WorldWideScience

Sample records for calculated vaporized volume

  1. Measured and Calculated Volumes of Wetland Depressions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Measured and calculated volumes of wetland depressions This dataset is associated with the following publication: Wu, Q., and C. Lane. Delineation and quantification...

  2. Calculation of the transport and relaxation properties of dilute water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vogel, Eckhard; Dickinson, Alan S.; Vesovic, Velisa

    2009-07-01

    Transport properties of dilute water vapor have been calculated in the rigid-rotor approximation using four different potential energy hypersurfaces and the classical-trajectory method. Results are reported for shear viscosity, self-diffusion, thermal conductivity, and volume viscosity in the dilute-gas limit for the temperature range of 250-2500 K. Of these four surfaces the CC-pol surface of Bukowski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 094314 (2008)] is in best accord with the available measurements. Very good agreement is found with the most accurate results for viscosity in the whole temperature range of the experiments. For thermal conductivity the deviations of the calculated values from the experimental data increase systematically with increasing temperature to around 5% at 1100 K. For both self-diffusion and volume viscosity, the much more limited number of available measurements are generally consistent with the calculated values, apart from the lower temperature isotopically labeled diffusion measurements.

  3. A Numerical Approach for Multicomponent Vapor Solid Equilibrium Calculations in Gas Hydrate Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new numerical approach has been developed for vapor solid equilibrium calculations and for predicting vapor solid equilibrium constant and composition of vapor and solid phases in gas hydrate formation. Equation of state methods generally do a good job of determining vapor phase properties,but for solid phase it is much more difficult and inaccurate. This proposed new model calculates vapor solid equilibrium constant and vapor and solid phase composition as a function of temperature and partial pressure. The results of this proposed numerical approach, for vapor solid equilibrium, have a good agreement with the available reported data. This new numerical model also has an advantage to tune coefficients, to cover different sets of experimental data accurately.

  4. Some reservoir engineering calculations for the vapor-dominated system at Larderello, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel

    1975-01-01

    Various reservoir properties are calculated for the Larderello vapor-dominated system using available published data. Bottom-hole flowing properties are calculated from measured wellhead data. Whereas wellhead temperatures measured at a particular time tend to change systematically with changes in flow and pressure, calculated bottom-hole temperatures tend to be constant for two sample wells; while for a third, bottom-hole temperatures decrease with increasing flow. Bottom-hole temperatures calculated from wellhead data taken over several years can be constant, increase, or decrease for particular wells. A steady-state model for steam flow to a well is used with calculated bottom-hole data to show that the effect of non-Darcy flow is important. The initial mass of fluid in place for the northeast zone of Larderello (56 km2) is estimated, using data on shut-in pressures and total mass production. Reservoir thickness needed to store this mass of fluid is calculated as a function of porosity and initial fraction of water in pores. Representative values are 19 km of thickness, assuming 5% porosity with steam alone, and 832 m, assuming 20% porosity and 10% of pore volume as liquid water.

  5. Calculation of transport coefficients of air-water vapor mixtures thermal plasmas used in circuit breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOHIO Niéssan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we calculate the transport coefficients of plasmas formed by air and water vapor mixtures. The calculation, which assume local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE are performed in the temperature range from 500 to 12000 K. We use the Gibbs free energy minimization method to determine the equilibrium composition of the plasmas, which is necessary to calculate the transport coefficients. We use the Chapman-Enskog method to calculate the transport coefficients. The results are presented and discussed according to the rate of water vapor. The results of the total thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity show in particular that the increasing of the rate of water vapor in air can be interesting for power cut. This could be improve the performance of plasma during current breaking in air contaminate by the water vapor.

  6. Modeling droplet vaporization and combustion with the volume of fluid method at a small Reynolds number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-bin ZHANG; Wei ZHANG; Xue-jun ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    The volume of fluid (VOF) formulation is applied to model the combustion process of a single droplet in a hightemperature convective air free stream environment.The calculations solve the flow field for both phases,and consider the droplet deformation based on an axisymmetrical model.The chemical reaction is modeled with one-step finite-rate mechanism and the thcrmo-physica1 properties for the gas mixture are species and temperature dependence.A mass transfer model applicable to the VOF calculations due to vaporization of the liquid phases is developed in consideration with the fluctuation of the liquid surface.The model is validated by examining the burning rate constants at different convective air temperatures,which accord well with experimental data of previous studies.Other phenomena from the simulations,such as the transient history of droplet deformation and flame structure,are also qualitatively accordant with the descriptions of other numerical results.However,a different droplet deformation mechanism for the low Reynolds number is explained compared with that for the high Reynolds number.The calculations verified the feasibility of the VOF computational fluid dynamics (CFD) formulation as well as the mass transfer model due to vaporization.

  7. Web based brain volume calculation for magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch, Kevin; Grinstead, Brian; He, Qing; Duan, Ye

    2008-01-01

    Brain volume calculations are crucial in modern medical research, especially in the study of neurodevelopmental disorders. In this paper, we present an algorithm for calculating two classifications of brain volume, total brain volume (TBV) and intracranial volume (ICV). Our algorithm takes MRI data as input, performs several preprocessing and intermediate steps, and then returns each of the two calculated volumes. To simplify this process and make our algorithm publicly accessible to anyone, we have created a web-based interface that allows users to upload their own MRI data and calculate the TBV and ICV for the given data. This interface provides a simple and efficient method for calculating these two classifications of brain volume, and it also removes the need for the user to download or install any applications.

  8. Vapor-liquid (VLE) and liquid-liquid (LLE) phase equilibria calculations for polystyrene plus methyleyclohexane and polystyrene plus cyclohexane solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilczura-Wachnik, H.; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the vapor-liquid (VLE) and liquid-liquid (LLE) phase equilibria predictions for polystyrene in two theta solvents: cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. VLE calculations were performed with the Elbro free volume method and a modified version of the PC-SAFT method, as well...

  9. EVALUATION OF VAPOR EQUILIBRATION AND IMPACT OF PURGE VOLUME ON SOIL-GAS SAMPLING RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequential sampling was utilized at the Raymark Superfund site to evaluate attainment of vapor equilibration and the impact of purge volume on soil-gas sample results. A simple mass-balance equation indicates that removal of three to five internal volumes of a sample system shou...

  10. Volume controlled fixation of the lung by formalin vapor. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, W.S.; Mittermayer, C.

    1980-09-01

    A new method of lung fixation by formalin vapor is presented. A simple Engstrom type respirator modified for postmortem formalin insufflation of the lung was developed. Rapid fixation requires use of hot formalin vapor which would destroy available equipment. The main advantage compared to other described methods beside the constant volume is sufficient stirring of formalin and formalin vapor. In order to prevent condensation of water within the lung parenchyma any cooling of the vapor should be avoided. If the lungs are fixed by this method the tissue will stiffen in a position between in- and exspiration. Slices of 1 cm are cut. Radiographs in soft tissue technique guarantee unusual high resolution. Positive findings are identified easily and furthermore studied by microscopy: the direct correlation between X-ray finding and microscopy becomes possible.

  11. Calculation of Liquid Water-Hydrate-Methane Vapor Phase Equilibria from Molecular Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kaj; von Solms, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation methods for determining fluid- and crystal-phase chemical potentials are used for the first time to calculate liquid water-methane hydrate-methane vapor phase equilibria from knowledge of atomistic interaction potentials alone. The water and methane molecules are modeled...... using the TIP4P/ice potential and a united-atom Lennard-Jones potential. respectively. The equilibrium calculation method for this system has three components, (i) thermodynamic integration from a supercritical ideal gas to obtain the fluid-phase chemical potentials. (ii) calculation of the chemical...... potential of the zero-occupancy hydrate system using thermodynamic integration from an Einstein crystal reference state, and (iii) thermodynamic integration to obtain the water and guest molecules' chemical potentials as a function of the hydrate occupancy. The three-phase equilibrium curve is calculated...

  12. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of two neutrons in finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Klos, P; Tews, I; Gandolfi, S; Gezerlis, A; Hammer, H -W; Hoferichter, M; Schwenk, A

    2016-01-01

    Ab initio calculations provide direct access to the properties of pure neutron systems that are challenging to study experimentally. In addition to their importance for fundamental physics, their properties are required as input for effective field theories of the strong interaction. In this work, we perform auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of the ground and first excited state of two neutrons in a finite box, considering a simple contact potential as well as chiral effective field theory interactions. We compare the results against exact diagonalizations and present a detailed analysis of the finite-volume effects, whose understanding is crucial for determining observables from the calculated energies. Using the L\\"uscher formula, we extract the low-energy S-wave scattering parameters from ground- and excited-state energies for different box sizes.

  13. Calculation of liquid water-hydrate-methane vapor phase equilibria from molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kaj; von Solms, Nicolas; Wierzchowski, Scott; Walsh, Matthew R; Koh, Carolyn A; Sloan, E Dendy; Wu, David T; Sum, Amadeu K

    2010-05-06

    Monte Carlo simulation methods for determining fluid- and crystal-phase chemical potentials are used for the first time to calculate liquid water-methane hydrate-methane vapor phase equilibria from knowledge of atomistic interaction potentials alone. The water and methane molecules are modeled using the TIP4P/ice potential and a united-atom Lennard-Jones potential, respectively. The equilibrium calculation method for this system has three components, (i) thermodynamic integration from a supercritical ideal gas to obtain the fluid-phase chemical potentials, (ii) calculation of the chemical potential of the zero-occupancy hydrate system using thermodynamic integration from an Einstein crystal reference state, and (iii) thermodynamic integration to obtain the water and guest molecules' chemical potentials as a function of the hydrate occupancy. The three-phase equilibrium curve is calculated for pressures ranging from 20 to 500 bar and is shown to follow the Clapeyron behavior, in agreement with experiment; coexistence temperatures differ from the latter by 4-16 K in the pressure range studied. The enthalpy of dissociation extracted from the calculated P-T curve is within 2% of the experimental value at corresponding conditions. While computationally intensive, simulations such as these are essential to map the thermodynamically stable conditions for hydrate systems.

  14. Cálculo do volume na equação de van der Waals pelo método de cardano Volume calculation in van der Waals equation by the cardano method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson H. T. Lemes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical solutions of a cubic equation with real coefficients are established using the Cardano method. The method is first applied to simple third order equation. Calculation of volume in the van der Waals equation of state is afterwards established. These results are exemplified to calculate the volumes below and above critical temperatures. Analytical and numerical values for the compressibility factor are presented as a function of the pressure. As a final example, coexistence volumes in the liquid-vapor equilibrium are calculated. The Cardano approach is very simple to apply, requiring only elementary operations, indicating an attractive method to be used in teaching elementary thermodynamics.

  15. Application of LAMBDA Method to the Calculation of Slant Path Wet Vapor Content of GPS Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan-Qi; Wang, Jie-Xian; Wang, Xiao-Ya; Chen, Jun-Ping

    2009-10-01

    With the improvement of the GPS data processing techniques and calculating accuracy, the GPS has been increasingly and widely applied to atmospheric science. In the research on GPS meteorology the slant path wet vapor content (SWV) is one of the significant parameters. In the light of the problem of poorer real time, which existed in the method proposed by Song Shuli et al. in 2004, for directly calculating the SWV by means of the precise ephemeris, IGS clock error and observed value of the LC combination after the cycle skip processing, the LAMBDA method which has more mature application to the city virtual reference station (VRS) is applied to the problem of the processing of ambiguity search. Through the trial calculation of data, it is tested and verified that the method is feasible and there is a better uniformity when the calculated result is projected into the zenith direction. The atmospheric delay in the vertical direction obtained by using this method is compared with the result of the GAMIT or the BERNESE, with the result showing that the accuracy of the coincidence of the result of the method with that of the BERNESE is generally smaller than 1.5 cm and the accuracy of the coincidence of the result of the method with that of the GAMIT is generally smaller than 10 cm.

  16. The calculation method of mixing volume in a products pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jing; Wang, Qim [China University of Petroleum, Beijing, (China); Wang, Weidongn [Sinopec South China Sales Company, (China); Guo, Yi [CNPC Oil and Gas pipeline control center, (China)

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigated calculation methods of mixing volume on a pipeline. A method of simulation was developed by combining the Austin-Palfrey empirical formula and field data. The field data were introduced to improve the accuracy of the Austin-Palfrey formula by including other factors such as the terrain, the structure of the pipeline, the characteristics of mixed oil products in pumping stations and the distribution of products along the pipeline. These other factors were collected from field data and analyzed statistically to deduce coefficients. The comparison with field results showed that the formula developed for contamination provided accurate values. The formula achieved more accurate results using the characteristics of the field pipeline. This formula could be used for field application.

  17. Theoretical investigation of lead vapor adsorption on kaolinite surfaces with DFT calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinye [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Huang, Yaji, E-mail: heyyj@seu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Pan, Zhigang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Yongxing; Liu, Changqi [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Al surface after dehydroxylation is active while Si surface is inert. • The active sites are the unsaturated Al atoms and O atoms losing H atom. • PbO is the most suitable species for adsorption. • Increasing the activities of Al atoms can enhance the performance of kaolinite. • Produce of amorphous silica is a potential path to enhance the performance of kaolinite. - Abstract: Kaolinite can be used as the in-furnace sorbent/additive to adsorb lead (Pb) vapor at high temperature. In this paper, the adsorptions of Pb atom, PbO molecule and PbCl{sub 2} molecule on kaolinie surfaces were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. Si surface is inert to Pb vapor adsorption while Al surfaces with dehydroxylation are active for the unsaturated Al atoms and the O atoms losing H atoms. The adsorption energy of PbO is much higher than that of Pb atom and PbCl{sub 2}. Considering the energy barriers, it is easy for PbO and PbCl{sub 2} to adsorb on Al surfaces but difficult to escape. The high energy barriers of de–HCl process cause the difficulties of PbCl{sub 2} to form PbO·Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}·2SiO{sub 2} with kaolinite. Considering the inertia of Si atoms and the activity of Al atoms after dehydroxylation, calcination, acid/alkali treatment and some other treatment aiming at amorphous silica producing and Al activity enhancement can be used as the modification measures to improve the performance of kaolinite as the in-furnace metal capture sorbent.

  18. Influence of the temperature, volume and type of solution in the mercury vaporization of dental amalgam residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Raquel dalla [Department of Chemical Engineering, State University of Maringa, Maringa - PR (Brazil)], E-mail: raqueldc_eng@yahoo.com.br; Cossich, Eneida Sala; Tavares, Celia Regina Granhen [Department of Chemical Engineering, State University of Maringa, Maringa - PR (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    One of the qualitative methods for the identification of mercury vapor is what it occurs as a way of chemical reaction between palladium chloride and metallic mercury. Palladium chloride ribbons with yellowish coloration put in contact with the vaporized mercury of dental amalgam residue, liberates palladium and forms mercury chloride in your surface, and starts to have black coloration; this form identify the presence of the mercury vapor in the system. This work studies the influence of temperature, volume and type of barrier-solution in the vaporization of mercury during the period of storage of dental amalgam residues, aiming to establish the best conditions for storage of these residues. It was found that for all tested solutions, the longest storage times without any occurrence of mercury vaporization were obtained in the lowest temperatures tested and the largest solution volumes of barrier-solution. The radiographic effluent presented bigger efficacy in the reduction of the volatilization, increasing the period when the residue was stored, however the analysis of this solution after the vaporization test showed the presence of organic mercury. These results show that water is the most efficient barrier against the vaporization of mercury, since it did not result in organic mercury formation in the effluent solution from the storage process.

  19. Theoretical Calculation of the Real Vapor Pressure of Al during ISM Processing of Ni-xAl (at.pct)(x=25~50) Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjie GUO; Guizhong LIU; Yanqing SU; Jun JIA; Hengzhi FU

    2004-01-01

    A new model was established to calculate the real vapor pressure of Al in the molten Ni-xAI (at. Pct) (x=25~50)alloy. The effects of the holding time, chamber pressure, mole fraction of Al and melting temperature on the real vapor pressure of Al in the vacuum chamber were analyzed. Because of the impeding effect of the real vapor pressure on the evaporation loss rate, within a short time (less than 10 s), the real vapor pressure tends to a constant value.When the chamber pressure is less than the saturated vapor pressure of Al, the real vapor pressure of Al is equal to the chamber pressure. While when the chamber pressure is higher than the saturated vapor pressure, the real vapor pressure of Al approaches to the saturated vapor pressure of Al of the same condition.

  20. A unified equation for calculating methane vapor pressures in the CH4-H2O system with measured Raman shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.; Song, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A unified equation has been derived by using all available data for calculating methane vapor pressures with measured Raman shifts of C-H symmetric stretching band (??1) in the vapor phase of sample fluids near room temperature. This equation eliminates discrepancies among the existing data sets and can be applied at any Raman laboratory. Raman shifts of C-H symmetric stretching band of methane in the vapor phase of CH4-H2O mixtures prepared in a high-pressure optical cell were also measured at temperatures between room temperature and 200 ??C, and pressures up to 37 MPa. The results show that the CH4 ??1 band position shifts to higher wavenumber as temperature increases. We also demonstrated that this Raman band shift is a simple function of methane vapor density, and, therefore, when combined with equation of state of methane, methane vapor pressures in the sample fluids at elevated temperatures can be calculated from measured Raman peak positions. This method can be applied to determine the pressure of CH4-bearing systems, such as methane-rich fluid inclusions from sedimentary basins or experimental fluids in hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell or other types of optical cell. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Correlation between ventricular volume calculated manually and by computer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Moreno, M; Martínez Ríos, M; Grande, F; Cisneros, F; García Moreira, C; Soní, J

    1980-01-01

    We present here a program of ventricular volumes measurements in which an area-lenght procedure and a digital computer were used. The results were compared with those obtained by the manual method using the same formula. The correlative estatistical analysis of these results showed a high index of 0.95 when compared to the telediastolic volumes obtained by both technics, while the index reached 0.99 in reference to the telesistolic volumes and the ejection fraction.

  2. UNCERTAINTY AND THE JOHNSON-ETTINGER MODEL FOR VAPOR INTRUSION CALCULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Johnson-Ettinger Model is widely used for assessing the impacts of contaminated vapors on residential air quality. Typical use of this model relies on a suite of estimated data, with few site-specific measurements. Software was developed to provide the public with automate...

  3. 40 CFR 80.596 - How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel... Requirements § 80.596 How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated? (a) For purposes of this subpart, a refinery's motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline is calculated using...

  4. Volume calculation of the spur gear billet for cold precision forging with average circle method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangjun Cheng; Chengzhong Chi; Yongzhen Wang; Peng Lin; Wei Liang; Chen Li

    2014-01-01

    Forging spur gears are widely used in the driving system of mining machinery and equipment due to their higher strength and dimensional accuracy. For the purpose of precisely calculating the volume of cylindrical spur gear billet in cold precision forging, a new theoretical method named average circle method was put forward. With this method, a series of gear billet volumes were calculated. Comparing with the accurate three-dimensional modeling method, the accuracy of average circle method by theoretical calculation was estimated and the maximum relative error of average circle method was less than 1.5%, which was in good agreement with the experimental results. Relative errors of the calculated and the experimental for obtaining the gear billet volumes with reference circle method are larger than those of the average circle method. It shows that average circle method possesses a higher calculation accuracy than reference circle method (traditional method), which should be worth popularizing widely in calculation of spur gear billet volume.

  5. Volume calculations of coarse woody debris; evaluation of coarse woody debris volume calculations and consequences for coarse woody debris volume estimates in forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Vaessen, O.H.B.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Olsthoorn, A.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Dead wood is recognized as one of the key indicators for sustainable forest management and biodiversity. Accurate assessments of dead wood volume are thus necessary. In this study New volume models were designed based on actual volume measurements of coarse woody debris. The New generic model accura

  6. On the accuracy of HITEMP-2010 calculated emissivities of Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Michael; Weber, Roman; Mancini, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    Line-by-line (LbL) calculations using either HITRAN or HITEMP spectral data bases are often used for predicting gas radiation properties like absorption coefficients or emissivities. Due to the large size of these data bases, calculations are computationally too expensive to be used in regular CF...

  7. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume of black poplar clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrašev Siniša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of diameter structure modeling was applied in the calculation of plantation (stand volume of two black poplar clones in the section Aigeiros (Duby: 618 (Lux and S1-8. Diameter structure modeling by Weibull function makes it possible to calculate the plantation volume by volume line. Based on the comparison of the proposed method with the existing methods, the obtained error of plantation volume was less than 2%. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume by diameter structure model, by the regularity of diameter distribution, enables a better analysis of the production level and assortment structure and it can be used in the construction of yield and increment tables.

  8. A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, I.; Tabakoff, W.

    1979-01-01

    A method for analyzing the nonadiabatic viscous flow through turbomachine rotors is presented. The field analysis is based upon the numerical integration of the full incompressible stream function vorticity form of the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the energy equation, over the rotor blade-to-blade stream channels. The numerical code used to solve the governing equations employs a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system that suits the most complicated blade geometries. A numerical scheme is used to carry out the necessary integration of the elliptic governing equations. The flow characteristics within the rotor of a radial inflow turbine are investigated over a wide range of operating conditions. The calculated results are compared to existing experimental data. The flow in a radial compressor is analyzed in order to study the behavior of viscous flow in diffusing cascades. The results are compared qualitatively to known experimental trends. The solution obtained provides insight into the flow phenomena in this type of turbomachine. It is concluded that the method of analysis is quite general and gives a good representation of the actual flow behavior within turbomachine passages.

  9. Antarctic ice volume for the last 740 ka calculated with a simple ice sheet model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    2005-01-01

    Fluctuations in the volume of the Antarctic ice sheet for the last 740 ka are calculated by forcing a simple ice sheet model with a sea-level history (from a composite deep sea δ18O record) and a temperature history (from the Dome C deuterium record). Antarctic ice volume reaches maximum values of a

  10. 40 CFR 80.599 - How do I calculate volume balances for designation purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... June 30, 2013. July 1, 2013 May 31, 2014. (2) (b) Volume balance for motor vehicle diesel fuel. (1) A facility's motor vehicle diesel fuel volume balance is calculated as follows: MVB = MVI−MVO−MVINVCHG...

  11. Historical volume estimation and a structured method for calculating habitable volume for in-space and surface habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M.; Bobskill, M. R.; Wilhite, A.

    2012-11-01

    Habitable volume is an important spacecraft design figure of merit necessary to determine the required size of crewed space vehicles, or habitats. In order to design habitats for future missions and properly compare the habitable volumes of future habitat designs with historical spacecraft, consistent methods of both defining the required amount of habitable volume and estimating the habitable volume for a given layout are required. This paper provides a brief summary of historical habitable volume requirements and describes the appropriate application of requirements to various types of missions, particularly highlighting the appropriate application for various gravity environments. Then the proposed "Marching Grid Method", a structured automatic, numerical method to calculate habitable volume for a given habitat design, is described in detail. This method uses a set of geometric Boolean tests applied to a discrete set of points within the pressurized volume to numerically estimate the functionally usable and accessible space that comprises the habitable volume. The application of this method to zero gravity and nonzero gravity environments is also discussed. This proposed method is then demonstrated by calculating habitable volumes using two conceptual-level layouts of habitat designs, one for each type of gravity environment. These include the US Laboratory Module on ISS and the Scenario 12.0 Pressurized Core Module from the recent NASA Lunar Surface Systems studies. Results of this study include a description of the effectiveness of this method for various resolutions of the investigated grid, and commentary highlighting the use of this method to determine the overall utility of interior configurations for automatically evaluating interior layouts.

  12. First vapor explosion calculations performed with MC3D thermal-hydraulic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brayer, C.; Berthoud, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the first calculations performed with the `explosion` module of the multiphase computer code MC3D, which is devoted to the fine fragmentation and explosion phase of a fuel coolant interaction. A complete description of the physical laws included in this module is given. The fragmentation models, taking into account two fragmentation mechanisms, a thermal one and an hydrodynamic one, are also developed here. Results to some calculations to test the numerical behavior of MC3D and to test the explosion models in 1D or 2D are also presented. (author)

  13. Model calculation of the characteristic mass for convective and diffusive vapor transport in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencs, László, E-mail: bencs.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Laczai, Nikoletta [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Ajtony, Zsolt [Institute of Food Science, University of West Hungary, H-9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Lucsony utca 15–17 (Hungary)

    2015-07-01

    A combination of former convective–diffusive vapor-transport models is described to extend the calculation scheme for sensitivity (characteristic mass — m{sub 0}) in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). This approach encompasses the influence of forced convection of the internal furnace gas (mini-flow) combined with concentration diffusion of the analyte atoms on the residence time in a spatially isothermal furnace, i.e., the standard design of the transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA). A couple of relationships for the diffusional and convectional residence times were studied and compared, including in factors accounting for the effects of the sample/platform dimension and the dosing hole. These model approaches were subsequently applied for the particular cases of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn analytes. For the verification of the accuracy of the calculations, the experimental m{sub 0} values were determined with the application of a standard THGA furnace, operating either under stopped, or mini-flow (50 cm{sup 3} min{sup −1}) of the internal sheath gas during atomization. The theoretical and experimental ratios of m{sub 0}(mini-flow)-to-m{sub 0}(stop-flow) were closely similar for each study analyte. Likewise, the calculated m{sub 0} data gave a fairly good agreement with the corresponding experimental m{sub 0} values for stopped and mini-flow conditions, i.e., it ranged between 0.62 and 1.8 with an average of 1.05 ± 0.27. This indicates the usability of the current model calculations for checking the operation of a given GFAAS instrument and the applied methodology. - Highlights: • A calculation scheme for convective–diffusive vapor loss in GFAAS is described. • Residence time (τ) formulas were compared for sensitivity (m{sub 0}) in a THGA furnace. • Effects of the sample/platform dimension and dosing hole on τ were assessed. • Theoretical m{sub 0} of 18 analytes were

  14. Slope excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation in hydraulic projects based on laser scanning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Slope excavation is one of the most crucial steps in the construction of a hydraulic project. Excavation project quality assessment and excavated volume calculation are critical in construction management. The positioning of excavation projects using traditional instruments is inefficient and may cause error. To improve the efficiency and precision of calculation and assessment, three-dimensional laser scanning technology was used for slope excavation quality assessment. An efficient data acquisition, processing, and management workflow was presented in this study. Based on the quality control indices, including the average gradient, slope toe elevation, and overbreak and underbreak, cross-sectional quality assessment and holistic quality assessment methods were proposed to assess the slope excavation quality with laser-scanned data. An algorithm was also presented to calculate the excavated volume with laser-scanned data. A field application and a laboratory experiment were carried out to verify the feasibility of these methods for excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation. The results show that the quality assessment indices can be obtained rapidly and accurately with design parameters and scanned data, and the results of holistic quality assessment are consistent with those of cross-sectional quality assessment. In addition, the time consumption in excavation project quality assessment with the laser scanning technology can be reduced by 70%−90%, as compared with the traditional method. The excavated volume calculated with the scanned data only slightly differs from measured data, demonstrating the applicability of the excavated volume calculation method presented in this study.

  15. A simple and efficient GIS tool for volume calculations of submarine landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, David Julius

    2010-10-01

    A numeric tool is presented for calculating volumes of topographic voids such as slump scars of landslides, canyons or craters (negative/concave morphology), or alternatively, bumps and hills (positive/convex morphology) by means of digital elevation models embedded within a geographical information system (GIS). In this study, it has been used to calculate landslide volumes. The basic idea is that a (singular) event (landslide, meteorite impact, volcanic eruption) has disturbed an intact surface such that it is still possible to distinguish between the former (undisturbed) landscape and the disturbance (crater, slide scar, debris avalanche). In such cases, it is possible to reconstruct the paleo-surface and to calculate the volume difference between both surfaces, thereby approximating the volume gain or loss caused by the event. I tested the approach using synthetically generated land surfaces that were created on the basis of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data. Also, I show the application to two real cases, (1) the calculation of the volume of the Masaya Slide, a submarine landslide on the Pacific continental slope of Nicaragua, and (2) the calculation of the void of a segment of the Fish River Canyon, Namibia. The tool is provided as a script file for the free GIS GRASS. It performs with little effort, and offers a range of interpolation parameters. Testing with different sets of interpolation parameters results in a small range of uncertainty. This tool should prove useful in surface studies not exclusively on earth.

  16. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses: 1958 to 1982. Volume 1. Lookup tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains - in chronological order - the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  17. 3D CT modeling of hepatic vessel architecture and volume calculation in living donated liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frericks, Bernd B. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Diagnostische Radiologie, Hannover (Germany); Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200, Berlin (Germany); Caldarone, Franco C.; Savellano, Dagmar Hoegemann; Stamm, Georg; Kirchhoff, Timm D.; Shin, Hoen-Oh; Galanski, Michael [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Diagnostische Radiologie, Hannover (Germany); Nashan, Bjoern; Klempnauer, Juergen [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Viszeral und Transplantationschirurgie, Hannover (Germany); Schenk, Andrea; Selle, Dirk; Spindler, Wolf; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto [Centrum fuer Medizinische Diagnosesysteme und Visualisierung, Bremen (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a software tool for non-invasive preoperative volumetric assessment of potential donors in living donated liver transplantation (LDLT). Biphasic helical CT was performed in 56 potential donors. Data sets were post-processed using a non-commercial software tool for segmentation, volumetric analysis and visualisation of liver segments. Semi-automatic definition of liver margins allowed the segmentation of parenchyma. Hepatic vessels were delineated using a region-growing algorithm with automatically determined thresholds. Volumes and shapes of liver segments were calculated automatically based on individual portal-venous branches. Results were visualised three-dimensionally and statistically compared with conventional volumetry and the intraoperative findings in 27 transplanted cases. Image processing was easy to perform within 23 min. Of the 56 potential donors, 27 were excluded from LDLT because of inappropriate liver parenchyma or vascular architecture. Two recipients were not transplanted due to poor clinical conditions. In the 27 transplanted cases, preoperatively visualised vessels were confirmed, and only one undetected accessory hepatic vein was revealed. Calculated graft volumes were 1110{+-}180 ml for right lobes, 820 ml for the left lobe and 270{+-}30 ml for segments II+III. The calculated volumes and intraoperatively measured graft volumes correlated significantly. No significant differences between the presented automatic volumetry and the conventional volumetry were observed. A novel image processing technique was evaluated which allows a semi-automatic volume calculation and 3D visualisation of the different liver segments. (orig.)

  18. Fast Near-Field Calculation for Volume Integral Equations for Layered Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2005-01-01

    An efficient technique based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for calculating near-field scattering by dielectric objects in layered media is presented. A higher or-der method of moments technique is employed to solve the volume integral equation for the unknown induced volume current density....... Afterwards, the scattered electric field can be easily computed at a regular rectangular grid on any horizontal plane us-ing a 2-dimensional FFT. This approach provides significant speedup in the near-field calculation in comparison to a straightforward numerical evaluation of the ra-diation integral since...

  19. The mass of the {delta} resonance in a finite volume: fourth-order calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoja, Dominik; Rusetsky, Akaki [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bernard, Veronique [Universite Louis Pasteur, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (Germany); Meissner, Ulf G. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik und Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The self-energy of the {delta} resonance in a finite volume is calculated by using chiral effective field theory with explicit spin-3/2 fields. The calculations are performed up-to-and-including fourth order in the small scale expansion and yield an explicit parameterization of the energy spectrum of the interacting {pi}N pair in a finite box in terms of both the quark mass and the box size L. We show that finite-volume corrections are sizable at small quark masses. The values of certain low-energy constants are extracted from fitting to the available data in lattice QCD.

  20. New reference charts for testicular volume in Dutch children and adolescents allow the calculation of standard deviation scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra, S.D.; Plas, E.M. van der; Goede, J.; Oostdijk, W.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Hack, W.W.M.; Buuren, S. van; Wit, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Accurate calculations of testicular volume standard deviation (SD) scores are not currently available. We constructed LMS-smoothed age-reference charts for testicular volume in healthy boys. Methods The LMS method was used to calculate reference data, based on testicular volumes from ultrasonogr

  1. Chemometric Classification of Unknown Vapors by Conversion of Sensor Array Pattern Vectors to Vapor Descriptors: Extension from Mass-Transducing Sensors To Volume-Transducing Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Wise, Barry M.

    2001-06-28

    A new chemometric method was recently described for classifying unknowns by transforming the vector containing the responses from a multivariate detector to a vector containing descriptors of the detected analyte (Grate et al. 1999). This approach was derived for sensor arrays where each sensor's signal is proportional to the amount of vapor sorbed by a polymer on the sensor surface. In this case, the response is proportional to the partition coefficient, K, and the concentration of the vapor in the gas phase, Cv, where K is the ratio of the concentration of vapor in the sorbent polymer phase, Cs, to Cv.

  2. Improving the Volume Dependence of Two-Body Binding Energies Calculated with Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Davoudi, Zohreh

    2011-01-01

    Volume modifications to the binding of two-body systems in large cubic volumes of extent L depend upon the total momentum and exponentially upon the ratio of L to the size of the boosted system. Recent work by Bour et al determined the momentum dependence of the leading volume modifications to nonrelativistic systems with periodic boundary conditions imposed on the single-particle wavefunctions, enabling them to numerically determine the scattering of such bound states using a low-energy effective field theory and Luschers finite-volume method. The calculation of bound nuclear systems directly from QCD using Lattice QCD has begun, and it is important to reduce the systematic uncertainty introduced into such calculations by the finite spatial extent of the gauge-field configurations. We extend the work of Bour et al from nonrelativistic quantum mechanics to quantum field theory by generalizing the work of Luscher and of Gottlieb and Rummukainen to boosted two-body bound states. The volume modifications to bind...

  3. Is the Ellipsoid Formula the New Standard for 3-Tesla MRI Prostate Volume Calculation without Endorectal Coil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Matthias; Günzel, Karsten; Miller, Kurt; Hamm, Bernd; Cash, Hannes; Asbach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Prostate volume in multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is of clinical importance. For 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil, there is no distinctive standard for volume calculation. We tested the accuracy of the ellipsoid formula with planimetric volume measurements as reference and investigated the correlation of gland volume and cancer detection rate on MRI/ultrasound (MRI/US) fusion-guided biopsy. One hundred forty-three patients with findings on 3-Tesla mpMRI suspicious of cancer and subsequent MRI/US fusion-guided targeted biopsy and additional systematic biopsy were analyzed. T2-weighted images were used for measuring the prostate diameters and for planimetric volume measurement by a segmentation software. Planimetric and calculated prostate volumes were compared with clinical data. The median prostate volume was 48.1 ml (interquartile range (IQR) 36.9-62.1 ml). Volume calculated by the ellipsoid formula showed a strong concordance with planimetric volume, with a tendency to underestimate prostate volume (median volume 43.1 ml (IQR 31.2-58.8 ml); r = 0.903, p < 0.001). There was a moderate, significant inverse correlation of prostate volume to a positive biopsy result (r = -0.24, p = 0.004). The ellipsoid formula gives sufficient approximation of prostate volume on 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil. It allows a fast, valid volume calculation in prostate MRI datasets.

  4. Respiratory influence on left atrial volume calculation with 3D-echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørgaard, Mathias; Linde, Jesper J; Ismail, Hafsa;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left atrial volume (LAV) estimation with 3D echocardiography has been shown to be more accurate than 2D volume calculation. However, little is known about the possible effect of respiratory movements on the accuracy of the measurement. METHODS: 100 consecutive patients admitted...... with chest pain were examined with 3D echocardiography and LAV was quantified during inspiratory breath hold, expiratory breath hold and during free breathing. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients, only 65 had an echocardiographic window that allowed for 3D echocardiography in the entire respiratory cycle. Mean...

  5. Algorithm for the calculation of a steam generator efficiency; Algoritmo para el calculo de la eficiencia de un generador de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, David; Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The efficiency calculation of steam generators is not always simple. The purpose of this paper is to propose an algorithm for the calculation of steam generators efficiency, easy to understand and carry out, in the form of a series of steps to be followed. It takes as starting point that the person in charge of applying these calculations has knowledge of the combustion processes and thermodynamic principles that rule such processes. [Espanol] El calculo de la eficiencia de los generadores de vapor no siempre es sencillo, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el de proponer un algoritmo de calculo de eficiencia de generadores de vapor, el cual sea facil de entender y de llevar a cabo, en forma de una serie de pasos a seguir. Se toma como punto de partida, que la persona encargada de aplicar estos calculos tenga el conocimiento de los procesos de combustion y principios termodinamicos que rigen tales procesos.

  6. The enhanced volume source boundary point method for the calculation of acoustic radiation problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiufeng; CHEN Xinzhao; WANG Youcheng

    2003-01-01

    The Volume Source Boundary Point Method (VSBPM) is greatly improved so that it will speed up the VSBPM's solution of the acoustic radiation problem caused by the vibrating body. The fundamental solution provided by Helmholtz equation is enforced in a weighted residual sense over a tetrahedron located on the normal line of the boundary node to replace the coefficient matrices of the system equation. Through the enhanced volume source boundary point analysis of various examples and the sound field of a vibrating rectangular box in a semi-anechoic chamber, it has revealed that the calculating speed of the EVSBPM is more than 10 times faster than that of the VSBPM while it works on the aspects of its calculating precision and stability, adaptation to geometric shape of vibrating body as well as its ability to overcome the non-uniqueness problem.

  7. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment [Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis; Herrick, Courtney G; Zeitler, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  8. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis [Stoller Newport News Nuclear, Inc., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G [Sandia National Laboratories., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Zeitler, Todd [Sandia National Laboratories., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  9. Condensation of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the jet exhausts of rocket engines: 1. Model calculation of the physical conditions in a jet exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platov, Yu. V.; Alpatov, V. V.; Klyushnikov, V. Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Model calculations have been performed for the temperature and pressure of combustion products in the jet exhaust of rocket engines of last stages of Proton, Molniya, and Start launchers operating in the upper atmosphere at altitudes above 120 km. It has been shown that the condensation of water vapor and carbon dioxide can begin at distances of 100-150 and 450-650 m away from the engine nozzle, respectively.

  10. Calculation of partial molar volume of components in supercritical ammonia synthesis system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cunwen WANG; Chuanbo YU; Wen CHEN; Weiguo WANG; Yuanxin WU; Junfeng ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The partial molar volumes of components in supercritical ammonia synthesis system are calculated in detail by the calculation formula of partial molar volume derived from the R-K equation of state under different conditions. The objectives are to comprehend phase beha-vior of components and to provide the theoretic explana-tion and guidance for probing novel processes of ammonia synthesis under supercritical conditions. The conditions of calculation are H2/N2= 3, at a concentra-tion of NH3 in synthesis gas ranging from 2% to 15%, Concentration of medium in supercritical ammonia syn-thesis system ranging from 20% to 50%, temperature ran-ging from 243 K to 699 K and pressure ranging from 0.1 MPa to 187 MPa. The results show that the ammonia synthesis system can reach supercritical state by adding a suitable supercritical medium and then controlling the reaction conditions. It is helpful for the supercritical ammonia synthesis that medium reaches supercritical state under the conditions of the corresponding total pres-sure and components near the normal temperature or near the critical temperature of medium or in the range of tem-perature of industrialized ammonia synthesis.

  11. Finite Volume Numerical Methods for Aeroheating Rate Calculations from Infrared Thermographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Nowak, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of multi-dimensional finite volume heat conduction techniques for calculating aeroheating rates from measured global surface temperatures on hypersonic wind tunnel models was investigated. Both direct and inverse finite volume techniques were investigated and compared with the standard one-dimensional semi-infinite technique. Global transient surface temperatures were measured using an infrared thermographic technique on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air tunnel. In these tests the effectiveness of vortices generated via gas injection for initiating hypersonic transition on the Hyper-X forebody was investigated. An array of streamwise-orientated heating striations was generated and visualized downstream of the gas injection sites. In regions without significant spatial temperature gradients, one-dimensional techniques provided accurate aeroheating rates. In regions with sharp temperature gradients caused by striation patterns multi-dimensional heat transfer techniques were necessary to obtain more accurate heating rates. The use of the one-dimensional technique resulted in differences of 20% in the calculated heating rates compared to 2-D analysis because it did not account for lateral heat conduction in the model.

  12. Venous and fingertip blood to calculate plasma volume shift following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R G; Brown, D D; Hetzler, R K; Sikora, L M

    1990-12-01

    This study determined whether fingertip blood samples used to calculate percentage change in calculated plasma volume following exercise were in agreement with values obtained from venous blood samples. Twenty-five subjects engaged in two cycle ergometer exercises at 100 and 200 W, with percentage plasma volume shift (% PVS) determined after each from venous (VB) and fingertip (FT) blood. Values for % PVS were FT -6.25% compared with VB -8.04% (P less than 0.05), with the correlation between the two methods at r = 0.88. The following equation was established: corrected FT % PVS = (0.8662 * FT) - 2.625; SEE = 2.60%. In order to cross-validate this equation, fifteen additional subjects submitted to VB and FT. Corrected FT % PVS using the established equation resulted in a mean value of 9.53 compared with 10.53% for actual VB % PVS. Although these means were not significantly different, there was approximately a 25% chance that the corrected FT % PVS would be more than one standard error of estimate from the regression line. It was concluded that FT underestimates VB % PVS. However, when limited to group data, FT can be corrected to favorably represent VB % PVS following moderate to heavy cycle ergometer exercise.

  13. Volumic activities measurements and equivalent doses calculation of indoor 222Rn in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajid Choukri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As a way of prevention, we have measured the volumic activities of indoor 222Rn and we have calculated the corresponding effective dose in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morocco. Seasonal variation of Radon activities and Relationships between variation of these activities and some parameters such height, depth and type of construction were also established in this work.Methods: The passive time-integrated method of using a solid state nuclear track detector (LR-115 type II was employed. These films, cut in pieces of 3.4 ´ 2.5 cm2, were placed in detector holders and enclosed in heat-scaled polyethylene bags.Results: The measured volumic activities of radon vary in houses, between 31 and 136 Bq/m3 (0.55 and 2.39 mSv/year with an average value of 80 Bq/m3 (1.41 mSv/year. In enclosed work area, they vary between 60 Bq/m3 (0.38 mSv/year in an ordinary area to 1884 Bq/m3 (11.9 mSv/year at not airy underground level of 12 m. the relatively higher volumic activities of 222Rn in houses were measured in Youssoufia and khouribga towns situated in regions rich in phosphate deposits. Measurements at the geophysical observatory of Berchid show that the volumic activity of radon increases with depth, this is most probably due to decreased ventilation. Conclusion: The obtained results show that the effective dose calculated for indoor dwellings are comparable to those obtained in other regions in the word. The risks related to the volumic activities of indoor radon could be avoided by simple precautions such the continuous ventilation. The reached high value of above 1884 Bq/m3 don't present any risk for workers health in the geophysical observatory of Berchid because workers spend only a few minutes by day in the cellar to control and reregister data.

  14. Recording and Calculating Gunshot Sound—Change of the Volume in Reference to the Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaos, Tsiatis E.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in an open practice ground (shooting range) regarding the recording of the sound of gunshots. Shots were fired using various types of firearms (seven pistols, five revolvers, two submachine guns, one rifle, and one shotgun) in different calibers, from several various distances with reference to the recording sources. Both, a conventional sound level meter (device) and a measurement microphone were used, having been placed in a fixed point behind the shooting line. The sound of each shot was recorded (from the device). At the same time the signal received by the microphone was transferred to a connected computer through an appropriate audio interface with a pre-amplifier. Each sound wave was stored and depicted as a wave function. After the physic-mathematical analysis of these depictions, the volume was calculated in the accepted engineering units(Decibels or dB) of Sound Pressure Level (SPL). The distances from the recording sources were 9.60 meters, 14.40 m, 19.20 m, and 38.40 m. The experiment was carried out by using the following calibers: .22 LR, 6.35 mm(.25 AUTO), 7.62 mm Tokarev(7,62×25), 7.65 mm(.32 AUTO), 9 mm Parabellum(9×19), 9 mm Short(9×17), 9 mm Makarov(9×18), .45 AUTO, .32 S&W, .38 S&W, .38 SPECIAL, .357 Magnum, 7,62 mm Kalashnikov(7,62×39) and 12 GA. Tables are given for the environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, altitude & barometric pressure), the length of the barrel of each gun, technical characteristics of the used ammunition, as well as for the volume taken from the SLM. The data for the sound intensity were collected after 168 gunshots (158 single shot & 10 bursts). According to the results, a decreasing of the volume, equivalent to the increasing of the distance, was remarked, as it was expected. Values seem to follow the Inverse square Law. For every doubling of the distance from the sound source, the sound intensity diminishes by 5.9904±0.2325 decibels (on average). In addition, we have the

  15. Modeling Atmospheric Emissions and Calculating Mortality Rates Associated with High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Alyssa

    Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are a growing pollution concern throughout the global community, as they have been linked to numerous health issues. The freight transportation sector is a large source of these emissions and is expected to continue growing as globalization persists. Within the US, the expanding development of the natural gas industry is helping to support many industries and leading to increased transportation. The process of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) is one of the newer advanced extraction techniques that is increasing natural gas and oil reserves dramatically within the US, however the technique is very resource intensive. HVHF requires large volumes of water and sand per well, which is primarily transported by trucks in rural areas. Trucks are also used to transport waste away from HVHF well sites. This study focused on the emissions generated from the transportation of HVHF materials to remote well sites, dispersion, and subsequent health impacts. The Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was used in this analysis within ArcGIS to identify roadways with high volume traffic and emissions. High traffic road segments were used as emissions sources to determine the atmospheric dispersion of particulate matter using AERMOD, an EPA model that calculates geographic dispersion and concentrations of pollutants. Output from AERMOD was overlaid with census data to determine which communities may be impacted by increased emissions from HVHF transport. The anticipated number of mortalities within the impacted communities was calculated, and mortality rates from these additional emissions were computed to be 1 in 10 million people for a simulated truck fleet meeting stricter 2007 emission standards, representing a best case scenario. Mortality rates due to increased truck emissions from average, in-use vehicles, which represent a mixed age truck fleet, are expected to be higher (1 death per 341,000 people annually).

  16. Calculation of the Residual Blood Volume after Acute, Non-Ongoing Hemorrhage Using Serial Hematocrit Measurements and the Volume of Isotonic Fluid Infused: Theoretical Hypothesis Generating Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won Sup; Chon, Sung-Bin

    2016-05-01

    Fluid resuscitation, hemostasis, and transfusion is essential in care of hemorrhagic shock. Although estimation of the residual blood volume is crucial, the standard measuring methods are impractical or unsafe. Vital signs, central venous or pulmonary artery pressures are inaccurate. We hypothesized that the residual blood volume for acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage was calculable using serial hematocrit measurements and the volume of isotonic solution infused. Blood volume is the sum of volumes of red blood cells and plasma. For acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage, red blood cell volume would not change. A certain portion of the isotonic fluid would increase plasma volume. Mathematically, we suggest that the residual blood volume after acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage might be calculated as 0·25N/[(Hct1/Hct2)-1], where Hct1 and Hct2 are the initial and subsequent hematocrits, respectively, and N is the volume of isotonic solution infused. In vivo validation and modification is needed before clinical application of this model.

  17. Volume Transport Stream Function Calculated from World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13-VTSF) and Climatological Wind (NCEI Accession 0138646)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of calculated annual and monthly mean ocean volume transport stream function on 1 degree resolution using the WOA13 (T, S) and corresponding...

  18. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 1, Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Volume one contains calculations for: embankment design--embankment material properties; Union Carbide site--bedrock contours; vicinity properties--origin of contamination; North Continent and Union Carbide sites contaminated materials--excavation quantities; and demolition debris--quantity estimate.

  19. Revised Calculated Volumes Of Individual Shield Volcanoes At The Young End Of The Hawaiian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. E.; Eakins, B. W.

    2003-12-01

    Recent, high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands allow us to recalculate Bargar and Jackson's [1974] volumes of coalesced volcanic edifices (Hawaii, Maui-Nui, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau) and individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge, taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the volcanoes as modeled by Watts and ten Brink [1989]. Our volume for the Island of Hawaii (2.48 x105 km3) is twice the previous estimate (1.13 x105 km3), due primarily to crustal subsidence, which had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Hawaii edifice (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea, and Loihi) are generally considered to have formed within the past million years and our revised volume for Hawaii indicates that either magma-supply rates are greater than previously estimated (0.25 km3/yr as opposed to 0.1 km3/yr) or that Hawaii's volcanoes have erupted over a longer period of time (>1 million years). Our results also indicate that magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Hawaiian edifices: the average rate of the past 5 million years (0.096 km3/yr) is substantially greater than the overall average of the Hawaiian Ridge (0.018km3/yr) or Emperor Seamounts (0.012 km3/yr) as calculated by Bargar and Jackson, and that rates within the past million years are greater still (0.25 km3/yr). References: Bargar, K. E., and Jackson, E. D., 1974, Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes along the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain, Jour. Research U.S. Geol. Survey, Vol. 2, No. 5, p. 545-550. Watts, A. B., and ten Brink, U. S., 1989, Crustal structure, flexure, and subsidence history of the Hawaiian Islands, Jour. Geophys. Res., Vol. 94, No. B8, p. 10,473-10,500.

  20. Calculation of H2O-NH3-CO2 Vapor Liquid Equilibria at High Concentration Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏顺安; 张红晶

    2004-01-01

    A vapor liquid equilibrium model and its related interactive energy parameters based on UNIQUAC model for the H2O-NH3-CO2 system without solid phase at the conditions of temperature from 30℃ to 90℃, pressure from 0.1 MPa to 0.4 MPa, and the maximum NH3 mass fraction up to 0.4 are provided. This model agrees with experimental data well (average relative error < 1%) and is useful for analysis of industrial urea production.

  1. A finite-volume numerical method to calculate fluid forces and rotordynamic coefficients in seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athavale, M. M.; Przekwas, A. J.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical method to calculate rotordynamic coefficients of seals is presented. The flow in a seal is solved by using a finite-volume formulation of the full Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate turbulence models. The seal rotor is perturbed along a diameter such that the position of the rotor is a sinusoidal function of time. The resulting flow domain changes with time, and the time-dependent flow in the seal is solved using a space conserving moving grid formulation. The time-varying fluid pressure reaction forces are then linked with the rotor center displacement, velocity and acceleration to yield the rotordynamic coefficients. Results for an annular seal are presented, and compared with experimental data and other more simplified numerical methods.

  2. Saturated vapor pressure above the amalgam of alkali metals in discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrish, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    A theoretical and numerical analysis of the evaporation process of two-component compounds in vapors of alkali metals in discharge lamps is presented. Based on the developed mathematical model of calculation of saturated vapor pressure of the metal above the amalgam, dependences of mass fractions of the components in the discharge volume on design parameters and thermophysical characteristics of the lamp are obtained.

  3. Diffusion Monte Carlo calculation of rate of elastic transmission of a helium vapor beam through a slab of superfluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsyshyn, Y.; Halley, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of the elastic transmission of a low-energy beam of helium atoms through a suspended slab of superfluid helium. These calculations represent a significant improvement on variational Monte Carlo methods which were previously used to study this problem. The results are consistent with the existence of a condensate-mediated transmission mechanism, which would result in very fast transmission of pulses through a slab.

  4. Calculating Skempton constant of aquifer from volume strain and water level response to seismic waves at Changping seismic station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Rui; CHEN Yong; GAO Fu-wang; HUANG Fu-qiong

    2008-01-01

    Based on linear poroelastic theory of ideal poroelastic media, we apply the mathematic expression between pore pressure and volume strain for well-aquifer system to analyzing the observed data of water level and volume strain changes aroused by Sumatra Ms8.7 (determined by China Seismic Networks Center) seismic waves at Changping, Beijing, station on December 26, 2004 from both time and frequency domain. The response coefficients of water level fluctuation to volume strain are also calculated when seismic waves were passing through confined aquifer. A method for estimating Skempton constant B is put forward, which provide an approach for understanding of the characteristics of aquifer.

