Kaganove, S N; Bhethanabotla, V R

    1998-01-01

    Apparent partition coefficients, K, for the sorption of toluene by four different polymer thin films on thickness shear mode (TSM) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are compared. The polymers examined were poly(isobutylene) (PIB), poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH), poly(butadiene) (PBD), and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Independent data on partition coefficients for toluene in these polymers were compiled for comparison, and TSM sensor measurements were made using both oscillator and impedance analysis methods. K values from SAW sensor measurements were about twice those calculated from TSM sensor measurements when the polymers were PIB and PECH, and they were also at least twice the values of the independent partition coefficient data, which is interpreted as indicating that the SAW sensor responds to polymer modulus changes as well as to mass changes. K values from SAW and TSM measurements were in agreement with each other and with independent data when the polymer was PBD. Similarly, K values from the PDMS-coated SAW sensor were not much larger than values from independent measurements. These results indicate that modulus effects were not contributing to the SAW sensor responses in the cases of PBD and PDMS. However, K values from the PDMS-coated TSM device were larger than the values from the SAW device or independent measurements, and the impedance analyzer results indicated that this sensor using our sample of PDMS at the applied thickness did not behave as a simple mass sensor. Differences in behavior among the test polymers on SAW devices are interpreted in terms of their differing viscoelastic properties. PMID:21644612

  7. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Piping calculations. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The objective of this calculation is to perform the structural analysis of the Pipe Supports designed for Slurry and Supernate transfer pipe lines in order to meet the requirements of applicable ASME codes. The pipe support design loads are obtained from the piping stress calculations W320-27-I-4 and W320-27-I-5. These loads are the total summation of the gravity, pressure, thermal and seismic loads. Since standard typical designs are used for each type of pipe support such as Y-Stop, Guide and Anchors, each type of support is evaluated for the maximum loads to which this type of supports are subjected. These loads are obtained from the AutoPipe analysis and used to check the structural adequacy of these supports

  8. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Piping calculations. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-24

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The objective of this calculation is to perform the structural analysis of the Pipe Supports designed for Slurry and Supernate transfer pipe lines in order to meet the requirements of applicable ASME codes. The pipe support design loads are obtained from the piping stress calculations W320-27-I-4 and W320-27-I-5. These loads are the total summation of the gravity, pressure, thermal and seismic loads. Since standard typical designs are used for each type of pipe support such as Y-Stop, Guide and Anchors, each type of support is evaluated for the maximum loads to which this type of supports are subjected. These loads are obtained from the AutoPipe analysis and used to check the structural adequacy of these supports.

  9. A Study to Analyze the Permeation of High Density Gases and Propellant Vapors Through Single Layer Teflon or Teflon Structure Materials and Laminations. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. L.; Young, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1967-01-01

    This report contains the results of a fifteen month analytical and experimental study of the leakage rate of the pressurant gases (N2, He) and the propellant vapors (N2O4,N2H4) through bladder structures consisting of two layers of Teflon separated by a metallic foil diffusion barrier containing microscopic or larger holes. Results were obtained for the steady state leakage rate through circular holes and long rectangular openings in the barrier for arbitrary thicknesses of the two Teflon layers. The effect of hole shape and relative hole position on the leakage rate were studied. The transient problem was analyzed and it was shown that steady state calculations are adequate for estimating the leakage rate. A computer program entitled "Diffusion Analyzer Program" was developed to calculate the leakage rate, both transient and steady state. Finally, the analytical results were compared to experimentally determined values of the leakage rate through a model laminated bladder structure. The results of the analysis are in good agreement with experiment. The experimental effort (Part II of the Bladder Permeation Program) measured the solubility, diffusion coefficient and permeability of helium, nitrogen and nitrogen tetroxide vapor through Teflon TFE and FEP membranes. Data were obtained in the temperature range of 25 to 100 C at pressures ranging from near vacuum to about 20 atmospheres. Results of the experimental effort were compared with the limited data previously reported. As a verification to the applicability of results to actual bladder systems, counter diffusion tests were performed with a laminated sample containing aluminum foil with a selected group of holes.

  10. Calculation Model of Vapor Compress Flash Seawater Desalination Equipment%压汽闪蒸法海水淡化装置的工艺计算模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侴乔力; 金从卓; 束鹏程

    2011-01-01

    Among the modem seawater desalination methods, this article firstly analyzes and compares and induces the questions of the second vapor condensing latent heat loss of the open heat process in multi-stage flash and multi-effect distillation, and the questions of producing dirty and corrosion in distillation, and the questions of seawater pretreatment and unstable product water quality in reverse-osmosis. Then this article synthesizes their merits and proposes for the first time the newest and the best and integrated vapor compress flash seawater desalination method, in witch a flash with the best product water quality is driven by a vapor compress with the highest heat-power efficiency, with technical superiorities such as the lowest investment cost and independent flash operation and modularization combination production and so on. This method is mature and comprehensive as a result of integrated technology, its equipments run safely and reliably, and it will certainly replace each existing method gradually as a result of its remarkable technology and economy, unify the seawater desalination market, and lead the seawater desalination revolution I This artic has set up the calculation model of vapor compress flash seawater desalination equipment.%压汽闪蒸法海水淡化装置可规避现有海水淡化方法(多级闪蒸法和多效蒸馏法)中,在开路热焓过程中二次蒸汽的凝结潜热损失问题;蒸馏法的结垢与腐蚀问题;反渗透法的海水前处理与产品水质不稳定问题,从而实现海水淡化方法的最优技术整合:提供一种由热功效率最高的压汽法,来驱动产品水质最好的闪蒸法,这样一种全新、集成的海水淡化工艺;并兼具投资成本最低、独立闪蒸操作、模块化组合生产等主要技术优势.由于集成技术的成熟而全面,装置运行安全而可靠,必将以卓越的技术、经济性,逐步取代现有各种方法,统一海水淡化市场,引导海水淡

  11. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing piping calculations, Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this report is to calculate the hydraulic forces imposed at the sluicer nozzle. This is required by Project W-320 waste retrieval for tank 241-C-106. The method of analysis used is Bernoulli's momentum equation for stead flow

  12. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing piping calculations, Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-29

    The object of this report is to calculate the hydraulic forces imposed at the sluicer nozzle. This is required by Project W-320 waste retrieval for tank 241-C-106. The method of analysis used is Bernoulli`s momentum equation for stead flow.

  13. [Cotyla quid? On the early history of late medieval medical volume calculations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Axel

    2005-01-01

    As can be made evident chiefly by their comparative numerical examination, the Egyptian pyramids (the step pyramids being excluded for the present purpose) have been, from the beginning up to the Egyptian fashion in early Imperial Rome, designed and built with the additional intention of physically manifesting a volume of pi x 10k x (average value) 0.96824 cm3, where k is either a positive integer or zero, and where pi is a short product, following very restrictive formation rules which to some extent are traceable in the papyrus Rhind, of prime numbers. Conceptually (but not really as to the Hin at least) this establishes the capacity units 1 [2]Heqat = 9682.4 cm3 and 1 Hin = 484.12 cm3 already for the Old Kingdom. It is shown further that the Attic Medimnos as introduced in the course of finishing Solon's reforms is identical with the Egyptian volume system's standard unification: pisigma = 2 x 3 x 5 x 7 x 11 x 23, and k = 0, so that 1 Medimnos = about 51443 cm3. Accordingly and by means of some adjacent considerations a Kotyle / Cotyla of 269 cm3 +/- 1 cm3 is established for the Hellenistic, early Arabic, and Medieval Latin medicine. PMID:16425844

  14. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of azides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verevkin, Sergey P., E-mail: sergey.verevkin@uni-rostock.de [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Rostock, Dr-Lorenz-Weg 1, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Emel' yanenko, Vladimir N. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Rostock, Dr-Lorenz-Weg 1, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Algarra, Manuel [Centro de Geologia do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Manuel Lopez-Romero, J. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Malaga. Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Aguiar, Fabio; Enrique Rodriguez-Borges, J.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ-UP), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > We prepared and measured vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 7 azides. > We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. > Data for geminal azides and azido-alkanes selected for thermochemical calculations. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of some azides have been determined by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization {Delta}{sub l}{sup g}H{sub m} of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. The measured data sets were successfully checked for internal consistency by comparison with vaporization enthalpies of similarly structured compounds.

  15. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing electrical calculations, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. These calculations are required: To determine the power requirements needed to power electrical heat tracing segments contained within three manufactured insulated tubing assemblies; To verify thermal adequacy of tubing assembly selection by others; To size the heat tracing feeder and branch circuit conductors and conduits; To size protective circuit breaker and fuses; and To accomplish thermal design for two electrical heat tracing segments: One at C-106 tank riser 7 (CCTV) and one at the exhaust hatchway (condensate drain). Contents include: C-Farm electrical heat tracing; Cable ampacity, lighting, conduit fill and voltage drop; and Control circuit sizing and voltage drop analysis for the seismic shutdown system

  16. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing electrical calculations, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-08-07

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. These calculations are required: To determine the power requirements needed to power electrical heat tracing segments contained within three manufactured insulated tubing assemblies; To verify thermal adequacy of tubing assembly selection by others; To size the heat tracing feeder and branch circuit conductors and conduits; To size protective circuit breaker and fuses; and To accomplish thermal design for two electrical heat tracing segments: One at C-106 tank riser 7 (CCTV) and one at the exhaust hatchway (condensate drain). Contents include: C-Farm electrical heat tracing; Cable ampacity, lighting, conduit fill and voltage drop; and Control circuit sizing and voltage drop analysis for the seismic shutdown system.

  17. A finite volume method for calculating transonic potential flow around wings from the pressure minimum integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, A.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of the pressure minimum integral in the calculation of three-dimensional potential flow around wings makes it possible to use non-rectangular mesh networks for distributing the three-dimensional potential into discrete points. The method is comparatively easily expanded to the treatment of realistic airplane configurations. Shock-pressure affected pressure distributions on any wings are determined with accuracy using this method.

  18. Calculated neutron KERMA factors based on the LLNL ENDL data file. Volume 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron KERMA factors calculated from the LLNL ENDL data file are tabulated for 15 composite materials and for the isotopes or elements in the ENDL file from Z = 1 to Z = 29. The incident neutron energies range from 1.882 x 10-5 to 20. MeV for the composite materials and from 1.30 x 10-9 to 20. MeV for the isotopes and elements

  19. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  20. HVDC-AC system interaction from AC harmonics. Volume 1. Harmonic impedance calculations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, G D; Chow, J H; Lindh, C B; Miller, N W; Numrich, F H; Price, W W; Turner, A E; Whitney, R R

    1982-09-01

    Improved methods are needed to characterize ac system harmonic behavior for ac filter design for HVDC systems. The purpose of this General Electric Company RP1138 research is to evaluate the present filter design practice and to investigate methods for calculating system harmonic impedances. An overview of ac filter design for HVDC systems and a survey of literature related to filter design have been performed. Two methods for calculating system harmonic impedances have been investigated. In the measurement method, an instrumentation system for measuring system voltage and current has been assembled. Different schemes of using the measurements to calculate system harmonic impedances have been studied. In the analytical method, a procedure to include various operating conditions has been proposed. Computer programs for both methods have been prepared, and the results of the measurement and analytical methods analyzed. A conclusion of the project is that the measurement and analytical methods both provided reasonable results. There are correlations between the measured and analytical results for most harmonics, although there are discrepancies between the assumptions used in the two methods. A sensitivity approach has been proposed to further correlate the results. From the results of the analysis, it is recommended that both methods should be tested further. For the measurement method, more testing should be done to cover different system operating conditions. In the analytical method, more detailed models for representing system components should be studied. In addition, alternative statistical and sensitivity approaches should be attempted.

  1. Calculation of Void Volume Fraction in the Subcooled and Quality Boiling Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex problem of void calculation in the different regions of flow boiling is divided in two parts. The first part includes only the description of the mechanisms and the calculation of the rates of heat transfer for vapour and liquid. It is assumed that heat is removed by vapour generation, heating of the liquid that replaces the detached bubbles, and in some parts, by single phase heat transfer. By considering the rate of vapour condensation in liquid, an equation for the differential changes in the true steam quality throughout the boiling regions is obtained. Integration of this equation yields the vapour weight fraction at any position. The second part of the problem concerns the determination of the void fractions corresponding to the calculated steam qualities. For this purpose we use the derivations of Zuber and Findlay. This model is compared with data from different geometries including small rectangular channels and large rod bundles. The data covered pressures from 19 to 138 bars, heat fluxes from 18 to 120 W/cm2 with many different subcoolings and mass velocities. The agreement is generally very good

  2. A FORTRAN code for the calculation of probe volume geometry changes in a laser anemometry system caused by window refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Albert K.

    1987-01-01

    A computer code was written which utilizes ray tracing techniques to predict the changes in position and geometry of a laser Doppler velocimeter probe volume resulting from refraction effects. The code predicts the position change, changes in beam crossing angle, and the amount of uncrossing that occur when the beams traverse a region with a changed index of refraction, such as a glass window. The code calculates the changes for flat plate, cylinder, general axisymmetric and general surface windows and is currently operational on a VAX 8600 computer system.

  3. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume II. Middle United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 22 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  4. Nonlinear dynamic fluid-structure interaction calculations with coupled finite element and finite volume programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M.W.; Kashiwa, B.A.; Meier, R.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bishop, S. [US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate, Fort Belvoir, VA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Two- and three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computer programs for the simulation of nonlinear dynamics were developed and applied to a number of problems. The programs were created by coupling Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite volume fluid dynamics programs with strictly Lagrangian finite element structural dynamics programs. The resulting coupled programs can use either fully explicit or implicit time integration. The implicit time integration is accomplished by iterations of the fluid dynamics pressure solver and the structural dynamics system solver. The coupled programs have been used to solve problems involving incompressible fluids, membrane and shell elements, compressible multiphase flows, explosions in both air and water, and large displacements. In this paper, we present the approach used for the coupling and describe test problems that verify the two-dimensional programs against an experiment and an analytical linear problem. The experiment involves an explosion underwater near an instrumented thin steel plate. The analytical linear problem is the vibration of an infinite cylinder surrounded by an incompressible fluid to a given radius.

  5. Total flammable mass and volume within a vapor cloud produced by a continuous fuel-gas or volatile liquid-fuel release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Michael; Fauske, Hans K

    2007-08-25

    The top-hat jet/plume model has recently been employed to obtain simple closed-form expressions for the mass of fuel in the flammable region of a vapor "cloud" produced by an axisymmetric (round) continuous-turbulent jet having positive or negative buoyancy [1]. The fuel release may be a gas or a volatile liquid. In this paper, the top-hat analysis is extended to obtain closed-form approximate expressions for the total mass (fuel+entrained air) and volume of the flammable region of a release cloud produced by either a round or a plane (two-dimensional) buoyant jet. These expressions lead to predicted average fuel concentrations in the flammable regions of the release clouds which, when compared with the stoichiometric concentration, serve as indicators of the potential severity of release cloud explosions. For a fixed release mass, the combustion overpressure following ignition of a hydrogen/air cloud is anticipated to be significantly lower than that due to ignition of a hydrocarbon/air cloud. The predicted average hydrogen concentration within the flammable region of the release cloud is below the lower detonability limit. The facility with which the expressions can be used for predictions of combustion overpressures is illustrated for propane releases and deflagrations in a closed compartment. PMID:17363152

  6. The potential of using xylarium wood samples for wood density calculations: a comparison of approaches for volume measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeckman H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood specific gravity (WSG is an important biometric variable for aboveground biomass calculations in tropical forests. Sampling a sufficient number of trees in remote tropical forests to represent the species and size distribution of a forest to generate information on WSG can be logistically challenging. Several thousands of wood samples exist in xylaria around the world that are easily accessible to researchers. We propose the use of wood samples held in xylaria as a valid and overlooked option. Due to the nature of xylarium samples, determining wood volume to calculate WSG presents several challenges. A description and assessment is provided of five different methods to measure wood sample volume: two solid displacement methods and three liquid displacement methods (hydrostatic methods. Two methods were specifically developed for this paper: the use of laboratory parafilm to wrap the wood samples for the hydrostatic method and two glass microbeads devices for the solid displacement method. We find that the hydrostatic method with samples not wrapped in laboratory parafilm is the most accurate and preferred method. The two methods developed for this study give close agreement with the preferred method (r 2 > 0.95. We show that volume can be estimated accurately for xylarium samples with the proposed methods. Additionally, the WSG for 53 species was measured using the preferred method. Significant differences exist between the WSG means of the measured species and the WSG means in an existing density database. Finally, for 4 genera in our dataset, the genus-level WSG average is representative of the species-level WSG average.

  7. Variation of the radius of a vapor bubble under conditions of boiling in a volume of subcooled liquid and the sound pulses generated by bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented results of the experimental and theoretical studies on the boiling process in the volume of the under heated liquid showed, that in the case of the bubble boiling the derived formula for the bubble dimension change dynamics is in agreement with the experimental data. The empiric formula, proposed for the film boiling, describes the voluminous oscillations of the bubbles, communicating with the steam chamber. For the bubble and film boiling it proved possible to calculate through these formulae the sound pulses, generated hydrodynamically by the steam bubbles

  8. Volume 1: Calculating potential to emit releases and doses for FEMP's and NOCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide Hanford Site facilities a handbook for estimating potential emissions and the subsequent offsite doses. General guidelines and information are provided to assist personnel in estimating emissions for use with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) and regulatory notices of construction (NOCs), per 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61, Subpart H, and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247 requirements. This document replaces Unit Dose Calculation Methods and Summary of Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan Determinations (WHC-EP-0498). Meteorological data from 1983 through 1996, 13-year data set, was used to develop the unit dose factors provided by this document, with the exception of two meteorological stations. Meteorological stations 23 and 24, located at Gable Mountain and the 100-F Area, only have data from 1986 through 1996, 10-year data set. The scope of this document includes the following: Estimating emissions and resulting effective dose equivalents (EDE) to a facility's nearest offsite receptor (NOR) for use with NOCs under 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H, requirements Estimating emissions and resulting EDEs to a facility's or emission unit's NOR for use with NOCs under the WAC Chapter 246-247 requirements Estimating emissions and resulting EDEs to a facility's or emission unit's NOR for use with FEMPs and FEMP determinations under DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 requirements

  9. Influence of magnification on the calculated value of left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes using quantitative gated perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To compare left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volumes (EDV) and end-systolic volumes (ESV) measured by quantitative gated SPECT (QGSPECT) in studies acquired with and without magnification factor (zoom). Material and Methods: We studied 30 consecutive patients (17 men, ages 61±14 years) referred for myocardial perfusion evaluation with a 2-day protocol. Studies were performed after injection of 925 MBq (25 mCi) of 99mTc-MIBI in the resting state. Gated SPECT was first acquired using a x2 zoom factor and immediately repeated with x1 zoom (no magnification), using a 64x64 matrix and 8 frames/cardiac cycle. Patients with arrhythmia were not included in the investigation. According to the median EDV calculated with the x2 zoom acquisition, the population was further divided in two sub-groups regarding the size of the LV cavity. Average LVEF, EDV, ESV and difference between values (delta) were then calculated for the total population and for each sub-group (a and b). Results: For the total population, results are expressed.Pearson correlation showed r=0.954 between LVEF with and without zoom (p<0.0001), but linear regression analysis did not fit a specific model (p=0.18). Median EDV with zoom was 92.5 ml, allowing to separate 15 cases with EDV above (a) and 15 below that value (b). Results for both sub-groups are presented. Conclusion: Calculated LVEF is higher with no zoom, at the expense of decreasing both EDV and ESV. Although differences were very significant for all parameters, ESV changes were specially relevant with no zoom, particularly in patients with smaller hearts. Although good correlation was found between LVEF with and without zoom, no specific correction factor was found to convert one value into the other. Magnification factor should be kept constant in gated SPECT if calculated LVEF values QGSPECT are expected to be reliable, and validation of the method using different zoom factors should be considered

  10. Regional differences in distribution volume of I-123 IMP in the human brain. Effect on CBF calculated by ARG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods of quantitating cerebral blood flow (CBF) with iodine-123-labeled N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) and a two-compartment model had been proposed; one is the table look-up (TLU) method and the other is the autoradiographic (ARG) method. The TLU method provides values of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) values and distribution volume of I-123 IMP (Vd) independently. In the ARG method, a fixed Vd is applied for the entire brain to calculate CBF. Our purpose was to evaluate regional differences in Vd in the human brain, or possible effects of regional differences in Vd on CBF calculated by the ARG method. In the present study, two SPECT scans were acquired from each of eight normal subjects (aged 44.0±16.7) at 40 min and 180 min of mid-scan-time after intravenous 1 min infusion of 111 MBq IMP. A single arterial blood sampling was performed 10 min after the IMP infusion. All images were anatomically normalized and analyzed with SPM99 and Matlab. We generated CBF and Vd images for each subject by the TLU method and evaluated differences in Vd among brain structures. We subsequently generated another set of CBF images by the ARG method and examined differences between CBF calculated by the TLU method and that by the ARG method. Significant main effects of subject and brain structure in Vd were observed (two-way ANOVA). Vd values were higher in the deep gray matter than in the cerebral cortical regions. Among the cerebral cortical regions, no significant difference in Vd was observed. In spite of the significant differences in Vd among the brain structures, the voxel-by-voxel analyses as well as the ROI analyses revealed no statistically significant difference between CBF calculated by the TLU method and that by the ARG method. Although regional differences in Vd were observed, the present results support the assumption that a fixed Vd does not cause significant error in the calculation of CBF by the ARG method. (author)

  11. CT- and MRI-based volumetry of resected liver specimen: Comparison to intraoperative volume and weight measurements and calculation of conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare virtual volume to intraoperative volume and weight measurements of resected liver specimen and calculate appropriate conversion factors to reach better correlation. Methods: Preoperative (CT-group, n = 30; MRI-group, n = 30) and postoperative MRI (n = 60) imaging was performed in 60 patients undergoing partial liver resection. Intraoperative volume and weight of the resected liver specimen was measured. Virtual volume measurements were performed by two readers (R1,R2) using dedicated software. Conversion factors were calculated. Results: Mean intraoperative resection weight/volume: CT: 855 g/852 mL; MRI: 872 g/860 mL. Virtual resection volume: CT: 960 mL(R1), 982 mL(R2); MRI: 1112 mL(R1), 1115 mL(R2). Strong positive correlation for both readers between intraoperative and virtual measurements, mean of both readers: CT: R = 0.88(volume), R = 0.89(weight); MRI: R = 0.95(volume), R = 0.92(weight). Conversion factors: 0.85(CT), 0.78(MRI). Conclusion: CT- or MRI-based volumetry of resected liver specimen is accurate and recommended for preoperative planning. A conversion of the result is necessary to improve intraoperative and virtual measurement correlation. We found 0.85 for CT- and 0.78 for MRI-based volumetry the most appropriate conversion factors.

  12. Calculation of fermentation parameters from the results of a fed-batch test taking account of the volume of biomass in the fermenting medium

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Borzani

    2008-01-01

    The volume of biomass in the fermenting medium may significantly affect the values of fermentation parameters calculated from the measured concentrations of the substrates and/or products. The corrections proposed in this paper should be evaluated and, depending on their magnitude, considered in order to obtain more representative results. A numerical example is presented.O volume da biomassa no meio em fermentação pode afetar significativamente os parâmetros do processo calculados a partir d...

  13. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses - 1958 to 1982. Volume 2. Summaries. Complilation of papers from the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains-in chronological order-the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  14. Cell Volume Effect on the Ferroelectric Stability of Perovskite Oxides PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 from First Principle Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王渊旭; 王春雷

    2003-01-01

    Electronic structure of ferroelectric PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 is calculated by the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The total energy as a function of the displacement of Ti-cation is obtained for PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 at different cell volumes. At experimental cell volume, Ti-displacement lowers the total energy and the ferroelectricity is stable. When the cell volume is reduced to 90%, total energy is increased with Ti-displacement and ferroelectricity will disappear. The cell volume effect is also confirmed by comparison of the density of states of Ti and O at different cell volumes.

  15. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses - 1958 to 1982. Volume 2. Summaries. Complilation of papers from the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains-in chronological order-the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41

  16. Safety assessment of in-vessel vapor explosion loads in next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kwang Hyun; Cho, Jong Rae; Choi, Byung Uk; Kim, Ki Yong; Lee, Kyung Jung [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea); Park, Ik Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    A safety assessment of the reactor vessel lower head integrity under in-vessel vapor explosion loads has been performed. The premixing and explosion calculations were performed using TRACER-II code. Using the calculated explosion pressures imposed on the lower head inner wall, strain calculations were performed using ANSYS code. The explosion analyses show that the explosion impulses are not altered significantly by the uncertain parameters of triggering location and time, fuel and vapor volume fractions in uniform premixture bounding calculations within the conservative ranges. Strain analyses using the calculated pressure loads on the lower head inner wall show that the vapor explosion-induced lower head failure is physically unreasonable. The static analysis using the conservative explosion-end pressure of 7,246 psia shows that the maximum equivalent strain is 4.3% at the bottom of lower head, which is less than the allowable threshold value of 11%. (author). 24 refs., 40 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Utility of Quantitative 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT for 90yttrium-Labelled Microsphere Treatment Planning: Calculating Vascularized Hepatic Volume and Dosimetric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Garin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of SPECT/CT for volume measurements and to report a case illustrating the major impact of SPECT/CT in calculating the vascularized liver volume and dosimetry prior to injecting radiolabelled yttrium-90 microspheres (Therasphere. Materials and Methods. This was a phantom study, involving volume measurements carried out by two operators using SPECT and SPECT/CT images. The percentage of error for each method was calculated, and interobserver reproducibility was evaluated. A treatment using Therasphere was planned in a patient with three hepatic arteries, and the quantitative analysis of SPECT/CT for this patient is provided. Results. SPECT/CT volume measurements proved to be accurate (mean error <6% for volumes ≥16 cm3 and reproductive (interobserver agreement = 0.9. In the case report, 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT identified a large liver volume, not previously identified with angiography, which was shown to be vascularized after selective MAA injection into an arterial branch, resulting in a large modification in the activity of Therasphere used. Conclusions. MAA SPECT/CT is accurate for vascularized liver volume measurements, providing a valuable contribution to the therapeutic planning of patients with complex hepatic vascularization.

  18. Volume of pulmonary lobes and segments in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases calculated using newly developed three-dimensional software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to measure the volume of each pulmonary segment by volumetric computed tomography (CT) data using a newly developed three-dimensional software application and to identify the differences between those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and controls. CT scans of 11 COPD patients and 16 controls were included. The volume of each pulmonary segment was measured by each of two operators to evaluate the reproducibility of the software. This measured volume was then divided by the total lung volume to revise individual variations. Volumes of the right (rt) S2, rt S5, left (lt) S1+S2, lt S3, and lt S5 were significantly larger in COPD patients than in controls (P<0.05). Regarding the ratio of the volume of each pulmonary segment per total lung volume, the areas of rt S2 and lt S1+S2 were significantly larger in COPD patients than in controls (P<0.05), whereas lt S10 was significantly smaller in COPD patients than in controls (P<0.05). We measured the volume of each pulmonary segment based on volumetric CT data using this software. In addition, we demonstrated that the upper lung volume of COPD subjects was larger than that of controls, whereas the lower lung volumes were almost the same. (author)

  19. 球积术案例及其分析%Cases and analysis of calculating the volume of the sphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲安京; 冯振举; 赵继伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 以数学史上的4种球积术为例,说明数学史在中学数学教学中应用的意义.方法 案例研究和比较分析.结果 4种历史上的球积术方法体现出两种数学传统下数学家对相同问题的不同处理,对其在数学课堂的适当应用既可以更好地增进学生对具体知识的理解,也可以提高学生的数学修养.结论 开发数学史的教学案例,并将其有效地应用于数学教学中,对于数学教育目标的实现具有重要帮助.%Aim To illustrate the effect and significance of the application of the history of mathematics to mathematical class of middle schools. Methods Case study and comparative analysis. Results The 4 historical methods of calculating the volume of the sphere indicate mathematician's different treatment to a same problem under two different mathematical traditions. The proper application of these methods to mathematical class will not only strengthen students' understanding of concrete knowledge, but also improve their mathematical accomplishment.Conclusion It will be greatly helpful for realizing the target of mathematical education that HPM cases are constructed and applied effectively to mathematical class.

  20. Impacts of equations of state (EOS) and impurities on the volume calculation of CO2 mixtures in the applications of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume property is the necessary thermodynamic property in the design and operation of the CO2 capture and storage system (CCS). Because of their simple structures, cubic equations of state (EOS) are preferable to be applied in predicting volumes for engineering applications. This paper evaluates the reliabilities of seven cubic EOS, including PR, PT, RK, SRK, MPR, MSRK and ISRK for predicting volumes of binary CO2 mixtures containing CH4, H2S, SO2, Ar and N2, based on the comparisons with the collected experimental data. Results show that for calculations on the volume properties of binary CO2 mixtures, PR and PT are generally superior to others for all of the studied mixtures. In addition, it was found that the binary interaction parameter has clear effects on the calculating accuracy of an EOS in the volume calculations of CO2 mixtures. In order to improve the accuracy, kij was calibrated for all of the EOS regarding the gas and liquid phases of all the studied binary CO2 mixtures, respectively.

  1. An Investigation into the Performance, Solution Strategies and Difficulties in Middle School Students' Calculation of the Volume of a Rectangular Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin-Sitrava, Reyhan; Isiksal-Bostan, Mine

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined middle school students' performance, solution strategies, difficulties and the underlying reasons for their difficulties in calculating the volume of a rectangular prism. The data was collected from 35 middle school students (6th, 7th and 8th grade students) enrolled in a private school in Istanbul, Turkey. The…

  2. Preoperative volume calculation of the hepatic venous draining areas with multi-detector row CT in adult living donor liver transplantation: impact on surgical procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frericks, Bernd B.J. [Hanover Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Surgery, Hannover (Germany); University of Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Kirchhoff, Timm D.; Shin, Hoen-Oh; Stamm, Georg; Merkesdal, Sonja; Abe, Takehiko; Galanski, Michael [Hanover Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Hanover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Schenk, Andrea; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto [Hanover Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Surgery, Hannover (Germany); MeVis - Center for Medical Diagnostic Systems and Visualization, Bremen (Germany); Klempnauer, Juergen [Hanover Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Hanover Medical School, Department of Visceral- and Transplantation Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Nashan, Bjoern [Hanover Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Hanover Medical School, Department of Visceral- and Transplantation Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Dalhousie University, Multi Organ Transplant Program, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    The purpose was to assess the volumes of the different hepatic territories and especially the drainage of the right paramedian sector in adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT). CT was performed in 40 potential donors of whom 28 underwent partial living donation. Data sets of all potential donors were postprocessed using dedicated software for segmentation, volumetric analysis and visualization of liver territories. During an initial period, volumes and shapes of liver parts were calculated based on the individual portal venous perfusion areas. After partial hepatic congestion occurring in three grafts, drainage territories with special regard to MHV tributaries from the right paramedian sector, and the IRHV were calculated additionally. Results were visualized three-dimensionally and compared to the intraoperative findings. Calculated graft volumes based on hepatic venous drainage and graft weights correlated significantly (r=0.86,P<0.001). Mean virtual graft volume was 930 ml and drained as follows: RHV: 680 ml, IRHV: 170 ml (n=11); segment 5 MHV tributaries: 100 ml (n=16); segment 8 MHV tributaries: 110 ml (n=20). When present, the mean aberrant venous drainage fraction of the right liver lobe was 28%. The evaluated protocol allowed a reliable calculation of the hepatic venous draining areas and led to a change in the hepatic venous reconstruction strategy at our institution. (orig.)

  3. Empirical model for calculating vapor-liquid equilibrium and associated phase enthalpy for the CO2--O2--Kr--Xe system for application to the KALC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An empirical model is presented for vapor-liquid equilibria and enthalpy for the CO2-O2 system. In the model, krypton and xenon in very low concentrations are combined with the CO2-O2 system, thereby representing the total system of primary interest in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor program for removing krypton from off-gas generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel. Selected properties of the individual and combined components being considered are presented in the form of tables and empirical equations

  4. Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

  5. The use of stochastic method for the calculation of liquid-vapor multicomponent equilibrium and the contribution of groups theory for the evaluation of fugacity coefficient; Uso de um metodo estocastico para calculo do equilibrio liquido-vapor de sistemas multicomponentes e avaliacao de uma abordagem por contribuicao de grupos para o calculo do coeficiente de fugacidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Rafaelly L.; Oliveira, Jackson A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Rojas, Leopoldo O.A. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work has the main objective of evaluating the mathematical model developed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004) in terms of the prediction capacity for the calculation of the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). This model is based on Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and it considers the binary interaction parameters (Kij(T)) estimated by a contribution group method and dependent of the temperature. The model proposed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004), named PPR78 (Predictive Peng-Robinson), was implemented in this work by using the Fortran language. An optimization approach based on the stochastic algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was used in order to calculate the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Simulations were accomplished for several binary systems and the results were concordant with some experimental data of the investigated systems. However, for some systems different from those presented by Jaubert and Mutelet (2004), the model presented low prediction capacity. In spite of the great demand of computational performance, the algorithm PSO demonstrated robustness during the calculation of VLE and it assured convergence in most of the cases. (author)

  6. Cerebral blood volume calculated by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging: preliminary correlation study with glioblastoma genetic profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inseon Ryoo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC enhanced perfusion MR imaging in predicting major genetic alterations in glioblastomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients (M:F = 13∶12, mean age: 52.1±15.2 years with pathologically proven glioblastoma who underwent DSC MR imaging before surgery were included. On DSC MR imaging, the normalized relative tumor blood volume (nTBV of the enhancing solid portion of each tumor was calculated by using dedicated software (Nordic TumorEX, NordicNeuroLab, Bergen, Norway that enabled semi-automatic segmentation for each tumor. Five major glioblastoma genetic alterations (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN, Ki-67, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT and p53 were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and analyzed for correlation with the nTBV of each tumor. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired Student t test, ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS: The nTBVs of the MGMT methylation-negative group (mean 9.5±7.5 were significantly higher than those of the MGMT methylation-positive group (mean 5.4±1.8 (p = .046. In the analysis of EGFR expression-positive group, the nTBVs of the subgroup with loss of PTEN gene expression (mean: 10.3±8.1 were also significantly higher than those of the subgroup without loss of PTEN gene expression (mean: 5.6±2.3 (p = .046. Ki-67 labeling index indicated significant positive correlation with the nTBV of the tumor (p = .01. CONCLUSION: We found that glioblastomas with aggressive genetic alterations tended to have a high nTBV in the present study. Thus, we believe that DSC-enhanced perfusion MR imaging could be helpful in predicting genetic alterations that are crucial in predicting the prognosis of and selecting tailored treatment for glioblastoma patients.

  7. 炼油厂酸性水溶液体系汽液平衡关联计算与分析%Calculation and Analysis for Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Sour Aqueous Solution System in the Refinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖昌建; 齐先志; 刘忠生; 朴勇

    2013-01-01

      系统分析了弱电解质水溶液 NH3-CO2-H2S-H2O 四元体系汽液平衡理论,建立了本体系汽液相平衡计算模型,为炼油厂酸性水储罐小呼吸排放气量的计算提供了依据。并在此基础上,研究了弱电解质溶液中组分浓度、H2S/NH3摩尔比和温度对酸性水溶液NH3-H2S-H2O-空气平衡体系的影响,研究表明弱电解质溶液中组分浓度和H2S/NH3摩尔比的增加以及温度的升高,均能导致体系汽相分压增加,增大酸性气体排放量。%The vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of NH3-CO2-H2S-H2O system was analyzed comprehensively. The calculating model for the vapor-liquid equilibrium was established, which can provide a base for calculating the small breathing emission from sour water tanks in the refinery. Based on the model, effects of concentration of weak electrolyte, H2S/NH3 molar ratio and temperature on the VLE of NH3-H2S-H2O system were investigated. Results indicate that the increase of the concentration of weak electrolyte, H2S/NH3 molar ratio and temperature can all contribute to the increase of the vapor pressure, thus promote the emission of sour gas.

  8. Shock wave induced vaporization of porous solids

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Andy H.; Ahrens, Thomas J.; O'Keefe, John D.

