Results of 1 year of clinical experience with independent dose calculation software for VMAT fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Fernando Mata Colodro
2014-01-01
Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a redundant independent dose calculation (RIDC must be included in any treatment planning verification procedure. Specifically, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT technique implies a comprehensive quality assurance (QA program in which RIDC should be included. In this paper, the results obtained in 1 year of clinical experience are presented. Eclipse from Varian is the treatment planning system (TPS, here in use. RIDC were performed with the commercial software; Diamond ® (PTW which is capable of calculating VMAT fields. Once the plan is clinically accepted, it is exported via Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM to RIDC, together with the body contour, and then a point dose calculation is performed, usually at the isocenter. A total of 459 plans were evaluated. The total average deviation was -0.3 ± 1.8% (one standard deviation (1SD. For higher clearance the plans were grouped by location in: Prostate, pelvis, abdomen, chest, head and neck, brain, stereotactic radiosurgery, lung stereotactic body radiation therapy, and miscellaneous. The highest absolute deviation was -0.8 ± 1.5% corresponding to the prostate. A linear fit between doses calculated by RIDC and by TPS produced a correlation coefficient of 0.9991 and a slope of 1.0023. These results are very close to those obtained in the validation process. This agreement led us to consider this RIDC software as a valuable tool for QA in VMAT plans.
Measurements of radioactivity in books and calculations of resultant eye doses to readers.
Imtiaz, M Abid; Begum, Aleya; Mollah, A S; Zaman, M A
2005-02-01
Natural and fallout radioactivity in some book samples were measured with an HPGe detector coupled with a 4096 channel analyzer in order to estimate the radiation doses to readers' eyes from books. The radiation doses to a population at large due to the presence of radioactivity in the book are not significant. Thus, no radiation hazard occurs from the radioactivity content in the book. The estimated radiation doses to eyes were found to be below the maximum permissible dose to eyes recommended by ICRP.
Entrance surface dose according to dose calculation: Head and wrist
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Sung, Ho Jin [Dept. Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jae Bok; Song, Jong Nam; Choi, Nam Gil [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)
2016-09-15
This study were compared with the direct measurement and indirect dose methods through various dose calculation in head and wrist. And, the modified equation was proposed considering equipment type, setting conditions, tube voltage, inherent filter, added filter and its accompanied back scatter factor. As a result, it decreased the error of the direct measurement than the existing dose calculation. Accordingly, diagnostic radiography patient dose comparison would become easier and radiographic exposure control and evaluation will become more efficient. The study findings are expected to be useful in patients' effective dose rate evaluation and dose reduction.
A dose error evaluation study for 4D dose calculations
Milz, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J.; Ullrich, Wolfgang
2014-10-01
Previous studies have shown that respiration induced motion is not negligible for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy. The intrafractional breathing induced motion influences the delivered dose distribution on the underlying patient geometry such as the lung or the abdomen. If a static geometry is used, a planning process for these indications does not represent the entire dynamic process. The quality of a full 4D dose calculation approach depends on the dose coordinate transformation process between deformable geometries. This article provides an evaluation study that introduces an advanced method to verify the quality of numerical dose transformation generated by four different algorithms. The used transformation metric value is based on the deviation of the dose mass histogram (DMH) and the mean dose throughout dose transformation. The study compares the results of four algorithms. In general, two elementary approaches are used: dose mapping and energy transformation. Dose interpolation (DIM) and an advanced concept, so called divergent dose mapping model (dDMM), are used for dose mapping. The algorithms are compared to the basic energy transformation model (bETM) and the energy mass congruent mapping (EMCM). For evaluation 900 small sample regions of interest (ROI) are generated inside an exemplary lung geometry (4DCT). A homogeneous fluence distribution is assumed for dose calculation inside the ROIs. The dose transformations are performed with the four different algorithms. The study investigates the DMH-metric and the mean dose metric for different scenarios (voxel sizes: 8 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm 9 different breathing phases). dDMM achieves the best transformation accuracy in all measured test cases with 3-5% lower errors than the other models. The results of dDMM are reasonable and most efficient in this study, although the model is simple and easy to implement. The EMCM model also achieved suitable results, but the approach requires a more complex
Calculational Tool for Skin Contamination Dose Assessment
Hill, R L
2002-01-01
Spreadsheet calculational tool was developed to automate the calculations preformed for dose assessment of skin contamination. This document reports on the design and testing of the spreadsheet calculational tool.
Dose calculation of anticancer drugs
Gao, Bo; Klumpen, Heinz-Josef; Gurney, Howard
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND: Anticancer drugs are characterized by a narrow therapeutic window and significant inter-patient variability in therapeutic and toxic effects. Current body surface area (BSA)-based dosing fails to standardize systemic anticancer drug exposure and other alternative dosing strategies also
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Mein, S [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program (United States); Gunasingha, R [Department of Radiation Safety, Duke University Medical Center (United States); Nolan, M [Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University (United States); Oldham, M; Adamson, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: X-PACT is an experimental cancer therapy where kV x-rays are used to photo-activate anti-cancer therapeutics through phosphor intermediaries (phosphors that absorb x-rays and re-radiate as UV light). Clinical trials in pet dogs are currently underway (NC State College of Veterinary Medicine) and an essential component is the ability to model the kV dose in these dogs. Here we report the commissioning and characterization of a Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning simulation tool to calculate X-PACT radiation doses in canine trials. Methods: FLUKA multi-particle MC simulation package was used to simulate a standard X-PACT radiation treatment beam of 80kVp with the Varian OBI x-ray source geometry. The beam quality was verified by comparing measured and simulated attenuation of the beam by various thicknesses of aluminum (2–4.6 mm) under narrow beam conditions (HVL). The beam parameters at commissioning were then corroborated using MC, characterized and verified with empirically collected commissioning data, including: percent depth dose curves (PDD), back-scatter factors (BSF), collimator scatter factor(s), and heel effect, etc. All simulations were conducted for N=30M histories at M=100 iterations. Results: HVL and PDD simulation data agreed with an average percent error of 2.42%±0.33 and 6.03%±1.58, respectively. The mean square error (MSE) values for HVL and PDD (0.07% and 0.50%) were low, as expected; however, longer simulations are required to validate convergence to the expected values. Qualitatively, pre- and post-filtration source spectra matched well with 80kVp references generated via SPEKTR software. Further validation of commissioning data simulation is underway in preparation for first-time 3D dose calculations with canine CBCT data. Conclusion: We have prepared a Monte Carlo simulation capable of accurate dose calculation for use with ongoing X-PACT canine clinical trials. Preliminary results show good agreement with measured data and hold
Transit dose calculation in high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Transit doses around a high dose rate 192Ir brachytherapy source were calculated using Sievert Integral at positions where the moving source was located exactly between two adjacent dwell positions. The correspond-ing transit dose rates were obtained by using energy absorption coefficients. Discrete step sizes of 0.25 ...
Superficial dose evaluation of four dose calculation algorithms
Cao, Ying; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhen; Qiu, Xiaoping; Lv, Zhiping; Lei, Mingjun; Liu, Gui; Zhang, Zijian; Hu, Yongmei
2017-08-01
Accurate superficial dose calculation is of major importance because of the skin toxicity in radiotherapy, especially within the initial 2 mm depth being considered more clinically relevant. The aim of this study is to evaluate superficial dose calculation accuracy of four commonly used algorithms in commercially available treatment planning systems (TPS) by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and film measurements. The superficial dose in a simple geometrical phantom with size of 30 cm×30 cm×30 cm was calculated by PBC (Pencil Beam Convolution), AAA (Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm), AXB (Acuros XB) in Eclipse system and CCC (Collapsed Cone Convolution) in Raystation system under the conditions of source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm and field size (FS) of 10×10 cm2. EGSnrc (BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc) program was performed to simulate the central axis dose distribution of Varian Trilogy accelerator, combined with measurements of superficial dose distribution by an extrapolation method of multilayer radiochromic films, to estimate the dose calculation accuracy of four algorithms in the superficial region which was recommended in detail by the ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement) and the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). In superficial region, good agreement was achieved between MC simulation and film extrapolation method, with the mean differences less than 1%, 2% and 5% for 0°, 30° and 60°, respectively. The relative skin dose errors were 0.84%, 1.88% and 3.90%; the mean dose discrepancies (0°, 30° and 60°) between each of four algorithms and MC simulation were (2.41±1.55%, 3.11±2.40%, and 1.53±1.05%), (3.09±3.00%, 3.10±3.01%, and 3.77±3.59%), (3.16±1.50%, 8.70±2.84%, and 18.20±4.10%) and (14.45±4.66%, 10.74±4.54%, and 3.34±3.26%) for AXB, CCC, AAA and PBC respectively. Monte Carlo simulation verified the feasibility of the superficial dose measurements by multilayer Gafchromic films. And the rank
Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations
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Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.
1987-10-01
Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.
Fast dose calculation in magnetic fields with GPUMCD
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Hissoiny, S; Ozell, B [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Departement de genie informatique et genie logiciel, 2500 Chemin de Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Raaijmakers, A J E; Raaymakers, B W [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht (Netherlands); Despres, P, E-mail: sami.hissoiny@polymtl.ca [Departement de physique, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)
2011-08-21
A new hybrid imaging-treatment modality, the MRI-Linac, involves the irradiation of the patient in the presence of a strong magnetic field. This field acts on the charged particles, responsible for depositing dose, through the Lorentz force. These conditions require a dose calculation engine capable of taking into consideration the effect of the magnetic field on the dose distribution during the planning stage. Also in the case of a change in anatomy at the time of treatment, a fast online replanning tool is desirable. It is improbable that analytical solutions such as pencil beam calculations can be efficiently adapted for dose calculations within a magnetic field. Monte Carlo simulations have therefore been used for the computations but the calculation speed is generally too slow to allow online replanning. In this work, GPUMCD, a fast graphics processing unit (GPU)-based Monte Carlo dose calculation platform, was benchmarked with a new feature that allows dose calculations within a magnetic field. As a proof of concept, this new feature is validated against experimental measurements. GPUMCD was found to accurately reproduce experimental dose distributions according to a 2%-2 mm gamma analysis in two cases with large magnetic field-induced dose effects: a depth-dose phantom with an air cavity and a lateral-dose phantom surrounded by air. Furthermore, execution times of less than 15 s were achieved for one beam in a prostate case phantom for a 2% statistical uncertainty while less than 20 s were required for a seven-beam plan. These results indicate that GPUMCD is an interesting candidate, being fast and accurate, for dose calculations for the hybrid MRI-Linac modality.
A decision tool to adjust the prescribed dose after change in the dose calculation algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdulhamid Chaikh
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This work aims to introduce a method to quantify and assess the differences in monitor unites MUs when changing to new dose calculation software that uses a different algorithm, and to evaluate the need and extent of adjustment of the prescribed dose to maintain the same clinical results. Methods: Doses were calculated using two classical algorithms based on the Pencil Beam Convolution PBC model, using 6 patients presenting lung cancers. For each patient, 3 treatment plans were generated: Plan 1 was calculated using reference algorithm PBC without heterogeneity correction, Plan 2 was calculated using test algorithm with heterogeneity correction, and in plan 3 the dose was recalculated using test algorithm and monitor unites MUs obtained from plan 1 as input. To assess the differences in the calculated MUs, isocenter dose, and spatial dose distributions using a gamma index were compared. Statistical analysis was based on a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The test algorithm in plan 2 calculated significantly less MUs than reference algorithm in plan 1 by on average 5%, (p < 0.001. We also found underestimating dose for target volumes using 3D gamma index analysis. In this example, in order to obtain the same clinical outcomes with the two algorithms the prescribed dose should be adjusted by 5%.Conclusion: This method provides a quantitative evaluation of the differences between two dose calculation algorithms and the consequences on the prescribed dose. It could be used to adjust the prescribed dose when changing calculation software to maintain the same clinical results as obtained with the former software. In particular, the gamma evaluation could be applied to any situation where changes in the dose calculation occur in radiotherapy.
Dosimetric accuracy of tomotherapy dose calculation in thorax lesions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mangili Paola
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyse limits and capabilities in dose calculation of collapsed-cone-convolution (CCC algorithm implemented in helical tomotherapy (HT treatment planning system for thorax lesions. Methods The agreement between measured and calculated dose was verified both in homogeneous (Cheese Phantom and in a custom-made inhomogeneous phantom. The inhomogeneous phantom was employed to mimic a patient's thorax region with lung density encountered in extreme cases and acrylic inserts of various dimensions and positions inside the lung cavity. For both phantoms, different lung treatment plans (single or multiple metastases and targets in the mediastinum using HT technique were simulated and verified. Point and planar dose measurements, both with radiographic extended-dose-range (EDR2 and radiochromic external-beam-therapy (EBT2 films, were performed. Absolute point dose measurements, dose profile comparisons and quantitative analysis of gamma function distributions were analyzed. Results An excellent agreement between measured and calculated dose distributions was found in homogeneous media, both for point and planar dose measurements. Absolute dose deviations Conclusions Very acceptable accuracy was found for complex lung treatment plans calculated with CCC algorithm implemented in the tomotherapy TPS even in the heterogeneous phantom with very low lung-density.
Study of dose calculation on breast brachytherapy using prism TPS
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Fendriani, Yoza; Haryanto, Freddy [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, FMIPA Institut Teknologi Bandung, Physics Buildings, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)
2015-09-30
PRISM is one of non-commercial Treatment Planning System (TPS) and is developed at the University of Washington. In Indonesia, many cancer hospitals use expensive commercial TPS. This study aims to investigate Prism TPS which been applied to the dose distribution of brachytherapy by taking into account the effect of source position and inhomogeneities. The results will be applicable for clinical Treatment Planning System. Dose calculation has been implemented for water phantom and CT scan images of breast cancer using point source and line source. This study used point source and line source and divided into two cases. On the first case, Ir-192 seed source is located at the center of treatment volume. On the second case, the source position is gradually changed. The dose calculation of every case performed on a homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantom with dimension 20 × 20 × 20 cm{sup 3}. The inhomogeneous phantom has inhomogeneities volume 2 × 2 × 2 cm{sup 3}. The results of dose calculations using PRISM TPS were compared to literature data. From the calculation of PRISM TPS, dose rates show good agreement with Plato TPS and other study as published by Ramdhani. No deviations greater than ±4% for all case. Dose calculation in inhomogeneous and homogenous cases show similar result. This results indicate that Prism TPS is good in dose calculation of brachytherapy but not sensitive for inhomogeneities. Thus, the dose calculation parameters developed in this study were found to be applicable for clinical treatment planning of brachytherapy.
Gamma Knife radiosurgery with CT image-based dose calculation.
Xu, Andy Yuanguang; Bhatnagar, Jagdish; Bednarz, Greg; Niranjan, Ajay; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John; Lunsford, L Dade; Huq, M Saiful
2015-11-08
and the TMR 10 calculations are 14.9%, 16.4%, 11.1%, 16.8, 6.9%, and 11.4%, respectively. The maximum differences in the minimum and the mean target doses between the two calculation algorithms are 8.1% and 4.2% of the corresponding prescription doses. The maximum differences in the maximum and the mean doses for the critical structures between the two calculation algorithms are 1.3 Gy and 0.7 Gy. The results from the two skull definition methods with the TMR 10 algorithm agree either within ± 2.5% or 0.3 Gy for the dose values, except for a 4.9% difference in the treatment times for a lower cerebellar lesion. The imaging skull definition method does not affect Gamma Knife dose calculation considerably when compared to the conventional measurement-based skull definition method, except in some extreme cases. Large differences were observed between the TMR 10 and the convolution calculation method for the same dose prescription and the same shot arrangements, indicating that the implementation of the convolution algorithm in routine clinical use might be desirable for optimal dose calculation results.
Monte Carlo dose calculations for high-dose-rate brachytherapy using GPU-accelerated processing.
Tian, Z; Zhang, M; Hrycushko, B; Albuquerque, K; Jiang, S B; Jia, X
2016-01-01
Current clinical brachytherapy dose calculations are typically based on the Association of American Physicists in Medicine Task Group report 43 (TG-43) guidelines, which approximate patient geometry as an infinitely large water phantom. This ignores patient and applicator geometries and heterogeneities, causing dosimetric errors. Although Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation is commonly recognized as the most accurate method, its associated long computational time is a major bottleneck for routine clinical applications. This article presents our recent developments of a fast MC dose calculation package for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, gBMC, built on a graphics processing unit (GPU) platform. gBMC-simulated photon transport in voxelized geometry with physics in (192)Ir HDR brachytherapy energy range considered. A phase-space file was used as a source model. GPU-based parallel computation was used to simultaneously transport multiple photons, one on a GPU thread. We validated gBMC by comparing the dose calculation results in water with that computed TG-43. We also studied heterogeneous phantom cases and a patient case and compared gBMC results with Acuros BV results. Radial dose function in water calculated by gBMC showed GPU-based MC dose calculation package, gBMC, for HDR brachytherapy make it attractive for clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fast Electron Beam Simulation and Dose Calculation
Trindade, A; Peralta, L; Lopes, M C; Alves, C; Chaves, A
2003-01-01
A flexible multiple source model capable of fast reconstruction of clinical electron beams is presented in this paper. A source model considers multiple virtual sources emulating the effect of accelerator head components. A reference configuration (10 MeV and 10x10 cm2 field size) for a Siemens KD2 linear accelerator was simulated in full detail using GEANT3 Monte Carlo code. Our model allows the reconstruction of other beam energies and field sizes as well as other beam configurations for similar accelerators using only the reference beam data. Electron dose calculations were performed with the reconstructed beams in a water phantom and compared with experimental data. An agreement of 1-2% / 1-2 mm was obtained, equivalent to the accuracy of full Monte Carlo accelerator simulation. The source model reduces accelerator simulation CPU time by a factor of 7500 relative to full Monte Carlo approaches. The developed model was then interfaced with DPM, a fast radiation transport Monte Carlo code for dose calculati...
Beta and gamma dose calculations for PWR and BWR containments
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King, D.B.
1989-07-01
Analyses of gamma and beta dose in selected regions in PWR and BWR containment buildings have been performed for a range of fission product releases from selected severe accidents. The objective of this study was to determine the radiation dose that safety-related equipment could experience during the selected severe accident sequences. The resulting dose calculations demonstrate the extent to which design basis accident qualified equipment could also be qualified for the severe accident environments. Surry was chosen as the representative PWR plant while Peach Bottom was selected to represent BWRs. Battelle Columbus Laboratory performed the source term release analyses. The AB epsilon scenario (an intermediate to large LOCA with failure to recover onsite or offsite electrical power) was selected as the base case Surry accident, and the AE scenario (a large break LOCA with one initiating event and a combination of failures in two emergency cooling systems) was selected as the base case Peach Bottom accident. Radionuclide release was bounded for both scenarios by including spray operation and arrested sequences as variations of the base scenarios. Sandia National Laboratories used the source terms to calculate dose to selected containment regions. Scenarios with sprays operational resulted in a total dose comparable to that (2.20 /times/ 10/sup 8/ rads) used in current equipment qualification testing. The base case scenarios resulted in some calculated doses roughly an order of magnitude above the current 2.20 /times/ 10/sup 8/ rad equipment qualification test region. 8 refs., 23 figs., 12 tabs.
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Vetter, S.; Strecker, E.P. [Department of Radiology, Diakonissenkrankenhaus, Diakonissenstrasse 28, 76199, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schultz, F.W.; Zoetelief, J. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Medical Physics, Delft University of Technology, 2629 JB, Delft (Netherlands)
2004-05-01
The goal of this study was estimation of patient effective dose from uterine artery embolization of leiomyomata. Parameters and data relevant to patient dose were recorded for 33 consecutive procedures. Using Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, organ and effective doses were calculated in detail for a subset of five procedures, to estimate the effective dose for all procedures. Mean dose area product was 59.9, median 23.4, and range 8.8-317.5 Gycm{sup 2}. Mean absorbed ovarian dose was calculated as 51 mGy in the five procedures. Using the dose conversion factor estimated from the Monte Carlo simulation for all procedures a mean estimated effective dose of 34 mSv (median 13 mSv, range 5-182 mSv) results, with a tendency to lower values regarding the succession of the procedures. Patients' radiation exposure level is up to twice of that of an abdominal CT examination. Angiographic equipment related dose-reducing features and radiographic technique essentially influence organ doses and effective dose. Consistent application of dose-reducing techniques and awareness of radiation exposure justifies uterine artery embolization as a therapeutic option for the treatment of uterine fibroids. (orig.)
Limitations of analytical dose calculations for small field proton radiosurgery.
Geng, Changran; Daartz, Juliane; Lam-Tin-Cheung, Kimberley; Bussiere, Marc; Shih, Helen A; Paganetti, Harald; Schuemann, Jan
2017-01-07
The purpose of the work was to evaluate the dosimetric uncertainties of an analytical dose calculation engine and the impact on treatment plans using small fields in intracranial proton stereotactic radiosurgery (PSRS) for a gantry based double scattering system. 50 patients were evaluated including 10 patients for each of 5 diagnostic indications of: arteriovenous malformation (AVM), acoustic neuroma (AN), meningioma (MGM), metastasis (METS), and pituitary adenoma (PIT). Treatment plans followed standard prescription and optimization procedures for PSRS. We performed comparisons between delivered dose distributions, determined by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, and those calculated with the analytical dose calculation algorithm (ADC) used in our current treatment planning system in terms of dose volume histogram parameters and beam range distributions. Results show that the difference in the dose to 95% of the target (D95) is within 6% when applying measured field size output corrections for AN, MGM, and PIT. However, for AVM and METS, the differences can be as great as 10% and 12%, respectively. Normalizing the MC dose to the ADC dose based on the dose of voxels in a central area of the target reduces the difference of the D95 to within 6% for all sites. The generally applied margin to cover uncertainties in range (3.5% of the prescribed range + 1 mm) is not sufficient to cover the range uncertainty for ADC in all cases, especially for patients with high tissue heterogeneity. The root mean square of the R90 difference, the difference in the position of distal falloff to 90% of the prescribed dose, is affected by several factors, especially the patient geometry heterogeneity, modulation and field diameter. In conclusion, implementation of Monte Carlo dose calculation techniques into the clinic can reduce the uncertainty of the target dose for proton stereotactic radiosurgery. If MC is not available for treatment planning, using MC dose distributions to
Smartphone apps for calculating insulin dose: a systematic assessment.
Huckvale, Kit; Adomaviciute, Samanta; Prieto, José Tomás; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Car, Josip
2015-05-06
subtle harms resulting from suboptimal glucose control. Healthcare professionals should exercise substantial caution in recommending unregulated dose calculators to patients and address app safety as part of self-management education. The prevalence of errors attributable to incorrect interpretation of medical principles underlines the importance of clinical input during app design. Systemic issues affecting the safety and suitability of higher-risk apps may require coordinated surveillance and action at national and international levels involving regulators, health agencies and app stores.
Errors by paediatric residents in calculating drug doses.
Rowe, C; Koren, T; Koren, G
1998-07-01
Errors in calculating drug doses in infants and small children can cause morbidity and mortality, especially with agents exhibiting a narrow therapeutic window. A previous study from this institution has detected potential life threatening errors in calculations performed by trainees while writing prescriptions. To verify whether the true incidence of trainees' errors in prescribing can be explained by impaired calculation skills in written tests. A tertiary paediatric hospital; educational rounds for core paediatric residents. Two anonymous written tests, which included calculations of doses similar to those performed at the paediatric bedside; one was conducted in 1993 and one in 1995. Thirty four paediatric residents participated in 1993 and 30 in 1995. A substantial number of trainees in both years committed at least one error. In general, there was no correlation between the length of training (0 to 4 years) and likelihood of making a mistake. Three trainees in 1993 and four in 1995 committed 10-fold errors. These seven residents committed significantly more errors than the rest of the group in each of the tests separately. All seven were in their first two years of training, and six were in their first year of residency. A substantial proportion of paediatric trainees make mistakes while calculating drug doses under optimal test conditions. Some trainees commit 10-fold errors, which may be life threatening. The results of these anonymous tests suggest that testing of calculations skills should be mandatory, and appropriate remedial steps should follow to prevent paediatric patients receiving wrong drug dosages.
Calculation of intervention doses for the CNGS facility
Lorenzo-Sentis, M; Roesler, Stefan
2006-01-01
The purpose of the CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) project is to generate at CERN a powerful artificial muon-neutrino beam aimed at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. There, detectors will detect those neutrinos and try to disentangle those, which on their 730 km trip have changed their flavour. During the operating lifetime of the neutrino beam facility some interventions are required. These maintenance operations have to be planned in advance to define the guidelines of design and operational procedures in order to keep the doses received by personnel As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA-principle). A calculational method developed for the Monte Carlo simulation program FLUKA has been used, which allows one to compute dose equivalent rates from induced radioactivity for different cooling times in the regions of the human intervention. In this paper the method of calculation is described, the results of dose equivalent rate in the areas of interventions are summarized and discussed and finally, these ...
A convolution-superposition dose calculation engine for GPUs
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Hissoiny, Sami; Ozell, Benoit; Despres, Philippe [Departement de genie informatique et genie logiciel, Ecole polytechnique de Montreal, 2500 Chemin de Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Departement de radio-oncologie, CRCHUM-Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada)
2010-03-15
Purpose: Graphic processing units (GPUs) are increasingly used for scientific applications, where their parallel architecture and unprecedented computing power density can be exploited to accelerate calculations. In this paper, a new GPU implementation of a convolution/superposition (CS) algorithm is presented. Methods: This new GPU implementation has been designed from the ground-up to use the graphics card's strengths and to avoid its weaknesses. The CS GPU algorithm takes into account beam hardening, off-axis softening, kernel tilting, and relies heavily on raytracing through patient imaging data. Implementation details are reported as well as a multi-GPU solution. Results: An overall single-GPU acceleration factor of 908x was achieved when compared to a nonoptimized version of the CS algorithm implemented in PlanUNC in single threaded central processing unit (CPU) mode, resulting in approximatively 2.8 s per beam for a 3D dose computation on a 0.4 cm grid. A comparison to an established commercial system leads to an acceleration factor of approximately 29x or 0.58 versus 16.6 s per beam in single threaded mode. An acceleration factor of 46x has been obtained for the total energy released per mass (TERMA) calculation and a 943x acceleration factor for the CS calculation compared to PlanUNC. Dose distributions also have been obtained for a simple water-lung phantom to verify that the implementation gives accurate results. Conclusions: These results suggest that GPUs are an attractive solution for radiation therapy applications and that careful design, taking the GPU architecture into account, is critical in obtaining significant acceleration factors. These results potentially can have a significant impact on complex dose delivery techniques requiring intensive dose calculations such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and arc therapy. They also are relevant for adaptive radiation therapy where dose results must be obtained rapidly.
Validation of GPU based TomoTherapy dose calculation engine.
Chen, Quan; Lu, Weiguo; Chen, Yu; Chen, Mingli; Henderson, Douglas; Sterpin, Edmond
2012-04-01
The graphic processing unit (GPU) based TomoTherapy convolution/superposition(C/S) dose engine (GPU dose engine) achieves a dramatic performance improvement over the traditional CPU-cluster based TomoTherapy dose engine (CPU dose engine). Besides the architecture difference between the GPU and CPU, there are several algorithm changes from the CPU dose engine to the GPU dose engine. These changes made the GPU dose slightly different from the CPU-cluster dose. In order for the commercial release of the GPU dose engine, its accuracy has to be validated. Thirty eight TomoTherapy phantom plans and 19 patient plans were calculated with both dose engines to evaluate the equivalency between the two dose engines. Gamma indices (Γ) were used for the equivalency evaluation. The GPU dose was further verified with the absolute point dose measurement with ion chamber and film measurements for phantom plans. Monte Carlo calculation was used as a reference for both dose engines in the accuracy evaluation in heterogeneous phantom and actual patients. The GPU dose engine showed excellent agreement with the current CPU dose engine. The majority of cases had over 99.99% of voxels with Γ(1%, 1 mm) GPU dose engine also showed similar degree of accuracy in heterogeneous media as the current TomoTherapy dose engine. It is verified and validated that the ultrafast TomoTherapy GPU dose engine can safely replace the existing TomoTherapy cluster based dose engine without degradation in dose accuracy.
A convolution-superposition dose calculation engine for GPUs.