  5. Metodología de cálculo de la eficiencia térmica de generadores de vapor Methodology to calculate thermal efficiency of steam boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Golato

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método matemático determinístico de procesamiento de registros experimentales, aplicable a un sistema generador de vapor-precalentador de aire en estado estacionario, que opere con uno o dos combustibles simultáneamente, para determinar la eficiencia térmica del mismo y la eficiencia con la que se oxida el combustible, como así también el rendimiento del intercambiador de calor. La mecánica de procesamiento se basa en la resolución de los balances de materia y energía sobre los diferentes equipos que conforman el sistema. Esta metodología es aplicable a aquellos generadores de vapor que empleen, como combustible, bagazo, gas natural o ambos (caldera mixta. Se ilustran, como ejemplos de aplicación, los resultados del cálculo de la eficiencia térmica de diferentes generadores de vapor para cada tipo de combustible procesado, empleando para ello datos de diversos ensayos experimentales. La resolución de los balances de materia y energía en una caldera que quema bagazo, dio como resultado un rendimiento térmico del 53,2% y un índice de generación de 1,38 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Para una caldera cuyo combustible es gas natural, se obtuvo un rendimiento térmico del 76,7% y un índice de generación de 9,8 kg de vapor/ Nm³ de gas natural. Para una caldera que quema en forma simultánea bagazo y gas natural, se determinó un rendimiento del 68,3% y un índice de generación de 1,87 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo equivalente. Como validación de esta metodología, se contrastan estos valores de eficiencia con los obtenidos según el código propuesto por la American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME.A deterministic mathematical method for processing experimental data, applied to a steam generator-air heater system in stationary state which operates with one or two fuels simultaneously, was developed to determine the thermal of the system, as well as fuel combustion and heat exchanger efficiency. The methodology is

  6. Methods and computer executable instructions for rapidly calculating simulated particle transport through geometrically modeled treatment volumes having uniform volume elements for use in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Michael W.; Wessol, Daniel E.; Wheeler, Floyd J.

    2001-01-16

    Methods and computer executable instructions are disclosed for ultimately developing a dosimetry plan for a treatment volume targeted for irradiation during cancer therapy. The dosimetry plan is available in "real-time" which especially enhances clinical use for in vivo applications. The real-time is achieved because of the novel geometric model constructed for the planned treatment volume which, in turn, allows for rapid calculations to be performed for simulated movements of particles along particle tracks there through. The particles are exemplary representations of neutrons emanating from a neutron source during BNCT. In a preferred embodiment, a medical image having a plurality of pixels of information representative of a treatment volume is obtained. The pixels are: (i) converted into a plurality of substantially uniform volume elements having substantially the same shape and volume of the pixels; and (ii) arranged into a geometric model of the treatment volume. An anatomical material associated with each uniform volume element is defined and stored. Thereafter, a movement of a particle along a particle track is defined through the geometric model along a primary direction of movement that begins in a starting element of the uniform volume elements and traverses to a next element of the uniform volume elements. The particle movement along the particle track is effectuated in integer based increments along the primary direction of movement until a position of intersection occurs that represents a condition where the anatomical material of the next element is substantially different from the anatomical material of the starting element. This position of intersection is then useful for indicating whether a neutron has been captured, scattered or exited from the geometric model. From this intersection, a distribution of radiation doses can be computed for use in the cancer therapy. The foregoing represents an advance in computational times by multiple factors of

  7. Considerations on the calculation of volumes in two planning systems; Consideraciones sobre el calculo de volumenes en dos sistemas de planificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Tenedor Alonso, S.; Rincon Perez, M.; Penedo Cobos, J. M.; Garcia Castejon, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    The discrepancies in the calculation of the same volume between different planning systems impact on dose-volume histograms and therefore clinical assessment of dosimetry for patients. The transfer, by a local network, tomographic study (CT) and contours of critical organs of patients, between our two planning systems allows us to evaluate the calculation of identical volumes.

  8. [Automatic calculation of left ventricular volume and ejection fraction from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT--basic evaluation using phantom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Y; Nanbu, I; Tohyama, J; Ooba, S

    1998-02-01

    We evaluated accuracy of Quantitative Gated SPECT Program that enabled calculation of the left ventricular (LV) volume and ejection fraction by automatically tracing the contour of the cardiac surface. Cardiac phantoms filled with 99mTc-solution were used. Data acquisition was made by 180-degree projection in L type and 360-degree projection in opposed type. Automatic calculation could be done in all processes, which required 3-4 minutes. Reproducibility was sufficient. The adequate cut off value of a prefilter was 0.45. At this value LV volume was 93% of the actual volume in L type acquisition and 95.9% in opposed type acquisition. The LV volume obtained in L type was smaller than that obtained in opposed type (p defects was fair, on the cardiac phantoms with all of 90-degree defects and 180-degree defects of the septal and lateral wall. The LV volume was estimated to be larger on the phantom with 180-degree defect of the anterior wall, and to be smaller on the phantom of 180-degree defect of the inferoposterior wall. Because tracing was deviated anteriorly at the defects. In the patients with similar conditions to 180-degree defect of the anterior wall or inferoposterior wall, the LV volume should be carefully evaluated.

  9. Automatic calculation of left ventricular volume and ejection fraction from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Basic evaluation using phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Yoshimi; Nanbu, Ichirou [Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital (Japan); Tohyama, Junko; Ooba, Satoru

    1998-02-01

    We evaluated accuracy of Quantitative Gated SPECT Program that enabled calculation of the left ventricular (LV) volume and ejection fraction by automatically tracing the contour of the cardiac surface. Cardiac phantoms filled with {sup 99m}Tc-solution were used. Data acquisition was made by 180-degree projection in L type and 360-degree projection in opposed type. Automatic calculation could be done in all processes, which required 3-4 minutes. Reproducibility was sufficient. The adequate cut off value of a prefilter was 0.45. At this value LV volume was 93% of the actual volume in L type acquisition and 95.9% in opposed type acquisition. The LV volume obtained in L type was smaller than that obtained in opposed type (p<0.05). The tracing of the defects was fair, on the cardiac phantoms with all of 90-degree defects and 180-degree defects of the septal and lateral wall. The LV volume was estimated to be larger on the phantom with 180-degree defect of the anterior wall, and to be smaller on the phantom of 180-degree defect of the inferoposterior wall. Because tracing was deviated anteriorly at the defects. In the patients with similar conditions to 180-degree defect of the anterior wall or inferoposterior wall, the LV volume should be carefully evaluated. (author)

  10. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 2, Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Volume two contains calculations for: embankment design--slope stability analysis; embankment design--excavation stability; embankment design--settlement and cover cracking analysis; radon barrier design--statistical analysis of ra-226 concentrations for North Continent and Union Carbide sites; radon barrier design--RAECOM input data; radon barrier design--design thickness; and cover design--frost penetration depth.

  11. Shock wave of vapor-liquid two-phase flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangju ZHAO; Fei WANG; Hong GAO; Jingwen TANG; Yuexiang YUAN

    2008-01-01

    The shock wave of vapor-liquid two-phase flow in a pressure-gain steam injector is studied by build-ing a mathematic model and making calculations. The results show that after the shock, the vapor is nearly com-pletely condensed. The upstream Mach number and the volume ratio of vapor have a great effect on the shock. The pressure and Mach number of two-phase shock con-form to the shock of ideal gas. The analysis of available energy shows that the shock is an irreversible process with entropy increase.

  12. 3-D volume rendering visualization for calculated distributions of diesel spray; Diesel funmu kyodo suchi keisan kekka no sanjigen volume rendering hyoji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizaki, T.; Imanishi, H.; Nishida, K.; Yamashita, H.; Hiroyasu, H.; Kaneda, K. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Three dimensional visualization technique based on volume rendering method has been developed in order to translate calculated results of diesel combustion simulation into realistically spray and flame images. This paper presents an overview of diesel combustion model which has been developed at Hiroshima University, a description of the three dimensional visualization technique, and some examples of spray and flame image generated by this visualization technique. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1, Volume 3. Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Volume three contains calculations for: site hydrology--rainfall intensity, duration, and frequency relations; site hydrology-- probable maximum precipitation; erosion protection--rock quality evaluation; erosion protection--embankment top and side slope; erosion protection--embankment toe apron; erosion protection-- gradations and layer thicknesses; Union Carbide site--temporary drainage ditch design; Union Carbide site--retention basin sediment volume; Union Carbide site--retention basin sizing; Burro Canyon site temporary drainage--temporary drainage facilities; and Union Carbide site temporary drainage--water balance.

  14. Calculation of the rockfall scar volume distribution using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner in the Montsec Area (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Guillem; Mavrouli, Olga; Corominas, Jordi; Abellán, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Magnitude-frequency relations are a key issue when evaluating the rockfall hazard. It is a common practice to calculate them using databases of past events. However, in some cases, they are not available or complete. Alternatively, the analysis of the scar volume distribution on the wall face provides useful information on the slope's rockfall activity. The Montsec range, located in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain, is a limestone cliff from upper cretaceous. In some parts, clear evidences of rockfall activities are present: Large recent rockfall scars are distinguished by their orange colour in comparison with grey non active surfaces on the slope face. To identify the scars and analyse their volume distribution, a methodology has been carried out (Santana et al. 2011) which is based on the elaboration of data from a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) obtained with Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). This methodology requires a point cloud of the slope and it includes the following steps: a) identification of discontinuity sets b) generation of discontinuity surfaces c) calculation of areas of the exposed discontinuity surfaces and rockfall scar heights, and d) calculation of the rockfall scar volume distribution. Three discontinuity sets were identified on the point cloud. To generate the discontinuity surfaces, SEFL software was used. The input data for accepting that two neighbouring points of the point cloud belong to the same surface, was a minimum spacing of 0.4m. The resulting planes were visually checked. Assuming that the discontinuities of set 1 preserve the basal shape of the rockfall scars and the altitude is parallel to the discontinuities of set 2, the volume can be calculated as the product of the area of surfaces of set 1 with the length of the surfaces of set 2 using the afore mentioned SEFL software. Areas were found to follow a Lognormal distribution and lengths a Pearson6 one. The volume calculation was then made probabilistically by means

  15. Calculation Model of Vapor Compress Flash Seawater Desalination Equipment%压汽闪蒸法海水淡化装置的工艺计算模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侴乔力; 金从卓; 束鹏程

    2011-01-01

    Among the modem seawater desalination methods, this article firstly analyzes and compares and induces the questions of the second vapor condensing latent heat loss of the open heat process in multi-stage flash and multi-effect distillation, and the questions of producing dirty and corrosion in distillation, and the questions of seawater pretreatment and unstable product water quality in reverse-osmosis. Then this article synthesizes their merits and proposes for the first time the newest and the best and integrated vapor compress flash seawater desalination method, in witch a flash with the best product water quality is driven by a vapor compress with the highest heat-power efficiency, with technical superiorities such as the lowest investment cost and independent flash operation and modularization combination production and so on. This method is mature and comprehensive as a result of integrated technology, its equipments run safely and reliably, and it will certainly replace each existing method gradually as a result of its remarkable technology and economy, unify the seawater desalination market, and lead the seawater desalination revolution I This artic has set up the calculation model of vapor compress flash seawater desalination equipment.%压汽闪蒸法海水淡化装置可规避现有海水淡化方法(多级闪蒸法和多效蒸馏法)中,在开路热焓过程中二次蒸汽的凝结潜热损失问题;蒸馏法的结垢与腐蚀问题;反渗透法的海水前处理与产品水质不稳定问题,从而实现海水淡化方法的最优技术整合:提供一种由热功效率最高的压汽法,来驱动产品水质最好的闪蒸法,这样一种全新、集成的海水淡化工艺;并兼具投资成本最低、独立闪蒸操作、模块化组合生产等主要技术优势.由于集成技术的成熟而全面,装置运行安全而可靠,必将以卓越的技术、经济性,逐步取代现有各种方法,统一海水淡化市场,引导海水淡

  16. Calcul statistique du volume des blocs matriciels d'un gisement fissuré The Statistical Computing of Matrix Block Volume in a Fissured Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guez F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La recherche des conditions optimales d'exploitation d'un gisement fissuré repose sur une bonne description de la fissuration. En conséquence il est nécessaire de définir les dimensions et volumes des blocs matriciels en chaque point d'une structure. Or la géométrie du milieu (juxtaposition et formes des blocs est généralement trop complexe pour se prêter au calcul. Aussi, dans une précédente communication, avons-nous dû tourner cette difficulté par un raisonnement sur des moyennes (pendages, azimuts, espacement des fissures qui nous a conduits à un ordre de grandeur des volumes. Cependant un volume moyen ne peut pas rendre compte d'une loi de répartition des volumes des blocs. Or c'est cette répartition qui conditionne le choix d'une ou plusieurs méthodes successives de récupération. Aussi présentons-nous ici une méthode originale de calcul statistique de la loi de distribution des volumes des blocs matriciels, applicable en tout point d'un gisement. La part de gisement concernée par les blocs de volume donné en est déduite. La connaissance générale du phénomène de la fracturation sert de base au modèle. Les observations de subsurface sur la fracturation du gisement en fournissent les données (histogramme d'orientation et d'espacement des fissures.Une application au gisement d'Eschau (Alsace, France est rapportée ici pour illustrer la méthode. The search for optimum production conditions for a fissured reservoir depends on having a good description of the fissure pattern. Hence the sizes and volumes of the matrix blocks must be defined at all points in a structure. However, the geometry of the medium (juxtaposition and shapes of blocks in usually too complex for such computation. This is why, in a previous paper, we got around this problem by reasoning on the bases of averages (clips, azimuths, fissure spacing, and thot led us to an order of magnitude of the volumes. Yet a mean volume cannot be used to explain

  17. Ionization-cluster distributions of alpha-particles in nanometric volumes of propane: measurement and calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardo, L; Colautti, P; Conte, V; Baek, W Y; Grosswendt, B; Tornielli, G

    2002-12-01

    The probability of the formation of ionization clusters by primary alpha-particles at 5.4 MeV in nanometric volumes of propane was studied experimentally and by Monte Carlo simulation, as a function of the distance between the center line of the particle beam and the center of the target volume. The volumes were of cylindrical shape, 3.7 mm in diameter and height. As the investigations were performed at gas pressures of 300 Pa and 350 Pa, the dimensions of the target volume were equivalent to 20.6 nm or 24.0 nm in a material of density 1.0 g/cm(3). The dependence of ionization-cluster formation on distance was studied up to values equivalent to about 70 nm. To validate the measurements, a Monte Carlo model was developed which allows the experimental arrangement and the interactions of alpha-particles and secondary electrons in the counter gas to be properly simulated. This model is supplemented by a mathematical formulation of cluster size formation in nanometric targets. The main results of our study are (i) that the mean ionization-cluster size in the delta-electron cloud of an alpha-particle track segment, decreases as a function of the distance between the center line of the alpha-particle beam and the center of the sensitive target volume to the power of 2.6, and (ii) that the mean cluster size in critical volumes and the relative variance of mean cluster size due to delta-electrons are invariant at distances greater than about 20 nm. We could imagine that the ionization-cluster formation in nanometric volumes might in future provide the physical basis for a redefinition of radiation quality.

  18. Calculation of Intercepted Volume of Sewer Overflows: a Model for Control of Nonpoint Pollution Sources in Urban Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. Choi; D. I. Jung; C. H. Won; J. M. Rim

    2006-01-01

    The authors discovered large differences in the characteristics of overflows by the calculation of 1) intercepting volume of overflows for sewer systems using SWMM model which takes into consideration the runoff and pollutants from rainfalls and 2) the intercepted volume in the total flow at an investigation site. The intercepting rate at the investigation point of CSOs showed higher values than the SSDs. Based on the modeling of the receiving water quality after calculating the intercepting amount of overflows by considering the characteristics of outflows for a proper management of the overflow of sewer systems with rainfalls, it is clear that the BOD decreased by 82.9%-94.0% for the discharge after intercepting a specific amount of flows compared to the discharge from unprocessed overflows.

  19. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of azides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verevkin, Sergey P., E-mail: sergey.verevkin@uni-rostock.de [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Rostock, Dr-Lorenz-Weg 1, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Emel' yanenko, Vladimir N. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Rostock, Dr-Lorenz-Weg 1, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Algarra, Manuel [Centro de Geologia do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Manuel Lopez-Romero, J. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Malaga. Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Aguiar, Fabio; Enrique Rodriguez-Borges, J.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ-UP), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > We prepared and measured vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 7 azides. > We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. > Data for geminal azides and azido-alkanes selected for thermochemical calculations. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of some azides have been determined by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization {Delta}{sub l}{sup g}H{sub m} of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. The measured data sets were successfully checked for internal consistency by comparison with vaporization enthalpies of similarly structured compounds.

  20. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing HVAC calculations, Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-30

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. The report contains the following design calculations: Cooling load in pump pit 241-AY-102; Pressure relief seal loop design; Process building piping stress analysis; Exhaust skid maximum allowable leakage criteria; and Recirculation heat, N509 duct requirements.

  1. Calculated Specific Volumes and Magnetic Moments of the 3d Transition Metal Monoxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1980-01-01

    We have performed self-consistent, spin-polarized band structure calculations as a function of the lattice spacing for the 3d metal monoxides in order to obtain the equilibrium lattice constants. The calculated binding from the 3d electrons and the occurrence of antiferromagnetism account...

  2. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Civil/structural calculations. Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-24

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The purpose of this calculation is to conservatively estimate the weight of equipment and structures being added over Tank 241-C-106 as a result of Project W-320 and combine these weights with the estimated weights of existing structures and equipment as calculated in Attachment 1. The combined weights will be compared to the allowable live load limit to provide a preliminary assessment of loading conditions above Tank 241-C-106.

  3. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing HVAC calculations, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-08-07

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. The report contains the following calculations: Exhaust airflow sizing for Tank 241-C-106; Equipment sizing and selection recirculation fan; Sizing high efficiency mist eliminator; Sizing electric heating coil; Equipment sizing and selection of recirculation condenser; Chiller skid system sizing and selection; High efficiency metal filter shielding input and flushing frequency; and Exhaust skid stack sizing and fan sizing.

  4. A Mixed Finite Volume Element Method for Flow Calculations in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jim E.

    1996-01-01

    A key ingredient in the simulation of flow in porous media is the accurate determination of the velocities that drive the flow. The large scale irregularities of the geology, such as faults, fractures, and layers suggest the use of irregular grids in the simulation. Work has been done in applying the finite volume element (FVE) methodology as developed by McCormick in conjunction with mixed methods which were developed by Raviart and Thomas. The resulting mixed finite volume element discretization scheme has the potential to generate more accurate solutions than standard approaches. The focus of this paper is on a multilevel algorithm for solving the discrete mixed FVE equations. The algorithm uses a standard cell centered finite difference scheme as the 'coarse' level and the more accurate mixed FVE scheme as the 'fine' level. The algorithm appears to have potential as a fast solver for large size simulations of flow in porous media.

  5. Development of the meshless finite volume particle method with exact and efficient calculation of interparticle area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Nathan J.; Lobovský, Libor; Nestor, Ruairi M.

    2014-06-01

    The Finite Volume Particle Method (FVPM) is a meshless method based on a definition of interparticle area which is closely analogous to cell face area in the classical finite volume method. In previous work, the interparticle area has been computed by numerical integration, which is a source of error and is extremely expensive. We show that if the particle weight or kernel function is defined as a discontinuous top-hat function, the particle interaction vectors may be evaluated exactly and efficiently. The new formulation reduces overall computational time by a factor between 6.4 and 8.2. In numerical experiments on a viscous flow with an analytical solution, the method converges under all conditions. Significantly, in contrast with standard FVPM and SPH, error depends on particle size but not on particle overlap (as long as the computational domain is completely covered by particles). The new method is shown to be superior to standard FVPM for shock tube flow and inviscid steady transonic flow. In benchmarking on a viscous multiphase flow application, FVPM with exact interparticle area is shown to be competitive with a mesh-based volume-of-fluid solver in terms of computational time required to resolve the structure of an interface.

  6. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Piping calculations. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-24

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The objective of this calculation is to perform the structural analysis of the Pipe Supports designed for Slurry and Supernate transfer pipe lines in order to meet the requirements of applicable ASME codes. The pipe support design loads are obtained from the piping stress calculations W320-27-I-4 and W320-27-I-5. These loads are the total summation of the gravity, pressure, thermal and seismic loads. Since standard typical designs are used for each type of pipe support such as Y-Stop, Guide and Anchors, each type of support is evaluated for the maximum loads to which this type of supports are subjected. These loads are obtained from the AutoPipe analysis and used to check the structural adequacy of these supports.

  7. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing civil/structural calculations, Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-24

    The structural skid supporting the Process Building and equipment is designed based on the criteria, codes and standards, referenced in the calculation. The final members and the associated elements satisfy the design requirements of the structure. Revision 1 incorporates vendor data for the weight of the individual equipment components. The updated information does not affect the original conclusion of the calculation, since the overall effect is a reduction in the total weight of the equipment and a nominal relocation of the center of gravity for the skid assembly.

  8. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing piping calculations, Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-29

    The object of this report is to calculate the hydraulic forces imposed at the sluicer nozzle. This is required by Project W-320 waste retrieval for tank 241-C-106. The method of analysis used is Bernoulli`s momentum equation for stead flow.

  9. Volume and surface photoemission from tungsten. I. Calculation of band structure and emission spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N. Egede; Feuerbacher, B.

    1974-01-01

    The electronic energy-band structure of tungsten has been calculated by means of the relativistic-augmented-plane-wave method. A series of mutually related potentials are constructed by varying the electronic configuration and the amount of Slater exchange included. The best band structure...

  10. [Cotyla quid? On the early history of late medieval medical volume calculations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Axel

    2005-01-01

    As can be made evident chiefly by their comparative numerical examination, the Egyptian pyramids (the step pyramids being excluded for the present purpose) have been, from the beginning up to the Egyptian fashion in early Imperial Rome, designed and built with the additional intention of physically manifesting a volume of pi x 10k x (average value) 0.96824 cm3, where k is either a positive integer or zero, and where pi is a short product, following very restrictive formation rules which to some extent are traceable in the papyrus Rhind, of prime numbers. Conceptually (but not really as to the Hin at least) this establishes the capacity units 1 [2]Heqat = 9682.4 cm3 and 1 Hin = 484.12 cm3 already for the Old Kingdom. It is shown further that the Attic Medimnos as introduced in the course of finishing Solon's reforms is identical with the Egyptian volume system's standard unification: pisigma = 2 x 3 x 5 x 7 x 11 x 23, and k = 0, so that 1 Medimnos = about 51443 cm3. Accordingly and by means of some adjacent considerations a Kotyle / Cotyla of 269 cm3 +/- 1 cm3 is established for the Hellenistic, early Arabic, and Medieval Latin medicine.

  11. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing electrical calculations, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-08-07

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. These calculations are required: To determine the power requirements needed to power electrical heat tracing segments contained within three manufactured insulated tubing assemblies; To verify thermal adequacy of tubing assembly selection by others; To size the heat tracing feeder and branch circuit conductors and conduits; To size protective circuit breaker and fuses; and To accomplish thermal design for two electrical heat tracing segments: One at C-106 tank riser 7 (CCTV) and one at the exhaust hatchway (condensate drain). Contents include: C-Farm electrical heat tracing; Cable ampacity, lighting, conduit fill and voltage drop; and Control circuit sizing and voltage drop analysis for the seismic shutdown system.

  12. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  13. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  14. HVDC-AC system interaction from AC harmonics. Volume 1. Harmonic impedance calculations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, G D; Chow, J H; Lindh, C B; Miller, N W; Numrich, F H; Price, W W; Turner, A E; Whitney, R R

    1982-09-01

    Improved methods are needed to characterize ac system harmonic behavior for ac filter design for HVDC systems. The purpose of this General Electric Company RP1138 research is to evaluate the present filter design practice and to investigate methods for calculating system harmonic impedances. An overview of ac filter design for HVDC systems and a survey of literature related to filter design have been performed. Two methods for calculating system harmonic impedances have been investigated. In the measurement method, an instrumentation system for measuring system voltage and current has been assembled. Different schemes of using the measurements to calculate system harmonic impedances have been studied. In the analytical method, a procedure to include various operating conditions has been proposed. Computer programs for both methods have been prepared, and the results of the measurement and analytical methods analyzed. A conclusion of the project is that the measurement and analytical methods both provided reasonable results. There are correlations between the measured and analytical results for most harmonics, although there are discrepancies between the assumptions used in the two methods. A sensitivity approach has been proposed to further correlate the results. From the results of the analysis, it is recommended that both methods should be tested further. For the measurement method, more testing should be done to cover different system operating conditions. In the analytical method, more detailed models for representing system components should be studied. In addition, alternative statistical and sensitivity approaches should be attempted.

  15. A FORTRAN code for the calculation of probe volume geometry changes in a laser anemometry system caused by window refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Albert K.

    1987-01-01

    A computer code was written which utilizes ray tracing techniques to predict the changes in position and geometry of a laser Doppler velocimeter probe volume resulting from refraction effects. The code predicts the position change, changes in beam crossing angle, and the amount of uncrossing that occur when the beams traverse a region with a changed index of refraction, such as a glass window. The code calculates the changes for flat plate, cylinder, general axisymmetric and general surface windows and is currently operational on a VAX 8600 computer system.

  16. Floating substructure flexibility of large-volume 10MW offshore wind turbine platforms in dynamic calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Michael; Melchior Hansen, Anders; Bredmose, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    Designing floating substructures for the next generation of 10MW and larger wind turbines has introduced new challenges in capturing relevant physical effects in dynamic simulation tools. In achieving technically and economically optimal floating substructures, structural flexibility may increase to the extent that it becomes relevant to include in addition to the standard rigid body substructure modes which are typically described through linear radiation-diffraction theory. This paper describes a method for the inclusion of substructural flexibility in aero-hydro-servo-elastic dynamic simulations for large-volume substructures, including wave-structure interactions, to form the basis of deriving sectional loads and stresses within the substructure. The method is applied to a case study to illustrate the implementation and relevance. It is found that the flexible mode is significantly excited in an extreme event, indicating an increase in predicted substructure internal loads.

  17. An assessment of unstructured grid finite volume schemes for cold gas hypersonic flow calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz F. Azevedo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of five different spatial discretization schemes is performed considering a typical high speed flow application. Flowfields are simulated using the 2-D Euler equations, discretized in a cell-centered finite volume procedure on unstructured triangular meshes. The algorithms studied include a central difference-type scheme, and 1st- and 2nd-order van Leer and Liou flux-vector splitting schemes. These methods are implemented in an efficient, edge-based, unstructured grid procedure which allows for adaptive mesh refinement based on flow property gradients. Details of the unstructured grid implementation of the methods are presented together with a discussion of the data structure and of the adaptive refinement strategy. The application of interest is the cold gas flow through a typical hypersonic inlet. Results for different entrance Mach numbers and mesh topologies are discussed in order to assess the comparative performance of the various spatial discretization schemes.

  18. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume I. Eastern United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  19. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume II. Middle United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 22 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  20. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Civil/structural calculations. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-24

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW civil/structural calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The Equipment Removal System (ERS) has been identified by WHC as not having any safety class 1 items present in the tank pits during equipment removal activities, Documentation of this finding is provided in Letter of Instruction 3/1 Analysis Requirements for Project W-320 Equipment Removal System (REF: LOI KGS-94-013). Based on this specific direction from WHC, 3/1 analysis for any component of the Project W-320 ERS is required. No further documentation of non-safety impacting safety items is required per DOE-RL Audit finding No.90-02, and filing of this memorandum in the W-320 project files satisfies the intent of the referenced DOE observation.

  1. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Civil/structural calculations. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-22

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The Equipment Removal System (ERS) has been identified by WHC as not having any safety class 1 items present in the tank pits during equipment removal activities. Documentation of this finding is provided in Letter of Instruction 3/1 Analysis Requirements for Project W-320 Equipment Removal System (REF: LOI KGS-94-013). Based on this specific direction from WHC, 3/1 analysis for any component of the Project W-320 ERS is required. No further documentation of non-safety impacting safety items is required per DOE-RL Audit finding No. 90-02, and filing of this memorandum in the W-320 project files satisfies the intent of the referenced DOE observation.

  2. Safety assessment of in-vessel vapor explosion loads in next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kwang Hyun; Cho, Jong Rae; Choi, Byung Uk; Kim, Ki Yong; Lee, Kyung Jung [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea); Park, Ik Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    A safety assessment of the reactor vessel lower head integrity under in-vessel vapor explosion loads has been performed. The premixing and explosion calculations were performed using TRACER-II code. Using the calculated explosion pressures imposed on the lower head inner wall, strain calculations were performed using ANSYS code. The explosion analyses show that the explosion impulses are not altered significantly by the uncertain parameters of triggering location and time, fuel and vapor volume fractions in uniform premixture bounding calculations within the conservative ranges. Strain analyses using the calculated pressure loads on the lower head inner wall show that the vapor explosion-induced lower head failure is physically unreasonable. The static analysis using the conservative explosion-end pressure of 7,246 psia shows that the maximum equivalent strain is 4.3% at the bottom of lower head, which is less than the allowable threshold value of 11%. (author). 24 refs., 40 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. CT- and MRI-based volumetry of resected liver specimen: Comparison to intraoperative volume and weight measurements and calculation of conversion factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlo, C., E-mail: christoph.karlo@usz.c [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Reiner, C.S.; Stolzmann, P. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Breitenstein, S. [Department of Visceral Surgery, University Hospital of Zurich (Switzerland); Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Weishaupt, D. [Institute for Radiology and Radiodiagnostics, City Hospital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland); Frauenfelder, T. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: To compare virtual volume to intraoperative volume and weight measurements of resected liver specimen and calculate appropriate conversion factors to reach better correlation. Methods: Preoperative (CT-group, n = 30; MRI-group, n = 30) and postoperative MRI (n = 60) imaging was performed in 60 patients undergoing partial liver resection. Intraoperative volume and weight of the resected liver specimen was measured. Virtual volume measurements were performed by two readers (R1,R2) using dedicated software. Conversion factors were calculated. Results: Mean intraoperative resection weight/volume: CT: 855 g/852 mL; MRI: 872 g/860 mL. Virtual resection volume: CT: 960 mL(R1), 982 mL(R2); MRI: 1112 mL(R1), 1115 mL(R2). Strong positive correlation for both readers between intraoperative and virtual measurements, mean of both readers: CT: R = 0.88(volume), R = 0.89(weight); MRI: R = 0.95(volume), R = 0.92(weight). Conversion factors: 0.85(CT), 0.78(MRI). Conclusion: CT- or MRI-based volumetry of resected liver specimen is accurate and recommended for preoperative planning. A conversion of the result is necessary to improve intraoperative and virtual measurement correlation. We found 0.85 for CT- and 0.78 for MRI-based volumetry the most appropriate conversion factors.

  4. Spent fuel assembly hardware: Characterization and 10 CFR 61 classification for waste disposal: Volume 1, Activation measurements and comparison with calculations for spent fuel assembly hardware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksic, A.

    1989-06-01

    Consolidation of spent fuel is under active consideration as the US Department of Energy plans to dispose of spent fuel. During consolidation, the fuel pins are removed from an intact fuel assembly and repackaged into a more compact configuration. After repackaging, approximately 30 kg of residual spent fuel assembly hardware per assembly remains that is also radioactive and requires disposal. Understanding the nature of this secondary waste stream is critical to designing a system that will properly handle, package, store, and dispose of the waste. This report presents a methodology for estimating the radionuclide inventory in irradiated spent fuel hardware. Ratios are developed that allow the use of ORIGEN2 computer code calculations to be applied to regions that are outside the fueled region. The ratios are based on the analysis of samples of irradiated hardware from spent fuel assemblies. The results of this research are presented in three volumes. In Volume 1, the development of scaling factors that can be used with ORIGEN2 calculations to estimate activation of spent fuel assembly hardware is documented. The results from laboratory analysis of irradiated spent-fuel hardware samples are also presented in Volume 1. In Volumes 2 and 3, the calculated flux profiles of spent nuclear fuel assemblies are presented for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, respectively. The results presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were used to develop the scaling factors documented in Volume 1. 5 refs., 4 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Spent fuel assembly hardware: Characterization and 10 CFR 61 classification for waste disposal: Volume 2, Calculated activity profiles of spent nuclear fuel assembly hardware for pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, S.M.; Luksic, A.T.; Lotz, T.L.; Schutz, M.E.

    1989-06-01

    Consolidation of spent fuel is under active consideration as the US Department of Energy plans to dispose of spent fuel as required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. During consolidation, the fuel pins are removed from an intact fuel assembly and repackaged into a more compact configuration. After repackaging, approximately 30 kg of residual spent fuel assembly hardware per assembly remains that is also radioactive and requires disposal. Understanding the nature of this secondary waste stream is critical to designing a system that will properly handle, package, store, and dispose of the waste. This report present a methodology for estimating the radionuclide inventory in irradiated spent fuel hardware. Ratios are developed that allow the use of ORIGEN2 computer code calculations to be applied to regions that are outside the fueled region. The ratios are based on the analysis of samples of irradiated hardware from spent fuel assemblies. The results of this research are presented in three volumes. In Volume 1, the development of scaling factors that can be used with ORIGEN2 calculations to estimate activation of spent fuel assembly hardware is documented. The results from Laboratory analysis of irradiated spent-fuel hardware samples are also presented in Volume 1. In Volumes 2 and 3, the calculated flux profiles of spent nuclear fuel assemblies are presented for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, respectively. The results presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were used to develop the scaling factors documented in Volume 1.

  6. Spent fuel assembly hardware: Characterization and 10 CFR 61 classification for waste disposal: Volume 3, Calculated activity profiles of spent nuclear fuel assembly hardware for boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, S.M.; Luksic, A.T.; Schutz, M.E.

    1989-06-01

    Consolidation of spent fuel is under active consideration as the US Department of Energy plans to dispose of spent fuel as required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. During consolidation, the fuel pins are removed from an intact fuel assembly and repackaged into a more compact configuration. After repackaging, approximately 30 kg of residual spent fuel assembly hardware per assembly that is also radioactive and required disposal. Understanding the nature of this secondary waste stream is critical to designing a system that will properly handle, package, store, and dispose of the waste. This report presents a methodology for estimating the radionuclide inventory in irradiated spent fuel hardware. Ratios are developed that allow the use of ORIGEN2 computer code calculations to be applied to regions that are outside the fueled region. The ratios are based on the analysis of samples of irradiated hardware from spent fuel assemblies. The results of this research are presented in three volumes. In Volume 1, the development of scaling factors that can be used with ORIGEN2 calculations to estimate activation of spent fuel assembly hardware is documented. The results from laboratory analysis of irradiated spent-fuel hardware samples are also presented in Volume 1. In Volume 2 and 3, the calculated flux profiles of spent nuclear fuel assemblies are presented for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, respectively. The results presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were used to develop the scaling factors documented in Volume 1.

  7. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses - 1958 to 1982. Volume 2. Summaries. Complilation of papers from the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains-in chronological order-the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  8. Cell Volume Effect on the Ferroelectric Stability of Perovskite Oxides PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 from First Principle Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王渊旭; 王春雷

    2003-01-01

    Electronic structure of ferroelectric PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 is calculated by the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The total energy as a function of the displacement of Ti-cation is obtained for PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 at different cell volumes. At experimental cell volume, Ti-displacement lowers the total energy and the ferroelectricity is stable. When the cell volume is reduced to 90%, total energy is increased with Ti-displacement and ferroelectricity will disappear. The cell volume effect is also confirmed by comparison of the density of states of Ti and O at different cell volumes.

  9. Vapor Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the fundamental physics of vapor bubbles in liquids. Work on bubble growth and condensation for stationary and translating bubbles is summarized and the differences with bubbles containing a permanent gas stressed. In particular, it is shown that the natural frequency of a vapor bubble is proportional not to the inverse radius, as for a gas bubble, but to the inverse radius raised to the power 2/3. Permanent gas dissolved in the liquid diffuses into the bubble with strong effects on its dynamics. The effects of the diffusion of heat and mass on the propagation of pressure waves in a vaporous bubbly liquid are discussed. Other topics briefly touched on include thermocapillary flow, plasmonic nanobubbles, and vapor bubbles in an immiscible liquid.

  10. A simple and rational numerical method of two-phase flow with volume-junction model. 1. Verification calculation in saturated condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Motoaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    A new numerical method to achieve a rigorous numerical calculation of each phase using a simple explicit method with volume-junction model is proposed. For this purpose, difference equations for numerical use are carefully derived so as to preserve the physical meaning of the basic equations. Specifically, momentum equations for the flow in the volume are newly derived to keep strict conservation of energy within the volume. To prove the validity of the numerical method and of previously proposed basic equations, including the original phase change equations, which were rigorously derived, some numerical calculations were made for each phase independently to examine the correctness of calculated results. The numerical calculation is advanced by simple integration of an explicitly obtained solution of difference equations without any special treatment. Calculated results of density and specific internal energy of each phase for saturated two-phase blowdown behavior are consistent for two different solution scheme as described below. Further, no accumulation of error in mass or energy was found. These results prove the consistency among basic equations, including phase change equations, and the correctness of numerical calculation method. The two different solution schemes used were: (1) solutions of pressure and void fraction in saturated condition were obtained by using mass conservation equation of each phase simultaneously, and (2) fluid properties were calculated directly from mass and energy conservation equation of each phase. (author)

  11. Utility of Quantitative 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT for 90yttrium-Labelled Microsphere Treatment Planning: Calculating Vascularized Hepatic Volume and Dosimetric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Garin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of SPECT/CT for volume measurements and to report a case illustrating the major impact of SPECT/CT in calculating the vascularized liver volume and dosimetry prior to injecting radiolabelled yttrium-90 microspheres (Therasphere. Materials and Methods. This was a phantom study, involving volume measurements carried out by two operators using SPECT and SPECT/CT images. The percentage of error for each method was calculated, and interobserver reproducibility was evaluated. A treatment using Therasphere was planned in a patient with three hepatic arteries, and the quantitative analysis of SPECT/CT for this patient is provided. Results. SPECT/CT volume measurements proved to be accurate (mean error <6% for volumes ≥16 cm3 and reproductive (interobserver agreement = 0.9. In the case report, 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT identified a large liver volume, not previously identified with angiography, which was shown to be vascularized after selective MAA injection into an arterial branch, resulting in a large modification in the activity of Therasphere used. Conclusions. MAA SPECT/CT is accurate for vascularized liver volume measurements, providing a valuable contribution to the therapeutic planning of patients with complex hepatic vascularization.

  12. The use of stochastic method for the calculation of liquid-vapor multicomponent equilibrium and the contribution of groups theory for the evaluation of fugacity coefficient; Uso de um metodo estocastico para calculo do equilibrio liquido-vapor de sistemas multicomponentes e avaliacao de uma abordagem por contribuicao de grupos para o calculo do coeficiente de fugacidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Rafaelly L.; Oliveira, Jackson A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Rojas, Leopoldo O.A. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work has the main objective of evaluating the mathematical model developed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004) in terms of the prediction capacity for the calculation of the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). This model is based on Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and it considers the binary interaction parameters (Kij(T)) estimated by a contribution group method and dependent of the temperature. The model proposed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004), named PPR78 (Predictive Peng-Robinson), was implemented in this work by using the Fortran language. An optimization approach based on the stochastic algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was used in order to calculate the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Simulations were accomplished for several binary systems and the results were concordant with some experimental data of the investigated systems. However, for some systems different from those presented by Jaubert and Mutelet (2004), the model presented low prediction capacity. In spite of the great demand of computational performance, the algorithm PSO demonstrated robustness during the calculation of VLE and it assured convergence in most of the cases. (author)

  13. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused by organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.

  14. Calculating alveolar capillary conductance and pulmonary capillary blood volume: comparing the multiple- and single-inspired oxygen tension methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceridon, Maile L; Beck, Kenneth C; Olson, Thomas P; Bilezikian, Jordan A; Johnson, Bruce D

    2010-09-01

    Key elements for determining alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (Dm) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) from the lung diffusing capacity (Dl) for carbon monoxide (DlCO) or for nitric oxide (DlNO) are the reaction rate of carbon monoxide with hemoglobin (thetaCO) and the DmCO/DlNO relationship (alpha-ratio). Although a range of values have been reported, currently there is no consensus regarding these parameters. The study purpose was to define optimal parameters (thetaCO, alpha-ratio) that would experimentally substantiate calculations of Dm and Vc from the single-inspired O2 tension [inspired fraction of O2 (FiO2)] method relative to the multiple-FiO2 method. Eight healthy men were studied at rest and during moderate exercise (80-W cycle). Dm and Vc were determined by the multiple-FiO2 and single-FiO2 methods (rebreathe technique) and were tabulated by applying previously reported thetaCO equations (both methods) and by varying the alpha-ratio (single-FiO2 method) from 1.90 to 2.50. Values were then compared between methods throughout the examined alpha-ratios. Dm and Vc were critically dependent on the applied thetaCO equation. For the multiple-FiO2 method, Dm was highly variable between thetaCO equations (rest and exercise); the range of Vc was less widespread. For the single-FiO2 method, the thetaCO equation by Reeves and Park (1992) combined with an alpha-ratio between 2.08 and 2.26 gave values for Dm and Vc that most closely matched those from the multiple-FiO2 method and were also physiologically plausible compared with predicted values. We conclude that the parameters used to calculate Dm and Vc values from the single-FiO2 method (using DlCO and DlNO) can significantly influence results and should be evaluated within individual laboratories to obtain optimal values.

  15. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based calculation on hydrocarbon generated volume: Amazon Basin example; O uso de SIG no calculo de hidrocarbonetos gerados: exemplo da Bacia do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrinha, Saulo; Simoes, Leonardo; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Carneiro, Jason T.G. [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The calculation of the volume of hydrocarbons generated from a particular source rock a sedimentary basin provides numerical data that help to better describe the petroleum system, and evaluate its potential. Among the various methodologies developed for calculating the volume of oil there is a proposal by Schmoker (1994), which has the advantage to take into account the occurrence of the source rock area in the basin, and the spatial variations in the main geological parameters. Using the tools of a GIS, through the manipulation of georeferred maps, it is possible to calculate the volume of oil generated in a way that would be virtually impossible by using punctual data, only. Even the discretiation maps in minors areas allows, via attribute table in the GIS, the application of a Monte Carlo simulation, which allows to incorporate all the uncertainties related to the input data in the calculation, obtaining distributions of volumes associated with various parts of the final map being integrated throughout the basin. Isopac and maturation maps (Gonzaga et al., 2000), along with TOC data from Barreirinha formation, Amazon Basin, have been scanned and georeferred and, once in the GIS database, were treated in order to spatially distribute the geological properties of the source rock. Then, such maps were handled in accordance with Schmoker (1994) method, leading to a map of mass and distribution of oil generated in the basin at the regional scale. (author)

  16. Preoperative volume calculation of the hepatic venous draining areas with multi-detector row CT in adult living donor liver transplantation: impact on surgical procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frericks, Bernd B.J. [Hanover Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Surgery, Hannover (Germany); University of Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Kirchhoff, Timm D.; Shin, Hoen-Oh; Stamm, Georg; Merkesdal, Sonja; Abe, Takehiko; Galanski, Michael [Hanover Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Hanover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Schenk, Andrea; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto [Hanover Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Surgery, Hannover (Germany); MeVis - Center for Medical Diagnostic Systems and Visualization, Bremen (Germany); Klempnauer, Juergen [Hanover Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Hanover Medical School, Department of Visceral- and Transplantation Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Nashan, Bjoern [Hanover Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Hanover Medical School, Department of Visceral- and Transplantation Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Dalhousie University, Multi Organ Transplant Program, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    The purpose was to assess the volumes of the different hepatic territories and especially the drainage of the right paramedian sector in adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT). CT was performed in 40 potential donors of whom 28 underwent partial living donation. Data sets of all potential donors were postprocessed using dedicated software for segmentation, volumetric analysis and visualization of liver territories. During an initial period, volumes and shapes of liver parts were calculated based on the individual portal venous perfusion areas. After partial hepatic congestion occurring in three grafts, drainage territories with special regard to MHV tributaries from the right paramedian sector, and the IRHV were calculated additionally. Results were visualized three-dimensionally and compared to the intraoperative findings. Calculated graft volumes based on hepatic venous drainage and graft weights correlated significantly (r=0.86,P<0.001). Mean virtual graft volume was 930 ml and drained as follows: RHV: 680 ml, IRHV: 170 ml (n=11); segment 5 MHV tributaries: 100 ml (n=16); segment 8 MHV tributaries: 110 ml (n=20). When present, the mean aberrant venous drainage fraction of the right liver lobe was 28%. The evaluated protocol allowed a reliable calculation of the hepatic venous draining areas and led to a change in the hepatic venous reconstruction strategy at our institution. (orig.)

  17. Main effects and interactions of cerebral hemispheres, gender, and age in the calculation of volumes and asymmetries of selected structures of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Carmona, Rocio; Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee Guadalupe; Dominguez-Corrales, Brenda; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere. A two-way between-groups multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was applied to GM volumes and VAIs. The main effects of gender and cerebral hemisphere on GM volumes were significant (p gender and cerebral hemisphere. VAI measurements showed a nonsignificant effect of gender, but a significant influence of age (p = .015). The linear model of interactions and main effects explained 33% of the variance influencing the GM volume quantification. While cerebral hemisphere and gender were found to affect the volumes of brain structures involved in episodic memory, the calculation of VAIs was affected only by age. A comprehensive understanding of the main effects and interaction effects of cerebral hemisphere, gender and age on the volumes and asymmetries of structures related to episodic memory might help neurologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians and other neuroscientists in the study of degenerative brain diseases.

  18. Main effects and interactions of cerebral hemispheres, gender, and age in the calculation of volumes and asymmetries of selected structures of episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Carmona, Rocio; Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee Guadalupe; Dominguez-Corrales, Brenda; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere. A two-way between-groups multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was applied to GM volumes and VAIs. The main effects of gender and cerebral hemisphere on GM volumes were significant (p < .001), while there was no significant interaction effect between gender and cerebral hemisphere. VAI measurements showed a non-significant effect of gender, but a significant influence of age (p = .015). The linear model of interactions and main effects explained 33% of the variance influencing the GM volume quantification. While cerebral hemisphere and gender were found to affect the volumes of brain structures involved in episodic memory, the calculation of VAIs was affected only by age. A comprehensive understanding of the main effects and interaction effects of cerebral hemisphere, gender and age on the volumes and asymmetries of structures related to episodic memory might help neurologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians and other neuroscientists in the study of degenerative brain diseases. PMID:28072386

  19. The repeatability and reproducibility of fetal cardiac ventricular volume calculations utilizing Spatio-Temporal Image Correlation (STIC) and Virtual Organ Computed-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL™)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Neil; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S; Lee, Wesley; Myers, Stephen A; Mittal, Pooja; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Vaisbuch, Edi; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Carletti, Angela; Goncalves, Luis F.; Yeo, Lami

    2010-01-01

    Objective To quantify the repeatability and reproducibility of fetal cardiac ventricular volumes obtained utilizing STIC and VOCAL™. Methods A technique was developed to compute ventricular volumes using the sub-feature: Contour Finder: Trace. Twenty-five normal pregnancies were evaluated for the following: (1) to compare the coefficient of variation (CV) in ventricular volumes between 15° and 30° rotation; (2) to compare the CV between three methods of quantifying ventricular volumes: (a) Manual Trace (b) Inversion Mode and (c) Contour Finder: Trace; and (3) to determine repeatability by calculating agreement and reliability of ventricular volumes when each STIC was measured twice by 3 observers. Reproducibility was assessed by obtaining two STICs from each of 44 normal pregnancies. For each STIC, 2 ventricular volume calculations were performed, and agreement and reliability were evaluated. Additionally, measurement error was examined. Results (1) Agreement was better with 15° rotation than 30° (15°: 3.6%, 95% CI: 3.0 – 4.2 versus 30°: 7.1%, 95% CI: 5.8 – 8.6; p<0.001); (2) ventricular volumes obtained with Contour Finder: Trace had better agreement than those obtained using either Inversion Mode (Contour Finder: Trace: 3.6%, 95% CI 3.0 – 4.2 versus Inversion Mode: 6.0%, 95% CI 4.9 – 7.2; p < 0.001) or Manual Trace (10.5%, 95% CI 8.7 – 12.5; p < 0.001); (3) ventricular volumes were repeatable with good agreement and excellent reliability for both intra-observer and inter-observer measurements; and 4) ventricular volumes were reproducible with negligible difference in agreement and good reliability. In addition, bias between STIC acquisitions was minimal (<1%; mean percent difference −0.4%, 95% limits of agreement: −5.4 – 5.9). Conclusions Fetal echocardiography utilizing STIC and VOCAL allows repeatable and reproducible calculation of ventricular volumes with the sub-feature Contour Finder: Trace. PMID:19778875

  20. Influence of the choice of parameters of the TAC in the calculation of volumes for different planners; Influencia de la eleccion de los parametros del TAC en el calculo de volumenes para distintos planificadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Mazon, J.; Raba Diez, J. L.; Vazquez Rodriguez, J. A.; Pacheco Baldor, M. T.; Mendiguren Santiago, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    In the Protocol for the control treatment planning systems with ionizing radiation of the proposed SEFM tests to verify proper operation of the calculation in the evaluation of DVH (Dose Volume Histogram). The calculation of the volume that makes a planner may have important implications because it can trigger an overestimation of the dose or otherwise. We present a comparison of the calculation of volumes estimated with 4 different planners.

  1. Cerebral blood volume calculated by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging: preliminary correlation study with glioblastoma genetic profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inseon Ryoo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC enhanced perfusion MR imaging in predicting major genetic alterations in glioblastomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients (M:F = 13∶12, mean age: 52.1±15.2 years with pathologically proven glioblastoma who underwent DSC MR imaging before surgery were included. On DSC MR imaging, the normalized relative tumor blood volume (nTBV of the enhancing solid portion of each tumor was calculated by using dedicated software (Nordic TumorEX, NordicNeuroLab, Bergen, Norway that enabled semi-automatic segmentation for each tumor. Five major glioblastoma genetic alterations (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN, Ki-67, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT and p53 were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and analyzed for correlation with the nTBV of each tumor. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired Student t test, ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS: The nTBVs of the MGMT methylation-negative group (mean 9.5±7.5 were significantly higher than those of the MGMT methylation-positive group (mean 5.4±1.8 (p = .046. In the analysis of EGFR expression-positive group, the nTBVs of the subgroup with loss of PTEN gene expression (mean: 10.3±8.1 were also significantly higher than those of the subgroup without loss of PTEN gene expression (mean: 5.6±2.3 (p = .046. Ki-67 labeling index indicated significant positive correlation with the nTBV of the tumor (p = .01. CONCLUSION: We found that glioblastomas with aggressive genetic alterations tended to have a high nTBV in the present study. Thus, we believe that DSC-enhanced perfusion MR imaging could be helpful in predicting genetic alterations that are crucial in predicting the prognosis of and selecting tailored treatment for glioblastoma patients.

  2. TERNARY PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN TRANSITION METAL-BORON-CARBON-SILICON SYSTEMS. PART 4. THERMOCHEMICAL CALCULATIONS, VOLUME 3. COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH TO THE CALCULATION OF TERNARY PHASE DIAGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The general conditional equations which govern the phase equilibria in three-component systems are presented. Using the general conditional equations...a general method has been developed to precalculate the phase equilibria in three-component systems from first principle using computer technique...The method developed has been applied to several model examples and the system Ta-Hf-C. The phase equilibria in three-component systems calculated

  3. 某型低温液体运输车绕片式增压器汽化量计算%Calculation of the Vaporization of a type of Cryogenic Liquid Tanker Winding Chip Turbocharger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席玮; 李永双

    2015-01-01

    In view of the development of the new company for a certain type of cryogenic liquid transport vehicle using self pressurizing principle for truck, with conventional fin type supercharger design needs a large space, insufficient vaporization; therefore for such products of turbocharger structure improvement, its structure is changed into a winding type structure, but the winding type supercharger calculation of common heat transfer calculation is particularly complex, large calculation error; the product using the third law of thermodynamics on the heat transfer area calculation, simplified calculation process, and according to the actual use of corresponding correction coefficients, calculated results can meet the need of practical.%针对我公司新开发的某型低温液体运输车运用自增压原理进行卸车,用常规的翅片式增压器进行设计需要的空间大,汽化量不足;因此对此类产品进行了增压器结构的改型,将其结构改为绕片式结构,但绕片式增压器的计算用普通换热方式进行计算特别复杂,计算误差较大;本文对该类产品运用热力学第三定律对其换热的面积进行计算校核,简化计算过程,并且根据实际使用情况得到相应的修正系数,计算出的结果能够实际满足需要。

  4. A simplified transient three-dimensional model for estimating the thermal performance of the vapor chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yen-Shu; Pei, Bau-Shei [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, (Taiwan); Chien, Kuo-Hsiang; Wang, Chi-Chuan [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, (Taiwan); Hung, Tzu-Chen [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung County 840, (Taiwan)

    2006-12-15

    The vapor chambers (flat plate heat pipes) have been applied on the electronic cooling recently. To satisfy the quick-response requirement of the industries, a simplified transient three-dimensional linear model has been developed and tested in this study. In the proposed model, the vapor is assumed as a single interface between the evaporator and condenser wicks, and this assumption enables the vapor chamber to be analyzed by being split into small control volumes. Comparing with the previous available results, the calculated transient responses have shown good agreements with the existing results. For further validation of the proposed model, a water-cooling experiment was conducted. In addition to the vapor chamber, the heating block is also taken into account in the simulation. It is found that the inclusion of the capacitance of heating block shows a better agreement with the measurements. (author)

  5. A modified free-volume-based model for predicting vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria for size asymmetric systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radfarnia, H.R.; Ghotbi, C.; Taghikhani, V.;

    2005-01-01

    Flory-Huggins model, replacing the molar volume with a free-volume (FV) term. Using an extensive database for athermal polymer solutions at finite dilution, the single parameter of the model has been well adjusted. The results obtained from the model proposed in this work were favorably compared...