    2003-01-01

    Strong shock waves generated by hypervelocity impact can induce vaporization in solid materials. To pursue knowledge of the chemical species in the shock-induced vapors, one needs to design experiments that will drive the system to such thermodynamic states that sufficient vapor can be generated for investigation. It is common to use porous media to reach high entropy, vaporized states in impact experiments. We extended calculations by Ahrens [J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2443 (1972)] and Ahrens and O'...

  9. Relationship between renal volume calculated by using multislice computed tomography and glomerular filtration rate calculated by using the Cockcroft-Gault and modification of diet in renal disease equations in living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Atoosa; Mortazavi, Mojgan; Shayganfar, Azin; Kamal, Sima; Azad, Roya; Aalinezhad, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to ascertain the state of health and renal function of potential kidney donors before organ removal. In this regard, one of the primary steps is to estimate the donor's glomerular filtration rate (GFR). For this purpose, the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) and the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formulas has been used. However, these two formulas produce different results and finding new techniques with greater accuracy is required. Measuring the renal volume from computed tomography (CT) scan may be a valuable index to assess the renal function. This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between renal volume and the GFR values in potential living kidney donors referred to the multislice imaging center at Alzahra Hospital during 2014. The study comprised 66 subjects whose GFR was calculated using the two aforementioned formulas. Their kidney volumes were measured by using 64-slice CT angiography and the correlation between renal volume and GFR values were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science software. There was no correlation between the volume of the left and right kidneys and the MDRD-based estimates of GFR (P = 0.772, r = 0.036, P = 0.251, r = 0.143, respectively). A direct linear correlation was found between the volume of the left and right kidneys and the CG-based GFR values (P = 0.001, r = 0.397, P kidney volume derived from multislice CT scan can help predict the GFR value in kidney donors with normal renal function. The limitations of our study include the small sample size and the medium resolution of 64-slice multislice scanners. Further studies with larger sample size and using higher resolution scanners are warranted to determine the accuracy of this method in potential kidney donors. PMID:27424682

  10. SU-E-T-634: Analysis of Volume Based GYN HDR Brachytherapy Plans for Dose Calculation to Organs At Risk(OAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We have analyzed the dose volume histogram of 140 CT based HDR brachytherapy plans and evaluated the dose received to OAR ; rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon based on recommendations from ICRU and Image guided brachytherapy working group for cervical cancer . Methods: Our treatment protocol consist of XRT to whole pelvis with 45 Gy at 1.8Gy/fraction followed by 30 Gy at 6 Gy per fraction by HDR brachytherapy in 2 weeks . The CT compatible tandem and ovoid applicators were used and stabilized with radio opaque packing material. The patient was stabilized using special re-locatable implant table and stirrups for reproducibility of the geometry during treatment. The CT scan images were taken at 3mm slice thickness and exported to the treatment planning computer. The OAR structures, bladder, rectum and sigmoid colon were outlined on the images along with the applicators. The prescription dose was targeted to A left and A right as defined in Manchester system and optimized on geometry . The dosimetry was compared on all plans using the parameter Ci.sec.cGy-1 . Using the Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) obtained from the plans the doses to rectum, sigmoid colon and bladder for ICRU defined points and 2cc volume were analyzed and reported. The following criteria were used for limiting the tolerance dose by volume (D2cc) were calculated. The rectum and sigmoid colon doses were limited to <75Gy. The bladder dose was limited to < 90Gy from both XRT and HDR brachytherapy. Results: The average total (XRT+HDRBT) BED values to prescription volume was 120 Gy. Dose 2cc to rectum was 70Gy +/− 17Gy, dose to 2cc bladder was 82+/−32 Gy. The average Ci.sec.cGy-1 calculated for the HDR plans was 6.99 +/− 0.5 Conclusion: The image based treatment planning enabled to evaluati volume based dose to critical structures for clinical interpretation

  11. SU-E-T-634: Analysis of Volume Based GYN HDR Brachytherapy Plans for Dose Calculation to Organs At Risk(OAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, M; Li, C; White, M; Davis, J [Joe Arrington Cancer Center, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We have analyzed the dose volume histogram of 140 CT based HDR brachytherapy plans and evaluated the dose received to OAR ; rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon based on recommendations from ICRU and Image guided brachytherapy working group for cervical cancer . Methods: Our treatment protocol consist of XRT to whole pelvis with 45 Gy at 1.8Gy/fraction followed by 30 Gy at 6 Gy per fraction by HDR brachytherapy in 2 weeks . The CT compatible tandem and ovoid applicators were used and stabilized with radio opaque packing material. The patient was stabilized using special re-locatable implant table and stirrups for reproducibility of the geometry during treatment. The CT scan images were taken at 3mm slice thickness and exported to the treatment planning computer. The OAR structures, bladder, rectum and sigmoid colon were outlined on the images along with the applicators. The prescription dose was targeted to A left and A right as defined in Manchester system and optimized on geometry . The dosimetry was compared on all plans using the parameter Ci.sec.cGy-1 . Using the Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) obtained from the plans the doses to rectum, sigmoid colon and bladder for ICRU defined points and 2cc volume were analyzed and reported. The following criteria were used for limiting the tolerance dose by volume (D2cc) were calculated. The rectum and sigmoid colon doses were limited to <75Gy. The bladder dose was limited to < 90Gy from both XRT and HDR brachytherapy. Results: The average total (XRT+HDRBT) BED values to prescription volume was 120 Gy. Dose 2cc to rectum was 70Gy +/− 17Gy, dose to 2cc bladder was 82+/−32 Gy. The average Ci.sec.cGy-1 calculated for the HDR plans was 6.99 +/− 0.5 Conclusion: The image based treatment planning enabled to evaluati volume based dose to critical structures for clinical interpretation.

  12. Subtleties in the calculation of the pressure and pressure tensor of anisotropic particles from volume-perturbation methods and the apparent asymmetry of the compressive and expansive contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Brumby, Paul E; Haslam, Andrew J.; de Miguel, Enrique; Jackson, George

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An effcient and versatile method to calculate the components of the pressure tensor for hard-body fluids of generic shape from the perspective of molecular simulation is presented. After due consideration of all the possible repulsive contributions exerted by molecules upon their surroundings during an anisotropic system expansion, it is observed that such a volume changevcan, for non-spherical molecules, give rise to configurations where overlaps occur. This feature of an...

  13. Thermophysical properties of hydrogen along the liquid-vapor coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, S. M.; Sulaiman, N.; Bahaa Khedr, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present Theoretical Calculations for the Liquid-Vapor Coexistence (LVC) curve of fluid Hydrogen within the first order perturbation theory with a suitable first order quantum correction to the free energy. In the present equation of state, we incorporate the dimerization of H2 molecule by treating the fluid as a hard convex body fluid. The thermophysical properties of fluid H2 along the LVC curve, including the pressure-temperature dependence, density-temperature asymmetry, volume expansivity, entropy and enthalpy, are calculated and compared with computer simulation and empirical results.

  14. An analytic solution for calculating the beam intensity profiles useful to irradiate target volumes with bi-concave outlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heuristic planing procedure allowing to obtain a 3-dimensional conformal dose distribution in radiotherapy for target volumes with a bi-concave or multi-concave shape has been developed. The described method is tested on a phantom simulating a pelvic target, described by Brahme

  15. An analytic solution for calculating the beam intensity profiles useful to irradiate target volumes with bi-concave outlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Neve, W.; Derycke, S.; De Wagter, C. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde

    1995-12-01

    A heuristic planing procedure allowing to obtain a 3-dimensional conformal dose distribution in radiotherapy for target volumes with a bi-concave or multi-concave shape has been developed. The described method is tested on a phantom simulating a pelvic target, described by Brahme.

  16. Artificial neural network and neutron application in a volume fraction calculation in annular and stratified multiphase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiphase flows, type oil-water-gas are very common among different industrial activities, such as chemical industries and petroleum extraction, and its measurements show some difficulties to be taken. Precisely determining the volume fraction of each one of the elements that composes a multiphase flow is very important in chemical plants and petroleum industries. This work presents a methodology able to determine volume fraction on Annular and Stratified multiphase flow system with the use of neutrons and artificial intelligence, using the principles of transmission/scattering of fast neutrons from a 241Am-Be source and measurements of point flow that are influenced by variations of volume fractions. The proposed geometries used on the mathematical model was used to obtain a data set where the thicknesses referred of each material had been changed in order to obtain volume fraction of each phase providing 119 compositions that were used in the simulation with MCNP-X -computer code based on Monte Carlo Method that simulates the radiation transport. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with data obtained using the MCNP-X, and used to correlate such measurements with the respective real fractions. The ANN was able to correlate the data obtained on the simulation with MCNP-X with the volume fractions of the multiphase flows (oil-water-gas), both in the pattern of annular flow as stratified, resulting in a average relative error (%) for each production set of: annular (air = 3.85; water = 4.31; oil=1.08); stratified (air = 3.10, water 2.01, oil = 1.45). The method demonstrated good efficiency in the determination of each material that composes the phases, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the technique. (author)

  17. Predicting the diffusion coefficient of water vapor through glassy HPMC films at different environmental conditions using the free volume additivity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksmana, Fesia Lestari; Hartman Kok, Paul Jean Antoine; Vromans, Herman; Van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2009-07-12

    Prediction of diffusion coefficient of polymer materials is important in the pharmaceutical research and becomes the aim of this paper. This paper bases the prediction method on the estimation of the polymer fractional free volume at different environmental conditions. Focussing on glassy polymers, the free volumes of polymer films were estimated using the model of Vrentas et al. [J.S. Vrentas, J.L. Duda, H.-C. Ling, Antiplasticization and volumetric behavior in glassy polymers, Macromolecules 21 (1988) 1470-1475]. The required data are the moisture sorption and glass transition temperature data, which were measured on various hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (used as a model material) free films at different water activities. The temperature and molecular weight particularly determine the free volume of the polymer, while the sorbed water can either decrease or increase the specific free volume of the polymer. At high water activity, the amount of water sorbed in the film increases to such level that the direct free volume addition by water becomes proportional to the contribution of the polymer itself. This confirms the importance of considering the environmental effect on the diffusivity of polymer during coating material selection. The presented approach enables the prediction of the diffusivity at any given relevant material variable and therefore has the potency to be used as a formulation development tool. PMID:19409985

  18. Predictive equations for total lung capacity and residual volume calculated from radiographs in a random sample of the Michigan population.

    OpenAIRE

    Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R H; Thornton, J C; Thornton, K.; Miller, A

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Published predicted values for total lung capacity and residual volume are often based on a small number of subjects and derive from different populations from predicted spirometric values. Equations from the only two large studies gave smaller predicted values for total lung capacity than the smaller studies. A large number of subjects have been studied from a population which has already provided predicted values for spirometry and transfer factor for carbon monoxide. METHODS: T...

  19. 二氧化碳与2-丁醇二元体系在高压下的亨利系数和偏摩尔体积性质计算%Calculation of Henry's coefficient and partial molar volume of carbon dioxide in 2-butanol at elevated pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田爱琴; 孙洪博; 陈文涛; 王琳

    2012-01-01

    Based on vapor-liquid phase equilibria data for CO2+2-butanol binary system from 323K to 353K by constant-volume visual high-pressure cell, the solubility model of CO2 in 2-butanol was established with Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation. Henry's coefficients and partial molar volumes of CO2 at infinite dilution were calculated. Meanwhile, Partial molar volumes of CO2 and 2-butanol at equilibrium were calculated from partial molar volumes properties together with Peng-Robinson equation of state and Van der Waals-2 mixed rule. The results showed that Henry's coefficients and partial molar volumes of CO2 at infinite dilution were both the function of temperature, and Henry's coefficients decreased with temperature. The partial molar volumes of CO2 at infinite dilution were negative and the magnitudes decreased with temperature. The calculated effects of partial molar volumes of vapor and liquid phase at equilibrium showed that the partial molar volumes of CO2 and 2-butanol in liquid phase were positive, but in vapor the partial molar volumes of CO2 were negative and the partial molar volumes of 2-butanol were positive. The research provided theoretical basis for deciding supercritical extraction conditions and instructing industrial production.%利用固定体积可视高压釜测量出的在323 K~353 K温度范围内的CO2与2-丁醇二元体系在高压下的汽液相平衡数据,根据Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky方程建立了CO2在液相中的溶解度模型,得到了该二元体系在高压下的亨利系数和CO2在无限稀释溶液中的偏摩尔体积等性质.同时根据偏摩尔体积性质和Peng-Robinson状态方程及Van der Waals-2混合规则来计算该体系在平衡状态下的气、液相的偏摩尔体积.结果表明CO2在2-丁醇中的亨利系数和CO2在无限稀释溶液中的偏摩尔体积均为温度的函数,CO2在2-丁醇中的亨利系数随温度的升高而降低.CO2在无限稀释溶液中的偏摩尔体积(V)1∞在研究温度下均为

  20. Calculation of the Elastic Scattering Properties in an Ultra-Cold Fermi-Bose and Bose-Bose RB-K Vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of the elastic scattering properties of mixtures composed by rubidium and potassium atoms is reported and compared with experimental results in detail. The improved potentials for both molecular states singlet and triplet of the RbK are presented, and the scattering lengths at and the effective range re are calculated with the help of this potential using WKB and Numerov methods for Rb-K in the triplet and singlet state. In addition, the convergence of these scattering properties as the depending on a K0 parameter is investigated using Quantum Defect Theory. The evaporative cooling other results that include the cross section and the spin-charge cross section, the rate coefficient as a function of the energy and the ultra-low temperature are also presented in this study

  1. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft3/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft3/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  2. The Issue of Calculating the Final Temperature of the Products of Rapid Exothermic Chemical Reactions with Significant Energy Release in a Closed Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarev, V.; Geidmanis, D.

    2016-02-01

    The theoretical problem solved in this article is the calculation of thermodynamic parameters such as final temperature, distribution of the liquid and dry saturated vapour phases of the substance that are considered to be in thermodynamic equilibrium, and pressure of the system of several reaction products after adding to the system a certain amount of heat or the thermal effect released during rapid exothermic reaction in a closed volume that occurs so fast that it can be considered to be adiabatic, and when the volume of liquid reagents is several orders of magnitude less than the volume of the reactor. The general multi-substance problem is reduced to a theoretical problem for one substance of calculation thermodynamic parameters of system after adding a certain amount of heat that gives theoretically rigorous isochoric calculation. In this article, we substantiate our view that isochoric pass of calculation is more robust compared to seemingly more natural isobaric pass of calculation, if the later involves quite not trivial calculation of the adiabatic compression of a two-phase system (liquid - dry saturated vapour) that can pass itself into another kind of state (liquid - wet saturated vapour), which requires, apparently, more complex descriptions compared with isochoric calculation because the specific heat capacity of wet saturated vapour can be negative. The solved theoretical problem relates to a practical problem that has been a driver for our research as part of a design of the reactor of the titanium reduction from magnesium and titanium tetrachloride supplied into atmosphere of the reactor at high temperatures when both reagents are in gaseous state. The reaction is known to be exothermic with a high thermal effect, and estimate of the final temperature and pressure of the products of reaction, for instance, designing the reactor allows eliminating the possibility of the reaction products to penetrate backwards into supply tracts of the reagents

  3. RESEARCH METHODS OF SATURATED VAPOR PRESSURE AND EXPERIMENTAL INSTALLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko P. M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The static method is the most common, because it is applicable for measuring SVP of substances in wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The essence of the method consists in measuring of vapor pressure in equilibrium with its liquid at a given temperature. Dynamic method is based on measurement of the boiling point of the liquid at a certain pressure. Saturation method of moving gas used in the case when the SVP does not exceed a few mm Hg. The method consists the following: the liquid is passed through the inert gas and saturated with vapor of liquids and then it flows into a cooler where the absorbed vapors are condensed. Knowing the amount of absorbed liquid and gas, as well as their molecular weight, allow us calculate saturated vapor pressure of the liquid. Knudsen effusion method is applicable for the measurement of very low pressures (up to 100 Pa. This method consists in researching of depending between the pressure and volume of saturated steam at a constant temperature. At the point of saturation an isotherm should have a break and turn into a straight line. Chromatographic method is based on complete chromatographic analysis of liquid and calculating the sum of partial pressures of all mixture components. Also, the article has a description of existing experimental installation for these researches and their advantages and disadvantages compared with each other

  4. Vapor fraction distribution within pipelines and channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional distribution of vapor volumetric fractions in subcooled boiling is analyzed for circular tubes and rectangular channels. The model is based on three major assumptions: 1) vapor bubble mation is controlled by diffusion due to flow turbulence; 2) the diffusion coefficient and bubble velocity are constant within the channel cross-section as well as the coolant temperature; 3) the vapor bubble generation and condensation rates are calculated according to one-dimensional models. The vapor void distribution is obtained from an analytical solution of the vapor bubble diffusion equation with a simplified approximation of subcooling profile. A method of boundary conditions formulation for the diffusin equation is also presented

  5. Calculation of fermentation parameters from the results of a fed-batch test taking account of the volume of biomass in the fermenting medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Borzani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The volume of biomass in the fermenting medium may significantly affect the values of fermentation parameters calculated from the measured concentrations of the substrates and/or products. The corrections proposed in this paper should be evaluated and, depending on their magnitude, considered in order to obtain more representative results. A numerical example is presented.O volume da biomassa no meio em fermentação pode afetar significativamente os parâmetros do processo calculados a partir das medidas das concentrações de substratos e/ou produtos. Correções propostas neste trabalho deveriam ser avaliadas e, dependendo de seus valores, consideradas a fim de obter resultados mais representativos. Apresenta-se um exemplo numérico.

  6. Prediction methods for the calculation of the flammability properties of gases and vapors: CHETAH and ASTM software. Part 1. Esters and Ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the law by decree of the 12. June 2003, N 233 (ATEX Directive) and REACH regulation (Regulation EC n. 2907/2006 of the European Parliament), several industrial fields, also not chemical, need the flammability data for the substances used. Perhaps, many of these data, especially for compounds with not common uses, are not easy to collect. It would be helpful to provide prediction methods in order to calculate these data without any experimentation that sometimes results time consuming, expensive and practically impossible for all the commercial compounds. In this research the ASTM software CHETAH (CHEmical Thermodynamic And Hazard evaluation) has been used in order to compute the lower flammability limit (Li), the limiting oxygen concentration (LOC, using nitrogen as inert gas) as a function of temperature, the adiabatic flame temperature Tflame, the fundamental burning velocity (Su), the quenching distance (Qd), the minimum ignition energy (MIE) for esters and ethers, substances highly used in industry.

  7. Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint US/Russian Progress Report for Fiscal 1997. Volume 3 - Calculations Performed in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This volume of the progress report provides documentation of reactor physics and criticality safety studies conducted in the Russian Federation during fiscal year 1997 and sponsored by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program of the US Department of Energy. Descriptions of computational and experimental benchmarks for the verification and validation of computer programs for neutron physics analyses are included. All benchmarks include either plutonium, uranium, or mixed uranium and plutonium fuels. Calculated physics parameters are reported for all of the contaminated benchmarks that the United States and Russia mutually agreed in November 1996 were applicable to mixed-oxide fuel cycles for light-water reactors.

  8. Radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease based on tissue-absorbed dose calculations: effect of pre-treatment thyroid volume on clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed with three aims. The first was to analyse the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with and without goitres under conditions of mild iodine deficiency using several tissue-absorbed doses. The second aim was to detect further parameters which might be predictive for treatment outcome. Finally, we wished to determine the deviation of the therapeutically achieved dose from that intended. Activities of 185-2,220 MBq radioiodine were calculated by means of Marinelli's formula to deliver doses of 150, 200 or 300 Gy to the thyroids of 224 patients with Graves' disease and goitres up to 130 ml in volume. Control of hyperthyroidism, change in thyroid volume and thyrotropin-receptor antibodies were evaluated 15±9 months after treatment for each dose. The results were further evaluated with respect to pre-treatment parameters which might be predictive for therapy outcome. Thyroidal radioiodine uptake was measured every day during therapy to determine the therapeutically achieved target dose and its coefficient of variation. There was a significant dose dependency in therapeutic outcome: frequency of hypothyroidism increased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 67.7% after 300 Gy, while the frequency of persistent hyperthyroidism decreased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 8.1% after 300 Gy. Patients who became hypothyroid had a maximum thyroid volume of 42 ml and received a target dose of 256±80 Gy. The coefficient of variation for the achieved target dose ranged between 27.7% for 150 Gy and 17.8% for 300 Gy. When analysing further factors which might influence therapeutic outcome, only pre-treatment thyroid volume showed a significant relationship to the result of treatment. It is concluded that a target dose of 250 Gy is essential to achieve hypothyroidism within 1 year after radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with goitres up to 40 ml in volume. Patients with larger goitres might need higher doses. (orig.)

  9. Vapor extractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G.A.; Bronder, L.R.

    1924-10-21

    A vapor extractor is described comprising a conveyer having compartments open at their top and bottom sides for a material to be conveyed, a plate forming a support for the conveyer and its compartments, means to move the conveyer over the plate with the material in the compartments, the movements of the conveyer forming ridges in the material that project above the walls of the compartments and means to remove the peaks of the ridges and thereby distribute the material composing the ridges into the bottom portion of the conveyer.

  10. Spray Evaporation in Turbulent Flow: Numerical Calculations and Detailed Experiments by Phase-Doppler Anemometry Évaporation de brouillard en flux turbulent : calculs numériques et expériences détaillées par anémometrie de phase-Doppler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommerfeld M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper concerns experiments and numerical calculations of an isopropyl-alcohol spray evaporating in a co-flowing turbulent heated air flow. The measurements provided detailed inlet and boundary conditions for the numerical calculations and allowed the validation of the numerical method and models. Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in order to obtain the spatial change of the droplet size distribution and the correlation between droplet size and velocity throughout the flow field. Additionally, a reliable method based on the detection of the signal amplitudes was applied to determine the droplet mass flux. By integration of the droplet mass flux profiles, the global evaporation rates could be determined for different flow conditions. Numerical calculations of the evaporating spray were performed by the Eulerian / Lagrangian approach. The modelling of droplet evaporation is briefly reviewed prior to the description of the applied numerical models and methods. Calculations for a single phase flow showed good agreement with the experiments. Also for all of the droplet phase properties reasonable agreement with the experiments could be achieved and the global evaporation rates agreed well with the measurements. Cet article expose en détail les expériences et les calculs concernant l'évaporation d'isopropanol pulvérisé dans un flux d'air chaud turbulent. Les mesures ont fourni le détail des conditions initiales et des conditions limites pour les calculs numériques ; elles ont également permis de valider la méthode et le modèle. L'anémométrie de phase-Doppler a permis de définir la modification spatiale de la distribution des dimensions de gouttelettes ainsi que la corrélation entre dimension et vitesse des gouttelettes, dans l'ensemble du champ d'écoulement. De plus, une méthode fiable fondée sur la détection des amplitudes de signal a été appliquée afin de déterminer le débit massique des gouttelettes. L

  11. Small-Scale Surface Reconstruction and Volume Calculation of Soil Erosion in Complex Moroccan Gully Morphology Using Structure from Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kaiser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a computer vision application of the structure from motion (SfM technique in three dimensional high resolution gully monitoring in southern Morocco. Due to impractical use of terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR in difficult to access gully systems, the inexpensive SfM is a promising tool for analyzing and monitoring soil loss, gully head retreat and plunge pool development following heavy rain events. Objects with known dimensions were placed around the gully scenes for scaling purposes as a workaround for ground control point (GCP placement. Additionally, the free scaling with objects was compared to terrestrial laser scanner (TLS data in a field laboratory in Germany. Results of the latter showed discrepancies of 5.6% in volume difference for erosion and 1.7% for accumulation between SfM and TLS. In the Moroccan research area soil loss varied between 0.58 t in an 18.65 m2 narrowly stretched gully incision and 5.25 t for 17.45 m2 in a widely expanded headcut area following two heavy rain events. Different techniques of data preparation were applied and the advantages of SfM for soil erosion monitoring under complex surface conditions were demonstrated.

  12. 封冻期流量推求方法的探讨%Exploration for volume calculation method in the freezing period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国锋; 李周明; 苍学深

    2001-01-01

    封冻期径流成分按补给来源分主要以地下水补给为主。根据地下水退水的一般规律,提出了针对天然河道封冻期流量推求方法的建议。在一般情况下,中小河流稳定封冻期流量推求应以实测流量过程线法为主。%Based on the supplying resources,ground water was considered as the primary resource to the main runoff in the freezing period.According to the general pattern of ground water lowering,this paper suggested a volume calculation method in the natural river courses in the freezing period.The result showed that the measured volume“Course Line” method should be generally taken as the primary one in calculation of the stable volume of the medium-and small-size rivers during the freezing period.

  13. Calculation of radiation induced complication probabilities for brain, liver and kidney, and the use of a reliability model to estimate critical volume fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced normal tissue complication probability is calculated for three different organs: brain, liver and kidney. The model applied is a reliability model where the volume effect of the tissue is described by the structural parameter, k, which reflects the architecture of the functional subunits of the organ. The complication probability depends on k, the inactivation probability of the functional subunits (p) and the irradiated volume fraction (n). For partial, homogeneous irradiation of the brain, a k-value close to unity was found, and the respective values for liver and kidney were 0.92 and 0.77. An extension of the reliability model to account for individual inactivation probability of the subunits allows calculation of complication probability for inhomogeneous dose distributions. For the brain, intercomparisons of a three-field and a two-field technique demonstrated a small reduction in complication probability for the former at low total doses. At high total doses a minimum complication probability was achieved applying a three-field technique, being three times less than that associated with the two-field technique. (author)

  14. MEASURED DENSITIES, REFRACTIVE INDICES, EXCESS MOLAR VOLUMES AND DEVIATIONS CALCULATED FROM MOLAR REFRACTION OF THE BINARY MIXTURE OF ETHANOL + 1-NONANOL AND TERNARY MIXTURE ETHANOL + 1-NONANOL + WATER AT 293.15 K

    OpenAIRE

    MAHRAMANLIOĞLU, Mehmet; Ş. İsmail KIRBAŞLAR

    2000-01-01

    Densities, and refractive indices were measured for the binary system ethanol + 1-nonanol and ternary system ethanol + 1-nonanol + water at 293.15 K. The excess molar volumes, and the deviations molar refraction were calculated for binary and ternary system. Redlich-Kister type equation was fitted to the excess molar volumes and, the deviations from a mole fraction average of the molar refraction, and the values of coefficients were calculated

  15. Monte Carlo calculations of the elastic moduli and pressure-volume-temperature equation of state for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isothermal-isobaric Monte Carlo calculations were used to obtain predictions of the elastic coefficients and derived engineering moduli and Poisson ratios for crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The elastic coefficients were computed using the strain fluctuation formula due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2662 (1982)]. Calculations were performed as a function of temperature (218 K≤T≤333 K) and hydrostatic pressure (0 GPa≤p≤4 GPa). The predicted values of the moduli and Poisson ratios under ambient conditions are in accord with general expectations for molecular crystals and with a very recent, unpublished determination for RDX. The moduli exhibit a sensitive pressure dependence whereas the Poisson ratios are relatively independent of pressure. The temperature dependence of the moduli is comparable to the precision of the results. However, the crystal does exhibit thermal softening for most pressures. An additional product of the calculations is information about the pressure-volume-temperature (pVT) equation of state. We obtain near-quantitative agreement with experiment for the case of hydrostatic compression and reasonable, but not quantitative, correspondence for thermal expansion. The results indicate a significant dependence of the thermal expansion coefficients on hydrostatic pressure. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  16. Ab initio calculation of the interaction potentials of helium, neon, and methane as well as theoretical studies on their thermophysical properties and those of water vapor; Ab initio-Berechnung der Wechselwirkungspotentiale von Helium, Neon und Methan sowie theoretische Untersuchungen zu ihren thermophysikalischen Eigenschaften und denen von Wasserdampf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellmann, Robert

    2009-06-16

    Thermophysical properties of the pure gases helium, neon, methane and water vapor were calculated for low densities over wide temperature ranges. Statistical thermodynamics was used for the determination of the pressure virial coefficients. The kinetic theory of gases was utilized for the calculation of the transport and relaxation properties. So far kinetic theory was limited to linear molecules and has now been extended to molecules of arbitrary geometry to enable calculations on methane and water vapor. The interaction potentials, which are needed for all computations, were determined for helium, neon and methane from the supermolecular approach using quantum chemical ab initio methods. For water the interaction potentials were taken from the literature. The calculated values of the thermophysical properties for the four gases show very good agreement with the best experimental data. At very low and very high temperatures the theoretical values are more accurate than experimental data. (orig.)

  17. Radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease based on tissue-absorbed dose calculations: effect of pre-treatment thyroid volume on clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Michael J.; Joe, Alexius Y.; Mallek, Dirk von; Ezziddin, Samer; Palmedo, Holger [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Brink, Ingo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Freiburg (Germany); Krause, Thomas M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital Bern (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    This study was performed with three aims. The first was to analyse the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with and without goitres under conditions of mild iodine deficiency using several tissue-absorbed doses. The second aim was to detect further parameters which might be predictive for treatment outcome. Finally, we wished to determine the deviation of the therapeutically achieved dose from that intended. Activities of 185-2,220 MBq radioiodine were calculated by means of Marinelli's formula to deliver doses of 150, 200 or 300 Gy to the thyroids of 224 patients with Graves' disease and goitres up to 130 ml in volume. Control of hyperthyroidism, change in thyroid volume and thyrotropin-receptor antibodies were evaluated 15{+-}9 months after treatment for each dose. The results were further evaluated with respect to pre-treatment parameters which might be predictive for therapy outcome. Thyroidal radioiodine uptake was measured every day during therapy to determine the therapeutically achieved target dose and its coefficient of variation. There was a significant dose dependency in therapeutic outcome: frequency of hypothyroidism increased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 67.7% after 300 Gy, while the frequency of persistent hyperthyroidism decreased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 8.1% after 300 Gy. Patients who became hypothyroid had a maximum thyroid volume of 42 ml and received a target dose of 256{+-}80 Gy. The coefficient of variation for the achieved target dose ranged between 27.7% for 150 Gy and 17.8% for 300 Gy. When analysing further factors which might influence therapeutic outcome, only pre-treatment thyroid volume showed a significant relationship to the result of treatment. It is concluded that a target dose of 250 Gy is essential to achieve hypothyroidism within 1 year after radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with goitres up to 40 ml in volume. Patients with larger goitres might need higher doses

  18. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  19. Simultaneous determination of the Cd and Zn total body burden of individual, nearly microscopic, nanoliter-volume aquatic organisms (Hyalella azteca) by rhenium-cup in-torch vaporization (ITV) sample introduction and axially viewed ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Andrea T.; Badiei, Hamid R.; Karanassios, Vassili [University of Waterloo, Department of Chemistry, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Evans, J. Catherine [University of Waterloo, Department of Biology, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    The Cd and Zn total body burden of individual, up to 7-day-old aquatic organisms (Hyalella aztecabenthic amphipod) with an average volume of approximately 100 nL was determined simultaneously by using rhenium-cup (Re-cup) in-torch vaporization (ITV) sample introduction and an axially viewed inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) system. The direct elemental analysis capabilities of this system (i.e., no sample digestion) reduced sample preparation time, eliminated contamination concerns from the digestion reagent and, owing to its detection limits (e.g., in the low pg range for Cd and Zn), vit enabled simultaneous determinations of Cd and Zn in individual, neonate and young juvenile specimens barely visible to the unaided eye (e.g., nearly microscopic). As for calibration, liquid standards and the standard additions method were tested. Both methods gave comparable results, thus indicating that in this case liquid standards can be employed for calibration, and in the process making use of the standard additions method unnecessary. Overall, the ITV-ICP-AES approach by-passed the time-consuming acid digestions, eliminated the potential for contamination from the digestion reagents, improved considerably the speed of acquisition of analytical information and enabled simultaneous determinations of two elements using individual biological specimens. (orig.)

  20. Target volume coverage and dose to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. Dose calculation on daily cone-beam CT data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of correct Hounsfield unit to electron density calibration, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data provide the opportunity for retrospective dose recalculation in the patient. Therefore, the consequences of translational positioning corrections and of morphological changes in the patient anatomy can be quantified for prostate cancer patients. The organs at risk were newly contoured on the CBCT data sets of 7 patients so as to evaluate the actual applied dose. The daily dose to the planning target volume (PTV) was recalculated with and without the translation data, which result from the real patient repositioning. A CBCT-based dose recalculation with uncertainties less than 3 % is possible. The deviations between the planning CT and the CBCT without the translational positioning correction vector show an average dose difference of - 8 % inside the PTV. An inverse proportional relation between the mean bladder dose and the actual volume of the bladder could be established. The daily applied dose to the rectum is about 1-54 % higher than predicted by the planning CT. A dose calculation based on CBCT data is possible. The daily positioning correction of the patient is necessary to avoid an underdosage in the PTV. The new contouring of the organs at risk - the bladder and rectum - allows a better appraisal to be made of the total applied dose to these organs. (orig.)

  1. Value of the fraction of ejection and the end-diastolic volume of the left ventricle calculated by means of Gated-Spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The fraction of ejection is one of the predictions factors more important after a acute heart attack and is essential its calculation in these patients. On the other hand the existence of residue ischemia is a basic information to predict the evolution and to decide the treatment about this pathology. The use of the Gated-Spect can contribute of simultaneous form both information. Our aim was to evaluate the utility of the fraction of ejection and of the volume end-diastolic of the left ventricle calculated by means of Gated-Spect as well as the relation that exists with the fact of the existence of scar in this images. Materials and Methods: 34 patients were studied (27 men and 7 women) sent to our service for accomplishment of Spect of myocardium perfusion for suspicion it diagnoses of heart attack of myocardium for present at least 2 of 3 clinical classic criteria (typical clinic, alterations ECG and increase enzymatic), to that was realized heart Gated-Spect with 925 MBq of Tc99-tetrofosmin after pharmacological stimulation with adenosine and 2 days later Spect with 333 MBq of the same tracer for acquisition of base images. Results: All the patients presented faults of perfusion fixed assimilable to zones of scar, finding in 13 of them certain degree of reversibility that was indicating existence of residue ischemia. The average of fraction of ejection was of 36.62% . Dividing by groups the fraction of ejection in the scar without ischemia ensued from 32.33% and in the scar with ischemia from 43.54%, being the difference between both groups significant statistically (P=0.003). For the volume end-diastolic the average belonged to 141.97 ml being divided in 157.90 ml for the pure scar and 116.23 ml for the scar with ischemia being this difference also significant (P=0.04) the relation is verified likewise between fraction of ejection and volume telediastolico with Pearson's coefficient between both variables of-0.79. Conclusion: According to our results the

  2. Vaporization heat of niobium pentafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literary data on vapor composition above niobium pentafluoride are analyzed and incorrectness of the value of vaporization heat of NbF5 monomeric molecules, given in the Glushko reference book, is shown. Heat capacities of NbF5 gas for monomeric, two-dimensional, three-dimensional and four-dimensional NbF5 molecules are estimated and the vaporization heats of monomeric and polymeric forms at the melting temperature (in kJ/mol): 79.3(5.0)-NbF5, 71.0(6.7)-(NbF5)2, 53.9(4.6)-(NbF5)3, 44.5(6.7)-(NbF5)4, are calculated

  3. Radionuclide therapy with bone-seeking compounds: Monte Carlo calculations of dose-volume histograms for bone marrow in trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvinnsland, Y.; Skretting, A.; Bruland, Oe.S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, 0310 Oslo (Norway)

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate how haematopoietic stem cell survival is affected by the differences in the dose distribution that arise from different radionuclides contained in bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. This was carried out in three steps: (a) calculations of representative dose distributions in individual bone marrow cavities that are irradiated by sources of {sup 89}Sr, {sup 186}Re, {sup 117}mSn or {sup 153}Sm, uniformly distributed on the bone surfaces; (b) assessment of the corresponding haematopoietic stem cell survival and (c) a comparison of these results with results obtained using the assumption of a uniform dose distribution. Two different idealized models of the geometry of trabecular bone were formulated, each consisting of an infinite array of identical elements. Monte Carlo simulations were used to generate dose-volume histograms that were used to assess haematopoietic stem cell survival with two different assumptions about spatial cell distributions. Compared with a homogeneous dose distribution, the estimated cell survival was markedly higher for {sup 117}mSn and {sup 153}Sm, and only slightly different for {sup 89}Sr and {sup 186}Re. The quantitative results differed between the two geometric models and the assumptions about spatial cell distribution, but the trends were the same. The results imply that it is necessary to include dose distributions for individual bone marrow cavities in considerations concerning bone marrow toxicity. (author)

  4. Hydrazine vapor inactivates Bacillus spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Engler, Diane L.; Beaudet, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    NASA policy restricts the total number of bacterial spores that can remain on a spacecraft traveling to any planetary body which might harbor life or have evidence of past life. Hydrazine, N2H4, is commonly used as a propellant on spacecraft. Hydrazine as a liquid is known to inactivate bacterial spores. We have now verified that hydrazine vapor also inactivates bacterial spores. After Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 spores deposited on stainless steel coupons were exposed to saturated hydrazine vapor in closed containers, the spores were recovered from the coupons, serially diluted, pour plated and the surviving bacterial colonies were counted. The exposure times required to reduce the spore population by a factor of ten, known as the D-value, were 4.70 ± 0.50 h at 25 °C and 2.85 ± 0.13 h at 35 °C. These inactivation rates are short enough to ensure that the bioburden of the surfaces and volumes would be negligible after prolonged exposure to hydrazine vapor. Thus, all the propellant tubing and internal tank surfaces exposed to hydrazine vapor do not contribute to the total spore count.