Hissoiny, Sami; Ozell, Benoît; Després, Philippe
2010-03-01
Graphic processing units (GPUs) are increasingly used for scientific applications, where their parallel architecture and unprecedented computing power density can be exploited to accelerate calculations. In this paper, a new GPU implementation of a convolution/superposition (CS) algorithm is presented. This new GPU implementation has been designed from the ground-up to use the graphics card's strengths and to avoid its weaknesses. The CS GPU algorithm takes into account beam hardening, off-axis softening, kernel tilting, and relies heavily on raytracing through patient imaging data. Implementation details are reported as well as a multi-GPU solution. An overall single-GPU acceleration factor of 908x was achieved when compared to a nonoptimized version of the CS algorithm implemented in PlanUNC in single threaded central processing unit (CPU) mode, resulting in approximatively 2.8 s per beam for a 3D dose computation on a 0.4 cm grid. A comparison to an established commercial system leads to an acceleration factor of approximately 29x or 0.58 versus 16.6 s per beam in single threaded mode. An acceleration factor of 46x has been obtained for the total energy released per mass (TERMA) calculation and a 943x acceleration factor for the CS calculation compared to PlanUNC. Dose distributions also have been obtained for a simple water-lung phantom to verify that the implementation gives accurate results. These results suggest that GPUs are an attractive solution for radiation therapy applications and that careful design, taking the GPU architecture into account, is critical in obtaining significant acceleration factors. These results potentially can have a significant impact on complex dose delivery techniques requiring intensive dose calculations such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and arc therapy. They also are relevant for adaptive radiation therapy where dose results must be obtained rapidly.
Dose Calculation Evolution for Internal Organ Irradiation in Humans
Jimenez V., Reina A.
2007-10-01
The International Commission of Radiation Units (ICRU) has established through the years, a discrimination system regarding the security levels on the prescription and administration of doses in radiation treatments (Radiotherapy, Brach therapy, Nuclear Medicine). The first level is concerned with the prescription and posterior assurance of dose administration to a point of interest (POI), commonly located at the geometrical center of the region to be treated. In this, the effects of radiation around that POI, is not a priority. The second level refers to the dose specifications in a particular plane inside the patient, mostly the middle plane of the lesion. The dose is calculated to all the structures in that plane regardless if they are tumor or healthy tissue. In this case, the dose is not represented by a point value, but by level curves called "isodoses" as in a topographic map, so you can assure the level of doses to this particular plane, but it also leave with no information about how this values go thru adjacent planes. This is why the third level is referred to the volumetrical description of doses so these isodoses construct now a volume (named "cloud") that give us better assurance about tissue irradiation around the volume of the lesion and its margin (sub clinical spread or microscopic illness). This work shows how this evolution has resulted, not only in healthy tissue protection improvement but in a rise of tumor control, quality of life, better treatment tolerance and minimum permanent secuelae.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Jung In; Kim, Jin Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong Gyun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
Since those organs are small in volume, dose calculation for those organs seems to be more susceptible to the calculation grid size in the treatment planning system (TPS). Moreover, since they are highly radio-sensitive organs, especially eye lens, they should be considered carefully for radiotherapy. On the other hand, in the treatment of head and neck (H and N) cancer or brain tumor that generally involves radiation exposure to eye lens and optic apparatus, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques are frequently used because of the proximity of various radio-sensitive normal organs to the target volumes. Since IMRT and VMAT can deliver prescription dose to target volumes while minimizing dose to nearby organs at risk (OARs) by generating steep dose gradients near the target volumes, high dose gradient sometimes occurs near or at the eye lenses and optic apparatus. In this case, the effect of dose calculation resolution on the accuracy of calculated dose to eye lens and optic apparatus might be significant. Therefore, the effect of dose calculation grid size on the accuracy of calculated doses for each eye lens and optic apparatus was investigated in this study. If an inappropriate calculation resolution was applied for dose calculation of eye lens and optic apparatus, considerable errors can be occurred due to the volume averaging effect in high dose gradient region.
NAC-1 cask dose rate calculations for LWR spent fuel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CARLSON, A.B.
1999-02-24
A Nuclear Assurance Corporation nuclear fuel transport cask, NAC-1, is being considered as a transport and storage option for spent nuclear fuel located in the B-Cell of the 324 Building. The loaded casks will be shipped to the 200 East Area Interim Storage Area for dry interim storage. Several calculations were performed to assess the photon and neutron dose rates. This report describes the analytical methods, models, and results of this investigation.
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Lepetit-Coiffe, Matthieu; Quesson, Bruno; Moonen, Chrit T.W. [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Laumonier, Herve; Trillaud, Herve [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service de Radiologie, Hopital Saint-Andre, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Seror, Olivier [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service de Radiologie, Hopital Jean Verdier, Bondy (France); Sesay, Musa-Bahazid [Service d' Anesthesie Reanimation III, Hopital Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Grenier, Nicolas [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Therapeutique de l' Adulte, Hopital Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)
2010-01-15
To assess the practical feasibility and effectiveness of real-time magnetic resonance (MR) temperature monitoring for the radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver tumours in a clinical setting, nine patients (aged 49-87 years, five men and four women) with one malignant tumour (14-50 mm, eight hepatocellular carcinomas and one colorectal metastasis), were treated by 12-min RF ablation using a 1.5-T closed magnet for real-time temperature monitoring. The clinical monopolar RF device was filtered at 64 MHz to avoid electromagnetic interference. Real-time computation of thermal-dose (TD) maps, based on Sapareto and Dewey's equation, was studied to determine its ability to provide a clear end-point of the RF procedure. Absence of local recurrence on follow-up MR images obtained 45 days after the RF ablation was used to assess the apoptotic and necrotic prediction obtained by real-time TD maps. Seven out of nine tumours were completely ablated according to the real-time TD maps. Compared with 45-day follow-up MR images, TD maps accurately predicted two primary treatment failures, but were not relevant in the later progression of one case of secondary local tumour. The real-time TD concept is a feasible and promising monitoring method for the RF ablation of liver tumours. (orig.)
Calculation of the Transit Dose in HDR Brachytherapy Based on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Monte Carlo method, which is the gold standard for accurate dose calculations in radiotherapy, was used to obtain the transit doses around a high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy implant with thirteen dwell points. The midpoints of each of the inter-dwell separations, of step size 0.25 cm, were representative of the ...
Mathematics anxiety and its effect on drug dose calculation.
Fulton, W H; O'Neill, G P
1989-10-01
Eighty learners were randomly selected from 160 first-year nursing students enrolled in an urban community college nursing program in Ontario. They were subsequently divided into control and treatment groups to investigate the effects of different teaching methods on mathematics anxiety and the students' ability to accurately calculate fractional drug doses. The results obtained in this study indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the control and treatment groups in either mathematics anxiety levels or in arithmetic test performance. These findings counter many of those found in previous investigations. Reasons for these discrepancies are provided along with recommendations for present practice and future research.
Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster
Foust, D J
2000-01-01
This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering.
The use of modified single pencil beam dose kernels to improve IMRT dose calculation accuracy.
Bergman, Alanah M; Otto, Karl; Duzenli, Cheryl
2004-12-01
Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is used to deliver highly conformal radiation doses to tumors while sparing nearby sensitive tissues. Discrepancies between calculated and measured dose distributions have been reported for regions of high dose gradients corresponding to complex radiation fluence patterns. For the single pencil beam convolution dose calculation algorithm, the ability to resolve areas of high dose structure is partly related to the shape of the pencil beam dose kernel (similar to how a photon detector's point spread function relates to imaging resolution). Improvements in dose calculation accuracy have been reported when the treatment planning system (TPS) is recommissioned using high-resolution measurement data as input. This study proposes to improve the dose calculation accuracy for IMRT planning by modifying clinical dose kernel shapes already present in the TPS, thus avoiding the need to reacquire higher resolution commissioning data. The in-house optimization program minimizes a cost-function based on a two-dimensional composite dose subtraction/distance-to-agreement (gamma) analysis. The final modified kernel shapes are reintroduced into the treatment planning system and improvements to the dose calcula tion accuracy for complex IMRT dose distributions evaluated. The central kernel value (radius =0 cm) has the largest effect on the dose calculation resolution and is the focus of this study.
Ability of medical students to calculate drug doses in children after their paediatric attachment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oshikoya KA
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Dose calculation errors constitute a significant part of prescribing errors which might have resulted from informal teaching of the topic in medical schools. Objectives: To determine adequacy of knowledge and skills of drug dose calculations in children acquired by medical students during their clinical attachment in paediatrics.Methods: Fifty two 5th year medical students of the Lagos State University College of Medicine (LASUCOM, Ikeja were examined on drug dose calculations from a vial and ampoules of injections, syrup and suspension, and tablet formulation. The examination was with a structured questionnaire mostly in the form of multiple choice questions.Results: Thirty-six (69.2% and 30 (57.7% students were taught drug dose calculation in neonatal posting and during ward rounds/ bed-side teaching, respectively. Less than 50% of the students were able to calculate the correct doses of each of adrenaline, gentamicin, chloroquine and sodium bicarbonate injections required by the patient. Dose calculation was however relatively better with adrenalin when compared with the other injections. The proportion of female students that calculated the correct doses of quinine syrup and cefuroxime suspension were significantly higher than those of their male counterparts (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively; Chi-square test. When doses calculated in mg/dose and mL/dose was compared for adrenalin injection and each of quinine syrup and cefuroxime suspension, there were significant differences (adrenaline and quinine, p=0.005; adrenaline and cefuroxime, p=0.003: Fischer’s exact test. Dose calculation errors of similar magnitude to injections, syrup and suspension were also observed with tablet formulation.Conclusions: LASUCOM medical students lacked the basic knowledge of paediatric drug dose calculations but were willing to learn if the topic was formally taught. Drug dose calculations should be given a prominent consideration in the undergraduate medical
Implementation of spot scanning dose optimization and dose calculation for helium ions in Hyperion.
Fuchs, Hermann; Alber, Markus; Schreiner, Thomas; Georg, Dietmar
2015-09-01
Helium ions ((4)He) may supplement current particle beam therapy strategies as they possess advantages in physical dose distribution over protons. To assess potential clinical advantages, a dose calculation module accounting for relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was developed and integrated into the treatment planning system Hyperion. Current knowledge on RBE of (4)He together with linear energy transfer considerations motivated an empirical depth-dependent "zonal" RBE model. In the plateau region, a RBE of 1.0 was assumed, followed by an increasing RBE up to 2.8 at the Bragg-peak region, which was then kept constant over the fragmentation tail. To account for a variable proton RBE, the same model concept was also applied to protons with a maximum RBE of 1.6. Both RBE models were added to a previously developed pencil beam algorithm for physical dose calculation and included into the treatment planning system Hyperion. The implementation was validated against Monte Carlo simulations within a water phantom using γ-index evaluation. The potential benefits of (4)He based treatment plans were explored in a preliminary treatment planning comparison (against protons) for four treatment sites, i.e., a prostate, a base-of-skull, a pediatric, and a head-and-neck tumor case. Separate treatment plans taking into account physical dose calculation only or using biological modeling were created for protons and (4)He. Comparison of Monte Carlo and Hyperion calculated doses resulted in a γ mean of 0.3, with 3.4% of the values above 1 and γ 1% of 1.5 and better. Treatment plan evaluation showed comparable planning target volume coverage for both particles, with slightly increased coverage for (4)He. Organ at risk (OAR) doses were generally reduced using (4)He, some by more than to 30%. Improvements of (4)He over protons were more pronounced for treatment plans taking biological effects into account. All OAR doses were within tolerances specified in the QUANTEC report. The
Dose-Response Calculator for ArcGIS
Hanser, Steven E.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Leu, Matthias; Nielsen, Scott E.
2011-01-01
The Dose-Response Calculator for ArcGIS is a tool that extends the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS 10 Desktop application to aid with the visualization of relationships between two raster GIS datasets. A dose-response curve is a line graph commonly used in medical research to examine the effects of different dosage rates of a drug or chemical (for example, carcinogen) on an outcome of interest (for example, cell mutations) (Russell and others, 1982). Dose-response curves have recently been used in ecological studies to examine the influence of an explanatory dose variable (for example, percentage of habitat cover, distance to disturbance) on a predicted response (for example, survival, probability of occurrence, abundance) (Aldridge and others, 2008). These dose curves have been created by calculating the predicted response value from a statistical model at different levels of the explanatory dose variable while holding values of other explanatory variables constant. Curves (plots) developed using the Dose-Response Calculator overcome the need to hold variables constant by using values extracted from the predicted response surface of a spatially explicit statistical model fit in a GIS, which include the variation of all explanatory variables, to visualize the univariate response to the dose variable. Application of the Dose-Response Calculator can be extended beyond the assessment of statistical model predictions and may be used to visualize the relationship between any two raster GIS datasets (see example in tool instructions). This tool generates tabular data for use in further exploration of dose-response relationships and a graph of the dose-response curve.
Implementation of spot scanning dose optimization and dose calculation for helium ions in Hyperion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuchs, Hermann; Alber, Markus; Schreiner, Thomas
2015-01-01
and integrated into the treatment planning system Hyperion. METHODS: Current knowledge on RBE of (4)He together with linear energy transfer considerations motivated an empirical depth-dependent "zonal" RBE model. In the plateau region, a RBE of 1.0 was assumed, followed by an increasing RBE up to 2......) for four treatment sites, i.e., a prostate, a base-of-skull, a pediatric, and a head-and-neck tumor case. Separate treatment plans taking into account physical dose calculation only or using biological modeling were created for protons and (4)He. RESULTS: Comparison of Monte Carlo and Hyperion calculated...... published so far. The advantage of (4)He seems to lie in the reduction of dose to surrounding tissue and to OARs. Nevertheless, additional biological experiments and treatment planning studies with larger patient numbers and more tumor indications are necessary to study the possible benefits of helium ion...
Superposition dose calculation incorporating Monte Carlo generated electron track kernels.
Keall, P J; Hoban, P W
1996-04-01
The superposition/convolution method and the transport of pregenerated Monte Carlo electron track data have been combined into the Super-Monte Carlo (SMC) method, an accurate 3-D x-ray dose calculation algorithm. The primary dose (dose due to electrons ejected by primary photons) is calculated by transporting pregenerated (in water) Monte Carlo electron tracks from each primary photon interaction site, weighted by the terma for that site. The length of each electron step is scaled by the inverse of the density of the medium at the beginning of the step. Because the density scaling of the electron tracks is performed for each individual transport step, the limitations of the macroscopic scaling of kernels (in the superposition algorithm) are overcome. This time-consuming step-by-step transport is only performed for the primary dose calculation, where current superposition methods are most lacking. The scattered dose (dose due to electrons set in motion by scattered photons) is calculated by superposition. In both a water-lung-water phantom and a two lung-block phantom, SMC dose distributions are more consistent with Monte Carlo generated dose distributions than are superposition dose distributions, especially for small fields and high energies-for an 18-MV, 5 X 5-cm(2) beam, the central axis dose discrepancy from Monte Carlo is reduced from 4.5% using superposition to 1.5% using SMC. The computation time for this technique is approximately 2 h (depending on the simulation history), 20 times slower than superposition, but 15 times faster than a full Monte Carlo simulation (on our platform).
Widder, Joachim; Hollander, Miranda; Ubbels, Jan F.; Bolt, Rene A.; Langendijk, Johannes A.
Purpose: To define a method of dose prescription employing Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumours aiming at a dose as low as possible outside of the PTV. Methods and materials: Six typical T1 lung tumours - three small, three large - were
Emergency Doses (ED) - Revision 3: A calculator code for environmental dose computations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rittmann, P.D.
1990-12-01
The calculator program ED (Emergency Doses) was developed from several HP-41CV calculator programs documented in the report Seven Health Physics Calculator Programs for the HP-41CV, RHO-HS-ST-5P (Rittman 1984). The program was developed to enable estimates of offsite impacts more rapidly and reliably than was possible with the software available for emergency response at that time. The ED - Revision 3, documented in this report, revises the inhalation dose model to match that of ICRP 30, and adds the simple estimates for air concentration downwind from a chemical release. In addition, the method for calculating the Pasquill dispersion parameters was revised to match the GENII code within the limitations of a hand-held calculator (e.g., plume rise and building wake effects are not included). The summary report generator for printed output, which had been present in the code from the original version, was eliminated in Revision 3 to make room for the dispersion model, the chemical release portion, and the methods of looping back to an input menu until there is no further no change. This program runs on the Hewlett-Packard programmable calculators known as the HP-41CV and the HP-41CX. The documentation for ED - Revision 3 includes a guide for users, sample problems, detailed verification tests and results, model descriptions, code description (with program listing), and independent peer review. This software is intended to be used by individuals with some training in the use of air transport models. There are some user inputs that require intelligent application of the model to the actual conditions of the accident. The results calculated using ED - Revision 3 are only correct to the extent allowed by the mathematical models. 9 refs., 36 tabs.
Limitations of the TG-43 formalism for skin high-dose-rate brachytherapy dose calculations
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Granero, Domingo, E-mail: dgranero@eresa.com [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, 46014 Valencia (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, Jose [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Vijande, Javier [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and IFIC (UV-CSIC), Paterna 46980 (Spain); Ballester, Facundo [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)
2014-02-15
Purpose: In skin high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, sources are located outside, in contact with, or implanted at some depth below the skin surface. Most treatment planning systems use the TG-43 formalism, which is based on single-source dose superposition within an infinite water medium without accounting for the true geometry in which conditions for scattered radiation are altered by the presence of air. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric limitations of the TG-43 formalism in HDR skin brachytherapy and the potential clinical impact. Methods: Dose rate distributions of typical configurations used in skin brachytherapy were obtained: a 5 cm × 5 cm superficial mould; a source inside a catheter located at the skin surface with and without backscatter bolus; and a typical interstitial implant consisting of an HDR source in a catheter located at a depth of 0.5 cm. Commercially available HDR{sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir sources and a hypothetical {sup 169}Yb source were considered. The Geant4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to estimate dose rate distributions for the configurations considered. These results were then compared to those obtained with the TG-43 dose calculation formalism. In particular, the influence of adding bolus material over the implant was studied. Results: For a 5 cm × 5 cm{sup 192}Ir superficial mould and 0.5 cm prescription depth, dose differences in comparison to the TG-43 method were about −3%. When the source was positioned at the skin surface, dose differences were smaller than −1% for {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir, yet −3% for {sup 169}Yb. For the interstitial implant, dose differences at the skin surface were −7% for {sup 60}Co, −0.6% for {sup 192}Ir, and −2.5% for {sup 169}Yb. Conclusions: This study indicates the following: (i) for the superficial mould, no bolus is needed; (ii) when the source is in contact with the skin surface, no bolus is needed for either {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir. For
Limitations of the TG-43 formalism for skin high-dose-rate brachytherapy dose calculations.
Granero, Domingo; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Vijande, Javier; Ballester, Facundo; Rivard, Mark J
2014-02-01
In skin high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, sources are located outside, in contact with, or implanted at some depth below the skin surface. Most treatment planning systems use the TG-43 formalism, which is based on single-source dose superposition within an infinite water medium without accounting for the true geometry in which conditions for scattered radiation are altered by the presence of air. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric limitations of the TG-43 formalism in HDR skin brachytherapy and the potential clinical impact. Dose rate distributions of typical configurations used in skin brachytherapy were obtained: a 5 cm × 5 cm superficial mould; a source inside a catheter located at the skin surface with and without backscatter bolus; and a typical interstitial implant consisting of an HDR source in a catheter located at a depth of 0.5 cm. Commercially available HDR(60)Co and (192)Ir sources and a hypothetical (169)Yb source were considered. The Geant4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to estimate dose rate distributions for the configurations considered. These results were then compared to those obtained with the TG-43 dose calculation formalism. In particular, the influence of adding bolus material over the implant was studied. For a 5 cm × 5 cm(192)Ir superficial mould and 0.5 cm prescription depth, dose differences in comparison to the TG-43 method were about -3%. When the source was positioned at the skin surface, dose differences were smaller than -1% for (60)Co and (192)Ir, yet -3% for (169)Yb. For the interstitial implant, dose differences at the skin surface were -7% for (60)Co, -0.6% for (192)Ir, and -2.5% for (169)Yb. This study indicates the following: (i) for the superficial mould, no bolus is needed; (ii) when the source is in contact with the skin surface, no bolus is needed for either (60)Co and (192)Ir. For lower energy radionuclides like (169)Yb, bolus may be needed; and (iii) for the interstitial case, at
Bazalova, Magdalena; Zhou, Hu; Keall, Paul J; Graves, Edward E
2009-11-01
Small animal conformal radiotherapy (RT) is essential for preclinical cancer research studies and therefore various microRT systems have been recently designed. The aim of this paper is to efficiently calculate the dose delivered using our microRT system based on a microCT scanner with the Monte Carlo (MC) method and to compare the MC calculations to film measurements. Doses from 2-30 mm diameter 120 kVp photon beams deposited in a solid water phantom with 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.2 mm3 voxels are calculated using the latest versions of the EGSnrc codes BEAMNRC and DOSXYZNRC. Two dose calculation approaches are studied: a two-step approach using phase-space files and direct dose calculation with BEAMNRC simulation sources. Due to the small beam size and submillimeter voxel size resulting in long calculation times, variance reduction techniques are studied. The optimum bremsstrahlung splitting number (NBRSPL in BEAMNRC) and the optimum DOSXYZNRC photon splitting (Nsplit) number are examined for both calculation approaches and various beam sizes. The dose calculation efficiencies and the required number of histories to achieve 1% statistical uncertainty--with no particle recycling--are evaluated for 2-30 mm beams. As a final step, film dose measurements are compared to MC calculated dose distributions. The optimum NBRSPL is approximately 1 x 10(6) for both dose calculation approaches. For the dose calculations with phase-space files, Nsplit varies only slightly for 2-30 mm beams and is established to be 300. Nsplit for the DOSXYZNRC calculation with the BEAMNRC source ranges from 300 for the 30 mm beam to 4000 for the 2 mm beam. The calculation time significantly increases for small beam sizes when the BEAMNRC simulation source is used compared to the simulations with phase-space files. For the 2 and 30 mm beams, the dose calculations with phase-space files are more efficient than the dose calculations with BEAMNRC sources by factors of 54 and 1.6, respectively. The dose
Development of a computational methodology for internal dose calculations
Yoriyaz, H
2000-01-01
A new approach for calculating internal dose estimates was developed through the use of a more realistic computational model of the human body and a more precise tool for the radiation transport simulation. The present technique shows the capability to build a patient-specific phantom with tomography data (a voxel-based phantom) for the simulation of radiation transport and energy deposition using Monte Carlo methods such as in the MCNP-4B code. In order to utilize the segmented human anatomy as a computational model for the simulation of radiation transport, an interface program, SCMS, was developed to build the geometric configurations for the phantom through the use of tomographic images. This procedure allows to calculate not only average dose values but also spatial distribution of dose in regions of interest. With the present methodology absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in various organs of the Zubal segmented phantom were calculated and compared to those reported for the mathematical phanto...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None, None
2017-05-01
Operations of Sandia National Laboratories, Nevada (SNL/NV) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) resulted in no planned point radiological releases during 1996. Other releases from SNL/NV included diffuse transuranic sources consisting of the three Clean Slate sites. Air emissions from these sources result from wind resuspension of near-surface transuranic contaminated soil particulates. The total area of contamination has been estimated to exceed 20 million square meters. Soil contamination was documented in an aerial survey program in 1977 (EG&G 1979). Surface contamination levels were generally found to be below 400 pCi/g of combined plutonium-238, plutonium-239, plutonium-240, and americium-241 (i.e., transuranic) activity. Hot spot areas contain up to 43,000 pCi/g of transuranic activity. Recent measurements confirm the presence of significant levels of transuranic activity in the surface soil. An annual diffuse source term of 0.39 Ci of transuranic material was calculated for the cumulative release from all three Clean Slate sites. A maximally exposed individual dose of 1.1 mrem/yr at the TTR airport area was estimated based on the 1996 diffuse source release amounts and site-specific meteorological data. A population dose of 0.86 person-rem/yr was calculated for the local residents. Both dose values were attributable to inhalation of transuranic contaminated dust.
Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm on a distributed system
Chauvie, Stéphane; Dominoni, Matteo; Marini, Piergiorgio; Stasi, Michele; Pia, Maria Grazia; Scielzo, Giuseppe
2003-09-01
The main goal of modern radiotherapy, such as 3D conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy is to deliver a high dose to the target volume sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. The accuracy of dose calculation in a treatment planning system is therefore a critical issue. Among many algorithms developed over the last years, those based on Monte Carlo proven to be very promising in terms of accuracy. The most severe obstacle in application to clinical practice is the high time necessary for calculations. We have studied a high performance network of Personal Computer as a realistic alternative to a high-costs dedicated parallel hardware to be used routinely as instruments of evaluation of treatment plans. We set-up a Beowulf Cluster, configured with 4 nodes connected with low-cost network and installed MC code Geant4 to describe our irradiation facility. The MC, once parallelised, was run on the Beowulf Cluster. The first run of the full simulation showed that the time required for calculation decreased linearly increasing the number of distributed processes. The good scalability trend allows both statistically significant accuracy and good time performances. The scalability of the Beowulf Cluster system offers a new instrument for dose calculation that could be applied in clinical practice. These would be a good support particularly in high challenging prescription that needs good calculation accuracy in zones of high dose gradient and great dishomogeneities.
Independent Monte-Carlo dose calculation for MLC based CyberKnife radiotherapy
Mackeprang, P.-H.; Vuong, D.; Volken, W.; Henzen, D.; Schmidhalter, D.; Malthaner, M.; Mueller, S.; Frei, D.; Stampanoni, M. F. M.; Dal Pra, A.; Aebersold, D. M.; Fix, M. K.; Manser, P.
2018-01-01
This work aims to develop, implement and validate a Monte Carlo (MC)-based independent dose calculation (IDC) framework to perform patient-specific quality assurance (QA) for multi-leaf collimator (MLC)-based CyberKnife® (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) treatment plans. The IDC framework uses an XML-format treatment plan as exported from the treatment planning system (TPS) and DICOM format patient CT data, an MC beam model using phase spaces, CyberKnife MLC beam modifier transport using the EGS++ class library, a beam sampling and coordinate transformation engine and dose scoring using DOSXYZnrc. The framework is validated against dose profiles and depth dose curves of single beams with varying field sizes in a water tank in units of cGy/Monitor Unit and against a 2D dose distribution of a full prostate treatment plan measured with Gafchromic EBT3 (Ashland Advanced Materials, Bridgewater, NJ) film in a homogeneous water-equivalent slab phantom. The film measurement is compared to IDC results by gamma analysis using 2% (global)/2 mm criteria. Further, the dose distribution of the clinical treatment plan in the patient CT is compared to TPS calculation by gamma analysis using the same criteria. Dose profiles from IDC calculation in a homogeneous water phantom agree within 2.3% of the global max dose or 1 mm distance to agreement to measurements for all except the smallest field size. Comparing the film measurement to calculated dose, 99.9% of all voxels pass gamma analysis, comparing dose calculated by the IDC framework to TPS calculated dose for the clinical prostate plan shows 99.0% passing rate. IDC calculated dose is found to be up to 5.6% lower than dose calculated by the TPS in this case near metal fiducial markers. An MC-based modular IDC framework was successfully developed, implemented and validated against measurements and is now available to perform patient-specific QA by IDC.
Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolch, W.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)
1990-12-01
Ionizing radiation has broad uses in modern science and medicine. These uses often require the calculation of energy deposition in the irradiated media and, usually, the medium of interest is the human body. Energy deposition from radioactive sources within the human body and the effects of such deposition are considered in the field of internal dosimetry. In July of 1988, a three-year research project was initiated by the Nuclear Engineering Department at Texas A M University under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The main thrust of the research was to consider, for the first time, the detailed spatial transport of electron and beta particles in the estimation of average organ doses under the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. At the present time (December of 1990), research activities are continuing within five areas. Several are new initiatives begun within the second or third year of the current contract period. They include: (1) development of small-scale dosimetry; (2) development of a differential volume phantom; (3) development of a dosimetric bone model; (4) assessment of the new ICRP lung model; and (5) studies into the mechanisms of DNA damage. A progress report is given for each of these tasks within the Comprehensive Report. In each use, preliminary results are very encouraging and plans for further research are detailed within this document. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.
Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolch, W.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.
1990-12-01
Ionizing radiation has broad uses in modern science and medicine. These uses often require the calculation of energy deposition in the irradiated media and, usually, the medium of interest is the human body. Energy deposition from radioactive sources within the human body and the effects of such deposition are considered in the field of internal dosimetry. In July of 1988, a three-year research project was initiated by the Nuclear Engineering Department at Texas A M University under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The main thrust of the research was to consider, for the first time, the detailed spatial transport of electron and beta particles in the estimation of average organ doses under the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. At the present time (December of 1990), research activities are continuing within five areas. Several are new initiatives begun within the second or third year of the current contract period. They include: (1) development of small-scale dosimetry; (2) development of a differential volume phantom; (3) development of a dosimetric bone model; (4) assessment of the new ICRP lung model; and (5) studies into the mechanisms of DNA damage. A progress report is given for each of these tasks within the Comprehensive Report. In each case, preliminary results are very encouraging and plans for further research are detailed within this document.