  6. SU-E-T-634: Analysis of Volume Based GYN HDR Brachytherapy Plans for Dose Calculation to Organs At Risk(OAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, M; Li, C; White, M; Davis, J [Joe Arrington Cancer Center, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We have analyzed the dose volume histogram of 140 CT based HDR brachytherapy plans and evaluated the dose received to OAR ; rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon based on recommendations from ICRU and Image guided brachytherapy working group for cervical cancer . Methods: Our treatment protocol consist of XRT to whole pelvis with 45 Gy at 1.8Gy/fraction followed by 30 Gy at 6 Gy per fraction by HDR brachytherapy in 2 weeks . The CT compatible tandem and ovoid applicators were used and stabilized with radio opaque packing material. The patient was stabilized using special re-locatable implant table and stirrups for reproducibility of the geometry during treatment. The CT scan images were taken at 3mm slice thickness and exported to the treatment planning computer. The OAR structures, bladder, rectum and sigmoid colon were outlined on the images along with the applicators. The prescription dose was targeted to A left and A right as defined in Manchester system and optimized on geometry . The dosimetry was compared on all plans using the parameter Ci.sec.cGy-1 . Using the Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) obtained from the plans the doses to rectum, sigmoid colon and bladder for ICRU defined points and 2cc volume were analyzed and reported. The following criteria were used for limiting the tolerance dose by volume (D2cc) were calculated. The rectum and sigmoid colon doses were limited to <75Gy. The bladder dose was limited to < 90Gy from both XRT and HDR brachytherapy. Results: The average total (XRT+HDRBT) BED values to prescription volume was 120 Gy. Dose 2cc to rectum was 70Gy +/− 17Gy, dose to 2cc bladder was 82+/−32 Gy. The average Ci.sec.cGy-1 calculated for the HDR plans was 6.99 +/− 0.5 Conclusion: The image based treatment planning enabled to evaluati volume based dose to critical structures for clinical interpretation.

  7. RESEARCH METHODS OF SATURATED VAPOR PRESSURE AND EXPERIMENTAL INSTALLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko P. M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The static method is the most common, because it is applicable for measuring SVP of substances in wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The essence of the method consists in measuring of vapor pressure in equilibrium with its liquid at a given temperature. Dynamic method is based on measurement of the boiling point of the liquid at a certain pressure. Saturation method of moving gas used in the case when the SVP does not exceed a few mm Hg. The method consists the following: the liquid is passed through the inert gas and saturated with vapor of liquids and then it flows into a cooler where the absorbed vapors are condensed. Knowing the amount of absorbed liquid and gas, as well as their molecular weight, allow us calculate saturated vapor pressure of the liquid. Knudsen effusion method is applicable for the measurement of very low pressures (up to 100 Pa. This method consists in researching of depending between the pressure and volume of saturated steam at a constant temperature. At the point of saturation an isotherm should have a break and turn into a straight line. Chromatographic method is based on complete chromatographic analysis of liquid and calculating the sum of partial pressures of all mixture components. Also, the article has a description of existing experimental installation for these researches and their advantages and disadvantages compared with each other

  8. An analytic solution for calculating the beam intensity profiles useful to irradiate target volumes with bi-concave outlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Neve, W.; Derycke, S.; De Wagter, C. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde

    1995-12-01

    A heuristic planing procedure allowing to obtain a 3-dimensional conformal dose distribution in radiotherapy for target volumes with a bi-concave or multi-concave shape has been developed. The described method is tested on a phantom simulating a pelvic target, described by Brahme.

  9. On the calculation of diffusion coefficients in confined fluids and interfaces with an application to the liquid-vapor interface of water

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, P; Berne, B J; Liu, Pu; Harder, Edward

    2003-01-01

    We propose a general methodology for calculating the self-diffusion tensor from molecular dynamics for a liquid with a liquid-gas or liquid-solid interface. The standard method used in bulk fluids, based on computing the mean square displacement as a function of time and extracting the asymptotic linear time dependence from this, is not valid for systems with interfaces or for confined fluids. The method proposed here is based on imposing virtual boundary conditions on the molecular system and computing survival probabilities and specified time correlation functions in different layers of the fluid up to and including the interfacial layer. By running dual simulations, one based on MD and the other based on Langevin dynamics, using the same boundary conditions, one can fit the Langevin survival probability at long times to the MD computed survival probability, thereby determining the diffusion coefficient as a function of distance of the layers from the interface. We compute the elements of the diffusion tens...

  10. Subtleties in the calculation of the pressure and pressure tensor of anisotropic particles from volume-perturbation methods and the apparent asymmetry of the compressive and expansive contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, Paul E.; Haslam, Andrew J.; de Miguel, Enrique; Jackson, George

    2011-01-01

    An efficient and versatile method to calculate the components of the pressure tensor for hard-body fluids of generic shape from the perspective of molecular simulation is presented. After due consideration of all the possible repulsive contributions exerted by molecules upon their surroundings during an anisotropic system expansion, it is observed that such a volume change can, for non-spherical molecules, give rise to configurations where overlaps occur. This feature of anisotropic molecules has to be taken into account rigorously as it can lead to discrepancies in the calculation of tensorial contributions to the pressure. Using the condition of detailed balance as a basis, a perturbation method developed for spherical molecules has been extended so that it is applicable to non-spherical and non-convex molecules. From a series of 'ghost' anisotropic volume perturbations the residual contribution to the components of the pressure tensor may be accurately calculated. Comparisons are made with prior methods and, where relevant, results are evaluated against existing data. For inhomogeneous systems this method provides a particularly convenient route to the calculation of the interfacial tension (surface free energy) from molecular simulations.

  11. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 7: Metal vapor Rankine topping-steam bottoming cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    Adding a metal vapor Rankine topper to a steam cycle was studied as a way to increase the mean temperature at which heat is added to the cycle to raise the efficiency of an electric power plant. Potassium and cesium topping fluids were considered. Pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized (with an integrated low-Btu gasifier) boilers were assumed. Included in the cycles was a pressurizing gas turbine with its associated recuperator, and a gas economizer and feedwater heater. One of the ternary systems studied shows plant efficiency of 42.3% with a plant capitalization of $66.7/kW and a cost of electricity of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh).

  12. SAMPL5: 3D-RISM partition coefficient calculations with partial molar volume corrections and solute conformational sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchko, Tyler; Blinov, Nikolay; Limon, Garrett C.; Joyce, Kevin P.; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2016-11-01

    Implicit solvent methods for classical molecular modeling are frequently used to provide fast, physics-based hydration free energies of macromolecules. Less commonly considered is the transferability of these methods to other solvents. The Statistical Assessment of Modeling of Proteins and Ligands 5 (SAMPL5) distribution coefficient dataset and the accompanying explicit solvent partition coefficient reference calculations provide a direct test of solvent model transferability. Here we use the 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) statistical-mechanical solvation theory, with a well tested water model and a new united atom cyclohexane model, to calculate partition coefficients for the SAMPL5 dataset. The cyclohexane model performed well in training and testing (R=0.98 for amino acid neutral side chain analogues) but only if a parameterized solvation free energy correction was used. In contrast, the same protocol, using single solute conformations, performed poorly on the SAMPL5 dataset, obtaining R=0.73 compared to the reference partition coefficients, likely due to the much larger solute sizes. Including solute conformational sampling through molecular dynamics coupled with 3D-RISM (MD/3D-RISM) improved agreement with the reference calculation to R=0.93. Since our initial calculations only considered partition coefficients and not distribution coefficients, solute sampling provided little benefit comparing against experiment, where ionized and tautomer states are more important. Applying a simple pK_{ {a}} correction improved agreement with experiment from R=0.54 to R=0.66, despite a small number of outliers. Better agreement is possible by accounting for tautomers and improving the ionization correction.

  13. Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint US/Russian Progress Report for Fiscal 1997. Volume 3 - Calculations Performed in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This volume of the progress report provides documentation of reactor physics and criticality safety studies conducted in the Russian Federation during fiscal year 1997 and sponsored by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program of the US Department of Energy. Descriptions of computational and experimental benchmarks for the verification and validation of computer programs for neutron physics analyses are included. All benchmarks include either plutonium, uranium, or mixed uranium and plutonium fuels. Calculated physics parameters are reported for all of the contaminated benchmarks that the United States and Russia mutually agreed in November 1996 were applicable to mixed-oxide fuel cycles for light-water reactors.

  14. Ab initio calculation of the interaction potentials of helium, neon, and methane as well as theoretical studies on their thermophysical properties and those of water vapor; Ab initio-Berechnung der Wechselwirkungspotentiale von Helium, Neon und Methan sowie theoretische Untersuchungen zu ihren thermophysikalischen Eigenschaften und denen von Wasserdampf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellmann, Robert

    2009-06-16

    Thermophysical properties of the pure gases helium, neon, methane and water vapor were calculated for low densities over wide temperature ranges. Statistical thermodynamics was used for the determination of the pressure virial coefficients. The kinetic theory of gases was utilized for the calculation of the transport and relaxation properties. So far kinetic theory was limited to linear molecules and has now been extended to molecules of arbitrary geometry to enable calculations on methane and water vapor. The interaction potentials, which are needed for all computations, were determined for helium, neon and methane from the supermolecular approach using quantum chemical ab initio methods. For water the interaction potentials were taken from the literature. The calculated values of the thermophysical properties for the four gases show very good agreement with the best experimental data. At very low and very high temperatures the theoretical values are more accurate than experimental data. (orig.)

  15. Prediction of vapor-liquid equilibriafor hydrocarbon binary systems by regular solution model

    OpenAIRE

    下山, 裕介; 米澤, 節子; 小渕, 茂寿; 福地, 賢治; 荒井, 康彦; Shimoyama, Yusuke; Yonezawa, Setsuko; Kobuchi, Shigetoshi; Fukuchi, Kenii; Arai, Yasuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) of hydrocarbon binary systems : hexane + benzene (25 °C), toluene + octane (60°C) and cyclohexane + toluene (50°C) were predicted by using a regular solution model. In the present model, the mixing entropy term (Flory-Huggins equation) is included and an interaction parameter between unlike molecules is introduced. Solubility parameters and molar volumes at each temperature required in calculation are estimated by previously proposed methods. VLE of hexane + benz...

  16. The magnetic lead field theorem in the quasi-static approximation and its use for magnetoencephalography forward calculation in realistic volume conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte, Guido [Human Motor Control Section, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2003-11-21

    The equation for the magnetic lead field for a given magnetoencephalography (MEG) channel is well known for arbitrary frequencies but is not directly applicable to MEG in the quasi-static approximation. In this paper we derive an equationstarting from the very definition of the lead field instead of using Helmholtz's reciprocity theorems. The results are (a) the transpose of the conductivity times the lead field is divergence-free, and (b) the lead field differs from the one in any other volume conductor by a gradient of a scalar function. Consequently, for a piecewise homogeneous and isotropic volume conductor, the lead field is always tangential at the outermost surface. Based on this theoretical result, we formulated a simple and fast method for the MEG forward calculation for one shell of arbitrary shape: we correct the corresponding lead field for a spherical volume conductor by a superposition of basis functions, gradients of harmonic functions constructed here from spherical harmonics, with coefficients fitted to the boundary conditions. The algorithm was tested for a prolate spheroid of realistic shape for which the analytical solution is known. For high order in the expansion, we found the solutions to be essentially exact and for reasonable accuracies much fewer multiplications are needed than in typical implementations of the boundary element methods. The generalization to more shells is straightforward.

  17. MEASURED DENSITIES, REFRACTIVE INDICES, EXCESS MOLAR VOLUMES AND DEVIATIONS CALCULATED FROM MOLAR REFRACTION OF THE BINARY MIXTURE OF ETHANOL + 1-NONANOL AND TERNARY MIXTURE ETHANOL + 1-NONANOL + WATER AT 293.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Densities, and refractive indices were measured for the binary system ethanol + 1-nonanol and ternary system ethanol + 1-nonanol + water at 293.15 K. The excess molar volumes, and the deviations molar refraction were calculated for binary and ternary system. Redlich-Kister type equation was fitted to the excess molar volumes and, the deviations from a mole fraction average of the molar refraction, and the values of coefficients were calculated

  18. Critical points of metal vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomkin, A. L., E-mail: alhomkin@mail.ru; Shumikhin, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    A new method is proposed for calculating the parameters of critical points and binodals for the vapor–liquid (insulator–metal) phase transition in vapors of metals with multielectron valence shells. The method is based on a model developed earlier for the vapors of alkali metals, atomic hydrogen, and exciton gas, proceeding from the assumption that the cohesion determining the basic characteristics of metals under normal conditions is also responsible for their properties in the vicinity of the critical point. It is proposed to calculate the cohesion of multielectron atoms using well-known scaling relations for the binding energy, which are constructed for most metals in the periodic table by processing the results of many numerical calculations. The adopted model allows the parameters of critical points and binodals for the vapor–liquid phase transition in metal vapors to be calculated using published data on the properties of metals under normal conditions. The parameters of critical points have been calculated for a large number of metals and show satisfactory agreement with experimental data for alkali metals and with available estimates for all other metals. Binodals of metals have been calculated for the first time.

  19. 活体器官不规则体积计算方法的研究%The Research of Human Living Organ Irregular Volume Calculation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志尊; 崔豹; 丁晶; 杨艳芳

    2011-01-01

    目的:对活体器官与组织的三维成像及其不规则体积的计算,为肿瘤的空间定位、手术指导和判断脑组织发育异常等方面带来极大的帮助.本项目还将探究一种脑组织体积精确测量方法以促进神经科疾病的研究.方法:提出一种基于阈值分割后组织梯度化设置的体数据多层透明等值曲面可视化方法,本研究主要目的是在PC机上实现组织边界等值曲面的高精度、快速提取,最后将多层等值曲面同时可视化来清晰查看人体内部组织信息,并能对组织结构进行定量测量.结果与结论:应用本课题的研究算法得了脑、腹腔各脏器器官的三维重建图像.从中可以清晰地观察到内脏器官的形态,同时可以测量脑灰质与脑白质的体积比,心脏、肾脏、脾脏及肝脏等的体积等.%Objective: The human living organ irregular volume calculation and 3D imaging method will give a potential hope to operation direction and tumor spatial location fixing. This project will also find a new method to study human brain volume calculation and this can enhance the neuroscience development. Methods: On the base of threshold segmentation, the methods of organ gradient setting and volume data transparent visualization are given. Those can be used to draw image fast and accurately. They can also be used to detect inner organ information of human body and measure organ structure. Results and Conclusions:By using those methods, the 3D reconstruction image of brain, hart, kidney and liver were formed. From those images the internal organs of the body can be observed clearly and we can derive volume ratio of grey matter and white matter and measure hart, kidney, liver and also tumor positioning.

  20. Radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease based on tissue-absorbed dose calculations: effect of pre-treatment thyroid volume on clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Michael J.; Joe, Alexius Y.; Mallek, Dirk von; Ezziddin, Samer; Palmedo, Holger [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Brink, Ingo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Freiburg (Germany); Krause, Thomas M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital Bern (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    This study was performed with three aims. The first was to analyse the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with and without goitres under conditions of mild iodine deficiency using several tissue-absorbed doses. The second aim was to detect further parameters which might be predictive for treatment outcome. Finally, we wished to determine the deviation of the therapeutically achieved dose from that intended. Activities of 185-2,220 MBq radioiodine were calculated by means of Marinelli's formula to deliver doses of 150, 200 or 300 Gy to the thyroids of 224 patients with Graves' disease and goitres up to 130 ml in volume. Control of hyperthyroidism, change in thyroid volume and thyrotropin-receptor antibodies were evaluated 15{+-}9 months after treatment for each dose. The results were further evaluated with respect to pre-treatment parameters which might be predictive for therapy outcome. Thyroidal radioiodine uptake was measured every day during therapy to determine the therapeutically achieved target dose and its coefficient of variation. There was a significant dose dependency in therapeutic outcome: frequency of hypothyroidism increased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 67.7% after 300 Gy, while the frequency of persistent hyperthyroidism decreased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 8.1% after 300 Gy. Patients who became hypothyroid had a maximum thyroid volume of 42 ml and received a target dose of 256{+-}80 Gy. The coefficient of variation for the achieved target dose ranged between 27.7% for 150 Gy and 17.8% for 300 Gy. When analysing further factors which might influence therapeutic outcome, only pre-treatment thyroid volume showed a significant relationship to the result of treatment. It is concluded that a target dose of 250 Gy is essential to achieve hypothyroidism within 1 year after radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with goitres up to 40 ml in volume. Patients with larger goitres might need higher doses

  1. Simultaneous determination of the Cd and Zn total body burden of individual, nearly microscopic, nanoliter-volume aquatic organisms (Hyalella azteca) by rhenium-cup in-torch vaporization (ITV) sample introduction and axially viewed ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Andrea T.; Badiei, Hamid R.; Karanassios, Vassili [University of Waterloo, Department of Chemistry, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Evans, J. Catherine [University of Waterloo, Department of Biology, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    The Cd and Zn total body burden of individual, up to 7-day-old aquatic organisms (Hyalella aztecabenthic amphipod) with an average volume of approximately 100 nL was determined simultaneously by using rhenium-cup (Re-cup) in-torch vaporization (ITV) sample introduction and an axially viewed inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) system. The direct elemental analysis capabilities of this system (i.e., no sample digestion) reduced sample preparation time, eliminated contamination concerns from the digestion reagent and, owing to its detection limits (e.g., in the low pg range for Cd and Zn), vit enabled simultaneous determinations of Cd and Zn in individual, neonate and young juvenile specimens barely visible to the unaided eye (e.g., nearly microscopic). As for calibration, liquid standards and the standard additions method were tested. Both methods gave comparable results, thus indicating that in this case liquid standards can be employed for calibration, and in the process making use of the standard additions method unnecessary. Overall, the ITV-ICP-AES approach by-passed the time-consuming acid digestions, eliminated the potential for contamination from the digestion reagents, improved considerably the speed of acquisition of analytical information and enabled simultaneous determinations of two elements using individual biological specimens. (orig.)

  2. Binary Schemes of Vapor Bubble Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zudin, Yu. B.

    2015-05-01

    A problem on spherically symmetric growth of a vapor bubble in an infi nite volume of a uniformly superheated liquid is considered. A description of the limiting schemes of bubble growth is presented. A binary inertial-thermal bubble growth scheme characterized by such specifi c features as the "three quarters" growth law and the effect of "pressure blocking" in a vapor phase is considered.

  3. Influence of Software Tool and Methodological Aspects of Total Metabolic Tumor Volume Calculation on Baseline [18F]FDG PET to Predict Survival in Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Kanoun

    Full Text Available To investigate the respective influence of software tool and total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV0 calculation method on prognostic stratification of baseline 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL.59 patients with newly diagnosed HL were retrospectively included. [18F]FDG-PET was performed before any treatment. Four sets of TMTV0 were calculated with Beth Israel (BI software: based on an absolute threshold selecting voxel with standardized uptake value (SUV >2.5 (TMTV02.5, applying a per-lesion threshold of 41% of the SUV max (TMTV041 and using a per-patient adapted threshold based on SUV max of the liver (>125% and >140% of SUV max of the liver background; TMTV0125 and TMTV0140. TMTV041 was also determined with commercial software for comparison of software tools. ROC curves were used to determine the optimal threshold for each TMTV0 to predict treatment failure.Median follow-up was 39 months. There was an excellent correlation between TMTV041 determined with BI and with the commercial software (r = 0.96, p<0.0001. The median TMTV0 value for TMTV041, TMTV02.5, TMTV0125 and TMTV0140 were respectively 160 (used as reference, 210 ([28;154] p = 0.005, 183 ([-4;114] p = 0.06 and 143 ml ([-58;64] p = 0.9. The respective optimal TMTV0 threshold and area under curve (AUC for prediction of progression free survival (PFS were respectively: 313 ml and 0.70, 432 ml and 0.68, 450 ml and 0.68, 330 ml and 0.68. There was no significant difference between ROC curves. High TMTV0 value was predictive of poor PFS in all methodologies: 4-years PFS was 83% vs 42% (p = 0.006 for TMTV02.5, 83% vs 41% (p = 0.003 for TMTV041, 85% vs 40% (p<0.001 for TMTV0125 and 83% vs 42% (p = 0.004 for TMTV0140.In newly diagnosed HL, baseline metabolic tumor volume values were significantly influenced by the choice of the method used for determination of volume. However, no significant differences were found

  4. Hydrazine vapor inactivates Bacillus spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Engler, Diane L.; Beaudet, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    NASA policy restricts the total number of bacterial spores that can remain on a spacecraft traveling to any planetary body which might harbor life or have evidence of past life. Hydrazine, N2H4, is commonly used as a propellant on spacecraft. Hydrazine as a liquid is known to inactivate bacterial spores. We have now verified that hydrazine vapor also inactivates bacterial spores. After Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 spores deposited on stainless steel coupons were exposed to saturated hydrazine vapor in closed containers, the spores were recovered from the coupons, serially diluted, pour plated and the surviving bacterial colonies were counted. The exposure times required to reduce the spore population by a factor of ten, known as the D-value, were 4.70 ± 0.50 h at 25 °C and 2.85 ± 0.13 h at 35 °C. These inactivation rates are short enough to ensure that the bioburden of the surfaces and volumes would be negligible after prolonged exposure to hydrazine vapor. Thus, all the propellant tubing and internal tank surfaces exposed to hydrazine vapor do not contribute to the total spore count.

  5. Vapor-liquid Phase Equilibria for CO2+Tertpentanol Binary System at Elevated Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; LUO Jian-cheng; YANG Hao; CHEN Kai-xun

    2011-01-01

    Vapor-liquid phase equilibrium data of tertpentanol in carbon dioxide were measured at temperatures of 313.4,323.4,333.5 and 343.5 K and in the pressure range of 4.56-11.44 MPa.The phase equilibium apparatus used in the work was a variable-volume high-pressure cell.The experimental data were reasonably correlated with Peng-Robinson equation of state(PR-EOS) together with van der Waals-2 two-parameter mixing rules.Henry's Law constants and partial molar volumes of CO2 at infinite dilution were estimated with Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation,and Henry's Law constants increase with increasing temperature,however,partial molar volumes of CO2 at infinite dilution are negative whose magnitudes decrease with temperature.Partial molar volumes of CO2 and tertpentanol in liquid phase at equilibrium were calculated.

  6. Multiwavelength Strontium Vapor Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A. N.; Yudin, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    Based on an analysis of experimental and theoretical works, modern notion on conditions of forming of population density inversion on self-terminating IR transitions of alkali-earth metals is given. It is demonstrated that there is a significant difference in the inversion formation in lasers on self-terminating transitions in the visible and near-IR ranges and lasers on self-terminating transitions of alkali-earth metals lasing IR lines in the mid-IR range. It is shown that in the discharge circuit of lasers on self-terminating metal atom transitions (LSMT) there are processes strengthening the influence of the known mechanism limiting the frequency and energy characteristics (FEC) of radiation caused by the presence of prepulse electron concentration. The mechanism of influence of these processes on FEC of the LSMT and technical methods of their neutralization are considered. The possibility of obtaining average lasing power of ~200 W from one liter volume of the active medium of the strontium vapor laser is demonstrated under conditions of neutralization of these processes.

  7. Recommended reference materials for realization of physicochemical properties pressure-volume-temperature relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Herington, E F G

    1977-01-01

    Recommended Reference Materials for Realization of Physicochemical Properties presents recommendations of reference materials for use in measurements involving physicochemical properties, namely, vapor pressure; liquid-vapor critical temperature and critical pressure; orthobaric volumes of liquid and vapor; pressure-volume-temperature properties of the unsaturated vapor or gas; and pressure-volume-temperature properties of the compressed liquid. This monograph focuses on reference materials for vapor pressures at temperatures up to 770 K, as well as critical temperatures and critical pressures

  8. Polar Mohr diagram method and its application in calculating the shear displacements of general shear zones with volume loss--With the Sangshuyuanzi ductile shear zone as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The main problem,in determining the shear displacement of a general shear zone with volume change using the available formula,is that it is hard to know the initial angle between the planes (or lines) in the plane of shear.A planar deformation analysis of this kind of ductile shear zone is carried out with the polar Mohr diagram.If the volume change is induced by homogeneous contraction in the Z direction of the shear zone,there are sufficient conditions for constructing a polar Mohr diagram regardless of sequence of the simple shear and volume change.Therefore,the angle between a line and the shear direction before and after the deformation can be measured.Making use of these lines the shear strain and the volume change can be calculated and the shear displacement can be determined.

  9. Polar Mohr diagram method and its application in calculating the shear displacements of general shear zones with volume loss——With the Sangshuyuanzi ductile shear zone as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海; 郭召杰; 刘瑞洵; 刘树文; 张志诚

    2000-01-01

    The main problem, in determining the shear displacement of a general shear zone with volume change using the available formula, is that it is hard to know the initial angle between the planes (or lines) in the plane of shear. A planar deformation analysis of this kind of ductile shear zone is carried out with the polar Mohr diagram. If the volume change is induced by homogeneous contraction in the Z direction of the shear zone, there are sufficient conditions for constructing a polar Mohr diagram regardless of sequence of the simple shear and volume change. Therefore, the angle between a line and the shear direction before and after the deformation can be measured. Making use of these lines the shear strain and the volume change can be calculated and the shear displacement can be determined.

  10. Calculation of H2O-NH3-CO2 Vapor Liquid Equilibria at High Concentration Conditions%高浓度H2O-NH3-CO2体系汽液平衡计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏顺安; 张红晶

    2004-01-01

    A vapor liquid equilibrium model and its related interactive energy parameters based on UNIQUAC model for the H2O-NH3-CO2 system without solid phase at the conditions of temperature from 30℃ to 90℃,pressure from 0.1 MPa to 0.4 MPa, and the maximum NH3 mass fraction up to 0.4 are provided. This model agrees with experimental data well (average relative error < 1%) and is useful for analysis of industrial urea production.

  11. High Pressure Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide + n-Hexane System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jinglin; TIAN Yiling; ZHU Rongjiao; LIU Zhihua

    2006-01-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of supercritical carbon dioxide + n-hexane system were measured at 313.15 K,333.15 K,353.15 K,and 373.15 K and their molar volumes and densities were measured both in the subcritical and supercritical regions ranging from 2.15 to 12.63 MPa using a variable-volume autoclave.The thermodynamic properties including mole fractions,densities,and molar volumes of the system were calculated with an equation of state by Heilig and Franck,in which a repulsion term and a square-well potential attraction term for intermolecular interaction was used.The pairwise combination rule was used to calculate the square-well molecular interaction potential and three adjustable parameters (ω,kε,kσ) were obtained.The Heilig-Franck equation of state is found to have good correlation with binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the carbon dioxide + n-hexane system.

  12. Liquid-Vapor Argon Isotope Fractionation from the Triple Point to the Critical Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, J. T.; Linderstrøm-Lang, C. U.; Bigeleisen, J.

    1972-01-01

    are compared at the same molar volume. The isotope fractionation factor α for 36Ar∕40Ar between liquid and vapor has been measured from the triple point to the critical temperature. The results are compared with previous vapor pressure data, which cover the range 84–102°K. Although the agreement is within....... The fractionation factor approaches zero at the critical temperature with a nonclassical critical index equal to 0.42±0.02.〈∇2Uc〉/ρc in liquid argon is derived from the experimental fractionation data and calculations of 〈∇2Ug〉/ρg for a number of potential functions for gaseous argon....

  13. Main effects and interactions of cerebral hemispheres, gender, and age in the calculation of volumes and asymmetries of selected structures of episodic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Carmona, Rocio; Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee Guadalupe; Dominguez-Corrales, Brenda; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory.

  14. [Changes in the morphology of the normal left ventricle during the phases of isovolumic contraction and relaxation. Consequences on the calculation of the volume and cardiac output by cineangiocardiographic methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitenberg, A; Geschwind, H; Herreman, F

    1976-04-01

    It is well known that the left ventricular volume, as measured by the cineangiographic method, decreases during the phase of isometric contraction. What is more, the cardiac index and the ejection fraction measured by this method are definitely larger than those derived from dilution methods. These discrepancies can be explained by movements of the mitral valve during the phases of isometric contraction and relaxation. The systolic ejection volume (SEV) was measured by three different methods: 1. End-diastolic volume (EDV) -end-systolic volume (ESV) ; 2. EDV - pre-filling volume (PFV) ; 3. Pre-ejection volume (PEV) - ESV. It has emerged that the results given by the methods (2) and (3) correspond closely, and differ significantly from those given by method (1); they are also close to those obtained by the dilution method. This difference seems to arise from the fact that the movements of the mitral valve during the phase of isometric relaxation are diametrically opposite to those which occur during isometric contraction; thus, when the values EDV-ESV are used in the calculation of SEV, an overestimate is made because the mitral valve is not to be found in the same position within the ventricular cavity for both values.

  15. 三种热效应激光汽化兼热杀癌的理论计算与应用方法讨论%The theoretical calculations of vaporizing and heat-killing therapy of cancer with the three thermal-effect lasers and discussion on the applied methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓明; 冯永振

    2001-01-01

    本文根据激光汽化兼热杀癌肿瘤的理论模型〔1,2〕,对三种常见热效应激光进行了理论计算和结果对比,讨论了在较大汽化域情况下尽可能减少照射治疗时间的应用方法和措施,为激光治疗较大肿瘤提供具体理论参考数据。%Based on the theoretical models of vaporizing and heat-killing therapy of cancer with laser,the theoretical calculations of three common thermal-effect lasers have been made,and the results are shown and compared in this paper.We discuss on the applied methods to get the irradiating time as short as possible under more large vaporizing area.These theoretical calculated data will be valuable for reference.

  16. Cálculo do volume de sangue necessário para a correção da anemia fetal em gestantes isoimunizadas Blood volume calculation required for the correction of fetal anemia in pregnant women with alloimmunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Deolindo Santiago

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: obter uma equação capaz de estimar o volume de concentrado de hemácias a ser infundido para correção da anemia em fetos de gestantes portadoras de isoimunização pelo fator Rh, baseado em parâmetros alcançados durante a cordocentese prévia à transfusão intra-uterina. MÉTODOS: em estudo transversal, foram analisadas 89 transfusões intra-uterinas para correção de anemia em 48 fetos acompanhados no Centro de Medicina Fetal do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. A idade gestacional mediana, no momento da cordocentese, foi de 29 semanas e a média de procedimentos por feto foi de 2,1. A hemoglobina fetal foi dosada antes e após a cordocentese, sendo verificado o volume de concentrado de hemácias transfundido. Para determinação de uma fórmula para estimar o volume sanguíneo necessário para correção da anemia fetal, tomou-se como base o volume necessário para elevar em 1 g% a hemoglobina fetal (diferença entre a concentração de hemoglobina final e a inicial, dividida pelo volume transfundido e o volume de quanto seria necessário para se atingir 14 g%, em análise de regressão múltipla. RESULTADOS: a concentração da hemoglobina pré-transfusional variou entre 2,3 e 15,7 g%. A prevalência de anemia fetal (HbPURPOSE: to obtain an equation to estimate the volume of red blood cells concentrate to be infused to correct anemia in fetuses of pregnant women with Rh factor isoimmunization, based in parameters obtained along the cordocentesis previous to intrauterine transfusion. METHODS: a transversal study analyzing 89 intrauterine transfusions to correct anemia in 48 fetuses followed-up in the Centro de Medicina Fetal do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de Minas Gerais. The median gestational age at the cordocentesis was 29 weeks and the average number of procedures was 2.1. Fetal hemoglobin was assayed before and after cordocentesis, leading to the volume of transfused red blood

  17. Variant of a volume-of-fluid method for surface tension-dominant two-phase flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Biswas

    2013-12-01

    The capabilities of the volume-of-fluid method for the calculation of surface tension-dominant two-phase flows are explained. The accurate calculation of the interface remains a problem for the volume-of-fluid method if the density ratios of the fluids in different phases are high. The simulations of bubble growth is performed in water at near critical pressure for different degrees of superheat using combined levelset and volume-of fluid (CLSVOF) method. The effect of superheat on the frequency of bubble formation was analyzed. A deviation from the periodic bubble release is observed in the case of superheat of 20 K in water. The vapor-jet-like columnar structure is observed. Effect of heat flux on the slender vapor column has also been explained.

  18. Calculation of absorbed doses in sphere volumes around the Mammosite using the Monte Carlo simulation code MCNPX; Calculo de dosis absorbida en volumenes esfericos alrededor del Mammosite utilizando el codigo de simulacion Monte Carlo MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the changes observed in the absorbed doses in mammary gland tissue when irradiated with a equipment of high dose rate known as Mammosite and introducing material resources contrary to the tissue that constitutes the mammary gland. The modeling study is performed with the code MCNPX, 2005 version, the equipment and the mammary gland and calculating the absorbed doses in tissue when introduced small volumes of air or calcium in the system. (Author)

  19. AMTEC vapor-vapor series connected cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark L.; Williams, Roger M.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Nakamura, Barbara J.; Oconnor, Dennis E.

    1995-08-01

    An alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) having a plurality of cells structurally connected in series to form a septum dividing a plenum into two chambers, and electrically connected in series, is provided with porous metal anodes and porous metal cathodes in the cells. The cells may be planar or annular, and in either case a metal alkali vapor at a high temperature is provided to the plenum through one chamber on one side of the wall and returned to a vapor boiler after condensation at a chamber on the other side of the wall in the plenum. If the cells are annular, a heating core may be placed along the axis of the stacked cells. This arrangement of series-connected cells allows efficient generation of power at high voltage and low current.

  20. Calculation of NARM's Equilibrium with Peng-Robinson Equation of State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tingxun; GUO Kaihua; WANG Ruzhu; FAN Shuanshi

    2001-01-01

    The liquid molar volumes of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARM), calculated with Peng Robinson (PR)equation, were compared with vapor -liquid equilibrium experimental data in this paper. Provided with coreaction coefficient kij, the discrepancies of liquid molar volume data for R22+Rl14 and R22+R142b using PR equation are 7.7% and 8.1% , respectively. When HBT (Hankinson-Brobst-Thomson) equation was joined with PR equation, the deviations are reduced to less than 1.5% for both R22+Rl14 and R22+R142b.

  1. Calculation of NARM's equilibrium with Peng-Robinson equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingxun; Guo, Kaihua; Wang, Ruzhu; Fan, Shuanshi

    2001-04-01

    The liquid molar volumes of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARM), calculated with Peng Robinson (PR) equation, were compared with vapor -liquid equilibrium experimental data in this paper. Provided with co-reaction coefficient k ij , the discrepancies of liquid molar volume data for R22+R114 and R22+R142b using PR equation are 7.7% and 8.1%, respectively. When HBT (Hankinson-Brobst-Thomson) equation was joined with PR equation, the deviations are reduced to less than 1.5% for both R22+R114 and R22+R142b.

  2. Vapor Control Layer Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-08

    This information sheet describes the level of vapor control required on the interior side of framed walls with typical fibrous cavity insulation (fibreglass, rockwool, or cellulose, based on DOE climate zone of construction.

  3. Gasoline Vapor Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  4. Calculation of difference in heat capacities at constant pressure and constant volume with the aid of the empirical Nernst and Lindemann equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontev, K. L.

    1981-07-01

    An expression is obtained for heat capacity differences of materials at a constant pressure and volume, on the basis of the rigorous thermodynamic equation (Kittel, 1976), and by using the Grueneisen law (Kikoin and Kikoin, 1976) of constancy of the ratio of the cubic expansion coefficient to the molar heat capacity. Conditions are determined, where the empirical Nernst and Lindemann (Filippov, 1967) equation is regarded as rigorous.

  5. Temperature dependence of local solubility of hydrophobic molecules in the liquid-vapor interface of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kiharu; Sumi, Tomonari; Koga, Kenichiro

    2014-11-14

    One important aspect of the hydrophobic effect is that solubility of small, nonpolar molecules in liquid water decreases with increasing temperature. We investigate here how the characteristic temperature dependence in liquid water persists or changes in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor interface. From the molecular dynamics simulation and the test-particle insertion method, the local solubility Σ of methane in the liquid-vapor interface of water as well as Σ of nonpolar solutes in the interface of simple liquids are calculated as a function of the distance z from the interface. We then examine the temperature dependence of Σ under two conditions: variation of Σ at fixed position z and that at fixed local solvent density around the solute molecule. It is found that the temperature dependence of Σ at fixed z depends on the position z and the system, whereas Σ at fixed local density decreases with increasing temperature for all the model solutions at any fixed density between vapor and liquid phases. The monotonic decrease of Σ under the fixed-density condition in the liquid-vapor interface is in accord with what we know for the solubility of nonpolar molecules in bulk liquid water under the fixed-volume condition but it is much robust since the solvent density to be fixed can be anything between the coexisting vapor and liquid phases. A unique feature found in the water interface is that there is a minimum in the local solubility profile Σ(z) on the liquid side of the interface. We find that with decreasing temperature the minimum of Σ grows and at the same time the first peak in the oscillatory density profile of water develops. It is likely that the minimum of Σ is due to the layering structure of the free interface of water.

  6. Experimental measurement of the solubility of bismuth phases in water vapor from 220 deg. C to 300 deg. C: Implications for ore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruszewski, Jason M. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-3022 (United States); Wood, Scott A., E-mail: swood@uidaho.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-3022 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Preliminary measurements were carried out of the solubility of the O{sub 2-}buffering assemblage bismuth + bismite (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in aqueous liquid-vapor and vapor-only systems at temperatures of 220, 250 and 300 deg. C. All experiments were carried out in Ti reaction vessels and were designed such that the Bi solids were contained in a silica tube that prevented contact with liquid water at any time during the experiment. Two blank (no Bi solids present) liquid-vapor experiments at 220 deg. C yielded Bi concentrations ({+-}1{sigma}) in the condensed liquid of 0.22 {+-} 0.02 mg/L, whereas the solubility measurements at this temperature yielded an average value of approximately 6 {+-} 9 mg/L, with replicate experiments ranging from 0.3 to 26 mg/L. Although the 6 mg/L value is associated with a considerable degree of uncertainty, the experiments do indicate transport of Bi through the vapor phase. Measured Bi concentrations in the condensed liquid at 250 deg. C were in the same range as those at 220 deg. C, whereas those at 300 deg. C were significantly lower (i.e., all below the blank value). Vapor-only experiments necessarily contained much smaller initial volumes of water, thereby making the results more susceptible to contamination. Single blank runs at 220 and 300 deg. C yielded Bi concentrations of 82 and 16 mg/L, respectively. Measured concentrations ({+-}1{sigma}) of Bi in the vapor-only solubility experiments at 220 deg. C were 235 {+-} 78 mg/L for an initial water volume of 0.5 mL, and at 300 deg. C were 56 {+-} 30 mg/L and 33 {+-} 21 for initial water volumes of 1 and 2 mL, respectively, suggesting strong preferential partitioning of Bi into the vapor. The results indicate a negative dependence of Bi solubility on temperature, but are inconclusive with respect to the dependence of Bi solubility on water density or fugacity. The experiments reported here suggest that significant Bi transport is possible in the vapor phase. Comparison of the liquid-vapor

  7. New mobile Raman lidar for measurement of tropospheric water vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chenbo; ZHOU Jun; YUE Guming; QI Fudi; FAN Aiyuan

    2007-01-01

    The content of water vapor in atmosphere is very little and the ratio of volume of moisture to air is about 0.1%-3%,but water vapor is the most active molecule in atmosphere.There are many absorption bands in infrared(IR)wavelength for water vapor,and water vapor is also an important factor in cloud formation and precipitation,therefore it takes a significant position in the global radiation budget and climatic changes.Because of the advantages of the high resolution,wide range,and highly automatic operation,the Raman lidar has become a new-style and useful tool to measure water vapor.In this paper,first,the new mobile Raman lidar's structure and specifications were introduced.Second,the process method of lidar data was described.Finally,the practical and comparative experiments were made over Hefei City in China.The results of measurement show that this lidar has the ability to gain profiles of ratio of water vapor mixing ratio from surface to a height of about 8 km at night.Mean-while,the measurement of water vapor in daytime has been taken,and the profiles of water vapor mixing ratio at ground level have been detected.

  8. Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint U.S./Russian Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1997 Volume 2-Calculations Performed in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm III, RT

    2002-05-29

    This volume of the progress report provides documentation of reactor physics and criticality safety studies conducted in the US during fiscal year 1997 and sponsored by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program of the US Department of Energy. Descriptions of computational and experimental benchmarks for the verification and validation of computer programs for neutron physics analyses are included. All benchmarks include either plutonium, uranium, or mixed uranium and plutonium fuels. Calculated physics parameters are reported for all of the computational benchmarks and for those experimental benchmarks that the US and Russia mutually agreed in November 1996 were applicable to mixed-oxide fuel cycles for light-water reactors.

  9. Monte Carlo simulations incorporating Mie calculations of light transport in tissue phantoms: Examination of photon sampling volumes for endoscopically compatible fiber optic probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourant, J.R.; Hielscher, A.H.; Bigio, I.J.

    1996-04-01

    Details of the interaction of photons with tissue phantoms are elucidated using Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, photon sampling volumes and photon pathlengths are determined for a variety of scattering and absorption parameters. The Monte Carlo simulations are specifically designed to model light delivery and collection geometries relevant to clinical applications of optical biopsy techniques. The Monte Carlo simulations assume that light is delivered and collected by two, nearly-adjacent optical fibers and take into account the numerical aperture of the fibers as well as reflectance and refraction at interfaces between different media. To determine the validity of the Monte Carlo simulations for modeling the interactions between the photons and the tissue phantom in these geometries, the simulations were compared to measurements of aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres in the wavelength range 450-750 nm.

  10. Calculation of Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) minimum for accident analysis of main steam line break at Angra-1; Calculo do minimo DNBR para analise do acidente de ruptura da linha principal de vapor em Angra-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Marcio Dornellas [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: mdorne@eletronuclear.gov.br

    2000-07-01

    The maintenance costs, the operational problems and the failures possibilities of the boron injection system, composed by pumps, valves, heated lines and the boron injection tank, make this tank removal or the boron concentration reduction advisable for Angra 1 Power Plant. The main accident from chapter XV of the final safety analysis report affected by this modification is the main steam line break. It is necessary the interaction of the areas of Accidents and Transients Analysis (RETRAN 02/Mod 5.1 code), Neutronics (APA System) and Thermohydraulics (COBRA IIIC/MIT) to analyse this accident. The present Angra 1 boron concentration is 20000 ppm and it could be reduced to 2000 ppm as a result of the present study. The Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) is the restrictive parameter of this accident, which is calculated from the initials and boundary conditions obtained from the Transients and Accidents Analysis and Neutronics areas. (author)

  11. 制冷剂汽液两相区音速的计算与分析%Calculation and Analysis of Sound Velocity in Vapor-liquid Two-phase Refrigerant Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳庭; 张华

    2011-01-01

    Sound velocity of fluid is important thermodynamic parameter. But viewing from the existing literature, there is a lack of sound velocity data. This paper presents the calculation of sound velocity for the adiabatic two-phase flow of refrigerant through capillary tube based on homogenous equilibrium model. According to the definition of sound velocity a=√δρ/δρ and Martin-Hou equation of state the sound velocity is obtained using the finite difference method. The sound velocities of three refrigerants, R22, R134a, R744, have been calculated in this paper. The calculation results have been validated by published experimental data and showed fair agreement with the experimental data with an error band of 4%. According to the calculated two-phase sound velocity data, the sonic curves were drawn in the pressure-enthalpy diagram. The data and curves show that the sound velocity increases with the entropy at the same pressure. From the triple point pressure sound velocity on the isentropic curve increases firstly and then decreases. Sound velocity on the isenthalpic curve decreases monotonically for R134a and R744. But the sound velocity of R22 increases firstly then decreases.%流体的音速是流体重要的热力学参数,从现有文献看,制冷剂两相区的音速数据缺乏.采用均相流模型,从马丁-侯状态方程出发,根据绝热音速的定义α=√(e)p/(e)pad,利用有限差分方法得到了常用的制冷剂R22、R134a、R744两相区的等熵绝热音速数据,并用文献中的两相区音速实验结果对其进行了验证,表明两者音速误差在4%以内.根据计算出的两相区音速数据,利用相关软件在lgp-h图里面绘制了等音速线,对两相区音速数据进行了分析讨论.数据显示相同压力下,随着熵值的增大,音速值逐渐变大;自三相点压力至饱和压力等熵线上的音速会出现先增大后减小的现象;等焓线上的音速,R134a、R744单调递减,R22先增大后减小.

  12. Hypersonic Experimental and Computational Capability, Improvement and Validation. Volume 2. (l’Hypersonique experimentale et de calcul - capacite, ameliorafion et validation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    providing reliable information on real-gas properties via first-principles quantum mechanical calculations on collision cross sections of electronic...ESPAGNE INTA (AGARD Publications) Carretera de Torrejön a Ajalvir, Pk.4 28850 Torrejön de Ardoz - Madrid ETATS-UNIS NASA Center for AeroSpace...SDFA - Centro de Documenta9äo Alfragide P-2720 Amadora SPAIN INTA (AGARD Publications) Carretera de Torrejön a Ajalvir, Pk.4 28850 Torrejön de

  13. CONSTRUCTION OF EXPERIMENTAL INSTALLATION FOR RESEARCHING OF DENSITY AND SATURATED VAPOR PRESSURE (SVP OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko P. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The most important physical properties that characterize the substance are density and saturated vapor pressure (SVP. These parameters are required for the development of new technical processes in the petroleum and chemical industries, design of pipelines, pumping and fuel equipment, etc. Existing methods for calculating of density near and on the saturation lines are imperfect, and finding of the analytic dependence of SVP of petroleum products from all defining parameters associated with great difficulties. The purpose of present work is an experimental research and development of methods for calculating the density (specific volume near and on saturation lines, and saturated vapor pressure of gasoline straight-run fraction derived from petroleums from three fields: Mangyshlaksky, Trinity-Anastasevsky and West Siberian. The choice of objects for research is due to the necessity of creating methods for calculating of density and SVP of oils obtained from various hydrocarbon group composition petroleums. Area of state parameters in the present work by temperature (20 ÷ 320°C and pressure (0,03 ÷ 30 MPa provides the ability to research gasoline fractions to supercritical regions. Measurement of density and SVP of petroleum fractions performed with help of a specially created for this purpose experimental installation

  14. Thermogravimetric study of vapor pressure of TATP synthesized without recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, Jonathan; Knott, Debra; Steward, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This study aims at characterizing the vapor pressure signatures generated by triacetone triperoxide (TATP) that was synthesized without recrystallization by thermogravimmetric analysis (TGA) for exploitation by standoff detection technologies of explosive devices. The thermal behavior of the nonrecrystallized sample was compared with reported values. Any phase change, melting point and decomposition identification were studied by differential scanning calorimeter. Vapor pressures were estimated by the Langmuir method of evaporation from an open surface in a vacuum. Vapor pressures of TATP at different temperatures were calculated using the linear logarithmic relationship obtained from benzoic acid reference standard. Sublimation of TATP was found to follow apparent zero-order kinetics and sublimes at steady rates at 298 K and above. While the enthalpy of sublimation found, 71.7 kJ mol(-1), is in agreement with reported values the vapor pressures deviated significantly. The differences in the vapor pressures behavior are attributable to the synthesis pathway chosen in this study.

  15. A computational model for reliability calculation of steam generators from defects in its tubes; Um modelo computacional para o calculo da confiabilidade de geradores de vapor a partir de defeitos em seus tubos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Paulo C.M.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    Nowadays, probability approaches are employed for calculating the reliability of steam generators as a function of defects in their tubes without any deterministic association with warranty assurance. Unfortunately, probability models produce large failure values, as opposed to the recommendation of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, that is, failure probabilities must be as small as possible In this paper, we propose the association of the deterministic methodology with the probabilistic one. At first, the failure probability evaluation of steam generators follows a probabilistic methodology: to find the failure probability, critical cracks - obtained from Monte Carlo simulations - are limited to have length's in the interval defined by their lower value and the plugging limit one, so as to obtain a failure probability of at most 1%. The distribution employed for modeling the observed (measured) cracks considers the same interval. Any length outside the mentioned interval is not considered for the probability evaluation: it is approached by the deterministic model. The deterministic approach is to plug the tube when any anomalous crack is detected in it. Such a crack is an observed one placed in the third region on the plot of the logarithmic time derivative of crack lengths versus the mode I stress intensity factor, while for normal cracks the plugging of tubes occurs in the second region of that plot - if they are dangerous, of course, considering their random evolution. A methodology for identifying anomalous cracks is also presented. (author)

  16. Study on Volume Interpolation Calculation of Kyagar Glacier Lake Based on DEM%基于DEM的克亚吉尔冰川湖容积插值计算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭亮; 敖志刚; 袁波波; 姜卉芳

    2015-01-01

    克亚吉尔冰川湖的突发洪水灾害是叶尔羌河流域的主要灾害之一。为了解该湖不同高程对应的湖面积和湖容积,通过GIS中的湖痕线和最新的DEM进行了等高线分析,利用拉格朗日四点插值公式查算两条相邻等高线之间高程中点对应的湖面积值,用抛物线法估算得到不同高程对应的湖面积和湖容积。结果表明:湖水位4760、4785、4810 m时对应的湖面积分别为0.089、0.378、1.082 km2,湖容积分别为10万、538万、2200万m3;2011年、2012年冰川湖容积最小为450万 m3,最大为950万 m3,冰川湖突发洪水的潜在危险等级较低。%Glacial Lake outburst is one of the main hazards on the Yarkant River. For the area and volume of glacial lake corresponding with different elevations,a graphical method or a four-point Lagrange interpolation formula could be calculated area values of lake area by the mid-point between two adjacent elevation contour lines,based on database of GIS and DEM of satellite data in Kyagar Glacier Lake area. Then it used the parabolic interpolation method to calculate the volume of glacial lake corresponding with different elevations. The results show that the area and volume of Kyagar Glacial Lake with different water levels are 0. 089 km2 and 10 × 106 m3 with 4 760 m,0. 378 km2 and 538 × 106 m3 with 4 785 m,1. 082 km2 and 2 200 × 106 m3 with 4 810 m. The minimum volume of Kyagar Glacial Lake is 4. 5 × 106 m3 ,and the maximum volume is 9. 5 × 106 m3 from 2011 to 2012. The identification of the glacial lake outburst floods hazard potential is low.

  17. Kinetics of metal salt vapor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, M.A.; Trofimov, A.N.

    1979-02-01

    A kinetic model is constructed for lasers operating on metal salt vapors. Different operating regimes of these lasers are considered, and it is shown that during transition from double-pulse regime to pulse-train regime or regular-pulse regime it is necessary to take into account accumulation effects. Numerical calculations for copper halogenides are carried out. It is shown how different operating regimes have widely different lasing conditions. This is due to the accumulation effects mentioned above.