  5. An assessment of reactor vessel integrity under in-vessel vapor explosion loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safety assessment of reactor vessel lower head integrity under in-vessel vapor explosion loads has been performed. The core melt relocation parameters were chosen within the ranges of phsically realizable bounds. The premixing and explosion calculations were performed using TRACER-II code. Using the calculated explosion pressures imposed on the lower head inner wall, strain calculations were performed using ANSYS code. Then, the calculated strain results and the established failure criteria were used in determining the failure probability of the lower head. In the explosion analyses, it it shown that the explosion impulses are not altered significantly by the uncertain parameters of triggering location and time, fuel and vapor volume fractions in uniform pre-mixture bounding calculations. Strain analyses show that the vapor explosion-induced lower head failure is not possible under the present framework of assessment. The result of static analysis using the conservative explosion-end pressure of 50 MPa also supports the conclusion. It is recommended, however, that an assessment of fracture mechanics for preexisting cracks be also considered to obtain a more concrete conclusion. (author)

  6. Vapor-liquid Phase Equilibria for CO2+Tertpentanol Binary System at Elevated Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; LUO Jian-cheng; YANG Hao; CHEN Kai-xun

    2011-01-01

    Vapor-liquid phase equilibrium data of tertpentanol in carbon dioxide were measured at temperatures of 313.4,323.4,333.5 and 343.5 K and in the pressure range of 4.56-11.44 MPa.The phase equilibium apparatus used in the work was a variable-volume high-pressure cell.The experimental data were reasonably correlated with Peng-Robinson equation of state(PR-EOS) together with van der Waals-2 two-parameter mixing rules.Henry's Law constants and partial molar volumes of CO2 at infinite dilution were estimated with Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation,and Henry's Law constants increase with increasing temperature,however,partial molar volumes of CO2 at infinite dilution are negative whose magnitudes decrease with temperature.Partial molar volumes of CO2 and tertpentanol in liquid phase at equilibrium were calculated.

  7. Liquid-Vapor Argon Isotope Fractionation from the Triple Point to the Critical Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, J. T.; Linderstrøm-Lang, C. U.; Bigeleisen, J.

    1972-01-01

    twice the statistical scatter of the present data, the present results for the lnα are systematically 5% lower than calculations from vapor pressure data. It is shown that T2 lnα is a linear function of (ρc−ρg), the density difference between the liquid and vapor, in the range 84–120°K. The......The statistical thermodynamic treatment of the equilibrium between a nonideal liquid mixture of isotopes and a vapor phase is extended to include isotope effects on the equation of state of the gas. The result is particularly simple when the isotopic partition functions in a given phase are...... compared at the same molar volume. The isotope fractionation factor α for 36Ar∕40Ar between liquid and vapor has been measured from the triple point to the critical temperature. The results are compared with previous vapor pressure data, which cover the range 84–102°K. Although the agreement is within...

  8. Estimating evaporative vapor generation from automobiles based on parking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach is proposed to quantify the evaporative vapor generation based on real parking activity data. As compared to the existing methods, two improvements are applied in this new approach to reduce the uncertainties: First, evaporative vapor generation from diurnal parking events is usually calculated based on estimated average parking duration for the whole fleet, while in this study, vapor generation rate is calculated based on parking activities distribution. Second, rather than using the daily temperature gradient, this study uses hourly temperature observations to derive the hourly incremental vapor generation rates. The parking distribution and hourly incremental vapor generation rates are then adopted with Wade–Reddy's equation to estimate the weighted average evaporative generation. We find that hourly incremental rates can better describe the temporal variations of vapor generation, and the weighted vapor generation rate is 5–8% less than calculation without considering parking activity. - Highlights: • We applied real parking distribution data to estimate evaporative vapor generation. • We applied real hourly temperature data to estimate hourly incremental vapor generation rate. • Evaporative emission for Florence is estimated based on parking distribution and hourly rate. - A new approach is proposed to quantify the weighted evaporative vapor generation based on parking distribution with an hourly incremental vapor generation rate

  9. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-01-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of L...

  10. Polar Mohr diagram method and its application in calculating the shear displacements of general shear zones with volume loss--With the Sangshuyuanzi ductile shear zone as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The main problem,in determining the shear displacement of a general shear zone with volume change using the available formula,is that it is hard to know the initial angle between the planes (or lines) in the plane of shear.A planar deformation analysis of this kind of ductile shear zone is carried out with the polar Mohr diagram.If the volume change is induced by homogeneous contraction in the Z direction of the shear zone,there are sufficient conditions for constructing a polar Mohr diagram regardless of sequence of the simple shear and volume change.Therefore,the angle between a line and the shear direction before and after the deformation can be measured.Making use of these lines the shear strain and the volume change can be calculated and the shear displacement can be determined.

  11. Polar Mohr diagram method and its application in calculating the shear displacements of general shear zones with volume loss——With the Sangshuyuanzi ductile shear zone as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海; 郭召杰; 刘瑞洵; 刘树文; 张志诚

    2000-01-01

    The main problem, in determining the shear displacement of a general shear zone with volume change using the available formula, is that it is hard to know the initial angle between the planes (or lines) in the plane of shear. A planar deformation analysis of this kind of ductile shear zone is carried out with the polar Mohr diagram. If the volume change is induced by homogeneous contraction in the Z direction of the shear zone, there are sufficient conditions for constructing a polar Mohr diagram regardless of sequence of the simple shear and volume change. Therefore, the angle between a line and the shear direction before and after the deformation can be measured. Making use of these lines the shear strain and the volume change can be calculated and the shear displacement can be determined.

  12. Sensitive analysis of fuel drop diameter in vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In nuclear plant vapor explosion analysis, fuel drop diameter is an important parameter which could significantly influence the evaluation of explosion pressure. Purpose: Decrease the uncertainty of vapor explosion calculation caused by fuel drop diameter. Methods: A simulation model of typical vapor explosion was built using MC3D to take sensitive analysis of fuel drop diameter. Results: The calculation relates to fuel drop energy, fuel drop fragmentation rate and vapor explosion pressure. The effect of fuel drop diameter in vapor explosion is analyzed based on theoretical analysis and the calculation. Conclusions: The results show that the vapor explosion pressure is very sensitive to fuel drop diameter, which is mainly caused by the fuel drop energy and the fuel drop fragmentation rate. (authors)

  13. Right atrial volume calculated by multi-detector computed tomography. Useful predictor of atrial fibrillation recurrence after pulmonary vein catheter ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated whether right atrial (RA) volume could be used to predict the recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after pulmonary vein catheter ablation (CA). We evaluated 65 patients with paroxysmal AF (mean age, 60+10 years, 81.5% male) and normal volunteers (57±14 years, 41.7% male). Sixty-four-slice multi-detector computed tomography was performed for left atrial (LA) and RA volume estimations before CA. The recurrence of AF was assessed for 6 months after the ablation. Both left and right atrial volumes were larger in the AF patients than the normal volunteers (LA: 99.7+33.2 ml vs. 59.7+17.4 ml; RA: 82.9+35.7 ml vs. 43.9+12 ml; P100 ml) for predicting the recurrence of AF was 81.3% in 13 of 16 patients with AF recurrence, and the specificity was 69.4% in 34 of 49 patients without recurrence. The sensitivity with large RA volumes (>87 ml) was 81.3% in 13 of 16 patients with AF recurrence, and the specificity was 75.5% in 37 of 49 patients without recurrence. RA volume is a useful predictor of the recurrence of AF, similar to LA volume. (author)

  14. Stratospheric water vapor feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; Davis, S M; K. H. Rosenlof

    2013-01-01

    We show observational evidence for a stratospheric water vapor feedback—a warmer climate increases stratospheric water vapor, and because stratospheric water vapor is itself a greenhouse gas, this leads to further warming. An estimate of its magnitude from a climate model yields a value of +0.3 W/(m2⋅K), suggesting that this feedback plays an important role in our climate system.

  15. Water vapor retrieval from OMI visible spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; González Abad, G.; Miller, C. Chan

    2014-06-01

    There are distinct spectral features of water vapor in the wavelength range covered by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) visible channel. Although these features are much weaker than those at longer wavelengths, they can be exploited to retrieve useful information about water vapor. They have an advantage in that their small optical depth leads to fairly simple interpretation as measurements of the total water vapor column density. We have used the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) OMI operational retrieval algorithm to derive the slant column density (SCD) of water vapor using the 430-480 nm spectral region after extensive optimization. We convert from SCD to vertical column density (VCD) using the air mass factor (AMF), which is calculated using look-up tables of scattering weights and assimilated water vapor profiles. Our Level 2 product includes not only water vapor VCD but also the associated scattering weights and AMF. In the tropics, our standard water vapor product has a median SCD of 1.3 × 1023 molecules cm-2 and a median relative uncertainty of about 11%, about a factor of 2 better than that from a similar OMI algorithm that uses a narrower retrieval window. The corresponding median VCD is about 1.2 × 1023 molecules cm-2. We have examined the sensitivities of SCD and AMF to various parameters and compared our results with those from the GlobVapour product, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET).

  16. Vaporization of Samarium trichloride studied by thermogravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the vaporization reaction of SmCl3(l) obtained from the 'in situ' reaction of Sm2O3(s) and Cl2(g)-C(s) was studied by thermogravimetry under controlled atmosphere. The effects of both the temperature between 825 C degrees and 950 C degrees and the total flow gas on the vaporization rate of the following reaction: SmCl3(l) = SmCl3(g) were analyzed. The vaporization rate of the process was found to be independent of then total gas flow rate and highly dependent on the temperature. Eap calculation led to a value of 240 ± 10 kJ.mol-1. A comparison between this value and that of the molar enthalpy of vaporization allow to the conclusion that the reaction occur in conditions near to equilibrium. The SmCl3 identity was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). (author)

  17. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  18. Metal vapor condensation under high pressure (mercury vapor to 500 psia). [Heat transfer coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, S.; Bonilla, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    Mercury vapor up to 500 psia was condensed outside a cylindrical tube in both horizontal and vertical positions. Results show consistently low heat transfer coefficients compared to Nusselt's theory. Two auxiliary mercury vapor condensers downstream of the boiler vent were used to control and safeguard the system. Constantan wires were spot welded on the surface inside the test condenser tube. The heat flux ranged from 20,000 to 45,000 Btu/h-ft/sup 2/ and the temperature differences between vapor and condensing wall from 6 to 50/sup 0/F. The condensation heat transfer coefficients, ranging from 850 to 3,500 Btu/h-/sup 0/F-ft/sup 2/, are only about 3 to 9 percent of those predicted by Nusselt's theory. Due to the positive pressure in the system for most test runs, the chance of any in-leakage of noncondensable gases into the boiler is extremely small. Since no substantial change of heat transfer rate resulted from wide variations in the heat load on the reflux condenser at some specific heat flux on the test condenser tube, the low heat transfer rate of mercury vapor condensation was not due to the presence of any non-condensable gas. The test data for high vapor pressure up to 500 psia reveal that the heat transfer coefficient is independent of the vapor pressure level. The condensation coefficients calculated based on kinetic theory are much smaller than unity and decreasewith vapor pressure. It is hypothesized that dimer content in the metal vapor phase might behave as non-condensable or semi-condensable gas and create a diffusional barrier at the vapor-liquid interface near the condensate film. This dimer vapor could be the main cause of interfacial resistance during metal vapor condensation process. 41 figures, 7 tables, 58 references. (DLC)

  19. Calculation of absorbed doses in sphere volumes around the Mammosite using the Monte Carlo simulation code MCNPX; Calculo de dosis absorbida en volumenes esfericos alrededor del Mammosite utilizando el codigo de simulacion Monte Carlo MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the changes observed in the absorbed doses in mammary gland tissue when irradiated with a equipment of high dose rate known as Mammosite and introducing material resources contrary to the tissue that constitutes the mammary gland. The modeling study is performed with the code MCNPX, 2005 version, the equipment and the mammary gland and calculating the absorbed doses in tissue when introduced small volumes of air or calcium in the system. (Author)

  20. High Pressure Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide + n-Hexane System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jinglin; TIAN Yiling; ZHU Rongjiao; LIU Zhihua

    2006-01-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of supercritical carbon dioxide + n-hexane system were measured at 313.15 K,333.15 K,353.15 K,and 373.15 K and their molar volumes and densities were measured both in the subcritical and supercritical regions ranging from 2.15 to 12.63 MPa using a variable-volume autoclave.The thermodynamic properties including mole fractions,densities,and molar volumes of the system were calculated with an equation of state by Heilig and Franck,in which a repulsion term and a square-well potential attraction term for intermolecular interaction was used.The pairwise combination rule was used to calculate the square-well molecular interaction potential and three adjustable parameters (ω,kε,kσ) were obtained.The Heilig-Franck equation of state is found to have good correlation with binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the carbon dioxide + n-hexane system.

  1. Estimation of vapor composition and vapor pressure of alcohols and hydrocarbons binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study were to apply the coordination state theory to assosiated systems, especially to estimate vapor pressure and vapor composition of alcohols and hydrcarbons binary systems. To achieve these objectives, a computer programme in Q. basic language was used to compute vapor composition and vapor pressure of may alcohols and hydrcarbons binary systems. The systems studied were methane- methanol, methane- n-propanol, n-pentane - n-propanol, ethanol- cyclohexane, ethanol- isooctane, n-pentane - ethanol, methanol - benzene, n-propanol- benzene, ethane- ethanol and ethane- n-propanol. The calculated VLE values were compared with experimental data using standard deviation. The values calculated agree, in general, with the experimental ones. Variations were observed among certain cases where phase seperation may occur.(Author)

  2. Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpy of codlemone by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The vaporization enthalpy of codlemone has been evaluated. • The vapor pressure of codlemone has been evaluated from T = (298.15 to Tb) K. • Vapor pressures for the 1-alkanols standards are available from T = (298.15 to 500) K. - Abstract: The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy of codlemone (trans, trans 8,10-dodecadien-1-ol), the female sex hormone of the codling moth is evaluated by correlation gas chromatography using a series of saturated primary alcohols as standards. A vaporization enthalpy of (92.3 ± 2.6) kJ · mol−1 and a vapor pressure, p/Pa = (0.083 ± 0.012) were evaluated at T = 298.15 K. An equation for the evaluation of vapor pressure from ambient temperature to boiling has been derived by correlation for codlemone. The calculated boiling temperature of TB = 389 K at p = 267 Pa is within the temperature range reported in the literature. A normal boiling temperature of TB = (549.1 ± 0.1) K is also estimated by extrapolation

  3. Variant of a volume-of-fluid method for surface tension-dominant two-phase flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Biswas

    2013-12-01

    The capabilities of the volume-of-fluid method for the calculation of surface tension-dominant two-phase flows are explained. The accurate calculation of the interface remains a problem for the volume-of-fluid method if the density ratios of the fluids in different phases are high. The simulations of bubble growth is performed in water at near critical pressure for different degrees of superheat using combined levelset and volume-of fluid (CLSVOF) method. The effect of superheat on the frequency of bubble formation was analyzed. A deviation from the periodic bubble release is observed in the case of superheat of 20 K in water. The vapor-jet-like columnar structure is observed. Effect of heat flux on the slender vapor column has also been explained.

  4. OPTMAIN- A FORTRAN CODE FOR THE CALCULATION OF PROBE VOLUME GEOMETRY CHANGES IN A LASER ANEMOMETRY SYSTEM CAUSED BY WINDOW REFRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, A. K.

    1994-01-01

    The laser anemometer has provided the fluid dynamicist with a powerful tool for nonintrusively measuring fluid velocities. One of the more common types of laser anemometers, the laser fringe anemometer, divides a single laser beam into two parallel beams and then focuses them on a point in space called the "probe volume" (PV) where the fluid velocity is measured. Many applications using this method for measuring fluid velocities require the observation of fluids through a window. The passage of the laser beams through materials having different indices of refraction has the following effects: 1) the position of the probe volume will change; 2) the beams will uncross, i.e., no longer lie in the same plane at the probe volume location; and 3) for nonflat plate windows, the crossing angle of the two beams will change. OPTMAIN uses a ray tracing technique, which is not restricted to special cases, to study the changes in probe volume geometry and position due to refraction effects caused by both flat and general smooth windows. Input parameters are the indices of refraction on both sides of the window and of the window itself, the window shape, the assumed position of the probe volume and the actual position of the focusing lens relative to the window, the orientation of the plane which contains the laser beams, the beam crossing angle, and the laser beam wavelength. OPTMAIN is written in FORTRAN 77 for interactive execution. It has been implemented on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS 5.0 with a virtual memory requirement of 50K. OPTMAIN was developed in 1987.

  5. A program for calculating load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, L218 (LOADS). Volume 2: Supplemental system design and maintenance document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. R.; Miller, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The LOADS computer program L218 which calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: (1) translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; (2) panel aerodynamic forces; (3) net panel forces; and (4) shears, bending moments, and torsions.

  6. Examination concerning dissociation of left ventricular volume calculation value based on difference of analytical algorithm and perfusion tracer in gated myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to improvement of SPECT system, ECG-gated SPECT with 201TlCl have been applied to the left ventricular volumetry. In this study 24 patients without ischemia demonstrated by stress (99mTc-TF) and rest (201TlCl) dual-isotope ECG-gated myocardial SPECT were enrolled. To evaluate left ventricular volumetry using 201Tl ECG-gated SPECT data, the left ventricular end diastolic volumes (EDV) were compared between Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS) and Emory Cardiac Toolbox (ECT) as well as between dual-isotopes based on the same ECG-gated data. The EDV values with 99mTc data (EDVTc) using QGS were well correlated with those using ECT (r=0.96, pTc (r=0.98, p201Tl (EDVTl) (r=0.93, pTl compared with EDVTc. In contrast, EDVTl were significantly higher than EDVTc in ECT performance. The QGS errors subtracting EDVTl from EDVTc were more evident according to the left ventricular volume increase. On the other hand, ECT error showed no tendency associated with the left ventricular volume. From these results, a careful strategy for selection of tracers and softwares should be necessary to assessment of quantitative values derived from ECG-gated SPECT data because of interaction with softwares, tracers, and subjects. (author)

  7. 三种热效应激光汽化兼热杀癌的理论计算与应用方法讨论%The theoretical calculations of vaporizing and heat-killing therapy of cancer with the three thermal-effect lasers and discussion on the applied methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓明; 冯永振

    2001-01-01

    本文根据激光汽化兼热杀癌肿瘤的理论模型〔1,2〕,对三种常见热效应激光进行了理论计算和结果对比,讨论了在较大汽化域情况下尽可能减少照射治疗时间的应用方法和措施,为激光治疗较大肿瘤提供具体理论参考数据。%Based on the theoretical models of vaporizing and heat-killing therapy of cancer with laser,the theoretical calculations of three common thermal-effect lasers have been made,and the results are shown and compared in this paper.We discuss on the applied methods to get the irradiating time as short as possible under more large vaporizing area.These theoretical calculated data will be valuable for reference.

  8. Calcul des paramètres de l'équation de Wilson. Analyse comparative des représentations d'équilibres liquide-vapeur isothermes par les modèles de Wilson et NRTL Computing Parameters in the Wilson Equation. Comparatrice Analysis of Representations of Isothermal Liquid-Vapor Equilibria by Wilson and Nrtl Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desplanches H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Un programme de calcul des paramètres de l'équation de Wilson est mis au point. II utilise une méthode itérative de minimisation des écarts sur la pression et la composition de vapeur ou sur chaque grandeur prise séparément. Les méthodes utilisées sont testées sur neuf équilibres liquide-vapeur isothermes de mélanges binaires à déviations positives ou négatives. Les écarts moyens entre les valeurs expérimentales : - de la pression; - de la composition de la vapeur; - de l'enthalpie libre d'excès; et les valeurs calculées à partir des paramètres de Wilson sont comparés à ceux obtenus d'après le modèle NRTL. A program has been developed for computing the parameters in the Wilson equation. It uses an iterative method of minimizing the differences in pressure and steam composition or in each magnitude token separately. The methods used are tried out on nine isothermal liquid-vapor equilibria of binary mixtures with positive or negative deviations. The mean differences between experimental values of the : - pressure; - vapor composition; - excess free enthalpy; and values computed from Wilson parameters are compared with those obtained from an NRTL model.

  9. Urania vapor composition at very high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the chemically unstable nature of uranium dioxide its vapor composition at very high temperatures is, presently, not sufficiently studied though more experimental knowledge is needed for risk assessment of nuclear reactors. We used laser vaporization coupled to mass spectrometry of the produced vapor to study urania vapor composition at temperatures in the vicinity of its melting point and higher. The very good agreement between measured melting and freezing temperatures and between partial pressures measured on the temperature increase and decrease indicated that the change in stoichiometry during laser heating was very limited. The evolutions with temperature (in the range 2800-3400 K) of the partial pressures of the main vapor species (UO2, UO3, and UO2+) were compared with theoretically predicted evolutions for equilibrium noncongruent gas-liquid and gas-solid phase coexistences and showed very good agreement. The measured main relative partial pressure ratios around 3300 K all agree with calculated values for total equilibrium between condensed and vapor phases. It is the first time the three main partial pressure ratios above stoichiometric liquid urania have been measured at the same temperature under conditions close to equilibrium noncongruent gas-liquid phase coexistence.

  10. DEPDOSE: An interactive, microcomputer based program to calculate doses from exposure to radionuclides deposited on the ground. Volume 1, User`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beres, D.A.; Hull, A.P.

    1991-12-01

    DEPDOSE is an interactive, menu driven, microcomputer based program designed to rapidly calculate committed dose from radionuclides deposited on the ground. The program is designed to require little or no computer expertise on the part of the user. The program consisting of a dose calculation section and a library maintenance section. These selections are available to the user from the main menu. The dose calculation section provides the user with the ability to calculate committed doses, determine the decay time needed to reach a particular dose, cross compare deposition data from separate locations, and approximate a committed dose based on a measured exposure rate. The library maintenance section allows the user to review and update dose modifier data as well as to build and maintain libraries of radionuclide data, dose conversion factors, and default deposition data. The program is structured to provide the user easy access for reviewing data prior to running the calculation. Deposition data can either be entered by the user or imported from other databases. Results can either be displayed on the screen or sent to the printer.

  11. Determination of the optimal statistical uncertainty to perform electron-beam Monte Carlo absorbed dose estimation in the target volume; Determination de l'incertitude statistique optimale pour realiser un calcul de dose dans le volume cible en utilisant la methode de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isambert, A.; Lefkopoulos, D. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Medical Physics Dept., 94 - Villejuif (France); Brualla, L. [NCTeam, Strahlenklinik, Universitatsklinikum Essen (Germany); Benkebil, M. [DOSIsoft, 94 - Cachan (France)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose of study Monte Carlo based treatment planning system are known to be more accurate than analytical methods for performing absorbed dose estimation, particularly in and near heterogeneities. However, the required computation time can still be an issue. The present study focused on the determination of the optimum statistical uncertainty in order to minimise computation time while keeping the reliability of the absorbed dose estimation in treatments planned with electron-beams. Materials and methods Three radiotherapy plans (medulloblastoma, breast and gynaecological) were used to investigate the influence of the statistical uncertainty of the absorbed dose on the target volume dose-volume histograms (spinal cord, intra-mammary nodes and pelvic lymph nodes, respectively). Results The study of the dose-volume histograms showed that for statistical uncertainty levels (1 S.D.) above 2 to 3%, the standard deviation of the mean dose in the target volume calculated from the dose-volume histograms increases by at least 6%, reflecting the gradual flattening of the dose-volume histograms. Conclusions This work suggests that, in clinical context, Monte Carlo based absorbed dose estimations should be performed with a maximum statistical uncertainty of 2 to 3%. (authors)

  12. Second Vapor-Level Sensor For Vapor Degreaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Nance M.; Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Second vapor-level sensor installed at lower level in vapor degreaser makes possible to maintain top of vapor at that lower level. Evaporation reduced during idle periods. Provides substantial benefit, without major capital cost of building new vapor degreaser with greater freeboard height.

  13. Incorporating surface indicators of reservoir permeability into reservoir volume calculations: Application to the Colli Albani caldera and the Central Italy Geothermal Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Guido; De Benedetti, Arnaldo Angelo; Bonamico, Andrea; Ramazzotti, Paolo; Mattei, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The Quaternary Roman Volcanic Province extends for over 200 km along the Tyrrhenian margin of the Italian peninsula and is composed of several caldera complexes with significant associated geothermal potential. In spite of the massive programs of explorations conducted by the then state-owned ENEL and AGIP companies between the 1970s and 1990s, and the identification of several high enthalpy fields, this resource remains so far unexploited, although it occurs right below the densely populated metropolitan area of Roma capital city. The main reason for this failure is that deep geothermal reservoirs are associated with fractured rocks, the secondary permeability of which has been difficult to predict making the identification of the most productive volumes of the reservoirs and the localisation of productive wells uncertain. As a consequence, almost half of the many exploration deep bore-holes drilled in the area reached a dry target. This work reviews available data and re-assesses the geothermal potential of caldera-related systems in Central Italy, by analysing in detail the case of the Colli Albani caldera system, the closest to Roma capital city. A GIS based approach identifies the most promising reservoir volumes for geothermal exploitation and uses an improved volume method approach for the evaluation of geothermal potential. The approach is based on a three dimensional matrix of georeferenced spatial data; the A axis accounts for the modelling of the depth of the top of the reservoirs based on geophysical and direct data; the B axis accounts for the thermal modelling of the crust (i.e. T with depth) based on measured thermal gradients. Both A and B data are necessary but not sufficient to identify rock volumes actually permeated by geothermal fluids in fractured reservoirs. We discuss the implementation of a C axis that evaluates all surface data indicating permeability in the reservoir and actual geothermal fluid circulation. We consider datasets on: i

  14. DISTRIBUTION OF WATER VAPOR IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of a large-area study of water vapor along the Orion Molecular Cloud ridge, the purpose of which was to determine the depth-dependent distribution of gas-phase water in dense molecular clouds. We find that the water vapor measured toward 77 spatial positions along the face-on Orion ridge, excluding positions surrounding the outflow associated with BN/KL and IRc2, display integrated intensities that correlate strongly with known cloud surface tracers such as CN, C2H, 13CO J = 5-4, and HCN, and less well with the volume tracer N2H+. Moreover, at total column densities corresponding to AV2O to C18O integrated intensities shows a clear rise approaching the cloud surface. We show that this behavior cannot be accounted for by either optical depth or excitation effects, but suggests that gas-phase water abundances fall at large AV. These results are important as they affect measures of the true water-vapor abundance in molecular clouds by highlighting the limitations of comparing measured water-vapor column densities with such traditional cloud tracers as 13CO or C18O. These results also support cloud models that incorporate freeze out of molecules as a critical component in determining the depth-dependent abundance of water vapor.

  15. R-22 vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies of R-22 vapor explosions are reviewed. Results from two experimental investigations of vapor explosions in a medium scale R-22/water system are reported. Measurements following the drop of an unrestrained mass of R-22 into a water tank demonstrated the existence of two types of interaction behavior. Release of a constrained mass of R-22 beneath the surface of a water tank improved the visual resolution of the system thus allowing identification of two interaction mechansims: at low water temperatures, R-22/water contact would produce immediate violent boiling; at high water temperatures a vapor film formed around its R-22 as it was released, explosions were generated by a surface wave which initiated at a single location and propagated along the vapor film as a shock wave. A new vapor explosion model is proposed, it suggests explosions are the result of a sequence of three independent steps: an initial mixing phase, a trigger and growth phase, and a mature phase where a propagating shock wave accelerates the two liquids into a collapsing vapor layer causing a high velocity impact which finely fragments and intermixes the two liquids

  16. 基于 Flash 平台下的钢筋工程量计算--以框架梁为例%Reinforced Concrete Construction Volume Calculation Based on Flash Platform:Taking Frame Girder as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云春; 李敬民; 马文杰; 王瑞; 陈双红

    2013-01-01

      在工程造价工作中,有关钢筋工程量的枯燥的平法表示法和繁琐的计算往往令初学者望而生畏,甚至失去了学习的兴趣。本文主要通过 Flash 强大的动画演示功能和内置的 AcionScript 脚本语言,以一根框架梁为例,将平淡无奇的钢筋平法图形像动画一样生动、形象地展示出来,并配以文字说明与计算方法,让钢筋工程量计算的学习变得简单易学,并较大程度地增强学习者的学习兴趣。%In the administration of engineering cost, students often have difficulties in P -method expression and cumbersome calculations of reinforced concrete construction volume, even lost interest in learning. Taking a frame girder as an example, the paper shows the P-method figure through Flashi and built-in AcionScript scripting language, with a text description and calculation methods; it makes calculation of reinforced concrete construction volume simply and easy, and enhances students ' interest in learning.

  17. The continuing story of Etna's New Southeast Crater (2012-2014): Evolution and volume calculations based on field surveys and aerophotogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beni, E.; Behncke, B.; Branca, S.; Nicolosi, I.; Carluccio, R.; D'Ajello Caracciolo, F.; Chiappini, M.

    2015-09-01

    During the years 2013-2014, the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) at the summit of Mount Etna produced frequent episodes of lava fountaining (paroxysms), and its cone continued to grow at unprecedented rates. Many of the episodes were of rather brief duration and violently explosive, producing mostly pyroclastic material and minor volumes of lava. Other episodes, especially those since mid-December 2013, were characterized by violent Strombolian activity without producing sustained lava fountains and significant amounts of tephra, but emitting more voluminous lava flows. One episode of intense Strombolian and effusive activity that was possibly fed from the NSEC conduit occurred from vents located approximately 1 km north of the crater, on the east flank of the Northeast Crater, in July-August 2014. The evolution of the NSEC cone between 2012 and 2014 was documented by repeated GPS surveys carried out both from a distance and on the cone itself, by the acquisition of comparison photographs, and by two aerophotogrammetric surveys. From these surveys the highest point of the NSEC results to have grown from 190 m (May 2012) to ̴215 m (October 2014) above the pre-cone surface reaching an elevation of 3290 m, and its volume more than doubled to ̴ 50.0 ± 6.5 × 106 m3, representing the 40% of the total (bulk) volume of the volcanic products including pyroclastic fallout erupted in 2011-2014, which is 147.2 × 106 m3 (101.3 × 106 m3 dense-rock equivalent). The whole of the 2011-2014 NSEC activity marks an unusually high frequency of rather explosive, tephra-rich eruptive episodes compared to Etna's activity in past decades and centuries, although the average magma production rate in this interval is close to the supposed long-term output rate of the volcano. The latest eruptive episodes show a tendency of the NSEC coalescing with the old Southeast Crater cone, which therefore represents a miniature example of a growing compound volcano at the summit of Etna.

  18. Models for Mixed Ensemble of Hydrometeors and their Use in Calculating the Total Random Cross Section of a Resolution Volume Filled by Random Scatterers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Lawama

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Flight safety is of a major concern in aircrafts since the beginning of air traffic. One of the problems threatening the safety is the in-flight icing of the aircraft. This research deals with a problem arises in the context of weather aviation maintenance. Methods of aircraft icing are based on the difference in behavior of the polarization of radar signal in case of water clouds, ice clouds and their mixed ensembles. The study investigates the mathematical models for some effects on wave propagation in cloudy atmosphere. They are used to calculate the polarimetric measurable variables as an indicator of remote sensing of clouds and precipitation. The differential reflectivity (ZDR and Linear depolarization ratio (LDR both are essential to calculate the Radar Cross Section (RCS at different polarization and hydrometeors parameters. The results give the basis for development of algorithms for detection of zones in clouds where aircraft icing is characterized by high probability.

  19. Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint U.S./Russian Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1997 Volume 2-Calculations Performed in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm III, RT

    2002-05-29

    This volume of the progress report provides documentation of reactor physics and criticality safety studies conducted in the US during fiscal year 1997 and sponsored by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program of the US Department of Energy. Descriptions of computational and experimental benchmarks for the verification and validation of computer programs for neutron physics analyses are included. All benchmarks include either plutonium, uranium, or mixed uranium and plutonium fuels. Calculated physics parameters are reported for all of the computational benchmarks and for those experimental benchmarks that the US and Russia mutually agreed in November 1996 were applicable to mixed-oxide fuel cycles for light-water reactors.

  20. Introducing phase transitions to quantum chemistry: from Trouton's rule to first principles vaporization entropies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickermann, Christian; Lehmann, Sebastian B C; Kirchner, Barbara

    2008-06-28

    In the present study, we employ quantum cluster equilibrium calculations on a small water cluster set in order to derive thermochemical equilibrium properties of the liquid phase as well as the liquid-vapor phase transition. The focus is set on the calculation of liquid phase entropies, from which entropies of vaporization at the normal boiling point of water are derived. Different electronic structure methods are compared and the influences of basis set size and of cooperative effects are discussed. In line with a previous study on the subject [B. Kirchner, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 204116 (2005)], we find that the neglect of cooperativity leads to large errors in the equilibrium cluster populations as well as in the obtained entropy values. In contrast, a correct treatment of the intermolecular many-body interaction yields liquid phase entropies and phase transition entropies being in very good agreement with the experimental reference, thus demonstrating that the quantum cluster equilibrium partition function intrinsically accounts for the shortcomings of the ideal gas partition function often employed in first principles entropy calculations. Comparing the calculated vaporization entropies to the value predicted by Trouton's rule, it is observed that for entropy calculations the consideration of intracluster cooperative effects is more important than the explicit treatment of the intercluster association even in a highly associated liquid such as water. The decomposition of entropy into contributions due to different degrees of freedom implies the need for the accurate treatment of particle indistinguishability and free volume of translation, whereas minor influences should be expected from the vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom and none from the electronic degrees of freedom. PMID:18618941

  1. Finite volume calculation of two-phase flows with Lagrange and Euler description; Finite-Volumen Berechnung von Zweiphasenstroemungen in Lagrangescher und Eulerscher Beschreibung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogt, H. [Technikum Joanneum, Fachhochschule-Studiengang Fahrzeugtechnik, Graz (Austria); Kneer, A. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany); Seidel, V. [ICCM Inst. of Computational Continuum Mechanics GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Apart from experimental and empirical methods, numerical calculations are increasingly being used for the examination and judging of two-phase flows and for the design of flow mechanics systems and components. Typical examples are injection systems, atomisers, mixers, steam-raising units and plants for smoke and exhaust gas cleaning. One frequently counteracts the long calculation times that occur in the numerical solution of two- or multi-phase equations by simplifying the assumptions. In energy and process technology, one often falls back on one-dimensional calculation procedures. This has the advantage that the behaviour of whole plants can be described by them the spatial and temporal resolution down to detecting small sale detail phenomena is only successful up to a point with these methods. Due to the constantly rising performance of the computers and by applying new mathematical/information methods, CFD methods make detailed numerical investigations of two-phase flow processes possible with reasonable computing times. The possibilities and limits are shown in the article by some examples. [Deutsch] Zur Untersuchung und Beurteilung von Zweiphasenstroemungen und fuer die Auslegung stroemungsmechanischer Systeme und Komponenten werden neben experimentellen und empirischen Methoden zunehmend numerische Rechenverfahren eingesetzt. Typische Beispiele sind Einspritzsysteme, Zerstaeuber, Mischer, Dampferzeuger und Anlagen zur Rauch- bzw. Abgasreinigung. Den hohen Rechenzeiten, die bei der numerischen Loesung der zwei- und mehrphasigen Erhaltungsgleichungen anfallen, wird haeufig durch Vereinfachung der Ansaetze entgegengewirkt. In der Enegie- und Verfahrenstechnik wird oft auf eindimensionale Rechenverfahren zurueckgegriffen. Sie bieten den Vorteil, dass mit ihnen das Verhalten ganzer Anlagen beschrieben werden kann. Die raeumliche und zeitliche Aufloesung bis hin zur Erfassung kleinskaliger Detailerscheinungen gelingt mit diesen Methoden nur bedingt. CFD Methoden

  2. Development of a computer code for calculating the steady super/hypersonic inviscid flow around real configurations. Volume 1: Computational technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, F.; Salas, M.; Yaeger, L.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical procedure has been developed to compute the inviscid super/hypersonic flow field about complex vehicle geometries accurately and efficiently. A second order accurate finite difference scheme is used to integrate the three dimensional Euler equations in regions of continuous flow, while all shock waves are computed as discontinuities via the Rankine Hugoniot jump conditions. Conformal mappings are used to develop a computational grid. The effects of blunt nose entropy layers are computed in detail. Real gas effects for equilibrium air are included using curve fits of Mollier charts. Typical calculated results for shuttle orbiter, hypersonic transport, and supersonic aircraft configurations are included to demonstrate the usefulness of this tool.