Educational audit on drug dose calculation learning in a Tanzanian ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Objective: The aim of the study was to conduct an educational audit on drug dose calculation learning in a Tanzanian school of nursing. Specific objectives were to assess learning from targeted teaching, to identify problem areas in performance and to identify ways in which these problem areas might be addressed.
Patient-specific dose calculation methods for high-dose-rate iridium-192 brachytherapy
Poon, Emily S.
In high-dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy, the radiation dose received by the patient is calculated according to the AAPM Task Group 43 (TG-43) formalism. This table-based dose superposition method uses dosimetry parameters derived with the radioactive 192Ir source centered in a water phantom. It neglects the dose perturbations caused by inhomogeneities, such as the patient anatomy, applicators, shielding, and radiographic contrast solution. In this work, we evaluated the dosimetric characteristics of a shielded rectal applicator with an endocavitary balloon injected with contrast solution. The dose distributions around this applicator were calculated by the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) code and measured by ionization chamber and GAFCHROMIC EBT film. A patient-specific dose calculation study was then carried out for 40 rectal treatment plans. The PTRAN_CT MC code was used to calculate the dose based on computed tomography (CT) images. This study involved the development of BrachyGUI, an integrated treatment planning tool that can process DICOM-RT data and create PTRAN_CT input initialization files. BrachyGUI also comes with dose calculation and evaluation capabilities. We proposed a novel scatter correction method to account for the reduction in backscatter radiation near tissue-air interfaces. The first step requires calculating the doses contributed by primary and scattered photons separately, assuming a full scatter environment. The scatter dose in the patient is subsequently adjusted using a factor derived by MC calculations, which depends on the distances between the point of interest, the 192Ir source, and the body contour. The method was validated for multicatheter breast brachytherapy, in which the target and skin doses for 18 patient plans agreed with PTRAN_CT calculations better than 1%. Finally, we developed a CT-based analytical dose calculation method. It corrects for the photon attenuation and scatter based upon the radiological paths determined by ray tracing
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Vianello, Elizabeth A.; Almeida, Carlos E. de [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Biaggio, Maria F. de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
1998-09-01
This paper describes a manual method for dose calculation in brachytherapy of gynecological tumors, which allows the calculation of the doses at any plane or point of clinical interest. This method uses basic principles of vectorial algebra and the simulating orthogonal films taken from the patient with the applicators and dummy sources in place. The results obtained with method were compared with the values calculated with the values calculated with the treatment planning system model Theraplan and the agreement was better than 5% in most cases. The critical points associated with the final accuracy of the proposed method is related to the quality of the image and the appropriate selection of the magnification factors. This method is strongly recommended to the radiation oncology centers where are no treatment planning systems available and the dose calculations are manually done. (author) 10 refs., 5 figs.
Satory, P R
2012-03-01
This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient.
Hanford Site Annual Report Radiological Dose Calculation Upgrade Evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Snyder, Sandra F.
2010-02-28
Operations at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, result in the release of radioactive materials to offsite residents. Site authorities are required to estimate the dose to the maximally exposed offsite resident. Due to the very low levels of exposure at the residence, computer models, rather than environmental samples, are used to estimate exposure, intake, and dose. A DOS-based model has been used in the past (GENII version 1.485). GENII v1.485 has been updated to a Windows®-based software (GENII version 2.08). Use of the updated software will facilitate future dose evaluations, but must be demonstrated to provide results comparable to those of GENII v1.485. This report describes the GENII v1.485 and GENII v2.08 dose exposure, intake, and dose estimates for the maximally exposed offsite resident reported for calendar year 2008. The GENII v2.08 results reflect updates to implemented algorithms. No two environmental models produce the same results, as was again demonstrated in this report. The aggregated dose results from 2008 Hanford Site airborne and surface water exposure scenarios provide comparable dose results. Therefore, the GENII v2.08 software is recommended for future offsite resident dose evaluations.
Siebers, J. V.; Keall, P. J.; Nahum, A. E.; Mohan, R.
2000-04-01
Current clinical experience in radiation therapy is based upon dose computations that report the absorbed dose to water, even though the patient is not made of water but of many different types of tissue. While Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithms have the potential for higher dose accuracy, they usually transport particles in and compute the absorbed dose to the patient media such as soft tissue, lung or bone. Therefore, for dose calculation algorithm comparisons, or to report dose to water or tissue contained within a bone matrix for example, a method to convert dose to the medium to dose to water is required. This conversion has been developed here by applying Bragg-Gray cavity theory. The dose ratio for 6 and 18 MV photon beams was determined by computing the average stopping power ratio for the primary electron spectrum in the transport media. For soft tissue, the difference between dose to medium and dose to water is approximately 1.0%, while for cortical bone the dose difference exceeds 10%. The variation in the dose ratio as a function of depth and position in the field indicates that for photon beams a single correction factor can be used for each particular material throughout the field for a given photon beam energy. The only exception to this would be for the clinically non-relevant dose to air. Pre-computed energy spectra for 60 Co to 24 MV are used to compute the dose ratios for these photon beams and to determine an effective energy for evaluation of the dose ratio.
Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation; Praenatale Strahlenexposition. Dosisermittlung
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Scharwaechter, C.; Schwartz, C.A.; Haage, P. [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Wuppertal (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Roeser, A. [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Wuppertal (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology
2015-05-15
The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.
Dose calculation based on Cone Beam CT images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Slot Thing, Rune
to be similar to the Hounsfield Units found in a CT scan, although image noise remains a challenge in the CBCT images. The artefact corrected CBCT images were demonstrated to be of suffi- cient quality to allow very accurate dose calculations to be performed directly on CBCT images of 21 lung cancer patients...... image lag, scatter within the CBCT detector assembly, x-ray beam hardening from the patient, and truncation of the CBCT field of view were implemented for clinical CBCT imaging of lung cancer patients. Through the artefact corrections, Hounsfield Units in the CBCT images were recovered and shown....... The dose calculations were made following a standard CT-based workflow, thus without need for CBCT specific calibrations. This was only possible due to the CT-likeness of the CBCT images achieved through the artefact correction methods. With the image quality improvements demonstrated in the present work...
External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1988-07-01
This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.
A modified dose calculation formalism for electronic brachytherapy sources.
DeWerd, Larry A; Culberson, Wesley S; Micka, John A; Simiele, Samantha J
2015-01-01
To propose a modification of the current dose calculation formalism introduced in the Task Group No. 43 Report (TG-43) to accommodate an air-kerma rate standard for electronic brachytherapy sources as an alternative to an air-kerma strength standard. Electronic brachytherapy sources are miniature x-ray tubes emitting low energies with high-dose-rates. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has introduced a new primary air-kerma rate standard for one of these sources, in contrast to air-kerma strength. A modification of the TG-43 protocol for calculation of dose-rate distributions around electronic brachytherapy sources including sources in an applicator is presented. It cannot be assumed that the perturbations from sources in an applicator are negligible, and thus, the applicator is incorporated in the formalism. The modified protocol mimics the fundamental methodology of the original TG-43 formalism, but now incorporates the new NIST-traceable source strength metric of air-kerma rate at 50 cm and introduces a new subscript, i, to denote the presence of an applicator used in treatment delivery. Applications of electronic brachytherapy sources for surface brachytherapy are not addressed in this Technical Note since they are well documented in other publications. A modification of the AAPM TG-43 protocol has been developed to accommodate an air-kerma rate standard for electronic brachytherapy sources as an alternative to an air-kerma strength standard. The modified TG-43 formalism allows dose calculations to be performed using a new NIST-traceable source strength metric and introduces the concept of applicator-specific formalism parameters denoted with subscript, i. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Using matrix summation method for three dimensional dose calculation in brachytherapy.
Zibandeh-Gorji, Mahmoud; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Mohammadi, Saeed
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study is to calculate radiation dose around a brachytherapy source in a water phantom for different seed locations or rotation the sources by the matrix summation method. Monte Carlo based codes like MCNP are widely used for performing radiation transport calculations and dose evaluation in brachytherapy. But for complicated situations, like using more than one source, moving or rotating the source, the routine Monte Carlo method for dose calculation needs a long time running. The MCNPX code has been used to calculate radiation dose around a (192)Ir brachytherapy source and saved in a 3D matrix. Then, we used this matrix to evaluate the absorbed dose in any point due to some sources or a source which shifted or rotated in some places by the matrix summation method. Three dimensional (3D) dose results and isodose curves were presented for (192)Ir source in a water cube phantom shifted for 10 steps and rotated for 45 and 90° based on the matrix summation method. Also, we applied this method for some arrays of sources. The matrix summation method can be used for 3D dose calculations for any brachytherapy source which has moved or rotated. This simple method is very fast compared to routine Monte Carlo based methods. In addition, it can be applied for dose optimization study.
Ribeiro, Rosane Moreira; Souza-Santos, Denison
2017-10-01
A comparison between neutron physics lists given by GEANT4, is made in the calculation of the ambient dose equivalent, and ambient absorbed dose, per fluence conversion coefficients (H* (10) / ϕ and D* (10) / ϕ) for neutrons in the range of 10-9 MeV to 15 MeV. Physics processes are included for neutrons, photons and charged particles, and calculations are made for neutrons and secondary particles. Results obtained for QBBC, QGSP_BERT, QGSP_BIC and Neutron High Precision physics lists are compared with values published in ICRP 74 and previously published articles. Neutron high precision physics lists showed the best results in the studied energy range.
Influence of polarization and a source model for dose calculation in MRT.
Bartzsch, Stefan; Lerch, Michael; Petasecca, Marco; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Oelfke, Uwe
2014-04-01
Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), an alternative preclinical treatment strategy using spatially modulated synchrotron radiation on a micrometer scale, has the great potential to cure malignant tumors (e.g., brain tumors) while having low side effects on normal tissue. Dose measurement and calculation in MRT is challenging because of the spatial accuracy required and the arising high dose differences. Dose calculation with Monte Carlo simulations is time consuming and their accuracy is still a matter of debate. In particular, the influence of photon polarization has been discussed in the literature. Moreover, it is controversial whether a complete knowledge of phase space trajectories, i.e., the simulation of the machine from the wiggler to the collimator, is necessary in order to accurately calculate the dose. With Monte Carlo simulations in the Geant4 toolkit, the authors investigate the influence of polarization on the dose distribution and the therapeutically important peak to valley dose ratios (PVDRs). Furthermore, the authors analyze in detail phase space information provided by Martínez-Rovira et al. ["Development and commissioning of a Monte Carlo photon model for the forthcoming clinical trials in microbeam radiation therapy," Med. Phys. 39(1), 119-131 (2012)] and examine its influence on peak and valley doses. A simple source model is developed using parallel beams and its applicability is shown in a semiadjoint Monte Carlo simulation. Results are compared to measurements and previously published data. Polarization has a significant influence on the scattered dose outside the microbeam field. In the radiation field, however, dose and PVDRs deduced from calculations without polarization and with polarization differ by less than 3%. The authors show that the key consequences from the phase space information for dose calculations are inhomogeneous primary photon flux, partial absorption due to inclined beam incidence outside the field center, increased
Evaluation of deep inspiration breath-hold lung treatment plans with Monte Carlo dose calculation.
Yorke, Ellen D; Wang, Lu; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Mah, Dennis; Paoli, Jean-Baptiste; Chui, Chen-Shou
2002-07-15
To evaluate dosimetry of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) relative to free breathing (FB) for three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of lung cancer with 6-MV photons and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations. Static three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, 6-MV plans, based on DIBH and FB CT images for five non-small-cell lung cancer patients, were generated on a clinical treatment planning system with equivalent path length tissue inhomogeneity correction. Margins of gross to planning target volume were not reduced for DIBH plans. Cord and lung toxicity determined the maximum treatment dose for each plan. Dose distributions were recalculated for the same beams with an MC dose calculation algorithm and electron density distributions derived from the CT images. MC calculations showed decreased target coverage relative to treatment-planning system predictions. Lateral disequilibrium caused more degradation of target coverage for DIBH than for FB (approximately 4% worse than expected for FB vs. 8% for DIBH). However, with DIBH higher treatment doses could be delivered without violating normal tissue constraints, resulting in higher total doses to gross target volume and to >99% of planning target volume. If DIBH enables prescription dose increases exceeding 10%, MC calculations indicate that, despite lateral disequilibrium, higher doses will be delivered to medium-to-large, partly mediastinal gross target volumes, providing that 6-MV photons are used and margins are not reduced.
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Tello, Marcos [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Grupo de Compatibilidade Eletromagnetica; Vilhena, Marco Tulio [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Metalurgica e dos Materiais
1996-12-31
The accuracy of the dose calculations based on pencil beam formulas such as Fokker-Plank equations and Fermi equations for charged particle transport are studied and a methodology to solve the Boltzmann transport equation is suggested 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Analysis of Radiation Treatment Planning by Dose Calculation and Optimization Algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dae Sup; Yoon, In Ha; Lee, Woo Seok; Baek, Geum Mun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2012-09-15
Analyze the Effectiveness of Radiation Treatment Planning by dose calculation and optimization algorithm, apply consideration of actual treatment planning, and then suggest the best way to treatment planning protocol. The treatment planning system use Eclipse 10.0. (Varian, USA). PBC (Pencil Beam Convolution) and AAA (Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm) Apply to Dose calculation, DVO (Dose Volume Optimizer 10.0.28) used for optimized algorithm of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), PRO II (Progressive Resolution Optimizer V 8.9.17) and PRO III (Progressive Resolution Optimizer V 10.0.28) used for optimized algorithm of VAMT. A phantom for experiment virtually created at treatment planning system, 30x30x30 cm sized, homogeneous density (HU: 0) and heterogeneous density that inserted air assumed material (HU: -1,000). Apply to clinical treatment planning on the basis of general treatment planning feature analyzed with Phantom planning. In homogeneous density phantom, PBC and AAA show 65.2% PDD (6 MV, 10 cm) both, In heterogeneous density phantom, also show similar PDD value before meet with low density material, but they show different dose curve in air territory, PDD 10 cm showed 75%, 73% each after penetrate phantom. 3D treatment plan in same MU, AAA treatment planning shows low dose at Lung included area. 2D POP treatment plan with 15 MV of cervical vertebral region include trachea and lung area, Conformity Index (ICRU 62) is 0.95 in PBC calculation and 0.93 in AAA. DVO DVH and Dose calculation DVH are showed equal value in IMRT treatment plan. But AAA calculation shows lack of dose compared with DVO result which is satisfactory condition. Optimizing VMAT treatment plans using PRO II obtained results were satisfactory, but lower density area showed lack of dose in dose calculations. PRO III, but optimizing the dose calculation results were similar with optimized the same conditions once more. In this study, do not judge the rightness of the dose
Benchmarking of Monte Carlo based shutdown dose rate calculations for applications to JET.
Petrizzi, L; Batistoni, P; Fischer, U; Loughlin, M; Pereslavtsev, P; Villari, R
2005-01-01
The calculation of dose rates after shutdown is an important issue for operating nuclear reactors. A validated computational tool is needed for reliable dose rate calculations. In fusion reactors neutrons induce high levels of radioactivity and presumably high doses. The complex geometries of the devices require the use of sophisticated geometry modelling and computational tools for transport calculations. Simple rule of thumb laws do not always apply well. Two computational procedures have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines. Comparisons between the two methods showed some inherent discrepancies when applied to calculation for the ITER while good agreement was found for a 14 MeV point source neutron benchmark experiment. Further benchmarks were considered necessary to investigate in more detail the reasons for the different results in different cases. In this frame the application to the Joint European Torus JET machine has been considered as a useful benchmark exercise. In a first calculational benchmark with a representative D-T irradiation history of JET the two methods differed by no more than 25%. In another, more realistic benchmark exercise, which is the subject of this paper, the real irradiation history of D-T and D-D campaigns conducted at JET in 1997-98 were used to calculate the shut-down doses at different locations, irradiation and decay times. Experimental dose data recorded at JET for the same conditions offer the possibility to check the prediction capability of the calculations and thus show the applicability (and the constraints) of the procedures and data to the rather complex shutdown dose rate analysis of real fusion devices. Calculation results obtained by the two methods are reported below, comparison with experimental results give discrepancies ranging between 2 and 10. The reasons of that can be ascribed to the high uncertainty on the experimental data and the unsatisfactory JET model used in the calculation. A new
Optimization algorithm for absorbed dose calculation during single intake of 131І to rats
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. P. Drozd
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Original calculation algorithms are proposed for absorbed doses in the thyroid gland and thymus of rats at single income of 131I that enable to simplify the calculations and at the same time ensure high reliability of results in the range of input activities of 1 - 115000 Bq. According to the algorithms, the program is developed in the MATLAB environment, adapted for use on Windows running PC. Relative error of calculations is ±2 %.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
García-Garduño, O. A., E-mail: oagarciag@innn.edu.mx, E-mail: amanda.garcia.g@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Mexico City 14269, México and Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Legaria 694, México City 11500, México (Mexico); Rodríguez-Ponce, M. [Departamento de Biofísica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Mexico City 14080, México (Mexico); Gamboa-deBuen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City 04510 (Mexico); Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City 04510 (Mexico); Galván de la Cruz, O. O. [Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Mexico City 14269, México (Mexico); and others
2014-09-15
Purpose: To assess the impact of the detector used to commission small photon beams on the calculated dose distribution in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: In this study, six types of detectors were used to characterize small photon beams: three diodes [a silicon stereotactic field diode SFD, a silicon diode SRS, and a silicon diode E], an ionization chamber CC01, and two types of radiochromic film models EBT and EBT2. These detectors were used to characterize circular collimated beams that were generated by a Novalis linear accelerator. This study was conducted in two parts. First, the following dosimetric data, which are of particular interest in SRS, were compared for the different detectors: the total scatter factor (TSF), the tissue phantom ratios (TPRs), and the off-axis ratios (OARs). Second, the commissioned data sets were incorporated into the treatment planning system (TPS) to compare the calculated dose distributions and the dose volume histograms (DVHs) that were obtained using the different detectors. Results: The TSFs data measured by all of the detectors were in good agreement with each other within the respective statistical uncertainties: two exceptions, where the data were systematically below those obtained for the other detectors, were the CC01 results for all of the circular collimators and the EBT2 film results for circular collimators with diameters below 10.0 mm. The OAR results obtained for all of the detectors were in excellent agreement for all of the circular collimators. This observation was supported by the gamma-index test. The largest difference in the TPR data was found for the 4.0 mm circular collimator, followed by the 10.0 and 20.0 mm circular collimators. The results for the calculated dose distributions showed that all of the detectors passed the gamma-index test at 100% for the 3 mm/3% criteria. The aforementioned observation was true regardless of the size of the calculation grid for all of the circular collimators
Study on GEANT4 code applications to dose calculation using imaging data
Lee, Jeong Ok; Kang, Jeong Ku; Kim, Jhin Kee; Kwon, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo; Kim, Bu Gil; Jeong, Dong Hyeok
2015-07-01
The use of the GEANT4 code has increased in the medical field. Various studies have calculated the patient dose distributions by users the GEANT4 code with imaging data. In present study, Monte Carlo simulations based on DICOM data were performed to calculate the dose absorb in the patient's body. Various visualization tools are installed in the GEANT4 code to display the detector construction; however, the display of DICOM images is limited. In addition, to displaying the dose distributions on the imaging data of the patient is difficult. Recently, the gMocren code, a volume visualization tool for GEANT4 simulation, was developed and has been used in volume visualization of image files. In this study, the imaging based on the dose distributions absorbed in the patients was performed by using the gMocren code. Dosimetric evaluations with were carried out by using thermo luminescent dosimeter and film dosimetry to verify the calculated results.
García-Garduño, O A; Rodríguez-Ponce, M; Gamboa-deBuen, I; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M; Galván de la Cruz, O O; Rivera-Montalvo, T
2014-09-01
To assess the impact of the detector used to commission small photon beams on the calculated dose distribution in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). In this study, six types of detectors were used to characterize small photon beams: three diodes [a silicon stereotactic field diode SFD, a silicon diode SRS, and a silicon diode E], an ionization chamber CC01, and two types of radiochromic film models EBT and EBT2. These detectors were used to characterize circular collimated beams that were generated by a Novalis linear accelerator. This study was conducted in two parts. First, the following dosimetric data, which are of particular interest in SRS, were compared for the different detectors: the total scatter factor (TSF), the tissue phantom ratios (TPRs), and the off-axis ratios (OARs). Second, the commissioned data sets were incorporated into the treatment planning system (TPS) to compare the calculated dose distributions and the dose volume histograms (DVHs) that were obtained using the different detectors. The TSFs data measured by all of the detectors were in good agreement with each other within the respective statistical uncertainties: two exceptions, where the data were systematically below those obtained for the other detectors, were the CC01 results for all of the circular collimators and the EBT2 film results for circular collimators with diameters below 10.0 mm. The OAR results obtained for all of the detectors were in excellent agreement for all of the circular collimators. This observation was supported by the gamma-index test. The largest difference in the TPR data was found for the 4.0 mm circular collimator, followed by the 10.0 and 20.0 mm circular collimators. The results for the calculated dose distributions showed that all of the detectors passed the gamma-index test at 100% for the 3 mm/3% criteria. The aforementioned observation was true regardless of the size of the calculation grid for all of the circular collimators. Finally, the dose volume
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takahashi Wataru
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions from three different algorithms with the x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC calculations, in actual computed tomography (CT scans for use in stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT of small lung cancers. Methods Slow CT scan of 20 patients was performed and the internal target volume (ITV was delineated on Pinnacle3. All plans were first calculated with a scatter homogeneous mode (SHM which is compatible with Clarkson algorithm using Pinnacle3 treatment planning system (TPS. The planned dose was 48 Gy in 4 fractions. In a second step, the CT images, structures and beam data were exported to other treatment planning systems (TPSs. Collapsed cone convolution (CCC from Pinnacle3, superposition (SP from XiO, and XVMC from Monaco were used for recalculating. The dose distributions and the Dose Volume Histograms (DVHs were compared with each other. Results The phantom test revealed that all algorithms could reproduce the measured data within 1% except for the SHM with inhomogeneous phantom. For the patient study, the SHM greatly overestimated the isocenter (IC doses and the minimal dose received by 95% of the PTV (PTV95 compared to XVMC. The differences in mean doses were 2.96 Gy (6.17% for IC and 5.02 Gy (11.18% for PTV95. The DVH's and dose distributions with CCC and SP were in agreement with those obtained by XVMC. The average differences in IC doses between CCC and XVMC, and SP and XVMC were -1.14% (p = 0.17, and -2.67% (p = 0.0036, respectively. Conclusions Our work clearly confirms that the actual practice of relying solely on a Clarkson algorithm may be inappropriate for SRT planning. Meanwhile, CCC and SP were close to XVMC simulations and actual dose distributions obtained in lung SRT.
Dose calculation using a numerical method based on Haar wavelets integration
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Belkadhi, K., E-mail: khaled.belkadhi@ult-tunisie.com [Unité de Recherche de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Énergies, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université Tunis El-Manar (Tunisia); Manai, K. [Unité de Recherche de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Énergies, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université Tunis El-Manar (Tunisia); College of Science and Arts, University of Bisha, Bisha (Saudi Arabia)
2016-03-11
This paper deals with the calculation of the absorbed dose in an irradiation cell of gamma rays. Direct measurement and simulation have shown that they are expensive and time consuming. An alternative to these two operations is numerical methods, a quick and efficient way can furnish an estimation of the absorbed dose by giving an approximation of the photon flux at a specific point of space. To validate the numerical integration method based on the Haar wavelet for absorbed dose estimation, a study with many configurations was performed. The obtained results with the Haar wavelet method showed a very good agreement with the simulation highlighting good efficacy and acceptable accuracy. - Highlights: • A numerical integration method using Haar wavelets is detailed. • Absorbed dose is estimated with Haar wavelets method. • Calculated absorbed dose using Haar wavelets and Monte Carlo simulation using Geant4 are compared.
Calculating patient-specific doses in X-ray diagnostics and from radiopharmaceuticals
Lampinen, Juha Sakari
2000-06-01
The risk associated with exposure to ionising radiation is dependent on the characteristics of the exposed individual. The size and structure of the individual influences the absorbed dose distribution in the organs. Traditional methods used to calculate the patient organ doses are based on standardised calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. Methods for patient specific dosimetry in the fields of X-ray diagnostics and diagnostic and therapeutic use of radiopharmaceuticals were proposed in this thesis. A computer program, ODS-60, for calculating organ doses from diagnostic X-ray exposures was presented. The calculation is done in a patient specific phantom with depth dose and profile algorithms fitted to Monte Carlo simulation data from a previous study. Improvements to the version reported earlier were introduced, e.g. bone attenuation was implemented. The applicability of the program to determine patient doses from complex X-ray examinations (barium enema examination) was studied. The conversion equations derived for female and male patients as a function of patient weight gave the smallest deviation from the actual patient doses when compared to previous studies. Another computer program, Intdose, was presented for calculation of the dose distribution from radiopharmaceuticals. The calculation is based on convolution of an isotope specific point dose kernel with activity distribution, obtained from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Anatomical information is taken from magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) images. According to a phantom study, Intdose agreed within 3% with measurements. For volunteers administered diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals, the results given by Intdose were found to agree with traditional methods in cases of medium sized patients. For patients undergoing systemic radiation therapy, the results by Intdose differed from measurements due to dynamic biodistribution
Villeneuve, David; Brothers, Adam; Harvey, Eric; Kemna, Mariska; Law, Yuk; Nemeth, Thomas; Gantt, Soren
2013-02-01
Pediatric valganciclovir dosing recommendations have not been extensively validated for prevention or treatment for CMV infection. As such, we performed a pharmacokinetic study to compare different valganciclovir dosing regimens and the potential benefits of individualized dose adjustments in children following organ transplantation. Ganciclovir AUCs were calculated from four plasma drug levels in pediatric SOT recipients aged six months through three yr receiving valganciclovir suspension by mouth. Of the 28 ganciclovir AUC calculations performed, 11 (39%) were outside the therapeutic target range of 40-60 mcg h/L leading to a valganciclovir dose adjustment. Current manufacturer-recommended dosing based on BSA and CrCl was estimated to result in therapeutic AUCs in fewer patients than the simple weight-based formula used in our institution (4 vs. 13; p = 0.017). An AUC calculation using only the two- and five-h measurements was strongly correlated with the AUC using all four time measurements (R(2) = 0.846; p < 0.001). A simple weight-based dosing approach gives a higher probability for therapeutic AUCs compared to the manufacturer-recommended dosing in pediatric transplant patients aged six months through three yr with normal renal function. An AUC calculated using two sample times might allow for fewer blood draws in the future. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
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Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.
1981-04-01
The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external dose from air submersion and inhalation doses following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine maximum conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. Doses are calculated using dose conversion factor supplied in a data library. Doses are reported for one and fifty year dose commitment periods for the maximum individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to dose by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested.
SU-E-T-161: Evaluation of Dose Calculation Based On Cone-Beam CT
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Abe, T; Nakazawa, T; Saitou, Y; Nakata, A; Yano, M [Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tateoka, K [Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Radiation Therapy Research Institute, Social Medical Corporation Teishinkai, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Fujimoto, K [Radiation Therapy Research Institute, Social Medical Corporation Teishinkai, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Sakata, K [Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)
2014-06-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to convert pixel values in cone-beam CT (CBCT) using histograms of pixel values in the simulation CT (sim-CT) and the CBCT images and to evaluate the accuracy of dose calculation based on the CBCT. Methods: The sim-CT and CBCT images immediately before the treatment of 10 prostate cancer patients were acquired. Because of insufficient calibration of the pixel values in the CBCT, it is difficult to be directly used for dose calculation. The pixel values in the CBCT images were converted using an in-house program. A 7 fields treatment plans (original plan) created on the sim-CT images were applied to the CBCT images and the dose distributions were re-calculated with same monitor units (MUs). These prescription doses were compared with those of original plans. Results: In the results of the pixel values conversion in the CBCT images,the mean differences of pixel values for the prostate,subcutaneous adipose, muscle and right-femur were −10.78±34.60, 11.78±41.06, 29.49±36.99 and 0.14±31.15 respectively. In the results of the calculated doses, the mean differences of prescription doses for 7 fields were 4.13±0.95%, 0.34±0.86%, −0.05±0.55%, 1.35±0.98%, 1.77±0.56%, 0.89±0.69% and 1.69±0.71% respectively and as a whole, the difference of prescription dose was 1.54±0.4%. Conclusion: The dose calculation on the CBCT images achieve an accuracy of <2% by using this pixel values conversion program. This may enable implementation of efficient adaptive radiotherapy.