  18. Experimental study on volume calculation accuracy by ultrasonography: a comparison between three dimensional volumetry and two dimensional formulization%三维超声重建法体积计算准确性的实验评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨素国; 章建全; 杨钰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the difference of volume calculation accuracy between three-dimensional volumetry and two dimensional formulization by using ultrasonography on experimental models. Methods A pare of 19 balloon models were set up in group A and group B. The balloons were filled in 19 different matching scales of amount, with saline in group A and with SonoVue micro-bubbles solution in group B. They were sealed and embedded in ultrasound gel container for ultrasound scanning. For three-dimensional data acquisition, an RAB 2-5-D probe available on Voluson-E8 ultrasound set (GE medical Co. , America) was used. The intrinsic VOCAL technique was applied for processing the volume data in a subtle rotation step of 6 degrees to yield the volume value of each balloon (i. e. 3D-volume) , and meanwhile multi-planar technique was used to produce three perpendicular planes for maximum length determinations. The three lengths for each balloon were citated for volume calculation based on spheroid formula (i. e. 2D-volume). Results 3D-volume and 2D-vol-ume were successfully calculated concomitantly for each balloon. 3D-volume value was highly close to the actual amount of filling liquid in each balloon, with superiority in group A. 2D-volume value was biased in over-estimation to the actual a-mount of filling liquid in each balloon, especially in group B. The bias of 2D volumetry was greater than that of 3D volumetry in a significant statistical difference ( t =5. 4913, P <0. 001). 3D volume values between group A and group B were proved in a mean difference of (12. 33 ± 7. 67) ml ( t =7. 008, P <0. 001) with the values greater in group B. Conclusion 3D-volumetry with VOCAL software can help achieve volumes much closer to the actual volume of object than 2D-volume-try. Proper and precise delineation along the inner border of region of interest is essential and critical while performing VOCAL processing.%目的 探讨三维超声重建法计算体积的

  19. 含掺合料混凝土水化产物体积分数计算及其影响因素%Calculation of concrete with mineral admixture hydration products volume fraction and its influential factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴福飞; 董双快; 宫经伟; 陈亮亮; 李东生; 侍克斌

    2016-01-01

    Powers theory proposes calculation method for the pure volume of cement hydration products, which does not apply to calculate the volume of cementitious materials with mineral admixture. The formula of cementitious materials volume was proposed that based on the basic principles of cement and mineral admixture hydration, and the proposed method of reliability was verified by the results of Powers theoretical model and volume fraction of cement hydration products. On this basis, the factor such as water-cement ratio, the ratio of admixture and types was further researched for the volumes of cementitious materials hydration products. Mixture in test were designed 2 water-cement ratio (0.30 and 0.40, respectively), two content (20% and 60%, respectively) of mineral admixture, and 3 kinds of mineral admixture (lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag, respectively), forming paste that was stirred according with the designed ratio in 5 mL centrifuge tube in a blender and curing to 1, 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 d in curing room (temperature was (20±1)℃, humidity was not less than 95%), and then testing reaction extent of cement and mineral admixture (such as fly ash, steel slag. lithium slag) according with the chemical bound water and HCl dissolution method. The results showed that hydration extent of lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag at 28d decreased by 46.63%, 69.56% and 74.82% (P<0.05) when mineral admixture content varied from 20% to 60% and water-cement ratio was 0.30. Hydration extent of cement at 28 d was increased by 7.25% when water-cement ratio increased from 0.30 to 0.40. When mineral admixture content varied from 20% to 60%, hydration extent of lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag at 28 d increased by 24.14% 18.56%, 17.61% and 8.84%, 12.21%, and 29.37% (P<0.05), respectively. In contrast, the influence of the mineral admixture content was bigger than water-cement ratio for the hydration extent of composite cementitious materials. In different water-cement ratio

  20. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yaqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Teaching and Research Section of Maths and Physics, Guangzhou Commanding Academy of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Guangzhou, 510440 (China); Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Yanpeng, E-mail: ypzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  1. Excess liquid in heat-pipe vapor spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.; Edwards, D. K.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed of excess liquid in heat pipes that is used to calculate the parameters governing the axial flow of liquid in fillets and puddles that form in vapor spaces. In an acceleration field, the hydrostatic pressure variation is taken into account, which results in noncircular meniscus shapes. The two specific vapor-space geometries considered are circular and the 'Dee-shape' that is formed by a slab wick in a circular tube. Also presented are theoretical and experimental results for the conditions under which liquid slugs form at the ends of the vapor spaces. These results also apply to the priming of arteries.

  2. A revised and unified pressure-clamp/relaxation theory for studying plant cell water relations with pressure probes: in-situ determination of cell volume for calculation of volumetric elastic modulus and hydraulic conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipfer, T; Fei, J; Gambetta, G A; Shackel, K A; Matthews, M A

    2014-10-21

    The cell-pressure-probe is a unique tool to study plant water relations in-situ. Inaccuracy in the estimation of cell volume (νo) is the major source of error in the calculation of both cell volumetric elastic modulus (ε) and cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp). Estimates of νo and Lp can be obtained with the pressure-clamp (PC) and pressure-relaxation (PR) methods. In theory, both methods should result in comparable νo and Lp estimates, but this has not been the case. In this study, the existing νo-theories for PC and PR methods were reviewed and clarified. A revised νo-theory was developed that is equally valid for the PC and PR methods. The revised theory was used to determine νo for two extreme scenarios of solute mixing between the experimental cell and sap in the pressure probe microcapillary. Using a fully automated cell-pressure-probe (ACPP) on leaf epidermal cells of Tradescantia virginiana, the validity of the revised theory was tested with experimental data. Calculated νo values from both methods were in the range of optically determined νo (=1.1-5.0nL) for T. virginiana. However, the PC method produced a systematically lower (21%) calculated νo compared to the PR method. Effects of solute mixing could only explain a potential error in calculated νo of cell turgor) of 19%, which is a fundamental parameter in calculating νo. It followed from the revised theory that the ratio of ΔV/ΔP was inversely related to the solute reflection coefficient. This highlighted that treating the experimental cell as an ideal osmometer in both methods is potentially not correct. Effects of non-ideal osmotic behavior by transmembrane solute movement may be minimized in the PR as compared to the PC method.

  3. Acetone vapor sensing using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode coated with polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgaard; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2009-01-01

    We report theoretical and experimental on a new vapor sensor, using a single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coated with a polymer sensor coating, which can detect acetone vapor at a volume fraction of 2.5%. The sensor provides the advantage of standard packaging, small form...

  4. 富氧燃煤锅炉烟气再循环方式选择与水分平衡计算%Mode Selection of Flue Gas Recirculation and Balance Calculation of Water Vapor Content for Oxy-Coal Combustion Boilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎维平; 董静兰; 马凯

    2011-01-01

    Taking the 300 MW oxy-coal combustion boiler as an object of study,the water vapor content in flue gas and the auxiliary power consumption were calculated and compared,at different modes of secondary flue gas recirculation,with the flue gas dehydrated by DCC method or dehydrated and desulphurized by FGD+DCC process.Results show that when the flue gas is merely dehydrated by DCC,if dehydration is not applied in the secondary flue gas recirculation,the volumetric fraction of water vapor in flue gas from oxy-coal combustion system will be 10%-15% higher than that from air combustion;if dehydration is applied in the secondary flue gas recirculation,the former one will be 3% higher than the latter one.Whereas in a FGD+DCC arrangement,when both desulphurization and dehydration are applied in the secondary flue gas recirculation,the water vapor content in flue gas will be slightly higher than that only DCC is used and no dehydration is adopted in the secondary flue gas recirculation.At a recirculating water temperature of 30 ℃,the volumetric fraction of water vapor at DCC outlet is about 4.28%.The total power consumption of fan reaches the minimum under single DCC condition at the mode of dry flue gas recirculation.%在不同的二次烟气再循环方式下,以300 MW富氧燃烧锅炉机组为例,对分别采用直接接触式冷却器(DCC)进行烟气脱水和湿式脱硫(FGD)与DCC串联进行烟气脱硫及脱水的富氧燃烧系统详细计算并比较了烟气中水蒸气体积分数的变化,并计算和比较了各种布置方式下的风机功耗.结果表明:单独采用DCC脱水情况下,锅炉烟气水蒸气体积分数比空气燃烧方式下高10%-15%;二次循环烟气脱水时,锅炉烟气中的水蒸气含量比空气燃烧方式下高约3%;FGD与DCC串联布置时的锅炉流通烟气水蒸气含量略高于采用单独DCC时二次循环烟气脱水的水蒸气含量;电厂循环水温度为30℃时,DCC出口烟气理

  5. Corollary from the Exact Expression for Enthalpy of Vaporization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sobko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem on determining effective volumes for atoms and molecules becomes actual due to rapidly developing nanotechnologies. In the present study an exact expression for enthalpy of vaporization is obtained, from which an exact expression is derived for effective volumes of atoms and molecules, and under certain assumptions on the form of an atom (molecule it is possible to find their linear dimensions. The accuracy is only determined by the accuracy of measurements of thermodynamic parameters at the critical point.

  6. Calculations in apheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Marleen M; Vrielink, Hans

    2015-02-01

    It's important to work smoothly with your apheresis equipment when you are an apheresis nurse. Attention should be paid to your donor/patient and the product you're collecting. It gives additional value to your work when you are able to calculate the efficiency of your procedures. You must be capable to obtain an optimal product without putting your donor/patient at risk. Not only the total blood volume (TBV) of the donor/patient plays an important role, but also specific blood values influence the apheresis procedure. Therefore, not all donors/patients should be addressed in the same way. Calculation of TBV, extracorporeal volume, and total plasma volume is needed. Many issues determine your procedure time. By knowing the collection efficiency (CE) of your apheresis machine, you can calculate the number of blood volumes to be processed to obtain specific results. You can calculate whether you need one procedure to obtain specific results or more. It's not always needed to process 3× the TBV. In this way, it can be avoided that the donor/patient is needless long connected to the apheresis device. By calculating the CE of each device, you can also compare the various devices for quality control reasons, but also nurses/operators.

  7. The research of surface measurement in calculating chest volume of pectus excavatum rats%体表测量计算漏斗胸大鼠胸腔容积的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱健; 李俊; 吴学东; 张杉杉; 王宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To calculate the chest volume for an evaluation of lung development ,the degree of thorax narrowing and pectus excavatum deformity by the surface measurements .Methods Ninety normal Sprague Dawley (4 weeks) rats were ran‐domly divided into experimental and control groups .Experimental group had 70 rats and control group had 20 rats .Cutting off the lower three cartilage from parasternal of rats to produce Pectus excavatum model in experimental groups .We measured many chest radial lines before surgery ,2 ,4 ,8 and 12 weeks after surgery respectively ,then made comparison between parallel group .Thoracic volume size was calculated by a mathematical formula ,Archimedes measurement and the CT three dimensional reconstruction ,and the t test and linear regression were analyzed by SPSS17 .0 .Results this experiment used multiple radial lines to get measurement results ,and through mathematical calculations ,Archimedes measurement and CT reconstruction ,we found there were significant differences between the experimental group and the control group (P<0 .05) .Conclusion It is practicable of surface measurement to calculate chest volume .This method could replace the CT examination to evaluate the change of the chest volume along the process of pectus excavatum formation .%目的:通过体表测量计算胸腔容积评价肺发育、胸廓缩小程度及漏斗胸畸形程度。方法将90只健康4周龄SD大鼠分成实验组和对照组,实验组70只,对照组20只。实验组从胸骨旁切断下位3对肋软骨制作漏斗胸大鼠模型。分别于术前,术后2、4、8、12周测量胸部多条径线,并进行组间比较。胸腔容积大小用数学公式计算,利用阿基米德原理测量及C T三维重建所得,采用SPSS17.0进行 t检验及直线回归分析。结果实验采用多条径线测量结果,经过数学计算,阿基米德原理测量,以及CT三维重建所得结果实验组与对照组比较,

  8. Flow Rate Calculation in the Auto Air Leakage Volume Test System Based on Constant Pressure Method%基于恒压法的汽车整车漏风量测试系统流量计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚; 赵鑫; 李振亮; 许玮

    2013-01-01

    An auto air leakage volume test system based on constant pressure method was designed. Using standard orifice plate as throttle device,after testing some original data such as the differential pressure between both sides of the throttle device,temperature of the dry-bulb and the wet-bulb,and so on,the auto air leakage volume can be calculated. The formulas and methods involved were demonstrated in detail and the experiment was designed based on an analysis of the measurement theory. According to the result of the experiment,this method proved stable and reliable and can satisfy the requirement of the measurement.%  设计了基于恒压法的汽车整车漏风量测试系统。采用标准孔板作为节流件,通过测量节流件上下游的压力差、干球温度和湿球温度等基础数据,经过计算可得到整车漏风量。在分析测量原理的基础上,详细给出了计算漏风量的公式和方法,并进行了实验。实验结果表明,该计算方法稳定可靠,可满足测量要求。

  9. Three-dimensional calculation of pollutant migration via compressible two-phase flow, for analysis of the methods of in situ air sparging and soil vapor extraction; Raeumliche Berechnung des Schadstofftransportes mit einer kompressiblen Zweiphasenstroemung zur Untersuchung der Drucklufteinblasung und Bodenluftabsaugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuepper, S.

    1997-12-01

    In this study an analysis method is presented which allows numerical simulation of in situ air sparging coupled with soil vapor extraction. The improved FE-program takes the following phenomena into account: - Two-phase flow of compressible air and incompressible water - convective-dispersive contamination migration with air and water - transfer of volatile components from liquid phase to gas and water phase - sorption of contaminants onto soil - transfer of contaminants between air and water phase - biological processes. By means of back calculations of the results of laboratory experiments made by Eisele (1989) it was shown that with the developed program GWLCOND some of the necessary parameters for the numerical simulation of remedial systems can be determined. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit wird ein Verfahren vorgestellt, mit dem eine numerische Simulation der Drucklufteinblasung und Bodenluftabsaugung durchgefuehrt werden kann. Das weiterentwickelte FE-Programmsystem beinhaltet folgende Ablaeufe: - Zweiphasenstroemung der kompressiblen Luft- und der inkompressiblen Wasserphase - Konvektiv-dispersiver Schadstofftransport mit der Gas- und der Wasserphase - Uebergang fluessiger Schadstoffe in die Gas- und in die Wasserphase - Sorption der Schadstoffe an der Feststoffphase - Uebergang der Schadstoffe zwischen der Gas- und der Wasserphase - Biologischer Abbau. Anhand der Nachrechnung eines Laborversuches von Eisele (1989) wird gezeigt, wie mit dem entwickelten Transportprogramm GWLCOND ein Teil der fuer die numerische Simulation des Sanierungsverfahrens benoetigten Kennwerte ermittelt werden kann. (orig./SR)

  10. Distribution of Water Vapor in Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Melnick, Gary J; Snell, Ronald L; Bergin, Edwin A; Hollenbach, David J; Kaufman, Michael J; Li, Di; Neufeld, David A

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a large-area study of water vapor along the Orion Molecular Cloud ridge, the purpose of which was to determine the depth-dependent distribution of gas-phase water in dense molecular clouds. We find that the water vapor measured toward 77 spatial positions along the face-on Orion ridge, excluding positions surrounding the outflow associated with BN/KL and IRc2, display integrated intensities that correlate strongly with known cloud surface tracers such as CN, C2H, 13CO J =5-4, and HCN, and less well with the volume tracer N2H+. Moreover, at total column densities corresponding to Av < 15 mag., the ratio of H2O to C18O integrated intensities shows a clear rise approaching the cloud surface. We show that this behavior cannot be accounted for by either optical depth or excitation effects, but suggests that gas-phase water abundances fall at large Av. These results are important as they affect measures of the true water-vapor abundance in molecular clouds by highlighting the limitations...

  11. Water vapor retrieval from OMI visible spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2014-01-01

    optimization of retrieval windows and parameters. The Air Mass Factor (AMF is calculated using look-up tables of scattering weights and monthly mean water vapor profiles from the GEOS-5 assimilation products. We convert from SCD to Vertical Column Density (VCD using the AMF and generate associated retrieval averaging kernels and shape factors. Our standard water vapor product has a median SCD of ~ 1.3 × 1023 molecule cm−2 and a median relative uncertainty of ~ 11% in the tropics, about a factor of 2 better than that from a similar OMI algorithm but using narrower retrieval window. The corresponding median VCD is ~ 1.2 × 1023 molecule cm−2. We have also explored the sensitivities to various parameters and compared our results with those from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET.

  12. A Burst Mode, Ultrahigh Temperature UF4 Vapor Core Reactor Rankine Cycle Space Power System Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, E. T.; Kahook, S. D.; Diaz, N. J.

    1996-01-01

    Static and dynamic neutronic analyses have been performed on an innovative burst mode (100's of MW output for a few thousand seconds) Ulvahigh Temperature Vapor Core Reactor (UTVR) space nuclear power system. The NVTR employs multiple, neutronically-coupled fissioning cores and operates on a direct, closed Rankine cycle using a disk Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generater for energy conversion. The UTVR includes two types of fissioning core regions: (1) the central Ultrahigh Temperature Vapor Core (UTVC) which contains a vapor mixture of highly enriched UF4 fuel and a metal fluoride working fluid and (2) the UF4 boiler column cores located in the BeO moderator/reflector region. The gaseous nature of the fuel the fact that the fuel is circulating, the multiple coupled fissioning cores, and the use of a two phase fissioning fuel lead to unique static and dynamic neutronic characteristics. Static neutronic analysis was conducted using two-dimensional S sub n, transport theory calculations and three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport theory calculations. Circulating-fuel, coupled-core point reactor kinetics equations were used for analyzing the dynamic behavior of the UTVR. In addition to including reactivity feedback phenomena associated with the individual fissioning cores, the effects of core-to-core neutronic and mass flow coupling between the UTVC and the surrounding boiler cores were also included in the dynamic model The dynamic analysis of the UTVR reveals the existence of some very effectlve inherent reactivity feedback effects that are capable of quickly stabilizing this system, within a few seconds, even when large positive reactivity insertions are imposed. If the UTVC vapor fuel density feedback is suppressed, the UTVR is still inherently stable because of the boiler core liquid-fuel volume feedback; in contrast, suppression of the vapor fuel density feedback in 'conventional" gas core cavity reactors causes them to become inherently unstable. Due to the

  13. CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR IN A VERTICAL TUBE CONDENSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havlík

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The operating conditions of the condenser may be different from the assumptions adopted in the basic Nusselt theory. Modifications to the Nusselt condensation model are theoretically analyzed.

  14. Water Vapor-Mediated Volatilization of High-Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschter, Peter J.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2013-07-01

    Volatilization in water vapor-containing atmospheres is an important and often unexpected mechanism of degradation of high-temperature materials during processing and in service. Thermodynamic properties data sets for key (oxy)hydroxide vapor product species that are responsible for material transport and damage are often uncertain or unavailable. Estimation, quantum chemistry calculation, and measurement methods for thermodynamic properties of these species are reviewed, and data judged to be reliable are tabulated and referenced. Applications of water vapor-mediated volatilization include component and coating recession in turbine engines, oxidation/volatilization of ferritic steels in steam boilers, chromium poisoning in solid-oxide fuel cells, vanadium transport in hot corrosion and degradation of hydrocracking catalysts, Na loss from Na β"-Al2O3 tubes, and environmental release of radioactive isotopes in a nuclear reactor accident or waste incineration. The significance of water vapor-mediated volatilization in these applications is described.

  15. Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  16. Iron bromide vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  17. Solvents and vapor intrusion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Scott D; Krieger, Gary R; Palmer, Robert B; Waksman, Javier C

    2004-08-01

    Vapor intrusion must be recognized appropriately as a separate pathway of contamination. Although many issues resemble those of other forms of contamination (particularly its entryway, which is similar to that of radon seepage), vapor intrusion stands apart as a unique risk requiring case-specific action. This article addresses these issues and the current understanding of the most appropriate and successful remedial actions.

  18. Investigation on high temperature vapor pressure of UO 2 containing simulated fission-product elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, T.; Ohtsubo, A.; Ishii, T.

    1984-06-01

    During the hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) of a fast breeder reactor (FBR), the temperature of the fuel would rise above 3000 K. The experimental data concerning the saturated fuel vapor pressure are necessary for the analysis of the HCDA. In this study, the UO 2 containing Cs, Ba, Ag, or Sn was used to simulate the irradiated fuel in the FBR. The saturated vapor pressure of pure UO 2 and UO 2 containing Cs, Ba, Ag, or Sn at 3000 to 5000 K was measured dynamically with a pulse laser and a torsion pendulum. The surface of a specimen on the pendulum was heated to eject vapor by the injection of a giant pulse ruby laser beam. The pressure of the ejected vapor was measured by both the maximum rotation angle of the pendulum and the duration of vapor ejection. The saturated vapor pressure was theoretically calculated by using the ejected vapor pressure. The surface temperature of the specimen was estimated from the irradiated energy density measured with a laser energy meter. The saturated vapor pressure of UO 2 at 3640 to 5880 K measured in this study was near the extrapolated value of Ackermann's low temperature data. The vapor pressure of UO 2 containing Cs, Ba, Ag or Sn was higher than that of UO 2. The saturated vapor pressure of UO 2 and a solid fission products system was calculated by using these experimental data.

  19. Vapor phase heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes progress in theoretical and experimental investigations of various forms of a vapor transport system for solar space heating, which could also be applied to service water heating. Refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector, which may be located on the external wall or roof of a building. The vapor is condensed in a passively discharged thermal storage unit located within the building. The condensed liquid can be returned to the collector either by a motor-driven pump or by a completely passive self-pumping mechanism in which the vapor pressure lifts the liquid from the condenser to the collector. The theoretical investigation analyzes this self-pumping scheme. Experiments in solar test cells compare the operation of both passive and active forms of the vapor system with the operation of a passive water wall. The vapor system operates as expected, with potential advantages over other passive systems in design flexibility and energy yield.

  20. 33 CFR 154.828 - Vapor recovery and vapor destruction units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vapor recovery and vapor... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.828 Vapor recovery and vapor destruction units. (a) The inlet to a vapor recovery unit...

  1. A Lithium Vapor Box similarity experiment employing water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ja; Jagoe, C.; Goldston, Rj; Jaworski, Ma

    2016-10-01

    Handling high power loads and heat flux in the divertor is a major challenge for fusion power plants. A detached plasma will likely be required. However, hydrogenic and impurity puffing experiments show that detached operation leads easily to X-point MARFEs, impure plasmas, degradation in confinement, and lower helium pressure at the exhaust. The concept of the Lithium Vapor Box Divertor is to use local evaporation and strong differential pumping through condensation to localize the gas-phase material that absorbs the plasma heat flux, and so avoid those difficulties. In order to design such a box first the vapor without plasma must be simulated. The density of vapor required can be estimated using the SOL power, major radius, poloidal box length, and cooling energy per lithium atom. For an NSTX-U-sized machine, the Knudsen number Kn spans 0.01 to 1, the transitional flow regime. This regime cannot handled by fluid codes or collisionless Monte Carlo codes, but can be handled by Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes. To validate a DSMC model, we plan to build a vapor box test stand employing more-convenient water vapor instead of lithium vapor as the working fluid. Transport of vapor between the chambers at -50C will be measured and compared to the model. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  2. Vapor Sensing Theoretical Study on Optical Microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Le-xin; ZHANG Ran; LI Zhi-quan

    2007-01-01

    When the organic vapors absorbed to the surface of porous silicon(PS), capillary condensation takes place due to the porous structure of the PS layer, accordingly resulting in the effective refractive index changing. For PS multi-layer microcavities, the different resonant peaks shift in the reflectivity spectrum of porous silicon microcavities(PSMs). The optical sensing model is set up by applying Bruggeman effective medium approximation theory, capillary condensation process and transfer matrix theoretically analytical method of one-dimensional photonic crystals. At the same time, comprehensively researched on are the sensing characteristics of PSMs which are exposed to give concentration organic vapors. At last, made is the theoretical simulation for sensing model of the PSMs in case of saturation by using computer numerical calculation, and found is the linearity relation between the refractive index of organic solvent and the peak-shift. At the same time deduced is the peak-shift as a function of the concentration of ethanol vapors.

  3. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Fujun

    2014-01-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyman alpha photons, since the Lyman alpha line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more ...

  4. Collapsing criteria for vapor film around solid spheres as a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, Roy [Nuclear Research Center - Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)], E-mail: freud@bgu.ac.il; Harari, Ronen [Nuclear Research Center - Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Sher, Eran [Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2009-04-15

    Following a partial fuel-melting accident, a Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) can result with the fragmentation of the melt into tiny droplets. A vapor film is then formed between the melt fragments and the coolant, while preventing a contact between them. Triggering, propagation and expansion typically follow the premixing stage. In the triggering stage, vapor film collapse around one or several of the fragments occurs. This collapse can be the result of fragments cooling, a sort of mechanical force, or by any other means. When the vapor film collapses and the coolant re-establishes contact with the dry surface of the hot melt, it may lead to a very rapid and rather violent boiling. In the propagation stage the shock wave front leads to stripping of the films surrounding adjacent droplets which enhance the fragmentation and the process escalates. During this process a large quantity of liquid vaporizes and its expansion can result in destructive mechanical damage to the surrounding structures. This multiphase thermal detonation in which high pressure shock wave is formed is regarded as 'vapor explosion'. The film boiling and its possible collapse is a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion. If the interaction of the melt and the coolant does not result in a film boiling, no explosion occurs. Many studies have been devoted to determine the minimum temperature and heat flux that is required to maintain a film boiling. The present experimental study examines the minimum temperature that is required to maintain a film boiling around metal spheres immersed into a liquid (subcooled distilled water) reservoir. In order to simulate fuel fragments that are small in dimension and has mirror-like surface, small spheres coated with anti-oxidation layer were used. The heat flux from the spheres was calculated from the sphere's temperature profiles and the sphere's properties. The vapor film collapse was associated with a sharp rise of the heat flux

  5. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  6. Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardos, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

  7. Calculation and analysis of hydrogen volume concentrations in the vent pipe rigid proposed for NPP-L V; Calculo y analisis de concentraciones volumetricas de hidrogeno en el tubo de venteo rigido propuesto para la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A. M.; Xolocostli M, V. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez M, R.; Filio L, C. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Royl, P., E-mail: armando.gomez@inin.gob.mx [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz I, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    In 2012 was modeled of primary and secondary container of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) for the CFD Gas-Flow code. These models were used to calculate hydrogen volume concentrations run release the reactor building in case of a severe accident. The results showed that the venting would produce detonation conditions in the venting level (level 33) and flammability at ground level of reload. One of the solutions to avoid reaching critical concentrations (flammable or detonable) inside the reactor building and thus safeguard the contentions is to make a rigid venting. The rigid vent is a pipe connected to the primary container could go to the level 33 of the secondary container and style fireplace climb to the top of the reactor building. The analysis of hydrogen transport inside the vent pipe can be influenced by various environmental criteria and factors vent, so a logical consequence of the 2012 analysis is the analysis of the gases transport within said pipe to define vent ideal conditions. For these evaluations the vent pipe was modeled with a fine mesh of 32 radial interior nodes and a coarse mesh of 4 radial interior nodes. With three-dimensional models were realized calculations that allow observing the influence of heat transfer in the long term, i.e. a complete analysis of exhaust (approx. 700 seconds). However, the most interesting results focus on the first milliseconds, when the H{sub 2} coming from the atmosphere of the primary container faces the air in the vent pipe. These first milliseconds besides allowing evaluating the detonation criteria in great detail in the different tubular sections similarly allow evaluating the pressure wave that occurs in the pipe and that at some point slows to the fluid on the last tubular section and could produce a detonation inside the pipe. Results are presented for venting fixed conditions, showing possible detonations into the pipe. (Author)

  8. Cryogenic spray vaporization in high-velocity helium, argon and nitrogen gasflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebo, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of gas properties on cryogenic liquid-jet atomization in high-velocity helium, nitrogen, and argon gas flows were investigated. Volume median diameter, D(sub v.5e), data were obtained with a scattered-light scanning instrument. By calculating the change in spray drop size, -Delta D(sub v.5)(exp 2), due to droplet vaporization, it was possible to calculate D(sub v.5C). D(sub v.5C) is the unvaporized characteristic drop size formed at the fuel-nozzle orifice. This drop size was normalized with respect to liquid-jet diameter, D(sub O). It was then correlated with several dimensionless groups to give an expression for the volume median diameter of cryogenic LN2 sprays. This expression correlates drop size D(sub v.5c) with aerodynamic and liquid-surface forces so that it can be readily determined in the design of multiphase-flow propellant injectors for rocket combustors.

  9. Archimedes Mass Filter Vaporizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putvinski, S.; Agnew, A. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Ohkawa, T.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.; Dresvin, S. V.; Kuteev, B. V.; Feygenson, O. N.; Ivanov, D. V.; Zverev, S. G.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Egorov, S. M.; Kiesewetter, D. V.; Maliugin, V. I.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group, Inc., is developing a plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter that separates waste oxide mixtures ion by ion into two mass groups: light and heavy. Since high-level waste at Hanford has 99.9its radioactivity associated with heavy elements, the Archimedes Filter can effectively decontaminate over three-quarters of that waste. The Filter process involves some preprocessing followed by volatilization and separation by the magnetic and electric fields of the main plasma. This presentation describes the approach to volatilization of the waste oxy-hydroxide mixture by means of a very high heat flux (q > 10 MW/m2). Such a high heat flux is required to ensure congruent evaporation of the complex oxy-hydroxide mixture and is achieved by injection of small droplets of molten waste into an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch. This presentation further addresses different issues related to evaporation of the waste including modeling of droplet evaporation, estimates of parameters of plasma torch, and 2D modeling of the plasma. The experimental test bed for oxide vaporization and results of the initial experiments on oxide evaporation in 60 kW ICP torch will also be described.

  10. Modeling vapor dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marconcini, R.; McEdwards, D.; Neri, G.; Ruffilli, C.; Schroeder, R.; Weres, O.; Witherspoon, P.

    1977-09-12

    The unresolved questions with regard to vapor-dominated reservoir production and longevity are reviewed. The simulation of reservoir behavior and the LBL computer program are discussed. The geology of Serrazzano geothermal field and its reservoir simulation are described. (MHR)

  11. Vapor Intrusion Facilities - South Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — POINT locations for the South Bay Vapor Instrusion Sites were derived from the NPL data for Region 9. One site, Philips Semiconductor, was extracted from the...

  12. MEMS Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  13. Water-vapor source shift of Xinjiang region during the recent twenty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xingang; Li Weijing; Ma Zhuguo; Wang Ping

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the climate water-vapor sources of Xinjiang region and their shifts during the past 20 years. First, the principle and steps are roughly regulated to seek the water-vapor sources. Second, the climate stationary water-vapor transport in troposphere is calculated to distinguish where the water vapor comes from by ERA-40 reanalysis. In addition, the collocation between the transport and the atmospheric column water vapor content is analyzed. The results show that the major vapor comes from the west side of Xinjiang for mid-month of seasons, apart from July while the water vapor comes from the north or northwest direction. The water vapor sources are different for different seasons, for example, the Caspian Sea and Mediterranean are the sources in January and April, the North Atlantic and the Arctic sea in July, and the Black Sea and Caspian Sea in October, respectively. In recent ten years more water vapor above Xinjiang comes from the high latitudes and the Arctic sea with global warming, and less from Mediterranean in comparison with the case of 1973-1986. In fact, the air over subtropics becomes dry and the anomalous water vapor transport direction turns to west or southwest during 1987-2000. By contrast, the air over middle and high latitudes is warmer and wetter than 14 years ago.

  14. 用修正的Polanyi-Dubinin方程描述有机蒸气-水蒸气在活性炭上的吸附平衡%MODIFIED POLANYI-DUBININ EQUATION TO ORRELATE ADSORPTION EQUILIBRIUM OF VOC-WATER VAPOR MIXTURES ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华生; 汪大翚; 叶芸春; 谭天恩

    2001-01-01

    Long-column method was used to determine the adsorption isotherms of 4 VOCs (benzene, toluene, chloroform and acetone) in concentration range of 250~5000?mg*m-3 on a commercial activated-carbon under different humidity levels at 30?℃.A modified Polanyi-Dubinin equation was proposed to correlate the adsorption equilibrium of different VOC-water vapor systems. Among 3 methods of calculating the Relative Affinity Coefficient β used,the Molar Volume method and the Molecular Parachor method proved to be suitable for the calculation with better precision than the Electronic Polarization method. Calculation results were satisfactory for the benzene-, toluene-, and chloroform-water vapor/activated carbon systems, but poor for acetone possibly because of its strong polarity.The equation could be used to estimate the detaining effect of atmospheric humidity on the adsorption equilibrium of VOCs on activated carbon.

  15. Finding organic vapors - a Monte Carlo approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuollekoski, Henri; Boy, Michael; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku

    2010-05-01

    Aerosols have an important role in regulating the climate both directly by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, as well as indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. While it is known that their net effect on radiative forcing is negative, several key aspects remain mysterious. There exist plenty of known primary sources of particles due to both natural and man-made origin - for example desert dust, volcanic activity and tire debris. On the other hand, it has been shown that the formation of secondary particles, by nucleation from precursor vapors, is a frequent, global phenomenon. However, the very earliest steps in new particle formation - nucleation and early growth by condensation - have many big question marks on them. While several studies have indicated the importance of a sufficient concentration of sulphuric acid vapor for the process, it has also been noted that this is usually not enough. Heads have therefore turned to organic vapors, which in their multitude could explain various observed characteristics of new particle formation. But alas, the vast number of organic compounds, their complex chemistry and properties that make them difficult to measure, have complicated the quantifying task. Nevertheless, evidence of organic contribution in particles of all size classes has been found. In particular, a significant organic constituent in the very finest particles suggests the presence of a high concentration of very low-volatile organic vapors. In this study, new particle formation in the boreal forest environment of Hyytiälä, Finland, is investigated in a process model. Our goal is to quantify the concentration, to find the diurnal profile and to get hints of the identity of some organic vapors taking part in new particle formation. Previous studies on the subject have relied on data analysis of the growth rate of the observed particles. However, due to the coarse nature of the methods used to calculate growth rates, this approach has its

  16. Dispensing fuel with aspiration of condensed vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkovich, M.S.; Strock, D.J.

    1993-08-10

    A vapor recovery process is described, comprising the steps of: fueling a motor vehicle with gasoline by discharging gasoline into a fill opening or filler pipe of a tank of said vehicle through a fuel outlet conduit of a nozzle; emitting gasoline vapors from said tank during said fueling; substantially collecting said vapors during said fueling with a vapor return conduit of said nozzle and passing said vapors through said vapor return conduit in counter current flow relationship to said discharging gasoline in said fuel conduit; conveying said vapors from said vapor return conduit to a vapor return hose; at least some of said vapors condensing to form condensate in said vapor return hose; substantially removing said condensate from said vapor return hose during said fueling with a condensate pickup tube from said nozzle by passing said condensate through said condensate pickup tube in counter current flow relationship to said conveying vapors in said vapor return hose; sensing the presence of gasoline with a liquid sensing tube in said vapor return conduit of said nozzle between inner and outer spouts of said nozzle to detect when said tank of said vehicle is filled with said fuel conduit being within the inner spout of said nozzle; and automatically shutting off said fueling and condensate removing when said liquid sensing tube detects when said tank of said vehicle is filled and fuel enters said vapor return conduit.

  17. Precise determination of refractometric parameters for anesthetic agent vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, J M; Birch, K P; Crowder, J G

    1994-05-01

    The absolute refractive indices of the anesthetic agent vapors isoflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane, halothane, and desflurane are determined to a typical uncertainty of 1 part in 10(7) over the respective temperature and pressure ranges of 15-40 °C and 5-45% of their saturated vapor pressures at wavelengths of 632.99, 594.10, and 543.52 nm. The specific refraction, second virial coefficients, and dispersion constants are also derived for each agent, from which an equation for the calculation of agent refractivity is established that is in agreement with the measured data to within 2 × 10(-8).

  18. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Supporting MELCOR calculations, Volume 6, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetyk, L.N.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    To gain a better understanding of the risk significance of low power and shutdown modes of operation, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research at the NRC established programs to investigate the likelihood and severity of postulated accidents that could occur during low power and shutdown (LP&S) modes of operation at commercial nuclear power plants. To investigate the likelihood of severe core damage accidents during off power conditions, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) were performed for two nuclear plants: Unit 1 of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, which is a BWR-6 Mark III boiling water reactor (BWR), and Unit 1 of the Surry Power Station, which is a three-loop, subatmospheric, pressurized water reactor (PWR). The analysis of the BWR was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories while the analysis of the PWR was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This multi-volume report presents and discusses the results of the BWR analysis. The subject of this part presents the deterministic code calculations, performed with the MELCOR code, that were used to support the development and quantification of the PRA models. The background for the work documented in this report is summarized, including how deterministic codes are used in PRAS, why the MELCOR code is used, what the capabilities and features of MELCOR are, and how the code has been used by others in the past. Brief descriptions of the Grand Gulf plant and its configuration during LP&S operation and of the MELCOR input model developed for the Grand Gulf plant in its LP&S configuration are given.

  19. Temperature Dependency of Water Vapor Permeability of Shape Memory Polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yue-min; HU Jin-lian; YAN Hao-jing

    2002-01-01

    Solution-cast films of shape memory polyurethane have beea investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry,DMA, tensile test, water vapor permeability and the shape merry effect were carried out to characterize these polyurethane membranes. Samples cast at higher temperatures contained more hard segment in the crystalline state than a sample cast at lower temperature. The change in the water vapor permeability (WVP) of SMPU films with respect to the temperature follows an S- shaped curve, and increases abruptly at Tm of the soft segment for the fractional free volume (FFV, the ratio of free volume and specific volume in polymers) increased linearly with temperature. The water vapor permeability dependency of the temperature and humidity contribute to the result of the change of diffusion and solubility with the surrounding air condition. The diffusion coefficient (D)are the function of temperature and show good fit the Arrhenius form but show different parameter values when above and below Tg. The crystalline state hardsegment is necessary for the good shape memory effect.

  20. Technology update: bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation for managing severe emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gompelmann D

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Gompelmann,1,2 Ralf Eberhardt,1,2 Felix JF Herth1,21Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, 2German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg, GermanyAbstract: Bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation (BTVA is an endoscopic lung volume reduction therapy that presents an effective treatment approach in patients with severe upper lobe-predominant emphysema. By instillation of heated water vapor, an inflammatory reaction is induced, leading to fibrosis and scarring of the lung parenchyma, resulting in lobar volume reduction. Clinical single-arm trials demonstrated great outcomes, with significant improvement of lung function, exercise capacity, and quality of life. As the BTVA-induced local inflammatory response that seems to be essential for the desired lobar volume reduction can be associated with transient clinical worsening, strict monitoring of the patients is required. In future, the balance between efficacy and safety will constitute a major challenge. This review summarizes the BTVA procedure, the mechanism of action, and the results of the clinical trials, including the efficacy and safety data.Keywords: emphysema, bronchoscopy, bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation

  1. A Review of Vapor Intrusion Models

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yijun; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    A complete vapor intrusion (VI) model, describing vapor entry of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) into buildings located on contaminated sites, generally consists of two main parts-one describing vapor transport in the soil and the other its entry into the building. Modeling the soil vapor transport part involves either analytically or numerically solving the equations of vapor advection and diffusion in the subsurface. Contaminant biodegradation must often also be included in this simulatio...

  2. Recent advances in vapor intrusion site investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Thomas; Loll, Per; Eklund, Bart

    2017-02-22

    Our understanding of vapor intrusion has evolved rapidly since the discovery of the first high profile vapor intrusion sites in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Research efforts and field investigations have improved our understanding of vapor intrusion processes including the role of preferential pathways and natural barriers to vapor intrusion. This review paper addresses recent developments in the regulatory framework and conceptual model for vapor intrusion. In addition, a number of innovative investigation methods are discussed.

  3. Determination of PCDD/Fs in food samples using programmable temperature vaporizer-based large volume injection by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry%程序升温大体积进样在HRGC-HRMS法测定食品中PCDD/F的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 李敬光; 赵云峰; 吴永宁

    2014-01-01

    Objective By optimizing critical parameters of programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV), a method of PTV-based large volume injection was established for the determination of PCDD/Fs in various food samples using HRGC-HRMS. Methods The preparation of food, including extraction, clean-up, separation and concentration, was carried out depending on GB/T5009.205-2007 “Determination of Toxic Equivalencies of Dioxin and Dioxin-like Compounds in Foods”. The injection volume of extracts was 15μL, and the analyte was subsequently determined by using HRGC-HRMS with isotopic dilution. Results The optimized parame-ter of the initial temperature of PTV injector, the temperature of evaporation phase, and the flow rate of evapo-ration phase was set at 115℃, 140℃, and 5 mL/min, respectively. Peak area and the ratio of signal to noise (S/N) of PCDD/F congeners significantly increased using PTV-based large volume injection (P<0.05). Conclu-sion The method of PTV-based large volume injection can notably raise the competence of determining PCDD/Fs in food, which may help to assess the food safety risk more accurately and reliably.%目的:通过优化程序升温蒸发进样口的相关参数,噁建立测定食品中多氯代二苯并二英和多氯代二苯并呋喃(PCDD/Fs)的程序升温大体积进样高分辨气相色谱-高分辨质谱(HRGC-HRMS)方法。方法食品样品提取、净化分离和浓缩按《GB/T 5009.205-2007噁食品中二英及其类似物毒性当量的测定》规定进行,待测试样进样15μL,应用HRGC-HRMS结合同位素稀释技术测定其中PCDD/Fs。结果最佳条件为进样口初始温度115℃,蒸发相温度140℃,蒸发相吹扫流速为5 mL。大体积进样所获得的待测物峰面积及S/N存在显著增加(P<0.05)。结论程序升温大体积进样方式能显著提高食品基质中PCDD/Fs的检测能力,有助于保证食品安全风险评估结果的准确可靠。

  4. Change law of real vapor pressure of Al element in Ti- x Al ( x =25~50) melt during ISM process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贵仲; 苏彦庆; 郭景杰; 丁宏升; 贾均; 傅恒志

    2002-01-01

    A new model was established to calculate the real vapor pressure of the Al element in the molten Ti- x Al ( x =25~50,mole fraction,%) alloy.The effects of the holding time,chamber pressure,mole fraction of Al and melting temperature on the real vapor pressure of Al element in the vacuum chamber were analyzed.Because of the impeding effect of the real vapor pressure on the evaporation loss rate,within a short time (less than 10 s),the real vapor pressure tends to a constant value.When the chamber pressure is less than the saturated vapor pressure of the Al component,the real vapor pressure of Al is equal to the chamber pressure.While when the chamber pressure is larger than the saturated vapor pressure,the real vapor pressure is equal to the saturated vapor pressure of the Al element of the same condition.

  5. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  6. Stage 2 vapor recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, W.H.; Strock, D.J.; Butkovich, M.S.; Hartman, H.B.

    1993-05-25

    A vapor recovery system is described, comprising: a set of elongated underground storage tanks, each storage tank containing a different grade of gasoline; vent pipes; a series of dispensing units; fuel flow lines; vapor return lines; an array of fuel pumps for pumping gasoline from said storage tanks to said dispenser units; an elongated condensate liquid pickup tube; an elongated inner spout providing a fuel conduit and having an outer tip defining a fuel outlet for discharging gasoline into a filler pipe of a motor vehicle tank during fueling; an outer spout assembly; extending into and engaging said spout-receiving socket, said outer spout assembly comprising an outer spout providing a vapor return conduit and defining apertures providing a vapor inlet spaced from said fuel outlet for withdrawing, removing, and returning a substantial amount of gasoline vapors emitted during said fueling; an elongated liquid sensing tube; a manually operable level; a flow control valve assembly; an automatic shutoff valve assembly; and a venturi sleeve assembly positioned in said venturi sleeve receiving chamber.

  7. The Lithium Vapor Box Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, Robert; Hakim, Ammar; Hammett, Gregory; Jaworski, Michael; Myers, Rachel; Schwartz, Jacob

    2015-11-01

    Projections of scrape-off layer width to a demonstration power plant suggest an immense parallel heat flux, of order 12 GW/m2, which will necessitate nearly fully detached operation. Building on earlier work by Nagayama et al. and by Ono et al., we propose to use a series of differentially pumped boxes filled with lithium vapor to isolate the buffering vapor from the main plasma chamber, allowing stable detachment. This powerful differential pumping is only available for condensable vapors, not conventional gases. We demonstrate the properties of such a system through conservation laws for vapor mass and enthalpy, and then include plasma entrainment and ultimately an estimate of radiated power. We find that full detachment should be achievable with little leakage of lithium to the main plasma chamber. We also present progress towards solving the Navier-Stokes equation numerically for the chain of vapor boxes, including self-consistent wall boundary conditions and fully-developed shocks, as well as concepts for an initial experimental demonstration-of-concept. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40{degrees}C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54{degrees}C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  9. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40[degrees]C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54[degrees]C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  10. Pore scale mechanisms for enhanced vapor transport through partially saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraeeni, Ebrahim; Or, Dani

    2012-05-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies of vapor transport through porous media question the existence and significance of vapor transport enhancement mechanisms postulated by Philip and de Vries. Several enhancement mechanisms were proposed to rectify shortcomings of continuum models and to reconcile discrepancies between predicted and observed vapor fluxes. The absence of direct experimental and theoretical confirmation of these commonly invoked pore scale mechanisms prompted alternate explanations considering the (often neglected) role of transport via capillary connected pathways. The objective of this work was to quantify the specific roles of liquid bridges and of local thermal and capillary gradients on vapor transport at the pore scale. We considered a mechanistic pore scale model of evaporation and condensation dynamics as a building block for quantifying vapor diffusion through partially saturated porous media. Simulations of vapor diffusion in the presence of isolated liquid phase bridges reveal that the so-called enhanced vapor diffusion under isothermal conditions reflects a reduced gaseous diffusion path length. The presence of a thermal gradient may augment or hinder this effect depending on the direction of thermal relative to capillary gradients. As liquid phase saturation increases, capillary transport becomes significant and pore scale vapor enhancement is limited to low water contents as postulated by Philip and deVries. Calculations show that with assistance of a mild thermal gradient water vapor flux could be doubled relative to diffusion of an inert gas through the same system.

  11. Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Christian; Mattsson, Johan; Soydaner, Umut; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot) and total CBD (CBDtot) in the vapor. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies. Recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 4 electrically-driven vaporizers were 58.4 and 51.4%, 66.8 and 56.1%, 82.7 and 70.0% and 54.6 and 56.7% for Volcano Medic®, Plenty Vaporizer®, Arizer Solo® and DaVinci Vaporizer®, respectively. Decarboxylation efficiency was excellent for THC (≥ 97.3%) and CBD (≥ 94.6%). The gas-powered Vape-or-Smoke™ showed recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 55.9 and 45.9%, respectively, and a decarboxylation efficiency of ≥ 87.7 for both cannabinoids. However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis.

  12. Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lanz

    Full Text Available Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot and total CBD (CBDtot in the vapor. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies. Recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 4 electrically-driven vaporizers were 58.4 and 51.4%, 66.8 and 56.1%, 82.7 and 70.0% and 54.6 and 56.7% for Volcano Medic®, Plenty Vaporizer®, Arizer Solo® and DaVinci Vaporizer®, respectively. Decarboxylation efficiency was excellent for THC (≥ 97.3% and CBD (≥ 94.6%. The gas-powered Vape-or-Smoke™ showed recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 55.9 and 45.9%, respectively, and a decarboxylation efficiency of ≥ 87.7 for both cannabinoids. However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis.

  13. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  14. Nanoparticle Treated Stainless Steel Filters for Metal Vapor Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murph, Simona E. Hunyadi; Larsen, George K.; Korinko, Paul; Coopersmith, Kaitlin J.; Summer, Ansley J.; Lewis, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    The ability to sequester vapor phase radioactive compounds during industrial processes reduces the exposure of workers and the environment to dangerous radioactive materials. Nanomaterials have a lot of potential in this area because they typically demonstrate size- and shape-dependent properties with higher reactivity than bulk. This is due to the increased surface area-to-volume ratio and quantum size effects. In this report, we developed a gold nanomaterial-treated stainless steel filter, namely wools and coupons, that can be efficiently used for zinc vapor sequestration. Without nanoparticle modification, stainless steel coupons do not react or alloy with Zn. Gold nanomaterials were grown onto various stainless steel filters using solution chemistry that is amenable to scaling up. Materials were characterized by electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering before and after exposure to zinc vapors. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy mapping and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirm the formation of gold-zinc alloys after Zn vapor exposure. The effect of surface topography on nanoparticle morphology, size and loading density were also investigated, and stainless steel surface defects were found to have an impact on the Au NP growth and subsequently Zn sequestration.

  15. Nanoparticle Treated Stainless Steel Filters for Metal Vapor Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murph, Simona E. Hunyadi; Larsen, George K.; Korinko, Paul; Coopersmith, Kaitlin J.; Summer, Ansley J.; Lewis, Rebecca

    2016-12-01

    The ability to sequester vapor phase radioactive compounds during industrial processes reduces the exposure of workers and the environment to dangerous radioactive materials. Nanomaterials have a lot of potential in this area because they typically demonstrate size- and shape-dependent properties with higher reactivity than bulk. This is due to the increased surface area-to-volume ratio and quantum size effects. In this report, we developed a gold nanomaterial-treated stainless steel filter, namely wools and coupons, that can be efficiently used for zinc vapor sequestration. Without nanoparticle modification, stainless steel coupons do not react or alloy with Zn. Gold nanomaterials were grown onto various stainless steel filters using solution chemistry that is amenable to scaling up. Materials were characterized by electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering before and after exposure to zinc vapors. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy mapping and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirm the formation of gold-zinc alloys after Zn vapor exposure. The effect of surface topography on nanoparticle morphology, size and loading density were also investigated, and stainless steel surface defects were found to have an impact on the Au NP growth and subsequently Zn sequestration.

  16. Improved thermoplastic composite by alignment of vapor-grown carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriger, Rex Jerrald

    2000-10-01

    Vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) is a new and inexpensive carbon fiber produced by vapor deposition of hydrocarbons on metal catalysts. Unlike continuous conventional PAN or pitch-derived carbon fibers, VGCF is discontinuous with diameters of about 200 nanometers and lengths ranging from 10 to 200 micrometers. The microscopic size and random entanglement of the fibers create several problems when processing VGCF composites. It is particularly difficult to disperse the entangled fibers in the matrix and orient them along a preferred axis to provide directional reinforcement. This work introduces a technique to produce an improved polymeric composite by alignment of vapor grown carbon nano-fibers in a polypropylene matrix. A twin-screw extruder was used to shear mix and disperse the fibers in the polymer matrix. The composite mixtures were extruded through a converging-annular die that generates flow-induced fiber alignment along the extrusion direction. The effect that the various extrusion conditions have on the bulk properties of the extrudate was investigated. It was found that the extrusion process is strongly dependent on the fiber content of the composite. The extrusion pressure increased and the flow rate decreased with fiber volume fraction. The tensile strength and modulus for the composite samples varied with extrusion temperature and screw speed, and the void content increased with fiber volume fraction. It was shown that fiber alignment could be improved by increasing the residence time in the die channel and was verified using x-ray diffraction. The mechanical properties of the aligned samples increased with fiber content. Also, the tensile strength improved with greater fiber orientation; however, more fiber alignment had little affect on the modulus. To better predict the strength of these partially aligned fiber composites, an experimental and theoretical approach was introduced. The experimental data correspond reasonably well when compared with the

  17. Final OSWER Vapor Intrusion Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is preparing to finalize its guidance on assessing and addressing vapor intrusion, which is defined as migration of volatile constituents from contaminated media in the subsurface (soil or groundwater) into the indoor environment. In November 2002, EPA issued draft guidance o...

  18. Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process commonly used for the synthesis of thin films for several important technological applications, for example, microelectronics, hard coatings, and smart windows. Unfortunately, the complexity and prohibitive cost of CVD equipment makes it seldom available for undergraduate chemistry students. Here, a…

  19. Interaction of aerosol particles composed of protein and saltswith water vapor: hygroscopic growth and microstructural rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mikhailov

    2004-01-01

    efflorescence threshold of NaCl-BSA particles decreased with increasing BSA dry mass fraction, i.e. the protein inhibited the formation of salt crystals and enhanced the stability of supersaturated solution droplets. The H-TDMA and TEM results indicate that the protein was enriched at the surface of the mixed particles and formed an envelope, which inhibits the access of water vapor to the particle core and leads to kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth, phase transitions, and microstructural rearrangement processes. The Köhler theory calculations performed with different types of models demonstrate that the hygroscopic growth of particles composed of inorganic salts and proteins can be efficiently described with a simple volume additivity approach, provided that the correct dry solute mass equivalent diameter and composition are known. A parameterisation for the osmotic coefficient of macromolecular substances has been derived from an osmotic pressure virial equation. For its application only the density and molar mass of the substance have to be known or estimated, and it is fully compatible with traditional volume additivity models for salt mixtures.