  3. Available forest biomass for new energetic and industrial prospects. Part 1: analysis and synthesis of existing studies compiled at the international level. Part 2: volume calculations. Part 3: economic part. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by new energetic constraints and the interest of biomass, the authors report a bibliographical survey of studies concerning the evaluation of the available forest biomass. They comment the geographical and time distribution of the identified and compiled studies. They analyse their different topics. Then, they discuss the various field hypotheses, discuss and comments various resource assessment methodologies. They comment the resource the French forest can be, present a synthesis of the available resource at the regional level according to the different studies. They propose a review of some technical-economical aspects (costs, energy cost, price evolutions, improvement of the wood-energy mobilization). The second part proposes a whole set of volume calculations for different forest types (clusters or plantations of trees, copses, sawmills products), for industry and household consumption. It discusses the available volumes with respect to accessibility, additional available volumes, and possible improvements. The third part analyses, comments and discusses the wood market and wood energetic uses, and the possible supply curves for wood energetic uses by 2016

  4. Development of a computer code for calculating the steady super/hypersonic inviscid flow around real configurations. Volume 2: Code description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, F.; Yaeger, L.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical procedure was developed to compute the inviscid super/hypersonic flow field about complex vehicle geometries accurately and efficiently. A second-order accurate finite difference scheme is used to integrate the three-dimensional Euler equations in regions of continuous flow, while all shock waves are computed as discontinuities via the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions. Conformal mappings are used to develop a computational grid. The effects of blunt nose entropy layers are computed in detail. Real gas effects for equilibrium air are included using curve fits of Mollier charts. Typical calculated results for shuttle orbiter, hypersonic transport, and supersonic aircraft configurations are included to demonstrate the usefulness of this tool.

  5. Collapsing criteria for vapor film around solid spheres as a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a partial fuel-melting accident, a Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) can result with the fragmentation of the melt into tiny droplets. A vapor film is then formed between the melt fragments and the coolant, while preventing a contact between them. Triggering, propagation and expansion typically follow the premixing stage. In the triggering stage, vapor film collapse around one or several of the fragments occurs. This collapse can be the result of fragments cooling, a sort of mechanical force, or by any other means. When the vapor film collapses and the coolant re-establishes contact with the dry surface of the hot melt, it may lead to a very rapid and rather violent boiling. In the propagation stage the shock wave front leads to stripping of the films surrounding adjacent droplets which enhance the fragmentation and the process escalates. During this process a large quantity of liquid vaporizes and its expansion can result in destructive mechanical damage to the surrounding structures. This multiphase thermal detonation in which high pressure shock wave is formed is regarded as 'vapor explosion'. The film boiling and its possible collapse is a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion. If the interaction of the melt and the coolant does not result in a film boiling, no explosion occurs. Many studies have been devoted to determine the minimum temperature and heat flux that is required to maintain a film boiling. The present experimental study examines the minimum temperature that is required to maintain a film boiling around metal spheres immersed into a liquid (subcooled distilled water) reservoir. In order to simulate fuel fragments that are small in dimension and has mirror-like surface, small spheres coated with anti-oxidation layer were used. The heat flux from the spheres was calculated from the sphere's temperature profiles and the sphere's properties. The vapor film collapse was associated with a sharp rise of the heat flux during the cooling

  6. New mobile Raman lidar for measurement of tropospheric water vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chenbo; ZHOU Jun; YUE Guming; QI Fudi; FAN Aiyuan

    2007-01-01

    The content of water vapor in atmosphere is very little and the ratio of volume of moisture to air is about 0.1%-3%,but water vapor is the most active molecule in atmosphere.There are many absorption bands in infrared(IR)wavelength for water vapor,and water vapor is also an important factor in cloud formation and precipitation,therefore it takes a significant position in the global radiation budget and climatic changes.Because of the advantages of the high resolution,wide range,and highly automatic operation,the Raman lidar has become a new-style and useful tool to measure water vapor.In this paper,first,the new mobile Raman lidar's structure and specifications were introduced.Second,the process method of lidar data was described.Finally,the practical and comparative experiments were made over Hefei City in China.The results of measurement show that this lidar has the ability to gain profiles of ratio of water vapor mixing ratio from surface to a height of about 8 km at night.Mean-while,the measurement of water vapor in daytime has been taken,and the profiles of water vapor mixing ratio at ground level have been detected.

  7. Vapor liquid fraction determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention describes a method of measuring liquid and vapor fractions in a non-homogeneous fluid flowing through an elongate conduit, such as may be required with boiling water, non-boiling turbulent flows, fluidized bed experiments, water-gas mixing analysis, and nuclear plant cooling. (UK)

  8. Muonium formation in vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fractions of positive muons thermalizing in vapors as either the muonium atom (fsub(M)) or in diamagnetic environments (fsub(D)) have been measured in water, methanol, hexane, c-hexane, the chlorinated methanes and in TMS, in the pressure range from approximately 0.1 to approximately 2.5 atm. There is a marked difference in every case in comparison with the corresponding fractions (Psub(M),Psub(D)) measured in condensed media, with approximately 80 percent of incident muons forming muonium in the vapor phase compared to approximately 20 percent in the corresponding condensed phases. CClsub(4) appears somewhat anomalous in that it shows an unusually small muonium fraction in the vapor (fsub(D) approximately fsub(M)=0.5) and an unusually large diamagnetic fraction in the liquid (Psub(D)=1.0); these results can be attributed to large hot atom cross sections extending to the thermal regime, manifest as a relatively fast thermal rate constant for Mu + CClsub(4) (ksub(MU)=(2.9+-0.8) x 10sup(8) Msup(-1) ssup(-1)). The vapor phase results can be understood in terms of a charge exchange/hot atom (ion) model, providing also a likely explanation for observed pressure dependent fsub(D)'s in hexane, c-hexane and TMS at low (<0.5 atm) pressures in terms of termolecular processes, in analogy with some hot tritium studies. In the condensed phase, however, the present vapor phase results indicate that hot atom reactions cannot account for more than about 30 percent of the much larger diamagnetic fractions seen, strongly suggesting therefore that radiation induced spur effects play a dominant role in determining thermal muon fractions in condensed media

  9. Calculation of Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) minimum for accident analysis of main steam line break at Angra-1; Calculo do minimo DNBR para analise do acidente de ruptura da linha principal de vapor em Angra-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Marcio Dornellas [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: mdorne@eletronuclear.gov.br

    2000-07-01

    The maintenance costs, the operational problems and the failures possibilities of the boron injection system, composed by pumps, valves, heated lines and the boron injection tank, make this tank removal or the boron concentration reduction advisable for Angra 1 Power Plant. The main accident from chapter XV of the final safety analysis report affected by this modification is the main steam line break. It is necessary the interaction of the areas of Accidents and Transients Analysis (RETRAN 02/Mod 5.1 code), Neutronics (APA System) and Thermohydraulics (COBRA IIIC/MIT) to analyse this accident. The present Angra 1 boron concentration is 20000 ppm and it could be reduced to 2000 ppm as a result of the present study. The Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) is the restrictive parameter of this accident, which is calculated from the initials and boundary conditions obtained from the Transients and Accidents Analysis and Neutronics areas. (author)

  10. CONSTRUCTION OF EXPERIMENTAL INSTALLATION FOR RESEARCHING OF DENSITY AND SATURATED VAPOR PRESSURE (SVP OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko P. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The most important physical properties that characterize the substance are density and saturated vapor pressure (SVP. These parameters are required for the development of new technical processes in the petroleum and chemical industries, design of pipelines, pumping and fuel equipment, etc. Existing methods for calculating of density near and on the saturation lines are imperfect, and finding of the analytic dependence of SVP of petroleum products from all defining parameters associated with great difficulties. The purpose of present work is an experimental research and development of methods for calculating the density (specific volume near and on saturation lines, and saturated vapor pressure of gasoline straight-run fraction derived from petroleums from three fields: Mangyshlaksky, Trinity-Anastasevsky and West Siberian. The choice of objects for research is due to the necessity of creating methods for calculating of density and SVP of oils obtained from various hydrocarbon group composition petroleums. Area of state parameters in the present work by temperature (20 ÷ 320°C and pressure (0,03 ÷ 30 MPa provides the ability to research gasoline fractions to supercritical regions. Measurement of density and SVP of petroleum fractions performed with help of a specially created for this purpose experimental installation

  11. A computational model for reliability calculation of steam generators from defects in its tubes; Um modelo computacional para o calculo da confiabilidade de geradores de vapor a partir de defeitos em seus tubos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Paulo C.M.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    Nowadays, probability approaches are employed for calculating the reliability of steam generators as a function of defects in their tubes without any deterministic association with warranty assurance. Unfortunately, probability models produce large failure values, as opposed to the recommendation of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, that is, failure probabilities must be as small as possible In this paper, we propose the association of the deterministic methodology with the probabilistic one. At first, the failure probability evaluation of steam generators follows a probabilistic methodology: to find the failure probability, critical cracks - obtained from Monte Carlo simulations - are limited to have length's in the interval defined by their lower value and the plugging limit one, so as to obtain a failure probability of at most 1%. The distribution employed for modeling the observed (measured) cracks considers the same interval. Any length outside the mentioned interval is not considered for the probability evaluation: it is approached by the deterministic model. The deterministic approach is to plug the tube when any anomalous crack is detected in it. Such a crack is an observed one placed in the third region on the plot of the logarithmic time derivative of crack lengths versus the mode I stress intensity factor, while for normal cracks the plugging of tubes occurs in the second region of that plot - if they are dangerous, of course, considering their random evolution. A methodology for identifying anomalous cracks is also presented. (author)

  12. Stratified vapor generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

    2008-05-20

    A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

  13. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yaqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Teaching and Research Section of Maths and Physics, Guangzhou Commanding Academy of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Guangzhou, 510440 (China); Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Yanpeng, E-mail: ypzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  14. 含掺合料混凝土水化产物体积分数计算及其影响因素%Calculation of concrete with mineral admixture hydration products volume fraction and its influential factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴福飞; 董双快; 宫经伟; 陈亮亮; 李东生; 侍克斌

    2016-01-01

    Powers theory proposes calculation method for the pure volume of cement hydration products, which does not apply to calculate the volume of cementitious materials with mineral admixture. The formula of cementitious materials volume was proposed that based on the basic principles of cement and mineral admixture hydration, and the proposed method of reliability was verified by the results of Powers theoretical model and volume fraction of cement hydration products. On this basis, the factor such as water-cement ratio, the ratio of admixture and types was further researched for the volumes of cementitious materials hydration products. Mixture in test were designed 2 water-cement ratio (0.30 and 0.40, respectively), two content (20% and 60%, respectively) of mineral admixture, and 3 kinds of mineral admixture (lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag, respectively), forming paste that was stirred according with the designed ratio in 5 mL centrifuge tube in a blender and curing to 1, 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 d in curing room (temperature was (20±1)℃, humidity was not less than 95%), and then testing reaction extent of cement and mineral admixture (such as fly ash, steel slag. lithium slag) according with the chemical bound water and HCl dissolution method. The results showed that hydration extent of lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag at 28d decreased by 46.63%, 69.56% and 74.82% (P<0.05) when mineral admixture content varied from 20% to 60% and water-cement ratio was 0.30. Hydration extent of cement at 28 d was increased by 7.25% when water-cement ratio increased from 0.30 to 0.40. When mineral admixture content varied from 20% to 60%, hydration extent of lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag at 28 d increased by 24.14% 18.56%, 17.61% and 8.84%, 12.21%, and 29.37% (P<0.05), respectively. In contrast, the influence of the mineral admixture content was bigger than water-cement ratio for the hydration extent of composite cementitious materials. In different water-cement ratio

  15. Vapor-air plum by explosion of nuclear power plant reactor at atomic submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenario of hypothetic accident with nuclear submarine is given. Equations for calculating gas-dynamic, geometrical and concentrational characteristics of the formed short vapor-air plum are presented. Example for calculating vapor-air plum during hypothetic accident with nuclear submarine is given. 3 refs., 6 figs

  16. FEATURES OF WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT OF TYPHOON DAN (9914)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Guo; ZHOU Yu-shu; YU Zhan-jiang

    2006-01-01

    The 2.5°×2.5°gridded ECMWF reanalysis data are used to diagnose the genesis, development and dissipation of typhoon Dan by calculated stream function, velocity potential and vapor budget. It is shown in the result that when typhoon Dan moved westwards, water vapor mainly came from the eastern and western boundaries, with most of it was transferred by the easterly flow south of the western North Pacific subtropical high; after Dan swerved northwards, water vapor mainly came from western boundary of the typhoon, and the vapor came from the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean. The transfer of water vapor was mainly concentrated on the mid-lower troposphere, especially the level of 925hPa, at which the most intensive transfer belt was located. During the different period of typhoon Dan, there was great water vapor change as indicated by stream function, velocity potential and vapor budget, which suggest the importance of water vapor in the development of typhoon Dan.

  17. Gasoline vapor biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paca, J.; Halecky, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Department of Fermentation Chemistry and Bioengineering, Prague (Czech Republic); Maryska, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Department of Glass and Ceramics, Prague (Czech Republic); Jones, K. [South Texas Environmental Institute, Texas A and M University-Kingsville, Kingsville (United States)

    2007-10-15

    While gasoline vapor emissions are common sources of air pollution, very few results have been published on the biofilter biodegradation of gasoline vapors in flowing waste gases. This investigation reports on a bench-scale biofilter of an ID of 50 mm and a bed height of 850 mm with an inexpensive fire clay chip medium as a packing material. The biofilter was inoculated with a concentrate of a mixed culture of the common microflora. After an acclimatization period of three weeks, loading tests were carried out at increasing gasoline inlet concentrations at a constant Empty Bed Retention Time (EBRT) of 16 min. Evaluating the removal rate and efficiency of aliphatic and aromatic fractions of the gasoline vapor, it was found that in a range of overall organic loading (OL{sub TPH}) up to 33.6 g/m{sup 3} h the removal efficiency of aromatic hydrocarbons decreased from 90 to 70 %, while that of the aliphatic components decreased much more significantly from 60 to 10 % after six months of operation. The removal rate and efficiency achieved for total petroleum hydrocarbons were 13 g/m{sup 3} h and 45 %, respectively. The microbial strains and genera of culturable cells in the inoculum and in the biofilm after six months of gasoline degradation were evaluated. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Excess liquid in heat-pipe vapor spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.; Edwards, D. K.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed of excess liquid in heat pipes that is used to calculate the parameters governing the axial flow of liquid in fillets and puddles that form in vapor spaces. In an acceleration field, the hydrostatic pressure variation is taken into account, which results in noncircular meniscus shapes. The two specific vapor-space geometries considered are circular and the 'Dee-shape' that is formed by a slab wick in a circular tube. Also presented are theoretical and experimental results for the conditions under which liquid slugs form at the ends of the vapor spaces. These results also apply to the priming of arteries.

  19. Computational fluid dynamics-aided analysis of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Kevin L.; Simon, John; Roy, Abhra; Reedy, Robert C.; Young, David L.; Kuech, Thomas F.; Ptak, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a dual chamber hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) growth reactor. Uniformity of reactant concentrations in the growth stream, transient reactor flows, and cross doping between the two growth chambers, all factors critical to the deposition of uniform, low defect semiconductor layers, were modeled. Simulation results were generated by solving the fundamental continuity, momentum and energy equations over a discretized reactor volume by a finite volume analysis with the aid of CFD-ACE+ commercial software. We demonstrated uniformity of the vapor composition within ±1% across the substrate, achieved due to specific features of the reactor design. Small compositional non-uniformity (±2% absolute) in In1-xGaxP layers grown in our reactor was correlated with calculated temperature non-uniformity across the substrate. Gas switching was modeled and the transient time predicted by the model was confirmed by measurement of doping transients in a sample grown in the reactor. Lastly the gas curtains that chemically isolate the reactor chambers were modeled and the results were compared to experimental data for cross doping between the chambers. As an example, we demonstrate, based on insight from the model, that our HVPE reactor is suitable for the deposition of GaAs PV devices. CFD modeling is a critical tool for the scale up of laboratory level processes to industrial levels.

  20. Computer simulated rate processes in copper vapor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstad, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    A computer model for metal vapor lasers has been developed which places emphasis on the change of excited state populations of the lasant through inelastic collisions and radiative interaction. Also included are an energy equation for the pumping electrons and rate equations for laser photon densities. Presented are results of calculations for copper vapor with a neon buffer over a range of conditions. General agreement with experiments was obtained.

  1. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  2. Corollary from the Exact Expression for Enthalpy of Vaporization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sobko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem on determining effective volumes for atoms and molecules becomes actual due to rapidly developing nanotechnologies. In the present study an exact expression for enthalpy of vaporization is obtained, from which an exact expression is derived for effective volumes of atoms and molecules, and under certain assumptions on the form of an atom (molecule it is possible to find their linear dimensions. The accuracy is only determined by the accuracy of measurements of thermodynamic parameters at the critical point.

  3. Acetone vapor sensing using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode coated with polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgaard; Larsen, Niels Bent;

    2009-01-01

    We report theoretical and experimental on a new vapor sensor, using a single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coated with a polymer sensor coating, which can detect acetone vapor at a volume fraction of 2.5%. The sensor provides the advantage of standard packaging, small form...

  4. Development of computer code for expansion stage in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code for numerical analysis of two-dimensional compressible flow during expansion stage in vapor explosion has been developed for safety assessment of severe accidents of light water reactors. The field equation is based on a homogeneous compressible model considering distributions of water, steam and core debris. The solution technique is finite volume method using non-staggered mesh scheme with the second order accuracy. In the initial condition, high temperature core debris spread in mixing area of water pool. Before vapor explosion occurred, core debris was covered with entrained air and heat transfer from the core debris to water was not so large. Contact between core debris and water took place somewhere in the mixing region, and pressure pulse appeared due to rapid evaporation. The pressure pulse propagated in the mixing region and contact between core debris and water began in the pressure pulse front. Transferred heat from core debris to water during τ after debris-water contact was assumed to be expressed as: Q(τ)=Qtotal{ 1-exp(-τ/τ0)} Qtotal is the total contribution from stored heat in core debris and τ0 is a time constant of evaporation. ALPHA experiments of melt-coolant interaction performed by JAERI were analyzed with the present computer code. The calculated pressure history in the mixing region was compared with the data. The predicted peak and width of pressure pulse were comparable with the data when the contributed fraction of stored heat was 0.5 and the evaporation time constant τ0 equaled to 2.5 ms. (author)

  5. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions, as described in 40 CFR part 81, dated July 1, 1979, with the following exceptions..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control....

  6. Distribution of Water Vapor in Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Melnick, Gary J; Snell, Ronald L; Bergin, Edwin A; Hollenbach, David J; Kaufman, Michael J; Li, Di; Neufeld, David A

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a large-area study of water vapor along the Orion Molecular Cloud ridge, the purpose of which was to determine the depth-dependent distribution of gas-phase water in dense molecular clouds. We find that the water vapor measured toward 77 spatial positions along the face-on Orion ridge, excluding positions surrounding the outflow associated with BN/KL and IRc2, display integrated intensities that correlate strongly with known cloud surface tracers such as CN, C2H, 13CO J =5-4, and HCN, and less well with the volume tracer N2H+. Moreover, at total column densities corresponding to Av < 15 mag., the ratio of H2O to C18O integrated intensities shows a clear rise approaching the cloud surface. We show that this behavior cannot be accounted for by either optical depth or excitation effects, but suggests that gas-phase water abundances fall at large Av. These results are important as they affect measures of the true water-vapor abundance in molecular clouds by highlighting the limitations...

  7. Water vapor retrieval from OMI visible spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2014-01-01

    optimization of retrieval windows and parameters. The Air Mass Factor (AMF is calculated using look-up tables of scattering weights and monthly mean water vapor profiles from the GEOS-5 assimilation products. We convert from SCD to Vertical Column Density (VCD using the AMF and generate associated retrieval averaging kernels and shape factors. Our standard water vapor product has a median SCD of ~ 1.3 × 1023 molecule cm−2 and a median relative uncertainty of ~ 11% in the tropics, about a factor of 2 better than that from a similar OMI algorithm but using narrower retrieval window. The corresponding median VCD is ~ 1.2 × 1023 molecule cm−2. We have also explored the sensitivities to various parameters and compared our results with those from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET.

  8. Algebraic Reconstruction Algorithm of Vapor Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While applying algebraic reconstruction algorithm in vapor tomography, problems have to be solved with respect to constructing the constraint condition, selecting the initial value, calculating optimal relaxation factor and deciding the iteration termination condition. Golden section search method and NCP termination rule are given to solve the latter two problems, respectively. Eight algebraic reconstruction algorithms, including Kaczmarz, Randkaczmarz, Symkaczmarz, SART, Landweber, Cimmino, CAV and DROP algorithm, are comparatively analyzed and tested by the data from SatRef station in Hong Kong. The results show that all the eight algorithms can satisfy the requirements of vapor tomography and the iteration termination condition is more important than the relaxation condition. While the golden section method and NCP method are used, the CAV algorithm performs best, and then the Cimmino algorithm.

  9. Three-dimensional calculation of pollutant migration via compressible two-phase flow, for analysis of the methods of in situ air sparging and soil vapor extraction; Raeumliche Berechnung des Schadstofftransportes mit einer kompressiblen Zweiphasenstroemung zur Untersuchung der Drucklufteinblasung und Bodenluftabsaugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuepper, S.

    1997-12-01

    In this study an analysis method is presented which allows numerical simulation of in situ air sparging coupled with soil vapor extraction. The improved FE-program takes the following phenomena into account: - Two-phase flow of compressible air and incompressible water - convective-dispersive contamination migration with air and water - transfer of volatile components from liquid phase to gas and water phase - sorption of contaminants onto soil - transfer of contaminants between air and water phase - biological processes. By means of back calculations of the results of laboratory experiments made by Eisele (1989) it was shown that with the developed program GWLCOND some of the necessary parameters for the numerical simulation of remedial systems can be determined. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit wird ein Verfahren vorgestellt, mit dem eine numerische Simulation der Drucklufteinblasung und Bodenluftabsaugung durchgefuehrt werden kann. Das weiterentwickelte FE-Programmsystem beinhaltet folgende Ablaeufe: - Zweiphasenstroemung der kompressiblen Luft- und der inkompressiblen Wasserphase - Konvektiv-dispersiver Schadstofftransport mit der Gas- und der Wasserphase - Uebergang fluessiger Schadstoffe in die Gas- und in die Wasserphase - Sorption der Schadstoffe an der Feststoffphase - Uebergang der Schadstoffe zwischen der Gas- und der Wasserphase - Biologischer Abbau. Anhand der Nachrechnung eines Laborversuches von Eisele (1989) wird gezeigt, wie mit dem entwickelten Transportprogramm GWLCOND ein Teil der fuer die numerische Simulation des Sanierungsverfahrens benoetigten Kennwerte ermittelt werden kann. (orig./SR)

  10. Electrical installation calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, AJ

    2006-01-01

    Designed to provide a step by step guide to successful application of the electrical installation calculations required in day to day electrical engineering practice, the Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike.Now in its seventh edition, Volume 1 has been fully updated to meet the requirements of the 2330 Level 2 Certificate in Electrotechnical Technology from City & Guilds, and will also prove a vi

  11. Calculation and analysis of hydrogen volume concentrations in the vent pipe rigid proposed for NPP-L V; Calculo y analisis de concentraciones volumetricas de hidrogeno en el tubo de venteo rigido propuesto para la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A. M.; Xolocostli M, V. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez M, R.; Filio L, C. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Royl, P., E-mail: armando.gomez@inin.gob.mx [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz I, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    In 2012 was modeled of primary and secondary container of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) for the CFD Gas-Flow code. These models were used to calculate hydrogen volume concentrations run release the reactor building in case of a severe accident. The results showed that the venting would produce detonation conditions in the venting level (level 33) and flammability at ground level of reload. One of the solutions to avoid reaching critical concentrations (flammable or detonable) inside the reactor building and thus safeguard the contentions is to make a rigid venting. The rigid vent is a pipe connected to the primary container could go to the level 33 of the secondary container and style fireplace climb to the top of the reactor building. The analysis of hydrogen transport inside the vent pipe can be influenced by various environmental criteria and factors vent, so a logical consequence of the 2012 analysis is the analysis of the gases transport within said pipe to define vent ideal conditions. For these evaluations the vent pipe was modeled with a fine mesh of 32 radial interior nodes and a coarse mesh of 4 radial interior nodes. With three-dimensional models were realized calculations that allow observing the influence of heat transfer in the long term, i.e. a complete analysis of exhaust (approx. 700 seconds). However, the most interesting results focus on the first milliseconds, when the H{sub 2} coming from the atmosphere of the primary container faces the air in the vent pipe. These first milliseconds besides allowing evaluating the detonation criteria in great detail in the different tubular sections similarly allow evaluating the pressure wave that occurs in the pipe and that at some point slows to the fluid on the last tubular section and could produce a detonation inside the pipe. Results are presented for venting fixed conditions, showing possible detonations into the pipe. (Author)

  12. Silicidation of Niobium Deposited on Silicon by Physical Vapor Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coumba Ndoye, Kandabara Tapily, Marius Orlowski, Helmut Baumgart, Diefeng Gu

    2011-07-01

    Niobium was deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) using e-beam evaporation on bare (100) silicon substrates and SiO2 surfaces. The formation of niobium silicide was investigated by annealing PVD Nb films in the temperatures range 400–1000°C. At all elevated annealing temperatures the resistivity of Nb silicide is substantially higher than that of Nb. The Nb silicidation as a function of temperature has been investigated and different NbXSiy compounds have been characterized. It has been observed that the annealing of the Nb film on Si is accompanied by a strong volume expansion of about 2.5 of the resulting reacted film. The films' structural properties were studied using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), which was not previously presented in the context of the extant NbSi literature. The X-Ray diffraction characterization of the Nb on Si sample annealed at 1000°C, showed the presence of hexagonal Nb5Si3 phases, with a dominant peak at the (200) plane, and NbSi2 phases. Fractal dimension calculations indicate a distinct transition from Stranski-Krastanov to Volmer-Weber film growth for NbSi formation at the annealing temperature of 600°C and above.

  13. CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR IN A VERTICAL TUBE CONDENSER

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Havlík; Tomáš Dlouhý

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC) inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The...

  14. Saturated vapor pressure of lutetium tris-acetylacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the statical method using 177Lu radioactive isotope the saturated vapor pressure of anhydrous lutetium acetylacetonate at 130 to 160 deg is determined. The calculations are carried out assuming the vapor to be monomolecular. The equation of lgP versus 1/T takes the form: lg Psub((mmHg))=(8.7+-1.6)-(4110+-690)/T. The thermodynamical characteristics of LuA3 sublimation are calculated to be ΔHsub(subl.)=79+-13 kJ/mol; ΔSsub(subl.)=111+-20 J/kxmol

  15. Water Vapor-Mediated Volatilization of High-Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschter, Peter J.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2013-07-01

    Volatilization in water vapor-containing atmospheres is an important and often unexpected mechanism of degradation of high-temperature materials during processing and in service. Thermodynamic properties data sets for key (oxy)hydroxide vapor product species that are responsible for material transport and damage are often uncertain or unavailable. Estimation, quantum chemistry calculation, and measurement methods for thermodynamic properties of these species are reviewed, and data judged to be reliable are tabulated and referenced. Applications of water vapor-mediated volatilization include component and coating recession in turbine engines, oxidation/volatilization of ferritic steels in steam boilers, chromium poisoning in solid-oxide fuel cells, vanadium transport in hot corrosion and degradation of hydrocracking catalysts, Na loss from Na β"-Al2O3 tubes, and environmental release of radioactive isotopes in a nuclear reactor accident or waste incineration. The significance of water vapor-mediated volatilization in these applications is described.

  16. The vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of fatty acid methyl esters C18, C21 to C23, and C25 to C29 by correlation - gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies for methyl heptadecanoate and methyl heneicosanoate to methyl octacosanoate exclusive of methyl tricosanoate are evaluated as a function of temperature over the temperature range T = 298.15-450 K by correlation gas chromatography. The results are generated by an extrapolative process using literature values for methyl tetradecanoate to methyl eicosanoate as standards. Relationships for calculating vapor pressures of the title compounds from T = 298.15 to 450 K are provided. Experimental fusion enthalpies are also reported for the methyl esters from methyl hexadecanoate to methyl octacosanoate excluding methyl tridecanoate. Vaporization enthalpies and fusion enthalpies adjusted for temperature to T = 298.15 K are combined to provide sublimation enthalpies. The results are compared to available literature values. A rationale for the linear relationship observed between enthalpies of vaporization and enthalpies of transfer from solution to the vapor is also provided

  17. Electron transport analysis in water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Satoru; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Kohki; Itoh, Hidenori

    2016-07-01

    A reliable set of electron collision cross sections for water vapor, including elastic, rotational, vibrational, and electronic excitation, electron attachment, and ionization cross sections, is estimated by the electron swarm method. In addition, anisotropic electron scattering for elastic and rotational excitation collisions is considered in the cross section set. Electron transport coefficients such as electron drift velocity, longitudinal diffusion coefficient, and effective ionization coefficient are calculated from the cross section set by Monte Carlo simulation in a wide range of E/N values, where E and N are the applied electric field and the number density of H2O molecules, respectively. The calculated transport coefficients are in good agreement with those measured. The obtained results confirm that the anisotropic electron scattering is important for the calculation at low E/N values. Furthermore, the cross section set assuming the isotropic electron scattering is proposed for practical use.

  18. Melt-vapor phase transition in the lead-selenium system at atmospheric and low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, V. N.; Burabaeva, N. M.; Trebukhov, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    The boiling temperature and the corresponding vapor phase composition in the existence domain of liquid solutions were calculated from the partial pressures of saturated vapor of the components and lead selenide over liquid melts in the lead-selenium system. The phase diagram was complemented with the liquid-vapor phase transition at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum of 100 Pa, which allowed us to judge the behavior of the components during the distillation separation.

  19. Design, demonstration and evaluation of a thermal enhanced vapor extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES), which combines powerline frequency heating (PLF) and radio frequency (RF) heating with vacuum soil vapor extraction, was used to effectively remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from a pit in the chemical waste landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) within a two month heating period. Volume average temperatures of 83 degrees C and 112 degrees C were reached for the PLF and RF heating periods, respectively, within the 15 ft x 45 ft x 18.5 ft deep treated volume. This resulted in the removal of 243 lb of measured toxic organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs), 55 gallons of oil, and 11,000 gallons of water from the site. Reductions of up to 99% in total chromatographic organics (TCO) was achieved in the heated zone. Energy balance calculations for the PLF heating period showed that 36.4% of the heat added went to heating the soil, 38.5% went to evaporating water and organics, 4.2% went to sensible heat in the water, 7.1% went to heating the extracted air, and 6.6% was lost. For the RF heating period went to heating the soil, 23.5% went to evaporating water and organics, 2.4% went to sensible heat in the water, 7.5% went to heating extracted air, and 9.7% went to losses. Energy balance closure was 92.8% for the PLF heating and 98% for the RF heating. The energy input requirement per unit soil volume heated per unit temperature increase was 1.63 kWH/yd3-degrees C for PLF heating and 0.73 kWH/yd3 degrees C for RF heating

  20. Volume Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Valerio; Christodoulou, Marios; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  1. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Fujun

    2014-01-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyman alpha photons, since the Lyman alpha line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more ...

  2. Liquid--liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One method of producing intimate, liquid--liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. In this experiment cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture). The main conclusion from the experimental study is that hydrodynamic effects may be very significant in any shock tube analyses, especially when multiple interactions are observed. A theoretical study was performed to check the possibility of vapor film squeezing (between a drop in film boiling and a surface) as a controlling mechanism for making liquid--liquid contact. Using experimental data, the film thickness was calculated and it was found to be too thick for any conceivable film rupture mechanism. It was suggested that the coalescence is a two-stage process, in which the controlling stage depends mainly on temperature and surface properties and can be described as the ability of cold liquid to spread on a hot surface

  3. High temperature vapor pressure of pure plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature vapor pressure measurements have been made on pure plutonium metal by the Knudsen effusion technique. The reported experimental results extend into the transition region between molecular and viscous or hydrodynamic flow. Under the conditions used, linearity was observed up to temperatures in excess of 2200 K where pressures approaching 100 Pa were measured. The results over the temperature range 1724--2219 K yield log10P/sub Pu/(Pa) = (9.735 +- 0.105) -17066 +- 208/T and the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization and the standard deviations therein are ΔH0/sub v/(Pu,1975 K) =326.78 +- 3.97 kJ mol-1, ΔS0/sub v/(Pu,1975 K) =90.54 +- 2.01 J K-1 mol-1. Based on the most recently available free energy functions for plutonium liquid and gas, the values of the standard enthalpy of vaporization calculated via second- and third-law methods are ΔH0/sub v/(II, Pu,298 K) =344.14 +- 3.97 kJ mol-1, ΔH0/sub v/(III, Pu,298 K) =341.67 +- 1.26 kJ mol-1. Single crystal tungsten containers were used to hold the charge of plutonium and proved to be very satisfactory in alleviating problems of liquid metal creep and liquid/cell interactions normally encountered with actinides held at high temperatures for long periods

  4. Collapsing criteria for vapor film around solid spheres as a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, Roy [Nuclear Research Center - Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)], E-mail: freud@bgu.ac.il; Harari, Ronen [Nuclear Research Center - Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Sher, Eran [Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2009-04-15

    Following a partial fuel-melting accident, a Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) can result with the fragmentation of the melt into tiny droplets. A vapor film is then formed between the melt fragments and the coolant, while preventing a contact between them. Triggering, propagation and expansion typically follow the premixing stage. In the triggering stage, vapor film collapse around one or several of the fragments occurs. This collapse can be the result of fragments cooling, a sort of mechanical force, or by any other means. When the vapor film collapses and the coolant re-establishes contact with the dry surface of the hot melt, it may lead to a very rapid and rather violent boiling. In the propagation stage the shock wave front leads to stripping of the films surrounding adjacent droplets which enhance the fragmentation and the process escalates. During this process a large quantity of liquid vaporizes and its expansion can result in destructive mechanical damage to the surrounding structures. This multiphase thermal detonation in which high pressure shock wave is formed is regarded as 'vapor explosion'. The film boiling and its possible collapse is a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion. If the interaction of the melt and the coolant does not result in a film boiling, no explosion occurs. Many studies have been devoted to determine the minimum temperature and heat flux that is required to maintain a film boiling. The present experimental study examines the minimum temperature that is required to maintain a film boiling around metal spheres immersed into a liquid (subcooled distilled water) reservoir. In order to simulate fuel fragments that are small in dimension and has mirror-like surface, small spheres coated with anti-oxidation layer were used. The heat flux from the spheres was calculated from the sphere's temperature profiles and the sphere's properties. The vapor film collapse was associated with a sharp rise of the heat flux

  5. Calculation and Analysis of Lumped Parameter of Volume Conduction Model%体导电能量传递模型集总参数的计算与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海龙; 唐治德; 谢小慧; 陈小梅

    2012-01-01

    研究生物医学体内植入器件能量供应优化方法,为了优化体导电系统效能,利用皮肤电特性高效地向体内植入器件提高能量.提出体导电能量传递系统体外采用圆形柱体阵列电极,将皮肤电极单元等效为多导体系统,建立了流经各电极的电流与电压的导纳矩阵关系,并用欧姆定律与电磁场原理相结合的方法计算出皮肤电极单元的集总参数.通过比较集总参数,得到圆形柱体阵列电极较圆形柱体电极具有更优的阻抗分配,能够提高体导电电流传递效率.利用有限元软件仿真了圆形柱体阵列电极皮肤单元的电流传递,证明效率能达50%以上.%In order to optimize Volume Conduction system, we used the electrical characteristics of skin to transfer energy to the implanted device efficiently, treated the skin-electrodes of volume conductive as multi-conductor sys-tem , and established the admittance matrix to show the relationship between voltage and current. Ohm's law and elec-tromagnetic field theory were used to calculate the lumped parameter of skin-electrodes unit. Through comparing cir-cular cylinder electrode with circular cylinder arrenging-electrodes' lumped parameter, it can be concluded that cir-cular cylinder arranging-electrodes has better impedance distribution, higher energy transfer efficiency. Finally, fi-nite element software FEMlab3.3 was used to simulate the efficiency of circular cylinder array electrode-skin unit, and it can reach above 50%.