Fast pencil beam dose calculation for proton therapy using a double-Gaussian beam model
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Joakim eda Silva
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The highly conformal dose distributions produced by scanned proton pencil beams are more sensitive to motion and anatomical changes than those produced by conventional radiotherapy. The ability to calculate the dose in real time as it is being delivered would enable, for example, online dose monitoring, and is therefore highly desirable. We have previously described an implementation of a pencil beam algorithm running on graphics processing units (GPUs intended specifically for online dose calculation. Here we present an extension to the dose calculation engine employing a double-Gaussian beam model to better account for the low-dose halo. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first such pencil beam algorithm for proton therapy running on a GPU. We employ two different parametrizations for the halo dose, one describing the distribution of secondary particles from nuclear interactions found in the literature and one relying on directly fitting the model to Monte Carlo simulations of pencil beams in water. Despite the large width of the halo contribution, we show how in either case the second Gaussian can be included whilst prolonging the calculation of the investigated plans by no more than 16%, or the calculation of the most time-consuming energy layers by about 25%. Further, the calculation time is relatively unaffected by the parametrization used, which suggests that these results should hold also for different systems. Finally, since the implementation is based on an algorithm employed by a commercial treatment planning system, it is expected that with adequate tuning, it should be able to reproduce the halo dose from a general beam line with sufficient accuracy.
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Klüter, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.klueter@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Schubert, Kai; Lissner, Steffen; Sterzing, Florian; Oetzel, Dieter; Debus, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, and Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, and German Consortium for Translational Cancer Research (DKTK), Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlegel, Wolfgang [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Oelfke, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Nill, Simeon [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom)
2014-08-15
Purpose: The dosimetric verification of treatment plans in helical tomotherapy usually is carried out via verification measurements. In this study, a method for independent dose calculation of tomotherapy treatment plans is presented, that uses a conventional treatment planning system with a pencil kernel dose calculation algorithm for generation of verification dose distributions based on patient CT data. Methods: A pencil beam algorithm that directly uses measured beam data was configured for dose calculation for a tomotherapy machine. Tomotherapy treatment plans were converted into a format readable by an in-house treatment planning system by assigning each projection to one static treatment field and shifting the calculation isocenter for each field in order to account for the couch movement. The modulation of the fluence for each projection is read out of the delivery sinogram, and with the kernel-based dose calculation, this information can directly be used for dose calculation without the need for decomposition of the sinogram. The sinogram values are only corrected for leaf output and leaf latency. Using the converted treatment plans, dose was recalculated with the independent treatment planning system. Multiple treatment plans ranging from simple static fields to real patient treatment plans were calculated using the new approach and either compared to actual measurements or the 3D dose distribution calculated by the tomotherapy treatment planning system. In addition, dose–volume histograms were calculated for the patient plans. Results: Except for minor deviations at the maximum field size, the pencil beam dose calculation for static beams agreed with measurements in a water tank within 2%/2 mm. A mean deviation to point dose measurements in the cheese phantom of 0.89% ± 0.81% was found for unmodulated helical plans. A mean voxel-based deviation of −0.67% ± 1.11% for all voxels in the respective high dose region (dose values >80%), and a mean local
SU-E-T-464: Implementation and Validation of 4D Acuros XB Dose Calculations
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Thomas, S; Yuen, C [BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Huang, V [BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, BC (United Kingdom); Milette, M; Teke, T [BC Cancer Agency-Southern Interior, Kelowna, BC (Canada)
2015-06-15
Purpose: In this abstract we implement and validate a 4D VMAT Acuros XB dose calculation using Gafchromic film. Special attention is paid to the physical material assignment in the CT dataset and to reported dose to water and dose to medium. Methods: A QUASAR phantom with a 3 cm sinusoidal tumor motion and 5 second period was scanned using 4D computed tomography. A CT was also obtained of the static QUASAR phantom with the tumor at the central position. A VMAT plan was created on the average CT dataset and was delivered on a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator. The trajectory log file from this treatment was acquired and used to create 10 VMAT subplans (one for each portion of the breathing cycle). Motion for each subplan was simulated by moving the beam isocentre in the superior/inferior direction in the Treatment Planning System on the static CT scan. The 10 plans were calculated (both dose to medium and dose to water) and summed for 1) the original HU values from the static CT scan and 2) the correct physical material assignment in the CT dataset. To acquire a breathing phase synchronized film measurements the trajectory log was used to create a VMAT delivery plan which includes dynamic couch motion using the Developer Mode. Three different treatment start phases were investigated (mid inhalation, full inhalation and full exhalation). Results: For each scenario the coronal dose distributions were measured using Gafchromic film and compared to the corresponding calculation with Film QA Pro Software using a Gamma test with a 3%/3mm distance to agreement criteria. Good agreement was found between calculation and measurement. No statistically significant difference in agreement was found between calculations to original HU values vs calculations to over-written (material-assigned) HU values. Conclusion: The investigated 4D dose calculation method agrees well with measurement.
SU-E-I-28: Evaluating the Organ Dose From Computed Tomography Using Monte Carlo Calculations
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Ono, T; Araki, F [Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To evaluate organ doses from computed tomography (CT) using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. Methods: A Philips Brilliance CT scanner (64 slice) was simulated using the GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) based on the EGSnrc user code. The X-ray spectra and a bowtie filter for MC simulations were determined to coincide with measurements of half-value layer (HVL) and off-center ratio (OCR) profile in air. The MC dose was calibrated from absorbed dose measurements using a Farmer chamber and a cylindrical water phantom. The dose distribution from CT was calculated using patient CT images and organ doses were evaluated from dose volume histograms. Results: The HVLs of Al at 80, 100, and 120 kV were 6.3, 7.7, and 8.7 mm, respectively. The calculated HVLs agreed with measurements within 0.3%. The calculated and measured OCR profiles agreed within 3%. For adult head scans (CTDIvol) =51.4 mGy), mean doses for brain stem, eye, and eye lens were 23.2, 34.2, and 37.6 mGy, respectively. For pediatric head scans (CTDIvol =35.6 mGy), mean doses for brain stem, eye, and eye lens were 19.3, 24.5, and 26.8 mGy, respectively. For adult chest scans (CTDIvol=19.0 mGy), mean doses for lung, heart, and spinal cord were 21.1, 22.0, and 15.5 mGy, respectively. For adult abdominal scans (CTDIvol=14.4 mGy), the mean doses for kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and spinal cord were 17.4, 16.5, 16.8, 16.8, and 13.1 mGy, respectively. For pediatric abdominal scans (CTDIvol=6.76 mGy), mean doses for kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and spinal cord were 8.24, 8.90, 8.17, 8.31, and 6.73 mGy, respectively. In head scan, organ doses were considerably different from CTDIvol values. Conclusion: MC dose distributions calculated by using patient CT images are useful to evaluate organ doses absorbed to individual patients.
TU-AB-BRC-12: Optimized Parallel MonteCarlo Dose Calculations for Secondary MU Checks
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French, S; Nazareth, D [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Bellor, M [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: Secondary MU checks are an important tool used during a physics review of a treatment plan. Commercial software packages offer varying degrees of theoretical dose calculation accuracy, depending on the modality involved. Dose calculations of VMAT plans are especially prone to error due to the large approximations involved. Monte Carlo (MC) methods are not commonly used due to their long run times. We investigated two methods to increase the computational efficiency of MC dose simulations with the BEAMnrc code. Distributed computing resources, along with optimized code compilation, will allow for accurate and efficient VMAT dose calculations. Methods: The BEAMnrc package was installed on a high performance computing cluster accessible to our clinic. MATLAB and PYTHON scripts were developed to convert a clinical VMAT DICOM plan into BEAMnrc input files. The BEAMnrc installation was optimized by running the VMAT simulations through profiling tools which indicated the behavior of the constituent routines in the code, e.g. the bremsstrahlung splitting routine, and the specified random number generator. This information aided in determining the most efficient compiling parallel configuration for the specific CPU’s available on our cluster, resulting in the fastest VMAT simulation times. Our method was evaluated with calculations involving 10{sup 8} – 10{sup 9} particle histories which are sufficient to verify patient dose using VMAT. Results: Parallelization allowed the calculation of patient dose on the order of 10 – 15 hours with 100 parallel jobs. Due to the compiler optimization process, further speed increases of 23% were achieved when compared with the open-source compiler BEAMnrc packages. Conclusion: Analysis of the BEAMnrc code allowed us to optimize the compiler configuration for VMAT dose calculations. In future work, the optimized MC code, in conjunction with the parallel processing capabilities of BEAMnrc, will be applied to provide accurate
Recommended environmental dose calculation methods and Hanford-specific parameters
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Schreckhise, R.G.; Rhoads, K.; Napier, B.A.; Ramsdell, J.V. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Davis, J.S. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))
1993-03-01
This document was developed to support the Hanford Environmental Dose overview Panel (HEDOP). The Panel is responsible for reviewing all assessments of potential doses received by humans and other biota resulting from the actual or possible environmental releases of radioactive and other hazardous materials from facilities and/or operations belonging to the US Department of Energy on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. This document serves as a guide to be used for developing estimates of potential radiation doses, or other measures of risk or health impacts, to people and other biota in the environs on and around the Hanford Site. It provides information to develop technically sound estimates of exposure (i.e., potential or actual) to humans or other biotic receptors that could result from the environmental transport of potentially harmful materials that have been, or could be, released from Hanford operations or facilities. Parameter values and information that are specific to the Hanford environs as well as other supporting material are included in this document.
SU-F-T-60: A Quick Dose Calculation Check for Accuboost Breast Treatment
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Sen, A [Cancer Treatment Center of America, Tulsa, OK (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: Accuboost treatment planning uses dwell times from a nomogram designed with Monte Carlo calculations for round and D-shaped applicators. A quick dose calculation method has been developed for verification of the HDR Brachytherapy dose as a second check. Methods: Accuboost breast treatment uses several round and D-shaped applicators to be used non-invasively with an Ir-192 source from a HDR Brachytherapy afterloader after the breast is compressed in a mammographic unit for localization. The breast thickness, source activity, the prescription dose and the applicator size are entered into a nomogram spreadsheet which gives the dwell times to be manually entered into the delivery computer. Approximating the HDR Ir-192 as a point source, and knowing the geometry of the round and D-applicators, the distances from the source positions to the midpoint of the central plane are calculated. Using the exposure constant of Ir-192 and medium as human tissue, the dose at a point is calculated as: D(cGy) = 1.254 × A × t/R2, where A is the activity in Ci, t is the dwell time in sec and R is the distance in cm. The dose from each dwell position is added to get the total dose. Results: Each fraction is delivered in two compressions: cranio-caudally and medial-laterally. A typical APBI treatment in 10 fractions requires 20 compressions. For a patient treated with D45 applicators and an average of 5.22 cm thickness, this calculation was 1.63 % higher than the prescription. For another patient using D53 applicators in the CC direction and 7 cm SDO applicators in the ML direction, this calculation was 1.31 % lower than the prescription. Conclusion: This is a simple and quick method to double check the dose on the central plane for Accuboost treatment.
Clinical evaluation of a novel CT image reconstruction algorithm for direct dose calculations
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Brent van der Heyden
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Computed tomography (CT imaging is frequently used in radiation oncology to calculate radiation dose distributions. In order to calculate doses, the CT numbers must be converted into densities by an energy dependent conversion curve. A recently developed algorithm directly reconstructs CT projection data into relative electron densities which eliminates the use of separate conversion curves for different X-ray tube potentials. Our work evaluates this algorithm for various cancer sites and shows its applicability in a clinical workflow. Materials and methods: The Gammex phantom with tissue mimicking inserts was scanned to characterize the CT number to density conversion curves. In total, 33 patients with various cancer sites were scanned using multiple tube potentials. All CT acquisitions were reconstructed with the standard filtered back-projection (FBP and the new developed DirectDensityâ¢ (DD algorithm. The mean tumor doses and the volume percentage that receives more than 95% of the prescribed dose were calculated for the planning target volume. Relevant parameters for the organs at risk for each tumor site were also calculated. Results: The relative mean dose differences between the standard 120Â kVp FBP CT scan workflow and the DD CT scans (80, 100, 120 and 140Â kVp were in general less than 1% for the planned target volume and organs at risk. Conclusion: The energy independent DD algorithm allows for accurate dose calculations over a variety of body sites. This novel algorithm eliminates the tube potential specific calibration procedure and thereby simplifies the clinical radiotherapy workflow. Keywords: CT imaging, Image reconstruction, Dose calculations, Electron density reconstruction
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Seyed Mohsen Hosseini Daghigh
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Introduction Interaluminal brachytherapy is one of the important methods of esophageal cancer treatment. The effect of applicator attenuation is not considered in dose calculation method released by AAPM-TG43. In this study, the effect of High-Dose Rate (HDR brachytherapy esophageal applicator on dose distribution was surveyed in HDR brachytherapy. Materials and Methods A cylindrical PMMA phantom was built in order to be inserted by various sizes of esophageal applicators. EDR2 films were placed at 33 mm from Ir-192 source and irradiated with 1.5 Gy after planning using treatment planning system for all applicators. Results The results of film dosimetry in reference point for 6, 8, 10, and 20 mm applicators were 1.54, 1.53, 1.48, and 1.50 Gy, respectively. The difference between practical and treatment planning system results was 0.023 Gy (
Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena
2010-06-01
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, α) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg 10B/g blood.
Molinelli, Silvia; Mairani, Andrea; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Inaniwa, Taku; Mirandola, Alfredo; Russo, Stefania; Mastella, Edoardo; Hasegawa, Azusa; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shigeru; Vischioni, Barbara; Vitolo, Viviana; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ciocca, Mario; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Orecchia, Roberto; Fossati, Piero
2016-01-01
Background and purpose: In carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT), the use of different relative biological effectiveness (RBE) models in the RBE-weighted dose $(D_{RBE})$ calculation can lead to deviations in the physical dose $(D_{phy})$ delivered to the patient. Our aim is to reduce target $D_{phy}$ deviations by converting prescription dose values. Material and methods: Planning data of patients treated at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) were collected, with prescribed doses per fraction ranging from 3.6 Gy (RBE) to 4.6 Gy (RBE), according to the Japanese semi-empirical model. The $D_{phy}$ was Monte Carlo (MC) re-calculated simulating the NIRS beamline. The local effect model (LEM)_I was then applied to estimate $D_{RBE}$. Target median $D_{RBE}$ ratios between MC + LEM_I and NIRS plans determined correction factors for the conversion of prescription doses. Plans were re-optimized in a LEM_I-based commercial system, prescribing the NIRS uncorrected and corrected $D_{RBE}$. Results: The MC ...
Improved Patient Size Estimates for Accurate Dose Calculations in Abdomen Computed Tomography
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Lee, Chang-Lae [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)
2017-07-15
The radiation dose of CT (computed tomography) is generally represented by the CTDI (CT dose index). CTDI, however, does not accurately predict the actual patient doses for different human body sizes because it relies on a cylinder-shaped head (diameter : 16 cm) and body (diameter : 32 cm) phantom. The purpose of this study was to eliminate the drawbacks of the conventional CTDI and to provide more accurate radiation dose information. Projection radiographs were obtained from water cylinder phantoms of various sizes, and the sizes of the water cylinder phantoms were calculated and verified using attenuation profiles. The effective diameter was also calculated using the attenuation of the abdominal projection radiographs of 10 patients. When the results of the attenuation-based method and the geometry-based method shown were compared with the results of the reconstructed-axial-CT-image-based method, the effective diameter of the attenuation-based method was found to be similar to the effective diameter of the reconstructed-axial-CT-image-based method, with a difference of less than 3.8%, but the geometry-based method showed a difference of less than 11.4%. This paper proposes a new method of accurately computing the radiation dose of CT based on the patient sizes. This method computes and provides the exact patient dose before the CT scan, and can therefore be effectively used for imaging and dose control.
Zhang, Aizhen; Wen, Ning; Nurushev, Teamour; Burmeister, Jay; Chetty, Indrin J
2013-03-04
based on point-dose prescription. The eMC algorithm calculation was characterized by deeper penetration in the low-density regions, such as lung and air cavities. As a result, the mean dose in the low-density regions was underestimated using PB algorithm. The eMC computation time ranged from 5 min to 66 min on a single 2.66 GHz desktop, which is comparable with PB algorithm calculation time for the same resolution level.
Comparison of the Batho, ETAR and Monte Carlo dose calculation methods in CT based patient models.
du Plessis, F C; Willemse, C A; Lötter, M G; Goedhals, L
2001-04-01
This paper shows the contribution that Monte Carlo methods make in regard to dose distribution calculations in CT based patient models and the role it plays as a gold standard to evaluate other dose calculation algorithms. The EGS4 based BEAM code was used to construct a generic 8 MV accelerator to obtain a series of x-ray field sources. These were used in the EGS4 based DOSXYZ code to generate beam data in a mathematical water phantom to set up a beam model in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), CADPLAN V.2.7.9. Dose distributions were calculated with the Batho and ETAR inhomogeneity correction algorithms in head/sinus, lung, and prostate patient models for 2 x 2, 5 x 5, and 10 X 10 cm2 open x-ray beams. Corresponding dose distributions were calculated with DOSXYZ that were used as a benchmark. The dose comparisons are expressed in terms of 2D isodose distributions, percentage depth dose data, and dose difference volume histograms (DDVH's). Results indicated that the Batho and ETAR methods contained inaccuracies of 20%-70% in the maxillary sinus region in the head model. Large lung inhomogeneities irradiated with small fields gave rise to absorbed dose deviations of 10%-20%. It is shown for a 10 x 10 cm2 field that DOSXYZ models lateral scatter in lung that is not present in the Batho and ETAR methods. The ETAR and Batho methods are accurate within 3% in a prostate model. We showed how the performance of these inhomogeneity correction methods can be understood in realistic patient models using validated Monte Carlo codes such as BEAM and DOSXYZ.
Organ doses from medical x-ray examinations calculated using Monte Carlo techniques
Jones, D G
1985-01-01
Monte Carlo techniques were used to calculate the mean doses received by 20 organs during diagnostic X-ray examinations. Results are presented for 22 commonly used radiographic views and for 45 combinations of tube voltage and filtration ranging from 50 to 140 kVp and 1.5 to 4 mm of aluminium, respectively.
Dose calculation method with 60-cobalt gamma rays in total body irradiation
Scaff, L A M
2001-01-01
Physical factors associated to total body irradiation using sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays beams, were studied in order to develop a calculation method of the dose distribution that could be reproduced in any radiotherapy center with good precision. The method is based on considering total body irradiation as a large and irregular field with heterogeneities. To calculate doses, or doses rates, of each area of interest (head, thorax, thigh, etc.), scattered radiation is determined. It was observed that if dismagnified fields were considered to calculate the scattered radiation, the resulting values could be applied on a projection to the real size to obtain the values for dose rate calculations. In a parallel work it was determined the variation of the dose rate in the air, for the distance of treatment, and for points out of the central axis. This confirm that the use of the inverse square law is not valid. An attenuation curve for a broad beam was also determined in order to allow the use of absorbers. In this wo...
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Moore, Bria M.; Brady, Samuel L., E-mail: samuel.brady@stjude.org; Kaufman, Robert A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 (United States); Mirro, Amy E. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)
2014-07-15
Purpose: To investigate the correlation of size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) with absorbed organ dose, and to develop a simple methodology for estimating patient organ dose in a pediatric population (5–55 kg). Methods: Four physical anthropomorphic phantoms representing a range of pediatric body habitus were scanned with metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters placed at 23 organ locations to determine absolute organ dose. Phantom absolute organ dose was divided by phantom SSDE to determine correlation between organ dose and SSDE. Organ dose correlation factors (CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ}) were then multiplied by patient-specific SSDE to estimate patient organ dose. The CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ} were used to retrospectively estimate individual organ doses from 352 chest and 241 abdominopelvic pediatric CT examinations, where mean patient weight was 22 kg ± 15 (range 5–55 kg), and mean patient age was 6 yrs ± 5 (range 4 months to 23 yrs). Patient organ dose estimates were compared to published pediatric Monte Carlo study results. Results: Phantom effective diameters were matched with patient population effective diameters to within 4 cm; thus, showing appropriate scalability of the phantoms across the entire pediatric population in this study. IndividualCF{sub SSDE}{sup organ} were determined for a total of 23 organs in the chest and abdominopelvic region across nine weight subcategories. For organs fully covered by the scan volume, correlation in the chest (average 1.1; range 0.7–1.4) and abdominopelvic region (average 0.9; range 0.7–1.3) was near unity. For organ/tissue that extended beyond the scan volume (i.e., skin, bone marrow, and bone surface), correlation was determined to be poor (average 0.3; range: 0.1–0.4) for both the chest and abdominopelvic regions, respectively. A means to estimate patient organ dose was demonstrated. Calculated patient organ dose, using patient SSDE and CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ}, was compared to
Panettieri, Vanessa; Malik, Zafar I; Eswar, Chinnamani V; Landau, David B; Thornton, John M C; Nahum, Alan E; Mayles, W Philip M; Fenwick, John D
2010-12-01
A series of phase I/II clinical trials are being initiated in several UK centres to explore the use of dose-escalated schedules for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Among them the IDEAL-CRT trial (ISRCTN12155469) will investigate the introduction of individualised "isotoxic" treatment schedules based on the relative mean lung normalised total dose (rNTD(mean)), an estimator related to lung toxicity. Since treatment planning will be performed using different treatment planning systems (TPSs), for the quality assurance of the trial we have carried out work to quantify the influence of dose calculation algorithms based on the determination of rNTD(mean) and on the choice of individualised prescription doses. Twenty-five patient plans with stage I, II and III NSCLC were calculated, with the same prescription dose, using the Adaptive Convolve (AC) and Collapsed Cone (CC) algorithms of the Pinnacle TPS, the pencil beam convolution (PBC) and AAA algorithms of Eclipse, and the CC and pencil beam (PB) algorithms of Oncentra Masterplan (OMP). For the paired-lungs-GTV structure, dose-volume histograms were obtained and used to calculate the corresponding rNTD(mean) values and results obtained with the different algorithms were compared. For most (19 out of 25) of the patients studied, no algorithm-to-algorithm differences were seen in dose prescription based on rNTD(mean). For the other 6 patients differences were within 2.3 Gy, except in one case where the difference was 4 Gy. For the IDEAL-CRT trial no corrections need to be applied to the value of rNTD(mean) calculated using any of the more advanced convolution/superposition algorithms studied in this work. For the two pencil beam algorithms analysed, no correction is necessary for the data obtained with the Eclipse-PBC, while for OMP-PB data a small correction needs to be applied, by using a scaling factor, to make prescription doses consistent with the other algorithms investigated. Copyright © 2010
Site-specific range uncertainties caused by dose calculation algorithms for proton therapy
Schuemann, J.; Dowdell, S.; Grassberger, C.; Min, C. H.; Paganetti, H.
2014-08-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the possibility of introducing site-specific range margins to replace current generic margins in proton therapy. Further, the goal was to study the potential of reducing margins with current analytical dose calculations methods. For this purpose we investigate the impact of complex patient geometries on the capability of analytical dose calculation algorithms to accurately predict the range of proton fields. Dose distributions predicted by an analytical pencil-beam algorithm were compared with those obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations (TOPAS). A total of 508 passively scattered treatment fields were analyzed for seven disease sites (liver, prostate, breast, medulloblastoma-spine, medulloblastoma-whole brain, lung and head and neck). Voxel-by-voxel comparisons were performed on two-dimensional distal dose surfaces calculated by pencil-beam and MC algorithms to obtain the average range differences and root mean square deviation for each field for the distal position of the 90% dose level (R90) and the 50% dose level (R50). The average dose degradation of the distal falloff region, defined as the distance between the distal position of the 80% and 20% dose levels (R80-R20), was also analyzed. All ranges were calculated in water-equivalent distances. Considering total range uncertainties and uncertainties from dose calculation alone, we were able to deduce site-specific estimations. For liver, prostate and whole brain fields our results demonstrate that a reduction of currently used uncertainty margins is feasible even without introducing MC dose calculations. We recommend range margins of 2.8% + 1.2 mm for liver and prostate treatments and 3.1% + 1.2 mm for whole brain treatments, respectively. On the other hand, current margins seem to be insufficient for some breast, lung and head and neck patients, at least if used generically. If no case specific adjustments are applied, a generic margin of 6.3% + 1.2 mm would be
A single-source photon source model of a linear accelerator for Monte Carlo dose calculation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Obioma Nwankwo
Full Text Available To introduce a new method of deriving a virtual source model (VSM of a linear accelerator photon beam from a phase space file (PSF for Monte Carlo (MC dose calculation.A PSF of a 6 MV photon beam was generated by simulating the interactions of primary electrons with the relevant geometries of a Synergy linear accelerator (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden and recording the particles that reach a plane 16 cm downstream the electron source. Probability distribution functions (PDFs for particle positions and energies were derived from the analysis of the PSF. These PDFs were implemented in the VSM using inverse transform sampling. To model particle directions, the phase space plane was divided into a regular square grid. Each element of the grid corresponds to an area of 1 mm2 in the phase space plane. The average direction cosines, Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC between photon energies and their direction cosines, as well as the PCC between the direction cosines were calculated for each grid element. Weighted polynomial surfaces were then fitted to these 2D data. The weights are used to correct for heteroscedasticity across the phase space bins. The directions of the particles created by the VSM were calculated from these fitted functions. The VSM was validated against the PSF by comparing the doses calculated by the two methods for different square field sizes. The comparisons were performed with profile and gamma analyses.The doses calculated with the PSF and VSM agree to within 3% /1 mm (>95% pixel pass rate for the evaluated fields.A new method of deriving a virtual photon source model of a linear accelerator from a PSF file for MC dose calculation was developed. Validation results show that the doses calculated with the VSM and the PSF agree to within 3% /1 mm.
A single-source photon source model of a linear accelerator for Monte Carlo dose calculation.
Nwankwo, Obioma; Glatting, Gerhard; Wenz, Frederik; Fleckenstein, Jens
2017-01-01
To introduce a new method of deriving a virtual source model (VSM) of a linear accelerator photon beam from a phase space file (PSF) for Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation. A PSF of a 6 MV photon beam was generated by simulating the interactions of primary electrons with the relevant geometries of a Synergy linear accelerator (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) and recording the particles that reach a plane 16 cm downstream the electron source. Probability distribution functions (PDFs) for particle positions and energies were derived from the analysis of the PSF. These PDFs were implemented in the VSM using inverse transform sampling. To model particle directions, the phase space plane was divided into a regular square grid. Each element of the grid corresponds to an area of 1 mm2 in the phase space plane. The average direction cosines, Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) between photon energies and their direction cosines, as well as the PCC between the direction cosines were calculated for each grid element. Weighted polynomial surfaces were then fitted to these 2D data. The weights are used to correct for heteroscedasticity across the phase space bins. The directions of the particles created by the VSM were calculated from these fitted functions. The VSM was validated against the PSF by comparing the doses calculated by the two methods for different square field sizes. The comparisons were performed with profile and gamma analyses. The doses calculated with the PSF and VSM agree to within 3% /1 mm (>95% pixel pass rate) for the evaluated fields. A new method of deriving a virtual photon source model of a linear accelerator from a PSF file for MC dose calculation was developed. Validation results show that the doses calculated with the VSM and the PSF agree to within 3% /1 mm.