  20. VAPOR MIXER FOR GELATINIZATION OF STARCH IN LIQUEFYING STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ananskikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch hydrolysis is main technological process in production of starch sweeteners. Acid hydrolysis of starch using hydrochloric acid is carried out very fast but it does not allow to carry out full hydrolysis and to produce products with given carbohydrate composition. Bioconversion of starch allows to eliminate these limitations. At production of starch sweeteners from starch using enzymes starch hydrolysis is carried out in two stages At first starch – starch liquefaction the rapid increase of viscosity takes place which requires intensive mixing. Liquefying station consists of jet-cooker, holder, pressure regulator and evaporator. Jet-cooker of starch is its main part, starch is quickly turns into soluble (gelatinized state and it is partially liquefied by injection of starch suspension by flow of water vapor under pressure not less than 0,8 MPa. Heat and hydraulic calculation were carried out in order to determine constructive sizes of mixer for cooking of starch. The main hydraulic definable parameters are pressure drop in mixer, vapor pressure at mixer inlet, daily capacity of station by glucose syrup M, product consumption (starch suspension, diameter of inlet section of vapor nozzle. The goal of calculation was to determine vapor consumption M1, diameter d2 of outlet section of confuser injector, length l2 of gelatinization section. For heat calculation there was used Shukhov’s formula along with heat balance equation for gelatinization process. The numerical solution obtained with adopted assumptions given in applied mathematical package MATHCAD, for M = 50 t/day gives required daily vapor consumption M1 = 14,446 т. At hydraulic calculation of pressure drop in mixer there was used Bernoulli’s theorem. Solving obtained equations using MATHCAD found diameter of outlet section of consufer d2 = 0,023 м, vapor pressure inside of mixer p2 = 3,966·105 Па, l2 = 0,128 м. Developed method of calculation is used to determine

  1. Boiler for generating high quality vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, V. H.; Marto, P. J.; Joslyn, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Boiler supplies vapor for use in turbines by imparting a high angular velocity to the liquid annulus in heated rotating drum. Drum boiler provides a sharp interface between boiling liquid and vapor, thereby, inhibiting the formation of unwanted liquid droplets.

  2. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  3. Thermodynamic considerations of the vapor phase reactions in III–nitride metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Kazuki; Shirakawa, Hiroki; Chokawa, Kenta; Araidai, Masaaki; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    We analyzed the metal organic vapor phase epitaxial growth mechanism of the III–nitride semiconductors GaN, AlN, and InN by first-principles calculations and thermodynamic analyses. In these analyses, we investigated the decomposition processes of the group III source gases X(CH3)3 (X = Ga, Al, In) at finite temperatures and determined whether the (CH3)2GaNH2 adduct can be formed or not. The results of our calculations show that the (CH3)2GaNH2 adduct cannot be formed in the gas phase in GaN metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), whereas, in AlN MOVPE, the formation of the (CH3)2AlNH2 adduct in the gas phase is exclusive. In the case of GaN MOVPE, trimethylgallium (TMG, [Ga(CH3)3]) decomposition into Ga gas on the growth surface with the assistance of H2 carrier gas, instead of the formation of the (CH3)2GaNH2 adduct, occurs almost exclusively. Moreover, in the case of InN MOVPE, the formation of the (CH3)2InNH2 adduct does not occur and it is relatively easy to produce In gas even without H2 in the carrier gas.

  4. REMOTE SENSING OF WATER VAPOR CONTENT USING GROUND-BASED GPS DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Spatial and temporal resolution of water vapor content is useful in improving the accuracy of short-term weather prediction.Dense and continuously tracking regional GPS arrays will play an important role in remote sensing atmospheric water vapor content.In this study,a piecewise linear solution method was proposed to estimate the precipitable water vapor (PWV) content from ground-based GPS observations in Hong Kong.To evaluate the solution accuracy of the water vapor content sensed by GPS,the upper air sounding data (radiosonde) that are collected locally was used to calculate the precipitable water vapor during the same period.One-month results of PWV from both ground-based GPS sensing technique and radiosonde method are in agreement within 1~2 mm.This encouraging result will motivate the GPS meteorology application based on the establishment of a dense GPS array in Hong Kong.

  5. Phosphorescence emission and excited states of 3- and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Emission spectra of 3- and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde vapors have been measured along with the excitation and absorption spectra. It is inferred from the temperature dependence of the phosphorescence spectrum that the phosphorescence of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde vapor originates from the T2(n, π*) state. In the case of 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde vapor, the emission is shown to consist of that of 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzaldehyde vapors, with the latter molecule being generated as the result of photochemical decomposition of 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde. The interpretation of the emission spectrum of 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde is different from that reported previously. The rotational isomer responsible for appearance of the phosphorescence of 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde vapor is suggested based on DFT calculation and emission spectral data.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition coating for micromachines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANI,SEETHAMBAL S.; FLEMING,JAMES G.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; IRWIN,LAWRENCE W.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; TANNER,DANELLE M.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.

    2000-04-21

    Two major problems associated with Si-based MEMS devices are stiction and wear. Surface modifications are needed to reduce both adhesion and friction in micromechanical structures to solve these problems. In this paper, the authors will present a process used to selectively coat MEMS devices with tungsten using a CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) process. The selective W deposition process results in a very conformal coating and can potentially solve both stiction and wear problems confronting MEMS processing. The selective deposition of tungsten is accomplished through silicon reduction of WF{sub 6}, which results in a self-limiting reaction. The selective deposition of W only on polysilicon surfaces prevents electrical shorts. Further, the self-limiting nature of this selective W deposition process ensures the consistency necessary for process control. Selective tungsten is deposited after the removal of the sacrificial oxides to minimize process integration problems. This tungsten coating adheres well and is hard and conducting, requirements for device performance. Furthermore, since the deposited tungsten infiltrates under adhered silicon parts and the volume of W deposited is less than the amount of Si consumed, it appears to be possible to release stuck parts that are contacted over small areas such as dimples. Results from tungsten deposition on MEMS structures with dimples will be presented. The effect of wet and vapor phase cleanings prior to the deposition will be discussed along with other process details. The W coating improved wear by orders of magnitude compared to uncoated parts. Tungsten CVD is used in the integrated-circuit industry, which makes this approach manufacturable.

  7. Calculation of live tree timber volume based on particle swarm optimization and support vector regression%基于支持向量机优化粒子群算法的活立木材积测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦有权; 赵礼曦; 邓欧; 徐伟恒; 冯仲科

    2013-01-01

    材积模型是编制立木材积表的关键,通常用经验材积方程来预测材积量。由于树木生长具有不确定性,传统的材积方程很难有效地对模型的复杂性和多样性做出测算,导致目前活立木材积测算的准确率较低。为了提高活立木材积的测算准确率,将粒子群(particle swarm optimization,PSO)算法引入到活立木材积模型中,并用支持向量回归机(support vector machine,SVM)优化参数。PSO-SVM将活立木胸径和树高数据输入到SVM中学习,将SVM参数作为PSO中的粒子,把活立木实测材积值作为PSO的目标函数,然后通过粒子之间相互协作得到 SVM 最优参数,对活立木测算材积值进行模型测算并采用实测材积值验证。论文应用电子经纬仪与人工量测立木地径、胸径相结合的方法,通过软件计算求得400组树高、树干材积值;然后对300组数据集以活立木胸径和树高作为输入数据,材积为输出数据,采用粒子群耦合支持向量机(PSO-SVM)算法训练得到模型,并用100组数据进行预测;最后引用经典Spurr材积模型算法、BP神经网络算法和PSO-SVM算法进行了对比,其结果表明,PSO-SVM算法预测准确率最高,预测值与实测值间复相关系数达0.91,平均误差率为0.58%。%Establishment of each tree species volume table is an important research subject in forest management. Accurate tree tables were used to determine the forest reserves. Moreover, these tree tables were applied to provide precise forest management decision making references for the forestry center and local forestry authorities. However, because of the difference of increment between different tree species, live tree tables must be revised every 10 years in China. Previously, to establish tree tables, sample trees were selected in the local area according the corresponding rules, and these sample trees were cut down and divided into

  8. Comparison of annular diffusion denuder and high volume air samplers for measuring per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lutz; Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom; Lane, Douglas A; Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J

    2011-12-15

    Overestimation of the particle phase concentration collected on glass-fiber filters (GFFs) has been reported for perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) using conventional high volume air samplers. In this study, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in the gas and particulate phases using colocated annular diffusion denuder and high volume air samplers at a semiurban site in Toronto, Canada, in winter 2010. Samples were analyzed for 7 PFAS classes (i.e., PFCAs, perfluoro-alkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorotelomer methacrylates (FTMACs), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTACs), perfluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs), and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs)). The gas diffusion coefficients for individual PFASs were calculated and the denuder performance was evaluated. Modeled subcooled liquid vapor pressures (p(L)) correlated well with the vapor phase breakthrough for the denuder and high volume air systems. Total air concentrations for PFASs measured using annular diffusion denuders and high volume samplers were in agreement within a factor of 4; however, much greater differences were observed for measurements of gas-particle partitioning. Vapor phase PFSAs and PFCAs can adsorb to the GFF using high volume air samplers, resulting in much higher particle-associated fractions for these chemicals compared to the annular diffusion denuder sampler. This effect was not observed for the FTOHs, FTMACs, FTACs, FOSAs, and FOSEs. Thus, for investigations of gas-particle partitioning of PFSAs and PFCAs, the diffusion denuder sampler is the preferred method. The results of this study improve our understanding of the gas-particle partitioning of PFASs, which is important for modeling their long-range transport in air.

  9. Estimation of contaminant subslab concentration in petroleum vapor intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yijun; Yang, Fangxing; Suuberg, Eric M.; Provoost, Jeroen; Liu, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the development and partial validation are presented for an analytical approximation method for prediction of subslab contaminant concentrations in PVI. The method involves combining an analytic approximation to soil vapor transport with a piecewise first-order biodegradation model (together called the analytic approximation method, including biodegradation, AAMB), the result of which calculation provides an estimate of contaminant subslab concentrations, independent of buildin...

  10. The latent heat of vaporization of supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banuti, Daniel; Raju, Muralikrishna; Hickey, Jean-Pierre; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    The enthalpy of vaporization is the energy required to overcome intermolecular attractive forces and to expand the fluid volume against the ambient pressure when transforming a liquid into a gas. It diminishes for rising pressure until it vanishes at the critical point. Counterintuitively, we show that a latent heat is in fact also required to heat a supercritical fluid from a liquid to a gaseous state. Unlike its subcritical counterpart, the supercritical pseudoboiling transition is spread over a finite temperature range. Thus, in addition to overcoming intermolecular attractive forces, added energy simultaneously heats the fluid. Then, considering a transition from a liquid to an ideal gas state, we demonstrate that the required enthalpy is invariant to changes in pressure for 0 intermolecular forces in the real fluid vapor during heating. At supercritical pressures, all of the transition occurs at non-equilibrium; for p -> 0 , all of the transition occurs at equilibrium.

  11. Heterogeneously entrapped, vapor-rich melt inclusions record pre-eruptive magmatic volatile contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Esposito, Rosario; Moore, Lowell R.; Hartley, Margaret E.

    2017-04-01

    Silicate melt inclusions (MI) commonly provide the best record of pre-eruptive H2O and CO2 contents of subvolcanic melts, but the concentrations of CO2 and H2O in the melt (glass) phase within MI can be modified by partitioning into a vapor bubble after trapping. Melt inclusions may also enclose vapor bubbles together with the melt (i.e., heterogeneous entrapment), affecting the bulk volatile composition of the MI, and its post-entrapment evolution. In this study, we use numerical modeling to examine the systematics of post-entrapment volatile evolution within MI containing various proportions of trapped vapor from zero to 95 volume percent. Modeling indicates that inclusions that trap only a vapor-saturated melt exhibit significant decrease in CO2 and moderate increase in H2O concentrations in the melt upon nucleation and growth of a vapor bubble. In contrast, inclusions that trap melt plus vapor exhibit subdued CO2 depletion at equivalent conditions. In the extreme case of inclusions that trap mostly the vapor phase (i.e., CO2-H2O fluid inclusions containing trapped melt), degassing of CO2 from the melt is negligible. In the latter scenario, the large fraction of vapor enclosed in the MI during trapping essentially serves as a buffer, preventing post-entrapment modification of volatile concentrations in the melt. Hence, the glass phase within such heterogeneously entrapped, vapor-rich MI records the volatile concentrations of the melt at the time of trapping. These numerical modeling results suggest that heterogeneously entrapped MI containing large vapor bubbles represent amenable samples for constraining pre-eruptive volatile concentrations of subvolcanic melts.

  12. Oxidation of trichloroethylene, toluene, and ethanol vapors by a partially saturated permeable reactive barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba G.; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid; Hartog, Niels; Raoof, Amir

    2014-08-01

    The mitigation of volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors in the unsaturated zone largely relies on the active removal of vapor by ventilation. In this study we considered an alternative method involving the use of solid potassium permanganate to create a horizontal permeable reactive barrier for oxidizing VOC vapors. Column experiments were carried out to investigate the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE), toluene, and ethanol vapors using a partially saturated mixture of potassium permanganate and sand grains. Results showed a significant removal of VOC vapors due to the oxidation. We found that water saturation has a major effect on the removal capacity of the permeable reactive layer. We observed a high removal efficiency and reactivity of potassium permanganate for all target compounds at the highest water saturation (Sw = 0.6). A change in pH within the reactive layer reduced oxidation rate of VOCs. The use of carbonate minerals increased the reactivity of potassium permanganate during the oxidation of TCE vapor by buffering the pH. Reactive transport of VOC vapors diffusing through the permeable reactive layer was modeled, including the pH effect on the oxidation rates. The model accurately described the observed breakthrough curve of TCE and toluene vapors in the headspace of the column. However, miscibility of ethanol in water in combination with produced water during oxidation made the modeling results less accurate for ethanol. A linear relationship was found between total oxidized mass of VOC vapors per unit volume of permeable reactive layer and initial water saturation. This behavior indicates that pH changes control the overall reactivity and longevity of the permeable reactive layer during oxidation of VOCs. The results suggest that field application of a horizontal permeable reactive barrier can be a viable technology against upward migration of VOC vapors through the unsaturated zone.

  13. A copper vapor laser by using a copper-vapor-complex reaction at a low temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Toshiyuki; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser performance by using ametal-vapor-complex reaction (Cu+AlBr3) is reported. The laser operation is obtained at a low temperature without externalheating because of the AlBr3 vapors evaporating at a room temperature. The copper vapor laser using this metal-vapor-complex reaction has an advantage of deposition-free of a metallic copper to the laser tube wall, which is different from the copper halide and the organometallic copper lasers.

  14. Heats of vaporization of room temperature ionic liquids by tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; To, Albert; Koh, Christine; Strasser, Daniel; Kostko, Oleg; Leone, Stephen R.

    2009-11-25

    The heats of vaporization of the room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide, N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide are determined using a heated effusive vapor source in conjunction with single photon ionization by a tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron source. The relative gas phase ionic liquid vapor densities in the effusive beam are monitored by clearly distinguished dissociative photoionization processes via a time-of-flight mass spectrometer at a tunable vacuum ultraviolet beamline 9.0.2.3 (Chemical Dynamics Beamline) at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility. Resulting in relatively few assumptions, through the analysis of both parent cations and fragment cations, the heat of vaporization of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide is determined to be Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 195+-19 kJ mol-1. The observed heats of vaporization of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 174+-12 kJ mol-1) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 171+-12 kJ mol-1) are consistent with reported experimental values using electron impact ionization. The tunable vacuum ultraviolet source has enabled accurate measurement of photoion appearance energies. These appearance energies are in good agreement with MP2 calculations for dissociative photoionization of the ion pair. These experimental heats of vaporization, photoion appearance energies, and ab initio calculations corroborate vaporization of these RTILs as intact cation-anion ion pairs.

  15. What Good is Raman Water Vapor Lidar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, David

    2011-01-01

    Raman lidar has been used to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere for various scientific studies including mesoscale meteorology and satellite validation. Now the international networks of NDACC and GRUAN have interest in using Raman water vapor lidar for detecting trends in atmospheric water vapor concentrations. What are the data needs for addressing these very different measurement challenges. We will review briefly the scientific needs for water vapor accuracy for each of these three applications and attempt to translate that into performance specifications for Raman lidar in an effort to address the question in the title of "What good is Raman water vapor Iidar."

  16. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  17. Vapor stabilizing surfaces for superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Neelesh

    2010-11-01

    The success of rough substrates designed for superhydrophobicity relies crucially on the presence of air pockets in the roughness grooves. This air is supplied by the surrounding environment. However, if the rough substrates are used in enclosed configurations, such as in fluidic networks, the air pockets may not be sustained in the roughness grooves. In this work a design approach based on sustaining a vapor phase of the liquid in the roughness grooves, instead of relying on the presence of air, is explored. The resulting surfaces, referred to as vapor stabilizing substrates, are deemed to be robust against wetting transition even if no air is present. Applications of this approach include low drag surfaces, nucleate boiling, and dropwise condensation heat transfer, among others.

  18. Active Hydrazine Vapor Sampler (AHVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Mcbrearty, Charles F.; Curran, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    The Active Hydrazine Vapor Sampler (AHVS) was developed to detect vapors of hydrazine (HZ) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) in air at parts-per-billion (ppb) concentration levels. The sampler consists of a commercial personal pump that draws ambient air through paper tape treated with vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). The paper tape is sandwiched in a thin cardboard housing inserted in one of the two specially designed holders to facilitate sampling. Contaminated air reacts with vanillin to develop a yellow color. The density of the color is proportional to the concentration of HZ or MMH. The AHVS can detect 10 ppb in less than 5 minutes. The sampler is easy to use, low cost, and intrinsically safe and contains no toxic material. It is most beneficial for use in locations with no laboratory capabilities for instrumentation calibration. This paper reviews the development, laboratory test, and field test of the device.

  19. Vaporization chambers and associated methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Shunn, Lee P.

    2017-02-21

    A vaporization chamber may include at least one conduit and a shell. The at least one conduit may have an inlet at a first end, an outlet at a second end and a flow path therebetween. The shell may surround a portion of each conduit and define a chamber surrounding the portion of each conduit. Additionally, a plurality of discrete apertures may be positioned at longitudinal intervals in a wall of each conduit, each discrete aperture of the plurality of discrete apertures sized and configured to direct a jet of fluid into each conduit from the chamber. A liquid may be vaporized by directing a first fluid comprising a liquid into the inlet at the first end of each conduit, directing jets of a second fluid into each conduit from the chamber through discrete apertures in a wall of each conduit and transferring heat from the second fluid to the first fluid.

  20. Internal Water Vapor Photoacoustic Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Water vapor absorption is ubiquitous in the infrared wavelength range where photoacoustic trace gas detectors operate. This technique allows for discontinuous wavelength tuning by temperature-jumping a laser diode from one range to another within a time span suitable for photoacoustic calibration. The use of an internal calibration eliminates the need for external calibrated reference gases. Commercial applications include an improvement of photoacoustic spectrometers in all fields of use.

  1. A general formalism for phase space calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Deutchman, Philip A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1988-01-01

    General formulas for calculating the interactions of galactic cosmic rays with target nuclei are presented. Methods for calculating the appropriate normalization volume elements and phase space factors are presented. Particular emphasis is placed on obtaining correct phase space factors for 2-, and 3-body final states. Calculations for both Lorentz-invariant and noninvariant phase space are presented.

  2. Performance Analysis of Organic Rankine-vapor Compression Ice Maker Utilizing Food Industry Waste Heat

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Hu; Yuanshu Cao; Weibin Ma

    2015-01-01

    To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by food industry exhaust gases and engine cooling water, an organic Rankine-vapor compression cycle system was employed for ice making and a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of working fluid types, hot water temperature and condensation temperature on the system performance were analyzed and the ice making capacity from unit mass hot water and unit power waste heat were evaluated. The calculated results show th...

  3. Water vapor diffusion membrane development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    An application of the water vapor diffusion technique is examined whereby the permeated water vapor is vented to space vacuum to alleviate on-board waste storage and provide supplemental cooling. The work reported herein deals primarily with the vapor diffusion-heat rejection (VD-HR) as it applies to the Space Shuttle. A stack configuration was selected, designed and fabricated. An asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane, used in reverse osmosis application was selected and a special spacer was designed to enhance mixing and promote mass transfer. A skid-mount unit was assembled from components used in the bench unit although no attempt was made to render it flight-suitable. The operating conditions of the VD-HR were examined and defined and a 60-day continuous test was carried out. The membranes performed very well throughout the test; no membrane rupture and no unusual flux decay was observed. In addition, a tentative design for a flight-suitable VD-HR unit was made.

  4. Resistances for heat and mass transfer through a liquid–vapor interface in a binary mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glavatskiy, K.S.; Bedeaux, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the interfacial resistances to heat and mass transfer through a liquid–vapor interface in a binary mixture. We use two methods, the direct calculation from the actual nonequilibrium solution and integral relations, derived earlier. We verify, that integral relations, being

  5. Estimation of contaminant subslab concentration in petroleum vapor intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Yang, Fangxing; Suuberg, Eric M; Provoost, Jeroen; Liu, Weiping

    2014-08-30

    In this study, the development and partial validation are presented for an analytical approximation method for prediction of subslab contaminant concentrations in PVI. The method involves combining an analytic approximation to soil vapor transport with a piecewise first-order biodegradation model (together called the Analytic Approximation Method, including Biodegradation, AAMB), the result of which calculation provides an estimate of contaminant subslab concentrations, independent of building operation conditions. Comparisons with three-dimensional (3-D) simulations and another PVI screening tool, BioVapor, show that the AAMB is suitable for application in a scenario involving a building with an impermeable foundation surrounded by open ground surface, where the atmosphere is regarded as the primary oxygen source. Predictions from the AAMB can be used to determine the required vertical source-building separation, given a subslab screening concentration, allowing identification of buildings at risk for PVI. This equation shows that the "vertical screening distance" suggested by U.S. EPA is sufficient in most cases, as long as the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) soil gas concentration at the vapor source does not exceed 50-100mg/L. When the TPH soil gas concentration of the vapor source approaches a typical limit, i.e. 400mg/L, the "vertical screening distance" required would be much greater.

  6. Estimation of contaminant subslab concentration in petroleum vapor intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Yang, Fangxing; Suuberg, Eric M.; Provoost, Jeroen; Liu, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the development and partial validation are presented for an analytical approximation method for prediction of subslab contaminant concentrations in PVI. The method involves combining an analytic approximation to soil vapor transport with a piecewise first-order biodegradation model (together called the analytic approximation method, including biodegradation, AAMB), the result of which calculation provides an estimate of contaminant subslab concentrations, independent of building operation conditions. Comparisons with three-dimensional (3-D) simulations and another PVI screening tool, BioVapor, show that the AAMB is suitable for application in a scenario involving a building with an impermeable foundation surrounded by open ground surface, where the atmosphere is regarded as the primary oxygen source. Predictions from the AAMB can be used to determine the required vertical source-building separation, given a subslab screening concentration, allowing identification of buildings at risk for PVI. This equation shows that the “vertical screening distance” suggested by U.S. EPA is sufficient in most cases, as long as the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) soil gas concentration at the vapor source does not exceed 50–100 mg/L. When the TPH soil gas concentration of the vapor source approaches a typical limit, i.e. 400 mg/L, the “vertical screening distance” required would be much greater. PMID:25124892

  7. Applying the Water Vapor Radiometer to Verify the Precipitable Water Vapor Measured by GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Kang Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located at the land-sea interface in a subtropical region. Because the climate is warm and moist year round, there is a large and highly variable amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. In this study, we calculated the Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD of the troposphere using the ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS. The ZWD measured by two Water Vapor Radiometers (WVRs was then used to verify the ZWD that had been calculated using GPS. We also analyzed the correlation between the ZWD and the precipitation data of these two types of station. Moreover, we used the observational data from 14 GPS and rainfall stations to evaluate three cases. The offset between the GPS-ZWD and the WVR-ZWD ranged from 1.31 to 2.57 cm. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. The results calculated from GPS and those measured using the WVR were very similar. Moreover, when there was no rain, light rain, moderate rain, or heavy rain, the flatland station ZWD was 0.31, 0.36, 0.38, or 0.40 m, respectively. The mountain station ZWD exhibited the same trend. Therefore, these results have demonstrated that the potential and strength of precipitation in a region can be estimated according to its ZWD values. Now that the precision of GPS-ZWD has been confirmed, this method can eventually be expanded to the more than 400 GPS stations in Taiwan and its surrounding islands. The near real-time ZWD data with improved spatial and temporal resolution can be provided to the city and countryside weather-forecasting system that is currently under development. Such an exchange would fundamentally improve the resources used to generate weather forecasts.

  8. Performances of electrically heated microgroove vaporizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An electrically heated microgroove vaporizer was proposed. The vaporizer mainly comprised an outer tube, an inner tube and an electrical heater cartridge. Microgrooves were fabricated on the external surface of the inner tube by micro-cutting method,which formed the flow passage for fluid between the external surface of the inner tube and the internal surface of the outer tube.Experiments related to the temperature rise response of water and the thermal conversion efficiency of vaporizer were done to estimate the influences of microgroove's direction, feed flow rate and input voltage on the performances of the vaporizer. The results indicate that the microgroove's direction dominates the vaporizer performance at a lower input voltage. The longitudina lmicrogroove vaporizer exhibits the best performances for the temperature rise response of water and thermal conversion efficiency of vaporizer. For a moderate input voltage, the microgroove's direction and the feed flow rate of water together govern the vaporizer performances. The input voltage becomes the key influencing factor when the vaporizer works at a high input voltage, resulting in the similar performances of longitudinal, oblique and latitudinal microgroove vaporizers.

  9. The Statistical Theory of Relaxation and the Metastable Vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, Peter L.

    A generalization to equilibrium statistical thermodynamics is proposed, capable of describing the relaxation of a system to its equilibrium state. This theory, referred to as the "statistical theory of relaxation" (STR), is centered around a macroscopic diffusion equation, which involves a fluctuating entropy, as well as certain "diffusion constants". Although STR is a phenomenological theory, an underlying microscopic picture is presented as well, which "enriches" STR by suggesting a microscopic prescription for the entropy and symmetry conditions on the diffusion constants. An H-theorem also is proved, which places additional "irreversibility conditions" on the diffusion constants, and which can be interpreted as a statistical generalization to the entropy-production theorem of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. STR is employed to describe the statistical collapse (through nucleation) of a metastable vapor. Two mechanisms are proposed: "nucleation through liquid growth" (NLG), whereby a liquid droplet fluctuates past a critical size, and "nucleation through vapor collapse" (NVC), whereby a quantity of vapor larger than the critical size, homogeneously fluctuates to its liquid state. Both mechanisms contribute to the collapse of the metastable vapor state. It is found that for shallow "quenches", NLG predominates, yielding results similar to classical nucleation theory, although with certain differences in the "prefactor terms". For deep quenches, it is found that NVC predominates, yielding the result that the lifetime of the metastable state goes to zero (exactly) at the spinodal point. This confirms the notion of the spinodal point being the absolute limit to the metastable state, and also is consistent with the results of other approaches that predict the appearance of "ramified" droplets in deep quenches. The nucleation rate (as a function of temperature and time) is calculated with the aid of a computer for water vapor, yielding results in excellent agreement

  10. 基于C#编译研究温度对水处理出水量影响计算软件的开发%Development of a Program for Calculation of the Inlfuence of Temperature on Water Treatment Discharge Volume Based on C#

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王历历

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on development of a program for calculation of the impact of temperature on water treatment discharge volume. Through collection and record of data, the statistical regression method was utilized to obtain the correlation function curve between the reverse-osmosis membrane temperature and water discharge volume of the water treatment system. Then, the program was compiled for calculation of the water treatment discharge volume under different temperature by using C# advanced programming language. The program could provide the necessary basis for the hospital to procure water treatment equipment and evaluate the replacement time of reverse-osmosis membrane.%本研究设计一个程序软件,用于计算血液透析中温度对水处理出水量的影响。通过数据采集与记录,使用统计回归方法得出水处理系统反渗透膜温度与出水量的几种函数关系曲线,利用C#高级程序编译语言,编写不同温度下水处理出水量的计算程序软件。该软件为医院采购水处理设备与评估反渗膜的更换时间提供必要的数据支持。

  11. Photoelectron spectroscopy of phthalocyanine vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, J.

    1979-01-01

    The He(I) photoelectron spectra of several metal phthalocyanines and metal-free phthalocyanine vapor shows that: a sharp peak at 4.99 eV is an artifact due to ionization of atomic He by He(II) radiation; the first phthalocyanine peak (metal-containing or metal-free) occurs at 6.4 eV; and the metal-like d orbitals lie at least 1 to 2 eV deeper, except in the case of Fe. (DLC)

  12. Vapor film collapse triggered by external pressure pulse and the fragmentation of melt droplet in FCIs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qian; TONG Lili; CAO Xuewu; KRIVENTSEV Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The fragmentation process of high-temperature molten drop is a key factor to determine the ratio heat transferred to power in FCIs,which estimates the possible damage degree during the hypothetical severe accident in the nuclear reactors.In this paper,the fragmentation process of melt droplet in FCIs is investigated by theoretic analysis.The fragmentation mechanism is studied when an external pressure pulse applied to a melt droplet,which is surrounded by vapor film.The vapor film collapse which induces fragmentation of melt droplet is analyzed and modeled.And then the generated pressure is calculated.The vapor film collapse model is introduced to fragmentation correlation,and the predicted fragment size is calculated and compared with experimental data.The result shows that the developed model can predict the diameter of fragments and can be used to calculate the fragmentation process appreciatively.

  13. Adsorption characteristics of water vapor on honeycomb adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajima, Takaaki; Munakata, Kenzo; Takeishi, Toshiharu; Hara, Keisuke; Wada, Kouhei; Katekari, Kenichi; Inoue, Keita; Shinozaki, Yohei; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Masahiro; Uda, Tatsuhiko

    2011-10-01

    Recovery of tritium released into working areas in nuclear fusion plants is a key issue of safety. A large volume of air from tritium fuel cycle or vacuum vessel should be processed by air cleanup system (ACS). In ACS, tritium gas is oxidized by catalysts, and then tritiated water vapor is collected by adsorbents. This method can remove tritium effectively, whereas high throughput of air causes high-pressure drop in catalyst and adsorbent beds. In this study, the applicability of honeycomb-type adsorbents, which offers a useful advantage in terms of their low-pressure drop, to ACS was examined, in comparison with conventional pebble-type adsorbent. Honeycomb-type adsorbent causes far less pressure drop than pebble-type adsorbent beds. Adsorption capacity of water vapor on a honeycomb-type adsorbent is slightly lower than that on a pebble-type adsorbent, while adsorption rate of water vapor on honeycomb-type adsorbent is much higher than that of pebble-type adsorbent.

  14. Adsorption characteristics of water vapor on ferroaluminophosphate for desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2014-07-01

    The adsorption characteristics of microporous ferroaluminophosphate adsorbent (FAM-Z01, Mitsubishi Plastics) are evaluated for possible application in adsorption desalination and cooling (AD) cycles. A particular interest is its water vapor uptake behavior at assorted adsorption temperatures and pressures whilst comparing them to the commercial silica gels of AD plants. The surface characteristics are first carried out using N2 gas adsorption followed by the water vapor uptake analysis for temperature ranging from 20°C to 80°C. We propose a hybrid isotherm model, composing of the Henry and the Sips isotherms, which can be integrated to satisfactorily fit the experimental data of water adsorption on the FAM-Z01. The hybrid model is selected to fit the unusual isotherm shapes, that is, a low adsorption in the initial section and followed by a rapid vapor uptake leading to a likely micropore volume filling by hydrogen bonding and cooperative interaction in micropores. It is shown that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of FAM-Z01 can be up to 5 folds higher than that of conventional silica gels. Owing to the quantum increase in the adsorbate uptake, the FAM-Z01 has the potential to significantly reduce the footprint of an existing AD plant for the same output capacity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Vapor-Compression Heat Pumps for Operation Aboard Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruemmele, Warren; Ungar, Eugene; Cornwell, John

    2006-01-01

    Vapor-compression heat pumps (including both refrigerators and heat pumps) of a proposed type would be capable of operating in microgravity and would be safe to use in enclosed environments like those of spacecraft. The designs of these pumps would incorporate modifications of, and additions to, vapor-compression cycles of heat pumps now used in normal Earth gravitation, in order to ensure efficiency and reliability during all phases of operation, including startup, shutdown, nominal continuous operation, and peak operation. Features of such a design might include any or all of the following: (1) Configuring the compressor, condenser, evaporator, valves, capillary tubes (if any), and controls to function in microgravitation; (2) Selection of a working fluid that satisfies thermodynamic requirements and is safe to use in a closed crew compartment; (3) Incorporation of a solenoid valve and/or a check valve to prevent influx of liquid to the compressor upon startup (such influx could damage the compressor); (4) Use of a diode heat pipe between the cold volume and the evaporator to limit the influx of liquid to the compressor upon startup; and (5) Use of a heated block to vaporize any liquid that arrives at the compressor inlet.

  16. Control structure selection for vapor compression refrigeration cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xiaohong; Li, Shaoyuan [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Automation; Shandong Jianzhu Univ., Jinan (China). School of Information and Electrical Engineering; Cai, Wenjian; Ding, Xudong [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2013-07-01

    A control structure selection criterion which can be used to evaluate the control performance of different control structures for the vapor compression refrigeration cycle is proposed in this paper. The calculation results of the proposed criterion based on the different reduction models are utilized to determine the optimized control model structure. The effectiveness of the criterion is verified by the control effects of the model predictive control (MPC) controllers which are designed based on different model structures. The response of the different controllers applied on the actual vapor compression refrigeration system indicate that the best model structure is in consistent with the one obtained by the proposed structure selection criterion which is a trade-off between computation complexity and control performance.

  17. Experimental Study on Vapor Pressure of HFC—134a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-ShanZhu; Yi-DongFu; 等

    1992-01-01

    As part of the study on thermophysical properties of HFC-134a,this paper concerns itself with vapor pressure of HFC-134a in the temperature range of 279.15K to 365.15K,A total of 43 measurement data were measured during the experiment which was conducted on a high precision pVTx test apparatus designed by the authors with slight modifications,Uncertainties of temperature was ±10mK and of pressure was±500Pa,purity of sample was either 99.95wt%,or 99.98wt%,Data resulting from this experiment matched closely with the newest data published internationalyy,Compared to our porposed equation for calculating vapor pressure of HFC-134a,the RMS deviation cfexperimental data was only 0.0531%,showing relatively high precision.

  18. A nonisothermal emissivity and absorptivity formulation for water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.; Downey, P.

    1986-01-01

    An emissivity approach is taken to modeling fluxes and cooling rates in the atmosphere. The nonisothermal water vapor long wave radiation emissivity and absorptivity model that is developed satisfies the requirements of defining a monochromatic transfer equation for predicting water vapor emissions. Predictions made with the model compare favorably with fluxes predicted by a radiation model for narrow-band emissions in 5 kayser intervals. The spectral resolution assumed in narrow-band models is shown to be an arbitrary parameter and, if a far wing continuum-type opacity is included in the emissivity scheme presented, results can be obtained which are as accurate as predictions made with state of the art line-by-line (LBL) calculations.

  19. Detonation wave driven by condensation of supersaturated carbon vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelianov, A; Eremin, A; Fortov, V; Jander, H; Makeich, A; Wagner, H Gg

    2009-03-01

    An experimental observation of a detonation wave driven by the energy of condensation of supersaturated carbon vapor is reported. The carbon vapor was formed by the thermal decay of unstable carbon suboxide C3O2 behind shock waves in mixtures containing 10-30% C3O2 in Ar. In the mixture 10% C3O2+Ar the insufficient heat release resulted in a regime of overdriven detonation. In the mixture 20% C3O2+Ar measured values of the pressure and wave velocity coincident with calculated Chapman-Jouguet parameters were attained. In the richest mixture 30% C3O2+Ar an excess heat release caused the slowing down of the condensation rate and the regime of underdriven detonation was observed.

  20. Microcomponents manufacturing for precise devices by copper vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Sergey; Nikonchuk, Michail O.; Polyakov, Igor V.

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents investigation results of drilling of metal microcomponents by copper vapor laser. The laser consists of master oscillator - spatial filter - amplifier system, electronics switching with digital control of laser pulse repetition rate and quantity of pulses, x-y stage with computer control system. Mass of metal, removed by one laser pulse, is measured and defined by means of diameter and depth of holes. Interaction of next pulses on drilled material is discussed. The difference between light absorption and metal evaporation processes is considered for drilling and cutting. Efficiency of drilling is estimated by ratio of evaporation heat and used laser energy. Maximum efficiency of steel cutting is calculated with experimental data of drilling. Applications of copper vapor laser for manufacturing is illustrated by such microcomponents as pin guide plate for printers, stents for cardio surgery, encoded disks for security systems and multiple slit masks for spectrophotometers.

  1. FFT-LB Modeling of Thermal Liquid-Vapor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘延标; 许爱国; 张广财; 李英骏

    2012-01-01

    We present an improved lattice Boltzmann(LB) model for thermal liquid-vapor system.In the new model,the Windowed Fast Fourier Transform(WFFT) and its inverse are used to calculate both the convection term and the external force term of the LB equation.By adopting the WFFT scheme,Gibbs oscillations can be damped effectively in unsmooth regions while high resolution feature of the spectral method can be retained in smooth regions.As a result,spatial discretization errors are dramatically decreased,conservation of the total energy is much better preserved,and the spurious velocities near the liquid-vapor interface are significantly reduced.The high resolution,together with the low complexity of the WFFT approach,endows the proposed method with considerable potential for studying a wide class of problems in the field of multiphase flows.

  2. Vapor Pressure Data Analysis and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center P vapor pressure (Pa) p vapor pressure (Torr) R ideal gas constant RVX O-isobutyl-S-[2(diethylamino...Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a...1-Hexadecanol Vapor Pressure Data from Kemme and Kreps11 .......................................10 2. Antoine Constants (Equation 3), Standard

  3. Ground-penetrating radar studies in Svalbard aimed to the calculation of the ice volume of its glaciers:Estudios de georradar en Svalbard orientados al cálculo del volumen de hielo de sus glaciares

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Francisco; Lapazaran, Javier; Martin Espanol, Alba; Otero, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    During the period 1999-2014, the Group of Numerical Simulation in Sciences and Engineering of Universidad Politécnica de Madrid carried out many ground-penetrating radar campaigns in Svalbard, aimed to the study of glacier ice-thickness and the physical properties of glacier ice. The regions covered were Nordenskiöld Land, Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Sabine Land and Nordaustlandet. We here present a review of these works, focused on the aspects related to the estimate of the volume of individual gl...

  4. Investigating the effects of methanol-water vapor mixture on a PBI-based high temperature PEM fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Nielsen, Heidi Venstrup

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of methanol and water vapor on the performance of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC). A H3PO4-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane electrode assembly (MEA), Celtec P2100 of 45 cm2 of active surface area from BASF was employed....... A long-term durability test of around 1250 h was performed, in which the concentrations of methanol-water vapor mixture in the anode feed gas were varied. The fuel cell showed a continuous performance decay in the presence of vapor mixtures of methanol and water of 5% and 8% by volume in anode feed...

  5. Analysis of Transient Behavior of a Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshihiko; Miyamoto, Seigo

    A mathematical model for a vapor compression refrigeration cycle for automotive air conditioner is developed, which basically consists of compressor, condenser, receiver, expansion valve, evaporator, suction pressure control valve and piping. The main purpose of this model is to provide the designer with a tool for improving cooling capacity and investigating capacity control of the refrigeration cycle at transient conditions. A lumped parameter system is used for the mathematical model of the condenser and the evaporator, that is obtained with volume integral of the equation of continuity and energy over a bounded volume region. The compressor model and the piping models are also lumped parameter systems, and heat capacity of their walls are taken into account. The theoretical solutions of this model are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Influence of Soil Moisture on Soil Gas Vapor Concentration for Vapor Intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models have been widely used in analyzing the effects of various environmental factors in the vapor intrusion process. Soil moisture content is one of the key factors determining the subsurface vapor concentration profile. This manuscript considers the effects of soil moisture profiles on the soil gas vapor concentration away from any surface capping by buildings or pavement. The “open field” soil gas vapor concentration profile is observed to be sensitive to the soil moisture di...

  7. Distribution of Vapor Pressure in the Vacuum Freeze-Drying Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the big vacuum freeze-drying equipment, the drying rate of materials is uneven at different positions. This phenomenon can be explained by the uneven distribution of vapor pressure in chamber during the freeze-drying process. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to describe the vapor flow in the passageways either between material plates and in the channel between plate groups. The distribution of vapor pressure along flow passageway is given. Two characteristic factors of passageways are defined to express the effects of structural and process parameters on vapor pressure distribution. The affecting factors and their actions are quantitatively discussed in detail. Two examples are calculated and analyzed. The analysis method and the conclusions are useful to estimate the difference of material drying rate at different parts in equipment and to direct the choice of structural and process parameters.

  8. Influence of Copper Vapor on Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker Arcs During Stationary and Moving States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiang; RONG Mingzhe; WU Yi; XU Tiejun; SUN Zhiqiang

    2008-01-01

    The influence of copper vapor on the low-voltage circuit breaker arcs is studied. A three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) model of arc motion under the effect of external magnetic field is built up. By adopting the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT based on control-volume method, the above MHD model is solved. For the mediums of air-1% Cu and air-10% Cu, the distributions of stationary temperature, pressure, electrical potential and the arc motion processes are compared with those of a pure air arc. The copper vapor diffusion process in the arc chamber and the distribution of copper vapor mass concentration are also simulated. The results shows that the copper vapor has a cooling effect on the arc plasma and can decrease the stationary voltage as well. Moreover, the presence of copper vapor can decelerate the arc motion in the quenching chambers. The maximal copper vapor concentration locates behind the arc root because of the existence of a "double vortex" near the electrodes.

  9. Numerical studies of the effects of jet-induced mixing on liquid-vapor interface condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Shun

    1989-01-01

    Numerical solutions of jet-induced mixing in a partially full cryogenic tank are presented. An axisymmetric laminar jet is discharged from the central part of the tank bottom toward the liquid-vapor interface. Liquid is withdrawn at the same volume flow rate from the outer part of the tank. The jet is at a temperature lower than the interface, which is maintained at a certain saturation temperature. The interface is assumed to be flat and shear-free and the condensation-induced velocity is assumed to be negligibly small compared with radial interface velocity. Finite-difference method is used to solve the nondimensional form of steady state continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Calculations are conducted for jet Reynolds numbers ranging from 150 to 600 and Prandtl numbers ranging from 0.85 to 2.65. The effects of above stated parameters on the condensation Nusselt and Stanton numbers which characterize the steady-state interface condensation process are investigated. Detailed analysis to gain a better understanding of the fundamentals of fluid mixing and interface condensation is performed.

  10. Simulation of the explosion of kerosene vapors inside a partitioned structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, C.; Gillard, P.; Pascaud, J. M.

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a simple multi-physics model in order to predict the evolution of the thermodynamic variables during the combustion of kerosene vapors in each compartment of a closed vessel. A special attention is paid to the mechanical effects of combustion, e.g., the pressure evolution. The basic characteristics of the model have been developed as part of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach, in order to represent both the ignition stage and the flame propagation in the reactive mixture. The proposed development is validated in a single compartment vessel by investigations about the equivalence ratio and the reaction dynamics (final pressure, combustion duration, etc.). Moreover, the expected phenomenology is correctly reproduced for tanks composed of several compartments, such as, for instance, a faster combustion process in the presence of internal orifices. The impact of the ignition on the subsequent evolution of the explosion is also investigated, highlighting a strong influence of the ignition location. The model illustrates that the pressure evolution is the result of complex geometry effects: particularly, for a tank made of identical compartments, the total volume is not sufficient to describe the main trends concerning the mechanical effects of the explosion. The calculations are in agreement with classical results available in the literature for a special kind of kerosene (F.34) studied by the laboratory. Despite the proposed model relying on simple assumptions, it represents a useful tool for further vulnerability or risk assessment studies applied to aircraft kerosene tanks.

  11. Near surface soil vapor clusters for monitoring emissions of volatile organic compounds from soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergas, S J; Hinlein, E S; Reyes, P O; Ostendorf, D W; Tehrany, J P

    2000-01-01

    The overall objective of this research was to develop and test a method of determining emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other gases from soil surfaces. Soil vapor clusters (SVCs) were designed as a low dead volume, robust sampling system to obtain vertically resolved profiles of soil gas contaminant concentrations in the near surface zone. The concentration profiles, when combined with a mathematical model of porous media mass transport, were used to calculate the contaminant flux from the soil surface. Initial experiments were conducted using a mesoscale soil remediation system under a range of experimental conditions. Helium was used as a tracer and trichloroethene was used as a model VOC. Flux estimations using the SVCs were within 25% of independent surface flux estimates and were comparable to measurements made using a surface isolation flux chamber (SIFC). In addition, method detection limits for the SVC were an order of magnitude lower than detection limits with the SIFC. Field trials, conducted with the SVCs at a bioventing site, indicated that the SVC method could be easily used in the field to estimate fugitive VOC emission rates. Major advantages of the SVC method were its low detection limits, lack of required auxiliary equipment, and ability to obtain real-time estimates of fugitive VOC emission rates.

  12. Optical Sensor for Diverse Organic Vapors at ppm Concentration Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora M. Paolucci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A broadly responsive optical organic vapor sensor is described that responds to low concentrations of organic vapors without significant interference from water vapor. Responses to several classes of organic vapors are highlighted, and trends within classes are presented. The relationship between molecular properties (vapor pressure, boiling point, polarizability, and refractive index and sensor response are discussed.

  13. DSMC simulation of Europa water vapor plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J. J.; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.

    2016-10-01

    A computational investigation of the physics of water vapor plumes on Europa was performed with a focus on characteristics relevant to observation and spacecraft mission operations. The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used to model the plume expansion assuming a supersonic vent source. The structure of the plume was determined, including the number density, temperature, and velocity fields. The possibility of ice grain growth above the vent was considered and deemed probable for large (diameter > ∼20 m) vents at certain Mach numbers. Additionally, preexisting grains of three diameters (0.1, 1, 50 μm) were included and their trajectories examined. A preliminary study of photodissociation of H2O into OH and H was performed to demonstrate the behavior of daughter species. A set of vent parameters was evaluated including Mach number (Mach 2, 3, 5), reduced temperature as a proxy for flow energy loss to the region surrounding the vent, and mass flow rate. Plume behavior was relatively insensitive to these factors, with the notable exception of mass flow rate. With an assumed mass flow rate of ∼1000 kg/s, a canopy shock occurred and a maximum integrated line of sight column density of ∼1020 H2O molecules/m2 was calculated, comparing favorably with observation (Roth et al., 2014a).

  14. Vapor pressures of the fluorinated telomer alcohols--limitations of estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Naomi L; Ellis, David A; Deleebeeck, Lisa; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

    2004-03-15

    The influence of the unique, physical properties of poly- and perfluorinated chemicals on vapor pressure was investigated. Vapor pressures of a suite of fluorinated telomer alcohols (FTOHs) (CF3(CF2)nCH2CH2OH, where n = 3, 5, 7, or 9) were measured using the boiling point method and ranged from 144 to 992 Pa. Comparison of experimental and literature values indicate that perfluorocarbons (CF3(CF2)nCF3, where n = 0-6) and fluorinated telomer alcohols have vapor pressures equal to or greater than that of their hydrogen analogues. These chemically counterintuitive results can be explained by the unique geometry of poly- and perfluorinated chemicals--in particular the stiff, helical perfluorinated chain and the significant intramolecular hydrogen bonding of the FTOHs. The majority of models investigated for the estimation of vapor pressure did not compensate for this unique geometry and consistently underpredicted the vapor pressures of the FTOHs. Calculation of partitioning constants using both experimental and estimated vapor pressures indicate that both the Antoine and Modified Grain models, and to a lesser degree the Mackay model, are insufficiently accurate for estimating the vapor pressures of the FTOHs, particularly the longer chain FTOHs. Future models should consider parameters such as geometry, strength, and location of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and otherfunction groups in the molecule in order to improve vapor pressure estimation accuracy. It appears likely that the unique molecular geometry of the FTOHs influences not only their vapor pressure but also other physical properties and hence environmental fate and dissemination.

  15. Preliminary Results of 4-D Water Vapor Tomography in the Troposphere Using GPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Slant-path water vapor amounts (SWV) from a station to all the GPS (Global Positioning System)satellites in view can be estimated by using a ground-based GPS receiver. In this paper, a tomographic method was utilized to retrieve the local horizontal and vertical structure of water vapor over a local GPS receiver network using SWV amounts as observables in the tomography. The method of obtaining SWV using ground-based GPS is described first, and then the theory of tomography using GPS is presented.A water vapor tomography experiment was made using a small GPS network in the Beijing region. The tomographic results were analyzed in two ways: (1) a pure GPS method, i.e., only using GPS observables as input to the tomography; (2) combining GPS observables with vertical constraints or a priori information,which come from average radiosonde measurements over three days. It is shown that the vertical structure of water vapor is well resolved with a priori information. Comparisons of profiles between radiosondes and GPS show that the RMS error of the tomography is about 1-2 mm. It is demonstrated that the tomography can monitor the evolution of tropospheric water vapor in space and time. The vertical resolution of the tomography is tested with layer thicknesses of 600 m, 800 m and 1000 m. Comparisons with radiosondes show that the result from a resolution of 800 m is slightly better than results from the other two resolutions in the experiment. Water vapor amounts recreated from the tomography field agree well with precipitable water vapor (PWV) calculated using GPS delays. Hourly tomographic results are also shown using the resolution of 800 m. Water vapor characteristics under the background of heavy rainfall development are analyzed using these tomographic results. The water vapor spatio-temporal structures derived from the GPS network show a great potential in the investigation of weather disasters.

  16. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Tungsten chemical vapor deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Kiichi; Takeda, Nobuo.

    1993-07-13

    A tungsten chemical vapor deposition method is described, comprising: a first step of selectively growing a first thin tungsten film of a predetermined thickness in a desired region on the surface of a silicon substrate by reduction of a WF[sub 6] gas introduced into an atmosphere of a predetermined temperature containing said silicon substrate; and a second step of selectively growing a second tungsten film of a predetermined thickness on said first thin tungsten film by reduction of said WF[sub 6] with a silane gas further introduced into said atmosphere, wherein the surface state of said substrate is monitored by a pyrometer and the switching from said first step to said second step is performed when the emissivity of infrared light from the substrate surfaces reaches a predetermined value.

  18. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  19. Can a drawover vaporizer be a pushover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J C; Restall, J

    1994-10-01

    Bench testing was carried out to establish whether the vapour output from an OMV50 vaporizer, as used in the Triservice apparatus, differs according to whether the carrier gas is either drawn or pushed through the vaporizer. Results show that the differences in output concentration between the two modes were clinically insignificant.

  20. Boron carbide whiskers produced by vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Boron carbide whiskers have an excellent combination of properties for use as a reinforcement material. They are produced by vaporizing boron carbide powder and condensing the vapors on a substrate. Certain catalysts promote the growth rate and size of the whiskers.

  1. Vapor Pressures of Several Commercially Used Alkanolamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepacova, Katarina; Huttenhuis, Patrick J. G.; Derks, Peter W. J.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Klepáčová, Katarína

    2011-01-01

    For the design of acid gas treating processes, vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data must be available of the solvents to be applied. In this study the vapor pressures of seven frequently industrially used alkanolamines (diethanolamine, N-methylethanolamine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, N,N-diethylethano

  2. Engineering vapor-deposited polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Feng-Yu

    The vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) of PMDA-ODA polyimide was studied parametrically to produce microcapsules and thin films with desirable properties and quality for the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments. The mechanical properties and gas permeability were determined at temperatures from 10 to 573 K. The VDP polyimide possessed distinct properties including lower gas permeability and stronger tensile properties from those of solution-cast Kapton, which were attributed to the presence of cross-linking. Processing parameters determining the properties of the VDP polyimide were identified: (1) utilizing air instead of nitrogen as the atmosphere of imidization increased the permeability by 140%, lowered the activation energy for permeation, and reduced the tensile strength by 30% without affecting the Young's modulus; (2) imidizing at faster heating rates increased the permeability by up to 50% and reduced the activation energy for permeation with 50% lowered tensile strength and impervious Young's modulus; (3) bi-axial stretching increased the permeability by up to three orders of magnitude. Analyses via IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and density measurement revealed that the effects of the processing parameters were results of the modifications in the crystallinity and molecular weight. The VDP polyimide underwent minor degradation in the tensile strength and elongation at break with unaffected Young's modulus and permeability upon absorbing 120 MGy of beta-radiation. Substituting a fluorinated dianhydride monomer, 6FDA, for PMDA in the optimized VDP process yielded 6FDA-ODA polyimide microcapsules and films with 50-fold increased permeability and comparable mechanical properties. The results of this study enable the production of polyimide microcapsules that will greatly facilitate the ICF experiments, and will broaden the applications of vapor-deposited polyimides in other technology fields.