  6. Melt and vapor characteristics in an electron beam evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different approaches have been compared for the calculation of the free surface temperature Ts in cerium or copper evaporation experiments: the first method considers properties of the melt: an empirical law is used to take into account turbulent thermal convection, instabilities and characterization of the free surface. The second method considers the vapor flow expansion and connects Ts to the measured terminal temperature and terminal mean parallel velocity of the vapor jet, by direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations including an atom-atom inelastic collision algorithm. The agreement between the two approaches is better for cerium than for copper in the high characterization case. The analysis, from the point of view of the properties of the melt, of the terminal parameters of the vapor jet for the high beam powers shows that Ts and the Knudsen number at the vapour source reach a threshold when the beam power increases. (author). 12 figs., 1 tab., 21 refs

  7. Tank vapor characterization project - headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-107: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/26/96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L. [and others

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  8. Tank Vapor Characterization Project -- Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-107: Results from samples collected on 01/17/96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system with and without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane hydrocarbons (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  9. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/28/96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  10. Tank vapor characterization project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 04/04/96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.J. [and others

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

  11. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/28/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H2O) and ammonia (NH3), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA trademark canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC

  12. Tank vapor characterization project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 04/04/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H2O) and ammonia (NH3), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA trademark canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC

  13. Tank vapor characterization project - headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-107: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/26/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H2O) and ammonia (NH3), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA trademark canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC

  14. Prediction of Shanmei Reservoir Region's Pollution Status and Calculation of Pollution Volume into Reservoir in 2011%山美库区2011年污染物预测与入库量计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林加兴

    2011-01-01

    针对山美水库库区污染物问题,对库区2011年污染物入库量进行初步计算得出流域污染物入库量及主要污染源,建议采取工程治理措施和非工程措施相结合的方法削减入库污染负荷,供山美水库流域水源地水污染防治实施参考。并能通过实施水生态系统保护与修复技术工程的建设,解决目前危害水源地安全的重大问题,推动山美水库水源地保护工作的全面开展。%Aimed at the pollutant discharge status of Shanmei Reservoir, the pollutant volume into the reservoir area in 2011 is calculated primarily, and some problems about the basin pollution are put forward, then the suggestions are proposed that the methods combining the engineering measures with non-engineering measures are used for reducing the pollution load into the reservoir, which could provide references for the reservoir's water resource pollution controlling. At the same time, through carrying out the aquatic ecosystem protection and remedying project, the serious problems of harming the security of water sources could be solved, and the water source protection job for Shamnei Reservoir could be promoted comprehensively.

  15. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Supporting MELCOR calculations, Volume 6, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To gain a better understanding of the risk significance of low power and shutdown modes of operation, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research at the NRC established programs to investigate the likelihood and severity of postulated accidents that could occur during low power and shutdown (LP ampersand S) modes of operation at commercial nuclear power plants. To investigate the likelihood of severe core damage accidents during off power conditions, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) were performed for two nuclear plants: Unit 1 of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, which is a BWR-6 Mark III boiling water reactor (BWR), and Unit 1 of the Surry Power Station, which is a three-loop, subatmospheric, pressurized water reactor (PWR). The analysis of the BWR was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories while the analysis of the PWR was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This multi-volume report presents and discusses the results of the BWR analysis. The subject of this part presents the deterministic code calculations, performed with the MELCOR code, that were used to support the development and quantification of the PRA models. The background for the work documented in this report is summarized, including how deterministic codes are used in PRAS, why the MELCOR code is used, what the capabilities and features of MELCOR are, and how the code has been used by others in the past. Brief descriptions of the Grand Gulf plant and its configuration during LP ampersand S operation and of the MELCOR input model developed for the Grand Gulf plant in its LP ampersand S configuration are given

  16. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Supporting MELCOR calculations, Volume 6, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetyk, L.N.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    To gain a better understanding of the risk significance of low power and shutdown modes of operation, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research at the NRC established programs to investigate the likelihood and severity of postulated accidents that could occur during low power and shutdown (LP&S) modes of operation at commercial nuclear power plants. To investigate the likelihood of severe core damage accidents during off power conditions, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) were performed for two nuclear plants: Unit 1 of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, which is a BWR-6 Mark III boiling water reactor (BWR), and Unit 1 of the Surry Power Station, which is a three-loop, subatmospheric, pressurized water reactor (PWR). The analysis of the BWR was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories while the analysis of the PWR was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This multi-volume report presents and discusses the results of the BWR analysis. The subject of this part presents the deterministic code calculations, performed with the MELCOR code, that were used to support the development and quantification of the PRA models. The background for the work documented in this report is summarized, including how deterministic codes are used in PRAS, why the MELCOR code is used, what the capabilities and features of MELCOR are, and how the code has been used by others in the past. Brief descriptions of the Grand Gulf plant and its configuration during LP&S operation and of the MELCOR input model developed for the Grand Gulf plant in its LP&S configuration are given.

  17. Archimedes Mass Filter Vaporizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putvinski, S.; Agnew, A. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Ohkawa, T.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.; Dresvin, S. V.; Kuteev, B. V.; Feygenson, O. N.; Ivanov, D. V.; Zverev, S. G.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Egorov, S. M.; Kiesewetter, D. V.; Maliugin, V. I.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group, Inc., is developing a plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter that separates waste oxide mixtures ion by ion into two mass groups: light and heavy. Since high-level waste at Hanford has 99.9its radioactivity associated with heavy elements, the Archimedes Filter can effectively decontaminate over three-quarters of that waste. The Filter process involves some preprocessing followed by volatilization and separation by the magnetic and electric fields of the main plasma. This presentation describes the approach to volatilization of the waste oxy-hydroxide mixture by means of a very high heat flux (q > 10 MW/m2). Such a high heat flux is required to ensure congruent evaporation of the complex oxy-hydroxide mixture and is achieved by injection of small droplets of molten waste into an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch. This presentation further addresses different issues related to evaporation of the waste including modeling of droplet evaporation, estimates of parameters of plasma torch, and 2D modeling of the plasma. The experimental test bed for oxide vaporization and results of the initial experiments on oxide evaporation in 60 kW ICP torch will also be described.

  18. Atmospheric absorption of terahertz radiation and water vapor continuum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water vapor continuum absorption spectrum was investigated using Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. The transmission of broadband terahertz radiation from 0.300 to 1.500 THz was recorded for multiple path lengths and relative humidity levels. The absorption coefficient as a function of frequency was determined and compared with theoretical predictions and available water vapor absorption data. The prediction code is able to separately model the different parts of atmospheric absorption for a range of experimental conditions. A variety of conditions were accurately modeled using this code including both self and foreign gas broadening for low and high water vapor pressures for many different measurement techniques. The intensity and location of the observed absorption lines were also in good agreement with spectral databases. However, there was a discrepancy between the resonant line spectrum simulation and the observed absorption spectrum in the atmospheric transmission windows caused by the continuum absorption. A small discrepancy remained even after using the best available data from the literature to account for the continuum absorption. From the experimental and resonant line simulation spectra the air-broadening continuum parameter was calculated and compared with values available in the literature. -- Highlights: •Broadband absorption measurements of water vapor were performed at 300–1500 GHz. •The absorption coefficient of water vapor was modeled and compared with data. •The air-broadened continuum coefficient for water vapor was determined. •The modeled absorption coefficient is presented for 10–90% humidity at 0–3 THz

  19. Vapor Pressure, Vaporization Enthalpy, Standard Enthalpy of Formation and Standard Entropy of n-Butyl Carbamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoxiang Zeng⁎; Zhihong Yang; Weilan Xue⁎; Xiaonan Li

    2014-01-01

    The vapor pressures of n-butyl carbamate were measured in the temperature range from 372.37 K to 479.27 K and fitted with Antoine equation. The compressibility factor of the vapor was calculated with the Virial equation and the second virial coefficient was determined by the Vetere model. Then the standard enthalpy of vaporization for n-butyl carbamate was estimated. The heat capacity was measured for the solid state (299.39–324.2 K) and liquid state (336.65–453.21 K) by means of adiabatic calorimeter. The standard en-thalpy of formationΔfHϴ[crystal (cr),298.15 K] and standard entropy Sϴ(crystal,298.15 K) of the sub-stance were calculated on the basis of the gas-phase standard enthalpy of formationΔfHϴ(g,298.15 K) and gas-phase standard entropy Sϴ(g,298.15 K), which were estimated by the Benson method. The results are acceptable, validated by a thermochemical cycle.

  20. Sampling tritiated water vapor from the atmosphere by an active system using silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the different methods used to collect the tritiated water vapor (HTO) contained in the atmosphere, one of the most worldwide used is its collection using an air pump, which forces the air to pass through a dry silica gel trap. The silica gel is then distilled to remove the water collected, which is measured in a liquid scintillation counting system. In this paper, an analysis of the water collection efficiency of the silica gel has been done as a function of the temperatures involved, the dimensions of the pipe driving the air into the silica gel traps, the air volume passing through the trap and the flow rates used. Among the obtained conclusions, it can be pointed out that placing the traps inside a cooled container, the amount of silica gel needed to collect all the water contained in the air passing through these traps can be estimated using a weather forecast and a psychometric chart. To do this, and as thermal equilibrium between incoming and open air should be established, a suitable design of the sampling system is proposed. - Highlights: → To recollect the atmosphere air tritiated water vapor, an active system was used. → The system is an air pump and three traps with silica gel connected by a rubber pipe. → The silica gel retention depends on the meteorological conditions and the flow rate. → The amount of water collected and the mass of silica gel need were calculated, F.

  1. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Vapor space characterization of waste Tank A-101, Results from samples collected on June 8, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-A-101 (Tank A-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text.

  2. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Vapor space characterization of waste Tank A-101, Results from samples collected on June 8, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-A-101 (Tank A-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  3. Hydrazine vapor detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedley, M. D.; Bishop, C. V.; Benz, F. J.; Bennett, C. A.; Mcclenagan, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    The detonation velocity and cell widths for hydrazine decomposition were measured over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The detonation velocity in pure hydrazine was within 5 percent of the calculated C-J velocity. The detonation cell width measurements were interpreted using the Zeldovich-Doering-von Neumann model with a detailed reaction mechanism for hydrazine decomposition. Excellent agreement with experimental data for pure hydrazine was obtained using the empirical relation that detonation cell width was equal to 29 times the kinetically calculated reaction zone length.

  4. Volume of Fluids Methods Applied to Etching and Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmsen, John J.

    1996-10-01

    The volume of fluids (VOF) method is applied to simulating etching and deposition processes employed in semiconductor wafer manufacturing. Some of these processes are: plasma etching, ion milling and chemical vapor deposition. The VOF method formulates surface motion as the movement of a front, where one fluid is moving into a regime occupied by another fluid. The fluids are represented as volume fractions in each cell and are expressed on a Euclidean grid. The interface that represents the boundary is then determined from the volume fractions contained in and surrounding each cell. Once the interface is determined, techniques from computational fluid dynamics can be used to simulate the advancement of the surface. Anisotropic etching is perfomed using the Hamaguchi method of determining surface characteristics. In this talk, the volume of fluids method is described and applied to advancement models that describe semiconductor manufacturing processes. Effects that are simulated include anisotropic etching and species flux dependent etching and deposition. Techniques for advancement and calculating the fluid interface are shown in two and three dimensions. Integration with surface chemistry solvers such as CHEMKIN is also demonstrated.

  5. Water vapor diffusion membranes, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, F. F.; Klein, E.; Smith, J. K.; Eyer, C.

    1976-01-01

    Transport mechanisms were investigated for the three different types of water vapor diffusion membranes. Membranes representing porous wetting and porous nonwetting structures as well as dense diffusive membrane structures were investigated for water permeation rate as a function of: (1) temperature, (2) solids composition in solution, and (3) such hydrodynamic parameters as sweep gas flow rate, solution flow rate and cell geometry. These properties were measured using nitrogen sweep gas to collect the effluent. In addition, the chemical stability to chromic acid-stabilized urine was measured for several of each type of membrane. A technology based on the mechanism of vapor transport was developed, whereby the vapor diffusion rates and relative susceptibility of membranes to fouling and failure could be projected for long-term vapor recovery trials using natural chromic acid-stabilized urine.

  6. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  7. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  8. Vapor pressures and vapor compositions in equilibrium with hypostoichiometric uranium dioxide at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic functions of the gaseous species, thermodynamic functions of the condensed phase, and an oxygen-potential model have been combined to calculate the vapor pressures and vapor compositions in equilibrium with condensed-phase UO/sub 2-x/ for 1500 less than or equal to T less than or equal to 6000 K and 0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.5. A method for extending the oxygen-potential model of Blackburn to the liquid region has been derived and evaluated. New thermodynamic functions of the UO2 condensed phase have been derived from the best available data, including the heat capacity recommended by Fink

  9. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, Jr., John M.; Veigel, Neil D.; Landrigan, Richard B.

    1983-04-19

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  10. Three-dimensional computer simulations of bioremediation and vapor extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, B.; Trent, B.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations of two remediation strategies are presented. These calculations are significant in they they will play a major role in the actual field implementation of two very different techniques. The first set of calculations simulates the actual spill event of nearly 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel oil and its subsequent flow toward the water table for 13 years. Hydrogen peroxide saturated water flooding is then performed and the bioremediation of the organic material is then calculated. The second set of calculations describes the vacuum extraction of organic vapors and indicates the sensitivity to various assumed formation properties and boundary conditions. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Three-dimensional computer simulations of bioremediation and vapor extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulations of two remediation strategies are presented. These calculations are significant in that they will play a major role in the actual field implementation of two very different techniques. The first set of calculations simulates the actual spill event of nearly 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel oil and its subsequent flow toward the water table for 13 years. Hydrogen peroxide saturated water flooding is then performed and bioremediation of the organic material is then calculated. The second set of calculations describes the vacuum extraction of organic vapors subject to various assumed formation properties and boundary conditions

  12. Water-vapor source shift of Xinjiang region during the recent twenty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xingang; Li Weijing; Ma Zhuguo; Wang Ping

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the climate water-vapor sources of Xinjiang region and their shifts during the past 20 years. First, the principle and steps are roughly regulated to seek the water-vapor sources. Second, the climate stationary water-vapor transport in troposphere is calculated to distinguish where the water vapor comes from by ERA-40 reanalysis. In addition, the collocation between the transport and the atmospheric column water vapor content is analyzed. The results show that the major vapor comes from the west side of Xinjiang for mid-month of seasons, apart from July while the water vapor comes from the north or northwest direction. The water vapor sources are different for different seasons, for example, the Caspian Sea and Mediterranean are the sources in January and April, the North Atlantic and the Arctic sea in July, and the Black Sea and Caspian Sea in October, respectively. In recent ten years more water vapor above Xinjiang comes from the high latitudes and the Arctic sea with global warming, and less from Mediterranean in comparison with the case of 1973-1986. In fact, the air over subtropics becomes dry and the anomalous water vapor transport direction turns to west or southwest during 1987-2000. By contrast, the air over middle and high latitudes is warmer and wetter than 14 years ago.

  13. Partial molar volumes of organic solutes in water. XII. Methanol(aq), ethanol(aq), 1-propanol(aq), and 2-propanol(aq) at T = (298 to 573) K and at pressures up to 30 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Density data for dilute aqueous solutions of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol are presented together with partial molar volumes at infinite dilution calculated from the experimental data. The measurements were performed at from T = (298.15 up to 573.15) K and at pressure close to the saturated vapor pressure of water, at p = 30 MPa and at pressure between these limits. The data were obtained using a high-temperature high-pressure flow vibrating-tube densimeter

  14. Thermodynamic functions and vapor pressures of uranium and plutonium oxides at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total energy release in a hypothetical reactor accident is sensitive to the total vapor pressure of the fuel. Thermodynamic functions which are accurate at high temperature can be calculated with the methods of statistical mechanics provided that needed spectroscopic data are available. This method of obtaining high-temperature vapor pressures should be greatly superior to the extrapolation of experimental vapor pressure measurements beyond the temperature range studied. Spectroscopic data needed for these calculations are obtained from infrared spectroscopy of matrix-isolated uranium and plutonium oxides. These data allow the assignments of the observed spectra to specific molecular species as well as the calculation of anharmonicities for monoxides, bond angles for dioxides, and molecular geometries for trioxides. These data are then employed, in combination with data on rotational and electronic molecular energy levels, to determine thermodynamic functions that are suitable for the calculation of high-temperature vapor pressures

  15. PECULIARITIES OF THE IDEALIZED CYCLES OF VAPOR COMPRESSOR REFRIGERATING MACHINES

    OpenAIRE

    Вассерман, А. А.; Лавренченко, Г. К.; Слынько, А. Г.

    2014-01-01

    Efficiency of the idealized cycles of vapor compressor refrigerating machines with adiabatic or isothermal compression of refrigerantwas investigated. To these cycles concern cycles with adiabatic compression of steam without regeneration (S-cycle) and with limiting regeneration (SR-cycle), and also with isothermal compression and limiting regeneration (T-cycle). Three characteristics of cycles are compared: refrigerating coefficient of performance e, specific-volume cooling capacity qv and t...

  16. Volume-to-volume registration

    OpenAIRE

    Harg, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Implementation of automated volume-to-volume registration applications for three separate registration steps desired in enhancing neurosurgical navigation is considered. Prototype implementations for MRI-to-MRI registration, MRI-to-US registration and US-to-US registration have been made using registration methods available in the Insight Toolkit, with variants of the Mutual Information similarity metric. The obtained results indicate that automatic volume-to-volume registration using Normali...

  17. How do organic vapors contribute to new-particle formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Neil M; Chuang, Wayne; Riipinen, Ilona; Riccobono, Francesco; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Dommen, Josef; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Vehkamaki, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Highly oxidised organic vapors can effectively stabilize sulphuric acid in heteronuclear clusters and drive new-particle formation. We present quantum chemical calculations of cluster stability, showing that multifunctional species can stabilize sulphuric acid and also present additional polar functional groups for subsequent cluster growth. We also model the multi-generation oxidation of vapors associated with secondary organic aerosol formation using a two-dimensional volatility basis set. The steady-state saturation ratios and absolute concentrations of extremely low volatility products are sufficient to drive new-particle formation with sulphuric acid at atmospherically relevant rates.

  18. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

  19. Electrical installation calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, AJ

    2006-01-01

    Designed to provide a step by step guide to successful application of the electrical installation calculations required in day to day electrical engineering practice, the Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both Foundation and Modern Apprentices, and professional electrical installation engineers alike.Now in its sixth edition, Volume 2 has been fully updated to meet the requirements of the 2330 Level 3 Certificate in Electrotechnical Technology from City & Guilds, and will also prove a vital purchase for students of Level 3

  20. Vaporization of Deforming Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxing; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Dongjun; Yang, Vigor

    2012-11-01

    Droplet deformation is one of the most important factors influencing the evaporation rate. In the present study, high-fidelity numerical simulations of single evaporating droplets with deformation are carried out over a wide range of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. The formulation is based on a complete set of conservation equations for both the liquid and surrounding gas phases. A modified volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique that takes into account heat and mass transfer is used to track the behavior of the liquid/gas interface. Special attention is given to the property conservation, which can be realized by using an iterative algorithm that enforces a divergence constraint in cells containing the interface. The effect of the ambient flow on droplet dynamics and evaporation are investigated systematically. Various underlying mechanisms dictating the droplet characteristics in different deformation regimes are identified. Correlations for the droplet evaporation rate are established in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers.

  1. Fundamental studies of chemical vapor deposition diamond growth processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing laser spectroscopic techniques to foster a fundamental understanding of diamond film growth by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several spectroscopic techniques are under investigation to identify intermediate species present in the bulk reactor volume, the thin active volume immediately above the growing film, and the actual growing surface. Such a comprehensive examination of the overall deposition process is necessary because a combination of gas phase and surface chemistry is probably operating. Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) techniques have been emphasized. A growth rector that permits through-the-substrate gas sampling for REMPI/time-of-flight mass spectroscopy has been developed. 7 refs., 2 figs

  2. Temperature Dependency of Water Vapor Permeability of Shape Memory Polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yue-min; HU Jin-lian; YAN Hao-jing

    2002-01-01

    Solution-cast films of shape memory polyurethane have beea investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry,DMA, tensile test, water vapor permeability and the shape merry effect were carried out to characterize these polyurethane membranes. Samples cast at higher temperatures contained more hard segment in the crystalline state than a sample cast at lower temperature. The change in the water vapor permeability (WVP) of SMPU films with respect to the temperature follows an S- shaped curve, and increases abruptly at Tm of the soft segment for the fractional free volume (FFV, the ratio of free volume and specific volume in polymers) increased linearly with temperature. The water vapor permeability dependency of the temperature and humidity contribute to the result of the change of diffusion and solubility with the surrounding air condition. The diffusion coefficient (D)are the function of temperature and show good fit the Arrhenius form but show different parameter values when above and below Tg. The crystalline state hardsegment is necessary for the good shape memory effect.

  3. MEMS Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  4. Liquid-vapor heterogeneous equilibrium in the UF6-IF5-BrF3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid-vapor phase equilibria in the uranium hexafluoride - iodine pentafluoride - bromine trifluoride system at 80 deg C were studied based on experimental data. Phase diagram describing the change in saturated vapor composition depending on liquid composition was plotted. Based on the obtained experimental and calculated data, distillation separation of the above system components was analyzed. It is pointed out that diagrams of the UF6-IF5-BrF3 system can be used for calculation of other technological processes necessitating data on the composition of vapor phase in equilibrium with condensed system UF6-IF5-BrF3 of any composition

  5. Computer codes used in the calculation of high-temperature thermodynamic properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three computer codes - SODIPROP, NAVAPOR, and NASUPER - were written in order to calculate a self-consistent set of thermodynamic properties for saturated, subcooled, and superheated sodium. These calculations incorporate new critical parameters (temperature, pressure, and density) and recently derived single equations for enthalpy and vapor pressure. The following thermodynamic properties have been calculated in these codes: enthalpy, heat capacity, entropy, vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, density, volumetric thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. In the code SODIPROP, these properties are calculated for saturated and subcooled liquid sodium. Thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium vapor are calculated in the code NAVAPOR. The code NASUPER calculates thermodynamic properties for super-heated sodium vapor only for low (< 1644 K) temperatures. No calculations were made for the supercritical region

  6. Vapor Pressure of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Kikuchi, Sakae

    Vapor pressures of aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol are measured in the range of temperature from -10 to 60°C and concentration from 20 to 50wt%. In a low concentration range, the measured values of vapor pressure decrease according to the Raoult's law independent of temperature, while in a high concentration range, they show a trend to decrease towards the estimated values of freezing point with decreasing temperature. The following correlation equation is obtained for practical calculations on heating towers and the like. log(p/P0) = 5.351 - 6.4×10-4y + (1817 + 0.008y(y + 10))/(t + 240) where p, vapor perssure of aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol [kPa] ; P0, atmospheric pressure [=101.325kPa] ; y, concentration [wt%] ; t, temperature [°C].

  7. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  8. Change law of real vapor pressure of Al element in Ti- x Al ( x =25~50) melt during ISM process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贵仲; 苏彦庆; 郭景杰; 丁宏升; 贾均; 傅恒志

    2002-01-01

    A new model was established to calculate the real vapor pressure of the Al element in the molten Ti- x Al ( x =25~50,mole fraction,%) alloy.The effects of the holding time,chamber pressure,mole fraction of Al and melting temperature on the real vapor pressure of Al element in the vacuum chamber were analyzed.Because of the impeding effect of the real vapor pressure on the evaporation loss rate,within a short time (less than 10 s),the real vapor pressure tends to a constant value.When the chamber pressure is less than the saturated vapor pressure of the Al component,the real vapor pressure of Al is equal to the chamber pressure.While when the chamber pressure is larger than the saturated vapor pressure,the real vapor pressure is equal to the saturated vapor pressure of the Al element of the same condition.

  9. Influence of soil properties on vapor-phase sorption of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Dawit N; Naidu, Ravi; Chadalavada, Sreenivasulu

    2016-04-01

    Current practices in health risk assessment from vapor intrusion (VI) using mathematical models are based on assumptions that the subsurface sorption equilibrium is attained. The time required for sorption to reach near-steady-state conditions at sites may take months or years to achieve. This study investigated the vapor phase attenuation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in five soils varying widely in clay and organic matter content using repacked columns. The primary indicators of TCE sorption were vapor retardation rate (Rt), the time required for the TCE vapor to pass through the soil column, and specific volume of retention (VR), and total volume of TCE retained in soil. Results show TCE vapor retardation is mainly due to the rapid partitioning of the compound to SOM. However, the specific volume of retention of clayey soils with secondary mineral particles was higher. Linear regression analyses of the SOM and clay fraction with VR show that a unit increase in clay fraction results in higher sorption of TCE (VR) than the SOM. However, partitioning of TCE vapor was not consistent with the samples' surface areas but was mainly a function of the type of secondary minerals present in soils. PMID:26686522

  10. Benzene vapor recovery and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, or NESHAPs, have provided a powerful motivation for interest in, and attention to, benzene vapor emissions in recent times. Benzene and its related aromatics are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which marks them for surveillance as potential contributors to air pollution. In addition, benzene is a suspected carcinogen, which applies a special urgency to its control. The regulations governing the control of benzene emissions were issued as Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, subpart Y (Storage Vessels); subpart BB (Transfer Operations); and subpart FF (Waste Operations). These regulations specify very particular emission reduction guidelines for various generating sources. The problem in the hydrocarbon processing industry is to identify significant sources of benzene vapors in plants, and then to collect and process these vapors in an environmentally acceptable manner. This paper discusses various methods for collecting benzene fumes in these facilities

  11. Monitoring tropospheric water vapor changes using radiosonde data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant increases in the water vapor content of the troposphere are expected to accompany temperature increases due to rising concentrations of the greenhouse gases. Thus it is important to follow changes in water vapor over time. There are a number of difficulties in developing a homogeneous data set, however, because of changes in radiosonde instrumentation and reporting practices. The authors report here on preliminary attempts to establish indices of water vapor which can be monitored. The precipitable water between the surface and 500 mb is the first candidate. They describe their method for calculating this quantity from radiosonde data for a network very similar to the network Angell uses for detecting temperature trends. Preliminary results suggest that the noise level is low enough to detect trends in water vapor at the individual stations. While a slight increase in global water vapor is hinted at in the data, and the data suggest there may have been a net transfer of water from the Southern Hemisphere to the Northern Hemisphere, these conclusions are tentative. The authors also discuss the future course of this investigation

  12. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40[degrees]C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54[degrees]C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  13. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40{degrees}C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54{degrees}C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  14. Microstructure of vapor deposited coatings on curved substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal barrier coating systems consisting of a metallic bond coat and ceramic over layer are widely used to extend the life of gas turbine engine components. They are applied using either high-vacuum physical vapor deposition techniques in which vapor atoms rarely experience scattering collisions during propagation to a substrate, or by gas jet assisted (low-vacuum) vapor deposition techniques that utilize scattering from streamlines to enable non-line-of-sight deposition. Both approaches require substrate motion to coat a substrate of complex shape. Here, direct simulation Monte Carlo and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation methods are combined to simulate the deposition of a nickel coating over the concave and convex surfaces of a model airfoil, and the simulation results are compared with those from experimental depositions. The simulation method successfully predicted variations in coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and porosity during both stationary and substrate rotated deposition. It was then used to investigate a wide range of vapor deposition conditions spanning high-vacuum physical vapor deposition to low-vacuum gas jet assisted vapor deposition. The average coating thickness was found to increase initially with gas pressure reaching a maximum at a chamber pressure of 8–10 Pa, but the best coating thickness uniformity was achieved under high vacuum deposition conditions. However, high vacuum conditions increased the variation in the coatings pore volume fraction over the surface of the airfoil. The simulation approach was combined with an optimization algorithm and used to investigate novel deposition concepts to tailor the local coating thickness

  15. Microstructure of vapor deposited coatings on curved substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Zhao, Hengbei; Wadley, Haydn N. G., E-mail: haydn@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Rd., P.O. Box 400745, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Thermal barrier coating systems consisting of a metallic bond coat and ceramic over layer are widely used to extend the life of gas turbine engine components. They are applied using either high-vacuum physical vapor deposition techniques in which vapor atoms rarely experience scattering collisions during propagation to a substrate, or by gas jet assisted (low-vacuum) vapor deposition techniques that utilize scattering from streamlines to enable non-line-of-sight deposition. Both approaches require substrate motion to coat a substrate of complex shape. Here, direct simulation Monte Carlo and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation methods are combined to simulate the deposition of a nickel coating over the concave and convex surfaces of a model airfoil, and the simulation results are compared with those from experimental depositions. The simulation method successfully predicted variations in coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and porosity during both stationary and substrate rotated deposition. It was then used to investigate a wide range of vapor deposition conditions spanning high-vacuum physical vapor deposition to low-vacuum gas jet assisted vapor deposition. The average coating thickness was found to increase initially with gas pressure reaching a maximum at a chamber pressure of 8–10 Pa, but the best coating thickness uniformity was achieved under high vacuum deposition conditions. However, high vacuum conditions increased the variation in the coatings pore volume fraction over the surface of the airfoil. The simulation approach was combined with an optimization algorithm and used to investigate novel deposition concepts to tailor the local coating thickness.

  16. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis...... of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested....

  17. Osmotic coefficients and apparent molar volumes of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ionic liquid in alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Physical and osmotic properties of [HMim][TfO] in alcohols are reported. • Apparent molar properties and osmotic coefficients were obtained. • Apparent molar volumes were fitted using a Redlich–Meyer type equation. • The osmotic coefficients were modeled with the Extended Pitzer and the MNRTL models. -- Abstract: In this work, density for the binary mixtures of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate in alcohols (1-propanol, or 2-propanol, or 1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or 1-pentanol) was measured at T = 323.15 K and atmospheric pressure. From this property, the corresponding apparent molar volumes were calculated and fitted to a Redlich–Meyer type equation. For these mixtures, the osmotic and activity coefficients, and vapor pressures of these binary systems were also determined at the same temperature using the vapor pressure osmometry technique. The experimental osmotic coefficients were modeled by the Extended Pitzer model of Archer. The parameters obtained in this correlation were used to calculate the mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the studied mixtures

  18. Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lanz

    Full Text Available Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot and total CBD (CBDtot in the vapor. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies. Recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 4 electrically-driven vaporizers were 58.4 and 51.4%, 66.8 and 56.1%, 82.7 and 70.0% and 54.6 and 56.7% for Volcano Medic®, Plenty Vaporizer®, Arizer Solo® and DaVinci Vaporizer®, respectively. Decarboxylation efficiency was excellent for THC (≥ 97.3% and CBD (≥ 94.6%. The gas-powered Vape-or-Smoke™ showed recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 55.9 and 45.9%, respectively, and a decarboxylation efficiency of ≥ 87.7 for both cannabinoids. However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis.

  19. Simulation of the Kinetics of Growth of Iron Nanoparticles in the Process of Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hydrocarbons with Injection of Ferrocene for the Synthesis of Carbon-Nanotube Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futko, S. I.; Shulitskii, B. G.; Labunov, V. A.; Ermolaeva, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    A kinetic model of growth of iron nanoparticles in the process of synthesis of carbon-nanotube arrays in an injection-type reactor of chemical vapor deposition, in which iron nanoparticles are formed as a result of the coalescence of iron atoms representing products of the thermal decomposition of a mixture of ferrocene with xylene, has been developed. It is shown that the formation of iron nanoparticles in the indicated reactor is very nonequilibrium in character. The parametric dependences of the monodisperse distributions of iron nanoparticles by their diameter, number density, and volume fraction on the flow rate of nitrogen, the temperature of the high-temperature region in the reactor, and the concentration of ferrocene in xylene have been obtained. The calculations performed have shown that the diameter of the iron nanoparticles formed increases monotonically with increase in the temperature of the chemical vapor deposition of hydrocarbons and the concentration of ferrocene in xylene and, quite the reverse, decreases monotonically with increase in the rate of the nitrogen flow. The calculated and experimental diameters of the iron nanoparticles formed at mass fractions of ferrocene in xylene of 0.5-10% were compared. The model proposed can be used for calculating the synthesis of carbon nanotubes in a chemical-vapor-deposition reactor of the injection type.

  20. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Tank vapor database development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Tank Vapor Database (TVD) Development task in FY 1994 was to create a database to store, retrieve, and analyze data collected from the vapor phase of Hanford waste tanks. The data needed to be accessible over the Hanford Local Area Network to users at both Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The data were restricted to results published in cleared reports from the laboratories analyzing vapor samples. Emphasis was placed on ease of access and flexibility of data formatting and reporting mechanisms. Because of time and budget constraints, a Rapid Application Development strategy was adopted by the database development team. An extensive data modeling exercise was conducted to determine the scope of information contained in the database. a A SUN Sparcstation 1000 was procured as the database file server. A multi-user relational database management system, Sybase reg-sign, was chosen to provide the basic data storage and retrieval capabilities. Two packages were chosen for the user interface to the database: DataPrism reg-sign and Business Objects trademark. A prototype database was constructed to provide the Waste Tank Vapor Project's Toxicology task with summarized and detailed information presented at Vapor Conference 4 by WHC, PNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Oregon Graduate Institute. The prototype was used to develop a list of reported compounds, and the range of values for compounds reported by the analytical laboratories using different sample containers and analysis methodologies. The prototype allowed a panel of toxicology experts to identify carcinogens and compounds whose concentrations were within the reach of regulatory limits. The database and user documentation was made available for general access in September 1994

  1. Vapor pressure of germanium precursors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pangrác, Jiří; Fulem, Michal; Hulicius, Eduard; Melichar, Karel; Šimeček, Tomislav; Růžička, K.; Morávek, Pavel; Růžička, V.; Rushworth, S. A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 310, č. 23 (2008), s. 4720-4723. ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : characterization * phase equilibria * metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy * germanium compounds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.757, year: 2008

  2. Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process commonly used for the synthesis of thin films for several important technological applications, for example, microelectronics, hard coatings, and smart windows. Unfortunately, the complexity and prohibitive cost of CVD equipment makes it seldom available for undergraduate chemistry students. Here, a…

  3. HEDL sodium vapor deposit experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium vapor deposits can affect reactor component operation and maintenance. Recorded cases include plugged cover gas lines and cementation of rotating components or sliding surfaces. Deposits found on plant scale components after testing in sodium were measured. Laboratory tests show the effect of Na pool temperature and condenser geometry on deposit accumulation rates and viewport fogging

  4. Integrated system for production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Volume XVI. Tabular and graphical presentation of 175 neutron group constants derived from the LLL evaluated neutron data library (ENDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of February 3, 1975, 175 neutron group constants had been derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) at LLL. In this volume, tables and graphs of the constants are presented along with the conventions used in their preparation. (U.S.)