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Wan, H; Tseung, Chan; Beltran, C [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To demonstrate fast and accurate Monte Carlo (MC) calculations of proton dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LETd) and biological dose (BD) on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) card. Methods: A previously validated GPU-based MC simulation of proton transport was used to rapidly generate LETd distributions for proton treatment plans. Since this MC handles proton-nuclei interactions on an event-by-event using a Bertini intranuclear cascade-evaporation model, secondary protons were taken into account. The smaller contributions of secondary neutrons and recoil nuclei were ignored. Recent work has shown that LETd values are sensitive to the scoring method. The GPU-based LETd calculations were verified by comparing with a TOPAS custom scorer that uses tabulated stopping powers, following recommendations by other authors. Comparisons were made for prostate and head-and-neck patients. A python script is used to convert the MC-generated LETd distributions to BD using a variety of published linear quadratic models, and to export the BD in DICOM format for subsequent evaluation. Results: Very good agreement is obtained between TOPAS and our GPU MC. Given a complex head-and-neck plan with 1 mm voxel spacing, the physical dose, LETd and BD calculations for 10{sup 8} proton histories can be completed in ∼5 minutes using a NVIDIA Titan X card. The rapid turnover means that MC feedback can be obtained on dosimetric plan accuracy as well as BD hotspot locations, particularly in regards to their proximity to critical structures. In our institution the GPU MC-generated dose, LETd and BD maps are used to assess plan quality for all patients undergoing treatment. Conclusion: Fast and accurate MC-based LETd calculations can be performed on the GPU. The resulting BD maps provide valuable feedback during treatment plan review. Partially funded by Varian Medical Systems.
Suitability of point kernel dose calculation techniques in brachytherapy treatment planning.
Lakshminarayanan, Thilagam; Subbaiah, K V; Thayalan, K; Kannan, S E
2010-04-01
Brachytherapy treatment planning system (TPS) is necessary to estimate the dose to target volume and organ at risk (OAR). TPS is always recommended to account for the effect of tissue, applicator and shielding material heterogeneities exist in applicators. However, most brachytherapy TPS software packages estimate the absorbed dose at a point, taking care of only the contributions of individual sources and the source distribution, neglecting the dose perturbations arising from the applicator design and construction. There are some degrees of uncertainties in dose rate estimations under realistic clinical conditions. In this regard, an attempt is made to explore the suitability of point kernels for brachytherapy dose rate calculations and develop new interactive brachytherapy package, named as BrachyTPS, to suit the clinical conditions. BrachyTPS is an interactive point kernel code package developed to perform independent dose rate calculations by taking into account the effect of these heterogeneities, using two regions build up factors, proposed by Kalos. The primary aim of this study is to validate the developed point kernel code package integrated with treatment planning computational systems against the Monte Carlo (MC) results. In the present work, three brachytherapy applicators commonly used in the treatment of uterine cervical carcinoma, namely (i) Board of Radiation Isotope and Technology (BRIT) low dose rate (LDR) applicator and (ii) Fletcher Green type LDR applicator (iii) Fletcher Williamson high dose rate (HDR) applicator, are studied to test the accuracy of the software. Dose rates computed using the developed code are compared with the relevant results of the MC simulations. Further, attempts are also made to study the dose rate distribution around the commercially available shielded vaginal applicator set (Nucletron). The percentage deviations of BrachyTPS computed dose rate values from the MC results are observed to be within plus/minus 5.5% for
Suitability of point kernel dose calculation techniques in brachytherapy treatment planning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lakshminarayanan Thilagam
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Brachytherapy treatment planning system (TPS is necessary to estimate the dose to target volume and organ at risk (OAR. TPS is always recommended to account for the effect of tissue, applicator and shielding material heterogeneities exist in applicators. However, most brachytherapy TPS software packages estimate the absorbed dose at a point, taking care of only the contributions of individual sources and the source distribution, neglecting the dose perturbations arising from the applicator design and construction. There are some degrees of uncertainties in dose rate estimations under realistic clinical conditions. In this regard, an attempt is made to explore the suitability of point kernels for brachytherapy dose rate calculations and develop new interactive brachytherapy package, named as BrachyTPS, to suit the clinical conditions. BrachyTPS is an interactive point kernel code package developed to perform independent dose rate calculations by taking into account the effect of these heterogeneities, using two regions build up factors, proposed by Kalos. The primary aim of this study is to validate the developed point kernel code package integrated with treatment planning computational systems against the Monte Carlo (MC results. In the present work, three brachytherapy applicators commonly used in the treatment of uterine cervical carcinoma, namely (i Board of Radiation Isotope and Technology (BRIT low dose rate (LDR applicator and (ii Fletcher Green type LDR applicator (iii Fletcher Williamson high dose rate (HDR applicator, are studied to test the accuracy of the software. Dose rates computed using the developed code are compared with the relevant results of the MC simulations. Further, attempts are also made to study the dose rate distribution around the commercially available shielded vaginal applicator set (Nucletron. The percentage deviations of BrachyTPS computed dose rate values from the MC results are observed to be within plus/minus 5
Guberina, Nika; Suntharalingam, Saravanabavaan; Naßenstein, Kai; Forsting, Michael; Theysohn, Jens; Wetter, Axel; Ringelstein, Adrian
2017-01-01
Background The importance of monitoring of the radiation dose received by the human body during computed tomography (CT) examinations is not negligible. Several dose-monitoring software tools emerged in order to monitor and control dose distribution during CT examinations. Some software tools incorporate Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) and allow calculation of effective dose and organ dose apart from standard dose descriptors. Purpose To verify the results of a dose-monitoring software tool based on MCS in assessment of effective and organ doses in thoracic CT protocols. Material and Methods Phantom measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD LiF:Mg,Ti) using two different thoracic CT protocols of the clinical routine: (I) standard CT thorax (CTT); and (II) CTT with high-pitch mode, P = 3.2. Radiation doses estimated with MCS and measured with TLDs were compared. Results Inter-modality comparison showed an excellent correlation between MCS-simulated and TLD-measured doses ((I) after localizer correction r = 0.81; (II) r = 0.87). The following effective and organ doses were determined: (I) (a) effective dose = MCS 1.2 mSv, TLD 1.3 mSv; (b) thyroid gland = MCS 2.8 mGy, TLD 2.5 mGy; (c) thymus = MCS 3.1 mGy, TLD 2.5 mGy; (d) bone marrow = MCS 0.8 mGy, TLD 0.9 mGy; (e) breast = MCS 2.5 mGy, TLD 2.2 mGy; (f) lung = MCS 2.8 mGy, TLD 2.7 mGy; (II) (a) effective dose = MCS 0.6 mSv, TLD 0.7 mSv; (b) thyroid gland = MCS 1.4 mGy, TLD 1.8 mGy; (c) thymus = MCS 1.4 mGy, TLD 1.8 mGy; (d) bone marrow = MCS 0.4 mGy, TLD 0.5 mGy; (e) breast = MCS 1.1 mGy, TLD 1.1 mGy; (f) lung = MCS 1.2 mGy, TLD 1.3 mGy. Conclusion Overall, in thoracic CT protocols, organ doses simulated by the dose-monitoring software tool were coherent to those measured by TLDs. Despite some challenges, the dose-monitoring software was capable of an accurate dose calculation.
Modulation index for VMAT considering both mechanical and dose calculation uncertainties
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Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Jung In [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung Joon [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong Gyun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Nyoun [Graduate School of Information, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
The mechanical uncertainty of multi-leaf collimator (MLC) movements, gantry rotations and beam control systems as well as inaccurate dose calculations of small or irregular fields result in discrepancies between planned dose distributions as intended to be delivered to the patient, and the actual delivery to the patient. In this study, we designed a weighting factor which considers the size and irregularity of field apertures at each control point (CP) by utilizing the thinning algorithm, an image processing technique. After that, we combined this weighting factor with the previously suggested MIt, which considers the mechanical uncertainty of VMAT. In doing so, we attempted to design a modulation index which considers both mechanical and dose calculation uncertainties due to excessive modulation of VMAT plans. The MI{sub c} (f = 0.5) demonstrated considerable power to predict VMAT delivery accuracy showing strong correlations to various measures of VMAT delivery accuracy.
Individual Dose Calculations with Use of the Revised Techa River Dosimetry System TRDS-2009D
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Degteva, M. O.; Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.
2009-10-23
An updated deterministic version of the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS-2009D) has been developed to estimate individual doses from external exposure and intake of radionuclides for residents living on the Techa River contaminated as a result of radioactive releases from the Mayak plutonium facility in 1949–1956. The TRDS-2009D is designed as a flexible system that uses, depending on the input data for an individual, various elements of system databases to provide the dosimetric variables requested by the user. Several phases are included in the computation schedule. The first phase includes calculations with use of a common protocol for all cohort members based on village-average-intake functions and external dose rates; individual data on age, gender and history of residence are included in the first phase. This phase results in dose estimates similar to those obtained with system TRDS-2000 used previously to derive risks of health effects in the Techa River Cohort. The second phase includes refinement of individual internal doses for those persons who have had body-burden measurements or exposure parameters specific to the household where he/she lived on the Techa River. The third phase includes summation of individual doses from environmental exposure and from radiological examinations. The results of TRDS-2009D dose calculations have demonstrated for the ETRC members on average a moderate increase in RBM dose estimates (34%) and a minor increase (5%) in estimates of stomach dose. The calculations for the members of the ETROC indicated similar small changes for stomach, but significant increase in RBM doses (400%). Individual-dose assessments performed with use of TRDS-2009D have been provided to epidemiologists for exploratory risk analysis in the ETRC and ETROC. These data provide an opportunity to evaluate the possible impact on radiogenic risk of such factors as confounding exposure (environmental and medical), changes in the Techa River source
A brief look at model-based dose calculation principles, practicalities, and promise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ron S. Sloboda
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs have recently emerged as potential successors to the highly practical, but sometimes inaccurate TG-43 formalism for brachytherapy treatment planning. So named for their capacity to more accurately calculate dose deposition in a patient using information from medical images, these approaches to solve the linear Boltzmann radiation transport equation include point kernel superposition, the discrete ordinates method, and Monte Carlo simulation. In this overview, we describe three MBDCAs that are commercially available at the present time, and identify guidance from professional societies and the broader peer-reviewed literature intended to facilitate their safe and appropriate use. We also highlight several important considerations to keep in mind when introducing an MBDCA into clinical practice, and look briefly at early applications reported in the literature and selected from our own ongoing work. The enhanced dose calculation accuracy offered by a MBDCA comes at the additional cost of modelling the geometry and material composition of the patient in treatment position (as determined from imaging, and the treatment applicator (as characterized by the vendor. The adequacy of these inputs and of the radiation source model, which needs to be assessed for each treatment site, treatment technique, and radiation source type, determines the accuracy of the resultant dose calculations. Although new challenges associated with their familiarization, commissioning, clinical implementation, and quality assurance exist, MBDCAs clearly afford an opportunity to improve brachytherapy practice, particularly for low-energy sources.
Pandey, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Sanjay Kumar; Sharma, Punit; Gupta, Priyanka; Kumar, Rakesh
2013-04-01
It is important to ensure that as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept during the radiopharmaceutical (RPH) dose administration in pediatric patients. Several methods have been suggested over the years for the calculation of individualized RPH dose, sometimes requiring complex calculations and large variability exists for administered dose in children. The aim of the present study was to develop a software application that can calculate and store RPH dose along with patient record. We reviewed the literature to select the dose formula and used Microsoft Access (a software package) to develop this application. We used the Microsoft Excel to verify the accurate execution of the dose formula. The manual and computer time using this program required for calculating the RPH dose were compared. The developed application calculates RPH dose for pediatric patients based on European Association of Nuclear Medicine dose card, weight based, body surface area based, Clark, Solomon Fried, Young and Webster's formula. It is password protected to prevent the accidental damage and stores the complete record of patients that can be exported to Excel sheet for further analysis. It reduces the burden of calculation and saves considerable time i.e., 2 min computer time as compared with 102 min (manual calculation with the calculator for all seven formulas for 25 patients). The software detailed above appears to be an easy and useful method for calculation of pediatric RPH dose in routine clinical practice. This software application will help in helping the user to routinely applied ALARA principle while pediatric dose administration.
Can medical students calculate drug doses? | Harries | Southern ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... with calculations when the drug concentration was expressed either as a ratio or a percentage. Conclusion: Our findings support calls for the standardised labelling of drugs in solution and for dosage calculation training in the medical curriculum. Keywords: drug dosage calculations, clinical competence, medication errors
Head-and-neck IMRT treatments assessed with a Monte Carlo dose calculation engine
Seco, J.; Adams, E.; Bidmead, M.; Partridge, M.; Verhaegen, F.
2005-03-01
IMRT is frequently used in the head-and-neck region, which contains materials of widely differing densities (soft tissue, bone, air-cavities). Conventional methods of dose computation for these complex, inhomogeneous IMRT cases involve significant approximations. In the present work, a methodology for the development, commissioning and implementation of a Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation engine for intensity modulated radiotherapy (MC-IMRT) is proposed which can be used by radiotherapy centres interested in developing MC-IMRT capabilities for research or clinical evaluations. The method proposes three levels for developing, commissioning and maintaining a MC-IMRT dose calculation engine: (a) development of a MC model of the linear accelerator, (b) validation of MC model for IMRT and (c) periodic quality assurance (QA) of the MC-IMRT system. The first step, level (a), in developing an MC-IMRT system is to build a model of the linac that correctly predicts standard open field measurements for percentage depth-dose and off-axis ratios. Validation of MC-IMRT, level (b), can be performed in a rando phantom and in a homogeneous water equivalent phantom. Ultimately, periodic quality assurance of the MC-IMRT system is needed to verify the MC-IMRT dose calculation system, level (c). Once the MC-IMRT dose calculation system is commissioned it can be applied to more complex clinical IMRT treatments. The MC-IMRT system implemented at the Royal Marsden Hospital was used for IMRT calculations for a patient undergoing treatment for primary disease with nodal involvement in the head-and-neck region (primary treated to 65 Gy and nodes to 54 Gy), while sparing the spinal cord, brain stem and parotid glands. Preliminary MC results predict a decrease of approximately 1-2 Gy in the median dose of both the primary tumour and nodal volumes (compared with both pencil beam and collapsed cone). This is possibly due to the large air-cavity (the larynx of the patient) situated in the centre
Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theocharris; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John
2015-03-01
This study was conducted to calculate the peripheral dose to critical structures and assess the radiation risks from modern radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB testicular seminoma. A Monte Carlo code was used for treatment simulation on a computational phantom representing an average adult. The initial treatment phase involved anteroposterior and posteroanaterior modified dog-leg fields exposing para-aortic and ipsilateral iliac lymph nodes followed by a cone-down phase for nodal mass irradiation. Peripheral doses were calculated using different modified dog-leg field dimensions and an extended conventional dog-leg portal. The risk models of the BEIR-VII report and ICRP-103 were combined with dosimetric calculations to estimate the probability of developing stochastic effects. Radiotherapy for stage IIA seminoma with a target dose of 30 Gy resulted in a range of 23.0-603.7 mGy to non-targeted peripheral tissues and organs. The corresponding range for treatment of stage IIB disease to a cumulative dose of 36 Gy was 24.2-633.9 mGy. A dose variation of less than 13% was found by altering the field dimensions. Radiotherapy with the conventional instead of the modern modified dog-leg field increased the peripheral dose up to 8.2 times. The calculated heart doses of 589.0-632.9 mGy may increase the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases whereas the testicular dose of more than 231.9 mGy may lead to a temporary infertility. The probability of birth abnormalities in the offspring of cancer survivors was below 0.13% which is much lower than the spontaneous mutation rate. Abdominoplevic irradiation may increase the lifetime intrinsic risk for the induction of secondary malignancies by 0.6-3.9% depending upon the site of interest, patient’s age and tumor dose. Radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB seminoma with restricted fields and low doses is associated with an increased morbidity. These data may allow the definition of a risk-adapted follow-up scheme for long
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Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Murrer, Lars; Lutgens, Ludy; Bloemen-Van Gurp, Esther; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Keller, Brian; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie, de l' Universite Laval, CHUQ, Pavillon L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada) and Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands) and Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)
2010-10-15
Purpose: The objective of this work is to assess the sensitivity of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations to uncertainties in human tissue composition for a range of low photon energy brachytherapy sources: {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, {sup 131}Cs, and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS). The low energy photons emitted by these sources make the dosimetry sensitive to variations in tissue atomic number due to the dominance of the photoelectric effect. This work reports dose to a small mass of water in medium D{sub w,m} as opposed to dose to a small mass of medium in medium D{sub m,m}. Methods: Mean adipose, mammary gland, and breast tissues (as uniform mixture of the aforementioned tissues) are investigated as well as compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean. Prostate mean compositions from three different literature sources are also investigated. Three sets of MC simulations are performed with the GEANT4 code: (1) Dose calculations for idealized TG-43-like spherical geometries using point sources. Radial dose profiles obtained in different media are compared to assess the influence of compositional uncertainties. (2) Dose calculations for four clinical prostate LDR brachytherapy permanent seed implants using {sup 125}I seeds (Model 2301, Best Medical, Springfield, VA). The effect of varying the prostate composition in the planning target volume (PTV) is investigated by comparing PTV D{sub 90} values. (3) Dose calculations for four clinical breast LDR brachytherapy permanent seed implants using {sup 103}Pd seeds (Model 2335, Best Medical). The effects of varying the adipose/gland ratio in the PTV and of varying the elemental composition of adipose and gland within one standard deviation of the assumed mean composition are investigated by comparing PTV D{sub 90} values. For (2) and (3), the influence of using the mass density from CT scans instead of unit mass density is also assessed. Results: Results from simulation (1) show that variations
Clouvas, A; Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Silva, J
2000-01-01
The dose rate conversion factors D/sub CF/ (absorbed dose rate in air per unit activity per unit of soil mass, nGy h/sup -1/ per Bq kg/sup -1/) are calculated 1 m above ground for photon emitters of natural radionuclides uniformly distributed in the soil. Three Monte Carlo codes are used: 1) The MCNP code of Los Alamos; 2) The GEANT code of CERN; and 3) a Monte Carlo code developed in the Nuclear Technology Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The accuracy of the Monte Carlo results is tested by the comparison of the unscattered flux obtained by the three Monte Carlo codes with an independent straightforward calculation. All codes and particularly the MCNP calculate accurately the absorbed dose rate in air due to the unscattered radiation. For the total radiation (unscattered plus scattered) the D/sub CF/ values calculated from the three codes are in very good agreement between them. The comparison between these results and the results deduced previously by other authors indicates a good ag...
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Badkul, R; Nejaiman, S; Pokhrel, D; Jiang, H; Kumar, P [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: Skin dose can be the limiting factor and fairly common reason to interrupt the treatment, especially for treating head-and-neck with Intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy(IMRT) or Volumetrically-modulated - arc-therapy (VMAT) and breast with tangentially-directed-beams. Aim of this study was to investigate accuracy of near-surface dose predicted by Eclipse treatment-planning-system (TPS) using Anisotropic-Analytic Algorithm (AAA)with varying calculation grid-size and comparing with metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistors(MOSFETs)measurements for a range of clinical-conditions (open-field,dynamic-wedge, physical-wedge, IMRT,VMAT). Methods: QUASAR™-Body-Phantom was used in this study with oval curved-surfaces to mimic breast, chest wall and head-and-neck sites.A CT-scan was obtained with five radio-opaque markers(ROM) placed on the surface of phantom to mimic the range of incident angles for measurements and dose prediction using 2mm slice thickness.At each ROM, small structure(1mmx2mm) were contoured to obtain mean-doses from TPS.Calculations were performed for open-field,dynamic-wedge,physical-wedge,IMRT and VMAT using Varian-21EX,6&15MV photons using twogrid-sizes:2.5mm and 1mm.Calibration checks were performed to ensure that MOSFETs response were within ±5%.Surface-doses were measured at five locations and compared with TPS calculations. Results: For 6MV: 2.5mm grid-size,mean calculated doses(MCD)were higher by 10%(±7.6),10%(±7.6),20%(±8.5),40%(±7.5),30%(±6.9) and for 1mm grid-size MCD were higher by 0%(±5.7),0%(±4.2),0%(±5.5),1.2%(±5.0),1.1% (±7.8) for open-field,dynamic-wedge,physical-wedge,IMRT,VMAT respectively.For 15MV: 2.5mm grid-size,MCD were higher by 30%(±14.6),30%(±14.6),30%(±14.0),40%(±11.0),30%(±3.5)and for 1mm grid-size MCD were higher by 10% (±10.6), 10%(±9.8),10%(±8.0),30%(±7.8),10%(±3.8) for open-field, dynamic-wedge, physical-wedge, IMRT, VMAT respectively.For 6MV, 86% and 56% of all measured values
Analysis of offsite dose calculation methodology for a nuclear power reactor
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Moser, Donna Smith [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)
1995-01-01
This technical study reviews the methodology for calculating offsite dose estimates as described in the offsite dose calculation manual (ODCM) for Pennsylvania Power and Light - Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SSES). An evaluation of the SSES ODCM dose assessment methodology indicates that it conforms with methodology accepted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Using 1993 SSES effluent data, dose estimates are calculated according to SSES ODCM methodology and compared to the dose estimates calculated according to SSES ODCM and the computer model used to produce the reported 1993 dose estimates. The 1993 SSES dose estimates are based on the axioms of Publication 2 of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). SSES Dose estimates based on the axioms of ICRP Publication 26 and 30 reveal the total body estimates to be the most affected.
User Guide for GoldSim Model to Calculate PA/CA Doses and Limits
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Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2016-10-31
A model to calculate doses for solid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and corresponding disposal limits has been developed using the GoldSim commercial software. The model implements the dose calculations documented in SRNL-STI-2015-00056, Rev. 0 “Dose Calculation Methodology and Data for Solid Waste Performance Assessment (PA) and Composite Analysis (CA) at the Savannah River Site”.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin I Kauweloa
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Purpose: There is growing interest about biological effective dose (BED and its application in treatment plan evaluation due to its stronger correlation with treatment outcome. An approximate biological effective dose (BEDA equation was introduced in order to simplify BED calculations by treatment planning systems in multi-phase treatments. The purpose of this work is to reveal its mathematical properties relative to the true, multi-phase BED (BEDT equation.Methods: The BEDT equation was derived and used to reveal the mathematical properties of BEDA. MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA was used to simulate and analyze common and extreme clinical multi-phase cases. In those cases, percent error and Bland-Altman analysis were used to study the significance of the inaccuracies of BEDA for different combinations of total doses, numbers of fractions, doses per fractions and α/β values. All the calculations were performed on a voxel-basis in order to study how dose distributions would affect the accuracy of BEDA.Results: When the voxel dose-per-fractions (DPF delivered by both phases are equal, BEDA and BEDT are equal (0% error. In heterogeneous dose distributions, which significantly vary between the phases, there are fewer occurrences of equal DPFs and hence the imprecision of BEDA is greater. It was shown that as the α/β ratio increased the accuracy of BEDA would improve. Examining twenty-four cases, it was shown that the range of DPF ratios for 3% Perror varied from 0.32 to 7.50Gy, whereas for Perror of 1% the range varied from 0.50 to 2.96Gy.Conclusion: The DPF between the different phases should be equal in order to render BEDA accurate. OARs typically receive heterogeneous dose distributions hence the probability of equal DPFs is low. Consequently, the BEDA equation should only be used for targets or OARs that receive uniform or very similar dose distributions by the different treatment phases.---------------------------Cite this article as
Stelljes, T; Alber, M; Poppe, B; Laub, W
2012-06-01
The consistency between the AAA and XVMC algorithm in the treatment planning for RapidArc is investigated. While the majority of the radiation field is blocked by the MLC system, multiple small dose islands with MLC opened only slightly can be observed in one control point. This raises questions on how accurate the clinically used AAA algorithm in Eclipse is able to calculate RapidArc dose distributions. The fast Monte Carlo Code XVMC was used as a benchmark to test the AAA algorithm. RadpidArc plans of 25 patients were calculated with AAA and XVMC. The patient cohort consisted of 4 different cancer sites (H&N, upper abdominal, lung, prostate). Dose distributions, PTV and OAR coverage were compared looking at the PTV mean dose Dmean, the volume V95% of the PTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose, the dose D95% delivered to 95% of the PTV Volume, the percentage PTV mean dose with respect to the prescribed dose Dmean/prescr and OAR mean dose. The recalculation of RapidArc plans yielded good agreement of both calculation algorithms for treatment plans of all four cancer sites. PTV mean dose differences of AAA and XVMC were found to be in between -0.11% and 4.89% of the prescribed dose. The mean dose difference found was 0.48±0.77 Gy. Local dose differences were found when comparing dose distributions in regions of big mass density differences and in high dose regions. One head and neck plan and one prostate plan revealed significant differences in PTV coverage (ΔDmean=3.25 Gy) and OAR mean dose (prostate mean dose -13.71 Gy) respectively. The vast majority of treatment plans calculated with the AAA algorithm were found to agree within the expected and acceptable tolerances compared to XVMC results. Nevertheless in some cases dose differences were observed that could be of clinical significance. This work was funded by a Varian grant. Wolfram Laub is working in the physics group of CMS. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Patient-specific Monte Carlo dose calculations for 103Pd breast brachytherapy
Miksys, N.; Cygler, J. E.; Caudrelier, J. M.; Thomson, R. M.
2016-04-01
This work retrospectively investigates patient-specific Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for 103Pd permanent implant breast brachytherapy, exploring various necessary assumptions for deriving virtual patient models: post-implant CT image metallic artifact reduction (MAR), tissue assignment schemes (TAS), and elemental tissue compositions. Three MAR methods (thresholding, 3D median filter, virtual sinogram) are applied to CT images; resulting images are compared to each other and to uncorrected images. Virtual patient models are then derived by application of different TAS ranging from TG-186 basic recommendations (mixed adipose and gland tissue at uniform literature-derived density) to detailed schemes (segmented adipose and gland with CT-derived densities). For detailed schemes, alternate mass density segmentation thresholds between adipose and gland are considered. Several literature-derived elemental compositions for adipose, gland and skin are compared. MC models derived from uncorrected CT images can yield large errors in dose calculations especially when used with detailed TAS. Differences in MAR method result in large differences in local doses when variations in CT number cause differences in tissue assignment. Between different MAR models (same TAS), PTV {{D}90} and skin {{D}1~\\text{c{{\\text{m}}3}}} each vary by up to 6%. Basic TAS (mixed adipose/gland tissue) generally yield higher dose metrics than detailed segmented schemes: PTV {{D}90} and skin {{D}1~\\text{c{{\\text{m}}3}}} are higher by up to 13% and 9% respectively. Employing alternate adipose, gland and skin elemental compositions can cause variations in PTV {{D}90} of up to 11% and skin {{D}1~\\text{c{{\\text{m}}3}}} of up to 30%. Overall, AAPM TG-43 overestimates dose to the PTV ({{D}90} on average 10% and up to 27%) and underestimates dose to the skin ({{D}1~\\text{c{{\\text{m}}3}}} on average 29% and up to 48%) compared to the various MC models derived using the post-MAR CT images studied
Patient-specific Monte Carlo dose calculations for (103)Pd breast brachytherapy.
Miksys, N; Cygler, J E; Caudrelier, J M; Thomson, R M
2016-04-07
This work retrospectively investigates patient-specific Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for (103)Pd permanent implant breast brachytherapy, exploring various necessary assumptions for deriving virtual patient models: post-implant CT image metallic artifact reduction (MAR), tissue assignment schemes (TAS), and elemental tissue compositions. Three MAR methods (thresholding, 3D median filter, virtual sinogram) are applied to CT images; resulting images are compared to each other and to uncorrected images. Virtual patient models are then derived by application of different TAS ranging from TG-186 basic recommendations (mixed adipose and gland tissue at uniform literature-derived density) to detailed schemes (segmented adipose and gland with CT-derived densities). For detailed schemes, alternate mass density segmentation thresholds between adipose and gland are considered. Several literature-derived elemental compositions for adipose, gland and skin are compared. MC models derived from uncorrected CT images can yield large errors in dose calculations especially when used with detailed TAS. Differences in MAR method result in large differences in local doses when variations in CT number cause differences in tissue assignment. Between different MAR models (same TAS), PTV [Formula: see text] and skin [Formula: see text] each vary by up to 6%. Basic TAS (mixed adipose/gland tissue) generally yield higher dose metrics than detailed segmented schemes: PTV [Formula: see text] and skin [Formula: see text] are higher by up to 13% and 9% respectively. Employing alternate adipose, gland and skin elemental compositions can cause variations in PTV [Formula: see text] of up to 11% and skin [Formula: see text] of up to 30%. Overall, AAPM TG-43 overestimates dose to the PTV ([Formula: see text] on average 10% and up to 27%) and underestimates dose to the skin ([Formula: see text] on average 29% and up to 48%) compared to the various MC models derived using the post-MAR CT images
Calculation of dose distribution on Rhizophora spp soy protein ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Some of the commercial solid phantoms were unable to provide a good simulation to water at low and high energy ranges. A potential phantom from Malaysian mangrove wood family, Rhizophoraspp was fabricated with addition of Soy Protein. An Electron Gamma Sho (EGSnrc) code was used to evaluate the dose ...