  3. 第一性原理研究Pt-Zr系统中化合物的生成焓/体模量与原子体积的线性相关性%Linear correlations of formation enthalpies/bulk modules and atomic volumes observed in Pt-Zr compounds by ab initio calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪; 李家好; 戴叶; 柳百新

    2013-01-01

    118 kinds of Pt-Zr phases were established and investigated by considering various structures. Then the related physical properties, such as structural stability, lattice constants, formation enthalpies, elastic constants and bulk moduli, are obtained by ab initio calculations. Based on the calculated results of formation enthalpies, the ground-state convex hull is derived for the Pt-Zr system. The calculated physical data would provide a basis for further thermodynamic calculations and atomistic simulations. For these Pt-Zr compounds, it is found there are a positive linear correlation between the formation enthalpies and atomic volumes, and a negative linear correlation between the bulk modules and atomic volumes.%通过第一性原理的计算方法,研究118种不同结构的Pt-Zr中间化合物,并选取相关的物理性能,如结构稳定性、晶格常数、生成焓、弹性常数以及体模量等进行计算。根据计算得出的生成焓信息,绘制Pt-Zr系统的基态能量曲线。计算得到的物理相关信息为未来的热力学计算和原子尺度模拟提供基础数据。在选取的 Pt-Zr化合物中,存在两组线性相关关系:生成焓与原子体积成正线性相关,而体模量与原子体积成负线性相关关系。

  4. Microbial growth with vapor-phase substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzel, Joanna; Thullner, Martin; Harms, Hauke [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Wick, Lukas Y., E-mail: lukas.wick@ufz.de [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Limited information exists on influences of the diffusive transport of volatile organic contaminants (VOC) on bacterial activity in the unsaturated zone of the terrestrial subsurface. Diffusion of VOC in the vapor-phase is much more efficient than in water and results in effective VOC transport and high bioavailability despite restricted mobility of bacteria in the vadose zone. Since many bacteria tend to accumulate at solid-water, solid-air and air-water interfaces, such phase boundaries are of a special interest for VOC-biodegradation. In an attempt to evaluate microbial activity toward air-borne substrates, this study investigated the spatio-temporal interplay between growth of Pseudomonas putida (NAH7) on vapor-phase naphthalene (NAPH) and its repercussion on vapor-phase NAPH concentrations. Our data demonstrate that growth rates of strain PpG7 were inversely correlated to the distance from the source of vapor-phase NAPH. Despite the high gas phase diffusivity of NAPH, microbial growth was absent at distances above 5 cm from the source when sufficient biomass was located in between. This indicates a high efficiency of suspended bacteria to acquire vapor-phase compounds and influence headspace concentration gradients at the centimeter-scale. It further suggests a crucial role of microorganisms as biofilters for gas-phase VOC emanating from contaminated groundwater or soil. - Research highlights: > Suspended bacteria have a high efficiency to degrade vapor-phase naphthalene. > Bacteria influence NAPH vapor-phase concentration gradients at centimeter-scale. > Microbial growth on vapor-phase naphthalene is inversely correlated to its source. > Bacteria are good biofilters for gas-phase NAPH emanating from contaminated sites. - Suspended bacteria have a high efficiency to degrade vapor-phase naphthalene and effectively influence vapor-phase naphthalene concentration gradients at the centimeter scale.

  5. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS & EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-12-20

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors.

  6. Measurement of AC loss of superconductors by vaporizing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Isono, Takaaki; Matsui, Kunihiro; Fujisaki, Reishi; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1995-07-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the development of superconducting pulse conductors for next period nuclear fusion reactors has been carried out. For these conductors, the rated current of 46 kA and the rated magnetic field of 13T are demanded. When the pulse excitation of superconductors is carried out, AC loss arises, and the temperature of the superconductors rises, and when it exceeds a certain value, the superconducting state cannot be maintained. Therefore, the AC loss of pulse conductors must be limited to a low value. It is difficult to evaluate the AC loss of superconductors by calculation, therefore, it is evaluated by actual measurement. There are magnetizing method and vaporizing method for measuring the AC loss. This time, the equipment for measuring the AC loss of 40 kA class superconductors by vaporizing method which measures the helium gas quantity vaporizing at the time of AC loss occurrence was designed and manufactured for the first time. The method of measuring the AC loss, the structure of the measuring equipment, the helium gas recovering part and the measuring part, the countermeasures for preventing helium gas leakage, the resistance heater for calibration, and the results of measurement are reported. (K.I.)

  7. THE PENETRATION OF VESICANT VAPORS INTO HUMAN SKIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, S M; Golumbic, C; Stein, W H; Fruton, J S; Bergmann, M

    1946-07-20

    forearm at a rate of about 1.4 gamma per cm.(2) per minute (temperature 21-23 degrees C.; relative humidity 46 per cent). This value was found to hold in experiments in which H vapor was applied for 3 to 30 minute intervals, thus indicating that the permeability of the skin to H vapor is not altered during a 30 minute exposure. Agitation of the H vapor by fanning did not result in any measurable increase in the rate of penetration. Two of the volunteers were Negroes; the permeability of their skin to H vapor did not differ appreciably from that found for the other subjects. When human skin is exposed to air saturated with EBA vapor, the vesicant penetrates at the rate of 2.8 gamma per cm.(2) per minute (temperature 22 degrees C., relative humidity 50 to 52 per cent). The amount of EBA penetrated is linear with exposure time for exposure periods of 5 to 20 minutes. Under similar conditions, it was found that TBA penetrates at a rate of about 0.18 gamma per cm.(2) per minute (temperature 22-23 degrees C.; relative humidity 45 to 48 per cent). This value was found to hold in experiments in which TBA vapor was applied for 30 to 60 minute intervals. The amount of TBA penetrated is linear with exposure time. In the case of benzyl-H, a linear relationship between the amount lost from the penetration cup and exposure time was also observed but the plot did not pass through the origin. It is suggested that this anomaly is due to retention on the skin surface of an appreciable quantity of benzyl-H as a result of rapid physical adsorption or chemical combination with a constituent of the skin. The rate of penetration of benzyl-H may be calculated from the slope of the plot and is found to be 0.35 gamma per cm.(2) per minute (temperature 22 degrees C., relative humidity 55 to 60 per cent). The results with ethyl-H showed great variation among individual subjects and no satisfactory value for the rate of penetration can be given as yet. Measurements were also made of the rate of

  8. Mie potentials for phase equilibria calculations: application to alkanes and perfluoroalkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoff, Jeffrey J; Bernard-Brunel, Damien A

    2009-11-05

    Transferable united-atom force fields, based on n - 6 Lennard-Jones potentials, are presented for normal alkanes and perfluorocarbons. It is shown that by varying the repulsive exponent the range of the potential can be altered, leading to improved predictions of vapor pressures while also reproducing saturated liquid densities to high accuracy. Histogram-reweighting Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble are used to determine the vapor liquid coexistence curves, vapor pressures, heats of vaporization, and critical points for normal alkanes methane through tetradecane, and perfluorocarbons perfluoromethane through perfluorooctane. For all molecules studied, saturated liquid densities are reproduced to within 1% of experiment. Vapor pressures for normal alkanes and perfluorocarbons were predicted to within 3% and 6% of experiment, respectively. Calculations performed for binary mixture vapor-liquid equilibria for propane + pentane show excellent agreement with experiment, while slight deviations are observed for the ethane + perfluoroethane mixture.

  9. CFD Modeling of LNG Spill: Humidity Effect on Vapor Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannissi, S. G.; Venetsanos, A. G.; Markatos, N.

    2015-09-01

    The risks entailed by an accidental spill of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) should be indentified and evaluated, in order to design measures for prevention and mitigation in LNG terminals. For this purpose, simulations are considered a useful tool to study LNG spills and to understand the mechanisms that influence the vapor dispersion. In the present study, the ADREA-HF CFD code is employed to simulate the TEEX1 experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Brayton Fire Training Field, which is affiliated with the Texas A&M University system and involves LNG release and dispersion over water surface in open- obstructed environment. In the simulation the source was modeled as a two-phase jet enabling the prediction of both the vapor dispersion and the liquid pool spreading. The conservation equations for the mixture are solved along with the mass fraction for natural gas. Due to the low prevailing temperatures during the spill ambient humidity condenses and this might affect the vapor dispersion. This effect was examined in this work by solving an additional conservation equation for the water mass fraction. Two different models were tested: the hydrodynamic equilibrium model which assumes kinetic equilibrium between the phases and the non hydrodynamic equilibrium model, in order to assess the effect of slip velocity on the prediction. The slip velocity is defined as the difference between the liquid phase and the vapor phase and is calculated using the algebraic slip model. Constant droplet diameter of three different sizes and a lognormal distribution of the droplet diameter were applied and the results are discussed and compared with the measurements.

  10. Measurements of integrated water vapor and cloud liquid water from microwave radiometers at the DOE ARM Cloud and Radiation Testbed in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljegren, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Lesht, B.M.

    1996-06-01

    The operation and calibration of the ARM microwave radiometers is summarized. Measured radiometric brightness temperatures are compared with calculations based on the model using co-located radiosondes. Comparisons of perceptible water vapor retrieved from the radiometer with integrated soundings and co-located GPS retrievals are presented. The three water vapor sensing systems are shown to agree to within about 1 mm.

  11. Energy balance between vaporization and heating in the absorption of CO2 laser radiation by water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert E.; Yam, Henry; Duley, Walter W.

    1997-03-01

    The use of lasers in industrial and medical procedures continues to increase. A fundamental question in many laser- material interactions is how is the incident laser power transferred to the target material, and how is the power distributed among the phases (solid, liquid, vapor) of the material. This paper describes the results of a fundamental calorimetry experiment to determine the fraction of incident carbon-dioxide laser energy which is used to vaporize water from a target volume, and the fraction of power used to simply heat the remaining liquid. The experiment was performed over a range of incident laser powers from 60 to 300 W. Over most of the range of incident power, the fraction used to vaporize water is 30 to 35 percent. This fraction increases at the lowest powers.

  12. Detection of Organic Vapors Based on Photoluminescent Bragg-Reflective Porous Silicon Interferomete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jihoon; Cho, Bomin; Kim, Sungsoo; Sohn, Honglae

    2015-07-01

    Novel photoluminescent Bragg-reflective porous silicon, exhibiting dual optical properties, both the optical reflectivity and photoluminescence, was developed and used for sensing organic vapors. Photoluminescent Bragg-reflective porous silicon samples were prepared by an electrochemical etch of n-type silicon under the illumination. The etching solution consisted of a 3:1 volume mixture of aqueous 48% hydrofluoric acid and absolute ethanol. The typical etch parameters for the generation of photoluminescent Bragg-reflective porous silicon involved a periodic square wave current with 50 repeats. The surface of photoluminescent Bragg-reflective porous silicon was characterized by a FT-IR spectroscopy. Both reflectivity and photoluminescence were simultaneously measured under the exposure of organic vapors. The shift of reflection band to the longer wavelength and the quenching of photoluminescence under the exposure of various organic vapors were observed.

  13. Quantification of natural vapor fluxes of trichloroethene in the unsaturated zone at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.; Tisdale, Amy K.; Cho, H. Jean

    1996-01-01

    The upward flux of trichloroethene (TCE) vapor through the unsaturated zone above a contaminated, water-table aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, has been studied under natural conditions over a 12-month period. Vertical gas-phase diffusion fluxes were estimated indirectly by measuring the TCE vapor concentration gradient in the unsaturated zone and using Fick's law to calculate the flux. The total gas-phase flux (e.g., the sum of diffusion and advection fluxes) was measured directly with a vertical flux chamber (VFC). In many cases, the upward TCE vapor flux was several orders of magnitude greater than the upward TCE diffusion flux, suggesting that mechanisms other than steady-state vapor diffusion are contributing to the vertical transport of TCE vapors through the unsaturated zone. The measured total flux of TCE vapor from the subsurface to the atmosphere is approximately 50 kg/yr and is comparable in magnitude to the removal rate of TCE from the aquifer by an existing pump-and-treat system and by discharge into a nearby stream. The net upward flux of TCE is reduced significantly during a storm event, presumably due to the mass transfer of TCE from the soil gas to the infiltrating rainwater and its subsequent downward advection. Several potential problems associated with the measurement of total gas-phase fluxes are discussed.

  14. Application of water vapor sorption measurements for porosity characterization of hardened cement pastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2014-01-01

    data were reviewed. Water vapor sorption measurements were then applied to two hardened cement pastes and one model porous material MCM-41. The specific surface area was calculated based on different equations accounting for multilayer adsorption and the PSD was analyzed from both the absorption...

  15. Molar Mass and Second Virial Coefficient of Polyethylene Glycol by Vapor Pressure Osmometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Checkal, Caleb; Saksa, Brian; Baka, Nadia; Modi, Kalpit; Rivera, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students determine the number-average molar masses and second virial coefficients of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers ranging in molar mass from 200 to 1500 g mol[superscript -1] using vapor pressure osmometry (VPO). Students assess VPO in relation to accurate molar mass calculations of PEG polymers. Additionally,…

  16. An Analytical Formula for Potential Water Vapor in an Atmosphere of Constant Lapse Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Varmaghani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate calculation of precipitable water vapor (PWV in the atmosphere has always been a matter of importance for meteorologists. Potential water vapor (POWV or maximum precipitable water vapor can be an appropriate base for estimation of probable maximum precipitation (PMP in an area, leading to probable maximum flood (PMF and flash flood management systems. PWV and POWV have miscellaneously been estimated by means of either discrete solutions such as tables, diagrams or empirical methods; however, there is no analytical formula for POWV even in a particular atmospherical condition. In this article, fundamental governing equations required for analytical calculation of POWV are first introduced. Then, it will be shown that this POWV calculation relies on a Riemann integral solution over a range of altitude whose integrand is merely a function of altitude. The solution of the integral gives rise to a series function which is bypassed by approximation of saturation vapor pressure in the range of -55 to 55 degrees Celsius, and an analytical formula for POWV in an atmosphere of constant lapse rate is proposed. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the suggested equation, exact calculations of saturated adiabatic lapse rate (SALR at different surface temperatures were performed. The formula was compared with both the diagrams from the US Weather Bureau and SALR. The results demonstrated unquestionable capability of analytical solutions and also equivalent functions.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Liquid Tank Sloshing and Pressure Calculation based on Volume of Fluid Method%基于VOF法的液舱晃荡数值模拟及载荷计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桢兵

    2011-01-01

    建立了液舱晃荡的有限元模型,运用CFD计算软件Fluent 6.3模拟了单激励和耦合激励下不同舱室结构以及不同幅度的液舱晃荡,并计算监测点压力,得到了晃荡在激励下的变化规律.对仿真结果进行讨论分析.%As a common phenomenon in liquid motions, sloshing usually happens partially in a filled liquid tank of moving ship. When coupling with ship motions it can cause violent motions and even capsizing under extreme conditions. At the same time, the sloshing of liquid tank is a complex liquid motions phenomenon which represent strong nonlinear and randomness. Based on the CFD software Fluent 6.3, under the force of single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom which would reflect in various range of the sloshing, the paper numerically simulated the different tank structures, calculated the pressure of monitor points and obtained the variation law of sloshing under stimulation. The effects of the different forms of liquid tank sloshing and variation trend are discussed.

  18. El vapor de ruedas "Cid": de pionero de la navegación comercial a vapor a primer vapor hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. González García

    Full Text Available La aparición de la máquina de vapor había hecho realidad el sueño de navegar sin depender de las fuerzas de la naturaleza. La carrera por lograr un vapor comercial eficiente había comenzado. Con retraso por la Guerra de la Independencia, España se incorporó a la carrera. Entre los primeros vapores comerciales estaba el vapor "Cid". En 1859, en la Guerra de África, ante la necesidad de una evacuación regular de bajas se designa al "Cid" como buque hospital, fue la primera vez en el mundo que se usó un vapor hospital. El Dr. Nicasio Landa fue el responsable de realizar la misión con una organización moderna, eficaz y ejemplar. Pronto los vapores de ruedas perdieron su batalla con los de hélice y el "Cid" quedó obsoleto. Sin embargo, a pesar de su corta vida operativa, poco más de quince años, escribió una importante página en la historia de la navegación en España.

  19. Modeling of the vapor cycle of Laguna Verde with the PEPSE code to conditions of thermal power licensed at present (2027 MWt); Modelado del ciclo de vapor de Laguna Verde con el codigo PEPSE a condiciones de potencia termica actualmente licenciada (2027 MWt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda G, M. A.; Maya G, F.; Medel C, J. E.; Cardenas J, J. B.; Cruz B, H. J.; Mercado V, J. J., E-mail: miguel.castaneda01@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    By means of the use of the performance evaluation of power system efficiencies (PEPSE) code was modeled the vapor cycle of the nuclear power station of Laguna Verde to reproduce the nuclear plant behavior to conditions of thermal power, licensed at present (2027 MWt); with the purpose of having a base line before the implementation of the project of extended power increase. The model of the gauged vapor cycle to reproduce the nuclear plant conditions makes use of the PEPSE model, design case of the vapor cycle of nuclear power station of Laguna Verde, which has as main components of the model the great equipment of the vapor cycle of Laguna Verde. The design case model makes use of information about the design requirements of each equipment for theoretically calculating the electric power of exit, besides thermodynamic conditions of the vapor cycle in different points. Starting from the design model and making use of data of the vapor cycle measured in the nuclear plant; the adjustment factors were calculated for the different equipment s of the vapor cycle, to reproduce with the PEPSE model the real vapor cycle of Laguna Verde. Once characterized the model of the vapor cycle of Laguna Verde, we can realize different sensibility studies to determine the effects macros to the vapor cycle by the variation of certain key parameters. (Author)

  20. A simplified adsorption model for water vapor adsorption on activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚小龙; 李立清; 李海龙; 马卫武

    2014-01-01

    A simplified model was developed to describe the water vapor adsorption on activated carbon. The development of the simplified model was started from the original model proposed by DO and his co-workers. Two different kinds of carbon materials were prepared for water vapor adsorption, and the adsorption experiments were conducted at different temperatures (20-50 °C) and relative humidities (5%-99%) to test the model. It is shown that the amount of adsorbed water vapor in micropore decreases with the temperature increasing, and the water molecules form larger water clusters around the functional group as the temperature is up to a higher value. The simplified model describes reasonably well for all the experimental data. According to the fitted values, the parameters of simplified model were represented by the temperature and then the model was used to calculate the water vapor adsorption amount at 25 °C and 35 °C. The results show that the model can get relatively accurate values to calculate the water vapor adsorption on activated carbon.

  1. Calculation of Precipitable Water for Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Aircraft (SOFIA): Airplane in the Night Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Pey Chun; Busby, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, is the new generation airborne observatory station based at NASA s Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility, Palmdale, CA, to study the universe. Since the observatory detects infrared energy, water vapor is a concern in the atmosphere due to its known capacity to absorb infrared energy emitted by astronomical objects. Although SOFIA is hoping to fly above 99% of water vapor in the atmosphere it is still possible to affect astronomical observation. Water vapor is one of the toughest parameter to measure in the atmosphere, several atmosphere modeling are used to calculate water vapor loading. The water vapor loading, or Precipitable water, is being calculated by Matlab along the planned flight path. Over time, these results will help SOFIA to plan flights to regions of lower water vapor loading and hopefully improve the imagery collection of these astronomical features.

  2. Analytical modeling of the subsurface volatile organic vapor concentration in vapor intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    The inhalation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds that intrude from a subsurface contaminant source into indoor air has become the subject of health and safety concerns over the last twenty years. Building subslab and soil gas contaminant vapor concentration sampling have become integral parts of vapor intrusion field investigations. While numerical models can be of use in analyzing field data and in helping understand the subslab and soil gas vapor concentrations, they are not widely used due to the perceived effort in setting them up. In this manuscript, we present a new closed-form analytical expression describing subsurface contaminant vapor concentrations, including subslab vapor concentrations. The expression was derived using Schwarz-Christoffel mapping. Results from this analytical model match well the numerical modeling results. This manuscript also explores the relationship between subslab and exterior soil gas vapor concentrations, and offers insights on what parameters need to receive greater focus in field studies.

  3. Chiroptical Spectroscopy in the Vapor Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Priyanka; Long, Benjamin D.; Wiberg, Kenneth B.; Vaccaro, Patrick H.

    2011-06-01

    Electromagnetic radiation propagating through an isotropic chiral medium experiences a complex index of refraction that differs in both real (in-phase) and imaginary (in-quadrature) parts for the right-circular and left-circular polarization states that define the helicity basis. The resulting phenomena of circular birefringence (CB) and circular dichroism (CD) lead to observable effects in the form of dispersive rotation and absorptive elliptization for an impinging beam of plane-polarized light, which commonly are measured under conditions of nonresonant and resonant excitation, respectively. This talk will discuss ongoing efforts designed to elucidate the provenance of electronic optical activity under complementary solvated and isolated conditions, with the latter vapor-phase work made possible by our continuing development of Cavity Ring-Down Polarimetry (CRDP). Molecules of interest include the rigid bicyclic ketone (1R,4R)-norbornenone, where the spatial arrangement of distal alkene and carbonyl moeities gives rise to extraordinarily large specific rotation (CB) parameters that are predicted incongruously by different quantum-chemical methods; the monoterpene constitutional isomers (S)-2-carene and (S)-3-carene, which display surprisingly distinct chiroptical properties; and conjugated ketones such as (S)-verbenone, where CD probes of weak π*←n absorption bands have been performed at vibronic resolution. The disparate nature of gas-phase and condensed-phase optical activity will be highlighted, with complementary ab initio calculations serving to elucidate the structural, chemical, and electronic origins of observed behavior. T. Müller, K. B. Wiberg, P. H. Vaccaro, J. R. Cheeseman, and M. J. Frisch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 125 (2002) P. H. Vaccaro, ``Chapter 1.II.10: Optical Rotation and Intrinsic Optical Activity'' in Comprehensive Chiroptical Spectroscopy, N. Berova, P. L. Polavarapu, K. Nakanishi, and R. W. Woody, eds. (John Wiley and Sons, Inc

  4. Gas and metal vapor lasers and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 22, 23, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    Various papers on gas and metal vapor lasers and applications are presented. Individual topics addressed include: high-power copper vapor laser development, modified off-axis unstable resonator for copper vapor laser, industrial applications of metal vapor lasers, newly developed excitation circuit for kHz pulsed lasers, copper vapor laser precision processing, development of solid state pulse power supply for copper vapor laser, multiple spectral structure of the 578.2-nm line for copper vapor laser, adsorption of bromine in CuBr laser, processing of polytetrafluoroethylene with high-power VUV laser radiation, characterization of a subpicosecond XeF(C - A) excimer laser, X-ray preionization for high-repetition-rate discharge excimer lasers. Also discussed are: investigation of microwave-pumped excimer and rare-gas laser transitions, influence of gas composition of XeCl laser performance, output power stabilization of a XeCl excimer laser by HCl gas injection, excimer laser machining of optical fiber taps, diagnostics of a compact UV-preionized XeCl laser with BCl3 halogen donor, blackbody-pumped CO32 lasers using Gaussian and waveguide cavities, chemical problems of high-power sealed-off CO lasers, laser action of Xe and Ne pumped by electron beam, process monitoring during CO2 laser cutting, double-pulsed TEA CO2 laser, superhigh-gain gas laser, high-power ns-pulse iodine laser provided with SBS mirror. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  5. Calculation of heat capacities of light and heavy water by path-integral molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Motoyuki; Shinoda, Wataru

    2005-10-01

    As an application of atomistic simulation methods to heat capacities, path-integral molecular dynamics has been used to calculate the constant-volume heat capacities of light and heavy water in the gas, liquid, and solid phases. While the classical simulation based on conventional molecular dynamics has estimated the heat capacities too high, the quantum simulation based on path-integral molecular dynamics has given reasonable results based on the simple point-charge/flexible potential model. The calculated heat capacities (divided by the Boltzmann constant) in the quantum simulation are 3.1 in the vapor H2O at 300 K, 6.9 in the liquid H2O at 300 K, and 4.1 in the ice IhH2O at 250 K, respectively, which are comparable to the experimental data of 3.04, 8.9, and 4.1, respectively. The quantum simulation also reproduces the isotope effect. The heat capacity in the liquid D2O has been calculated to be 10% higher than that of H2O, while it is 13% higher in the experiment. The results demonstrate that the path-integral simulation is a promising approach to quantitatively evaluate the heat capacities for molecular systems, taking account of quantum-mechanical vibrations as well as strongly anharmonic motions.

  6. Leidenfrost Vapor Layer Stabilization on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan; Patankar, Neelesh; Marston, Jeremy; Chan, Derek; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2012-11-01

    We have performed experiments to investigate the influence of the wettability of a superheated metallic sphere on the stability of a thin vapor layer during the cooling of a sphere immersed in water. For high enough sphere temperatures, a continuous vapor layer (Leidenfrost regime) is observed on the surface of non-superhydrophobic spheres, but below a critical sphere temperature the layer becomes unstable and explosively switches to nuclear boiling regime. In contrast, when the sphere surface is textured and superhydrophobic, the vapor layer is stable and gradually relaxes to the sphere surface until the complete cooling of the sphere, thus avoiding the nuclear boiling transition altogether. This finding could help in the development of heat exchange devices and of vapor layer based drag reducing technologies.

  7. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  8. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line and...

  9. Inactivation of Mold Spores from Moist Carpet Using Steam Vapor: Contact Time and Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Emo, Brett; Lewis, Roger D; Kennedy, Jason; Thummalakunta, Laxmi N A; Elliott, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Steam vapor has been shown to reduce viable mold spores in carpet, but the minimal effective temperature and contact time has not been established. This study evaluated the effectiveness of steam vapor in reducing the number of viable mold spores in carpet as a function of temperature and contact time. Seventy carpet samples were inoculated with a liquid suspension of Cladosporium sphaerospermum and incubated over a water-saturated foam carpet pad for 24 hr. Steam was applied to the samples as the temperature was measured from the carpet backing. Contact time was closely monitored over seven time intervals: 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 sec. Following steam vapor treatment, mold spores were extracted from the carpet samples and the extract was plated on DG-18 plates at 1:1, 1:10, 1:100 dilutions followed by one week of incubation. Raw colony forming units were determined using an automated colony counter and adjusted based on dilution factor, extraction volume, and plated volume. Analysis of variance and linear regression were used to test for statistically significant relationships. Steam contact time exhibited a linear relationship to observed temperature of carpet backing (F = 90.176, R(2) = 0.609). Observed temperature of carpet backing had a positive relationship to percent reduction of mold (F = 76.605, R(2) = 0.569). Twelve seconds of steam vapor contact time was needed to achieve over 90% mold reduction on moist carpet.

  10. Vapor pressure of ionic liquids at low temperatures from AC-chip-calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenberg, Mathias; Beck, Martin; Neise, Christin; Keßler, Olaf; Kragl, Udo; Verevkin, Sergey P; Schick, Christoph

    2016-08-03

    The very low vapor pressure of ionic liquids is challenging to measure. At elevated temperatures the liquids might start to decompose, and at relatively low temperatures the vapor pressure becomes too low to be measured by conventional methods. In this work we developed a highly sensitive method for mass loss determination at temperatures starting from 350 K. This technique is based on an alternating current calorimeter equipped with a chip sensor that consists of a free-standing SiNx-membrane (thickness measuring area with lateral dimensions of the order of 1 mm. A small droplet (diameter ca. 600 μm) of an ionic liquid is vaporized isothermally from the chip sensor in a vacuum-chamber. The surface-to-volume-ratio of such a droplet is large and the relative mass loss due to evaporation is therefore easy to monitor by the changing heat capacity (J K(-1)) of the remaining liquid. The vapor pressure is determined from the measured mass loss rates using the Langmuir equation. The method was successfully tested for the determination of the vapor pressure and the vaporization enthalpy of an archetypical ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][NTf2]). The data set created in this way in an extremely broad temperature range from 358 K to 780 K has allowed the estimation of the boiling temperature of [EMIm][NTf2]. The value (1120 ± 50) K should be considered as the first reliable boiling point of the archetypical ionic liquid obtained from experimental vapor pressures measured in the most possible close proximity to the normal boiling temperature.

  11. Reconstructing CO2 concentrations in basaltic melt inclusions using Raman analysis of vapor bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aster, Ellen M.; Wallace, Paul J.; Moore, Lowell R.; Watkins, James; Gazel, Esteban; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Melt inclusions record valuable information about pre-eruptive volatile concentrations of melts. However, a vapor bubble commonly forms in inclusions after trapping, and this decreases the dissolved CO2 concentration in the melt (glass) phase in the inclusion. To quantify CO2 loss to vapor bubbles, Raman spectroscopic analysis was used to determine the density of CO2 in bubbles in melt inclusions from two Cascade cinder cones near Mt. Lassen and two Mexican cinder cones (Jorullo, Parícutin). Using analyses of dissolved CO2 and H2O in the glass in the inclusions, the measured CO2 vapor densities were used to reconstruct the original dissolved CO2 contents of the melt inclusions at the time of trapping. Our results show that 30-90% of the CO2 in a melt inclusion is contained in the vapor bubble, values similar to those found in other recent studies. We developed a model for vapor bubble growth to show how post-entrapment bubbles form in melt inclusions as a result of cooling, crystallization, and eruptive quenching. The model allows us to predict the bubble volume fraction as a function of ΔT (the difference between the trapping temperature and eruptive temperature) and the amount of CO2 lost to a bubble. Comparison of the Raman and modeling methods shows highly variable agreement. For 10 of 17 inclusions, the two methods are within ± 550 ppm CO2 (avg. difference 290 ppm), equivalent to ±~300 bars uncertainty in estimated trapping pressure for restored inclusions. Discrepancies between the two methods occur for inclusions that have been strongly affected by post-entrapment diffusive H+ loss, because this process enhances bubble formation. For our dataset, restoring the CO2 lost to vapor bubbles increases inferred trapping pressures of the inclusions by 600 to as much as 4000 bars, highlighting the importance of accounting for vapor bubble formation in melt inclusion studies.

  12. Surface charge dynamics and OH and H number density distributions in near-surface nanosecond pulse discharges at a liquid / vapor interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Caroline; Petrishchev, Vitaly; Yin, Zhiyao; Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2015-10-01

    The present work provides insight into surface charge dynamics and kinetics of radical species reactions in nanosecond pulse discharges sustained at a liquid-vapor interface, above a distilled water surface. The near-surface plasma is sustained using two different discharge configurations, a surface ionization wave discharge between two exposed metal electrodes and a double dielectric barrier discharge. At low discharge pulse repetition rates (~100 Hz), residual surface charge deposition after the discharge pulse is a minor effect. At high pulse repetition rates (~10 kHz), significant negative surface charge accumulation over multiple discharge pulses is detected, both during alternating polarity and negative polarity pulse trains. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and two-photon absorption LIF (TALIF) line imaging are used for in situ measurements of spatial distributions of absolute OH and H atom number densities in near-surface, repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge plasmas. Both in a surface ionization wave discharge and in a double dielectric barrier discharge, peak measured H atom number density, [H] is much higher compared to peak OH number density, due to more rapid OH decay in the afterglow between the discharge pulses. Higher OH number density was measured near the regions with higher plasma emission intensity. Both OH and especially H atoms diffuse out of the surface ionization wave plasma volume, up to several mm from the liquid surface. Kinetic modeling calculations using a quasi-zero-dimensional H2O vapor / Ar plasma model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. The results demonstrate the experimental capability of in situ radical species number density distribution measurements in liquid-vapor interface plasmas, in a simple canonical geometry that lends itself to the validation of kinetic models.

  13. Vapor flux and recrystallization during dry snow metamorphism under a steady temperature gradient as observed by time-lapse micro-tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Pinzer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dry snow metamorphism under an external temperature gradient is the most common type of recrystallization of snow on the ground. The changes in snow microstructure modify the physical properties of snow, and therefore an understanding of this process is essential for many disciplines, from modeling the effects of snow on climate to assessing avalanche risk. We directly imaged the microstructural changes in snow during temperature gradient metamorphism (TGM under a constant gradient of 50 K m−1, using in situ time-lapse X-ray micro-tomography. This novel and non-destructive technique directly reveals the amount of ice that sublimates and is deposited during metamorphism, in addition to the exact locations of these phase changes. We calculated the average time that an ice volume stayed in place before it sublimated and found a characteristic residence time of 2–3 days. This means that most of the ice changes its phase from solid to vapor and back many times in a seasonal snowpack where similar temperature conditions can be found. Consistent with such a short timescale, we observed a mass turnover of up to 60% of the total ice mass per day. The concept of hand-to-hand transport for the water vapor flux describes the observed changes very well. However, we did not find evidence for a macroscopic vapor diffusion enhancement. The picture of {temperature gradient metamorphism} produced by directly observing the changing microstructure sheds light on the micro-physical processes and could help to improve models that predict the physical properties of snow.

  14. Predicting the vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrocarbon binary mixtures and polymer solutions using predetermined pure component parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sang Kyu [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Young Chan, E-mail: ycbae@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have developed a close-packed lattice model for chain-like molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chain length dependence determined from Monte-Carlo simulation results were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To consider the volume effect, hole theory and two mixing steps were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A lattice fluid equation of state (LF-EoS) is presented for VLE of hydrocarbon mixtures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation of pure polymer solutions data with use of the LF-EoS. - Abstract: In our previous work, a new close-packed lattice model was developed for multi-component system of chain fluids with taking the chain length dependence from Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation results into account. In this work, we further extend this model to describe pressure, volume and temperature (PVT) properties, such as vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). To consider the effect of pressure on the phase behavior, the volume change effect is taken into account by introducing holes into the incompressible lattice model with two mixing steps. The corresponding new lattice fluid equation of state (LF-EoS) is applied to predict the thermodynamic properties of pure and binary mixtures of hydrocarbons as well as pure polymer solutions. The results of the proposed model are compared to other predictive approaches based on VLE calculations using predetermined pure model parameters without further adjustment. Thermodynamic properties predicted using the method developed in this work are consistent with the experimental data.

  15. Analytical modeling of the subsurface volatile organic vapor concentration in vapor intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The inhalation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds that intrude from a subsurface contaminant source into indoor air has become the subject of health and safety concerns over the last twenty years. Building subslab and soil gas contaminant vapor concentration sampling have become integral parts of vapor intrusion field investigations. While numerical models can be of use in analyzing field data and in helping understand the subslab and soil gas vapor concentrations, they are not w...

  16. Reusable macroporous photonic crystal-based ethanol vapor detectors by doctor blade coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Hui-Ping; Lin, Kun-Yi; Chen, Ying-Chu; Yang, Hongta

    2017-02-01

    This research reports the development of sensitive and reversible vapor detection by using three-dimensional macroporous photonic crystals. A scalable and roll-to-roll compatible doctor blade coating technology is utilized to fabricate flexible macroporous poly(ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate) (PETPTA) films with hexagonal close-packed pores which are interconnected. The pores are then coated with a layer of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) to create macroporous PHEMA/PETPTA films. The condensation of vapors in the PHEMA coated macroporous films leads to the increase of both the PHEMA swelling degree and the effective refractive index of the diffractive medium, resulting in the red-shift and amplitude reduction of the optical stop bands. The optical measurements reveal that the diffraction from the as-prepared macroporous photonic crystals sensitively monitors the vapor pressure of ethanol since the PHEMA layer displays a great volume dependence on ethanol due to a decreased Flory-Huggins mixing parameter. The dependence of the diffraction wavelength on vapor pressure and the reproducibility of vapor sensing have also been investigated in this study.

  17. Numerical analysis of fragmentation mechanisms in vapor explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshizuka, Seiichi; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Oka, Yoshiaki [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    1998-01-01

    Fragmentation of molten metal is the key process in vapor explosions. However this process is so rapid that the mechanisms have not been clarified yet in the experimental studies. Besides, numerical simulation is difficult because we have to analyze water, steam and molten metal simultaneously with evaporation and fragmentation. The authors have been developing a new numerical method, the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, based on moving particles and their interactions. Grids are not necessary. Incompressible flows with fragmentation on free surfaces have been calculated successfully using the MPS method. In the present study numerical simulation of the fragmentation processes using the MPS method is carried out to investigate the mechanisms. A numerical model to calculate evaporation from water to steam is developed. In this model, new particles are generated on water-steam interfaces. Effect of evaporation is also investigated. Growth of the filament is not accelerated when the normal evaporation is considered. This is because the normal evaporation needs a longer time than the moment of the jet impingement, though the filament growth is decided in this moment. Next, rapid evaporation based on spontaneous nucleation is considered. The filament growth is markedly accelerated. This result is consistent with the experimental fact that the spontaneous nucleation temperature is a necessary condition of small-scale vapor explosions. (J.P.N.)

  18. Vapor Pressure of 2-Chlorovinyl Dichloroarsine (Lewisite)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Streams of Compounds for Determining Vapor Pressure 11 3. Vapor Pressure of Lewisite I from Multiple Sources: Conant, Sumner, Lewis, Keyes, Price ...number of publications in the open literature by Green and Price ,4 Lewis and Perkins,5 Mann and Pope, Mohler and Polya7 and Gibson and Johnson.8...point. (2) Banks et al.,14 reported that during the fractional distillation of the reaction products of phenyl dichloroarsine and acetylene , 2

  19. Investigating the source, transport, and isotope composition of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, Timothy J.; Wood, Jeffrey D.; Baker, John M.; Lee, Xuhui; Xiao, Ke; Chen, Zichong; Welp, Lisa R.; Schultz, Natalie M.; Gorski, Galen; Chen, Ming; Nieber, John

    2016-04-01

    Increasing atmospheric humidity and convective precipitation over land provide evidence of intensification of the hydrologic cycle - an expected response to surface warming. The extent to which terrestrial ecosystems modulate these hydrologic factors is important to understand feedbacks in the climate system. We measured the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of water vapor at a very tall tower (185 m) in the upper Midwest, United States, to diagnose the sources, transport, and fractionation of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over a 3-year period (2010 to 2012). These measurements represent the first set of annual water vapor isotope observations for this region. Several simple isotope models and cross-wavelet analyses were used to assess the importance of the Rayleigh distillation process, evaporation, and PBL entrainment processes on the isotope composition of water vapor. The vapor isotope composition at this tall tower site showed a large seasonal amplitude (mean monthly δ18Ov ranged from -40.2 to -15.9 ‰ and δ2Hv ranged from -278.7 to -113.0 ‰) and followed the familiar Rayleigh distillation relation with water vapor mixing ratio when considering the entire hourly data set. However, this relation was strongly modulated by evaporation and PBL entrainment processes at timescales ranging from hours to several days. The wavelet coherence spectra indicate that the oxygen isotope ratio and the deuterium excess (dv) of water vapor are sensitive to synoptic and PBL processes. According to the phase of the coherence analyses, we show that evaporation often leads changes in dv, confirming that it is a potential tracer of regional evaporation. Isotope mixing models indicate that on average about 31 % of the growing season PBL water vapor is derived from regional evaporation. However, isoforcing calculations and mixing model analyses for high PBL water vapor mixing ratio events ( > 25 mmol mol-1) indicate that regional evaporation can account

  20. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-03-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  1. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Daniel J; Hughes, Ifan G; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D(2) transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude.

  2. Vapor Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack

    For interplanetary missions landing on a planet of potential biological interest, United States NASA planetary protection currently requires that the flight system must be assembled, tested and ultimately launched with the intent of minimizing the bioload taken to and deposited on the planet. Currently the only NASA approved microbial reduction method is dry heat sterilization process. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements. The VHP sterilization technology is widely used by the medical industry, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material compatibility. The goal of our study is determine the minimum VHP process conditions for PP acceptable microbial reduction levels. A series of experiments were conducted using Geobacillus stearothermophilus to determine VHP process parameters that provided significant reductions in spore viability while allowing survival of sufficient spores for statistically significant enumeration. In addition to the obvious process parameters -hydrogen peroxide concentration, number of pulses, and exposure duration -the investigation also considered the possible effect of environmental pa-rameters. Temperature, relative humidity, and material substrate effects on lethality were also studied. Based on the results, a most conservative D value was recommended. This recom-mended D value was also validated using VHP "hardy" strains that were isolated from clean-rooms and environmental populations collected from spacecraft relevant areas. The efficiency of VHP at ambient condition as well as VHP material compatibility will also be

  3. Vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inci, Levent; Bowles, Richard K., E-mail: richard.bowles@usask.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C9 (Canada)

    2013-12-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations of miscible and partially miscible binary Lennard–Jones mixtures are used to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop in the canonical ensemble. When the system volume is large, the driving force for condensation is low and only a submonolayer of the solvent is adsorbed onto the liquid drop. A small degree of mixing of the solvent phase into the core of the particles occurs for the miscible system. At smaller volumes, complete film formation is observed and the dynamics of film growth are dominated by cluster-cluster coalescence. Mixing into the core of the droplet is also observed for partially miscible systems below an onset volume suggesting the presence of a solubility transition. We also develop a non-volatile liquid drop model, based on the capillarity approximations, that exhibits a solubility transition between small and large drops for partially miscible mixtures and has a hysteresis loop similar to the one observed in the deliquescence of small soluble salt particles. The properties of the model are compared to our simulation results and the model is used to study the formulation of classical nucleation theory for systems with low free energy barriers.

  4. Bioeffects due to acoustic droplet vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Encapsulated micro- and nano-droplets can be vaporized via ultrasound, a process termed acoustic droplet vaporization. Our interest is primarily motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment. In this methodology, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that arise from the acoustic vaporization of vascular microdroplets. Additionally, the microdroplets may be used as vehicles for localized drug delivery, with or without flow occlusion. In this talk, we examine the dynamics of acoustic droplet vaporization through experiments and theoretical/computational fluid mechanics models, and investigate the bioeffects of acoustic droplet vaporization on endothelial cells and in vivo. Early timescale vaporization events, including phase change, are directly visualized using ultra-high speed imaging, and the influence of acoustic parameters on droplet/bubble dynamics is discussed. Acoustic and fluid mechanics parameters affecting the severity of endothelial cell bioeffects are explored. These findings suggest parameter spaces for which bioeffects may be reduced or enhanced, depending on the objective of the therapy. This work was supported by NIH grant R01EB006476.

  5. Numerical study of cesium effects on negative ion production in volume sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Niitani, Eiji [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    Effects of cesium vapor injection of H{sup -} production in a tandem negative ion source are studied numerically as a function of plasma parameters. Model calculation is done by solving a set of particle balance equations in a steady-state hydrogen discharge plasmas. Here, the results which focus on gas pressure and electron temperature dependences of H{sup -} volume production are presented and discussed. With including H{sup -} surface production processes caused by both H atoms and positive hydrogen ions, enhancement of H{sup -} production and pressure dependence of H{sup -} production observed experimentally are well reproduced in the model. To enhance H{sup -} production, however, so-called electron cooling is not so effective if plasma parameters are initially optimized with the use of magnetic filter. (author)

  6. [Vaporizing resection - a new treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martov, A G; Razumov, S V; Gushchin, B L; Sysoev, P A

    1999-01-01

    Though transurethral resection (TUR) remains a routine treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), its complications observed in up to 18% of patients necessitate active search for novel endoscopic methods. Vaporizing resection (VR) is among them. It makes use of two electrosurgical techniques of tissue removal--resection and vaporization--which provide adequate removal of the tissue and good coagulation. VR was made in 84 BPH patients aged 57-82 years. 19 of them had epicystostomy. 1-year follow up examination showed that complaints index by IPSS scale diminished from 21.9 to 4.6, life quality--from 3.9 to 1.1, urine residual volume--from 118 to 19 ml, maximal urination rate Qmax increased from 6.7 to 18.5 ml/s. Thus, the scheme of BPH patients' examination, the operative technique and indications in VR are the same as in TUR, while the course of the postoperative period, frequency and type of complications are typical for electrovaporization: minimum of hemorrhagic complications, low probability of TUR-syndrome, less severe postoperative period, etc.

  7. 33 CFR 154.808 - Vapor control system, general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vapor control system, general... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.808 Vapor control system, general. (a) A vapor control system design and installation must...

  8. Nonradioactive Environmental Emissions Chemical Source Term for the Double Shell Tank (DST) Vapor Space During Waste Retrieval Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-04-21

    A nonradioactive chemical vapor space source term for tanks on the Phase 1 and the extended Phase 1 delivery, storage, and disposal mission was determined. Operations modeled included mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers. Concentrations of ammonia, specific volatile organic compounds, and quantitative volumes of aerosols were estimated.

  9. Tank 241-BX-104 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on April 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitroshkov, A.V.; Hayes, J.C.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-04 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.208% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.536% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  10. [Study on adsorption properties of organic vapor on activated carbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dao-Fei; Huang, Wei-Qiu; Wang, Dan-Li; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Guang

    2013-12-01

    Adsorption technology is widely used in oil vapor recovery, and adsorbents have decisive effect on separation. Three kinds of activated carbon (AC) were chosen to study their adsorption properties and adsorption energy, where n-hexane and n-heptane acted as adsorbate and adsorption experiments were conducted at 293.15 K. At the same time, regression formula of Logistic model was used to fit the throughout curves of active carbons. The results showed that: surface area and pore volume of activated carbon were the main factors affecting its adsorption properties; the adsorption behavior of n-hexane and n-heptane were corresponding to Langmuir adsorption isotherm model; adsorption energy of these three kinds of activated carbon became greater with increasing specific surface area. Fitting curve of Logistic model had high similarity with the experimental results, which could be used in the prediction of breakthrough curves of activated carbons.

  11. Magnetic Field Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  12. Vapor pressures and heats of sublimation of crystalline β-cellobiose from classical molecular dynamics simulations with quantum mechanical corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlert, Jakob

    2014-05-22

    In this paper, we report the calculation of the enthalpy of sublimation, Δ(sub)H, as a function of temperature of crystalline β-cellobiose from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, using two popular carbohydrate force fields. Together with the entropy difference between the solid and the vapor, ΔS, evaluated at atmospheric pressure, Δ(sub)H gives the vapor pressure of cellobiose over the solid phase as a function of T. It is found that when quantum mechanical corrections to the enthalpy calculated from the distribution of normal modes is applied both force fields give Δ(sub)H close to experiments. The entropy change, ΔS, which is calculated within a harmonic approximation becomes too small, leading to vapor pressures that are too low. These findings are relevant to MD simulations of crystalline carbohydrates in general, e.g., native cellulose.

  13. Calculation of gas turbine characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    The reasons and regularities of vapor flow and turbine parameter variation depending on the total pressure drop rate π* and rotor rotation frequency n are studied, as exemplified by a two-stage compressor turbine of a power-generating gas turbine installation. The turbine characteristic is calculated in a wide range of mode parameters using the method in which analytical dependences provide high accuracy for the calculated flow output angle and different types of gas dynamic losses are determined with account of the influence of blade row geometry, blade surface roughness, angles, compressibility, Reynolds number, and flow turbulence. The method provides satisfactory agreement of results of calculation and turbine testing. In the design mode, the operation conditions for the blade rows are favorable, the flow output velocities are close to the optimal ones, the angles of incidence are small, and the flow "choking" modes (with respect to consumption) in the rows are absent. High performance and a nearly axial flow behind the turbine are obtained. Reduction of the rotor rotation frequency and variation of the pressure drop change the flow parameters, the parameters of the stages and the turbine, as well as the form of the characteristic. In particular, for decreased n, nonmonotonic variation of the second stage reactivity with increasing π* is observed. It is demonstrated that the turbine characteristic is mainly determined by the influence of the angles of incidence and the velocity at the output of the rows on the losses and the flow output angle. The account of the growing flow output angle due to the positive angle of incidence for decreased rotation frequencies results in a considerable change of the characteristic: poorer performance, redistribution of the pressure drop at the stages, and change of reactivities, growth of the turbine capacity, and change of the angle and flow velocity behind the turbine.

  14. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H8O Cyclopentanone (EVLM1111, LB5655_E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H8O Cyclopentanone (EVLM1111, LB5655_E)' providing data from direct measurement of pressure at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant temperature.

  15. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H10O Cyclohexanone (EVLM1111, LB5654_E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H10O Cyclohexanone (EVLM1111, LB5654_E)' providing data from direct measurement of pressure at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant temperature.

  16. Digital calculations of engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Starkman, E S; Taylor, C Fayette

    1964-01-01

    Digital Calculations of Engine Cycles is a collection of seven papers which were presented before technical meetings of the Society of Automotive Engineers during 1962 and 1963. The papers cover the spectrum of the subject of engine cycle events, ranging from an examination of composition and properties of the working fluid to simulation of the pressure-time events in the combustion chamber. The volume has been organized to present the material in a logical sequence. The first two chapters are concerned with the equilibrium states of the working fluid. These include the concentrations of var

  17. Liquid-vapor equilibrium and interfacial properties of square wells in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas-Pérez, Julio C.; Quintana-H, Jacqueline; Chapela, Gustavo A.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-vapor coexistence and interfacial properties of square wells in two dimensions are calculated. Orthobaric densities, vapor pressures, surface tensions, and interfacial thicknesses are reported. Results are presented for a series of potential widths λ* = 1.4, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, and 5, where λ* is given in units of the hard core diameter σ. Critical and triple points are explored. No critical point was found for λ* Armas-Pérez et al. [unpublished] as a hexatic phase transition. It is located at reduced temperatures T* = 0.47 and 0.35 for λ* = 1.4 and 1.5, respectively. Properties such as the surface tension, vapor pressure, and interfacial thickness do not present any discontinuity at these points. This amorphous solid branch does not follow the corresponding state principle, which is only applied to liquids and gases.

  18. A novel porphyrin-containing polyimide nanofibrous membrane for colorimetric and fluorometric detection of pyridine vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yani; Du, Yanglong; Xu, Jiayao; Wang, Junbo

    2013-11-19

    A novel zinc porphyrin-containing polyimide (ZPCPI) nanofibrous membrane for rapid and reversible detection of trace amounts of pyridine vapor is described. The membrane displays a distinct color change, as well as dramatic variations in absorption and fluorescent emission spectra, upon exposure to pyridine vapor. This condition allows the detection of the analyte at concentrations as low as 0.041 ppm. The vapochromic and spectrophotometric responses of the membrane are attributed to the formation of the ZPCPI-pyridine complex upon axial coordination. From surface plasmon resonance analysis, the affinity constant of ZPCPI-pyridine complex was calculated to be (3.98 ± 0.25) × 104 L · mol(-1). The ZPCPI nanofibrous membrane also showed excellent selectivity for pyridine vapor over other common amines, confirming its applicability in the manufacture of pyridine-sensitive gas sensors.

  19. Influence of Soil Moisture on Soil Gas Vapor Concentration for Vapor Intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2013-10-01

    Mathematical models have been widely used in analyzing the effects of various environmental factors in the vapor intrusion process. Soil moisture content is one of the key factors determining the subsurface vapor concentration profile. This manuscript considers the effects of soil moisture profiles on the soil gas vapor concentration away from any surface capping by buildings or pavement. The "open field" soil gas vapor concentration profile is observed to be sensitive to the soil moisture distribution. The van Genuchten relations can be used for describing the soil moisture retention curve, and give results consistent with the results from a previous experimental study. Other modeling methods that account for soil moisture are evaluated. These modeling results are also compared with the measured subsurface concentration profiles in the U.S. EPA vapor intrusion database.

  20. Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, E.

    1996-05-01

    Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

  1. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  2. Explosive vapor detection payload for small robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimac, Phil J.; Pettit, Michael; Wetzel, John P.; Haas, John W.

    2013-05-01

    Detection of explosive hazards is a critical component of enabling and improving operational mobility and protection of US Forces. The Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) developed by the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is addressing this challenge for dismounted soldiers. Under the AMDS program, ARA has developed a vapor sampling system that enhances the detection of explosive residues using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors. The Explosives Hazard Trace Detection (EHTD) payload is designed for plug-and-play installation and operation on small robotic platforms, addressing critical Army needs for more safely detecting concealed or exposed explosives in areas such as culverts, walls and vehicles. In this paper, we describe the development, robotic integration and performance of the explosive vapor sampling system, which consists of a sampling "head," a vapor transport tube and an extendable "boom." The sampling head and transport tube are integrated with the boom, allowing samples to be collected from targeted surfaces up to 7-ft away from the robotic platform. During sample collection, an IR lamp in the sampling head is used to heat a suspected object/surface and the vapors are drawn through the heated vapor transport tube to an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for detection. The EHTD payload is capable of quickly (less than 30 seconds) detecting explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX at nanogram levels on common surfaces (brick, concrete, wood, glass, etc.).