  5. Interaction of aerosol particles composed of protein and saltswith water vapor: hygroscopic growth and microstructural rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mikhailov

    2004-01-01

    efflorescence threshold of NaCl-BSA particles decreased with increasing BSA dry mass fraction, i.e. the protein inhibited the formation of salt crystals and enhanced the stability of supersaturated solution droplets. The H-TDMA and TEM results indicate that the protein was enriched at the surface of the mixed particles and formed an envelope, which inhibits the access of water vapor to the particle core and leads to kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth, phase transitions, and microstructural rearrangement processes. The Köhler theory calculations performed with different types of models demonstrate that the hygroscopic growth of particles composed of inorganic salts and proteins can be efficiently described with a simple volume additivity approach, provided that the correct dry solute mass equivalent diameter and composition are known. A parameterisation for the osmotic coefficient of macromolecular substances has been derived from an osmotic pressure virial equation. For its application only the density and molar mass of the substance have to be known or estimated, and it is fully compatible with traditional volume additivity models for salt mixtures.

  6. SPEI Calculator

    OpenAIRE

    Beguería, Santiago; Vicente Serrano, Sergio M.

    2009-01-01

    [EN] *Objectives: The program calculates time series of the Standardised Precipitation-Evapotransporation Index (SPEI). *Technical Characteristics: The program is executed from the Windows console. From an input data file containing monthly time series of precipitation and mean temperature, plus the geographic coordinates of the observatory, the program computes the SPEI accumulated at the time interval specified by the user, and generates a new data file with the SPEI time serie...

  7. Burnout calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewed is the effect of heat flux of different system parameters on critical density in order to give an initial view on the value of several parameters. A thorough analysis of different equations is carried out to calculate burnout is steam-water flows in uniformly heated tubes, annular, and rectangular channels and rod bundles. Effect of heat flux density distribution and flux twisting on burnout and storage determination according to burnout are commended

  8. Calculation of binary phase diagrams between the actinide elements, rare earth elements, and transition metal elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempts were made to apply the Kaufman method of calculating binary phase diagrams to the calculation of binary phase diagrams between the rare earths, actinides, and the refractory transition metals. Difficulties were encountered in applying the method to the rare earths and actinides, and modifications were necessary to provide accurate representation of known diagrams. To calculate the interaction parameters for rare earth-rare earth diagrams, it was necessary to use the atomic volumes for each of the phases: liquid, body-centered cubic, hexagonal close-packed, and face-centered cubic. Determination of the atomic volumes of each of these phases for each element is discussed in detail. In some cases, empirical means were necessary. Results are presented on the calculation of rare earth-rare earth, rare earth-actinide, and actinide-actinide diagrams. For rare earth-refractory transition metal diagrams and actinide-refractory transition metal diagrams, empirical means were required to develop values for the enthalpy of vaporization for rare earth elements and values for the constant (C) required when intermediate phases are present. Results of using the values determined for each element are presented

  9. Low temperature operated copper vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies on newly developed copper vapor laser operated in hydrogen bromide gas under low temperature were successfully achieved using a conventional high temperature operated copper vapor laser tube. We present remarkable difference against conventional copper vapor laser in terms of the spatial and temporal features. This type of copper vapor laser is expected to have higher efficiency at high pulse repetition frequency and advantage in the features of laser pulse. (author)

  10. Remote sensing of water vapor features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelberg, Henry E.

    1991-01-01

    The three major objectives of the project are outlined: (1) to describe atmospheric water vapor features as functions of space and time; (2) to evaluate remotely sensed measurements of water vapor content; and (3) to study relations between fine-scale water vapor fields and convective activity. Data from several remote sensors were used. The studies used the GOES/VAS, HIS, and MAMS instruments have provided a progressively finer scale view of water vapor features.

  11. Hanford soil partitioning and vapor extraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the testing and results of laboratory experiments conducted to assist the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction project operating in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Vapor-phase adsorption and desorption testing was performed using carbon tetrachloride and Hanford Site soils to estimate vapor-soil partitioning and reasonably achievable carbon tetrachloride soil concentrations during active vapor extractions efforts at the 200 West Area. (CCl4 is used in Pu recovery from aqueous streams.)

  12. REMOTE SENSING OF WATER VAPOR CONTENT USING GROUND-BASED GPS DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Spatial and temporal resolution of water vapor content is useful in improving the accuracy of short-term weather prediction.Dense and continuously tracking regional GPS arrays will play an important role in remote sensing atmospheric water vapor content.In this study,a piecewise linear solution method was proposed to estimate the precipitable water vapor (PWV) content from ground-based GPS observations in Hong Kong.To evaluate the solution accuracy of the water vapor content sensed by GPS,the upper air sounding data (radiosonde) that are collected locally was used to calculate the precipitable water vapor during the same period.One-month results of PWV from both ground-based GPS sensing technique and radiosonde method are in agreement within 1~2 mm.This encouraging result will motivate the GPS meteorology application based on the establishment of a dense GPS array in Hong Kong.

  13. Self-heating probe instrument and method for measuring high temperature melting volume change rate of material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junwei; Wang, Zhiping; Lu, Yang; Cheng, Bo

    2013-03-01

    The castings defects are affected by the melting volume change rate of material. The change rate has an important effect on running safety of the high temperature thermal storage chamber, too. But the characteristics of existing measuring installations are complex structure, troublesome operation and low precision. In order to measure the melting volume change rate of material accurately and conveniently, a self-designed measuring instrument, self-heating probe instrument, and measuring method are described. Temperature in heating cavity is controlled by PID temperature controller; melting volume change rate υ and molten density are calculated based on the melt volume which is measured by the instrument. Positive and negative υ represent expansion and shrinkage of the sample volume after melting, respectively. Taking eutectic LiF+CaF2 for example, its melting volume change rate and melting density at 1 123 K are -20.6% and 2 651 kg·m-3 measured by this instrument, which is only 0.71% smaller than literature value. Density and melting volume change rate of industry pure aluminum at 973 K and analysis pure NaCl at 1 123 K are detected by the instrument too. The measure results are agreed with report values. Measuring error sources are analyzed and several improving measures are proposed. In theory, the measuring errors of the change rate and molten density which are measured by the self-designed instrument is nearly 1/20-1/50 of that measured by the refitted mandril thermal expansion instrument. The self-designed instrument and method have the advantages of simple structure, being easy to operate, extensive applicability for material, relatively high accuracy, and most importantly, temperature and sample vapor pressure have little effect on the measurement accuracy. The presented instrument and method solve the problems of complicated structure and procedures, and large measuring errors for the samples with high vapor pressure by existing installations.

  14. 40 CFR 796.1950 - Vapor pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... very low vapor pressures and sorbent loadings, adsorption of the chemical on the glass wool separating... of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 3:664-670 (1969). (3) Spencer, W.F. and Cliath, M.M. “Vapor Density and Apparent Vapor Pressure of Lindane,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,...

  15. Investigating the Droplet Formation in a Nucleonic Vapor

    CERN Document Server

    Ogul, R

    2003-01-01

    The droplet formation in a supersaturated vapor which may occur during the expansion of an excited blob of nuclear matter in the metastable region at subnuclear densities is investigated. The free energy change accompanying the formation of a drop is calculated as a function of droplet radius for various saturation ratios on the basis of Fisher's model. The results are related to the experimental data

  16. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  17. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  18. Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

    2005-08-01

    Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be

  19. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  20. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  1. Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition

  2. Equilibrium solubilities of iodine vapor in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium solubilities of iodine vapor in water were measured by introducing iodine vapor, in equilibrium with solid iodine, into water and by circulating it in a closed system, and Henry's law constants were determined. Equilibrium distributions of iodine vapor between a gas phase and an aqueous phase were also measured by another method, and partition coefficients were determined. The solubilities of iodine vapor in water estimated from both the Henry's law constants and the partition coefficients are compared with those of solid iodine reported in the literature. Thermodynamic parameters for the hydration of iodine vapor are evaluated experimentally. (author)

  3. Water vapor diffusion membrane development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    An application of the water vapor diffusion technique is examined whereby the permeated water vapor is vented to space vacuum to alleviate on-board waste storage and provide supplemental cooling. The work reported herein deals primarily with the vapor diffusion-heat rejection (VD-HR) as it applies to the Space Shuttle. A stack configuration was selected, designed and fabricated. An asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane, used in reverse osmosis application was selected and a special spacer was designed to enhance mixing and promote mass transfer. A skid-mount unit was assembled from components used in the bench unit although no attempt was made to render it flight-suitable. The operating conditions of the VD-HR were examined and defined and a 60-day continuous test was carried out. The membranes performed very well throughout the test; no membrane rupture and no unusual flux decay was observed. In addition, a tentative design for a flight-suitable VD-HR unit was made.

  4. Tissue ablation after 120W greenlight laser vaporization and bipolar plasma vaporization of the prostate: a comparison using transrectal three-dimensional ultrasound volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzbühler, Benedikt; Gross, Oliver; Fankhauser, Christian D.; Hefermehl, Lukas J.; Poyet, Cédric; Largo, Remo; Müntener, Michael; Seifert, Hans-Helge; Zimmermann, Matthias; Sulser, Tullio; Müller, Alexander; Hermanns, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Introduction and objectives: Greenlight laser vaporization (LV) of the prostate is characterized by simultaneous vaporization and coagulation of prostatic tissue resulting in tissue ablation together with excellent hemostasis during the procedure. It has been reported that bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) of the prostate might be an alternative for LV. So far, it has not been shown that BPV is as effective as LV in terms of tissue ablation or hemostasis. We performed transrectal three-dimensional ultrasound investigations to compare the efficiency of tissue ablation between LV and BPV. Methods: Between 11.2009 and 5.2011, 50 patients underwent pure BPV in our institution. These patients were matched with regard to the pre-operative prostate volume to 50 LV patients from our existing 3D-volumetry-database. Transrectal 3D ultrasound and planimetric volumetry of the prostate were performed pre-operatively, after catheter removal, 6 weeks and 6 months. Results: Median pre-operative prostate volume was not significantly different between the two groups (45.3ml vs. 45.4ml; p=1.0). After catheter removal, median absolute volume reduction (BPV 12.4ml, LV 6.55ml) as well as relative volume reduction (27.8% vs. 16.4%) were significantly higher in the BPV group (pablation with initial prostatic swelling. BPV seems to be superior due to a higher relative volume reduction. This difference had no clinical impact after a follow-up of 6M.

  5. An integrity assessment for reactor lower head under in vessel vapor explosion loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to assess the integrity of the ICI nozzle in lower head of reactor vessel (PWR) under in vessel vapor explosion loads. The premixing and explosion calculations were performed using TRACERII code. Transient analysis using ANSYS code was performed to calculate strains under explosion pressures imposed on the lower head inner wall. The calculated strain results and the established failure criteria were used in determining the failure probability of the lower head. Strain analyses show that the vapor explosion induced lower head failure is not possible under the present framework of assessment

  6. Vaporization of In2Te3(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vaporization chemistry of In2Te3(s) was studied by the computerautomated simultaneous Knudsen-effusion and torsion-effusion method, by high-temperature mass spectrometry, and by ancillary methods. The first absolute measurements of the vapor pressure of In2Te3 are reported. In2Te3(s) vaporized incongruently in the temperatue range 701-889 K and produced Te2(g) and a solid-solution, (Xsub(In)=0.42 and Xsub(Te)=0.58). The standard enthalpy of the reaction at 298 K, ΔH0 (298 K) by the third-law method was 136.0 +- 0.3 kJ/mol of vapor. The above solid solution vaporized incongruently and produced in InTe(s) and a vapor which consisted of Te2(g) and In2Te(g). InTe(s) vaporized congruently in the range 701-887 K and produded Te2(g) and In2Te(g); the third-law ΔH0sub(ν) (298 K) was 201.5 +- 1.0 kJ/mol. These results were at variance with the literature on vaporization of In2Te3(s) where both congruent vaporization and incongruent vaporization to give InTe(s) are separately reported. Further, InTe(s) was reported to vaporize incongruently. These differences are discussed. (Author)

  7. A method for measuring saturated vapor pressure and dissociation of metal halogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was developed for measuring the pressure of saturated vapor and the dissociation of various halogenides from 500 mm Hg to 0.01-0.09 mm Hg. For this purpose the construction of the glass diaphragm zeromanometer was modified. The method was tested by measuring the saturated vapor pressure of hafnium tetraiodide. For this compound the dependence of vapor pressure on temperature was obtained from the equation calculated by the least squares method: Psub(mm Hg) = 10.500 - 5237.23/T (208-323 deg C). The obtained results are in good agreement with known data

  8. Chemistry of Impact-Generated Silicate Melt-Vapor Debris Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Visscher, Channon; Fegley, Jr, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In the giant impact theory for lunar origin, the Moon forms from material ejected by the impact into an Earth-orbiting disk. Here we report the initial results from a silicate melt-vapor equilibrium chemistry model for such impact-generated planetary debris disks. In order to simulate the chemical behavior of a two-phase (melt+vapor) disk, we calculate the temperature-dependent pressure and chemical composition of vapor in equilibrium with molten silicate from 2000 to 4000 K. We consider the ...

  9. Analysis on Gravitational Effect o Nonlinear Diffusion System of Vapor Molecules in A Heat Pipe

    OpenAIRE

    ETORI, Kanji

    1986-01-01

    A nonlinear diffusion equation with a diffusion coefficient depending on number density of diffusing particles affected by gravity is approximately solved in a steady state. Characteristic properties of vapor molecules in a heat pipe are analyzed as diffusion process of Brownian particles. In order to explain the nonlinear shifts from a linear diffusion system in conventional theories, the expectation values and the variance of number density of vapor molecules are calculated by using the the...

  10. Retrieving Precipitable Water Vapor Data Using GPS Zenith Delays and Global Reanalysis Data in China

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Jiang; Shirong Ye; Dezhong Chen; Yanyan Liu; Pengfei Xia

    2016-01-01

    GPS has become a very effective tool to remotely sense precipitable water vapor (PWV) information, which is important for weather forecasting and nowcasting. The number of geodetic GNSS stations set up in China has substantially increased over the last few decades. However, GPS PWV derivation requires surface pressure to calculate the precise zenith hydrostatic delay and weighted mean temperature to map the zenith wet delay to precipitable water vapor. GPS stations without collocated meteorol...

  11. An atmospheric radiative-convective model with interactive water vapor transport and cloud development

    OpenAIRE

    HUMMEL, JOHN R.; KUHN, WILLIAM R.

    2011-01-01

    In the present generation of radiative-convective models, clouds are assigned specific levels or temperatures that do not change during the course of the calculations. In addition, a single water vapor distribution is used for the “mean atmosphere” instead of separate distributions for the clear sky and cloudy sky atmospheres. We present results from a one-dimensional radiative-convective model that includes interactive water vapor transport and predicts cloud altitudes and thicknesses. The ...

  12. Validation of Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's OMI Water Vapor Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.

    2015-12-01

    We perform a comprehensive validation of SAO's OMI water vapor product. The SAO OMI water vapor slant column is retrieved using the 430 - 480 nm wavelength range. In addition to water vapor, the retrieval considers O3, NO2, liquid water, O4, C2H2O2, the Ring effect, water ring, 3rd order polynomial, common mode and under-sampling. The slant column is converted to vertical column using AMF. AMF is calculated using GEOS-Chem water vapor profile shape, OMCLDO2 cloud information and OMLER surface albedo information. We validate our product using NCAR's GPS network data over the world and RSS's gridded microwave data over the ocean. We also compare our product with the total precipitable water derived from the AERONET ground-based sun photometer data, the GlobVapour gridded product, and other datasets. We investigate the influence of sub-grid scale variability and filtering criteria on the comparison. We study the influence of clouds, aerosols and a priori profiles on the retrieval. We also assess the long-term performance and stability of our product and seek ways to improve it.

  13. Water vapor differential absorption lidar development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, E. V.; Wilkerson, T. D.; Mcllrath, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system is described which has been developed for vertical range-resolved measurements of water vapor. The laser transmitter consists of a ruby-pumped dye laser, which is operated on a water vapor absorption line at 724.372 nm. Part of the ruby laser output is transmitted simultaneously with the dye laser output to determine atmospheric scattering and attenuation characteristics. The dye and ruby laser backscattered light is collected by a 0.5-m diam telescope, optically separated in the receiver package, and independently detected using photomultiplier tubes. Measurements of vertical water vapor concentration profiles using the DIAL system at night are discussed, and comparisons are made between the water vapor DIAL measurements and data obtained from locally launched rawinsondes. Agreement between these measurements was found to be within the uncertainty of the rawinsonde data to an altitude of 3 km. Theoretical simulations of this measurement were found to give reasonably accurate predictions of the random error of the DIAL measurements. Confidence in these calculations will permit the design of aircraft and Shuttle DIAL systems and experiments using simulation results as the basis for defining lidar system performance requirements

  14. Integrated system of production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Volume 21, Part A. Maxwell-averaged reaction rates (sigma v-bar) for selecteed reactions between ions with atomic mass less than or equal to 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell-averaged reaction rates (sigma v-bar) are presented for 24 interactions between 1H, 2H, 3H, 3He, 4He, 6Li, 7Li, 10B, and 11B ions. The reactions rates are calculated by use of the evaluated data of the LLL Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL). 5 figures, 5 tables

  15. Applying the Water Vapor Radiometer to Verify the Precipitable Water Vapor Measured by GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Kang Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located at the land-sea interface in a subtropical region. Because the climate is warm and moist year round, there is a large and highly variable amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. In this study, we calculated the Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD of the troposphere using the ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS. The ZWD measured by two Water Vapor Radiometers (WVRs was then used to verify the ZWD that had been calculated using GPS. We also analyzed the correlation between the ZWD and the precipitation data of these two types of station. Moreover, we used the observational data from 14 GPS and rainfall stations to evaluate three cases. The offset between the GPS-ZWD and the WVR-ZWD ranged from 1.31 to 2.57 cm. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. The results calculated from GPS and those measured using the WVR were very similar. Moreover, when there was no rain, light rain, moderate rain, or heavy rain, the flatland station ZWD was 0.31, 0.36, 0.38, or 0.40 m, respectively. The mountain station ZWD exhibited the same trend. Therefore, these results have demonstrated that the potential and strength of precipitation in a region can be estimated according to its ZWD values. Now that the precision of GPS-ZWD has been confirmed, this method can eventually be expanded to the more than 400 GPS stations in Taiwan and its surrounding islands. The near real-time ZWD data with improved spatial and temporal resolution can be provided to the city and countryside weather-forecasting system that is currently under development. Such an exchange would fundamentally improve the resources used to generate weather forecasts.

  16. Spatio-temporal variability of water vapor investigated by lidar and FTIR vertical soundings above Mt. Zugspitze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vogelmann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas and its spatio-temporal variability strongly exceeds that of all other greenhouse gases. However, this variability has hardly been studied quantitatively so far. We present an analysis of a five-year period of water vapor measurements in the free troposphere above Mt. Zugspitze (2962 m a.s.l., Germany. Our results are obtained from a combination of measurements of vertically integrated water vapor (IWV, recorded with a solar Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR spectrometer on the summit of Mt. Zugspitze and of water vapor profiles recorded with the nearby differential absorption lidar (DIAL at the Schneefernerhaus research station. The special geometrical arrangement of one zenith-viewing and one sun-pointing instrument and the temporal resolution of both instruments allow for an investigation of the spatio-temporal variability of IWV on a spatial scale of less than one kilometer and on a time scale of less than one hour. The SD of differences between both instruments σIWV calculated for varied subsets of data serves as a measure of variability. The different subsets are based on various spatial and temporal matching criteria. Within a time interval of 20 min, the spatial variability becomes significant for horizontal distances above 2 km, but only in the warm season (σIWV = 0.35 mm. However, it is not sensitive to the horizontal distance during the winter season. The variability of IWV within a time interval of 30 min peaks in July and August (σIWV > 0.55 mm, mean horizontal distance = 2.5 km and has its minimum around midwinter (σIWV 5 km. The temporal variability of IWV is derived by selecting subsets of data from both instruments with optimal volume matching. For a short time interval of 5 min, the variability is 0.05 mm and increases to more than 0.5 mm for a time interval of 15 h. The profile variability of water vapor is determined by analyzing subsets of water vapor profiles recorded by

  17. SURFACE VOLUME ESTIMATES FOR INFILTRATION PARAMETER ESTIMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume balance calculations used in surface irrigation engineering analysis require estimates of surface storage. These calculations are often performed by estimating upstream depth with a normal depth formula. That assumption can result in significant volume estimation errors when upstream flow d...

  18. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-S-101: Results from samples collected on 06/06/96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-101. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed.

  19. Quantum volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.

  20. Carbon dioxide and water vapor high temperature electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    The design, fabrication, breadboard testing, and the data base obtained for solid oxide electrolysis systems that have applications for planetary manned missions and habitats are reviewed. The breadboard tested contains sixteen tubular cells in a closely packed bundle for the electrolysis of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The discussion covers energy requirements, volume, weight, and operational characteristics related to the measurement of the reactant and product gas compositions, temperature distribution along the electrolyzer tubular cells and through the bundle, and thermal energy losses. The reliability of individual cell performance in the bundle configuration is assessed.

  1. Geochemical reactions during biodegradation/vapor-extraction remediation of petroleum contamination in the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrocarbon concentrations in soil water and vapor are generally used to evaluate the progress of biodegradation and vapor extraction of petroleum contamination in the unsaturated zone. This study shows that changes in the inorganic composition of vadose zone water samples can be used to evaluate the reactions that occur in the unsaturated zone during such a remediation effort. Chemical analyses were completed on water samples collected from alluvial sediments contaminated with diesel fuel and gasoline at the Gallatin Farmers Cenex, Belgrade, Montana. The samples were collected from 7 suction lysimeters for 3 months after fertilization, but before vapor extraction, and then for 6 months following the start of vapor extraction. The geochemical reaction progress code SOLMINEQ.88 is used to calculate the aqueous equilibria in the samples and to simulate possible reaction pathways. Reduction in TPH and BTEX concentrations indicated that biodegradation of the petroleum began after fertilization, prior to vapor extraction, and continued after the start of vapor extraction. SO4-2, HCO3-, pH, and PCO2 show large systematic variations with both time and depth. These variations are independent of evaporation, mixing, sample extraction time, and soil moisture content and thus appear to be a direct consequence of bioremediation and vapor extraction. PCO2 is found to be a measure of the effectiveness of vapor extraction. The chemical mass transfer calculations also show that if vapor extraction occurs alone removing CO2 from solution without coupling of a process to buffer the solution pH, large amounts of carbonate minerals could precipitate, significantly reducing sediment permeability. These data suggest that analyses of inorganic compounds in lysimeter samples can be used to evaluate geochemical changes during vadose zone remediation and can be used to improve remediation design

  2. Vapor Pressure of Hexamethylene Triperoxide Diamine (HMTD) Estimated Using Secondary Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aernecke, Matthew J; Mendum, Ted; Geurtsen, Geoff; Ostrinskaya, Alla; Kunz, Roderick R

    2015-11-25

    A rapid method for vapor pressure measurement was developed and used to derive the vapor pressure curve of the thermally labile peroxide-based explosive hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) over the temperature range from 28 to 80 °C. This method uses a controlled flow of vapor from a solid-phase HMTD source that is presented to an ambient-pressure-ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a secondary-electrospray-ionization (SESI) source. The subpart-per-trillion sensitivity of this system enables direct detection of HMTD vapor through an intact [M + H](+) ion in real time at temperatures near 20 °C. By calibrating this method using vapor sources of cocaine and heroin, which have known pressure-temperature (P-T) curves, the temperature dependence of HMTD vapor was determined, and a Clausius-Clapeyron plot of ln[P (Pa)] vs 1/[T (K)] yielded a straight line with the expression ln[P (Pa)] = {(-11091 ± 356) × 1/[T (K)]} + 25 ± 1 (error limits are the standard error of the regression analysis). From this equation, the sublimation enthalpy of HMTD was estimated to be 92 ± 3 kJ/mol, which compares well with the theoretical estimate of 95 kJ/mol, and the vapor pressure at 20 °C was estimated to be ∼60 parts per trillion by volume, which is within a factor of 2 of previous theoretical estimates. Thus, this method provides not only the first direct experimental determination of HMTD vapor pressure but also a rapid, near-real-time capability to quantitatively measure low-vapor-pressure compounds, which will be useful for aiding in the development of training aids for bomb-sniffing canines. PMID:26505487

  3. TO PURGE OR NOT TO PURGE? VOC CONCENTRATION CHANGES DURING LINE VOLUME PURGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor surveys are commonly used as a screening technique to delineate volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminant plumes and provide information for soil sampling plans. Traditionally, three purge volumes of vapor are removed before a sample is collected. One facet of this s...

  4. Thermogravimetric measurements of liquid vapor pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Rapid determination of vapor pressure by TGA. ► Demonstration of limitations of currently available approaches in literature. ► New model for vapor pressure assessment of small size samples in TGA. ► New model accounts for vapor diffusion and sample geometry and measures vapor pressure normally within 10%. - Abstract: A method was developed using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the vapor pressure of volatile liquids. This is achieved by measuring the rate of evaporation (mass loss) of a pure liquid contained within a cylindrical pan. The influence of factors like sample geometry and vapor diffusion on evaporation rate are discussed. The measurement can be performed across a wide range of temperature yielding reasonable results up to 10 kPa. This approach may be useful as a rapid and automatable method for measuring the volatility of flavor and fragrance raw materials.

  5. Adsorption characteristics of water vapor on ferroaluminophosphate for desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2014-07-01

    The adsorption characteristics of microporous ferroaluminophosphate adsorbent (FAM-Z01, Mitsubishi Plastics) are evaluated for possible application in adsorption desalination and cooling (AD) cycles. A particular interest is its water vapor uptake behavior at assorted adsorption temperatures and pressures whilst comparing them to the commercial silica gels of AD plants. The surface characteristics are first carried out using N2 gas adsorption followed by the water vapor uptake analysis for temperature ranging from 20°C to 80°C. We propose a hybrid isotherm model, composing of the Henry and the Sips isotherms, which can be integrated to satisfactorily fit the experimental data of water adsorption on the FAM-Z01. The hybrid model is selected to fit the unusual isotherm shapes, that is, a low adsorption in the initial section and followed by a rapid vapor uptake leading to a likely micropore volume filling by hydrogen bonding and cooperative interaction in micropores. It is shown that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of FAM-Z01 can be up to 5 folds higher than that of conventional silica gels. Owing to the quantum increase in the adsorbate uptake, the FAM-Z01 has the potential to significantly reduce the footprint of an existing AD plant for the same output capacity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Optimization of a single-drop microextraction method for multielemental determination by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following in situ vapor generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) method has been developed in combination with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) for the simultaneous determination of As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn and Hg in aqueous solutions. Vapor generation is carried out in a 40 mL volume closed-vial containing a solution with the target analytes in hydrochloric acid and potassium ferricyanide medium. Hydrides (As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn) and Hg vapor are trapped onto an aqueous single drop (3 μL volume) containing Pd(II), followed by the subsequent injection in the ETV. Experimental variables such as medium composition, sodium tetrahydroborate (III) volume and concentration, stirring rate, extraction time, sample volume, ascorbic acid concentration and palladium amount in the drop were fully optimized. The limits of detection (LOD) (3σ criterion) of the proposed method for As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn and Hg were 0.2, 0.04, 0.01, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.8 μg/L, respectively. Enrichment factors of 9, 85, 138, 130, 37 and 72 for As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn and Hg, respectively, were achieved in 210 s. The relative standard deviations (N = 5) ranged from 4 to 8%. The proposed HS-SDME-ETV-ICP-MS method has been applied for the determination of As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn and Hg in NWRI TM-28.3 certified reference material.

  7. Simulation of Water Vapor Condensation in a Partly Closed Structure: The Influence of the External Conditions of Temperature and Humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Batina, Jean; Peyrous, René

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to determine the more significant parameters acting on the water vapor condensation in a partly closed structure, submitted to external constraints (temperature and humidity) which induce convective movements and thermal variations inside. These constraints locally lead to condensation of the water vapor, initially contained in the air of the volume and/or on the walls. The inside bottom wall is remained dry. Condensed water quantities depend on: (1) dimensions of the structure, (2...

  8. Transient permeation of organic vapors through elastomeric membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The permeation of benzene and acetone vapors through sulfur-cured natural rubber was studied by the time-lag method. The zero concentration diffusion coefficient, was obtained by the early-time method. The Frisch time lag equation was utilized to estimate both the solubility coefficient and the additional parameter required to define the concentration-dependence of the diffusion coefficient. This form of concentration dependence was manifested by the corresponding permeability coefficient values. At low entering penetrant pressure where the transport coefficients are constant, indirect evidence was obtained that zero diffusion coefficient is the mechanically correct diffusion coefficient. The solubility coefficient values calculated for benzene vapor in natural rubber are in reasonable agreement with published equilibrium sorption data for a similar rubber compound. At higher entering penetrant pressures, average diffusion coefficients obtained at steady state tended to be larger than the corresponding average diffusion coefficients derived from the time-lags.

  9. Second quantization of propagation of light through Rb vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhihao; Lanning, Robert; Zhang, Mi; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy; Dowling, Jonathan

    We model the propagation of squeezed light, in Laguerre-Gaussian spatial modes, through a non-linear medium such as Rb vapor. We examine the changes in both quantum state and spatial modes. We simulate the injection into a Rb vapor cell a linearly polarized laser beam to create squeezed vacuum state of light linearly polarized in the perpendicular direction. We fully quantize the optical field's propagation which is originally based on semi-classical calculation. The Rb atomic structure is simplified to a three-level system. We reveal the mechanism that how squeezed state of light is generated in this process and compare the theory with our experiment. We further investigate the impact on squeezing due to the change of parameters and produce schemes which improve the squeezing in the desired spatial modes.

  10. Control structure selection for vapor compression refrigeration cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xiaohong; Li, Shaoyuan [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Automation; Shandong Jianzhu Univ., Jinan (China). School of Information and Electrical Engineering; Cai, Wenjian; Ding, Xudong [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2013-07-01

    A control structure selection criterion which can be used to evaluate the control performance of different control structures for the vapor compression refrigeration cycle is proposed in this paper. The calculation results of the proposed criterion based on the different reduction models are utilized to determine the optimized control model structure. The effectiveness of the criterion is verified by the control effects of the model predictive control (MPC) controllers which are designed based on different model structures. The response of the different controllers applied on the actual vapor compression refrigeration system indicate that the best model structure is in consistent with the one obtained by the proposed structure selection criterion which is a trade-off between computation complexity and control performance.

  11. Vapor film collapse triggered by external pressure pulse and the fragmentation of melt droplet in FCIs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qian; TONG Lili; CAO Xuewu; KRIVENTSEV Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The fragmentation process of high-temperature molten drop is a key factor to determine the ratio heat transferred to power in FCIs,which estimates the possible damage degree during the hypothetical severe accident in the nuclear reactors.In this paper,the fragmentation process of melt droplet in FCIs is investigated by theoretic analysis.The fragmentation mechanism is studied when an external pressure pulse applied to a melt droplet,which is surrounded by vapor film.The vapor film collapse which induces fragmentation of melt droplet is analyzed and modeled.And then the generated pressure is calculated.The vapor film collapse model is introduced to fragmentation correlation,and the predicted fragment size is calculated and compared with experimental data.The result shows that the developed model can predict the diameter of fragments and can be used to calculate the fragmentation process appreciatively.

  12. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-109: Results from samples collected on 06/04/96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-109 (Tank S-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  13. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-S-107: Results from samples collected on 06/18/96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L. [and others

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-107 (Tank S-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National. Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  14. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BX-105: Results from samples collected on 04/24/96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H. [and others

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-BX-105 (Tank BX-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.

  15. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-109: Results from samples collected on 06/04/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-109 (Tank S-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  16. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-204, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-204 (Tank U-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  17. Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-102: Results from samples collected on June 27, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-AX-102 (Tank AX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  18. Chemiluminescence detection of hydrazine vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, G E; Latturner, S; Rose-Pehrsson, S L

    1995-04-01

    An efficient, real-time chemiluminescence detector for hydrazine vapor, N(2)H(4)(g), is described, capable of monitoring sub part-per-billion levels of hydrazine in air. The catalytic oxidation of hydrazine by colloidal platinum forms an intermediate, oxidizing agent (e.g. OH or OOH) which subsequently oxidizes luminol, generating a chemiluminescence signal that is proportional to the hydrazine concentration. Major components of the instrument include a photomultiplier tube (PMT), a short length of glass tubing coiled directly in front of the PMT cathode surface, a vacuum pump for sampling the air, and a peristaltic pump for circulating the liquid reagent. The liquid reagent, a basic solution (pH 13) of luminol and colloidal platinum, is continuously recycled. The detection sequence is initiated by pumping the hydrazine vapor through a short length of teflon tubing that is concurrently transporting the liquid reagent. The liquid is separated from the gas stream in an impinger and quickly pumped to the PMT. We have evaluated the effect of solution pH, luminol and platinum concentrations, and air and liquid flow rates on the analytical characteristics of this system. A linear, dynamic detection range for hydrazine has been obtained from 1 to 2000 ppb in air, with an instrument response that is fully reversible and achieves plateau response in less than 2 min. PMID:18966262

  19. Modified swelling pressure apparatus using vapor pressure technique for compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    to measure swelling pressure in a constant relative humidity environment. A relative humidity was created using salt solutions. The total volume of compacted bentonite was maintained constant during absorption process. Change of swelling pressure with elapsed time and influences of suction value are discussed in this study. In addition, unconfined compression tests were conducted for compacted bentonite with three difference suction values. Deformation of both height and diameter for samples due to change of suction were measured before shear tests. It was observed that all samples were occurred large cracks at failure condition. The shear strengths were determined from stress and strain curves Sodium bentonite was in for this test program. The specimen was statically compacted in rigid steel mold. The modified SWCC apparatus was used for soil-water characteristic curve from 0 kPa to 450 kPa in matric suction ranges. The modified SWCC apparatus consist of a triaxial chamber, air apply system, basement with ceramic filter, drain measurement system and consolidation pressure loading system. The ceramic filter had an air entry value of 500 kPa. Absorption was allowed from the top surface portion of compacted bentonite during swelling under constant volume condition. The swelling pressure was measured over two months. After swelling pressure equilibrium, the SWCC test was performed using axis-translation technique. The vertical deformation and drainage of bentonite were measured during applying ambience positive air pressure. Degree of saturation of compacted bentonite was calculated with suctions. The vapor pressure technique was conducted for high soil suction ranges. The range is from 2.8 MPa to 296 MPa corresponding to from RH 98 % to RH 11 %. The diameter and height of compacted bentonite were directly measured for determination of degree of saturation. The swelling pressure tests were conducted using newly swelling pressure test apparatus. The apparatus consisted

  20. Vaporization of the Ar+Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the 4π multidetector INDRA, collisions between 36Ar and 58Ni have been investigated over a broad bombarding energy range, from 32 to 95 AMeV. The onset for complete vaporization of the system into neutrons, H and He isotopes as well as the evolution with energy of the isotopic composition of the vaporization events were determined. Binary dissipative collisions are found to be the dominant mechanism producing the vaporization events. A statistical sequential decay of the two partners is a possible explanation for the vaporization events observed. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs

  1. Diffusion barriers in the kinetics of water vapor adsorption/desorption on activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, A.W.; Foley, N.J.; Thomas, K.M. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Norman, P.R.; Francis, D.C. [CBD, Salisbury (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-07

    The adsorption of water vapor on a highly microporous coconut-shell-derived carbon and a mesoporous wood-derived carbon was studied. These carbons were chosen as they had markedly different porous structures. The adsorption and desorption characteristics of water vapor on the activated carbons were investigated over the relative pressure range p/p{degree} = 0--0.9 for temperatures in the range 285--313 K in a static water vapor system. The adsorption isotherms were analyzed using the Dubinin-Serpinski equation, and this provided an assessment of the polarity of the carbons. The kinetics of water vapor adsorption and desorption were studied with different amounts of preadsorbed water for set changes in pressure relative to the saturated vapor pressure (p/p{degree}). The adsorption kinetics for each relative pressure step were compared and used to calculate the activation energies for the vapor pressure increments. The kinetic results are discussed in relation to their relative position on the equilibrium isotherm and the adsorption mechanism of water vapor on activated carbons.