Radiation Dose Calculations for a Hypothetical Accident in Xianning Nuclear Power Plant
Bo Cao; Junxiao Zheng; Yixue Chen
2016-01-01
Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiation dose calculations have been performed for a hypothetical AP1000 SGTR accident by HotSpot code 3.03. TEDE, the respiratory time-integrated air concentration, and the ground deposition are calculated for various atmospheric stability classes, Pasquill stability categories A–F with site-specific averaged meteorological conditions. The results indicate that the maximum plume centerline ground deposition value of 1.2E+2 kBq/m2 occurred at about 1.4 km ...
Calculated and measured dose distribution in electron and X-ray irradiated water phantom
Ziaie, F; Bulka, S; Afarideh, H; Hadji-Saeid, S M
2002-01-01
The Bremsstrahlung yields produced by incident electrons on a tantalum converter have been calculated by using a Monte-Carlo computer code. The tantalum thickness as an X-ray converter was optimized for 2, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 MeV electron beams. The dose distribution in scanning and conveyor direction for both 2 MeV electron and X-ray converted from 2 MeV electron beam have been calculated and compared with experimental results. The economical aspects of low energy electron conversion were discussed as well.
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Stathakis, S; Defoor, D; Saenz, D; Kirby, N; Papanikolaou, N [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States); Mavroidis, P [University North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) outcomes are related to the delivered dose to the target and to surrounding tissue. We have commissioned a Monte Carlo based dose calculation algorithm to recalculated the delivered dose planned using pencil beam calculation dose engine. Methods: Twenty consecutive previously treated patients have been selected for this study. All plans were generated using the iPlan treatment planning system (TPS) and calculated using the pencil beam algorithm. Each patient plan consisted of 1 to 3 targets and treated using dynamically conformal arcs or intensity modulated beams. Multi-target treatments were delivered using multiple isocenters, one for each target. These plans were recalculated for the purpose of this study using a single isocenter. The CT image sets along with the plan, doses and structures were DICOM exported to Monaco TPS and the dose was recalculated using the same voxel resolution and monitor units. Benchmark data was also generated prior to patient calculations to assess the accuracy of the two TPS against measurements using a micro ionization chamber in solid water. Results: Good agreement, within −0.4% for Monaco and +2.2% for iPlan were observed for measurements in water phantom. Doses in patient geometry revealed up to 9.6% differences for single target plans and 9.3% for multiple-target-multiple-isocenter plans. The average dose differences for multi-target-single-isocenter plans were approximately 1.4%. Similar differences were observed for the OARs and integral dose. Conclusion: Accuracy of the beam is crucial for the dose calculation especially in the case of small fields such as those used in SRS treatments. A superior dose calculation algorithm such as Monte Carlo, with properly commissioned beam models, which is unaffected by the lack of electronic equilibrium should be preferred for the calculation of small fields to improve accuracy.
Development of CT scanner models for patient organ dose calculations using Monte Carlo methods
Gu, Jianwei
There is a serious and growing concern about the CT dose delivered by diagnostic CT examinations or image-guided radiation therapy imaging procedures. To better understand and to accurately quantify radiation dose due to CT imaging, Monte Carlo based CT scanner models are needed. This dissertation describes the development, validation, and application of detailed CT scanner models including a GE LightSpeed 16 MDCT scanner and two image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) cone beam CT (CBCT) scanners, kV CBCT and MV CBCT. The modeling process considered the energy spectrum, beam geometry and movement, and bowtie filter (BTF). The methodology of validating the scanner models using reported CTDI values was also developed and implemented. Finally, the organ doses to different patients undergoing CT scan were obtained by integrating the CT scanner models with anatomically-realistic patient phantoms. The tube current modulation (TCM) technique was also investigated for dose reduction. It was found that for RPI-AM, thyroid, kidneys and thymus received largest dose of 13.05, 11.41 and 11.56 mGy/100 mAs from chest scan, abdomen-pelvis scan and CAP scan, respectively using 120 kVp protocols. For RPI-AF, thymus, small intestine and kidneys received largest dose of 10.28, 12.08 and 11.35 mGy/100 mAs from chest scan, abdomen-pelvis scan and CAP scan, respectively using 120 kVp protocols. The dose to the fetus of the 3 month pregnant patient phantom was 0.13 mGy/100 mAs and 0.57 mGy/100 mAs from the chest and kidney scan, respectively. For the chest scan of the 6 month patient phantom and the 9 month patient phantom, the fetal doses were 0.21 mGy/100 mAs and 0.26 mGy/100 mAs, respectively. For MDCT with TCM schemas, the fetal dose can be reduced with 14%-25%. To demonstrate the applicability of the method proposed in this dissertation for modeling the CT scanner, additional MDCT scanner was modeled and validated by using the measured CTDI values. These results demonstrated that the
Jette, D
1999-06-01
In modern photon dose-calculation algorithms one is frequently called upon to evaluate the integral at various points throughout the irradiated material of a dose or particle transport quantity multiplied by a weighting factor. For example, for a given dose-calculation point one might be integrating the product of the dose deposited by a monoenergetic beam and the energy distribution of the actual beam, and want to do this throughout the treatment volume. We have developed explicit formulas for replacing such integrations with a weighted sum of two or three functions (of, for example, the point of dose calculation) in order to greatly reduce the calculation time for the algorithm being used. We demonstrate the accuracy of this method of representing dose and particle transport integrals through comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations of dose distributions for two typical problems, in dealing with the energy spectrum of the photon beam and with the energy deposited by all the Compton electrons emerging from a particular interaction point, respectively.
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Gomes B, W. O., E-mail: wilsonottobatista@gmail.com [Instituto Federal da Bahia, Rua Emidio dos Santos s/n, Barbalho 40301-015, Salvador de Bahia (Brazil)
2016-10-15
This study aimed to develop a geometry of irradiation applicable to the software PCXMC and the consequent calculation of effective dose in applications of the Computed Tomography Cone Beam (CBCT). We evaluated two different CBCT equipment s for dental applications: Care stream Cs 9000 3-dimensional tomograph; i-CAT and GENDEX GXCB-500. Initially characterize each protocol measuring the surface kerma input and the product kerma air-area, P{sub KA}, with solid state detectors RADCAL and PTW transmission chamber. Then we introduce the technical parameters of each preset protocols and geometric conditions in the PCXMC software to obtain the values of effective dose. The calculated effective dose is within the range of 9.0 to 15.7 μSv for 3-dimensional computer 9000 Cs; within the range 44.5 to 89 μSv for GXCB-500 equipment and in the range of 62-111 μSv for equipment Classical i-CAT. These values were compared with results obtained dosimetry using TLD implanted in anthropomorphic phantom and are considered consistent. Os effective dose results are very sensitive to the geometry of radiation (beam position in mathematical phantom). This factor translates to a factor of fragility software usage. But it is very useful to get quick answers to regarding process optimization tool conclusions protocols. We conclude that use software PCXMC Monte Carlo simulation is useful assessment protocols for CBCT tests in dental applications. (Author)
Monte Carlo calculations for reporting patient organ doses from interventional radiology
Huo, Wanli; Feng, Mang; Pi, Yifei; Chen, Zhi; Gao, Yiming; Xu, X. George
2017-09-01
This paper describes a project to generate organ dose data for the purposes of extending VirtualDose software from CT imaging to interventional radiology (IR) applications. A library of 23 mesh-based anthropometric patient phantoms were involved in Monte Carlo simulations for database calculations. Organ doses and effective doses of IR procedures with specific beam projection, filed of view (FOV) and beam quality for all parts of body were obtained. Comparing organ doses for different beam qualities, beam projections, patients' ages and patient's body mass indexes (BMIs) which generated by VirtualDose-IR, significant discrepancies were observed. For relatively long time exposure, IR doses depend on beam quality, beam direction and patient size. Therefore, VirtualDose-IR, which is based on the latest anatomically realistic patient phantoms, can generate accurate doses for IR treatment. It is suitable to apply this software in clinical IR dose management as an effective tool to estimate patient doses and optimize IR treatment plans.
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Yaparpalvi, R; Mynampati, D; Kuo, H; Garg, M; Tome, W; Kalnicki, S [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To study the influence of superposition-beam model (AAA) and determinant-photon transport-solver (Acuros XB) dose calculation algorithms on the treatment plan quality metrics and on normal lung dose in Lung SBRT. Methods: Treatment plans of 10 Lung SBRT patients were randomly selected. Patients were prescribed to a total dose of 50-54Gy in 3–5 fractions (10?5 or 18?3). Doses were optimized accomplished with 6-MV using 2-arcs (VMAT). Doses were calculated using AAA algorithm with heterogeneity correction. For each plan, plan quality metrics in the categories- coverage, homogeneity, conformity and gradient were quantified. Repeat dosimetry for these AAA treatment plans was performed using AXB algorithm with heterogeneity correction for same beam and MU parameters. Plan quality metrics were again evaluated and compared with AAA plan metrics. For normal lung dose, V{sub 20} and V{sub 5} to (Total lung- GTV) were evaluated. Results: The results are summarized in Supplemental Table 1. PTV volume was mean 11.4 (±3.3) cm{sup 3}. Comparing RTOG 0813 protocol criteria for conformality, AXB plans yielded on average, similar PITV ratio (individual PITV ratio differences varied from −9 to +15%), reduced target coverage (−1.6%) and increased R50% (+2.6%). Comparing normal lung doses, the lung V{sub 20} (+3.1%) and V{sub 5} (+1.5%) were slightly higher for AXB plans compared to AAA plans. High-dose spillage ((V105%PD - PTV)/ PTV) was slightly lower for AXB plans but the % low dose spillage (D2cm) was similar between the two calculation algorithms. Conclusion: AAA algorithm overestimates lung target dose. Routinely adapting to AXB for dose calculations in Lung SBRT planning may improve dose calculation accuracy, as AXB based calculations have been shown to be closer to Monte Carlo based dose predictions in accuracy and with relatively faster computational time. For clinical practice, revisiting dose-fractionation in Lung SBRT to correct for dose overestimates
A new method for effective dose calculation based on the ambient dose height distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liebmann Mario
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The realistic determination of effective dose of the staff in diagnostic radiology has been a challenge both for personal dosimetry and ambient dose measurement. A model for dosimetry of occupational exposure is presented that allows direct determination of effective dose from measured or even manufacturer given ambient dose distribution in front of the personnel. This model considers a wide range of radiation energies, different radiation protection situations, and gender effects.
Knöös, Tommy; Wieslander, Elinore; Cozzi, Luca; Brink, Carsten; Fogliata, Antonella; Albers, Dirk; Nyström, Håkan; Lassen, Søren
2006-11-21
A study of the performance of five commercial radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPSs) for common treatment sites regarding their ability to model heterogeneities and scattered photons has been performed. The comparison was based on CT information for prostate, head and neck, breast and lung cancer cases. The TPSs were installed locally at different institutions and commissioned for clinical use based on local procedures. For the evaluation, beam qualities as identical as possible were used: low energy (6 MV) and high energy (15 or 18 MV) x-rays. All relevant anatomical structures were outlined and simple treatment plans were set up. Images, structures and plans were exported, anonymized and distributed to the participating institutions using the DICOM protocol. The plans were then re-calculated locally and exported back for evaluation. The TPSs cover dose calculation techniques from correction-based equivalent path length algorithms to model-based algorithms. These were divided into two groups based on how changes in electron transport are accounted for ((a) not considered and (b) considered). Increasing the complexity from the relatively homogeneous pelvic region to the very inhomogeneous lung region resulted in less accurate dose distributions. Improvements in the calculated dose have been shown when models consider volume scatter and changes in electron transport, especially when the extension of the irradiated volume was limited and when low densities were present in or adjacent to the fields. A Monte Carlo calculated algorithm input data set and a benchmark set for a virtual linear accelerator have been produced which have facilitated the analysis and interpretation of the results. The more sophisticated models in the type b group exhibit changes in both absorbed dose and its distribution which are congruent with the simulations performed by Monte Carlo-based virtual accelerator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karlsson Mikael
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of superior soft tissue contrast, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a complement to computed tomography (CT in the target definition procedure for radiotherapy is increasing. To keep the workflow simple and cost effective and to reduce patient dose, it is natural to strive for a treatment planning procedure based entirely on MRI. In the present study, we investigate the dose calculation accuracy for different treatment regions when using bulk density assignments on MRI data and compare it to treatment planning that uses CT data. Methods MR and CT data were collected retrospectively for 40 patients with prostate, lung, head and neck, or brain cancers. Comparisons were made between calculations on CT data with and without inhomogeneity corrections and on MRI or CT data with bulk density assignments. The bulk densities were assigned using manual segmentation of tissue, bone, lung, and air cavities. Results The deviations between calculations on CT data with inhomogeneity correction and on bulk density assigned MR data were small. The maximum difference in the number of monitor units required to reach the prescribed dose was 1.6%. This result also includes effects of possible geometrical distortions. Conclusions The dose calculation accuracy at the investigated treatment sites is not significantly compromised when using MRI data when adequate bulk density assignments are made. With respect to treatment planning, MRI can replace CT in all steps of the treatment workflow, reducing the radiation exposure to the patient, removing any systematic registration errors that may occur when combining MR and CT, and decreasing time and cost for the extra CT investigation.
Monte Carlo dose calculations for radiotherapy machines: Theratron 780-C teletherapy case study
Teimouri Sichani, B.; Sohrabpour, M.
2004-03-01
The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP was used to simulate the photon beam from a Theratronics 780-C cobalt therapy unit and to calculate some dose-dependent parameters as functions of field size. The simulation process has included the source capsule, collimators (fixed and adjustable), lead in the unit head, and the field sizes as ranged from 5 × 5 to 35 × 35 cm2. Calculations have been carried out in a water phantom at a fixed source-surface distance of 80 cm. Detailed simulation of the major components of the therapy unit made it possible to calculate the effects of each unit component on the photon spectrum at the phantom surface. Percentage depth dose and peak scatter factor were evaluated for various field sizes. And tissue-air ratios were also determined for a field size of 10 ×10 cm2, as a function of depth down to 30 cm. To test the accuracy of the calculated results, they were compared with the published data of the British Journal of Radiology (BJR) suppl. 25 and good agreement between measurements and calculations has been obtained. Deviations typically were found to be of the order of 1%.
SU-F-BRCD-03: Dose Calculation of Electron Therapy Using Improved Lateral Buildup Ratio Method.
Gebreamlak, W; Tedeschi, D; Alkhatib, H
2012-06-01
To calculate the percentage depth dose of any irregular shape electron beam using modified lateral build-up-ratio method. Percentage depth dose (PDD) curves were measured using 6, 9, 12, and 15MeV electron beam energies for applicator cone sizes of 6×6, 10×10, 14×14, and 14×14cm2 . Circular cutouts for each cone were prepared from 2.0cm diameter to the maximum possible size for each cone. In addition, three irregular cutouts were prepared. The scanning was done using a water tank and two diodes - one for the signal and the other a stationary reference outside the tank. The water surface was determined by scanning the signal diode slowly from water to air and by noting the sharp change of the percentage depth dose curve at the water/air interface. The lateral build-up-ratio (LBR) for each circular cutout was calculated from the measured PDD curve using the open field of the 14×14 cm2 cone as the reference field. Using the LBR values and the radius of the circular cutouts, the corresponding lateral spread parameter (sigma) of the electron shower was calculated. Unlike the commonly accepted assumption that sigma is independent of cutout size, it is shown that the sigma value increases linearly with circular cutout size. Using this characteristic of sigma, the PDD curves of irregularly shaped cutouts were calculated. Finally, the calculated PDD curves were compared with measured PDD curves. In this research, it is shown that sigma increases with cutout size. For radius of circular cutout sizes up to the equilibrium range of the electron beam, the increase of sigma with the cutout size is linear. The percentage difference of the calculated PDD from the measured PDD for irregularly shaped cutouts was under 1.0%. Similar Result was obtained for four electron beam energies (6, 9, 12, and 15MeV). © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
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Tajaldeen, A [RMIT university, Docklands, Vic (Australia); Ramachandran, P [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Bendigo (Australia); Geso, M [RMIT University, Bundoora, Melbourne (Australia)
2015-06-15
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate and quantify the variation in dose distributions in small field lung cancer radiotherapy using seven different dose calculation algorithms. Methods: The study was performed in 21 lung cancer patients who underwent Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR). Two different methods (i) Same dose coverage to the target volume (named as same dose method) (ii) Same monitor units in all algorithms (named as same monitor units) were used for studying the performance of seven different dose calculation algorithms in XiO and Eclipse treatment planning systems. The seven dose calculation algorithms include Superposition, Fast superposition, Fast Fourier Transform ( FFT) Convolution, Clarkson, Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA), Acurous XB and pencil beam (PB) algorithms. Prior to this, a phantom study was performed to assess the accuracy of these algorithms. Superposition algorithm was used as a reference algorithm in this study. The treatment plans were compared using different dosimetric parameters including conformity, heterogeneity and dose fall off index. In addition to this, the dose to critical structures like lungs, heart, oesophagus and spinal cord were also studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Prism software. Results: The mean±stdev with conformity index for Superposition, Fast superposition, Clarkson and FFT convolution algorithms were 1.29±0.13, 1.31±0.16, 2.2±0.7 and 2.17±0.59 respectively whereas for AAA, pencil beam and Acurous XB were 1.4±0.27, 1.66±0.27 and 1.35±0.24 respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed significant variations among the seven different algorithms. Superposition and AcurosXB algorithms showed similar values for most of the dosimetric parameters. Clarkson, FFT convolution and pencil beam algorithms showed large differences as compared to superposition algorithms. Based on our study, we recommend Superposition and AcurosXB algorithms as the first choice of
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Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.
1980-03-01
A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach.
Calculation of Dose Gamma Ray Build up Factor in Some ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The gamma ray buildup factor was calculated by analyzing the narrow- beam and broad-beam geometry equations using Taylor's formula for isotropic sources and homogeneous materials. The buildup factor was programmed using MATLAB software to operate with any radiation energy (E), atomic number (Z) and the ...
The effect of dose calculation uncertainty on the evaluation of radiotherapy plans.
Keall, P J; Siebers, J V; Jeraj, R; Mohan, R
2000-03-01
Monte Carlo dose calculations will potentially reduce systematic errors that may be present in currently used dose calculation algorithms. However, Monte Carlo calculations inherently contain random errors, or statistical uncertainty, the level of which decreases inversely with the square root of computation time. Our purpose in this study was to determine the level of uncertainty at which a lung treatment plan is clinically acceptable. The evaluation methods to decide acceptability were visual examination of both isodose lines on CT scans and dose volume histograms (DVHs), and reviewing calculated biological indices. To study the effect of systematic and/or random errors on treatment plan evaluation, a simulated "error-free" reference plan was used as a benchmark. The relationship between Monte Carlo statistical uncertainty and dose was found to be approximately proportional to the square root of the dose. Random and systematic errors were applied to a calculated lung plan, creating dose distributions with statistical uncertainties of between 0% and 16% (1 s.d.) at the maximum dose point and also distributions with systematic errors of -16% to 16% at the maximum dose point. Critical structure DVHs and biological indices are less sensitive to calculation uncertainty than those of the target. Systematic errors affect plan evaluation accuracy significantly more than random errors, suggesting that Monte Carlo dose calculation will improve outcomes in radiotherapy. A statistical uncertainty of 2% or less does not significantly affect isodose lines, DVHs, or biological indices.
Dose distribution calculation for in-vivo X-ray fluorescence scanning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Figueroa, R. G. [Universidad de la Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Av. Francisco Salazar 1145, Temuco 4811230, Araucania (Chile); Lozano, E. [Instituto Nacional del Cancer, Unidad de Fisica Medica, Av. Profesor Zanartu 1010, Santiago (Chile); Valente, M., E-mail: figueror@ufro.cl [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Av. Ravadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2013-08-01
In-vivo X-ray fluorescence constitutes a useful and accurate technique, worldwide established for constituent elementary distribution assessment. Actually, concentration distributions of arbitrary user-selected elements can be achieved along sample surface with the aim of identifying and simultaneously quantifying every constituent element. The method is based on the use of a collimated X-ray beam reaching the sample. However, one common drawback for considering the application of this technique for routine clinical examinations was the lack of information about associated dose delivery. This work presents a complete study of the dose distribution resulting from an in-vivo X-ray fluorescence scanning for quantifying biohazard materials on human hands. Absorbed dose has been estimated by means of dosimetric models specifically developed to this aim. In addition, complete dose distributions have been obtained by means of full radiation transport calculations in based on stochastic Monte Carlo techniques. A dedicated subroutine has been developed using the Penelope 2008 main code also integrated with dedicated programs -Mat Lab supported- for 3 dimensional dose distribution visualization. The obtained results show very good agreement between approximate analytical models and full descriptions by means of Monte Carlo simulations. (Author)
Organ shielding and doses in Low-Earth orbit calculated for spherical and anthropomorphic phantoms
Matthiä, Daniel; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Günther
2013-08-01
Humans in space are exposed to elevated levels of radiation compared to ground. Different sources contribute to the total exposure with galactic cosmic rays being the most important component. The application of numerical and anthropomorphic phantoms in simulations allows the estimation of dose rates from galactic cosmic rays in individual organs and whole body quantities such as the effective dose. The male and female reference phantoms defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the hermaphrodite numerical RANDO phantom are voxel implementations of anthropomorphic phantoms and contain all organs relevant for radiation risk assessment. These anthropomorphic phantoms together with a spherical water phantom were used in this work to translate the mean shielding of organs in the different anthropomorphic voxel phantoms into positions in the spherical phantom. This relation allows using a water sphere as surrogate for the anthropomorphic phantoms in both simulations and measurements. Moreover, using spherical phantoms in the calculation of radiation exposure offers great advantages over anthropomorphic phantoms in terms of computational time. In this work, the mean shielding of organs in the different voxel phantoms exposed to isotropic irradiation is presented as well as the corresponding depth in a water sphere. Dose rates for Low-Earth orbit from galactic cosmic rays during solar minimum conditions were calculated using the different phantoms and are compared to the results for a spherical water phantom in combination with the mean organ shielding. For the spherical water phantom the impact of different aluminium shielding between 1 g/cm2 and 100 g/cm2 was calculated. The dose equivalent rates were used to estimate the effective dose rate.
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Nordenfors, C
1999-02-01
To determine dose rate in a gamma radiation field, based on measurements with a semiconductor detector, it is necessary to know how the detector effects the field. This work aims to describe this effect with Monte Carlo simulations and calculations, that is to identify the detector response function. This is done for a germanium gamma detector. The detector is normally used in the in-situ measurements that is carried out regularly at the department. After the response function is determined it is used to reconstruct a spectrum from an in-situ measurement, a so called unfolding. This is done to be able to calculate fluence rate and dose rate directly from a measured (and unfolded) spectrum. The Monte Carlo code used in this work is EGS4 developed mainly at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is a widely used code package to simulate particle transport. The results of this work indicates that the method could be used as-is since the accuracy of this method compares to other methods already in use to measure dose rate. Bearing in mind that this method provides the nuclide specific dose it is useful, in radiation protection, since knowing what the relations between different nuclides are and how they change is very important when estimating the risks
Methodology for calculation of doses to man and implementation in Pandora
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Avila, Rodolfo [Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden); Bergstroem, Ulla [Swepro Project Management AB, Solna (Sweden)
2006-07-15
This report describes methods and data for calculation of doses to man to be used in safety assessments of repositories for nuclear fuel. The methods are based on the latest recommendations from the ICRP; the EU and the national radiation protection authorities. Equations are given for calculation of doses from ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and external exposure from radionuclides in the ground. With the exception of the exposure from food ingestion, the equations are the same used in previous safety assessments. A general equation is suggested for estimation of the exposure from food ingestion, in which the annual demand of carbon is used instead of the annual ingestion of different food-stuffs, which was earlier applied. The report contains tables with recommended values for physiological characteristics such as water intake, food intake and inhalation rates, based on information summarised in an Appendix. Furthermore, tables are given with recommended age dependent dose conversion factors for ingestion and inhalation for a number of nuclides of interest for safety assessments. The most recently published dose conversion factors for external exposure from contaminated ground are also given. An overview of the implementation of the methodology in Pandora, which is the tool that SKB and Posiva currently use for biosphere modelling, is also provided. The work presented in the report is a result from a joint project commissioned by SKB and Posiva.
Fast CPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for radiotherapy dose calculation.
Ziegenhein, Peter; Pirner, Sven; Ph Kamerling, Cornelis; Oelfke, Uwe
2015-08-07
Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations are considered to be the most accurate method for calculating dose distributions in radiotherapy. Its clinical application, however, still is limited by the long runtimes conventional implementations of MC algorithms require to deliver sufficiently accurate results on high resolution imaging data. In order to overcome this obstacle we developed the software-package PhiMC, which is capable of computing precise dose distributions in a sub-minute time-frame by leveraging the potential of modern many- and multi-core CPU-based computers. PhiMC is based on the well verified dose planning method (DPM). We could demonstrate that PhiMC delivers dose distributions which are in excellent agreement to DPM. The multi-core implementation of PhiMC scales well between different computer architectures and achieves a speed-up of up to 37[Formula: see text] compared to the original DPM code executed on a modern system. Furthermore, we could show that our CPU-based implementation on a modern workstation is between 1.25[Formula: see text] and 1.95[Formula: see text] faster than a well-known GPU implementation of the same simulation method on a NVIDIA Tesla C2050. Since CPUs work on several hundreds of GB RAM the typical GPU memory limitation does not apply for our implementation and high resolution clinical plans can be calculated.
Fast CPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for radiotherapy dose calculation
Ziegenhein, Peter; Pirner, Sven; Kamerling, Cornelis Ph; Oelfke, Uwe
2015-08-01
Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations are considered to be the most accurate method for calculating dose distributions in radiotherapy. Its clinical application, however, still is limited by the long runtimes conventional implementations of MC algorithms require to deliver sufficiently accurate results on high resolution imaging data. In order to overcome this obstacle we developed the software-package PhiMC, which is capable of computing precise dose distributions in a sub-minute time-frame by leveraging the potential of modern many- and multi-core CPU-based computers. PhiMC is based on the well verified dose planning method (DPM). We could demonstrate that PhiMC delivers dose distributions which are in excellent agreement to DPM. The multi-core implementation of PhiMC scales well between different computer architectures and achieves a speed-up of up to 37× compared to the original DPM code executed on a modern system. Furthermore, we could show that our CPU-based implementation on a modern workstation is between 1.25× and 1.95× faster than a well-known GPU implementation of the same simulation method on a NVIDIA Tesla C2050. Since CPUs work on several hundreds of GB RAM the typical GPU memory limitation does not apply for our implementation and high resolution clinical plans can be calculated.
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Walters, Jerri [Duke Energy, York, SC (United States); Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ryan, Stewart [Animal Cancer Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Harmon, Joseph F., E-mail: joseph_harmon@bshsi.org [Bon Secours Cancer Institute, Henrico, VA (United States)
2012-07-01
Accurate calculation of absorbed dose to the skin, especially the superficial and radiosensitive basal cell layer, is difficult for many reasons including, but not limited to, the build-up effect of megavoltage photons, tangential beam effects, mixed energy scatter from support devices, and dose interpolation caused by a finite resolution calculation matrix. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been developed as an alternative limb salvage treatment option at Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for dogs with extremity bone tumors. Optimal dose delivery to the tumor during SBRT treatment can be limited by uncertainty in skin dose calculation. The aim of this study was to characterize the difference between measured and calculated radiation dose by the Varian Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) AAA treatment planning algorithm (for 1-mm, 2-mm, and 5-mm calculation voxel dimensions) as a function of distance from the skin surface. The study used Gafchromic EBT film (International Specialty Products, Wayne, NJ), FilmQA analysis software, a limb phantom constructed from plastic water Trade-Mark-Sign (fluke Biomedical, Everett, WA) and a canine cadaver forelimb. The limb phantom was exposed to 6-MV treatments consisting of a single-beam, a pair of parallel opposed beams, and a 7-beam coplanar treatment plan. The canine forelimb was exposed to the 7-beam coplanar plan. Radiation dose to the forelimb skin at the surface and at depths of 1.65 mm and 1.35 mm below the skin surface were also measured with the Gafchromic film. The calculation algorithm estimated the dose well at depths beyond buildup for all calculation voxel sizes. The calculation algorithm underestimated the dose in portions of the buildup region of tissue for all comparisons, with the most significant differences observed in the 5-mm calculation voxel and the least difference in the 1-mm voxel. Results indicate a significant difference between measured and calculated data
An analytic linear accelerator source model for GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculations.