  3. The Activity and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Nicotine from Tobacco at Moderate Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St.Charles F. Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vapor pressure of nicotine has been reported for unprotonated nicotine and for nicotine-water solutions. Yet no published values exist for nicotine in any commercially relevant matrix or for protonated forms (e.g., tobacco, smoke, electronic cigarette solutions, nicotine replacement products, nicotine salts. Therefore a methodology was developed to measure nicotine activity (defined as the vapor pressure from a matrix divided by the vapor pressure of pure nicotine. The headspace concentration of nicotine was measured for pure nicotine and tobacco stored at 23, 30, and 40 °C which allowed for conversion to vapor pressure and nicotine activity and for the estimation of enthalpy of vaporization. Burley, Flue-cured, Oriental, and cigarette blends were tested. Experiments were conducted with pure nicotine initially until the storage and sampling techniques were validated by comparison with previously published values. We found that the nicotine activity from tobacco was less than 1% with Burley > Flue-cured > Oriental. At 23 °C the nicotine vapor pressure averaged by tobacco type was 0.45 mPa for Oriental tobacco, 1.8 mPa for Flue-cured, 13 mPa for Burley while pure nicotine was 2.95 Pa. In general, the nicotine activity increased as the (calculated unprotonated nicotine concentration increased. The nicotine enthalpy of vaporization from tobacco ranged from 77 kJ/mol to 92 kJ/mol with no obvious trends with regard to tobacco origin, type, stalk position or even the wide range of nicotine activity. The mean value for all tobacco types was 86.7 kJ/mol with a relative standard deviation of 6.5% indicating that this was an intrinsic property of the nicotine form in tobacco rather than the specific tobacco properties. This value was about 30 kJ/mol greater than that of pure nicotine and is similar to the energy needed to remove a proton from monoprotonated nicotine.

  4. A Numerical Investigation of Vapor Intrusion — the Dynamic Response of Contaminant Vapors to Rainfall Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1 m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in

  5. A numerical investigation of vapor intrusion--the dynamic response of contaminant vapors to rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2012-10-15

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in determining

  6. Projections of Horizontal Water Vapor Transport across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    With a warming Earth's atmosphere, the global water cycle is expected to intensify, a process that is likely to yield changes in the frequency and intensity of hydrological extremes. To quantify such changes over Europe, most previous research has been based upon precipitation scenarios. However, seldom has the horizontal water vapor transport (integrated vapor transport IVT) been investigated, a key variable responsible for heavy precipitation events and one that links water source and sink regions. It is hence the aim of this study to assess the projections of IVT across Europe. The Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is the source of the climate model projections. The historical simulations (1979-2005) and two emissions scenarios (2073-2099), or representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) from 22 global circulation models were retrieved and evaluated. In particular, at model grid points across Europe the mean, standard deviation, and the 95th percentile of IVT were calculated for December, January, and February (Boreal winter); and for June, July, and August (Austral winter). The CMIP5 historical multi-model mean closely resembles the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis. In the future under the two emissions scenarios, the IVT increases in magnitude, with the highest percentage changes occurring in the extreme emissions (RCP8.5) scenario; for example, multi-model mean IVT increases of 30% are found in the domain. An evaluation of the low-altitude moisture and winds indicates that higher atmospheric water vapor content is the primary cause of these projected changes.

  7. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (EVLM1231, LB5709_E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (EVLM1231, LB5709_E)' providing data from direct measurement of temperature and mole fraction in vapor phase at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant pressure.

  8. Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

    2012-01-01

    Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

  9. UTLS water vapor trends as observed by the Boulder balloon series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, A.; Mueller, R.; Homonnai, V.; Janosi, I. M.; Rohrer, F.; Spelten, N.; Hurst, D. F.; Forster, P.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years of high resolution balloon-borne measurements over Boulder, Colorado, are used to investigate the water vapor trend in the tropopause region. This analysis extents already existing Boulder sonde trend statistics, usually focusing on altitudes above 16km, to lower altitudes in the UTLS. This is achieved using two new concepts: 1) Trends are presented in a tropopause (TP) referenced coordinate system from -2km below to 10km above the TP. 2) The sonde profiles are characterized according to tropical and midlatitude TP heights, since the sonde location at 40°N is affected by dynamics and seasonality of the local jet stream. A data selection according to branches with z_TP>14km (B1) and z_TPwater vapor reservoirs. An analysis based on these concepts reduces the dynamically-induced water vapor variability at the TP and allows trend studies in the UTLS. The analysis shows that trends in branch B1 have a better significance -2 to 4km around the TP compared with trends in branch B2. At higher altitudes trends are comparable with published trends, suggesting that a TP based trend calculation is not necessary there. Nevertheless, a decrease in water vapor beginning in 2001 is not visible in both branches between -2 to 4km around the TP. At higher altitudes, this decrease is flattened for the two branches compared with a third branch (B3) with TP heights between 12 and 14km. Branch B3 is characterized by a sharp slope of TP heights across the jet stream. We discuss the hypothesis that the decrease in water vapor beginning in 2001 above Boulder may also be linked with dynamics above the jet stream. These results are also revealed by HALOE based analyses. Using radiative transfer calculations based on a fixed dynamical heating assumption we will study the possible impact of observed water vapor trends around the TP on radiative forcing of surface temperatures.

  10. Permeability of starch gel matrices and select films to solvent vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Gregory M; Klamczynski, Artur P; Ludvik, Charles; Shey, Justin; Imam, Syed H; Chiou, Bor-Sen; McHugh, Tara; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Orts, William; Wood, Delilah; Offeman, Rick

    2006-05-03

    Volatile agrochemicals such as 2-heptanone have potential in safely and effectively controlling important agricultural pests provided that they are properly delivered. The present study reports the permeability of starch gel matrices and various coatings, some of which are agricultural-based, that could be used in controlled release devices. Low-density, microcellular starch foam was made from wheat, Dent corn, and high amylose corn starches. The foam density ranged from 0.14 to 0.34 g/cm3, the pore volume ranged from 74 to 89%, and the loading capacity ranged from 2.3 to 7.2 times the foam weight. The compressive properties of the foam were not markedly affected by saturating the pore volume with silicone oil. The vapor transmission rate (VTR) and vapor permeability (VP) were measured in dry, porous starch foam and silicone-saturated starch gels. VTR values were highest in foam samples containing solvents with high vapor pressures. Silicone oil-saturated gels had lower VTR and VP values as compared to the dry foam. However, the silicone oil gel did not markedly reduce the VP for 2-heptanone and an additional vapor barrier or coating was needed to adequately reduce the evaporation rate. The VP of films of beeswax, paraffin, ethylene vinyl alcohol, a fruit film, and a laminate comprised of beeswax and fruit film was measured. The fruit film had a relatively high VP for polar solvents and a very low VP for nonpolar solvents. The laminate film provided a low VP for polar and nonpolar solvents. Perforating the fruit film portion of the laminate provided a method of attaining the target flux rate of 2-heptanone. The results demonstrate that the vapor flux rate of biologically active solvents can be controlled using agricultural materials.

  11. Diffuse-interface modeling of liquid-vapor coexistence in equilibrium drops using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G; Troconis, Jorge; Sira, Eloy; Peña-Polo, Franklin; Klapp, Jaime

    2014-07-01

    We study numerically liquid-vapor phase separation in two-dimensional, nonisothermal, van der Waals (vdW) liquid drops using the method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). In contrast to previous SPH simulations of drop formation, our approach is fully adaptive and follows the diffuse-interface model for a single-component fluid, where a reversible, capillary (Korteweg) force is added to the equations of motion to model the rapid but smooth transition of physical quantities through the interface separating the bulk phases. Surface tension arises naturally from the cohesive part of the vdW equation of state and the capillary forces. The drop models all start from a square-shaped liquid and spinodal decomposition is investigated for a range of initial densities and temperatures. The simulations predict the formation of stable, subcritical liquid drops with a vapor atmosphere, with the densities and temperatures of coexisting liquid and vapor in the vdW phase diagram closely matching the binodal curve. We find that the values of surface tension, as determined from the Young-Laplace equation, are in good agreement with the results of independent numerical simulations and experimental data. The models also predict the increase of the vapor pressure with temperature and the fitting to the numerical data reproduces very well the Clausius-Clapeyron relation, thus allowing for the calculation of the vaporization pressure for this vdW fluid.

  12. What does the Unexpected Detection of Water Vapor in Arcturus' Atmosphere Tell us?

    CERN Document Server

    Ryde, N; Richter, M J; Lacy, J H; Greathouse, T K; Ryde, Nils; Lambert, David L.; Richter, Matthew J.; Lacy, John H.; Greathouse, Thomas K.

    2002-01-01

    In this talk I presented and discussed our unexpected detection of water vapor in the disk-averaged spectrum of the K2IIIp red giant Arcturus [for details, see Ryde et al. (2002)]. Arcturus, or alpha Bootes is, with its effective temperature of 4300 K, the hottest star yet to show water vapor features. We argue that the water vapor is photospheric and that its detection provides us with new insights into the outer parts of the photosphere. We are not able to model the vater vapor with a standard, one-component, 1D, radiative-equilibrium, LTE model photosphere, which probably means we are lacking essential physics in such models. However, we are able to model several OH lines of different excitation and the water-vapor lines satisfactorily after lowering the temperature structure of the very outer parts of the photosphere at log tau_500=-3.8 and beyond compared to a flux-constant, hydrostatic, standard marcs model photosphere. Our new semi-empirical model is consistently calculated from the given temperature s...

  13. [Inspection of gas cylinders in storage at TA-54, Area L]. Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-23

    ERC sampled, analyzed, and recontainerized when necessary gas cylinders containing various chemicals in storage at Los Alamos TA-54 Area L. A vapor containment structure was erected. A total of 179 cylinders was processed; 39 were repackaged; and 55 were decommissioned. This report summarizes the operation; this is Volume 1 of five volumes.

  14. Direct observation of metal nanoparticles as heterogeneous nuclei for the condensation of supersaturated organic vapors: nucleation of size-selected aluminum nanoparticles in acetonitrile and n-hexane vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsayed, Victor; El-Shall, M Samy

    2014-08-07

    correlation is found between the seed nanoparticle's size and the degree of the supersaturation of the condensing vapor. This result and the agreement among the calculated Kelvin diameters and the size of the nucleating Al nanoparticles determined by transmission electron microscopy provide strong proof for the development of a new approach for the separation and characterization of heterogeneous nuclei formed in organic vapors. These processes can take place in the atmosphere by a combination of several organic species including polar compounds which could be very efficient in activating charged nanoparticles and cluster ions of atmospheric relevance.

  15. Water vapor release from biofuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, R. S.; Welling, M.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.

    2008-03-01

    We report on the emission of water vapor from biofuel combustion. Concurrent measurements of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are used to scale the concentrations of water vapor found, and are compared to carbon in the biofuel. Fuel types included hardwood (oak and African musasa), softwood (pine and spruce, partly with green needles), and African savanna grass. The session-averaged ratio of H2O to the sum of CO and CO2 in the emissions from 16 combustion experiments ranged from 1.2 to 3.7 on average, indicating the presence of water that is not chemically bound. This biofuel moisture content ranged from 33% in the dry African hardwood, musasa, to 220% in fresh pine branches with needles. The moisture content from fresh biofuel contributes distinctly to the water vapor in biomass burning emissions, and its influence on meteorology needs to be evaluated.

  16. Water vapor release from biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, R. S.; Welling, M.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.

    2008-10-01

    We report on the emission of water vapor from biomass combustion. Concurrent measurements of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are used to scale the concentrations of water vapor found, and are referenced to carbon in the biomass. The investigated fuel types include hardwood (oak and African musasa), softwood (pine and spruce, partly with green needles), and African savanna grass. The session-averaged ratio of H2O to the sum of CO and CO2 in the emissions from 16 combustion experiments ranged from 1.2 to 3.7, indicating the presence of water that is not chemically bound. This non-bound biomass moisture content ranged from 33% in the dry African hardwood, musasa, to 220% in fresh pine branches with needles. The moisture content from fresh biomass contributes significantly to the water vapor in biomass burning emissions, and its influence on the behavior of fire plumes and pyro-cumulus clouds needs to be evaluated.

  17. Water vapor release from biofuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Parmar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the emission of water vapor from biofuel combustion. Concurrent measurements of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are used to scale the concentrations of water vapor found, and are compared to carbon in the biofuel. Fuel types included hardwood (oak and African musasa, softwood (pine and spruce, partly with green needles, and African savanna grass. The session-averaged ratio of H2O to the sum of CO and CO2 in the emissions from 16 combustion experiments ranged from 1.2 to 3.7 on average, indicating the presence of water that is not chemically bound. This biofuel moisture content ranged from 33% in the dry African hardwood, musasa, to 220% in fresh pine branches with needles. The moisture content from fresh biofuel contributes distinctly to the water vapor in biomass burning emissions, and its influence on meteorology needs to be evaluated.

  18. Possible seasonal variability of mesospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, R. M.; Schwartz, P. R.; Wilson, W. J.; Ricketts, W. B.; Howard, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-based spectral line measurements of the 22.2 GHz water vapor line in atmospheric emission were made at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which have been used to deduce the mesospheric water vapor profile. The measurements were made nearly continuously in the spring and early summer of 1984. The results indicate a temporal increase in the water vapor mixing ratio in the upper mesosphere from April through June. At 75 km, this increase is nearly by a factor of 2. Comparison of the present results with the results of a similar series of measurements made at the Haystack (radio astronomy) Observatory indicate that this temporal increase is part of a seasonal variation.

  19. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electrical utilities. The results of this study will be used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate whether regulation of HAPs emissions from utilities is warranted. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling/Results/Special Topics describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data. The Special Topics section of Volume 1 reports on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/particle distributions of toxic chemicals. Volume 2: Appendices include field sampling data sheets, quality assurance results, and uncertainty calculations. The chemicals measured at Niles Boiler No. 2 were the following: five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); ammonia and cyanide; elemental carbon; radionuclides; volatile organic compounds (VOC); semivolatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated dioxins and furans; and aldehydes.

  20. Slurry combustion. Volume 2: Appendices, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-06-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: coal analyses and slurryability characteristics; listings of programs used to call and file experimental data, and to reduce data in enthalpy and efficiency calculations; and tabulated data sets.

  1. A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, J.; Tabakoff, W.

    1980-01-01

    Turbulent flow within turbomachines having arbitrary blade geometries is examined. Effects of turbulence are modeled using two equations, one expressing the development of the turbulence kinetic energy and the other its dissipation rate. To account for complicated blade geometries, the flow equations are formulated in terms of a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system. The analysis is applied to a radial inflow turbine. The solution obtained indicates the severity of the complex interaction mechanism that occurs between the different flow regimes (i.e., boundary layers, recirculating eddies, separation zones, etc.). Comparison with nonviscous flow solutions tend to justify strongly the inadequacy of using the latter with standard boundary layer techniques to obtain viscous flow details within turbomachine rotors. Capabilities and limitations of the present method of analysis are discussed.

  2. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2011-05-23

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  3. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Marston, Jeremy O.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  4. Water vapor release from biomass combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, R. S.; Welling, M.; Andreae, M. O.; G. Helas

    2008-01-01

    We report on the emission of water vapor from biomass combustion. Concurrent measurements of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are used to scale the concentrations of water vapor found, and are referenced to carbon in the biomass. The investigated fuel types include hardwood (oak and African musasa), softwood (pine and spruce, partly with green needles), and African savanna grass. The session-averaged ratio of H2O to the sum of CO and CO2 in the ...

  5. Water vapor release from biofuel combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, R. S.; Welling, M.; Andreae, M. O.; G. Helas

    2008-01-01

    We report on the emission of water vapor from biofuel combustion. Concurrent measurements of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are used to scale the concentrations of water vapor found, and are compared to carbon in the biofuel. Fuel types included hardwood (oak and African musasa), softwood (pine and spruce, partly with green needles), and African savanna grass. The session-averaged ratio of H2O to the sum of CO and CO2 in the emissions from 16 ...

  6. Guidance on Soil Vapor Extraction Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    343 Table LNAPL DNAPL Source: after USEPA 1991 draw\\$vehandbk3.cdr aee p1 4/5/01 M~ssive Clay ) . ’C. ~AA_··’’’· --V,V~ . >:’ .’ ’·Sand...for removing orgamc contaminants with a vapor pressure greater than 0.5 mm mercury (Hg) at 200 Celsius (C). This includes common chlorinated solvents...liquids ( DNAPLs ), solvent vapors, or dissolved contaminants. • Depth to groundwater, seasonal variations, recharge and discharge information including

  7. Molecular dynamics of the water liquid-vapor interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.; Pratt, L. R.; MacElroy, R. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The results of molecular dynamics calculations on the equilibrium interface between liquid water and its vapor at 325 K are presented. For the TIP4P model of water intermolecular pair potentials, the average surface dipole density points from the vapor to the liquid. The most common orientations of water molecules have the C2 nu molecular axis roughly parallel to the interface. The distributions are quite broad and therefore compatible with the intermolecular correlations characteristic of bulk liquid water. All near-neighbor pairs in the outermost interfacial layers are hydrogen bonded according to the common definition adopted here. The orientational preferences of water molecules near a free surface differ from those near rigidly planar walls which can be interpreted in terms of patterns found in hexagonal ice 1. The mean electric field in the interfacial region is parallel to the mean polarization which indicates that attention cannot be limited to dipolar charge distributions in macroscopic descriptions of the electrical properties of this interface. The value of the surface tension obtained is 132 +/- 46 dyn/cm, significantly different from the value for experimental water of 68 dyn/cm at 325 K.

  8. A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vílchez, Juan A. [TIPs – Trámites, Informes y Proyectos, SL, Llenguadoc 10, 08030 Barcelona (Spain); Villafañe, Diana [Centre d’Estudis del Risc Tecnològic (CERTEC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Casal, Joaquim, E-mail: joaquim.casal@upc.edu [Centre d’Estudis del Risc Tecnològic (CERTEC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We proposed a new parameter: the dispersion safety factor (DSF). ► DSF is the ratio between the distance reached by the LFL and that reached by the visible cloud. ► The results for the DSF agree well with the evidence from large scale experiments. ► Two expressions have been proposed to calculate DSF as a function of H{sub R}. ► The DSF may help in indicating the danger of ignition of a LNG vapor cloud. -- Abstract: The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire.

  9. In situ FT-IR measurements of competitive vapor adsorption into porous thin films containing silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charles R; Spurlin, Tighe A; Frey, Brian L

    2002-03-01

    Vapor adsorption into porous ultrathin films on a gold surface is investigated with in situ surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). The thin films are prepared by the electrostatic self-assembly of oppositely charged poly(L-lysine) (PL) and silica nanoparticles on a chemically modified gold surface. Characterization with ex situ SPR and PM-IRRAS demonstrates the buildup of multiple PL/SiO2 bilayers as well as an excellent correlation between the quantitative results from these two techniques. In situ vapor adsorption experiments with these thin films show evidence of porosity, reproducibility, and rapid reversibility. Exposure to acetone vapor (P/P0 = 0.032) causes the film to adsorb 9% acetone by volume, which corresponds to coverage of approximately one-half of the silica nanoparticle surface area. In situ PM-IRRAS provides much information about the molecular interactions occurring in the film upon adsorption or desorption of vapors. Dosing with a mixture of vapors leads to a competition for adsorption into the film, and PM-IRRAS results show that acetone slightly outcompetes nitromethane. These experiments with nanoparticle thin films demonstrate the advantages of using in situ PM-IRRAS for studying reversible adsorption in the presence of vapor mixtures.

  10. Riemannian geometry study of vapor-liquid phase equilibria and supercritical behavior of the Lennard-Jones fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Helge-Otmar; Mausbach, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The behavior of thermodynamic response functions and the thermodynamic scalar curvature in the supercritical region have been studied for a Lennard-Jones fluid based on a revised modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state. Response function extrema are sometimes used to estimate the Widom line, which is characterized by the maxima of the correlation lengths. We calculated the Widom line for the Lennard-Jones fluid without using any response function extrema. Since the volume of the correlation length is proportional to the Riemannian thermodynamic scalar curvature, the locus of the Widom line follows the slope of maximum curvature. We show that the slope of the Widom line follows the slope of the isobaric heat capacity maximum only in the close vicinity of the critical point and that, therefore, the use of response function extrema in this context is problematic. Furthermore, we constructed the vapor-liquid coexistence line for the Lennard-Jones fluid using the fact that the correlation length, and therefore the thermodynamic scalar curvature, must be equal in the two coexisting phases. We compared the resulting phase envelope with those from simulation data where multiple histogram reweighting was used and found striking agreement between the two methods.

  11. Interaction of aerosol particles composed of protein and salts with water vapor: hygroscopic growth and microstructural rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mikhailov

    2003-09-01

    , but not as much as for pure salt particles, i.e. the protein inhibited the decomposition of NH4NO3 or the evaporation of the decomposition products NH3 and HNO3. The efflorescence threshold of NaCl-BSA particles decreased with increasing BSA dry mass fraction, i.e. the protein inhibited the formation of salt crystals and enhanced the stability of supersaturated solution droplets.

    The H-TDMA and TEM results indicate that the protein was enriched at the surface of the mixed particles and formed an envelope, which inhibits the access of water vapor to the particle core and leads to kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth, phase transitions, and microstructural rearrangement processes. Besides these surface and kinetic effects, proteins and comparable organic macromolecules may also influence the thermodynamic properties of the aqueous bulk solution (solubilities, vapor pressures, and chemical equilibria, e.g. for the decomposition and evaporation of NH4NO3.

    The observed effects should be taken into account in the analysis of data from laboratory experiments and field measurements and in the modelling of aerosol processes involving water vapor and particles with complex composition. They can strongly influence experimental results, and depending on ambient conditions they may also play a significant role in the atmosphere (deliquescence, efflorescence, and CCN activation of particles. In fact, irregular hygroscopic growth curves similar to the ones observed in this study have recently been reported from H-TDMA experiments with water-soluble organics extracted from real air particulate matter and with humic-like substances.

    The Köhler theory calculations performed with different models demonstrate that the hygroscopic growth of particles composed of inorganic salts and proteins can be efficiently described with a simple volume additivity approach, provided that the correct

  12. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  13. Minivoids in the Local Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, A V

    2006-01-01

    We consider a sphere of 7.5 Mpc radius, which contains 355 galaxies with accurately measured distances, to detect the nearest empty volumes. Using a simple void detection algorithm, we found six large (mini)voids in Aquila, Eridanus, Leo, Vela, Cepheus and Octans, each of more than 30 Mpc^3. Besides them, 24 middle-size "bubbles" of more than 5 Mpc^3 volume are detected, as well as 52 small "pores". The six largest minivoids occupy 58% of the considered volume. Addition of the bubbles and pores to them increases the total empty volume up to 75% and 81%, respectively. The detected local voids look like oblong potatoes with typical axial ratios b/a = 0.75 and c/a = 0.62 (in the triaxial ellipsoide approximation). Being arranged by the size of their volume, local voids follow power law of volumes-rankes dependence. A correlation Gamma-function of the Local Volume galaxies follows a power low with a formally calculated fractal dimension D = 1.5. We found that galaxies surrounding the local minivoids do not differ...

  14. Laboratory retention of vapor-phase PAHs using XAD adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J.; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Yu, Yaochien Y.; Chen, Minsung S.

    This investigation focuses on the retention of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on XAD (-2, -4, and -16) resins, which is crucial for estimating PAH gas/particle partition coefficients. The XAD resins were found to exhibit higher specific retention volumes ( Vg, net gas-phase retention volume per unit weight (gram) of sorbent) than PUF for some 3-ring PAHs at 20 oC. The 3-ring compounds broke through the XAD adsorbents more easily than the 4-ring compounds at constant temperature. For the equation, Log Vg= m log PL+ b ( PL: subcooled liquid vapor pressure) the average m values were approximately -0.2 and -0.3 at 20 and 40 oC, respectively. Moreover, the Vg values were lower at 40 oC than at 20 oC for each PAH compound. The XAD-4 appeared to have a greater Vg value (adsorbent weight based) for each compound among the adsorbents at 40 oC. It was possible that PAH micropore adsorption dominated on XAD-4, different from the predominance of the PAH surface adsorption on the other two adsorbents.

  15. Partial molar volumes of organic solutes in water. XXIII. Cyclic ketones at T = (298 to 573) K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibulka, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.cibulka@vscht.cz [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Simurka, Lukas; Hnedkovsky, Lubomir [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Bolotov, Alexander [Butlerov Institute of Chemistry, Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya Str. 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: > In this study we examine standard molar volumes of aqueous cyclic ketones. > State parameters of measurements were (298 to 573) K and pressures up to 30 MPa. > Differences in behavior of monoketones and cyclohexane-1,4-dione were observed. > Group contribution method was designed and examined. - Abstract: Density data for dilute aqueous solutions of four cyclic ketones (cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone, cycloheptanone, and cyclohexane-1,4-dione) are presented together with standard molar volumes (partial molar volumes at infinite dilution) calculated from the experimental data. The measurements were performed at temperatures from T = 298 K up to T = 573 K. Experimental pressures were close to the saturated vapor pressure of water, and (15 and 30) MPa. The data were obtained using a high-temperature high-pressure flow vibrating-tube densimeter. Experimental standard molar volumes were correlated as a function of temperature and pressure using an empirical polynomial function. Contributions of the molecular structural segments (methylene and carbonyl groups) to the standard molar volume were also evaluated and analyzed.

  16. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for Abreu & Johnson numerical vapor intrusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Yan, Guangxu; Li, Haiyan; Guo, Shaohui

    2016-03-05

    This study conducted one-at-a-time (OAT) sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for a numerical vapor intrusion model for nine input parameters, including soil porosity, soil moisture, soil air permeability, aerobic biodegradation rate, building depressurization, crack width, floor thickness, building volume, and indoor air exchange rate. Simulations were performed for three soil types (clay, silt, and sand), two source depths (3 and 8m), and two source concentrations (1 and 400 g/m(3)). Model sensitivity and uncertainty for shallow and high-concentration vapor sources (3m and 400 g/m(3)) are much smaller than for deep and low-concentration sources (8m and 1g/m(3)). For high-concentration sources, soil air permeability, indoor air exchange rate, and building depressurization (for high permeable soil like sand) are key contributors to model output uncertainty. For low-concentration sources, soil porosity, soil moisture, aerobic biodegradation rate and soil gas permeability are key contributors to model output uncertainty. Another important finding is that impacts of aerobic biodegradation on vapor intrusion potential of petroleum hydrocarbons are negligible when vapor source concentration is high, because of insufficient oxygen supply that limits aerobic biodegradation activities.

  17. Ion formation in laser-irradiated cesium vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, M.A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: Hameid56@hotmail.com; Gamal, Y.E.E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Sohag (Egypt); Abd El-Rahman, H.A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-11-15

    We study theoretically the formation of Cs{sup +} and Cs{sub 2}{sup +} during cw laser radiation resonant with 6s-7p transition of Cs atomic vapor. This is done by numerically solving rate equations for the evolution of atomic state and electron populations. The results of calculations for the atomic and molecular ions density at different values of laser power clarified that the associative ionization and Penning ionization process play an important role for producing the Cs{sub 2}{sup +} and Cs{sup +}, respectively, during the plasma formation. Also, the results showed that laser power of the order of 150mW and 40-50ns irradiation time are optimal in producing a fully ionized plasma.

  18. Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Chu, P. M.; Kleimeyer, J.; Rowland, Brad

    2003-08-01

    Quantitative, moderately high resolution (0.1 cm-1) infrared spectra have been acquired for a number of nitrogen broadened (1 atm N2) vapor phase chemicals including: Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Tabun (GA), Cyclosarin (GF), VX, Nitrogen Mustard (HN3), Sulfur Mustard (HD), and Lewisite (L). The spectra are acquired using a heated, flow-through White Cell1 of 5.6 meter optical path length. Each reported spectrum represents a statistical fit to Beer’s law, which allows for a rigorous calculation of uncertainty in the absorption coefficients. As part of an ongoing collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), cross-laboratory validation is a critical aspect of this work. In order to identify possible errors in the Dugway flow-through system, quantitative spectra of isopropyl alcohol from both NIST and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are compared to similar data taken at Dugway proving Grounds (DPG).

  19. Synthesis of mullite coatings by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulpuri, R.P.; Auger, M.; Sarin, V.K. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Formation of mullite on ceramic substrates via chemical vapor deposition was investigated. Mullite is a solid solution of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} with a composition of 3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{circ}2SiO{sub 2}. Thermodynamic calculations performed on the AlCl{sub 3}-SiCl{sub 4}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2} system were used to construct equilibrium CVD phase diagrams. With the aid of these diagrams and consideration of kinetic rate limiting factors, initial process parameters were determined. Through process optimization, crystalline CVD mullite coatings have been successfully grown on SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} substrates. Results from the thermodynamic analysis, process optimization, and effect of various process parameters on deposition rate and coating morphology are discussed.

  20. Vapor shielding models and the energy absorbed by divertor targets during transient events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skovorodin, D. I., E-mail: dskovorodin@gmail.com; Arakcheev, A. S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Pshenov, A. A.; Eksaeva, E. A.; Marenkov, E. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    The erosion of divertor targets caused by high heat fluxes during transients is a serious threat to ITER operation, as it is going to be the main factor determining the divertor lifetime. Under the influence of extreme heat fluxes, the surface temperature of plasma facing components can reach some certain threshold, leading to an onset of intense material evaporation. The latter results in formation of cold dense vapor and secondary plasma cloud. This layer effectively absorbs the energy of the incident plasma flow, turning it into its own kinetic and internal energy and radiating it. This so called vapor shielding is a phenomenon that may help mitigating the erosion during transient events. In particular, the vapor shielding results in saturation of energy (per unit surface area) accumulated by the target during single pulse of heat load at some level E{sub max}. Matching this value is one of the possible tests to verify complicated numerical codes, developed to calculate the erosion rate during abnormal events in tokamaks. The paper presents three very different models of vapor shielding, demonstrating that E{sub max} depends strongly on the heat pulse duration, thermodynamic properties, and evaporation energy of the irradiated target material. While its dependence on the other shielding details such as radiation capabilities of material and dynamics of the vapor cloud is logarithmically weak. The reason for this is a strong (exponential) dependence of the target material evaporation rate, and therefore the “strength” of vapor shield on the target surface temperature. As a result, the influence of the vapor shielding phenomena details, such as radiation transport in the vapor cloud and evaporated material dynamics, on the E{sub max} is virtually completely masked by the strong dependence of the evaporation rate on the target surface temperature. However, the very same details define the amount of evaporated particles, needed to provide an effective shielding

  1. Microbial growth with vapor-phase substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanzel, J.; Thullner, M.; Harms, H.; Wick, L.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Limited information exists on influences of the diffusive transport of volatile organic contaminants (VOC) on bacterial activity in the unsaturated zone of the terrestrial subsurface. Diffusion of VOC in the vapor-phase is much more efficient than in water and results in effective VOC transport and

  2. Vaporization of atherosclerotic plaques by spark erosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Slager (Cornelis); C.E. Essed; J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); N. Bom (Klaas); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); G.T. Meester (Geert)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractAn alternative to the laser irradiation of atherosclerotic lesions has been developed. A pulsed electrocardiogram R wave-triggered electrical spark erosion technique is described. Controlled vaporization of fibrous and lipid plaques with minimal thermal side effects was achieved and docu

  3. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Vinod; Mulpuri, Rao

    1998-01-01

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  4. Thermodynamics of incongruently vaporizing tungsten diselenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, R.A.; Franzen, H.F.; Ziegler, R.J.

    1982-03-01

    The incongruent vaporization of WSe/sub 2/ was investigated by a simultaneous weight-loss-mass-spectrometric Knudsen effusion technique in the temperature range 1290-1720 K. For the reaction (1/2)WSe/sub 2/(s) ..-->.. (1/2)W(s) + Se(g), ..delta..H/sub 298//sup 0/ = 311 +/- 3 kJ/mol.

  5. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  6. Vaporization of synthetic fuels. Final report. [Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirignano, W.A.; Yao, S.C.; Tong, A.Y.; Talley, D.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of transient droplet vaporization in a hot convective environment is examined. The main objective of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the droplet vaporization which is simple enough to be feasibly incorporated into a complete spray combustion analysis and yet will also account for the important physics such as liquid-phase internal circulation, unsteady droplet heating and axisymmetric gas-phase convection. A simplified liquid-phase model has been obtained based on the assumption of the existence of a Hill's spherical vortex inside the droplet together with some approximations made in the governing diffusion equation. The use of the simplified model in a spray situation has also been examined. It has been found that droplet heating and vaporization are essentially unsteady and droplet temperature is nonuniform for a significant portion of its lifetime. It has also been found that the droplet vaporization characteristic can be quite sensitive to the particular liquid-phase and gas-phase models. The results of the various models are compared with the existing experimental data. Due to large scattering in the experimental measurements, particularly the droplet diameter, no definite conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental data. Finally, certain research problems which are related to the present study are suggested for future studies.

  7. Processes of heat and mass transfer taking place in underground roadways and their calculation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifka, I.

    1987-01-01

    Advantages and limitations of some methods used for calculating underground climatic conditions are summarized. Measurement data are evaluated concerning the underground climatic conditions of various galleries in a deep ore mine now under construction. The heat amount absorbed by the air flowing in drifts is to be calculated from the rock side by a corrected heat flow factor. The absorption of vapor has to be calculated by a factor that expresses the ratio of heat and vapor absorptions. These latter values have to be determined reliably by in situ measurements.

  8. The Structure and Thermodynamics of Alkali Halide Vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, John George

    A comprehensive set of electron diffraction experiments were performed on 16 of the alkali halides in the vapor phase. A 40kev electron beam was scattered from the vapor effusing out of the nozzle of a temperature controlled gas cell. The resulting data were analyzed at the University of Edinburgh with the program ED80. This resulted in values for the bond lengths of monomers and the dimers, the bond angle of the dimers and the monomer-dimer ratios. In several cases, it was possible to further refine the data to obtain information on the mean amplitudes of vibration. As a check on the accuracy of the results, the monomer bond distances obtained by electron diffraction were compared to values obtained previously by microwave spectroscopy. The average monomer bond length r_{a} is corrected to obtain the equilibrium bond distance r_{e}. This value is then compared to the value of r_{e } obtained from microwave spectroscopy and found to be in excellent agreement. The bond lengths and angles of the dimers were compared against model calculations. While no one model was found to accurately predict the dimer structure parameters of all of the alkali halides, the Rittner model of Gowda et al was found to accurately predict the structure of six of the dimers. Thermodynamical calculations were performed on the model data which resulted in theoretical curves of the monomer-dimer ratios. Comparison of these curves with the experimental monomer-dimer ratio permits an evaluation of the model vibration frequencies. The enthalpy of formation of the dimer, Delta H_sp{2}{f}(298) is examined with regard to the size of the variation necessary to bring about agreement of the experimental and model monomer-dimer ratios.

  9. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pump Heat Exchangers for a Condensate Distillation System: Design and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical in long duration space exploration. One of the more promising methods of reclaiming urine is the distillation/condensation process used in the cascade distillation system (CDS). This system accepts a mixture of urine and toxic stabilizing agents, heats it to vaporize the water and condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating and its condensate flow requires cooling. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately requires two separate units, each of which would require large amounts of electrical power. By heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit, mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump performance tests are provided. A summary is provided of the heat pump mass, volume and power trades and a selection recommendation is made.

  10. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pumps for a Cascade Distillation Subsystem: Design and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2012-01-01

    Humans on a spacecraft require significant amounts of water for drinking, food, hydration, and hygiene. Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical for long duration space exploration. One of the more promising consumable-free methods of reclaiming wastewater is the distillation/condensation process used in the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS). The CDS heats wastewater to the point of vaporization then condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating for evaporation and the product water flow requires cooling for condensation. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately would require two separate units, each of which would demand large amounts of electrical power. Mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained by heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the CDS system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump analysis and performance tests are provided. The mass, volume, and power requirement for each heat pump option is compared and the advantages and disadvantages of each system are listed.

  11. Geochemical Calculations Using Spreadsheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutch, Steven Ian

    1991-01-01

    Spreadsheets are well suited to many geochemical calculations, especially those that are highly repetitive. Some of the kinds of problems that can be conveniently solved with spreadsheets include elemental abundance calculations, equilibrium abundances in nuclear decay chains, and isochron calculations. (Author/PR)

  12. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these…

  13. Atomic layer chemical vapor deposition of ZrO2-based dielectric films: Nanostructure and nanochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, S. K.; Wang, C.-G.; Tang, D.; Kim, M. J.; Carpenter, R. W.; Werkhoven, C.; Shero, E.

    2003-04-01

    A 4 nm layer of ZrOx (targeted x˜2) was deposited on an interfacial layer (IL) of native oxide (SiO, t˜1.2 nm) surface on 200 mm Si wafers by a manufacturable atomic layer chemical vapor deposition technique at 300 °C. Some as-deposited layers were subjected to a postdeposition, rapid thermal annealing at 700 °C for 5 min in flowing oxygen at atmospheric pressure. The experimental x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy results showed that a multiphase and heterogeneous structure evolved, which we call the Zr-O/IL/Si stack. The as-deposited Zr-O layer was amorphous ZrO2-rich Zr silicate containing about 15% by volume of embedded ZrO2 nanocrystals, which transformed to a glass nanoceramic (with over 90% by volume of predominantly tetragonal-ZrO2 (t-ZrO2) and monoclinic-ZrO2 (m-ZrO2) nanocrystals) upon annealing. The formation of disordered amorphous regions within some of the nanocrystals, as well as crystalline regions with defects, probably gave rise to lattice strains and deformations. The interfacial layer (IL) was partitioned into an upper SiO2-rich Zr silicate and the lower SiOx. The latter was substoichiometric and the average oxidation state increased from Si0.86+ in SiO0.43 (as-deposited) to Si1.32+ in SiO0.66 (annealed). This high oxygen deficiency in SiOx was indicative of the low mobility of oxidizing specie in the Zr-O layer. The stacks were characterized for their dielectric properties in the Pt/{Zr-O/IL}/Si metal oxide-semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) configuration. The measured equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) was not consistent with the calculated EOT using a bilayer model of ZrO2 and SiO2, and the capacitance in accumulation (and therefore, EOT and kZr-O) was frequency dispersive, trends well documented in literature. This behavior is qualitatively explained in terms of the multilayer nanostructure and nanochemistry that

  14. Employment of vapor pressure data in the description of vapor-liquid equilibrium with direct method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbidelli, M.; Carra, S.

    1981-07-01

    A general procedure for inserting vapor-pressure data of pure components into equations of state provides a straightforward scheme for the extension of direct methods to the study of phase equilibria of polar mixtures and of solutions containing nonvolatile electrolytes. It makes the equation of state applicable to all compounds and to the shole temperature range and more accurate in the prediction of both multicomponent and pure vapor-liquid equilibria.

  15. Q Conversion Factor Models for Estimating Precipitable Water Vapor for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ilke; Mekik, Cetin; Gurbuz, Gokhan

    2015-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have recently proved to be one of the crucial tools for determining continuous and precise precipitable water vapor (GNSS-MET networks). GNSS, especially CORS networks such as CORS-TR (the Turkish Network-RTK), provide high temporal and spatial accuracy for the wet tropospheric zenith delays which are then converted to the precipitable water vapor due to the fact that they can operate in all weather conditions continuously and economically. The accuracy of wet tropospheric zenith delay highly depends on the accuracy of precipitable water vapor content in the troposphere. Therefore, the precipitable water vapor is an important element of the tropospheric zenith delay. A number of studies can be found in the literature on the determination of the precipitable water vapor from the tropospheric zenith delay. Studies of Hogg showed that when the precipitable water vapor is known, the tropospheric zenith delay can be computed. Askne and Nodius have developed fundamental equations between the wet tropospheric zenith delay and the precipitable water vapor from the equation of the index of refraction in the troposphere. Furthermore, Bevis have developed a linear regression model to determine the weighted mean temperature (Tm) depending on the surface temperature (Ts) in Askne and Nodius studies. For this reason, nearly 9000 radiosonde profiles in USA were analyzed and the coefficients calculated. Similarly, there are other studies on the calculation of those coefficients for different regions: Solbrig for Germany, Liou for Taiwan, Jihyun for South Korea, Dongseob for North Korea, Suresh Raju for India, Boutiouta and Lahcene for Algeria, Bokoye for Canada, Baltink for Netherlands and Baltic, Bock for Africa. It is stated that the weighted mean temperature can be found with a root mean square error of ±2-5 K. In addition, there are studies on the calculation of the coefficients globally. Another model for the determination of

  16. Estimation of Equilibrated Vapor Concentrations Using the UNIFAC Model for the Tetrachloroethylene-Chlorobenzene System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishidao, Toru; Ishimatsu, Sumiyo; Hori, Hajime

    2016-03-01

    Equilibrated vapor concentrations at 25°C of the tetrachloroethylene-chlorobenzene system were obtained in the presence of air to establish a method for estimating vapor concentrations in work environments where multicomponent organic solvents are used. The experimental data were correlated by introducing activity coefficients calculated by the UNIFAC (Universal Quasichemical Functional Group Activity Coefficient) model. There were four interaction parameters between groups in this solution system, and three had already been determined.However, the fourth parameter--the interaction parameter between ACCl and Cl-(C=C) groups--remains unknown. Therefore, this parameter was determined by a nonlinear least-squares method to obtain the best fit for the experimental data. The calculated values were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values.

  17. Kinetics of laser pulse vaporization of uranium dioxide by mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.

    1981-11-01

    Safety analyses of nuclear reactors require knowledge of the evaporation behavior of UO/sub 2/ at temperatures well above the melting point of 3140 K. In this study, rapid transient heating of a small spot on a UO/sub 2/ specimen was accomplished by a laser pulse, which generates a surface temperature excursion. This in turn vaporizes the target surface and the gas expands into vacuum. The surface temperature transient was monitored by a fast-response automatic optical pyrometer. The maximum surface temperatures investigated range from approx. 3700 K to approx. 4300 K. A computer program was developed to simulate the laser heating process and calculate the surface temperature evolution. The effect of the uncertainties of the high temperature material properties on the calculation was included in a sensitivity study for UO/sub 2/ vaporization. The measured surface temperatures were in satisfactory agreements.

  18. The Impact of Thermal Conductivity and Diffusion Rates on Water Vapor Transport through Gas Diffusion Layers

    CERN Document Server

    Burlatsky, S F; Gummallaa, M; Condita, D; Liua, F

    2013-01-01

    Water management in a hydrogen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is critical for performance. The impact of thermal conductivity and water vapor diffusion coefficients in a gas diffusion layer (GDL) has been studied by a mathematical model. The fraction of product water that is removed in the vapour phase through the GDL as a function of GDL properties and operating conditions has been calculated and discussed. Furthermore, the current model enables identification of conditions when condensation occurs in each GDL component and calculation of temperature gradient across the interface between different layers, providing insight into the overall mechanism of water transport in a given cell design. Water transport mode and condensation conditions in the GDL components depend on the combination of water vapor diffusion coefficients and thermal conductivities of the GDL components. Different types of GDL and water removal scenarios have been identified and related to experimentally-determined GDL proper...

  19. Exponential reduction of finite volume effects with twisted boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Cherman, Aleksey; Wagman, Michael L; Yaffe, Laurence G

    2016-01-01

    Flavor-twisted boundary conditions can be used for exponential reduction of finite volume artifacts in flavor-averaged observables in lattice QCD calculations with $SU(N_f)$ light quark flavor symmetry. Finite volume artifact reduction arises from destructive interference effects in a manner closely related to the phase averaging which leads to large $N_c$ volume independence. With a particular choice of flavor-twisted boundary conditions, finite volume artifacts for flavor-singlet observables in a hypercubic spacetime volume are reduced to the size of finite volume artifacts in a spacetime volume with periodic boundary conditions that is four times larger.

  20. A New Thermodynamic Calculation Method for Binary Alloys: Part I: Statistical Calculation of Excess Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The improved form of calculation formula for the activities of the components in binary liquids and solid alloys has been derived based on the free volume theory considering excess entropy and Miedema's model for calculating the formation heat of binary alloys. A calculation method of excess thermodynamic functions for binary alloys, the formulas of integral molar excess properties and partial molar excess properties for solid ordered or disordered binary alloys have been developed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  1. How Do Calculators Calculate Trigonometric Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Jeremy M.; Edwards, Bruce H.

    How does your calculator quickly produce values of trigonometric functions? You might be surprised to learn that it does not use series or polynomial approximations, but rather the so-called CORDIC method. This paper will focus on the geometry of the CORDIC method, as originally developed by Volder in 1959. This algorithm is a wonderful…

  2. Assessing the Temperature Dependence of Narrow-Band Raman Water Vapor Lidar Measurements: A Practical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Walker, Monique; Cardirola, Martin; Sakai, Tetsu; Veselovskii, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Narrow-band detection of the Raman water vapor spectrum using the lidar technique introduces a concern over the temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum. Various groups have addressed this issue either by trying to minimize the temperature dependence to the point where it can be ignored or by correcting for whatever degree of temperature dependence exists. The traditional technique for performing either of these entails accurately measuring both the laser output wavelength and the water vapor spectral passband with combined uncertainty of approximately 0.01 nm. However, uncertainty in interference filter center wavelengths and laser output wavelengths can be this large or larger. These combined uncertainties translate into uncertainties in the magnitude of the temperature dependence of the Raman lidar water vapor measurement of 3% or more. We present here an alternate approach for accurately determining the temperature dependence of the Raman lidar water vapor measurement. This alternate approach entails acquiring sequential atmospheric profiles using the lidar while scanning the channel passband across portions of the Raman water vapor Q-branch. This scanning is accomplished either by tilt-tuning an interference filter or by scanning the output of a spectrometer. Through this process a peak in the transmitted intensity can be discerned in a manner that defines the spectral location of the channel passband with respect to the laser output wavelength to much higher accuracy than that achieved with standard laboratory techniques. Given the peak of the water vapor signal intensity curve, determined using the techniques described here, and an approximate knowledge of atmospheric temperature, the temperature dependence of a given Raman lidar profile can be determined with accuracy of 0.5% or better. A Mathematica notebook that demonstrates the calculations used here is available from the lead author.

  3. 33 CFR 154.826 - Vapor compressors and blowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vapor compressors and blowers....826 Vapor compressors and blowers. (a) Each inlet and outlet to a compressor or blower which handles...) Excessive shaft bearing temperature. (d) If a centrifugal compressor, fan, or lobe blower handles vapor...

  4. Vapor-modulated heat pipe for improved temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. K.; Eninger, J. E.; Ludeke, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Dryout induced by vapor throttling makes control of equipment temperature less dependent on variations in sink environment. Mechanism controls flow of vapor in heat pipe by using valve in return path to build difference in pressure and also difference in saturation temperature of the vapor. In steady state, valve closes just enough to produce partial dryout that achieves required temperature drop.

  5. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or...

  6. Effects of vapor pressure/velocity and concentration on condensation heat transfer for steam-ethanol vapor mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Junjie; Yang, Yusen; Hu, Shenhua; Zhen, Kejian; Liu, Jiping [Xi' an Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an (China)

    2007-11-15

    When a steam-ethanol vapor mixture condenses on a vertical flat plate, the form of the condensate film changes and many drops are created. This non-film condensation is called pseudo-dropwise or Marangoni condensation. This paper aims to study the main influencing factors on the Marangoni condensation of steam-ethanol vapor.The factors include the ethanol concentration, vapor pressure, vapor velocity and vapor-to-surface temperature difference. The experiments show that the heat transfer coefficient has a maximum value of approximately 42 kW/m{sup 2} K when the ethanol concentration is 1%. At the low concentrations of 0.5, 1, 5.1 and 9.8%, the condensation heat transfer is greater than for pure steam. In addition, the heat transfer for all vapor mixtures increases with both the rise of vapor pressure and vapor velocity. (orig.)

  7. Effects of vapor pressure/velocity and concentration on condensation heat transfer for steam-ethanol vapor mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junjie; Yang, Yusen; Hu, Shenhua; Zhen, Kejian; Liu, Jiping

    2007-11-01

    When a steam-ethanol vapor mixture condenses on a vertical flat plate, the form of the condensate film changes and many drops are created. This non-film condensation is called pseudo-dropwise or Marangoni condensation. This paper aims to study the main influencing factors on the Marangoni condensation of steam-ethanol vapor.The factors include the ethanol concentration, vapor pressure, vapor velocity and vapor-to-surface temperature difference. The experiments show that the heat transfer coefficient has a maximum value of approximately 42 kW/m2 K when the ethanol concentration is 1%. At the low concentrations of 0.5, 1, 5.1 and 9.8%, the condensation heat transfer is greater than for pure steam. In addition, the heat transfer for all vapor mixtures increases with both the rise of vapor pressure and vapor velocity.

  8. Membrane-assisted vapor stripping: energy efficient hybrid distillation-vapor permeation process for alcohol-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Energy efficient alternatives to distillation for alcohol recovery from dilute solution are needed to improve biofuel sustainability. A process integrating steam stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step is proposed. The...

  9. Effect of the adsorbate kinetic diameter on the accuracy of the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation for modeling adsorption of organic vapors on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandar Lashaki, Masoud; Fayaz, Mohammadreza; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Hashisho, Zaher

    2012-11-30

    This paper investigates the effect of the kinetic diameter (KD) of the reference adsorbate on the accuracy of the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equation for predicting the adsorption isotherms of organic vapors on microporous activated carbon. Adsorption isotherms for 13 organic compounds on microporous beaded activated carbon were experimentally measured, and predicted using the D-R model and affinity coefficients. The affinity coefficients calculated based on molar volumes, molecular polarizabilities, and molecular parachors were used to predict the isotherms based on four reference compounds (4.3≤KD≤6.8 Å). The results show that the affinity coefficients are independent of the calculation method if the reference and test adsorbates are from the same organic group. Choosing a reference adsorbate with a KD similar to that of the test adsorbate results in better prediction of the adsorption isotherm. The relative error between the predicted and the measured adsorption isotherms increases as the absolute difference in the kinetic diameters of the reference and test adsorbates increases. Finally, the proposed hypothesis was used to explain reports of inconsistent findings among published articles. The results from this study are important because they allow a more accurate prediction of adsorption capacities of adsorbents which allow for better design of adsorption systems.

  10. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of physical vapor deposition of thin Cu film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; CHEN Chang-qi; ZHU Wu

    2004-01-01

    A two-dimensional Kinetic Monte Carlo method has been developed for simulating the physical vapor deposition of thin Cu films on Cu substrate. An improved embedded atom method was used to calculate the interatomic potential and determine the diffusion barrier energy and residence time. Parameters, including incident angle,deposition rate and substrate temperature, were investigated and discussed in order to find their influences on the thin film morphology.

  11. Removal of Oxygen from Electronic Materials by Vapor-Phase Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, Witold

    1997-01-01

    Thermochemical analyses of equilibrium partial pressures over oxides with and without the presence of the respective element condensed phase, and hydrogen, chalcogens, hydrogen chalcogenides, and graphite are presented. Theoretical calculations are supplemented with experimental results on the rate of decomposition and/or sublimation/vaporization of the oxides under dynamic vacuum, and on the rate of reaction with hydrogen, graphite, and chalcogens. Procedures of removal of a number of oxides under different conditions are discussed.

  12. Interaction of aerosol particles composed of protein and saltswith water vapor: hygroscopic growth and microstructural rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhailov, E.; Vlasenko, S.; Niessner, R.; U. Pöschl

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of aerosol particles composed of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the inorganic salts sodium chloride and ammonium nitrate with water vapor has been investigated by hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) experiments complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Köhler theory calculations (100-300nm particle size range, 298K, 960hPa). BSA was chosen as a well-defined model substance for proteins and other macromolecular compoun...

  13. Interaction of aerosol particles composed of protein and saltswith water vapor: hygroscopic growth and microstructural rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhailov, E.; Vlasenko, S.; Niessner, R.; U. Pöschl

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of aerosol particles in the 100–200 nm size range composed of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the inorganic salts sodium chloride and ammonium nitrate with water vapor at ambient temperature and pressure (25°C, 1 atm) has been investigated by hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) experiments complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Köhler theory calculations. BSA was chosen as a well-defined model subs...

  14. Composed Scattering Model for Direct Volume Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文立; 石教英

    1996-01-01

    Based on the equation of transfer in transport theory of optical physics,a new volume rendering model,called composed scattering model(CSM),is presented.In calculating the scattering term of the equation,it is decomposed into volume scattering intensity and surface scattering intensity,and they are composed with the boundary detection operator as the weight function.This proposed model differs from the most current volume rendering models in the aspect that in CSM segmentation and illumination intensity calculation are taken as two coherent parts while in existing models they are regarded as two separate ones.This model has been applied to the direct volume rendering of 3D data sets obtained by CT and MRI.The resultant images show not only rich details but also clear boundary surfaces.CSM is demonstrated to be an accurate volume rendering model suitable for CT and MRI data sets.