  2. Performance evaluation of power generation system with fuel vapor turbine onboard hydrocarbon fueled scramjets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the performance of a new power generation system in which the generator is driven by the fuel vapor turbine, the pyrolysis characteristics and the compositions of pyrolyzed fuel mixture are experimentally studied. An algorithm is developed for the calculation of isentropic enthalpy drop of fuel vapor using a real gas model based on the SRK (Soave–Redlich–Kwong) equation of state. Fuel vapor is a variable mixture of fuel and its cracking products at different temperatures and pressures, making its physical properties variable. The working capacity of fuel vapor is dramatically enhanced in the pyrolysis reaction process. Benefiting from the high enough working capacity, the fuel vapor turbine still has enough power to drive a generator in addition to a fuel pump. The low-grade heat energy absorbed by fuel is transformed into high-grade mechanical/electrical energy by this system to achieve better energy utilization. Evaluation results indicate that this thermodynamic power generation system can be operated in a wide range of temperature to support the off-design operation of a scramjet. - Highlights: • An energy recovery and power generation system with fuel vapor turbine on scramjet. • An algorithm for isentropic enthalpy drop of fuel vapor using a real gas model. • Significant increase in power generation capacity caused by pyrolysis of fuel. • About 100 kJ kg−1 power generation obtained at a turbine expansion ratio of 5

  3. Influence of Soil Moisture on Soil Gas Vapor Concentration for Vapor Intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models have been widely used in analyzing the effects of various environmental factors in the vapor intrusion process. Soil moisture content is one of the key factors determining the subsurface vapor concentration profile. This manuscript considers the effects of soil moisture profiles on the soil gas vapor concentration away from any surface capping by buildings or pavement. The “open field” soil gas vapor concentration profile is observed to be sensitive to the soil moisture di...

  4. Sonographic measurement of gallbladder volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, W J; Groh, W J; Darweesh, R M; Lawson, T L; Kishk, S M; Kern, M K

    1985-11-01

    Sonographic images of the gallbladder enable satisfactory approximation of gallbladder volume using the sum-of-cylinders method. The sum-of-cylinder measurements, however, are moderately cumbersome and time consuming to perform. In this investigation, in vitro and in vivo testing was done to determine that a simple ellipsoid method applied to sonographic gallbladder images yields reasonable volume approximations that are comparable to the volumes calculated by the sum-of-cylinders method. Findings from a water-bath experiment showed that measurement of gallbladder volume by the ellipsoid method closely approximated the true volume with a mean difference of about 1.0 ml. The results of in vivo studies in five volunteers demonstrated that the gallbladder contracted substantially after a fatty meal and that volumes calculated by the ellipsoid and sum-of-cylinders methods were nearly identical. Thus, a simple ellipsoid method, requiring negligible time, may be used to approximate satisfactory gallbladder volume for clinical or investigative studies. PMID:3901703

  5. Device for the detection of acid vapors and particularly hydrofluoric acid vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This device concerns the detection of acid vapors contained in a gaseous environment which have to be controlled. It uses a detector with a calorimetric material. It can be used to detect acid vapors, but it detects particularly hydrofluoric acid vapors. In nuclear industry, this device can detect hydrofluoric acid from UF6, even at high temperature. (TEC)

  6. Distribution of Vapor Pressure in the Vacuum Freeze-Drying Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the big vacuum freeze-drying equipment, the drying rate of materials is uneven at different positions. This phenomenon can be explained by the uneven distribution of vapor pressure in chamber during the freeze-drying process. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to describe the vapor flow in the passageways either between material plates and in the channel between plate groups. The distribution of vapor pressure along flow passageway is given. Two characteristic factors of passageways are defined to express the effects of structural and process parameters on vapor pressure distribution. The affecting factors and their actions are quantitatively discussed in detail. Two examples are calculated and analyzed. The analysis method and the conclusions are useful to estimate the difference of material drying rate at different parts in equipment and to direct the choice of structural and process parameters.

  7. Influence of Copper Vapor on Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker Arcs During Stationary and Moving States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiang; RONG Mingzhe; WU Yi; XU Tiejun; SUN Zhiqiang

    2008-01-01

    The influence of copper vapor on the low-voltage circuit breaker arcs is studied. A three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) model of arc motion under the effect of external magnetic field is built up. By adopting the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT based on control-volume method, the above MHD model is solved. For the mediums of air-1% Cu and air-10% Cu, the distributions of stationary temperature, pressure, electrical potential and the arc motion processes are compared with those of a pure air arc. The copper vapor diffusion process in the arc chamber and the distribution of copper vapor mass concentration are also simulated. The results shows that the copper vapor has a cooling effect on the arc plasma and can decrease the stationary voltage as well. Moreover, the presence of copper vapor can decelerate the arc motion in the quenching chambers. The maximal copper vapor concentration locates behind the arc root because of the existence of a "double vortex" near the electrodes.

  8. Optical Sensor for Diverse Organic Vapors at ppm Concentration Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora M. Paolucci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A broadly responsive optical organic vapor sensor is described that responds to low concentrations of organic vapors without significant interference from water vapor. Responses to several classes of organic vapors are highlighted, and trends within classes are presented. The relationship between molecular properties (vapor pressure, boiling point, polarizability, and refractive index and sensor response are discussed.

  9. Copper vapor laser system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-power, high-quality, and long-life copper vapor laser (CVL) system has been developed and operated. The system is composed of a small sized CVL oscillator with high beam quality, several high-power CVL amplifiers and related sub-systems such as special resonator optics, beam shaping and propagating optics, and pulse timing controller. Further developments of high-power amplifiers are being conducted for the next R and D targets. In our latest tests, the maximum output power of 480W has been achieved by optimizing discharge circuit conditions. Major-components life-time of more than 2000 hours has been also ensured in long-term CVL amplifier operation tests. Accumulated operation time of more than 700 hours has been achieved without refilling copper source or any maintenance. (author)

  10. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Risk assessment of metal vapor arcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C. (Inventor); Leidecker, Henning W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing metal vapor arcing risk for a component is provided. The method comprises acquiring a current variable value associated with an operation of the component; comparing the current variable value with a threshold value for the variable; evaluating compared variable data to determine the metal vapor arcing risk in the component; and generating a risk assessment status for the component.

  12. SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in Increasing numbers because of the many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. SVE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport ar...

  13. Boron carbide whiskers produced by vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Boron carbide whiskers have an excellent combination of properties for use as a reinforcement material. They are produced by vaporizing boron carbide powder and condensing the vapors on a substrate. Certain catalysts promote the growth rate and size of the whiskers.

  14. Preliminary Results of 4-D Water Vapor Tomography in the Troposphere Using GPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Slant-path water vapor amounts (SWV) from a station to all the GPS (Global Positioning System)satellites in view can be estimated by using a ground-based GPS receiver. In this paper, a tomographic method was utilized to retrieve the local horizontal and vertical structure of water vapor over a local GPS receiver network using SWV amounts as observables in the tomography. The method of obtaining SWV using ground-based GPS is described first, and then the theory of tomography using GPS is presented.A water vapor tomography experiment was made using a small GPS network in the Beijing region. The tomographic results were analyzed in two ways: (1) a pure GPS method, i.e., only using GPS observables as input to the tomography; (2) combining GPS observables with vertical constraints or a priori information,which come from average radiosonde measurements over three days. It is shown that the vertical structure of water vapor is well resolved with a priori information. Comparisons of profiles between radiosondes and GPS show that the RMS error of the tomography is about 1-2 mm. It is demonstrated that the tomography can monitor the evolution of tropospheric water vapor in space and time. The vertical resolution of the tomography is tested with layer thicknesses of 600 m, 800 m and 1000 m. Comparisons with radiosondes show that the result from a resolution of 800 m is slightly better than results from the other two resolutions in the experiment. Water vapor amounts recreated from the tomography field agree well with precipitable water vapor (PWV) calculated using GPS delays. Hourly tomographic results are also shown using the resolution of 800 m. Water vapor characteristics under the background of heavy rainfall development are analyzed using these tomographic results. The water vapor spatio-temporal structures derived from the GPS network show a great potential in the investigation of weather disasters.

  15. Probing temperature during laser spot welding from vapor composition and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X.; DebRoy, T.; fürschbach, P. W.

    2003-11-01

    Measurement of weld pool temperature during laser spot welding is a difficult task because of the short pulse duration, often lasting only a few milliseconds, highly transient nature of the process, and the presence of a metal vapor plume near the weld pool. This article describes recent research to estimate weld pool temperatures experimentally and theoretically. Composition of the metal vapor from the weld pool was determined by condensing a portion of the vapor on the inner surface of an open ended quartz tube which was mounted perpendicular to the sample surface and coaxial with the laser beam. It was found that iron, chromium, and manganese were the main metallic species in the vapor phase. The concentrations of Fe and Cr in the vapor increased slightly while the concentration of Mn in the vapor decreased somewhat with the increase in power density. The vapor composition was used to determine an effective temperature of the weld pool. A transient, three-dimensional numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model based on the solution of the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy was used to calculate the temperature and velocity fields in the weld pool as a function of time. The experimentally determined geometry of the spot welds agreed well with that determined from the computed temperature field. The effective temperature determined from the vapor composition was found to be close to the numerically computed peak temperature at the weld pool surface. Because of the short process duration and other serious problems in the direct measurement of temperature during laser spot welding, estimating approximate values of peak temperature from metal vapor composition is particularly valuable.

  16. Probing temperature during laser spot welding from vapor composition and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of weld pool temperature during laser spot welding is a difficult task because of the short pulse duration, often lasting only a few milliseconds, highly transient nature of the process, and the presence of a metal vapor plume near the weld pool. This article describes recent research to estimate weld pool temperatures experimentally and theoretically. Composition of the metal vapor from the weld pool was determined by condensing a portion of the vapor on the inner surface of an open ended quartz tube which was mounted perpendicular to the sample surface and coaxial with the laser beam. It was found that iron, chromium, and manganese were the main metallic species in the vapor phase. The concentrations of Fe and Cr in the vapor increased slightly while the concentration of Mn in the vapor decreased somewhat with the increase in power density. The vapor composition was used to determine an effective temperature of the weld pool. A transient, three-dimensional numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model based on the solution of the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy was used to calculate the temperature and velocity fields in the weld pool as a function of time. The experimentally determined geometry of the spot welds agreed well with that determined from the computed temperature field. The effective temperature determined from the vapor composition was found to be close to the numerically computed peak temperature at the weld pool surface. Because of the short process duration and other serious problems in the direct measurement of temperature during laser spot welding, estimating approximate values of peak temperature from metal vapor composition is particularly valuable

  17. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  18. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS & EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-12-20

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors.

  19. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  20. Building blocks for ionic liquids: Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We measured vapor pressures of the 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles by transpiration method. → Variations on the alkyl chain length n were C3, C5-C7, and C9-C10. → Enthalpies of vaporization were derived from (p, T) dependencies. → Enthalpies of vaporization at 298.15 K were linear dependent on the chain length. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of the linear 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles with the alkyl chain C3, C5-C7, and C9-C10 have been measured by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization ΔlgHm of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. A linear correlation of enthalpies of vaporization ΔlgHm (298.15 K) of the 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles with the chain length has been found.

  1. Development of a simplified model for droplet vaporization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Helin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Droplet vaporization is an essential sub-process of fuel spray in diesel engines,which has important effects on combustion and emissions performance. Development of a simplified droplet vaporization model is necessary to simulate gas mixture formation in cylinder for lower computational costs, and it is also applicable in practical multi-dimension spray calculations for diesel engines. An empirical exponential equation is introduced in this paper to approximate the internal temperature profile of droplet instead of solving the partial differential equation for temperature distribution. Results indicate that the computational cost has been reduced by almost thirty percent in total. Also, the concept of effective diffusion is introduced by using an enlarged diffusivity to take account of the effect of internal circulations inside droplets. The calculated result of the simplified evaporation model has been compared with that of the infinite diffusivity model and one-dimensional model respectively. It shows that the calculation precision of the simplified model is among those two models.

  2. Calculations of turbulent separated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Shih, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical study of incompressible turbulent separated flows is carried out by using two-equation turbulence models of the K-epsilon type. On the basis of realizability analysis, a new formulation of the eddy-viscosity is proposed which ensures the positiveness of turbulent normal stresses - a realizability condition that most existing two-equation turbulence models are unable to satisfy. The present model is applied to calculate two backward-facing step flows. Calculations with the standard K-epsilon model and a recently developed RNG-based K-epsilon model are also made for comparison. The calculations are performed with a finite-volume method. A second-order accurate differencing scheme and sufficiently fine grids are used to ensure the numerical accuracy of solutions. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data for both mean and turbulent quantities. The comparison shows that the present model performs quite well for separated flows.

  3. Density, viscosity, and saturated vapor pressure of ethyl trifluoroacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Density of ethyl trifluoroacetate was measured and its thermal expansion coefficient was determined. • Viscosity of ethyl trifluoroacetate was measured and fitted to the Andrade equation. • Saturated vapor pressure of ethyl trifluoroacetate was reported. • The Clausius–Clapeyron equation was used to calculate the molar evaporation enthalpy of ethyl trifluoroacetate. - Abstract: The properties of ethyl trifluoroacetate (CF3COOCH2CH3) were measured as a function of temperature: density (278.08 to 322.50) K, viscosity (293.45 to 334.32) K, saturated vapor pressure (293.35 to 335.65) K. The density data were fitted to a quadratic polynomial equation, and the viscosity data were regressed to the Andrade equation. The correlation coefficient (R2) of equations for density and viscosity are 0.9997 and 0.9999, respectively. The correlation between saturated vapor pressures and temperatures was achieved with a maximum absolute relative deviation of 0.142%. In addition, the molar evaporation enthalpy in the range of T = (293.35 to 335.65) K was estimated by the Clausius–Clapeyron equation

  4. Thermoeconomic optimization of subcooled and superheated vapor compression refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exergy-based thermoeconomic optimization application is applied to a subcooled and superheated vapor compression refrigeration system. The advantage of using the exergy method of thermoeconomic optimization is that various elements of the system-i.e., condenser, evaporator, subcooling and superheating heat exchangers-can be optimized on their own. The application consists of determining the optimum heat exchanger areas with the corresponding optimum subcooling and superheating temperatures. A cost function is specified for the optimum conditions. All calculations are made for three refrigerants: R22, R134a, and R407c. Thermodynamic properties of refrigerants are formulated using the Artificial Neural Network methodology

  5. Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics of the Regional Hydrologic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that local feedback of surface evaporation on precipitation, or recycling, is a significant source of water for precipitation. Quantitative results on the exact amount of recycling have been difficult to obtain in view of the inherent limitations of diagnostic recycling calculations. The current study describes a calculation of the amount of local and remote geographic sources of surface evaporation for precipitation, based on the implementation of three-dimensional constituent tracers of regional water vapor sources (termed water vapor tracers, WVT) in a general circulation model. The major limitation on the accuracy of the recycling estimates is the veracity of the numerically simulated hydrological cycle, though we note that this approach can also be implemented within the context of a data assimilation system. In the WVT approach, each tracer is associated with an evaporative source region for a prognostic three-dimensional variable that represents a partial amount of the total atmospheric water vapor. The physical processes that act on a WVT are determined in proportion to those that act on the model's prognostic water vapor. In this way, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation can be predicted within the model simulation, and can be validated against the model's prognostic water vapor. As a demonstration of the method, the regional hydrologic cycles for North America and India are evaluated for six summers (June, July and August) of model simulation. More than 50% of the precipitation in the Midwestern United States came from continental regional sources, and the local source was the largest of the regional tracers (14%). The Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic regions contributed 18% of the water for Midwestern precipitation, but further analysis suggests that the greater region of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean may also contribute significantly. In most North American continental regions, the local source of precipitation is

  6. Cs2 ‘diffuse bands’ emission from superheated cesium vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Kokaj, J.; Thomas, N.; Mathew, J.; Beuc, R.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal emission from superheated cesium vapor was studied to very high temperatures from 700 °C to 1000 °C. This was performed in the vapor condition only and with no liquid cesium present in the all-sapphire cell. We observed a number of atomic and molecular spectral features simultaneously in emission and absorption, especially peculiar thermal emission of cesium dimer diffuse bands (2 3Πg → a 3∑u + transitions) around 710 nm coexisting with absorption bands around first resonance lines at 852 and 894 nm. We performed appropriate calculations of the diffuse band emission profiles and compared them with measured profiles. We also performed absorption measurements and compared observed diffuse band profiles with calculated ones. Possible applications of the observed phenomena will be discussed in terms of the solar energy conversion using dense cesium vapor.

  7. Volume effect and skin reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume effect has been investigated about late skin necrosis. Tolerance dose of skin by single irradiation has been suggested to increase from 20∼22.5 Gy for 2.0 cm in diameter to more than 50 Gy for 1.0 cm in diameter. It is consistent with the volume effect for acute skin reaction. Similar relationship has been reported for normal tissue tolerance of central nervous system. The volume effect where a large difference in threshold dose is evident has not been explained by statistical calculation, such as critical element models. White matter necrosis rate has been simulated well using Monte Carlo calculation postulating inter-elemental migration but not by models assuming elemental independence. (author)

  8. CFD Modeling of LNG Spill: Humidity Effect on Vapor Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannissi, S. G.; Venetsanos, A. G.; Markatos, N.

    2015-09-01

    The risks entailed by an accidental spill of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) should be indentified and evaluated, in order to design measures for prevention and mitigation in LNG terminals. For this purpose, simulations are considered a useful tool to study LNG spills and to understand the mechanisms that influence the vapor dispersion. In the present study, the ADREA-HF CFD code is employed to simulate the TEEX1 experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Brayton Fire Training Field, which is affiliated with the Texas A&M University system and involves LNG release and dispersion over water surface in open- obstructed environment. In the simulation the source was modeled as a two-phase jet enabling the prediction of both the vapor dispersion and the liquid pool spreading. The conservation equations for the mixture are solved along with the mass fraction for natural gas. Due to the low prevailing temperatures during the spill ambient humidity condenses and this might affect the vapor dispersion. This effect was examined in this work by solving an additional conservation equation for the water mass fraction. Two different models were tested: the hydrodynamic equilibrium model which assumes kinetic equilibrium between the phases and the non hydrodynamic equilibrium model, in order to assess the effect of slip velocity on the prediction. The slip velocity is defined as the difference between the liquid phase and the vapor phase and is calculated using the algebraic slip model. Constant droplet diameter of three different sizes and a lognormal distribution of the droplet diameter were applied and the results are discussed and compared with the measurements.

  9. Differential absorption radar techniques: water vapor retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Luis; Lebsock, Matthew; Livesey, Nathaniel; Tanelli, Simone

    2016-06-01

    Two radar pulses sent at different frequencies near the 183 GHz water vapor line can be used to determine total column water vapor and water vapor profiles (within clouds or precipitation) exploiting the differential absorption on and off the line. We assess these water vapor measurements by applying a radar instrument simulator to CloudSat pixels and then running end-to-end retrieval simulations. These end-to-end retrievals enable us to fully characterize not only the expected precision but also their potential biases, allowing us to select radar tones that maximize the water vapor signal minimizing potential errors due to spectral variations in the target extinction properties. A hypothetical CloudSat-like instrument with 500 m by ˜ 1 km vertical and horizontal resolution and a minimum detectable signal and radar precision of -30 and 0.16 dBZ, respectively, can estimate total column water vapor with an expected precision of around 0.03 cm, with potential biases smaller than 0.26 cm most of the time, even under rainy conditions. The expected precision for water vapor profiles was found to be around 89 % on average, with potential biases smaller than 77 % most of the time when the profile is being retrieved close to surface but smaller than 38 % above 3 km. By using either horizontal or vertical averaging, the precision will improve vastly, with the measurements still retaining a considerably high vertical and/or horizontal resolution.

  10. Direct Volume Rendering of Curvilinear Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Arsi; Wilhelms, J.; Challinger, J.; Alper, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Direct volume rendering can visualize sampled 3D scalar data as a continuous medium, or extract features. However, it is generally slow. Furthermore, most algorithms for direct volume rendering have assumed rectilinear gridded data. This paper discusses methods for using direct volume rendering when the original volume is curvilinear, i.e. is divided into six-sided cells which are not necessarily equilateral hexahedra. One approach is to ray-cast such volumes directly. An alternative approach is to interpolate the sample volumes to a rectilinear grid, and use this regular volume for rendering. Advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches in terms of speed and image quality are explored.

  11. Water vapor and cloud water measurements over Darwin during the STEP 1987 tropical mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K. K.; Proffitt, M. H.; Chan, K. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Strahan, E.; Wilson, J. C.; Kley, D.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of stratospheric and upper tropospheric cloud water plus water vapor (total water) and water vapor were made with two Lyman alpha hygrometers as part of the STEP tropical experiment. The in situ measurements were made in the Darwin, Australia, area in January and February of 1987 on an ER-2 aircraft. Average stratospheric water vapor at a potential temperature of 375 K (the average value of Theta at the tropopause) was 2.4 parts per million by volume (ppmv). This water mixing ratio is below the 3.0 to 4.0 ppmv necessary to be consistent with the observed upper stratospheric dryness. Saturation with respect to ice and the potential for dehydration was observed up to Theta = 402 K.

  12. Automated Test Systems for Toxic Vapor Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, C. B.; Hammond, T. A.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has been using Personal Computer based Data Acquisition and Control Systems (PCDAS) for about nine years. These systems control the generation of toxic vapors of known concentrations under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The PCDAS also logs the test conditions and the test article responses in data files for analysis by standard spreadsheets or custom programs. The PCDAS was originally developed to perform standardized qualification and acceptance tests in a search for a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) toxic vapor detector to replace the hydrazine detectors for the Space Shuttle launch pad. It has since become standard test equipment for the TVDL and is indispensable in producing calibration standards for the new hydrazine monitors at the 10 part per billion (ppb) level. The standard TVDL PCDAS can control two toxic vapor generators (TVG's) with three channels each and two flow/ temperature / humidity (FTH) controllers and it can record data from up to six toxic vapor detectors (TVD's) under test and can deliver flows from 5 to 50 liters per minute (L/m) at temperatures from near zero to 50 degrees Celsius (C) using an environmental chamber to maintain the sample temperature. The concentration range for toxic vapors depends on the permeation source installed in the TVG. The PCDAS can provide closed loop control of temperature and humidity to two sample vessels, typically one for zero gas and one for the standard gas. This is required at very low toxic vapor concentrations to minimize the time required to passivate the sample delivery system. Recently, there have been several requests for information about the PCDAS by other laboratories with similar needs, both on and off KSC. The purpose of this paper is to inform the toxic vapor detection community of the current status and planned upgrades to the automated testing of toxic vapor detectors at the

  13. Minivoids in the Local Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, A V

    2006-01-01

    We consider a sphere of 7.5 Mpc radius, which contains 355 galaxies with accurately measured distances, to detect the nearest empty volumes. Using a simple void detection algorithm, we found six large (mini)voids in Aquila, Eridanus, Leo, Vela, Cepheus and Octans, each of more than 30 Mpc^3. Besides them, 24 middle-size "bubbles" of more than 5 Mpc^3 volume are detected, as well as 52 small "pores". The six largest minivoids occupy 58% of the considered volume. Addition of the bubbles and pores to them increases the total empty volume up to 75% and 81%, respectively. The detected local voids look like oblong potatoes with typical axial ratios b/a = 0.75 and c/a = 0.62 (in the triaxial ellipsoide approximation). Being arranged by the size of their volume, local voids follow power law of volumes-rankes dependence. A correlation Gamma-function of the Local Volume galaxies follows a power low with a formally calculated fractal dimension D = 1.5. We found that galaxies surrounding the local minivoids do not differ...

  14. Evaluation of Heat Transfer Coefficients During the Water Vapor Condensation Contained in the Flue Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bespalov Victor; Bespalov Vladimir; Melnikov Denis

    2016-01-01

    Is shown the influence of the heat transfer coefficient from the wet flue gas to the heat exchange surface on the overall heat transfer coefficient in the gas-air heat exchanger with the water vapor condensation. Experimental data are compared with calculations based on the mathematical model of the condensing heat exchanger.

  15. An Analytical Formula for Potential Water Vapor in an Atmosphere of Constant Lapse Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Varmaghani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate calculation of precipitable water vapor (PWV in the atmosphere has always been a matter of importance for meteorologists. Potential water vapor (POWV or maximum precipitable water vapor can be an appropriate base for estimation of probable maximum precipitation (PMP in an area, leading to probable maximum flood (PMF and flash flood management systems. PWV and POWV have miscellaneously been estimated by means of either discrete solutions such as tables, diagrams or empirical methods; however, there is no analytical formula for POWV even in a particular atmospherical condition. In this article, fundamental governing equations required for analytical calculation of POWV are first introduced. Then, it will be shown that this POWV calculation relies on a Riemann integral solution over a range of altitude whose integrand is merely a function of altitude. The solution of the integral gives rise to a series function which is bypassed by approximation of saturation vapor pressure in the range of -55 to 55 degrees Celsius, and an analytical formula for POWV in an atmosphere of constant lapse rate is proposed. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the suggested equation, exact calculations of saturated adiabatic lapse rate (SALR at different surface temperatures were performed. The formula was compared with both the diagrams from the US Weather Bureau and SALR. The results demonstrated unquestionable capability of analytical solutions and also equivalent functions.

  16. Line parameter validation using ground-based solar occultation measurements: Water vapor--A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veihelmann, B.; Maurellis, A.N.; Smith, K.M.; Tolchenov, R.N.; Tennyson, J.; Zande, W.J. van der

    2007-01-01

    Water vapor spectroscopy data for the 720 nm absorption band (4[nu] polyad) are validated in the context of atmospheric radiative transfer calculations. We validate line parameters from the HITRAN-2000 database and from the ULB-UFR-BIRA database which have been used for the 2004 release of HITRAN. F

  17. Molar Mass and Second Virial Coefficient of Polyethylene Glycol by Vapor Pressure Osmometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Checkal, Caleb; Saksa, Brian; Baka, Nadia; Modi, Kalpit; Rivera, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students determine the number-average molar masses and second virial coefficients of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers ranging in molar mass from 200 to 1500 g mol[superscript -1] using vapor pressure osmometry (VPO). Students assess VPO in relation to accurate molar mass calculations of PEG polymers. Additionally,…

  18. Surface retention capacity calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of

  19. On the abdominal pressure volume relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Mulier, Jan Paul; Dillemans, Bruno; Crombach, Mark; Missant, Carlo; Sels, Annabel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: During insufflation of the abdomen to create a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopy, both intra abdominal pressure and insufflated volume can be measured and are used to calculate the abdominal pressure-volume relationship. First, an accurate, linear relationship was identified using a mathematical model with an elastance, E, or its reciprocal the compliance C and with a pressure at zero volume, PV0. This function was stable and could be used to describe the abdominal characteristics of...

  20. Isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibria of the binary system maleic anhydride and diethyl phthalate at p = (2.67, 5.33, and 8.00) kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saturated vapor pressures of pure diethyl phthalate were measured with the ebulliometer. And isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the binary system (maleic anhydride + diethyl phthalate) at p = (2.67, 5.33, and 8.00) kPa were determined using the ebulliometric method. The parameters of the NRTL model for the binary system were obtained by calculating equilibrium compositions of the liquid and vapor phase with the experimental equilibrium temperatures, pressures and feed compositions. Moreover (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the binary system were predicted by use of the UNIFAC model. Predicted results were compared with those from the ebulliometric method, and showed good agreement

  1. Chiroptical Spectroscopy in the Vapor Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Priyanka; Long, Benjamin D.; Wiberg, Kenneth B.; Vaccaro, Patrick H.

    2011-06-01

    Electromagnetic radiation propagating through an isotropic chiral medium experiences a complex index of refraction that differs in both real (in-phase) and imaginary (in-quadrature) parts for the right-circular and left-circular polarization states that define the helicity basis. The resulting phenomena of circular birefringence (CB) and circular dichroism (CD) lead to observable effects in the form of dispersive rotation and absorptive elliptization for an impinging beam of plane-polarized light, which commonly are measured under conditions of nonresonant and resonant excitation, respectively. This talk will discuss ongoing efforts designed to elucidate the provenance of electronic optical activity under complementary solvated and isolated conditions, with the latter vapor-phase work made possible by our continuing development of Cavity Ring-Down Polarimetry (CRDP). Molecules of interest include the rigid bicyclic ketone (1R,4R)-norbornenone, where the spatial arrangement of distal alkene and carbonyl moeities gives rise to extraordinarily large specific rotation (CB) parameters that are predicted incongruously by different quantum-chemical methods; the monoterpene constitutional isomers (S)-2-carene and (S)-3-carene, which display surprisingly distinct chiroptical properties; and conjugated ketones such as (S)-verbenone, where CD probes of weak π*←n absorption bands have been performed at vibronic resolution. The disparate nature of gas-phase and condensed-phase optical activity will be highlighted, with complementary ab initio calculations serving to elucidate the structural, chemical, and electronic origins of observed behavior. T. Müller, K. B. Wiberg, P. H. Vaccaro, J. R. Cheeseman, and M. J. Frisch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 125 (2002) P. H. Vaccaro, ``Chapter 1.II.10: Optical Rotation and Intrinsic Optical Activity'' in Comprehensive Chiroptical Spectroscopy, N. Berova, P. L. Polavarapu, K. Nakanishi, and R. W. Woody, eds. (John Wiley and Sons, Inc

  2. A simplified adsorption model for water vapor adsorption on activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚小龙; 李立清; 李海龙; 马卫武

    2014-01-01

    A simplified model was developed to describe the water vapor adsorption on activated carbon. The development of the simplified model was started from the original model proposed by DO and his co-workers. Two different kinds of carbon materials were prepared for water vapor adsorption, and the adsorption experiments were conducted at different temperatures (20-50 °C) and relative humidities (5%-99%) to test the model. It is shown that the amount of adsorbed water vapor in micropore decreases with the temperature increasing, and the water molecules form larger water clusters around the functional group as the temperature is up to a higher value. The simplified model describes reasonably well for all the experimental data. According to the fitted values, the parameters of simplified model were represented by the temperature and then the model was used to calculate the water vapor adsorption amount at 25 °C and 35 °C. The results show that the model can get relatively accurate values to calculate the water vapor adsorption on activated carbon.

  3. E-Cigarettes Emit Toxic Vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160107.html E-Cigarettes Emit Toxic Vapors: Study Levels depend on ... findings could be important to both makers of e-cigarettes and regulators who want to reduce the ...

  4. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  5. Remote sensing of water vapor features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelberg, Henry E.

    1993-01-01

    Water vapor plays a critical role in the atmosphere. It is an important medium of energy exchange between air, land, and water; it is a major greenhouse gas, providing a crucial radiative role in the global climate system; and it is intimately involved in many regional scale atmospheric processes. Our research has been aimed at improving satellite remote sensing of water vapor and better understanding its role in meteorological processes. Our early studies evaluated the current GOES VAS system for measuring water vapor and have used VAS-derived water vapor data to examine pre-thunderstorm environments. Much of that research was described at the 1991 Research Review. A second research component has considered three proposed sensors--the High resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS), the Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS), and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). We have focused on MAMS and AMSU research during the past year and the accomplishments made in this effort are presented.

  6. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line...

  7. Simplex volume analysis for finding endmembers in hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsiao-Chi; Song, Meiping; Chang, Chein-I.

    2015-05-01

    Using maximal simplex volume as an optimal criterion for finding endmembers is a common approach and has been widely studied in the literature. Interestingly, very little work has been reported on how simplex volume is calculated. It turns out that the issue of calculating simplex volume is much more complicated and involved than what we may think. This paper investigates this issue from two different aspects, geometric structure and eigen-analysis. The geometric structure is derived from its simplex structure whose volume can be calculated by multiplying its base with its height. On the other hand, eigen-analysis takes advantage of the Cayley-Menger determinant to calculate the simplex volume. The major issue of this approach is that when the matrix is ill-rank where determinant is desired. To deal with this problem two methods are generally considered. One is to perform data dimensionality reduction to make the matrix to be of full rank. The drawback of this method is that the original volume has been shrunk and the found volume of a dimensionality-reduced simplex is not the real original simplex volume. Another is to use singular value decomposition (SVD) to find singular values for calculating simplex volume. The dilemma of this method is its instability in numerical calculations. This paper explores all of these three methods in simplex volume calculation. Experimental results show that geometric structure-based method yields the most reliable simplex volume.

  8. Interference of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor on the analysis for oxides of nitrogen by chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maahs, H. G.

    1975-01-01

    The interference of small concentrations (less than 4 percent by volume) of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor on the analysis for oxides of nitrogen by chemiluminescence was measured. The sample gas consisted primarily of nitrogen, with less than 100 parts per million concentration of nitric oxide, and with small concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor added. Results obtained under these conditions indicate that although oxygen does not measurably affect the analysis for nitric oxide, the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor causes the indicated nitric oxide concentration to be too low. An interference factor - defined as the percentage change in indicated nitric oxide concentration (relative to the true nitric oxide concentration) divided by the percent interfering gas present - was determined for carbon dioxide to be -0.60 + or - 0.04 and for water vapor to be -2.1 + or - 0.3.

  9. Investigating the effects of methanol-water vapor mixture on a PBI-based high temperature PEM fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Nielsen, Heidi Venstrup;

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of methanol and water vapor on the performance of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC). A H3PO4-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane electrode assembly (MEA), Celtec P2100 of 45 cm2 of active surface area from BASF was employed. A...... long-term durability test of around 1250 h was performed, in which the concentrations of methanol-water vapor mixture in the anode feed gas were varied. The fuel cell showed a continuous performance decay in the presence of vapor mixtures of methanol and water of 5% and 8% by volume in anode feed....... Impedance measurements followed by equivalent circuit fitting revealed that the effects were most significant for intermediate-high frequency resistances, implying that charge transfer losses were the most significant losses. Vapor mixture of 3% in feed, however, when introduced after operation at 8...

  10. Vapor deposition on doublet airfoil substrates: Control of coating thickness and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas jet assisted vapor deposition processes for depositing coatings are conducted at higher pressures than conventional physical vapor deposition methods, and have shown promise for coating complex shaped substrates including those with non-line-of-sight (NLS) regions on their surface. These regions typically receive vapor atoms at a lower rate and with a wider incident angular distribution than substrate regions in line-of-sight (LS) of the vapor source. To investigate the coating of such substrates, the thickness and microstructure variation along the inner (curved) surfaces of a model doublet airfoil containing both LS and NLS regions has been investigated. Results from atomistic simulations and experiments confirm that the coating's thickness is thinner in flux-shadowed regions than in other regions for all the coating processes investigated. They also indicated that the coatings columnar microstructure and pore volume fraction vary with surface location through the LS to NLS transition zone. A substrate rotation strategy for optimizing the thickness over the entire doublet airfoil surface was investigated, and led to the identification of a process that resulted in only small variation of coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and pore volume fraction on all doublet airfoil surfaces

  11. Vapor deposition on doublet airfoil substrates: Control of coating thickness and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Zhao, Hengbei; Wadley, Haydn N. G., E-mail: haydn@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Rd., P.O. Box 400745, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Gas jet assisted vapor deposition processes for depositing coatings are conducted at higher pressures than conventional physical vapor deposition methods, and have shown promise for coating complex shaped substrates including those with non-line-of-sight (NLS) regions on their surface. These regions typically receive vapor atoms at a lower rate and with a wider incident angular distribution than substrate regions in line-of-sight (LS) of the vapor source. To investigate the coating of such substrates, the thickness and microstructure variation along the inner (curved) surfaces of a model doublet airfoil containing both LS and NLS regions has been investigated. Results from atomistic simulations and experiments confirm that the coating's thickness is thinner in flux-shadowed regions than in other regions for all the coating processes investigated. They also indicated that the coatings columnar microstructure and pore volume fraction vary with surface location through the LS to NLS transition zone. A substrate rotation strategy for optimizing the thickness over the entire doublet airfoil surface was investigated, and led to the identification of a process that resulted in only small variation of coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and pore volume fraction on all doublet airfoil surfaces.

  12. Modeling of the vapor cycle of Laguna Verde with the PEPSE code to conditions of thermal power licensed at present (2027 MWt); Modelado del ciclo de vapor de Laguna Verde con el codigo PEPSE a condiciones de potencia termica actualmente licenciada (2027 MWt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda G, M. A.; Maya G, F.; Medel C, J. E.; Cardenas J, J. B.; Cruz B, H. J.; Mercado V, J. J., E-mail: miguel.castaneda01@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    By means of the use of the performance evaluation of power system efficiencies (PEPSE) code was modeled the vapor cycle of the nuclear power station of Laguna Verde to reproduce the nuclear plant behavior to conditions of thermal power, licensed at present (2027 MWt); with the purpose of having a base line before the implementation of the project of extended power increase. The model of the gauged vapor cycle to reproduce the nuclear plant conditions makes use of the PEPSE model, design case of the vapor cycle of nuclear power station of Laguna Verde, which has as main components of the model the great equipment of the vapor cycle of Laguna Verde. The design case model makes use of information about the design requirements of each equipment for theoretically calculating the electric power of exit, besides thermodynamic conditions of the vapor cycle in different points. Starting from the design model and making use of data of the vapor cycle measured in the nuclear plant; the adjustment factors were calculated for the different equipment s of the vapor cycle, to reproduce with the PEPSE model the real vapor cycle of Laguna Verde. Once characterized the model of the vapor cycle of Laguna Verde, we can realize different sensibility studies to determine the effects macros to the vapor cycle by the variation of certain key parameters. (Author)

  13. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  14. A Numerical Investigation of Vapor Intrusion — the Dynamic Response of Contaminant Vapors to Rainfall Events

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of ...