Tian, Zhen; Li, Yongbao; Folkerts, Michael; Shi, Feng; Jiang, Steve B; Jia, Xun
2015-10-21
dose difference within 1.7%. The maximum relative difference of output factors was within 0.5%. Over 98.5% passing rate was achieved in 3D gamma-index tests with 2%/2 mm criteria in both an IMRT prostate patient case and a head-and-neck case. These results demonstrated the efficacy of our model in terms of accurately representing a reference phase-space file. We have also tested the efficiency gain of our source model over our previously developed phase-space-let file source model. The overall efficiency of dose calculation was found to be improved by ~1.3-2.2 times in water and patient cases using our analytical model.
Sakamoto, Y
2002-01-01
In the prevention of nuclear disaster, there needs the information on the dose equivalent rate distribution inside and outside the site, and energy spectra. The three dimensional radiation transport calculation code is a useful tool for the site specific detailed analysis with the consideration of facility structures. It is important in the prediction of individual doses in the future countermeasure that the reliability of the evaluation methods of dose equivalent rate distribution and energy spectra by using of Monte Carlo radiation transport calculation code, and the factors which influence the dose equivalent rate distribution outside the site are confirmed. The reliability of radiation transport calculation code and the influence factors of dose equivalent rate distribution were examined through the analyses of critical accident at JCO's uranium processing plant occurred on September 30, 1999. The radiation transport calculations including the burn-up calculations were done by using of the structural info...
Calculating integral dose using data exported from a commercial record and verify system.
Fox, C; Hardcastle, N; Lim, A; Khor, R
2015-06-01
Integral dose has been useful in investigations into the incidence of second primary malignancies in radiotherapy patients. This note outlines an approach to calculation of integral dose for a group of prostate patients using only data exported from a commercial record and verify system. Even though it was necessary to make some assumptions about patient anatomy, comparison with integral dose calculated from data exported from the planning system showed good agreement.
Modeling a superficial radiotherapy X-ray source for relative dose calculations.
Johnstone, Christopher D; LaFontaine, Richard; Poirier, Yannick; Tambasco, Mauro
2015-05-08
The purpose of this study was to empirically characterize and validate a kilovoltage (kV) X-ray beam source model of a superficial X-ray unit for relative dose calculations in water and assess the accuracy of the British Journal of Radiology Supplement 25 (BJR 25) percentage depth dose (PDD) data. We measured central axis PDDs and dose profiles using an Xstrahl 150 X-ray system. We also compared the measured and calculated PDDs to those in the BJR 25. The Xstrahl source was modeled as an effective point source with varying spatial fluence and spectra. In-air ionization chamber measurements were made along the x- and y-axes of the X-ray beam to derive the spatial fluence and half-value layer (HVL) measurements were made to derive the spatially varying spectra. This beam characterization and resulting source model was used as input for our in-house dose calculation software (kVDoseCalc) to compute radiation dose at points of interest (POIs). The PDDs and dose profiles were measured using 2, 5, and 15 cm cone sizes at 80, 120, 140, and 150 kVp energies in a scanning water phantom using IBA Farmer-type ionization chambers of volumes 0.65 and 0.13 cc, respectively. The percent difference in the computed PDDs compared with our measurements range from -4.8% to 4.8%, with an overall mean percent difference and standard deviation of 1.5% and 0.7%, respectively. The percent difference between our PDD measurements and those from BJR 25 range from -14.0% to 15.7%, with an overall mean percent difference and standard deviation of 4.9% and 2.1%, respectively - showing that the measurements are in much better agreement with kVDoseCalc than BJR 25. The range in percent difference between kVDoseCalc and measurement for profiles was -5.9% to 5.9%, with an overall mean percent difference and standard deviation of 1.4% and 1.4%, respectively. The results demonstrate that our empirically based X-ray source modeling approach for superficial X-ray therapy can be used to accurately
Fewer Doses of HPV Vaccine Result in Immune Response Similar to Three-Dose Regimen
... Press Releases NCI News Note Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three- ... report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum ...
Volume 1: Calculating potential to emit releases and doses for FEMP's and NOCs
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HILL, J.S.
1999-07-27
The purpose of this document is to provide Hanford Site facilities a handbook for estimating potential emissions and the subsequent offsite doses. General guidelines and information are provided to assist personnel in estimating emissions for use with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) and regulatory notices of construction (NOCs), per 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61, Subpart H, and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247 requirements. This document replaces Unit Dose Calculation Methods and Summary of Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan Determinations (WHC-EP-0498). Meteorological data from 1983 through 1996, 13-year data set, was used to develop the unit dose factors provided by this document, with the exception of two meteorological stations. Meteorological stations 23 and 24, located at Gable Mountain and the 100-F Area, only have data from 1986 through 1996, 10-year data set. The scope of this document includes the following: Estimating emissions and resulting effective dose equivalents (EDE) to a facility's nearest offsite receptor (NOR) for use with NOCs under 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H, requirements Estimating emissions and resulting EDEs to a facility's or emission unit's NOR for use with NOCs under the WAC Chapter 246-247 requirements Estimating emissions and resulting EDEs to a facility's or emission unit's NOR for use with FEMPs and FEMP determinations under DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 requirements.
Vojtyla, P
2005-01-01
The radiological impact of emissions of radioactive substances from accelerator facilities is characterized by a dominant contribution of the external exposure from short-lived radionuclides in the plume. Ventilation outlets of accelerator facilities are often at low emission heights and receptors reside very close to stacks. Simplified exposure models are not appropriate and integration of the dose kernel over the radioactive plume is required. By using Monte Carlo integration with certain biasing, the integrand can be simplified substantially and an optimum spatial resolution can be achieved. Moreover, long-term releases can be modeled by sampling real weather situations. The mathematical formulation does not depend on any particular atmospheric dispersion model and the applicable code parts can be designed separately, which is another advantage. The obtained results agree within ±10% with results calculated for the semi-infinite cloud model by using detailed particle transport codes and human phantoms.
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Morgans, D. L. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Lindberg, S. L. [Intera Inc., Austin, TX (United States)
2017-09-20
The purpose of this technical approach document (TAD) is to document the assumptions, equations, and methods used to perform the groundwater pathway radiological dose calculations for the revised Hanford Site Composite Analysis (CA). DOE M 435.1-1, states, “The composite analysis results shall be used for planning, radiation protection activities, and future use commitments to minimize the likelihood that current low-level waste disposal activities will result in the need for future corrective or remedial actions to adequately protect the public and the environment.”
Allam, Kh A
2017-12-01
In this work, a new methodology is developed based on Monte Carlo simulation for tunnels and mines external dose calculation. Tunnels external dose evaluation model of a cylindrical shape of finite thickness with an entrance and with or without exit. A photon transportation model was applied for exposure dose calculations. A new software based on Monte Carlo solution was designed and programmed using Delphi programming language. The variation of external dose due to radioactive nuclei in a mine tunnel and the corresponding experimental data lies in the range 7.3-19.9%. The variation of specific external dose rate with position in, tunnel building material density and composition were studied. The given new model has more flexible for real external dose in any cylindrical tunnel structure calculations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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Strange, D. L.; Bander, T. J.
1981-04-01
The MILDOS Computer Code estimates impacts from radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. These impacts are presented as dose commitments to individuals and the regional population within an 80 km radius of the facility. Only airborne releases of radioactive materials are considered: releases to surface water and to groundwater are not addressed in MILDOS. This code is multi-purposed and can be used to evaluate population doses for NEPA assessments, maximum individual doses for predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations, or maximum offsite air concentrations for predictive evaluations of 10 CFR 20 compliance. Emissions of radioactive materials from fixed point source locations and from area sources are modeled using a sector-averaged Gaussian plume dispersion model, which utilizes user-provided wind frequency data. Mechanisms such as deposition of particulates, resuspension. radioactive decay and ingrowth of daughter radionuclides are included in the transport model. Annual average air concentrations are computed, from which subsequent impacts to humans through various pathways are computed. Ground surface concentrations are estimated from deposition buildup and ingrowth of radioactive daughters. The surface concentrations are modified by radioactive decay, weathering and other environmental processes. The MILDOS Computer Code allows the user to vary the emission sources as a step function of time by adjustinq the emission rates. which includes shutting them off completely. Thus the results of a computer run can be made to reflect changing processes throughout the facility's operational lifetime. The pathways considered for individual dose commitments and for population impacts are: • Inhalation • External exposure from ground concentrations • External exposure from cloud immersion • Ingestioo of vegetables • Ingestion of meat • Ingestion of milk • Dose commitments are calculated using dose conversion factors, which are ultimately based
SU-F-19A-01: APBI Brachytherapy Treatment Planning: The Impact of Heterogeneous Dose Calculations
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Loupot, S; Han, T; Salehpour, M; Gifford, K [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)
2014-06-15
Purpose: To quantify the difference in dose to PTV-EVAL and OARs (skin and rib) as calculated by (TG43) and heterogeneous calculations (CCC). Methods: 25 patient plans (5 Contura and 20 SAVI) were selected for analysis. Clinical dose distributions were computed with a commercially available treatment planning algorithm (TG43-D-(w,w)) and then recomputed with a pre-clinical collapsed cone convolution algorithm (CCCD-( m,m)). PTV-EVAL coverage (V90%, V95%), and rib and skin maximum dose were compared via percent difference. Differences in dose to normal tissue (V150cc, V200cc of PTV-EVAL) were also compared. Changes in coverage and maximum dose to organs at risk are reported in percent change, (100*(TG43 − CCC) / TG43)), and changes in maximum dose to normal tissue are absolute change in cc (TG43 − CCC). Results: Mean differences in V90, V95, V150, and V200 for the SAVI cases were −0.2%, −0.4%, −0.03cc, and −0.14cc, respectively, with maximum differences of −0.78%, −1.7%, 1.28cc, and 1.01cc, respectively. Mean differences in the 0.1cc dose to the rib and skin were −1.4% and −0.22%, respectively, with maximum differences of −4.5% and 16%, respectively. Mean differences in V90, V95, V150, and V200 for the Contura cases were −1.2%, −2.1%, −1.8cc, and −0.59cc, respectively, with maximum differences of −2.0%, −3.16%, −2.9cc, and −0.76cc, respectively. Mean differences in the 0.1cc dose to the rib and skin were −2.6% and −3.9%, respectively, with maximum differences of −3.2% and −5.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The effects of translating clinical knowledge based on D-(w,w) to plans reported in D-(m,m) are minimal (2% or less) on average, but vary based on the type and placement of the device, source, and heterogeneity information.
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NONE
2000-07-01
The guide sets out the mathematical definitions and principles involved in the calculation of the equivalent dose and the effective dose, and the instructions concerning the application of the maximum values of these quantities. further, for monitoring the dose caused by internal radiation, the guide defines the limits derived from annual dose limits (the Annual Limit on Intake and the Derived Air Concentration). Finally, the guide defines the operational quantities to be used in estimating the equivalent dose and the effective dose, and also sets out the definitions of some other quantities and concepts to be used in monitoring radiation exposure. The guide does not include the calculation of patient doses carried out for the purposes of quality assurance.
Evaluation of a commercial MRI Linac based Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm with GEANT 4
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Ahmad, Syed Bilal [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Odette Cancer Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Sarfehnia, Arman; Kim, Anthony; Sahgal, Arjun; Keller, Brian, E-mail: brian.keller@sunnybrook.ca [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Odette Cancer Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 27 King’s College Circle Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada); Paudel, Moti Raj [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Odette Cancer Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Hissoiny, Sami [Elekta, 13723 Riverport Drive, Suite 100, Maryland Heights, Missouri 63043 (United States)
2016-02-15
Purpose: This paper provides a comparison between a fast, commercial, in-patient Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm (GPUMCD) and GEANT4. It also evaluates the dosimetric impact of the application of an external 1.5 T magnetic field. Methods: A stand-alone version of the Elekta™ GPUMCD algorithm, to be used within the Monaco treatment planning system to model dose for the Elekta™ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Linac, was compared against GEANT4 (v10.1). This was done in the presence or absence of a 1.5 T static magnetic field directed orthogonally to the radiation beam axis. Phantoms with material compositions of water, ICRU lung, ICRU compact-bone, and titanium were used for this purpose. Beams with 2 MeV monoenergetic photons as well as a 7 MV histogrammed spectrum representing the MRI Linac spectrum were emitted from a point source using a nominal source-to-surface distance of 142.5 cm. Field sizes ranged from 1.5 × 1.5 to 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}. Dose scoring was performed using a 3D grid comprising 1 mm{sup 3} voxels. The production thresholds were equivalent for both codes. Results were analyzed based upon a voxel by voxel dose difference between the two codes and also using a volumetric gamma analysis. Results: Comparisons were drawn from central axis depth doses, cross beam profiles, and isodose contours. Both in the presence and absence of a 1.5 T static magnetic field the relative differences in doses scored along the beam central axis were less than 1% for the homogeneous water phantom and all results matched within a maximum of ±2% for heterogeneous phantoms. Volumetric gamma analysis indicated that more than 99% of the examined volume passed gamma criteria of 2%—2 mm (dose difference and distance to agreement, respectively). These criteria were chosen because the minimum primary statistical uncertainty in dose scoring voxels was 0.5%. The presence of the magnetic field affects the dose at the interface depending upon the density of the material
Nalichowski, Adrian; Burmeister, Jay
2013-07-01
To compare optimization characteristics, plan quality, and treatment delivery efficiency between total marrow irradiation (TMI) plans using the new TomoTherapy graphic processing unit (GPU) based dose engine and CPU/cluster based dose engine. Five TMI plans created on an anthropomorphic phantom were optimized and calculated with both dose engines. The planning treatment volume (PTV) included all the bones from head to mid femur except for upper extremities. Evaluated organs at risk (OAR) consisted of lung, liver, heart, kidneys, and brain. The following treatment parameters were used to generate the TMI plans: field widths of 2.5 and 5 cm, modulation factors of 2 and 2.5, and pitch of either 0.287 or 0.43. The optimization parameters were chosen based on the PTV and OAR priorities and the plans were optimized with a fixed number of iterations. The PTV constraint was selected to ensure that at least 95% of the PTV received the prescription dose. The plans were evaluated based on D80 and D50 (dose to 80% and 50% of the OAR volume, respectively) and hotspot volumes within the PTVs. Gamma indices (Γ) were also used to compare planar dose distributions between the two modalities. The optimization and dose calculation times were compared between the two systems. The treatment delivery times were also evaluated. The results showed very good dosimetric agreement between the GPU and CPU calculated plans for any of the evaluated planning parameters indicating that both systems converge on nearly identical plans. All D80 and D50 parameters varied by less than 3% of the prescription dose with an average difference of 0.8%. A gamma analysis Γ(3%, 3 mm) GPU plan resulted in over 90% of calculated voxels satisfying Γ GPU system. The average optimization/dose calculation time utilizing the traditional CPU/cluster based system was 579 vs 26.8 min for the GPU based system. There was no difference in the calculated treatment delivery time per fraction. Beam-on time varied based on
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Rampado, Osvaldo, E-mail: orampado@cittadellasalute.to.it; Giglioli, Francesca Romana; Rossetti, Veronica; Ropolo, Roberto [Struttura Complessa Fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza, Corso Bramante 88, Torino 10126 (Italy); Fiandra, Christian; Ragona, Riccardo [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Turin, Torino 10126 (Italy)
2016-05-15
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate various approaches for assessing patient organ doses resulting from radiotherapy cone-beam CT (CBCT), by the use of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements in anthropomorphic phantoms, a Monte Carlo based dose calculation software, and different dose indicators as presently defined. Methods: Dose evaluations were performed on a CBCT Elekta XVI (Elekta, Crawley, UK) for different protocols and anatomical regions. The first part of the study focuses on using PCXMC software (PCXMC 2.0, STUK, Helsinki, Finland) for calculating organ doses, adapting the input parameters to simulate the exposure geometry, and beam dose distribution in an appropriate way. The calculated doses were compared to readouts of TLDs placed in an anthropomorphic Rando phantom. After this validation, the software was used for analyzing organ dose variability associated with patients’ differences in size and gender. At the same time, various dose indicators were evaluated: kerma area product (KAP), cumulative air-kerma at the isocenter (K{sub air}), cone-beam dose index, and central cumulative dose. The latter was evaluated in a single phantom and in a stack of three adjacent computed tomography dose index phantoms. Based on the different dose indicators, a set of coefficients was calculated to estimate organ doses for a range of patient morphologies, using their equivalent diameters. Results: Maximum organ doses were about 1 mGy for head and neck and 25 mGy for chest and pelvis protocols. The differences between PCXMC and TLDs doses were generally below 10% for organs within the field of view and approximately 15% for organs at the boundaries of the radiation beam. When considering patient size and gender variability, differences in organ doses up to 40% were observed especially in the pelvic region; for the organs in the thorax, the maximum differences ranged between 20% and 30%. Phantom dose indexes provided better correlation with organ
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Habib, B.; Poumarede, B.; Tola, F.; Barthe, J. [CEA, LIST, Dept Technol Capteur et Signal, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)
2010-07-01
The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the potential of accelerated dose calculations, using the fast Monte Carlo (MC) code referred to as PENFAST, rather than the conventional MC code PENELOPE, without losing accuracy in the computed dose. For this purpose, experimental measurements of dose distributions in homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms were compared with simulated results using both PENELOPE and PENFAST. The simulations and experiments were performed using a Saturne 43 linac operated at 12 MV (photons), and at 18 MeV (electrons). Pre-calculated phase space files (PSFs) were used as input data to both the PENELOPE and PENFAST dose simulations. Since depth-dose and dose profile comparisons between simulations and measurements in water were found to be in good agreement (within {+-} 1% to 1 mm), the PSF calculation is considered to have been validated. In addition, measured dose distributions were compared to simulated results in a set of clinically relevant, inhomogeneous phantoms, consisting of lung and bone heterogeneities in a water tank. In general, the PENFAST results agree to within a 1% to 1 mm difference with those produced by PENELOPE, and to within a 2% to 2 mm difference with measured values. Our study thus provides a pre-clinical validation of the PENFAST code. It also demonstrates that PENFAST provides accurate results for both photon and electron beams, equivalent to those obtained with PENELOPE. CPU time comparisons between both MC codes show that PENFAST is generally about 9-21 times faster than PENELOPE. (authors)
Evaluation of a commercial MRI Linac based Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm with GEANT4.
Ahmad, Syed Bilal; Sarfehnia, Arman; Paudel, Moti Raj; Kim, Anthony; Hissoiny, Sami; Sahgal, Arjun; Keller, Brian
2016-02-01
This paper provides a comparison between a fast, commercial, in-patient Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm (GPUMCD) and geant4. It also evaluates the dosimetric impact of the application of an external 1.5 T magnetic field. A stand-alone version of the Elekta™ GPUMCD algorithm, to be used within the Monaco treatment planning system to model dose for the Elekta™ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Linac, was compared against GEANT4 (v10.1). This was done in the presence or absence of a 1.5 T static magnetic field directed orthogonally to the radiation beam axis. Phantoms with material compositions of water, ICRU lung, ICRU compact-bone, and titanium were used for this purpose. Beams with 2 MeV monoenergetic photons as well as a 7 MV histogrammed spectrum representing the MRI Linac spectrum were emitted from a point source using a nominal source-to-surface distance of 142.5 cm. Field sizes ranged from 1.5 × 1.5 to 10 × 10 cm(2). Dose scoring was performed using a 3D grid comprising 1 mm(3) voxels. The production thresholds were equivalent for both codes. Results were analyzed based upon a voxel by voxel dose difference between the two codes and also using a volumetric gamma analysis. Comparisons were drawn from central axis depth doses, cross beam profiles, and isodose contours. Both in the presence and absence of a 1.5 T static magnetic field the relative differences in doses scored along the beam central axis were less than 1% for the homogeneous water phantom and all results matched within a maximum of ±2% for heterogeneous phantoms. Volumetric gamma analysis indicated that more than 99% of the examined volume passed gamma criteria of 2%-2 mm (dose difference and distance to agreement, respectively). These criteria were chosen because the minimum primary statistical uncertainty in dose scoring voxels was 0.5%. The presence of the magnetic field affects the dose at the interface depending upon the density of the material on either sides of the interface
A deterministic partial differential equation model for dose calculation in electron radiotherapy.
Duclous, R; Dubroca, B; Frank, M
2010-07-07
High-energy ionizing radiation is a prominent modality for the treatment of many cancers. The approaches to electron dose calculation can be categorized into semi-empirical models (e.g. Fermi-Eyges, convolution-superposition) and probabilistic methods (e.g.Monte Carlo). A third approach to dose calculation has only recently attracted attention in the medical physics community. This approach is based on the deterministic kinetic equations of radiative transfer. We derive a macroscopic partial differential equation model for electron transport in tissue. This model involves an angular closure in the phase space. It is exact for the free streaming and the isotropic regime. We solve it numerically by a newly developed HLLC scheme based on Berthon et al (2007 J. Sci. Comput. 31 347-89) that exactly preserves the key properties of the analytical solution on the discrete level. We discuss several test cases taken from the medical physics literature. A test case with an academic Henyey-Greenstein scattering kernel is considered. We compare our model to a benchmark discrete ordinate solution. A simplified model of electron interactions with tissue is employed to compute the dose of an electron beam in a water phantom, and a case of irradiation of the vertebral column. Here our model is compared to the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code. In the academic example, the fluences computed with the new model and a benchmark result differ by less than 1%. The depths at half maximum differ by less than 0.6%. In the two comparisons with Monte Carlo, our model gives qualitatively reasonable dose distributions. Due to the crude interaction model, these so far do not have the accuracy needed in clinical practice. However, the new model has a computational cost that is less than one-tenth of the cost of a Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, simulations can be set up in a similar way as a Monte Carlo simulation. If more detailed effects such as coupled electron-photon transport, bremsstrahlung
Monte Carlo 20 and 45 MeV Bremsstrahlung and dose-reduction calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goosman, D.R.
1984-08-14
The SANDYL electron-photon coupled Monte Carlo code has been compared with previously published experimental bremsstrahlung data at 20.9 MeV electron energy. The code was then used to calculate forward-directed spectra, angular distributions and dose-reduction factors for three practical configurations. These are: 20 MeV electrons incident on 1 mm of W + 59 mm of Be, 45 MeV electrons of 1 mm of W and 45 MeV electrons on 1 mm of W + 147 mm of Be. The application of these results to flash radiography is discussed. 7 references, 12 figures, 1 table.
Wignall, Jessica A.; Shapiro, Andrew J.; Wright, Fred A.; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.
2014-01-01
Background: Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling computes the dose associated with a prespecified response level. While offering advantages over traditional points of departure (PODs), such as no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs), BMD methods have lacked consistency and transparency in application, interpretation, and reporting in human health assessments of chemicals. Objectives: We aimed to apply a standardized process for conducting BMD modeling to reduce inconsistencies in model fitting and selection. Methods: We evaluated 880 dose–response data sets for 352 environmental chemicals with existing human health assessments. We calculated benchmark doses and their lower limits [10% extra risk, or change in the mean equal to 1 SD (BMD/L10/1SD)] for each chemical in a standardized way with prespecified criteria for model fit acceptance. We identified study design features associated with acceptable model fits. Results: We derived values for 255 (72%) of the chemicals. Batch-calculated BMD/L10/1SD values were significantly and highly correlated (R2 of 0.95 and 0.83, respectively, n = 42) with PODs previously used in human health assessments, with values similar to reported NOAELs. Specifically, the median ratio of BMDs10/1SD:NOAELs was 1.96, and the median ratio of BMDLs10/1SD:NOAELs was 0.89. We also observed a significant trend of increasing model viability with increasing number of dose groups. Conclusions: BMD/L10/1SD values can be calculated in a standardized way for use in health assessments on a large number of chemicals and critical effects. This facilitates the exploration of health effects across multiple studies of a given chemical or, when chemicals need to be compared, providing greater transparency and efficiency than current approaches. Citation: Wignall JA, Shapiro AJ, Wright FA, Woodruff TJ, Chiu WA, Guyton KZ, Rusyn I. 2014. Standardizing benchmark dose calculations to improve science-based decisions in human health assessments. Environ Health
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Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie, Universite Laval, CHUQ Pavillon L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada) and Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands) and Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)
2011-03-15
Purpose: The goal of this work is to compare D{sub m,m} (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in medium) and D{sub w,m} (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in water) obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for a subset of human tissues of interest in low energy photon brachytherapy. Using low dose rate seeds and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the authors quantify the large cavity theory conversion factors required. The authors also assess whether applying large cavity theory utilizing the sources' initial photon spectra and average photon energy induces errors related to spatial spectral variations. First, ideal spherical geometries were investigated, followed by clinical brachytherapy LDR seed implants for breast and prostate cancer patients. Methods: Two types of dose calculations are performed with the GEANT4 MC code. (1) For several human tissues, dose profiles are obtained in spherical geometries centered on four types of low energy brachytherapy sources: {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, and {sup 131}Cs seeds, as well as an EBS operating at 50 kV. Ratios of D{sub w,m} over D{sub m,m} are evaluated in the 0-6 cm range. In addition to mean tissue composition, compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean are also studied. (2) Four clinical breast (using {sup 103}Pd) and prostate (using {sup 125}I) brachytherapy seed implants are considered. MC dose calculations are performed based on postimplant CT scans using prostate and breast tissue compositions. PTV D{sub 90} values are compared for D{sub w,m} and D{sub m,m}. Results: (1) Differences (D{sub w,m}/D{sub m,m}-1) of -3% to 70% are observed for the investigated tissues. For a given tissue, D{sub w,m}/D{sub m,m} is similar for all sources within 4% and does not vary more than 2% with distance due to very moderate spectral shifts. Variations of tissue composition about the assumed mean composition influence the conversion factors up to 38%. (2) The ratio of D
SU-E-T-465: Dose Calculation Method for Dynamic Tumor Tracking Using a Gimbal-Mounted Linac
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Sugimoto, S; Inoue, T; Kurokawa, C; Usui, K; Sasai, K [Juntendo University, Bunkyo, Tokyo, JP (Japan); Utsunomiya, S [Niigata University, Niigata, Nigata, JP (Japan); Ebe, K [Joetsu General Hospital, Joetsu, Niigata, JP (Japan)
2014-06-01
Purpose: Dynamic tumor tracking using the gimbal-mounted linac (Vero4DRT, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan) has been available when respiratory motion is significant. The irradiation accuracy of the dynamic tumor tracking has been reported to be excellent. In addition to the irradiation accuracy, a fast and accurate dose calculation algorithm is needed to validate the dose distribution in the presence of respiratory motion because the multiple phases of it have to be considered. A modification of dose calculation algorithm is necessary for the gimbal-mounted linac due to the degrees of freedom of gimbal swing. The dose calculation algorithm for the gimbal motion was implemented using the linear transformation between coordinate systems. Methods: The linear transformation matrices between the coordinate systems with and without gimbal swings were constructed using the combination of translation and rotation matrices. The coordinate system where the radiation source is at the origin and the beam axis along the z axis was adopted. The transformation can be divided into the translation from the radiation source to the gimbal rotation center, the two rotations around the center relating to the gimbal swings, and the translation from the gimbal center to the radiation source. After operating the transformation matrix to the phantom or patient image, the dose calculation can be performed as the no gimbal swing. The algorithm was implemented in the treatment planning system, PlanUNC (University of North Carolina, NC). The convolution/superposition algorithm was used. The dose calculations with and without gimbal swings were performed for the 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} field with the grid size of 5 mm. Results: The calculation time was about 3 minutes per beam. No significant additional time due to the gimbal swing was observed. Conclusions: The dose calculation algorithm for the finite gimbal swing was implemented. The calculation time was moderate.
Kramer, R; Khoury, H J; Lopes, C; Vieira, J W
2006-11-01
Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a radiological examination indicated for investigating infertility or uterine and tubal pathologies. Women who undergo HSG are relatively young, typically between 20 years and 40 years, and equivalent doses to the ovaries are usually reported to be around 4 mSv per examination. A review of studies on patient dosimetry in HSG revealed that almost all absorbed doses to organs and tissues had been calculated with conversion coefficients (CCs) based on hermaphrodite versions of MIRD5-type phantoms. The CCs applied had been taken from data sets for abdominal or pelvic examinations because CCs for HSG examination were not available. This study uses the FAX (Female Adult voXel) phantom in order to calculate equivalent doses to radiosensitive organs and tissues especially for exposure conditions used in HSG. The calculations were also performed for the MIRD5-type EVA phantom to demonstrate the influence of anatomical differences on organ equivalent dose. The results show organ and tissue equivalent doses as a function of the variations of the exposure conditions. At 4.56 mSv the ovarian equivalent dose calculated for the FAX phantom is about 21% greater than the average ovarian equivalent dose reported in the literature, which reflects the anatomical differences between the FAX and the MIRD5-type phantoms.