  15. Estudo de sistemas multicomponentes no processo de injeção cíclica de vapor

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Tiago Pinheiro de

    2010-01-01

    No Nordeste brasileiro existem reservatórios de óleos pesados, nos quais se utiliza a injeção de vapor como método de recuperação. Este processo permite diminuir a viscosidade do óleo, aumentando a sua mobilidade e melhorando o volume de óleo a ser recuperado. A injeção de vapor é um método térmico e ocorre na forma contínua ou cíclica. A injeção cíclica de vapor pode ser repetida diversas vezes. Cada ciclo consiste de três etapas distintas: a fase de injeção, fase de fechament...

  16. Study of Rb - vapor coated cell; atomic diffusion and cell curing process

    CERN Document Server

    Atutov, S N; Plekhanov, A I; Sorokin, V A

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the study of an optical resonant cell filled by a vapor of the Rb atoms and coated with a non-stick polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer. We show that it is possible to define correctly the diffusion coefficient of the atoms in the coating, using geometric parameters of the cell and the vapor density in the cell volume only. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the cell curing time is presented. It is shown that the mysterious cell curing process can be explained in terms of the polymerization of the polymer coating by alkali atoms. Anomalous long dwell time of the Rb atoms on the PDMS coating is discussed as well.

  17. Water Vapor Adsorption Capacity of Thermally Fluorinated Carbon Molecular Sieves for CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The surfaces of carbon molecular sieves (CMSs were thermally fluorinated to adsorb water vapor. The fluorination of the CMSs was performed at various temperatures (100, 200, 300, and 400°C to investigate the effects of the fluorine gas (F2 content on the surface properties. Fluorine-related functional groups formed were effectively generated on the surface of the CMSs via thermal fluorination process, and the total pore volume and specific surface area of the pores in the CMSs increased during the thermal fluorination process, especially those with diameters ≤ 8 Å. The water vapor adsorption capacity of the thermally fluorinated CMSs increased compared with the as-received CMSs, which is attributable to the increased specific surface area and to the semicovalent bonds of the C–F groups.

  18. Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

  19. Simulation of the Vapor Intrusion Process for Non-Homogeneous Soils Using a Three-Dimensional Numerical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ozgur; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents model simulation results of vapor intrusion into structures built atop sites contaminated with volatile or semi-volatile chemicals of concern. A three-dimensional finite element model was used to investigate the importance of factors that could influence vapor intrusion when the site is characterized by non-homogeneous soils. Model simulations were performed to examine how soil layers of differing properties alter soil gas concentration profiles and vapor intrusion rates into structures. The results illustrate difference in soil gas concentration profiles and vapor intrusion rates between homogeneous and layered soils. The findings support the need for site conceptual models to adequately represent the site's geology when conducting site characterizations, interpreting field data and assessing the risk of vapor intrusion at a given site. For instance, in layered geologies, a lower permeability and diffusivity soil layer between the source and building often limits vapor intrusion rates, even if a higher permeability layer near the foundation permits increased soil gas flow rates into the building. In addition, the presence of water-saturated clay layers can considerably influence soil gas concentration profiles. Therefore, interpreting field data without accounting for clay layers in the site conceptual model could result in inaccurate risk calculations. Important considerations for developing more accurate conceptual site models are discussed in light of the findings.

  20. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor using a pseudonoise code modulated AlGaAs laser. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Lidar measurements using pseudonoise code modulated AlGaAs lasers are reported. Horizontal path lidar measurements were made at night to terrestrial targets at ranges of 5 and 13 km with 35 mW of average power and integration times of one second. Cloud and aerosol lidar measurements were made to thin cirrus clouds at 13 km altitude with Rayleigh (molecular) backscatter evident up to 9 km. Average transmitter power was 35 mW and measurement integration time was 20 minutes. An AlGaAs laser was used to characterize spectral properties of water vapor absorption lines at 811.617, 816.024, and 815.769 nm in a multipass absorption cell using derivative spectroscopy techniques. Frequency locking of an AlGaAs laser to a water vapor absorption line was achieved with a laser center frequency stability measured to better than one-fifth of the water vapor Doppler linewidth over several minutes. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor were made in both integrated path and range-resolved modes using an externally modulated AlGaAs laser. Mean water vapor number density was estimated from both integrated path and range-resolved DIAL measurements and agreed with measured humidity values to within 6.5 percent and 20 percent, respectively. Error sources were identified and their effects on estimates of water vapor number density calculated.

  1. Stimulation of vapor nucleation on perfect and imperfect hexagonal lattice surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevkunov, S. V.

    2008-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of water vapor nucleation on a perfect crystal surface and on a surface with defects are performed. Mass exchange with the vapor phase is modeled by using an open ensemble. Cluster-substrate interaction is described in terms of conventional atom-atom potentials. The Hamiltonian of the system includes expressions for electrostatic, polarization, exchange, and dispersion interactions. The Gibbs free energy and work of adsorption are calculated by Monte Carlo simulation in the bicanoĭnical ensemble. The microscopic structure of nuclei is analyzed in terms of pair correlation functions. Periodic boundary conditions are used to simulate an infinite substrate surface. Molecule-substrate and molecule-molecule long-range electrostatic interactions are calculated by summing the Fourier harmonics of the electrostatic potential. Dispersion interactions are calculated by direct summation over layers of unit cells. Nucleation on a surface with matching structure follows a layer-by-layer mechanism. The work of adsorption per molecule of a monolayer on the substrate surface has a maximum as a function of nucleus size. The steady rate of nucleation of islands of supercritical size is evaluated. The work of adsorption per molecule for layer-by-layer film growth is an oscillating function of cluster size. As a function of layer number, it has a minimum depending on the vapor pressure. The electric field generated by a microscopic surface protrusion destroys the layered structure of the condensate and eliminates free-energy nucleation barriers. However, point lattice defects do not stimulate explosive nucleation.

  2. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  3. The experimental and numerical investigation of a grooved vapor chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ming [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation, Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion, Beijing Education Commission, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Liu Zhongliang [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation, Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion, Beijing Education Commission, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China)], E-mail: liuzhl@bjut.edu.cn; Ma Guoyuan [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation, Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion, Beijing Education Commission, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2009-02-15

    An effective thermal spreader can achieve more uniform heat flux distribution and thus enhance heat dissipation of heat sinks. Vapor chamber is one of highly effective thermal spreaders. In this paper, a novel grooved vapor chamber was designed. The grooved structure of the vapor chamber can improve its axial and radial heat transfer and also can form the capillary loop between condensation and evaporation surfaces. The effect of heat flux, filling amount and gravity to the performance of this vapor chamber is studied by experiment. From experiment, we also obtained the best filling amount of this grooved vapor chamber. By comparing the thermal resistance of a solid copper plate with that of the vapor chamber, it is suggested that the critical heat flux condition should be maintained to use vapor chamber as efficient thermal spreaders for electronics cooling. A two-dimensional heat and mass transfer model for the grooved vapor chamber is developed. The numerical simulation results show the thickness distribution of liquid film in the grooves is not uniform. The temperature and velocity field in vapor chamber are obtained. The thickness of the liquid film in groove is mainly influenced by pressure of vapor and liquid beside liquid-vapor interface. The thin liquid film in heat source region can enhance the performance of vapor chamber, but if the starting point of liquid film is backward beyond the heat source region, the vapor chamber will dry out easily. The optimal filling ratio should maintain steady thin liquid film in heat source region of vapor chamber. The vapor condenses on whole condensation surface, so that the condensation surface achieves great uniform temperature distribution. By comparing the experimental results with numerical simulation results, the reliability of the numerical model can be verified.

  4. A thermodynamic study of glucose and related oligomers in aqueous solution: Vapor pressures and enthalpies of mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, S.A.; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Westh, Peter

    2002-01-01

    -mentioned systems at 318.15 K. A theoretical model is examined in which existing interaction parameters, calculated for the water + 1,2-ethanediol system by using a molecular mechanical approach, are incorporated into the UNIQUAC equation to describe the vapor pressures of the aforementioned series of saccharides...

  5. CALCULATING PARTITION COEFFICIENTS OF ORGANIC VAPORS IN UNSATURATED SOIL AND CLAYS. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  7. Atomic vapor spectroscopy in integrated photonic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Ralf; Pernice, Wolfram; Kübler, Harald; Pfau, Tilman; Löw, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We investigate an integrated optical chip immersed in atomic vapor providing several waveguide geometries for spectroscopy applications. The narrow-band transmission through a silicon nitride waveguide and interferometer is altered when the guided light is coupled to a vapor of rubidium atoms via the evanescent tail of the waveguide mode. We use grating couplers to couple between the waveguide mode and the radiating wave, which allow for addressing arbitrary coupling positions on the chip surface. The evanescent atom-light interaction can be numerically simulated and shows excellent agreement with our experimental data. This work demonstrates a next step towards miniaturization and integration of alkali atom spectroscopy and provides a platform for further fundamental studies of complex waveguide structures.

  8. Modelling vaporous cavitation on fluid transients

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the problem of modelling vaporous cavitation in transmission lines is presented. The two-phase homogeneous equilibrium vaporous cavitation model which has been developed is compared with the conventional column separation model. The latter predicts unrealistically high pressure spikes because of a conflict arising from the prediction of negative cavity sizes if the pressure is not permitted to fall below the vapour pressure, or the prediction of negative absolute pressures if the cavity size remains positive. This is verified by a comparison of predictions with previously published experimental results on upstream, midstream and downstream cavitation. The new model has been extended to include frequency-dependent friction. The characteristics predicted by the frequency-dependent friction model show close correspondence with experimental data.

  9. Vapor Pressure of Pentafluoroethane and Trifluoroiodomethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chang; Duan Yuanyuan; Shi Lin; Zhu Mingshan; Han Lizhong

    2001-01-01

    Pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) and trifluoroiodomethane (CF3I) are considered as promising refrigerant alternatives, especially as components in mixtures, to replace CFCs or HCFCs. Effective uses of HFC-125 and CF3I require that the thermophysical properties be accurately measured. In the present work, vapor pressure data of HFC-125 and CF3I have been measured in the temperature range from 292 to 337 K and 288 to 336 K,respectively. Maximum total pressure uncertainty of HFC-125 data is estimated to be within ±1.2 kPa and ±780 Pa for CF3I. Based on the data set and literature values, the vapor pressure equations for HFC-125 and CF3I have been developed. The relative deviation of the equations correlate the measurements within 0.022% for HFC-125 and 0.068% for CF3I, respectively.

  10. The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavet, R.; Nauss, K.M. (Environmental Research Information, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Methanol could become a major automotive fuel in the U.S., and its use may result in increased exposure of the public to methanol vapor. Nearly all of the available information on methanol toxicity in humans relates to the consequences of acute, rather than chronic, exposures. Acute methanol toxicity evolves in a well-understood pattern and consists of an uncompensated metabolic acidosis with superimposed toxicity to the visual system. The toxic properties of methanol are rooted in the factors that govern both the conversion of methanol to formic acid and the subsequent metabolism of formate to carbon dioxide in the folate pathway. In short, the toxic syndrome sets in if formate generation continues at a rate that exceeds its rate of metabolism. Current evidence indicates that formate accumulation will not challenge the metabolic capacity of the folate pathway at the anticipated levels of exposure to automotive methanol vapor.117 references.

  11. The development and application of an automatic boundary segmentation methodology to evaluate the vaporizing characteristics of diesel spray under engine-like conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y. J.; Huang, R. H.; Deng, P.; Huang, S.

    2015-04-01

    Studying the vaporizing characteristics of diesel spray could greatly help to reduce engine emission and improve performance. The high-speed schlieren imaging method is an important optical technique for investigating the macroscopic vaporizing morphological evolution of liquid fuel, and pre-combustion constant volume combustion bombs are often used to simulate the high pressure and high temperature conditions occurring in diesel engines. Complicated background schlieren noises make it difficult to segment the spray region in schlieren spray images. To tackle this problem, this paper develops a vaporizing spray boundary segmentation methodology based on an automatic threshold determination algorithm. The methodology was also used to quantify the macroscopic characteristics of vaporizing sprays including tip penetration, near-field and far-field angles, and projected spray area and spray volume. The spray boundary segmentation methodology was realized in a MATLAB-based program. Comparisons were made between the spray characteristics obtained using the program method and those acquired using a manual method and the Hiroyasu prediction model. It is demonstrated that the methodology can segment and measure vaporizing sprays precisely and efficiently. Furthermore, the experimental results show that the spray angles were slightly affected by the injection pressure at high temperature and high pressure and under inert conditions. A higher injection pressure leads to longer spray tip penetration and a larger projected area and volume, while elevating the temperature of the environment can significantly promote the evaporation of cold fuel.

  12. The AquaVIT-1 intercomparison of atmospheric water vapor measurement techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Fahey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The AquaVIT-1 Intercomparison of Atmospheric Water Vapor Measurement Techniques was conducted at the aerosol and cloud simulation chamber AIDA at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, in October 2007. The overall objective was to intercompare state-of-the-art and prototype atmospheric hygrometers with each other and with independent humidity standards under controlled conditions. This activity was conducted as a blind intercomparison with coordination by selected referees. The effort was motivated by persistent discrepancies found in atmospheric measurements involving multiple instruments operating on research aircraft and balloon platforms, particularly in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere where water vapor reaches its lowest atmospheric values (less than 10 ppm. With the AIDA chamber volume of 84 m3, multiple instruments analyzed air with a common water vapor mixing ratio, either by extracting air into instrument flow systems, locating instruments inside the chamber, or sampling the chamber volume optically. The intercomparison was successfully conducted over 10 days during which pressure, temperature, and mixing ratio were systematically varied (50 to 500 hPa, 185 to 243 K, and 0.3 to 152 ppm. In the absence of an accepted reference instrument, the reference value was taken to be the ensemble mean of a core subset of the measurements. For these core instruments, the agreement between 10 and 150 ppm of water vapor is considered good with variation about the reference value of about ±10% (±1σ. In the region of most interest between 1 and 10 ppm, the core subset agreement is fair with variation about the reference value of ±20% (±1σ. The upper limit of precision was also derived for each instrument from the reported data. These results indicate that the core instruments, in general, have intrinsic skill to determine unknown water vapor mixing ratios with an accuracy of at least ±20%. The implication for atmospheric

  13. Flow Characterization of Vapor Phase of Geothermal Fluid in Pipe Using Isotope 85Kr and Residence Time Distribution Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sugiharto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of vapor flow in geothermal pipe faces great challenges due to fast fluids flow in high-temperature and high-pressure environment. In present study the flow rate measurement has been performed to characterization the geothermal vapor flow in a pipe. The experiment was carried out in a pipe which is connected to a geothermal production well, KMJ-14. The pipe has a 10” outside diameter and contains dry vapor at a pressure of 8 kg/cm2 and a temperature of 170 oC. Krypton-85 gas isotope (85Kr has been injected into the pipe. Three collimated radiation detectors positioned respectively at 127, 177 and 227m from injection point were used to obtain experimental data which represent radiotracer residence time distribution (RTD in the pipe. The last detector at the position of 227 m did not respond, which might be due to problems in cable connections. Flow properties calculated using mean residence time (MRT shows that the flow rate of the vapor in pipe is 10.98 m/s, much faster than fluid flow commonly found in various industrial process plants. Best fitting evaluated using dedicated software developed by IAEA expert obtained the Péclet number Pe as 223. This means that the flow of vapor of geothermal fluids in pipe is plug flow in character. The molecular diffusion coefficient is 0.45 m2/s, calculated from the axial dispersion model.

  14. Vapor-phase heat-transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstrom, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A vapor-phase heat-transport system is being tested in one of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The system consists of one selective-surface collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by gravity or with a pump. Results from several operating configurations are presented, together with a comparison with other passive systems. A new self-pumping concept is presented.

  15. Vapor Crystal Growth (VCG) experiment Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The image shows a test cell of Crystal Growth experiment inside the Vapor Crystal Growth System (VCGS) furnace aboard the STS-42, International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), mission. The goal of IML-1, a pressurized marned Spacelab module, was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. More than 200 scientists from 16 countires participated in the investigations.

  16. Making Ceramic Fibers By Chemical Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revankar, Vithal V. S.; Hlavacek, Vladimir

    1994-01-01

    Research and development of fabrication techniques for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of ceramic fibers presented in two reports. Fibers of SiC, TiB2, TiC, B4C, and CrB2 intended for use as reinforcements in metal-matrix composite materials. CVD offers important advantages over other processes: fibers purer and stronger and processed at temperatures below melting points of constituent materials.

  17. Laser Velocimetry of Chemical Vapor Deposition Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Laser velocimetry (LV) is being used to measure the gas flows in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactors. These gas flow measurements can be used to improve industrial processes in semiconductor and optical layer deposition and to validate numerical models. Visible in the center of the picture is the graphite susceptor glowing orange-hot at 600 degrees C. It is inductively heated via the copper cool surrounding the glass reactor.

  18. Thermodynamic volume of cosmological solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarek, Saoussen; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-02-01

    We present explicit expressions of the thermodynamic volume inside and outside the cosmological horizon of Eguchi-Hanson solitons in general odd dimensions. These quantities are calculable and well-defined regardless of whether or not the regularity condition for the soliton is imposed. For the inner case, we show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality is not satisfied for general values of the soliton parameter a, though a narrow range exists for which the inequality does hold. For the outer case, we find that the mass Mout satisfies the maximal mass conjecture and the volume is positive. We also show that, by requiring Mout to yield the mass of dS spacetime when the soliton parameter vanishes, the associated cosmological volume is always positive.

  19. Thermodynamic Volume of Cosmological Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Mbarek, Saoussen

    2016-01-01

    We present explicit expressions of the thermodynamic volume inside and outside the cosmological horizon of Eguchi-Hanson solitons in general odd dimensions. These quantities are calculable and well-defined regardless of whether or not the regularity condition for the soliton is imposed. For the inner case, we show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality is not satisfied for general values of the soliton parameter $a$, though a narrow range exists for which the inequality does hold. For the outer case, we find that the mass $M_{out}$ satisfies the maximal mass conjecture and the volume is positive. We also show that, by requiring $M_{out}$ to yield the mass of dS spacetime when the soliton parameter vanishes, the associated cosmological volume is always positive.

  20. The influence of the dose calculation resolution of VMAT plans on the calculated dose for eye lens and optic apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Jung In; Kim, Jin Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong Gyun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Since those organs are small in volume, dose calculation for those organs seems to be more susceptible to the calculation grid size in the treatment planning system (TPS). Moreover, since they are highly radio-sensitive organs, especially eye lens, they should be considered carefully for radiotherapy. On the other hand, in the treatment of head and neck (H and N) cancer or brain tumor that generally involves radiation exposure to eye lens and optic apparatus, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques are frequently used because of the proximity of various radio-sensitive normal organs to the target volumes. Since IMRT and VMAT can deliver prescription dose to target volumes while minimizing dose to nearby organs at risk (OARs) by generating steep dose gradients near the target volumes, high dose gradient sometimes occurs near or at the eye lenses and optic apparatus. In this case, the effect of dose calculation resolution on the accuracy of calculated dose to eye lens and optic apparatus might be significant. Therefore, the effect of dose calculation grid size on the accuracy of calculated doses for each eye lens and optic apparatus was investigated in this study. If an inappropriate calculation resolution was applied for dose calculation of eye lens and optic apparatus, considerable errors can be occurred due to the volume averaging effect in high dose gradient region.

  1. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  2. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  3. Calculating correct compilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present a new approach to the problem of calculating compilers. In particular, we develop a simple but general technique that allows us to derive correct compilers from high-level semantics by systematic calculation, with all details of the implementation of the compilers...... falling naturally out of the calculation process. Our approach is based upon the use of standard equational reasoning techniques, and has been applied to calculate compilers for a wide range of language features and their combination, including arithmetic expressions, exceptions, state, various forms...

  4. Radar Signature Calculation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  5. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  6. Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Isaac; Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Watanabe, Yoichi; McClanahan, James A.; Wen-Hsiung Tu, Carman, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) vapor. The closed-loop core does not rely on hydrodynamic confinement of the fuel. The hydrogen propellant is separated from the UF4 fuel gas by graphite structure. The hydrogen is maintained at high pressure (˜100 atm), and exits the core at 3,100 K to 3,500 K. Zirconium carbide and hafnium carbide coatings are used to protect the hot graphite from the hydrogen. The core is surrounded by beryllium oxide reflector. The nuclear reactor core has been integrated into a 75 klb engine design using an expander cycle and dual turbopumps. The NVTR offers the potential for an incremental technology development pathway to high performance gas core reactors. Since the fuel is readily available, it also offers advantages in the initial cost of development, as it will not require major expenditures for fuel development.

  7. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  8. Water vapor release from biomass combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Parmar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the emission of water vapor from biomass combustion. Concurrent measurements of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are used to scale the concentrations of water vapor found, and are referenced to carbon in the biomass. The investigated fuel types include hardwood (oak and African musasa, softwood (pine and spruce, partly with green needles, and African savanna grass. The session-averaged ratio of H2O to the sum of CO and CO2 in the emissions from 16 combustion experiments ranged from 1.2 to 3.7, indicating the presence of water that is not chemically bound. This non-bound biomass moisture content ranged from 33% in the dry African hardwood, musasa, to 220% in fresh pine branches with needles. The moisture content from fresh biomass contributes significantly to the water vapor in biomass burning emissions, and its influence on the behavior of fire plumes and pyro-cumulus clouds needs to be evaluated.

  9. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  10. Experimental Study on Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕明树; ABULITI; Abudula

    2003-01-01

    An experimental system was setup to study the pressure field of unconfined vapor cloud explosions.The semi-spherical vapor clouds were formed by slotted 0.02mm polyethylene film.In the Center of the cloud was an ignition electrode that met ISO6164"Explosion protection System" and NFPA68 "Guide for Venting of Deflagrations". A data-acquisition system,with dymame responding time less than 0.001s with 0.5% accuracy,recorded the pressure-time diagram of acetylene-air mixture explosion with stoichiometrical ratio.The initial cloud diameters varied from 60cm to 300cm.Based on the analysis of experimental data,the quantitative relationship is obtained for the cloud explosion pressure,the cloud radius and the distance from ignition point .Present results provide a useful way to evaluate the building damage caused by unconfined vapor cloud explosions and to determine the indispensable explosion grade in the application of multi-energy model.

  11. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C.; Maroo, Shalabh C.

    2016-02-01

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  12. Designing polymer surfaces via vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Asatekin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD methods significantly augment the capabilities of traditional surface modification techniques for designing polymeric surfaces. In CVD polymerization, the monomer(s are delivered to the surface through the vapor phase and then undergo simultaneous polymerization and thin film formation. By eliminating the need to dissolve macromolecules, CVD enables insoluble polymers to be coated and prevents solvent damage to the substrate. Since de-wetting and surface tension effects are absent, CVD coatings conform to the geometry of the underlying substrate. Hence, CVD polymers can be readily applied to virtually any substrate: organic, inorganic, rigid, flexible, planar, three-dimensional, dense, or porous. CVD methods integrate readily with other vacuum processes used to fabricate patterned surfaces and devices. CVD film growth proceeds from the substrate up, allowing for interfacial engineering, real-time monitoring, thickness control, and the synthesis of films with graded composition. This article focuses on two CVD polymerization methods that closely translate solution chemistry to vapor deposition; initiated CVD and oxidative CVD. The basic concepts underlying these methods and the resultant advantages over other thin film coating techniques are described, along with selected applications where CVD polymers are an enabling technology.

  13. Dynamic Evolution of the Evaporating Liquid-Vapor Interface in Micropillar Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Dion S; Adera, Solomon; Zhu, Yangying; Farias, Edgardo; Raj, Rishi; Wang, Evelyn N

    2016-01-19

    Capillary assisted passively pumped thermal management devices have gained importance due to their simple design and reduction in energy consumption. The performance of these devices is strongly dependent on the shape of the curved interface between the liquid and vapor phases. We developed a transient laser interferometry technique to investigate the evolution of the shape of the liquid-vapor interface in micropillar arrays during evaporation heat transfer. Controlled cylindrical micropillar arrays were fabricated on the front side of a silicon wafer, while thin-film heaters were deposited on the reverse side to emulate a heat source. The shape of the meniscus was determined using the fringe patterns resulting from interference of a monochromatic beam incident on the thin liquid layer. We studied the evolution of the shape of the meniscus on these surfaces under various operating conditions including varying the micropillar geometry and the applied heating power. By monitoring the transient behavior of the evaporating liquid-vapor interface, we accurately measured the absolute location and shape of the meniscus and calculated the contact angle and the maximum capillary pressure. We demonstrated that the receding contact angle which determines the capillary pumping limit is independent of the microstructure geometry and the rate of evaporation (i.e., the applied heating power). The results of this study provide fundamental insights into the dynamic behavior of the liquid-vapor interface in wick structures during phase-change heat transfer.

  14. Chemistry of Impact-Generated Silicate Melt-Vapor Debris Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Visscher, Channon

    2013-01-01

    In the giant impact theory for lunar origin, the Moon forms from material ejected by the impact into an Earth-orbiting disk. Here we report the initial results from a silicate melt-vapor equilibrium chemistry model for such impact-generated planetary debris disks. In order to simulate the chemical behavior of a two-phase (melt+vapor) disk, we calculate the temperature-dependent pressure and chemical composition of vapor in equilibrium with molten silicate from 2000 to 4000 K. We consider the elements O, Na, K, Fe, Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti, and Zn for a range of bulk silicate compositions (Earth, Moon, Mars, eucrite parent body, angrites, and ureilites). In general, the disk atmosphere is dominated by Na, Zn, and O2 at lower temperatures (< 3000 K) and SiO, O2, and O at higher temperatures. The high-temperature chemistry is consistent for any silicate melt composition, and we thus expect abundant SiO, O2, and O to be a common feature of hot, impact-generated debris disks. In addition, the saturated silicate vapor...

  15. Ionic association and solvation of the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride in molecular solvents revealed by vapor pressure osmometry, conductometry, volumetry, and acoustic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Ebrahimi, Nosaibah

    2011-11-17

    A systematic study of osmotic coefficient, conductivity, volumetric and acoustic properties of solutions of ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(6)mim][Cl]) in various molecular solvents has been made at different temperatures in order to study of ionic association and solvation behavior of [C(6)mim][Cl] in different solutions. Precise measurements on electrical conductances of solutions of [C(6)mim][Cl] in water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and acetonitrile at 293.15, 298.15, and 303.15 K are reported and analyzed with Barthel's low-concentration chemical model (lcCM) to obtain the limiting molar conductivities and association constants of this ionic liquid in the investigated solvents. Strong ion pairing was found for the ionic liquid in 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-propanol, whereas ion association in acetonitrile, methanol and ethanol is rather weak and in water the ionic liquid is fully dissociated. In the second part of this work, the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of [C(6)mim][Cl] in water, methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and 1-butanol are obtained at the 288.15-313.15 K temperature range at 5 K intervals at atmospheric pressure from the precise measurements of density and sound velocity. The infinite dilution apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility values of the free ions and ion pairs of [C(6)mim][Cl] in the investigated solvents as well as the excess molar volume of the investigated solutions are determined and their variations with temperature and type of solvents are also studied. Finally, the experimental measurements of osmotic coefficient at 318.15 K for binary solutions of [C(6)mim][Cl] in water, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile are taken using the vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) method and from which the values of the solvent activity, vapor pressure, activity coefficients, and Gibbs free energies are calculated. The results are

  16. Microwave Radiometer Networks for Measurement of the Spatio-Temporal Variability of Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reising, S. C.; Iturbide-Sanchez, F.; Padmanabhan, S.

    2006-12-01

    Tropospheric water vapor plays a key role in the prediction of convective storm initiation, precipitation and extreme weather events. Conventionally, water vapor profiles are derived from dewpoint and temperature measurements using instrumented weather balloons, including radiosondes. These balloons take approximately one hour to measure from surface to tropopause, and transmitter-sensor packages cannot be reused. Such in-situ measurements provide profiles with very high vertical resolution but with severe limitations in temporal and spatial coverage. Raman lidars use active optical techniques to provide comparable vertical resolution and measurement accuracy to radiosondes. However, these lidars are bulky and expensive, and their operation is limited to clear-sky conditions due to the high optical opacity of clouds. Microwave radiometers provide path-integrated water vapor and liquid water with high temporal resolution during nearly all weather conditions. If multiple frequencies are measured near the water vapor resonance, coarse vertical profiles can be obtained using statistical inversion. Motivated by the need for improved temporal and spatial resolutions, a network of elevation and azimuth scanning radiometers is being developed to provide coordinated volumetric measurements of tropospheric water vapor. To realize this network, two Miniaturized Water Vapor profiling Radiometers (MVWR) have been designed and fabricated at Colorado State University. MWVR is small, light-weight, consumes little power and is highly stable. To reduce the mass, volume, cost and power consumption as compared to traditional waveguide techniques, MWVR was designed based on monolithic microwave integrated-circuit technology developed for the wireless communication and defense industries. It was designed for network operation, in which each radiometer will perform a complete volumetric scan within a few minutes, and overlapping scans from multiple sensors will be combined

  17. Modeling the effects of biomass accumulation on the performance of a biotrickling filter packed with PUF support for the alkaline biotreatment of dimethyl disulfide vapors in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-García, Luis; Dorado, Antonio D; Morales-Guadarrama, Axayacatl; Sacristan, Emilio; Gamisans, Xavier; Revah, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Excess biomass buildup in biotrickling filters leads to low performance. The effect of biomass accumulation in a biotrickling filter (BTF) packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) was assessed in terms of hydrodynamics and void space availability in a system treating dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) vapors with an alkaliphilic consortium. A sample of colonized support from a BTF having been operating for over a year was analyzed, and it was found that the BTF void bed fraction was reduced to almost half of that calculated initially without biomass. Liquid flow through the examined BTF yielded dispersion coefficient values of 0.30 and 0.72 m(2) h(-1), for clean or colonized PUF, respectively. 3D images of attached biomass obtained with magnetic resonance imaging allowed to calculate the superficial area and the biofilm volume percentage and depth as 650 m(2) m(-3), 35%, and 0.6 mm respectively. A simplified geometric approximation of the complex PUF structure was proposed using an orthogonal 3D mesh that predicted 600 m(2) m(-3) for the same biomass content. With this simplified model, it is suggested that the optimum biomass content would be around 20% of bed volume. The activity of the microorganisms was evaluated by respirometry and the kinetics represented with a Haldane equation type. Experimentally determined parameters were used in a mathematical model to simulate the DMDS elimination capacity (EC), and better description was found when the removal experimental data were matched with a model including liquid axial dispersion in contrast to an ideal plug flow model.

  18. Kinetics of small particle activation in supersaturated vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, R.; Wang, J.

    2010-08-29

    water condensation on particles of different size are shown in Fig. 2. The main emphasis of this paper lies in the computation of these barriers and barrier crossing rates by the various methods described. The present theory is especially relevant to determining the lower size limit for particle detection in condensation particle counters. Recently it has been shown that particles can take on liquid at sizes significantly smaller than predicted from the Kelvin relation in the no-barrier case (Winkler et al., 2008). This implies a detection principle based on the activated nucleation model that is the focus of the present study. Calculations are presented for water, n-propanol, and several other condensable vapors.

  19. Calculators and Polynomial Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. F.

    The intent of this paper is to suggest and illustrate how electronic hand-held calculators, especially non-programmable ones with limited data-storage capacity, can be used to advantage by students in one particular aspect of work with polynomial functions. The basic mathematical background upon which calculator application is built is summarized.…

  20. The Stefan outflow in a multicomponent vapor-gas atmosphere around a droplet and its role for cloud expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchma, A E; Martyukova, D S

    2016-01-01

    A new comprehensive analysis of Stefan's flow caused by a free growing droplet in vapor-gas atmosphere with several condensing components is presented. This analysis, based on the nonstationary heat and material balance and diffusion transport equations, shows the appearance of the Stefan inflow in the vicinity of the growing droplet and the outflow at large distances from the droplet as a consequence of nonisothermal condensation. For an ensemble of droplets in the atmospheric cloud, this flow provides an increase of the total volume of the cloud, which can be treated as cloud thermal expansion and leads to floating the cloud as a whole due to buoyancy. We have formulated the self-similar solutions of the nonstationary diffusion and heat conduction equations for a growing multicomponent droplet and have derived analytical expressions for the nonstationary velocity profile of Stefan's flow and the expansion volume of the vapor-gas mixture around the growing droplet. To illustrate the approach, we computed the...

  1. Thermodynamic study on dynamic water vapor sorption in Sylgard-184.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Stephen J; Glascoe, Elizabeth A; Maxwell, Robert S

    2012-12-01

    The dynamic and equilibrium water vapor sorption properties of Sylgard-184, a commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMS), were determined via gravimetric analysis from 30 to 70 °C. Described here is a methodology for quantitatively assessing how water vapor diffuses and ad/absorbs into polymeric materials that are traditionally considered hydrophobic. PDMS materials are frequently chosen for their moisture barrier properties; our results, however, demonstrate that moisture is able to penetrate the material over a range of temperatures and humidities. The sorption values measured here ranged from ca. 0.1 to 1.4 cm(3) (STP) H(2)O/g Sylgard. The isotherms exhibited sigmoidal character and were fit to a triple mode sorption model. Asymptotic behavior at low water activities was characterized using a Langmuir type adsorption model, linear behavior was fit to a Henry's law type dependence, and the convex portion at higher activities was fit with good agreement to Park's equation for pooling or clustering. The thermal dependence of these sorption modes was also explored and reported. The dynamics of the sorption process were fit to a Fickian model and effective diffusivities are reported along with corresponding activation energies. The diffusivity values measured here ranged from ca. 0.5 to 3.5 × 10(-5) cm(2)/s depending on the temperature and relative humidity. The concentration dependence of the diffusivity showed a direct correlation with the three modes of uptake obtained from the isotherms. Corrections to the diffusivities were calculated using existing models that take into account adsorption and pooling.

  2. Computer-assisted venous thrombosis volume quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, John; Dhibi, Mounir; Bressollette, Luc; Guias, Bruno; Solaiman, Basel

    2009-03-01

    Venous thrombosis (VT) volume assessment, by verifying its risk of progression when anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapies are prescribed, is often necessary to screen life-threatening complications. Commonly, VT volume estimation is done by manual delineation of few contours in the ultrasound (US) image sequence, assuming that the VT has a regular shape and constant radius, thus producing significant errors. This paper presents and evaluates a comprehensive functional approach based on the combination of robust anisotropic diffusion and deformable contours to calculate VT volume in a more accurate manner when applied to freehand 2-D US image sequences. Robust anisotropic filtering reduces image speckle noise without generating incoherent edge discontinuities. Prior knowledge of the VT shape allows initializing the deformable contour, which is then guided by the noise-filtering outcome. Segmented contours are subsequently used to calculate VT volume. The proposed approach is integrated into a system prototype compatible with existing clinical US machines that additionally tracks the acquired images 3-D position and provides a dense Delaunay triangulation required for volume calculation. A predefined robust anisotropic diffusion and deformable contour parameter set enhances the system usability. Experimental results pertinence is assessed by comparison with manual and tetrahedron-based volume computations, using images acquired by two medical experts of eight plastic phantoms and eight in vitro VTs, whose independently measured volume is the reference ground truth. Results show a mean difference between 16 and 35 mm(3) for volumes that vary from 655 to 2826 mm(3). Two in vivo VT volumes are also calculated to illustrate how this approach could be applied in clinical conditions when the real value is unknown. Comparative results for the two experts differ from 1.2% to 10.08% of the smallest estimated value when the image acquisition cadences are similar.

  3. Outcome of Transurethral Plasmakinetic Vaporization for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy El-Tabey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To assess the outcome of transurethral plasmakinetic vaporization (PKVP in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Patients and methods From August 2010 to May 2012, 60 patients with obstructive LUTS due to BPH were included in the study. All patients were evaluated by International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, general examination, digital rectal examination, PSA, routine laboratory examinations, pelvi-abdominal ultrasound, trans-rectal ultrasound, and uroflowmetry. Patients with Qmax of 8 and a prostate volume of >40 mL underwent transurethral PKVP. Results Mean age of the patients was 66.8±4.5 years. The mean times of the operation, post-operative bladder irrigation, and post-operative catheterization were 63.8±13.9 minutes, 15.2±5.7 hours, and 23.9±5.2 hours, respectively. At 3 months of follow-up, there were significant reductions in the mean IPSS from 23.4±3.5 to 9.2±3.7 (P=0.4, mean PSA from 3.03±2.2 ng/mL to 1.2±1.04 ng/mL (P value=0.02, mean post voiding residual urine from 149.8±59.5 mL to 46.9±24.1 mL (P value <0.01, and mean prostate volume from 72.8±10.3 mL to 22.7±6.1 mL (P value <0.01. Also, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean Q max. from 8.7±2.4 mL/s to 19.5±3.5 mL/s (P value <0.01. Conclusion PKVP is an effective and safe treatment option in the management of symptomatic BPH.

  4. Liquid-vapor phase equilibria and the thermodynamic properties of 2-methylpropanol- n-alkyl propanoate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsov, Yu. K.; Goryunov, V. A.; Chuikov, A. M.; Meshcheryakov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The boiling points of solutions of five binary systems are measured via ebulliometry in the pressure range of 2.05-103.3 kPa. Equilibrium vapor phase compositions, the values of the excess Gibbs energies, enthalpies, and entropies of solution of these systems are calculated. Patterns in the changes of phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of solutions are established, depending on the compositions and temperatures of the systems. Liquid-vapor equilibria in the systems are described using the equations of Wilson and the NRTL (Non-Random Two-Liquid Model).

  5. Optical detection of potassium chloride vapor using collinear photofragmentation and atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvajärvi, Tapio; Saarela, Jaakko; Toivonen, Juha

    2012-10-01

    A sensitive and selective optical technique to detect potassium chloride (KCl) vapor is introduced. The technique is based on the photofragmentation of KCl molecules, using a pulsed UV laser, and optical probing of the temporarily increased amount of potassium atoms with a near-infrared laser. The two laser beams are aligned to go through the sample volume along the same optical path. The performance of the technique is demonstrated by detecting KCl concentrations from 25 ppb to 30 ppm in a temperature-controlled cell.

  6. Fabrication of Isotropic Pyrocarbon at 1400℃ by Thermal Gradient Chemical Vapor Deposition Apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lingjun; ZHANG Dongsheng; LI Kezhi; LI Hejun

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was designed to prepare isotropic pyrocarbon by thermal gradient chemical vapor deposition apparatus.The deposition was performed under ambient atmosphere at 1400℃,with natural gas volume flow of 3.5 m~3/h for 80 h.The results show that the thickness and the bulk density of the deposit are about 1.95 g/cm~3 and 10 mm,respectively.The microstructure of the deposit was examined by polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy,which shows that the deposit is constituted of sphere isotropic pyrocarbon,pebble pyrocarbon and laminar pyrocarbon.

  7. Corner wetting during the vapor-liquid-solid growth of faceted nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brian; Davis, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    We consider the corner wetting of liquid drops in the context of vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires. Specifically, we construct numerical solutions for the equilibrium shape of a liquid drop on top of a faceted nanowire by solving the Laplace-Young equation with a free boundary determined by mixed boundary conditions. A key result for nanowire growth is that for a range of contact angles there is no equilibrium drop shape that completely wets the corner of the faceted nanowire. Based on our numerical solutions we determine the scaling behavior for the singular surface behavior near corners of the nanowire in terms of the Young contact angle and drop volume.

  8. High surface area graphene foams by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieschner, Simon; Weber, Michael; Wohlketzetter, Jörg; Vieten, Josua; Makrygiannis, Evangelos; Blaschke, Benno M.; Morandi, Vittorio; Colombo, Luigi; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Garrido, Jose A.

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based structures combine the unique physical properties of graphene with the opportunity to get high electrochemically available surface area per unit of geometric surface area. Several preparation techniques have been reported to fabricate 3D graphene-based macroscopic structures for energy storage applications such as supercapacitors. Although reaserch has been focused so far on achieving either high specific capacitance or high volumetric capacitance, much less attention has been dedicated to obtain high specific and high volumetric capacitance simultaneously. Here, we present a facile technique to fabricate graphene foams (GF) of high crystal quality with tunable pore size grown by chemical vapor deposition. We exploited porous sacrificial templates prepared by sintering nickel and copper metal powders. Tuning the particle size of the metal powders and the growth temperature allow fine control of the resulting pore size of the 3D graphene-based structures smaller than 1 μm. The as-produced 3D graphene structures provide a high volumetric electric double layer capacitance (165 mF cm-3). High specific capacitance (100 Fg-1) is obtained by lowering the number of layers down to single layer graphene. Furthermore, the small pore size increases the stability of these GFs in contrast to the ones that have been grown so far on commercial metal foams. Electrodes based on the as-prepared GFs can be a boost for the development of supercapacitors, where both low volume and mass are required.

  9. Vapor Online Monitor Model of Vapor Power Station Based on UML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We presents a vapor online monitor system model of vapor power station developed by visual tool rational rose2000. Use cases such as on line instrument (onlineinstr), control, query, report, real database (realdb) and alarm are generated according to the system requirements. Use case view and class view of the system are formed at the same time. As for all the UML models of the system, this paper focuses the discussion on the class view, the component diagram of the control class and the sequence diagram of the query class. Corresponding C++ codes are produced and finally transferred into the spot running software.

  10. Dynamic headspace generation and quantitation of triacetone triperoxide vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Braden C; Lubrano, Adam L; Field, Christopher R; Collins, Greg E

    2014-02-28

    Two methods for quantitation of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) vapor using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet coupled to a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) have been demonstrated. The dynamic headspace of bulk TATP was mixed with clean humid air to produce a TATP vapor stream. Sampling via a heated transfer line to a PTV inlet with a Tenax-TA™ filled liner allowed for direct injection of the vapor stream to a GC/MS for vapor quantitation. TATP was extracted from the vapor stream and subsequently desorbed from the PTV liner for splitless injection on the GC column. Calibration curves were prepared using solution standards with a standard split/splitless GC inlet for quantitation of the TATP vapor. Alternatively, vapor was sampled onto a Tenax-TA™ sample tube and placed into a thermal desorption system. In this instance, vapor was desorbed from the tube and subsequently trapped on a liquid nitrogen cooled PTV inlet. Calibration curves for this method were prepared from direct liquid injection of standards onto samples tube with the caveat that a vacuum is applied to the tube during deposition to ensure that the volatile TATP penetrates into the tube. Vapor concentration measurements, as determined by either GC/MS analysis or mass gravimetry of the bulk TATP, were statistically indistinguishable. Different approaches to broaden the TATP vapor dynamic range, including diluent air flow, sample chamber temperature, sample vial orifice size, and sample size are discussed. Vapor concentrations between 50 and 5400ngL(-1) are reported, with stable vapor generation observed for as long as 60 consecutive hours.

  11. Valence photoelectron spectra of alkali bromides calculated within the propagator theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpenko, Alexander; Iablonskyi, Denys; Aksela, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate photoion......The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate...

  12. Improving on calculation of martensitic phenomenological theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Exemplified by the martensitic transformation from DO3 to 18R in Cu-14.2Al-4.3Ni alloy and according to the principle that invariant-habit-plane can be obtained by self-accommodation between variants with twin relationships, and on the basis of displacement vector, volume fractions of two variants with twin relationships in martensitic transformation, habit-plane indexes, and orientation relationships between martensite and austenite after phase transformation can be calculated. Because no additional rotation matrixes are needed to be considered and mirror symmetric operations are used, the calculation process is simple and the results are accurate.

  13. Organic carbonates: experiment and ab initio calculations for prediction of thermochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verevkin, Sergey P; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Kozlova, Svetlana A

    2008-10-23

    This work has been undertaken in order to obtain data on thermodynamic properties of organic carbonates and to revise the group-additivity values necessary for predicting their standard enthalpies of formation and enthalpies of vaporization. The standard molar enthalpies of formation of dibenzyl carbonate, tert-butyl phenyl carbonate, and diphenyl carbonate were measured using combustion calorimetry. Molar enthalpies of vaporization of these compounds were obtained from the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure measured by the transpiration method. Molar enthalpy of sublimation of diphenyl carbonate was measured in the same way. Ab initio calculations of molar enthalpies of formation of organic carbonates have been performed using the G3MP2 method, and results are in excellent agreement with the available experiment. Then the group-contribution method has been developed to predict values of the enthalpies of formation and enthalpies of vaporization of organic carbonates.

  14. Amorphous and crystalline aerosol particles interacting with water vapor – Part 1: Microstructure, phase transitions, hygroscopic growth and kinetic limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Koop

    2009-03-01

    and crystalline particles formed upon dehydration of aqueous solution droplets depend on chemical composition and drying conditions. The apparent volume void fractions of particles with highly porous structures can range up to ~50% or more (xerogels, aerogels. Void fractions as well as residual water in dried aerosol particles that are not water-free (due to kinetic limitations of drying or stable hydrate formation should be taken into account in Köhler model calculations of hygroscopic growth and CCN activation. 6. For efficient description of water uptake and phase transitions of amorphous and crystalline organic and inorganic aerosol particles and particle components, we propose not to limit the terms deliquescence and efflorescence to equilibrium phase transitions of crystalline substances interacting with water vapor. Instead we propose the following generalized definitions: Deliquescence is the transformation of a (semi-solid substance into a liquid aqueous solution, whereby water is absorbed from the gas phase ("liquefaction upon humidification/hydration". Efflorescence is the transformation of a substance from a liquid aqueous solution into a (semi-solid phase, whereby water is evaporated ("solidification upon drying/dehydration". According to these definitions, individual components as well as entire aerosol particles can undergo gradual or prompt, partial or full deliquescence or efflorescence.

  15. Calculation of light emission in sonoluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChaoHui; AN Yu

    2009-01-01

    We modify a uniform model of single bubble sonoluminescenca, in which heat diffusion, water vapor diffusion and chemical reactions are included to describe the bubble dynamics, and the processes of electron-atom bremsstrahlung, electron-ion bremsstrahlung and recombination radiation, radiative attachment of electrons to atoms and molecules, line emissions of OH radicals and Na atoms are taken into account to calculate the light emission. With this model, we compute the light pulse width, the photon number per flash, the continuum and line spectra and the gas species as the products of chemical reactions, and try to compare with all the experimental data available. We obtain good agreement with the observations of Ar and Xe bubbles in many cases, but fail to match the experi-mental data of the photon number per flash. We also find that for He bubble the computed photon number is always too small to interpret the observations.

  16. Calculation of light emission in sonoluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We modify a uniform model of single bubble sonoluminescence,in which heat diffusion,water vapor diffusion and chemical reactions are included to describe the bubble dynamics,and the processes of electron-atom bremsstrahlung,electron-ion bremsstrahlung and recombination radiation,radiative attachment of electrons to atoms and molecules,line emissions of OH radicals and Na atoms are taken into account to calculate the light emission. With this model,we compute the light pulse width,the photon number per flash,the continuum and line spectra and the gas species as the products of chemical reactions,and try to compare with all the experimental data available. We obtain good agreement with the observations of Ar and Xe bubbles in many cases,but fail to match the experimental data of the photon number per flash. We also find that for He bubble the computed photon number is always too small to interpret the observations.

  17. Analysis of heavy particle processes in low current dc discharge in water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivos, Jelena; Maric, Dragana; Skoro, Nikola; Malovic, Gordana; Petrovic, Zoran Lj

    2016-09-01

    Results presented in our recent paper show that heavy particles - positive ions and fast neutrals (created in charge transfer processes) - can have significant contribution to the processes of excitation at moderate and high reduced electric fields (E / N) . In the case of water vapor, hydrogen ions and fast atoms are the most probable candidates, as the lightest products in water vapor discharges. In order to identify dominant heavy species in water vapor discharge, we analyzed discharge parameters in low current Townsend regime. Based on the model developed by Phelps and coworkers in 1993. we were able to estimate transit time of ions from experimentally determined frequency of damped oscillations and parameters of electrical circuit. Furthermore, we compared calculated transit times with transit times of hydrogen ions (H+, H2+,H3+).Initial analysis indicates that H2+is dominant ion in the range of moderate E / N ( 2 kTd). Calculations were done for the discharge initiated at electrode gap of 1.1 cm and pressure (p) x gap (d) of 0.6 Torrcm, which corresponds to the conditions of the minimum of Paschen curve. In the next step we will extend the analysis to wider range operating conditions. This work is supported by the Serbian MESTD under project numbers ON 171037 and III 41011.

  18. Performance Analysis of Organic Rankine-vapor Compression Ice Maker Utilizing Food Industry Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by food industry exhaust gases and engine cooling water, an organic Rankine-vapor compression cycle system was employed for ice making and a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of working fluid types, hot water temperature and condensation temperature on the system performance were analyzed and the ice making capacity from unit mass hot water and unit power waste heat were evaluated. The calculated results show that the working fluid type and the temperatures of heat source and condensation have important effects on the system performance. The system can achieve optimal performance when use R245fa as power and refrigeration medium. The ice quantity generated from per ton hot water is 86.42 kg and the ice-making rate for per kW waste heat is 2.27 kg/h, when the temperatures of hot water and condensation are respectively 100 and 40°C. A conclusion can be draw by the calculation and analysis that using organic Rankine-vapor compression system for ice making from food industry waste heat is feasible.

  19. A multi-sensor upper tropospheric ozone product (MUTOP based on TES Ozone and GOES water vapor: derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Felker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES, a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the Aura satellite, retrieves a vertical profile of tropospheric ozone. However, polar-orbiting instruments like TES provide limited nadir-view coverage. This work illustrates the value of these observations when taken in context with geostationary imagery describing synoptic-scale weather patterns. The goal of this study is to create map-view products of upper troposphere (UT ozone through the integration of TES ozone measurements with two synoptic dynamic tracers of stratospheric influence: specific humidity derived from the GOES Imager water vapor absorption channel, and potential vorticity (PV from an operational forecast model. As a mixing zone between tropospheric and stratospheric reservoirs, the upper troposphere (UT exhibits a complex chemical makeup. Determination of ozone mixing ratios in this layer is especially difficult without direct in situ measurement. However, it is well understood that UT ozone is correlated with dynamical tracers like low specific humidity and high potential vorticity. Blending the advantages of two remotely sensed quantities (GOES water vapor and TES ozone is at the core of the Multi-sensor Upper Tropospheric Ozone Product (MUTOP.

    Our results suggest that 72 % of TES-observed UT ozone variability can be explained by its correlation with dry air and high PV. MUTOP reproduces TES retrievals across the GOES-West domain with a root mean square error (RMSE of 18 ppbv (part per billion by volume. There are several advantages to this multi-sensor derived product approach: (1 it is calculated from two operational fields (GOES specific humidity and GFS PV, so maps of layer-average ozone can be created and used in near real-time; (2 the product provides the spatial resolution and coverage of a geostationary image as it depicts the variable distribution of ozone in the UT; and (3 the 6 h temporal resolution of the derived

  20. Isotopic equilibrium between precipitation and water vapor: evidence from continental rains in central Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, K.; Gerlein, C.; Kemeny, P. C.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    An accurate understanding of the relationships between the isotopic composition of liquid water and that of water vapor in the environment can help describe hydrologic processes across many scales. One such relationship is the isotopic equilibrium between falling raindrops and the surrounding vapor. The degree of equilibration is used to model the isotopic composition of precipitation in isotope-enable general circulation models and land-atmosphere exchange models. Although this equilibrium has been a topic of isotope hydrology research for more than four decades, few studies have included vapor measurements to validate modeling efforts. Recent advances in laser technology have allowed for in situ vapor measurements at high temporal resolution (e.g., >1 Hz). Here we present concomitant rain and vapor measurements for a series of 17 rain events during the 'Continental' rainy season (June through August) at Mpala Research Center in central Kenya. Rain samples (n=218) were collected at intervals of 2 to 35 minutes (median of 3 minutes) depending on the rain rate (0.4 to 10.5 mm/hr). The volume-weighted mean rain values for δ18O, δ2H and D-excess (δ2H - 8* δ18O) were 0.1 ‰, 10.7 ‰, and 10.1 ‰. These values are more enriched than the annual weighted means reported for the area (-2.2 ‰, -7.6 ‰, and 11.0 ‰, respectively). Vapor was measured continuously at ~2Hz (DLT-100, Los Gatos Research), with an inverted funnel intake 4m above the ground surface. The mean vapor isotopic composition during the rain events was -10.0 +/- 1.2 ‰ (1 σ) for δ18O and -73.9 +/- 7.0 ‰ for δ2H. The difference between the rain sample isotopic composition and that of liquid in isotopic equilibrium with the corresponding vapor at the ambient temperature was 0.8 +/- 2.2 ‰ for δ18O and 6.2 +/- 7.0 ‰ for δ2H. This disequilibrium was found to correlate with the natural log of rain rate (R2 of 0.26 for δ18O and 0.46 for δ2H), with lower rain rates having larger