  15. Reconstructing CO2 concentrations in basaltic melt inclusions using Raman analysis of vapor bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aster, Ellen M.; Wallace, Paul J.; Moore, Lowell R.; Watkins, James; Gazel, Esteban; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Melt inclusions record valuable information about pre-eruptive volatile concentrations of melts. However, a vapor bubble commonly forms in inclusions after trapping, and this decreases the dissolved CO2 concentration in the melt (glass) phase in the inclusion. To quantify CO2 loss to vapor bubbles, Raman spectroscopic analysis was used to determine the density of CO2 in bubbles in melt inclusions from two Cascade cinder cones near Mt. Lassen and two Mexican cinder cones (Jorullo, Parícutin). Using analyses of dissolved CO2 and H2O in the glass in the inclusions, the measured CO2 vapor densities were used to reconstruct the original dissolved CO2 contents of the melt inclusions at the time of trapping. Our results show that 30-90% of the CO2 in a melt inclusion is contained in the vapor bubble, values similar to those found in other recent studies. We developed a model for vapor bubble growth to show how post-entrapment bubbles form in melt inclusions as a result of cooling, crystallization, and eruptive quenching. The model allows us to predict the bubble volume fraction as a function of ΔT (the difference between the trapping temperature and eruptive temperature) and the amount of CO2 lost to a bubble. Comparison of the Raman and modeling methods shows highly variable agreement. For 10 of 17 inclusions, the two methods are within ± 550 ppm CO2 (avg. difference 290 ppm), equivalent to ±~300 bars uncertainty in estimated trapping pressure for restored inclusions. Discrepancies between the two methods occur for inclusions that have been strongly affected by post-entrapment diffusive H+ loss, because this process enhances bubble formation. For our dataset, restoring the CO2 lost to vapor bubbles increases inferred trapping pressures of the inclusions by 600 to as much as 4000 bars, highlighting the importance of accounting for vapor bubble formation in melt inclusion studies.

  16. The Use of Sage Water Vapor Data for Investigating Climate Change Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, D.

    2003-01-01

    SAGE water vapor data has proven valuable for addressing several of the important issues in climate change research. It has been used to investigate how the upper troposphere water vapor responds to warming and convection, a key question in understanding the water vapor feedback to anthropogenic global warming. In the case of summer versus winter differences, SAGE results showed that the upper tropospheric relative humidity remained approximately constant; this result was in general agreement with how a GCM handled the seasonal difference, and gave credence to the argument that the GCM was not overestimating the water vapor feedback associated with convection. In addition, the convection-water vapor relationship was investigated further using SAGE water vapor and ISCCP cloud data. The results showed that upper tropospheric drying did appear to occur simultaneously with deep convective events in the tropics, only to be replaced by moistening a few hours later, associated (most likely) with the reevaporation of moisture from anvil clouds. The total effect was, again, a moistening of the upper troposphere associated with convection. Calculation of the actual trends in upper tropospheric moisture is a potential goal for SAGE data usage; trends calculated with radiosonde data, or instruments calibrated with radiosonde data have the problem of the effect of changing radiosonde instruments. SAGE data have in effect been used to compare different radiosondes through comparisons, and could continue to do so. SAGE 3 should also help clarify the absolute accuracy of SAGE retrievals in the troposphere. and its consequences. Model results show that water vapor increases can help explain the observations of stratospheric cooling, along with increasing C02 and ozone reduction. SAGE has been shown to provide trends similar to those of some other satellite and in situ retrievals, with increasing water vapor over time. However, SAGE is impacted by aerosol contamination which must be

  17. Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2010-01-01

    The Tin Whisker Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool has been designed to evaluate the risk of metal vapor arcing and to help facilitate a decision toward a researched risk disposition. Users can evaluate a system without having to open up the hardware. This process allows for investigating components at risk rather than spending time and money analyzing every component. The tool points to a risk level and provides direction for appropriate action and documentation.

  18. Modelling vaporous cavitation on fluid transients

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the problem of modelling vaporous cavitation in transmission lines is presented. The two-phase homogeneous equilibrium vaporous cavitation model which has been developed is compared with the conventional column separation model. The latter predicts unrealistically high pressure spikes because of a conflict arising from the prediction of negative cavity sizes if the pressure is not permitted to fall below the vapour pressure, or the prediction of negative absolute pres...

  19. Vapor Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack

    For interplanetary missions landing on a planet of potential biological interest, United States NASA planetary protection currently requires that the flight system must be assembled, tested and ultimately launched with the intent of minimizing the bioload taken to and deposited on the planet. Currently the only NASA approved microbial reduction method is dry heat sterilization process. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements. The VHP sterilization technology is widely used by the medical industry, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material compatibility. The goal of our study is determine the minimum VHP process conditions for PP acceptable microbial reduction levels. A series of experiments were conducted using Geobacillus stearothermophilus to determine VHP process parameters that provided significant reductions in spore viability while allowing survival of sufficient spores for statistically significant enumeration. In addition to the obvious process parameters -hydrogen peroxide concentration, number of pulses, and exposure duration -the investigation also considered the possible effect of environmental pa-rameters. Temperature, relative humidity, and material substrate effects on lethality were also studied. Based on the results, a most conservative D value was recommended. This recom-mended D value was also validated using VHP "hardy" strains that were isolated from clean-rooms and environmental populations collected from spacecraft relevant areas. The efficiency of VHP at ambient condition as well as VHP material compatibility will also be

  20. Computational Model for Determination of Vapor Bubble Growth Speed Maximimum in Superheated Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Turlajs, D; Grivcovs, V; Jaundālders, S

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with problems of investigation of boiling of liquids - the most intensive heat transfer phenomena. There are a lot of research reports of boiling dynamics and heat transfer studies in micro- and nanoscopic levels, carried out with aim to understund phenomena in whole. Simulation model for vapor bubble growth speed maximum calculations in the region of bubble critical radius is elaborated. Numerical calculations were carried out for water in the region of system p...

  1. Vapor flux and recrystallization during dry snow metamorphism under a steady temperature gradient as observed by time-lapse micro-tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Pinzer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dry snow metamorphism under an external temperature gradient is the most common type of recrystallization of snow on the ground. The changes in snow microstructure modify the physical properties of snow, and therefore an understanding of this process is essential for many disciplines, from modeling the effects of snow on climate to assessing avalanche risk. We directly imaged the microstructural changes in snow during temperature gradient metamorphism (TGM under a constant gradient of 50 K m−1, using in situ time-lapse X-ray micro-tomography. This novel and non-destructive technique directly reveals the amount of ice that sublimates and is deposited during metamorphism, in addition to the exact locations of these phase changes. We calculated the average time that an ice volume stayed in place before it sublimated and found a characteristic residence time of 2–3 days. This means that most of the ice changes its phase from solid to vapor and back many times in a seasonal snowpack where similar temperature conditions can be found. Consistent with such a short timescale, we observed a mass turnover of up to 60% of the total ice mass per day. The concept of hand-to-hand transport for the water vapor flux describes the observed changes very well. However, we did not find evidence for a macroscopic vapor diffusion enhancement. The picture of {temperature gradient metamorphism} produced by directly observing the changing microstructure sheds light on the micro-physical processes and could help to improve models that predict the physical properties of snow.

  2. Surface charge dynamics and OH and H number density distributions in near-surface nanosecond pulse discharges at a liquid / vapor interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Caroline; Petrishchev, Vitaly; Yin, Zhiyao; Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2015-10-01

    The present work provides insight into surface charge dynamics and kinetics of radical species reactions in nanosecond pulse discharges sustained at a liquid-vapor interface, above a distilled water surface. The near-surface plasma is sustained using two different discharge configurations, a surface ionization wave discharge between two exposed metal electrodes and a double dielectric barrier discharge. At low discharge pulse repetition rates (~100 Hz), residual surface charge deposition after the discharge pulse is a minor effect. At high pulse repetition rates (~10 kHz), significant negative surface charge accumulation over multiple discharge pulses is detected, both during alternating polarity and negative polarity pulse trains. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and two-photon absorption LIF (TALIF) line imaging are used for in situ measurements of spatial distributions of absolute OH and H atom number densities in near-surface, repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge plasmas. Both in a surface ionization wave discharge and in a double dielectric barrier discharge, peak measured H atom number density, [H] is much higher compared to peak OH number density, due to more rapid OH decay in the afterglow between the discharge pulses. Higher OH number density was measured near the regions with higher plasma emission intensity. Both OH and especially H atoms diffuse out of the surface ionization wave plasma volume, up to several mm from the liquid surface. Kinetic modeling calculations using a quasi-zero-dimensional H2O vapor / Ar plasma model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. The results demonstrate the experimental capability of in situ radical species number density distribution measurements in liquid-vapor interface plasmas, in a simple canonical geometry that lends itself to the validation of kinetic models.

  3. Design, development and tests of high-performance silicon vapor chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qingjun; Chen, Bing-chung; Tsai, Chialun

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a novel triple stack process to develop an all-silicon thermal ground plane (TGP) vapor chamber that enables fabrication of compact, large scale, low thermal expansion coefficient mismatch and high-performance heat transfer devices. The TGP vapor chamber is formed through bonding three etched silicon wafers. On both the top and bottom wafers, microscale and high aspect ratio wick structures are etched for liquid transport. The 1.5 mm thick middle layer contains the cavities for vapor flow. To achieve hermetic seal, glass frit with four sealing rings, approximately 300 µm wide and 30 µm thick, is used to bond the edges and supporting posts. For experimental evaluations, 3 mm × 38 mm × 38 mm TGP vapor chambers are developed. The volume density of the heat transfer device is approximately 1.5 × 103 kg m-3. Measurement of mass loss and stability studies of heat transfer indicates that the vapor chamber system is hermetically sealed. Using ethanol as the operating liquid, high heat transfer performance is demonstrated. Effective thermal conductivity reaches over 2500 W m-1 ṡ K-1. Under high g environment, experimental results show good liquid transport capabilities of the wick structures.

  4. Design, development and tests of high-performance silicon vapor chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel triple stack process to develop an all-silicon thermal ground plane (TGP) vapor chamber that enables fabrication of compact, large scale, low thermal expansion coefficient mismatch and high-performance heat transfer devices. The TGP vapor chamber is formed through bonding three etched silicon wafers. On both the top and bottom wafers, microscale and high aspect ratio wick structures are etched for liquid transport. The 1.5 mm thick middle layer contains the cavities for vapor flow. To achieve hermetic seal, glass frit with four sealing rings, approximately 300 µm wide and 30 µm thick, is used to bond the edges and supporting posts. For experimental evaluations, 3 mm × 38 mm × 38 mm TGP vapor chambers are developed. The volume density of the heat transfer device is approximately 1.5 × 103 kg m−3. Measurement of mass loss and stability studies of heat transfer indicates that the vapor chamber system is hermetically sealed. Using ethanol as the operating liquid, high heat transfer performance is demonstrated. Effective thermal conductivity reaches over 2500 W m−1 ⋅ K−1. Under high g environment, experimental results show good liquid transport capabilities of the wick structures. (paper)

  5. Numerical analysis of fragmentation mechanisms in vapor explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshizuka, Seiichi; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Oka, Yoshiaki [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    1998-01-01

    Fragmentation of molten metal is the key process in vapor explosions. However this process is so rapid that the mechanisms have not been clarified yet in the experimental studies. Besides, numerical simulation is difficult because we have to analyze water, steam and molten metal simultaneously with evaporation and fragmentation. The authors have been developing a new numerical method, the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, based on moving particles and their interactions. Grids are not necessary. Incompressible flows with fragmentation on free surfaces have been calculated successfully using the MPS method. In the present study numerical simulation of the fragmentation processes using the MPS method is carried out to investigate the mechanisms. A numerical model to calculate evaporation from water to steam is developed. In this model, new particles are generated on water-steam interfaces. Effect of evaporation is also investigated. Growth of the filament is not accelerated when the normal evaporation is considered. This is because the normal evaporation needs a longer time than the moment of the jet impingement, though the filament growth is decided in this moment. Next, rapid evaporation based on spontaneous nucleation is considered. The filament growth is markedly accelerated. This result is consistent with the experimental fact that the spontaneous nucleation temperature is a necessary condition of small-scale vapor explosions. (J.P.N.)

  6. Experimental and theoretical studies of metal vapor atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing electron spectrometry in conjunction with tuneable synchrotron radiation, we will present a detailed examination of the photoionization dynamics of selected metal vapor atoms. In particular, this paper will focus on the relative partial cross sections of the atomic Li K-shell main and satellite (ionization with excitation) photoelectron lines in the region of the strong 1snln'l' autoionizing transitions, the atomic Sc 3d, 4s main and satellite photoelectron lines in the region of the 3p→3d giant resonance, and also the atomic Fe 3d, 4s main and satellite photoelectron lines in the same resonance region. Our experimental data for Sc and Fe will be compared to our state-of-the-art calculations based on the superposition of configuration method developed by Cowan (The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra. University of California Berkeley Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1981). Our partial cross section measurements for Li and Sc will be complemented with measurements of the angular distribution parameter, β. In addition, our Li data will also be compared with recent R-matrix calculations (Phys. Rev. 57 (1998) 1045). In the case of Fe, we will also address the term dependent behavior of the partial cross sections on resonance. These results will highlight what can be achieved with today's technology and point the way towards future endeavors in the study of the photoionization dynamics of open-shell metal vapor atoms

  7. Uranium dioxide vapor condensation by rarefaction waves in the ORNL Capacitor Discharge Vaporization tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spherical shock tube type model with homogeneous nucleation and particle condensation growth in the rarefaction wave fan has been developed and applied to the Capacitor Discharge Vaporization (CDV) experiments conducted at ORNL. In each CDV test, a stack of molten UO2 fuel pellets contained in a quartz tube were partially vaporized in an argon environment by rapid energy deposition through capacitor discharge. A UO2 aerosol was generated during the resulting expansion of the UO2 vapor. The position of the expanding UO2 vapor-argon interface as a function of time was estimated from movies of the CDV tests

  8. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Daniel J; Hughes, Ifan G; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D(2) transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude. PMID:17902946

  9. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude

  10. Bioeffects due to acoustic droplet vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Encapsulated micro- and nano-droplets can be vaporized via ultrasound, a process termed acoustic droplet vaporization. Our interest is primarily motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment. In this methodology, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that arise from the acoustic vaporization of vascular microdroplets. Additionally, the microdroplets may be used as vehicles for localized drug delivery, with or without flow occlusion. In this talk, we examine the dynamics of acoustic droplet vaporization through experiments and theoretical/computational fluid mechanics models, and investigate the bioeffects of acoustic droplet vaporization on endothelial cells and in vivo. Early timescale vaporization events, including phase change, are directly visualized using ultra-high speed imaging, and the influence of acoustic parameters on droplet/bubble dynamics is discussed. Acoustic and fluid mechanics parameters affecting the severity of endothelial cell bioeffects are explored. These findings suggest parameter spaces for which bioeffects may be reduced or enhanced, depending on the objective of the therapy. This work was supported by NIH grant R01EB006476.

  11. Investigating the source, transport, and isotope composition of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, Timothy J.; Wood, Jeffrey D.; Baker, John M.; Lee, Xuhui; Xiao, Ke; Chen, Zichong; Welp, Lisa R.; Schultz, Natalie M.; Gorski, Galen; Chen, Ming; Nieber, John

    2016-04-01

    Increasing atmospheric humidity and convective precipitation over land provide evidence of intensification of the hydrologic cycle - an expected response to surface warming. The extent to which terrestrial ecosystems modulate these hydrologic factors is important to understand feedbacks in the climate system. We measured the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of water vapor at a very tall tower (185 m) in the upper Midwest, United States, to diagnose the sources, transport, and fractionation of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over a 3-year period (2010 to 2012). These measurements represent the first set of annual water vapor isotope observations for this region. Several simple isotope models and cross-wavelet analyses were used to assess the importance of the Rayleigh distillation process, evaporation, and PBL entrainment processes on the isotope composition of water vapor. The vapor isotope composition at this tall tower site showed a large seasonal amplitude (mean monthly δ18Ov ranged from -40.2 to -15.9 ‰ and δ2Hv ranged from -278.7 to -113.0 ‰) and followed the familiar Rayleigh distillation relation with water vapor mixing ratio when considering the entire hourly data set. However, this relation was strongly modulated by evaporation and PBL entrainment processes at timescales ranging from hours to several days. The wavelet coherence spectra indicate that the oxygen isotope ratio and the deuterium excess (dv) of water vapor are sensitive to synoptic and PBL processes. According to the phase of the coherence analyses, we show that evaporation often leads changes in dv, confirming that it is a potential tracer of regional evaporation. Isotope mixing models indicate that on average about 31 % of the growing season PBL water vapor is derived from regional evaporation. However, isoforcing calculations and mixing model analyses for high PBL water vapor mixing ratio events ( > 25 mmol mol-1) indicate that regional evaporation can account

  12. Modelling of local steam condensation on walls in presence of noncondensable gases. Application to a local calculation in reactor containment using the multidimensional geyser code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frame of this paper is the study of severe accidents of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The need for containment modelling, and in particular for hydrogen risk study, was reinforced in France after 1990, with the requirement of taking into account severe accidents in design of future plants. This new need of assessing the transient local hydrogen concentration incited us to develop the multidimensional code GEYSER for containment analysis. This code, developed by the Department of Mechanics and Technology of the French Atomic Energy Commission, is presented here with a detailed example of calculation. We describe the mixture, whose constituents are noncondensable gases (air or air and hydrogen) and water vapor liquid, by a compressible homogeneous diphasic model. The wall condensation is based on the Chilton-Colburn formulation and heat mass transfer analogy. We present a transient two-dimensional axisymmetric calculation of a simplified accidental sequence during one hour. The calculation in the large volume of a reactor containment consists of an injection of vapor, first important then moderate, followed by an injection of hydrogen. (authors). 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Calculation of Precipitable Water for Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Aircraft (SOFIA): Airplane in the Night Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Pey Chun; Busby, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, is the new generation airborne observatory station based at NASA s Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility, Palmdale, CA, to study the universe. Since the observatory detects infrared energy, water vapor is a concern in the atmosphere due to its known capacity to absorb infrared energy emitted by astronomical objects. Although SOFIA is hoping to fly above 99% of water vapor in the atmosphere it is still possible to affect astronomical observation. Water vapor is one of the toughest parameter to measure in the atmosphere, several atmosphere modeling are used to calculate water vapor loading. The water vapor loading, or Precipitable water, is being calculated by Matlab along the planned flight path. Over time, these results will help SOFIA to plan flights to regions of lower water vapor loading and hopefully improve the imagery collection of these astronomical features.

  14. Nonradioactive Environmental Emissions Chemical Source Term for the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Vapor Space During Waste Retrieval Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonradioactive chemical vapor space source term for tanks on the Phase 1 and the extended Phase 1 delivery, storage, and disposal mission was determined. Operations modeled included mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers. Concentrations of ammonia, specific volatile organic compounds, and quantitative volumes of aerosols were estimated

  15. Tank 241-BX-104 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on April 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-04 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.208% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.536% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0

  16. Tank 241-BX-104 third temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 6, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.178 % of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.458% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0

  17. Tank 241-BY-108 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on November 14, 1996. Tank vapor characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected nonradioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.390% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.830% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0

  18. Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-BX-104 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on June 10, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.270% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.675% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0

  19. Tank vapor characterization project. Tank 241-S-102 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 19, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from analysis of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.948% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <3.659% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Tables S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0

  20. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BY-108 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 10, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.463% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.940% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  1. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 1, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S.; Edwards, J.A. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-103 (Tank BX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-103 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.385% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.633% if the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  2. Tank 241-BY-108 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on January 30, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from tile headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-108 (Tank BY - 108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.888% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.979% of tile LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  3. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-S-102 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 19, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.410% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.973% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.973% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  4. Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-BX-104 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on June 10, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.270% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.675% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  5. Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-S-102 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 19, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analysis of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.948% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <3.659% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Tables S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  6. Tank 241-BX-104 third temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 6, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.178 % of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.458% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  7. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 15, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Edwards, J.A.; Julya, J.L. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-106 (Tank BX-106) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan. Ammonia was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-106 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.031% of it lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.143% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  8. Tank 241-S-102 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 11, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitroshkov, A.V.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

    1997-09-01

    This report presents tile results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurlsys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by tile Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based oil measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above tile immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.150% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.624% of the LFL, Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of tile analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  9. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-C-107 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 5, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Edwards, J.A.; Silvers, K.L. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.405% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.519% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  10. Tank 241-C-107 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 3.233% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <3.342% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  11. Tank 241-BX-104 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on April 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitroshkov, A.V.; Hayes, J.C.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-04 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.208% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.536% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  12. Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-BY-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 29, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-101 (Tank BY-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Total non-methane organic compounds (TNMOCs) were the principal flammable constituent of the Tank By-101 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.136% of the LFL. Averaged measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  13. Tank 241-BY-108 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on November 14, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B. [and others

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected nonradioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.390% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.830% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  14. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 27, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S. Edwards, J.A. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-111 (Tank BX-111) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Ammonia was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-111 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.042 of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.157% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  15. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on August 22, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Julya, J.L. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analyses plan (SAP). Total non-methane organic compounds was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.310% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.784% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  16. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-C-107 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 17, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.825% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.935% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  17. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BX-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on July 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B. Edwards, J.A. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-102 (Tank BX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and and analysis plan. Ammonia and TNMOCs were the principal flammable constituents of the Tank BX-102 headspace, each determined to be present at approximately 0.002% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.107% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  18. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-C-107 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 17, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.825% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.935% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0

  19. Tank 241-C-107 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 3.233% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <3.342% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0

  20. Tank 241-S-102 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 11, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents tile results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurlsys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by tile Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based oil measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above tile immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.150% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.624% of the LFL, Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of tile analytical results are provided in Section 3.0

  1. Tank 241-BY-108 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on January 30, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from tile headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-108 (Tank BY - 108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.888% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.979% of tile LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0

  2. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-S-102 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 19, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.410% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.973% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.973% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0

  3. 程序升温大体积进样和解卷积气相色谱-质谱法测定蔬菜水果中32种农药残留量%Combination of programmable temperature vaporizer-large volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system for the determination of 32 pesticides in fruits and vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹赵云; 牟仁祥; 吴俐; 林晓燕; 朱智伟; 陈铭学

    2014-01-01

    建立了蔬菜、水果中有机磷、有机氯、拟除虫菊酯和氨基甲酸酯等32种农药的气相色谱-质谱( GC-MS)检测方法。样品经乙腈提取,石墨碳黑串联丙氨基固相萃取柱净化,采用程序升温大体积进样,GC-MS 全扫描模式采集,结合解卷积技术定性分析,内标法定量。分别对程序升温和大体积进样等条件进行了研究,并考察了方法选择性和耐用性。在最优条件下,32种农药的响应值与浓度呈良好的线性关系( r>0.995),各农药的方法检出限为2.0~5.0μg/kg,以菠菜、四季豆和黄瓜为代表基质,进行3个水平(0.010~0.50 mg/kg)的加标回收试验( n=6),回收率为65.2%~120.3%,相对标准偏差( RSD)为4.1%~22.3%。该方法快速、灵敏、可靠、耐用,能满足蔬菜、水果中多类多残留痕量分析的要求。%An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 32 pesti-cides including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid and carbamate pesticides in fruits and vegetables using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry( GC-MS). The sample was extracted with acetonitrile,and the organic layer was cleaned up with ENVI-Carb and LC-NH 2 cartridges. A large volume of 20 μL purified solution was injected into the GC system using pro-grammable temperature vaporizer( PTV). The mass spectrometric detection was operated with full scan mode. The automated mass spectral deconvolution and identfication system( AMDIS) and an isotopic internal standard were used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the 32 pesticides,respectively. The conditions for PTV-large volume injection were studied. Furthermore,the selectivity and durability of the method were also assessed. Under the opti-mized conditions,the experimental results showed that all the linearities were good within their test ranges,with correlation coefficients more than 0. 995,and the method detection

  4. Application of water vapor sorption measurements for porosity characterization of hardened cement pastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2014-01-01

    Water vapor sorption can be used to study important properties of porous materials including specific surface area and pore size distribution (PSD). However, the data analysis is somewhat inconsistent in literature. In this work, the important factors influencing the analyzed results using sorption...... data were reviewed. Water vapor sorption measurements were then applied to two hardened cement pastes and one model porous material MCM-41. The specific surface area was calculated based on different equations accounting for multilayer adsorption and the PSD was analyzed from both the absorption and...

  5. Some energy levels, which can be used in atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the bibliographical data concerning energy levels, isotope shifts and hyperfine splitting constants of the following elements were collected: Fe, Ca, Nd, Eu, Dy, La, Pb, Sm, Ba, Ti, Ta, Mg, V, Zr, Pu, Na, K, Li, Tc, Ni, Ag, Sn, Bk, Am, Np, Th. This Database is very useful for AVLIS and can help by choosing the equipment for atomic vapor laser isotope separation. Wavelength, waveform and bandwidth of the used laser are determined by this data. The properties of the vaporizer, separation chamber, and collection system are influenced by this data. This database is also necessary for calculations of the excitation selectivity. (author)

  6. Volumes in Hyperbolic Space

    OpenAIRE

    Laternser, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the investigation of volumes of large Coxeter hyperbolic polyhedron. First, the paper investigates the smallest possible volume for a large Coxeter hyperbolic polyhedron and then looks at the volume of pyramids with one vertex at infinity.

  7. Composed Scattering Model for Direct Volume Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文立; 石教英

    1996-01-01

    Based on the equation of transfer in transport theory of optical physics,a new volume rendering model,called composed scattering model(CSM),is presented.In calculating the scattering term of the equation,it is decomposed into volume scattering intensity and surface scattering intensity,and they are composed with the boundary detection operator as the weight function.This proposed model differs from the most current volume rendering models in the aspect that in CSM segmentation and illumination intensity calculation are taken as two coherent parts while in existing models they are regarded as two separate ones.This model has been applied to the direct volume rendering of 3D data sets obtained by CT and MRI.The resultant images show not only rich details but also clear boundary surfaces.CSM is demonstrated to be an accurate volume rendering model suitable for CT and MRI data sets.

  8. Exposure Time Calculator for Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph: IGRINS

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Huynh Anh N.; Pak, Soojong; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Kaplan, Kyle; Lee, Jae-Joon; Im, Myungshin; Seifahrt, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We present an exposure-time calculator (ETC) for the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS). The signal and noise values are calculated by taking into account the telluric background emission and absorption, the emission and transmission of the telescope and instrument optics, and the dark current and read noise of the infrared detector arrays. For the atmospheric transmission, we apply models based on the amount of precipitable water vapor along the line of sight to the target. The...

  9. Role of radiation in vapor shielding of first wall during disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An initially ablated vapor may provide an important radiation shield to reduce the heat load and the further ablation of the Be divertor strike plate during an ITER disruption. Thus, we investigate the role of line emission in Be at relevant temperatures and densities. For an ion density of 1018 cm-3 (1024 m-3), we calculate that there is significant line emission and re-absorption in the temperature range from 3 to 10 eV. The re-absorption limits the line emission that strikes the plate. Line transfer calculations coupled with detailed atomic modeling predict that lines contribute 10-50% of the impinging plate radiation. We note that because of this effect, previous calculations using multi-group radiation transfer may under-estimate the vapor shielding for these ITER-relevant parameters. ((orig.))

  10. Explosive vapor detection payload for small robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimac, Phil J.; Pettit, Michael; Wetzel, John P.; Haas, John W.

    2013-05-01

    Detection of explosive hazards is a critical component of enabling and improving operational mobility and protection of US Forces. The Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) developed by the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is addressing this challenge for dismounted soldiers. Under the AMDS program, ARA has developed a vapor sampling system that enhances the detection of explosive residues using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors. The Explosives Hazard Trace Detection (EHTD) payload is designed for plug-and-play installation and operation on small robotic platforms, addressing critical Army needs for more safely detecting concealed or exposed explosives in areas such as culverts, walls and vehicles. In this paper, we describe the development, robotic integration and performance of the explosive vapor sampling system, which consists of a sampling "head," a vapor transport tube and an extendable "boom." The sampling head and transport tube are integrated with the boom, allowing samples to be collected from targeted surfaces up to 7-ft away from the robotic platform. During sample collection, an IR lamp in the sampling head is used to heat a suspected object/surface and the vapors are drawn through the heated vapor transport tube to an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for detection. The EHTD payload is capable of quickly (less than 30 seconds) detecting explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX at nanogram levels on common surfaces (brick, concrete, wood, glass, etc.).

  11. Vapor pumps and gas-driven machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vapor pump, patented in 1979 by Gaz de France, is an additional mass and heat exchanger which uses the combustion air of fuel-burning machines as an additional cold source. This cold source is preheated and, above all, humidified before reaching the burner, by means of the residual sensible and latent heat in the combustion products of the fuel-burning process. This final exchanger thus makes it possible, in many cases, to recover all the gross calorific value of natural gas, even when the combustion products leave the process at a wet temperature greater than 600 C, the maximum dew point of the products of normal combustion. Another significant advantage of the vapor pump being worth highlighting is the selective recycling of water vapor by the vapor pump which reduces the adiabatic combustion temperature and the oxygen concentration in the combustion air, two factors which lead to considerable reductions in nitrogen oxides formation, hence limiting atmospheric pollution. Alongside a wide range of configurations which make advantageous use of the vapor pump in association with gas-driven machines and processes, including gas turbines, a number of boiler plant installations are also presented

  12. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  13. Cold water and ammonia vapor in the disks around TW Hya and HD100546

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerheijde, Michiel; Salinas, Vachail; Bergin, Edwin; Cleeves, Ilse; Brinch, Christian; Dominik, Carsten; Dullemond, Cornelis; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-08-01

    The emission of rotational groundstate water vapor is detected in the disks around TW Hya and HD100546. We present the Herschel/HIFI detection spectra and discuss the location of the water vapor in these disks. The amount of water vapor is derived using model calculations, and depends on its vertical location and the corresponding mechanism that releases the water from icy grains. This can be be photodesorption by stellar ultraviolet photons in the upper disk layers or could be the result of grain erosion or shattering of icy bodies in the midplane. We discuss the likelihood of these mechanisms. In addition, rotational groundstate emission of NH3 is detected toward TW Hya but not HD100546. In the former source, the detection is consistent with a NH3/H2O ratio of a few %.

  14. A simple grand canonical approach to compute the vapor pressure of bulk and finite size systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Factorovich, Matías H.; Scherlis, Damián A. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina); Molinero, Valeria [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

    2014-02-14

    In this article we introduce a simple grand canonical screening (GCS) approach to accurately compute vapor pressures from molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations. This procedure entails a screening of chemical potentials using a conventional grand canonical scheme, and therefore it is straightforward to implement for any kind of interface. The scheme is validated against data obtained from Gibbs ensemble simulations for water and argon. Then, it is applied to obtain the vapor pressure of the coarse-grained mW water model, and it is shown that the computed value is in excellent accord with the one formally deduced using statistical thermodynamics arguments. Finally, this methodology is used to calculate the vapor pressure of a water nanodroplet of 94 molecules. Interestingly, the result is in perfect agreement with the one predicted by the Kelvin equation for a homogeneous droplet of that size.

  15. Computation of three-dimensional temperature distribution in diode-pumped alkali vapor amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Binglin; Xu, Xingqi; Xia, Chunsheng; Pan, Bailiang

    2016-06-01

    Combining the kinetic and fluid dynamic processes in static and flowing-gas diode-pumped alkali vapor amplifiers, a comprehensive physical model with a cyclic iterative approach for calculating the three-dimensional temperature distribution of the vapor cell is established. Taking into account heat generation, thermal conductivity and convection, the excitation of the alkali atoms to high electronic levels, and their losses due to ionization in the gain medium, the thermal features and output characteristics have been simultaneously obtained. The results are in good agreement with those of the measurement in a static rubidium vapor amplifier. Influences of gas velocity on radial and axial temperature profiles are simulated and analyzed. The results have demonstrated that thermal problems in gaseous gain medium can be significantly reduced by flowing the gain medium with sufficiently high velocity.

  16. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank SX-101: Results from samples collected on 07/21/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. They include air concentrations of inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples. The vapor concentrations are based either on whole-volume samples or on sorbent traps exposed to sample flow. No immediate notifications were needed because analytical results indicated no specific analytes exceeded notification levels. Summary of results: NH3, 3.8 ppmv; NO2, 0.10 ppmv; NO, 0.13 ppm; H2O, 11.8 mg/L; CO2, 338 ppmv; CO, 3; methanol, 0.060 ppmv; acetone, 0.033 ppmv; trichlorofluoromethane, 0.023 ppmv; and acetone, 0.034 ppmv

  17. A numerical investigation of vapor intrusion--the dynamic response of contaminant vapors to rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2012-10-15

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in determining

  18. Trajectory mapping of middle atmospheric water vapor by a mini network of NDACC instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lainer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The important task to observe the global coverage of middle atmospheric trace gases like water vapor or ozone usually is accomplished by satellites. Climate and atmospheric studies rely upon the knowledge of trace gas distributions throughout the stratosphere and mesosphere. Many of these gases are currently measured from satellites, but it is not clear whether this capability will be maintained in the future. This could lead to a significant knowledge gap of the state of the atmosphere. We explore the possibilities of mapping middle atmospheric water vapor in the Northern Hemisphere by using Lagrangian trajectory calculations and water vapor profile data from a small network of five ground-based microwave radiometers. Four of them are operated within the frame of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. Keeping in mind that the instruments are based on different hardware and calibration setups, a height-dependent bias of the retrieved water vapor profiles has to be expected among the microwave radiometers. In order to correct and harmonize the different data sets, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on the Aura satellite is used to serve as a kind of traveling standard. A domain-averaging TM (trajectory mapping method is applied which simplifies the subsequent validation of the quality of the trajectory-mapped water vapor distribution towards direct satellite observations. Trajectories are calculated forwards and backwards in time for up to 10 days using 6 hourly meteorological wind analysis fields. Overall, a total of four case studies of trajectory mapping in different meteorological regimes are discussed. One of the case studies takes place during a major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW accompanied by the polar vortex breakdown; a second takes place after the reformation of stable circulation system. TM cases close to the fall equinox and June solstice event from the year 2012 complete the study, showing the high

  19. Trajectory mapping of middle atmospheric water vapor by a mini network of NDACC instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lainer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The important task to observe the global coverage of middle atmospheric trace gases like water vapor or ozone usually is accomplished by satellites. Climate and atmospheric studies rely upon the knowledge of trace gas distributions throughout the stratosphere and mesosphere. Many of these gases are currently measured from satellites, but it is not clear whether this capability will be maintained in the future. This could lead to a significant knowledge gap of the state of the atmosphere. We explore the possibilities of mapping middle atmospheric water vapor in the Northern Hemisphere by using Lagrangian trajectory calculations and water vapor profile data from a small network of five ground-based microwave radiometers. Four of them are operated within the frame of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. Keeping in mind that the instruments are based on different hardware and calibration setups, a height dependent bias of the retrieved water vapor profiles has to be expected among the microwave radiometers. In order to correct and harmonize the different datasets, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on the Aura satellite is used to serve as a kind of travelling standard. A domain-averaging TM (trajectory mapping method is applied which simplifies the subsequent validation of the quality of the trajectory mapped water vapor distribution towards direct satellite observations. Trajectories are calculated forwards and backwards in time for up to 10 days using 6 hourly meteorological wind analysis fields. Overall, a total of four case studies of trajectory mapping in different meteorological regimes are discussed. One of the case studies takes place during a major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW accompanied by the polar vortex breakdown, a second takes place after the reformation of stable circulation system. TM cases close to the fall equinox and June solstice event from the year 2012 complete the study, showing the high

  20. Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

    2012-01-01

    Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.