Poster — Thur Eve — 14: Improving Tissue Segmentation for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation using DECT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Salvio, A.; Bedwani, S.; Carrier, J-F. [Centre hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal (Canada); Bouchard, H. [National Physics Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom)
2014-08-15
Purpose: To improve Monte Carlo dose calculation accuracy through a new tissue segmentation technique with dual energy CT (DECT). Methods: Electron density (ED) and effective atomic number (EAN) can be extracted directly from DECT data with a stoichiometric calibration method. Images are acquired with Monte Carlo CT projections using the user code egs-cbct and reconstructed using an FDK backprojection algorithm. Calibration is performed using projections of a numerical RMI phantom. A weighted parameter algorithm then uses both EAN and ED to assign materials to voxels from DECT simulated images. This new method is compared to a standard tissue characterization from single energy CT (SECT) data using a segmented calibrated Hounsfield unit (HU) to ED curve. Both methods are compared to the reference numerical head phantom. Monte Carlo simulations on uniform phantoms of different tissues using dosxyz-nrc show discrepancies in depth-dose distributions. Results: Both SECT and DECT segmentation methods show similar performance assigning soft tissues. Performance is however improved with DECT in regions with higher density, such as bones, where it assigns materials correctly 8% more often than segmentation with SECT, considering the same set of tissues and simulated clinical CT images, i.e. including noise and reconstruction artifacts. Furthermore, Monte Carlo results indicate that kV photon beam depth-dose distributions can double between two tissues of density higher than muscle. Conclusions: A direct acquisition of ED and the added information of EAN with DECT data improves tissue segmentation and increases the accuracy of Monte Carlo dose calculation in kV photon beams.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingyu Zhang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In water-cooled reactor, the dominant radioactive source term under normal operation is activated corrosion products (ACPs, which have an important impact on reactor inspection and maintenance. A three-node transport model of ACPs was introduced into the new version of ACPs source term code CATE in this paper, which makes CATE capable of theoretically simulating the variation and the distribution of ACPs in a water-cooled reactor and suitable for more operating conditions. For code testing, MIT PWR coolant chemistry loop was simulated, and the calculation results from CATE are close to the experimental results from MIT, which means CATE is available and credible on ACPs analysis of water-cooled reactor. Then ACPs in the blanket cooling loop of water-cooled fusion reactor ITER under construction were analyzed using CATE and the results showed that the major contributors are the short-life nuclides, especially Mn-56. At last a point kernel integration code ARShield was coupled with CATE, and the dose rate around ITER blanket cooling loop was calculated. Results showed that after shutting down the reactor only for 8 days, the dose rate decreased nearly one order of magnitude, which was caused by the rapid decay of the short-life ACPs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Espensen, Charlotte Alfast; Jensen, Peter Koch; Fog, Lotte Stubkjær
2017-01-01
to illustrate the effects on radiation dose to apex of the tumour when the dose depth was incorrectly determined. Doses to apex of the tumour were determined using Plaque Simulator. Results The intraobserver variation in dose depth measurement with plaque was significantly lower than for measures without plaque...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, JS; Fan, J; Ma, C-M [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: To improve the treatment efficiency and capabilities for full-body treatment, a robotic radiosurgery system has equipped with a multileaf collimator (MLC) to extend its accuracy and precision to radiation therapy. To model the MLC and include it in the Monte Carlo patient dose calculation is the goal of this work. Methods: The radiation source and the MLC were carefully modeled to consider the effects of the source size, collimator scattering, leaf transmission and leaf end shape. A source model was built based on the output factors, percentage depth dose curves and lateral dose profiles measured in a water phantom. MLC leaf shape, leaf end design and leaf tilt for minimizing the interleaf leakage and their effects on beam fluence and energy spectrum were all considered in the calculation. Transmission/leakage was added to the fluence based on the transmission factors of the leaf and the leaf end. The transmitted photon energy was tuned to consider the beam hardening effects. The calculated results with the Monte Carlo implementation was compared with measurements in homogeneous water phantom and inhomogeneous phantoms with slab lung or bone material for 4 square fields and 9 irregularly shaped fields. Results: The calculated output factors are compared with the measured ones and the difference is within 1% for different field sizes. The calculated dose distributions in the phantoms show good agreement with measurements using diode detector and films. The dose difference is within 2% inside the field and the distance to agreement is within 2mm in the penumbra region. The gamma passing rate is more than 95% with 2%/2mm criteria for all the test cases. Conclusion: Implementation of Monte Carlo dose calculation for a MLC equipped robotic radiosurgery system is completed successfully. The accuracy of Monte Carlo dose calculation with MLC is clinically acceptable. This work was supported by Accuray Inc.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Kocher, David C; Apostoaei, Julian A
2007-01-01
.... Screening doses for 32 cancer types were calculated with the Interactive RadioEpidemiological Program, which is used by the Department of Veterans Affairs in adjudicating claims for compensation...
Bassey, B; Sidhu, N
2012-07-01
Buildup region dose calculation of Pinnacle3 (version 9.0), a treatment planning system (TPS) commissioned using cylindrical ionization chamber measurements, have been verified experimentally. Dose values measured using Attix parallel plate ionization chamber were compared with those calculated by Pinnacle3 for a variety of clinical setups involving: 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams, open fields, enhanced dynamic wedges, physical wedges, block tray, 85, 100 and 120 cm source-to-surface distances, and square field sizes ranging from 3 × 3 to 30 × 30 cm2 . The dose difference (DD) and distance-to-agreement (DTA) techniques were used to evaluate the discrepancy between measured and calculated dose values. Based on the criteria of DD less than 2% or DTA less than 2mm, 93.7% of 1,710 dose points for the 6 MV and 96.1% of 2,244 dose points for 15 MV passed. Dose points that failed were mostly for open fields, block tray fields, and physical wedges (15 and 30 degrees) fields; this is attributed to high electron contamination (EC) associated with these fields. The levels of discrepancies between measured and calculated dose values were greatly reduced after remodeling the EC in Pinnacle3 using Attix chamber measurements, an indication that the EC equation in Pinnacle3 may be adequate for modeling EC in the dose buildup region, and the commissioning of a TPS using cylindrical ionization chamber measurements may not provide accurate buildup region dose calculation. Attix chamber measurements were validated using GafChromic EBT2 film; the disagreement was less than 3% for 89.9% of dose values compared. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
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Fogliata, Antonella [Oncology Inst. of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland)], e-mail: Antonella.Fogliata-Cozzi@eoc.ch; Scorsetti, Marta; Navarria, Piera [IRCCS Instituto Clinico Humanitas, Radiation Oncology, Rozzano, Milan (Italy)] [and others
2013-04-15
Background: To appraise the potential of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT, RapidArc) and proton beams to simultaneously achieve target coverage and enhanced sparing of bone tissue in the treatment of soft-tissue sarcoma with adequate target coverage. Material and methods: Ten patients presenting with soft-tissue sarcoma of the leg were collected for the study. Dose was prescribed to 66.5 Gy in 25 fractions to the planning target volume (PTV) while significant maximum dose to the bone was constrained to 50 Gy. Plans were optimised according to the RapidArc technique with 6 MV photon beams or for intensity modulated protons. RapidArc photon plans were computed with: 1) AAA; 2) Acuros XB as dose to medium; and 3) Acuros XB as dose to water. Results: All plans acceptably met the criteria of target coverage (V{sub 95%} >90-95%) and bone sparing (D{sub 1cm}{sup 3} <50 Gy). Significantly higher PTV dose homogeneity was found for proton plans. Near-to-maximum dose to bone was similar for RapidArc and protons, while volume receiving medium/low dose levels was minimised with protons. Similar results were obtained for the remaining normal tissue. Dose distributions calculated with the dose to water option resulted 5% higher than corresponding ones computed as dose to medium. Conclusion: High plan quality was demonstrated for both VMAT and proton techniques when applied to soft-tissue sarcoma.
X-ray tube output based calculation of patient entrance surface dose: validation of the method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harju, O.; Toivonen, M.; Tapiovaara, M.; Parviainen, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)
2003-06-01
X-ray departments need methods to monitor the doses delivered to the patients in order to be able to compare their dose level to established reference levels. For this purpose, patient dose per radiograph is described in terms of the entrance surface dose (ESD) or dose-area product (DAP). The actual measurement is often made by using a DAP-meter or thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The third possibility, the calculation of ESD from the examination technique factors, is likely to be a common method for x-ray departments that do not have the other methods at their disposal or for examinations where the dose may be too low to be measured by the other means (e.g. chest radiography). We have developed a program for the determination of ESD by the calculation method and analysed the accuracy that can be achieved by this indirect method. The program calculates the ESD from the current time product, x-ray tube voltage, beam filtration and focus- to-skin distance (FSD). Additionally, for calibrating the dose calculation method and thereby improving the accuracy of the calculation, the x-ray tube output should be measured for at least one x-ray tube voltage value in each x-ray unit. The aim of the present work is to point out the restrictions of the method and details of its practical application. The first experiences from the use of the method will be summarised. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Penfold, S; Miller, A [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia)
2015-06-15
Purpose: Stoichiometric calibration of Hounsfield Units (HUs) for conversion to proton relative stopping powers (RStPs) is vital for accurate dose calculation in proton therapy. However proton dose distributions are not only dependent on RStP, but also on relative scattering power (RScP) of patient tissues. RScP is approximated from material density but a stoichiometric calibration of HU-density tables is commonly neglected. The purpose of this work was to quantify the difference in calculated dose of a commercial TPS when using HU-density tables based on tissue substitute materials and stoichiometric calibrated ICRU tissues. Methods: Two HU-density calibration tables were generated based on scans of the CIRS electron density phantom. The first table was based directly on measured HU and manufacturer quoted density of tissue substitute materials. The second was based on the same CT scan of the CIRS phantom followed by a stoichiometric calibration of ICRU44 tissue materials. The research version of Pinnacle{sup 3} proton therapy was used to compute dose in a patient CT data set utilizing both HU-density tables. Results: The two HU-density tables showed significant differences for bone tissues; the difference increasing with increasing HU. Differences in density calibration table translated to a difference in calculated RScP of −2.5% for ICRU skeletal muscle and 9.2% for ICRU femur. Dose-volume histogram analysis of a parallel opposed proton therapy prostate plan showed that the difference in calculated dose was negligible when using the two different HU-density calibration tables. Conclusion: The impact of HU-density calibration technique on proton therapy dose calculation was assessed. While differences were found in the calculated RScP of bony tissues, the difference in dose distribution for realistic treatment scenarios was found to be insignificant.
Radiation Dose Calculations for a Hypothetical Accident in Xianning Nuclear Power Plant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Cao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiation dose calculations have been performed for a hypothetical AP1000 SGTR accident by HotSpot code 3.03. TEDE, the respiratory time-integrated air concentration, and the ground deposition are calculated for various atmospheric stability classes, Pasquill stability categories A–F with site-specific averaged meteorological conditions. The results indicate that the maximum plume centerline ground deposition value of 1.2E+2 kBq/m2 occurred at about 1.4 km and the maximum TEDE value of 1.41E-05 Sv occurred at 1.4 km from the reactor. It is still far below the annual regulatory limits of 1 mSv for the public as set in IAEA Safety Report Series number 115. The released radionuclides might be transported to long distances but will not have any harmful effect on the public.
Application of GEANT4 radiation transport toolkit to dose calculations in anthropomorphic phantoms
Rodrigues, P; Peralta, L; Alves, C; Chaves, A; Lopes, M C
2003-01-01
In this paper we present the implementation of a dose calculation application, based on the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit. Validation studies were performed with an homogeneous water phantom and an Alderson--Rando anthropomorphic phantom both irradiated with high--energy photon beams produced by a clinical linear accelerator. As input, this tool requires computer tomography images for automatic codification of voxel based geometries and phase space distributions to characterize the incident radiation field. Simulation results were compared with ionization chamber, thermoluminescent dosimetry data and commercial treatment planning system calculations. In homogeneous water phantom, overall agreement with measurements were within 1--2%. For anthropomorphic simulated setups (thorax and head irradiation) mean differences between GEANT4 and TLD measurements were less than 2%. Significant differences between GEANT4 and a semi--analytical algorithm implemented in the treatment planning system, were found in low density ...
Westerly, David C; Mo, Xiaohu; Tomé, Wolfgang A; Mackie, Thomas R; DeLuca, Paul M
2013-06-01
Pencil beam algorithms are commonly used for proton therapy dose calculations. Szymanowski and Oelfke ["Two-dimensional pencil beam scaling: An improved proton dose algorithm for heterogeneous media," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3313-3330 (2002)] developed a two-dimensional (2D) scaling algorithm which accurately models the radial pencil beam width as a function of depth in heterogeneous slab geometries using a scaled expression for the radial kernel width in water as a function of depth and kinetic energy. However, an assumption made in the derivation of the technique limits its range of validity to cases where the input expression for the radial kernel width in water is derived from a local scattering power model. The goal of this work is to derive a generalized form of 2D pencil beam scaling that is independent of the scattering power model and appropriate for use with any expression for the radial kernel width in water as a function of depth. Using Fermi-Eyges transport theory, the authors derive an expression for the radial pencil beam width in heterogeneous slab geometries which is independent of the proton scattering power and related quantities. The authors then perform test calculations in homogeneous and heterogeneous slab phantoms using both the original 2D scaling model and the new model with expressions for the radial kernel width in water computed from both local and nonlocal scattering power models, as well as a nonlocal parameterization of Molière scattering theory. In addition to kernel width calculations, dose calculations are also performed for a narrow Gaussian proton beam. Pencil beam width calculations indicate that both 2D scaling formalisms perform well when the radial kernel width in water is derived from a local scattering power model. Computing the radial kernel width from a nonlocal scattering model results in the local 2D scaling formula under-predicting the pencil beam width by as much as 1.4 mm (21%) at the depth of the Bragg peak for a 220
Calculation of local skin doses with ICRP adult mesh-type reference computational phantoms
Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Haegin; Choi, Chansoo; Nguyen, Thang Tat; Lee, Hanjin; Shin, Bangho; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol
2018-01-01
Recently, Task Group 103 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) developed new mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) for adult males and females in order to address the limitations of the current voxel-type reference phantoms described in ICRP Publication 110 due to their limited voxel resolutions and the nature of the voxel geometry. One of the substantial advantages of the MRCPs over the ICRP-110 reference phantoms is the inclusion of a 50-μm-thick radiosensitive skin basal-cell layer; however, a methodology for calculating the local skin dose (LSD), i.e., the maximum dose to the basal layer averaged over a 1-cm2 area, has yet to be developed. In the present study, a dedicated program for the LSD calculation with the MRCPs was developed based on the mean shift algorithm and the Geant4 Monte Carlo code. The developed program was used to calculate local skin dose coefficients (LSDCs) for electrons and alpha particles, which were then compared with the values given in ICRP Publication 116 that were produced with a simple tissue-equivalent cube model. The results of the present study show that the LSDCs of the MRCPs are generally in good agreement with the ICRP-116 values for alpha particles, but for electrons, significant differences are found at energies higher than 0.15 MeV. The LSDCs of the MRCPs are greater than the ICRP-116 values by as much as 2.7 times at 10 MeV, which is due mainly to the different curvature between realistic MRCPs ( i.e., curved) and the simple cube model ( i.e., flat).
GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo convolution/superposition implementation for dose calculation.
Zhou, Bo; Yu, Cedric X; Chen, Danny Z; Hu, X Sharon
2010-11-01
Dose calculation is a key component in radiation treatment planning systems. Its performance and accuracy are crucial to the quality of treatment plans as emerging advanced radiation therapy technologies are exerting ever tighter constraints on dose calculation. A common practice is to choose either a deterministic method such as the convolution/superposition (CS) method for speed or a Monte Carlo (MC) method for accuracy. The goal of this work is to boost the performance of a hybrid Monte Carlo convolution/superposition (MCCS) method by devising a graphics processing unit (GPU) implementation so as to make the method practical for day-to-day usage. Although the MCCS algorithm combines the merits of MC fluence generation and CS fluence transport, it is still not fast enough to be used as a day-to-day planning tool. To alleviate the speed issue of MC algorithms, the authors adopted MCCS as their target method and implemented a GPU-based version. In order to fully utilize the GPU computing power, the MCCS algorithm is modified to match the GPU hardware architecture. The performance of the authors' GPU-based implementation on an Nvidia GTX260 card is compared to a multithreaded software implementation on a quad-core system. A speedup in the range of 6.7-11.4x is observed for the clinical cases used. The less than 2% statistical fluctuation also indicates that the accuracy of the authors' GPU-based implementation is in good agreement with the results from the quad-core CPU implementation. This work shows that GPU is a feasible and cost-efficient solution compared to other alternatives such as using cluster machines or field-programmable gate arrays for satisfying the increasing demands on computation speed and accuracy of dose calculation. But there are also inherent limitations of using GPU for accelerating MC-type applications, which are also analyzed in detail in this article.
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Napier, Bruce A.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Tolstykh, Evgenia I.; Vorobiova, Marina I.; Tokareva, Elena E.; Akhramenko, Boris N.; Krivoschapov, Victor A.; Degteva, Marina O.
2017-11-01
Time-dependent thyroid doses were reconstructed for Techa River Cohort members living near the Mayak production facilities from 131I released to the atmosphere for all relevant exposure pathways. The calculational approach uses four general steps: 1) construct estimates of releases of 131I to the air from production facilities; 2) model the transport of 131I in the air and subsequent deposition on the ground and vegetation; 3) model the accumulation of 131I in soil, water, and food products (environmental media); and 4) calculate individual doses by matching appropriate lifestyle and consumption data for the individual to concentrations of 131I in environmental media. The dose calculations are implemented in a Monte Carlo framework that produces best estimates and confidence intervals of dose time-histories. The 131I contribution was 75-99% of the thyroid dose. The mean total thyroid dose for cohort members was 193 mGy and the median was 53 mGy. Thyroid doses for about 3% of cohort members were larger than 1 Gy. About 7% of children born in 1940-1950 had doses larger than 1 Gy. The uncertainty in the 131I dose estimates is low enough for this approach to be used in regional epidemiological studies.
Target dose study of effects of changes in the AAA calculation resolution on lung SABR plan
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Kim, Dae Il; Son, Sang Jun; Ahn, Bum Seok; Jung, Chi Hoon; Yoo, Suk Hyun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
Changing the calculation grid of AAA in Lung SABR plan and to analyze the changes in target dose, and investigated the effects associated with it, and considered a suitable method of application. 4D CT image that was used to plan all been taken with Brilliance Big Bore CT (Philips, Netherlands) and in Lung SABR plan(Eclipse{sup TM} ver10.0.42, Varian, the USA), use anisotropic analytic algorithm(AAA, ver.10, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and, was calculated by the calculation grid 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mm in each Lung SABR plan. Lung SABR plan of 10 cases are using each of 1.0 mm, 3.0 mm, 5.0 mm calculation grid, and in case of use a 1.0 mm calculation grid V98 of the prescribed dose is about 99.5%±1.5%, Dmin of the prescribed dose is about 92.5±1.5% and Homogeneity Index(HI) is 1.0489±0.0025. In the case of use a 3.0 mm calculation grid V98 dose of the prescribed dose is about 90±4.5% , Dmin of the prescribed dose is about 87.5±3% and HI is about 1.07±1. In the case of use a 5.0 mm calculation grid V98 dose of the prescribed dose is about 63±15%, Dmin of the prescribed dose is about 83±4% and HI is about 1.13±0.2, respectively. The calculation grid of 1.0 mm is better improves the accuracy of dose calculation than using 3.0 mm and 5.mm, although calculation times increase in the case of smaller PTV relatively. As lung, spread relatively large and low density and small PTV, it is considered and good to use a calculation grid of 1.0 mm.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Christian Rønn; Lübeck Christiansen, Rasmus; Lorenzen, Ebbe Laugaard
2017-01-01
of metal artifact reduction (MAR) in H&N patients in terms of delineation consistency and dose calculation precision in radiation treatment planning. Material and methods: Tumor and OAR delineations were evaluated in planning CT scans of eleven oropharynx patients with streaking artifacts in the tumor...... region preceding curative radiotherapy (RT). The GTV-tumor (GTV-T), GTV-node and parotid glands were contoured by four independent observers on standard CT images and MAR images. Dose calculation was evaluated on thirty H&N patients with dental implants near the treated volume. For each patient, the dose...... derived from the clinical treatment plan using the standard image set was compared with the recalculated dose on the MAR image dataset. Results: Reduction of metal artifacts resulted in larger volumes of all delineated structures compared to standard reconstruction. The GTV-T and the parotids were...
Critical groups vs. representative person: dose calculations due to predicted releases from USEXA
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Ferreira, N.L.D., E-mail: nelson.luiz@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTM/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rochedo, E.R.R., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com [Instituto de Radiprotecao e Dosimetria (lRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mazzilli, B.P., E-mail: mazzilli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2013-07-01
The critical group cf Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) site was previously defined based 00 the effluents releases to the environment resulting from the facilities already operational at CEA. In this work, effective doses are calculated to members of the critical group considering the predicted potential uranium releases from the Uranium Hexafluoride Production Plant (USEXA). Basically, this work studies the behavior of the resulting doses related to the type of habit data used in the analysis and two distinct situations are considered: (a) the utilization of average values obtained from official institutions (IBGE, IEA-SP, CNEN, IAEA) and from the literature; and (b) the utilization of the 95{sup tb} percentile of the values derived from distributions fit to the obtained habit data. The first option corresponds to the way that data was used for the definition of the critical group of CEA done in former assessments, while the second one corresponds to the use of data in deterministic assessments, as recommended by ICRP to estimate doses to the so--called 'representative person' . (author)
Zamani, M.; Kasesaz, Y.; Khalafi, H.; Pooya, S. M. Hosseini
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is used for treatment of many diseases, including brain tumors, in many medical centers. In this method, a target area (e.g., head of patient) is irradiated by some optimized and suitable neutron fields such as research nuclear reactors. Aiming at protection of healthy tissues which are located in the vicinity of irradiated tissue, and based on the ALARA principle, it is required to prevent unnecessary exposure of these vital organs. In this study, by using numerical simulation method (MCNP4C Code), the absorbed dose in target tissue and the equiavalent dose in different sensitive tissues of a patiant treated by BNCT, are calculated. For this purpose, we have used the parameters of MIRD Standard Phantom. Equiavelent dose in 11 sensitive organs, located in the vicinity of target, and total equivalent dose in whole body, have been calculated. The results show that the absorbed dose in tumor and normal tissue of brain equal to 30.35 Gy and 0.19 Gy, respectively. Also, total equivalent dose in 11 sensitive organs, other than tumor and normal tissue of brain, is equal to 14 mGy. The maximum equivalent doses in organs, other than brain and tumor, appear to the tissues of lungs and thyroid and are equal to 7.35 mSv and 3.00 mSv, respectively.
SU-F-J-109: Generate Synthetic CT From Cone Beam CT for CBCT-Based Dose Calculation
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Wang, H; Barbee, D; Wang, W; Pennell, R; Hu, K; Osterman, K [Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: The use of CBCT for dose calculation is limited by its HU inaccuracy from increased scatter. This study presents a method to generate synthetic CT images from CBCT data by a probabilistic classification that may be robust to CBCT noise. The feasibility of using the synthetic CT for dose calculation is evaluated in IMRT for unilateral H&N cancer. Methods: In the training phase, a fuzzy c-means classification was performed on HU vectors (CBCT, CT) of planning CT and registered day-1 CBCT image pair. Using the resulting centroid CBCT and CT values for five classified “tissue” types, a synthetic CT for a daily CBCT was created by classifying each CBCT voxel to obtain its probability belonging to each tissue class, then assigning a CT HU with a probability-weighted summation of the classes’ CT centroids. Two synthetic CTs from a CBCT were generated: s-CT using the centroids from classification of individual patient CBCT/CT data; s2-CT using the same centroids for all patients to investigate the applicability of group-based centroids. IMRT dose calculations for five patients were performed on the synthetic CTs and compared with CT-planning doses by dose-volume statistics. Results: DVH curves of PTVs and critical organs calculated on s-CT and s2-CT agree with those from planning-CT within 3%, while doses calculated with heterogeneity off or on raw CBCT show DVH differences up to 15%. The differences in PTV D95% and spinal cord max are 0.6±0.6% and 0.6±0.3% for s-CT, and 1.6±1.7% and 1.9±1.7% for s2-CT. Gamma analysis (2%/2mm) shows 97.5±1.6% and 97.6±1.6% pass rates for using s-CTs and s2-CTs compared with CT-based doses, respectively. Conclusion: CBCT-synthesized CTs using individual or group-based centroids resulted in dose calculations that are comparable to CT-planning dose for unilateral H&N cancer. The method may provide a tool for accurate dose calculation based on daily CBCT.
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Iwai, P; Lins, L Nadler [AC Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2016-06-15
Purpose: There is a lack of studies with significant cohort data about patients using pacemaker (PM), implanted cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device undergoing radiotherapy. There is no literature comparing the cumulative doses delivered to those cardiac implanted electronic devices (CIED) calculated by different algorithms neither studies comparing doses with heterogeneity correction or not. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the algorithms Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC), Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB (AXB) as well as heterogeneity correction on risk categorization of patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 19 3DCRT or IMRT plans of 17 patients was conducted, calculating the dose delivered to CIED using three different calculation algorithms. Doses were evaluated with and without heterogeneity correction for comparison. Risk categorization of the patients was based on their CIED dependency and cumulative dose in the devices. Results: Total estimated doses at CIED calculated by AAA or AXB were higher than those calculated by PBC in 56% of the cases. In average, the doses at CIED calculated by AAA and AXB were higher than those calculated by PBC (29% and 4% higher, respectively). The maximum difference of doses calculated by each algorithm was about 1 Gy, either using heterogeneity correction or not. Values of maximum dose calculated with heterogeneity correction showed that dose at CIED was at least equal or higher in 84% of the cases with PBC, 77% with AAA and 67% with AXB than dose obtained with no heterogeneity correction. Conclusion: The dose calculation algorithm and heterogeneity correction did not change the risk categorization. Since higher estimated doses delivered to CIED do not compromise treatment precautions to be taken, it’s recommend that the most sophisticated algorithm available should be used to predict dose at the CIED using heterogeneity correction.
Maspero, Matteo; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.; Landry, Guillaume; Belka, Claus; Parodi, Katia; Seevinck, Peter R.; Raaymakers, Bas W.; Kurz, Christopher
2017-12-01
A magnetic resonance (MR)-only radiotherapy workflow can reduce cost, radiation exposure and uncertainties introduced by CT-MRI registration. A crucial prerequisite is generating the so called pseudo-CT (pCT) images for accurate dose calculation and planning. Many pCT generation methods have been proposed in the scope of photon radiotherapy. This work aims at verifying for the first time whether a commercially available photon-oriented pCT generation method can be employed for accurate intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) dose calculation. A retrospective study was conducted on ten prostate cancer patients. For pCT generation from MR images, a commercial solution for creating bulk-assigned pCTs, called MR for Attenuation Correction (MRCAT), was employed. The assigned pseudo-Hounsfield Unit (HU) values were adapted to yield an increased agreement to the reference CT in terms of proton range. Internal air cavities were copied from the CT to minimise inter-scan differences. CT- and MRCAT-based dose calculations for opposing beam IMPT plans were compared by gamma analysis and evaluation of clinically relevant target and organ at risk dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters. The proton range in beam’s eye view (BEV) was compared using single field uniform dose (SFUD) plans. On average, a (2%, 2 mm) gamma pass rate of 98.4% was obtained using a 10% dose threshold after adaptation of the pseudo-HU values. Mean differences between CT- and MRCAT-based dose in the DVH parameters were below 1 Gy (<1.5% ). The median proton range difference was 0.1 mm, with on average 96% of all BEV dose profiles showing a range agreement better than 3 mm. Results suggest that accurate MR-based proton dose calculation using an automatic commercial bulk-assignment pCT generation method, originally designed for photon radiotherapy, is feasible following adaptation of the assigned pseudo-HU values.
Monte Carlo calculation of the neutron dose to a fetus at commercial flight altitudes
Alves, M. C.; Galeano, D. C.; Santos, W. S.; Hunt, John G.; d'Errico, Francesco; Souza, S. O.; de Carvalho Júnior, A. B.
2017-11-01
Aircrew members are exposed to primary cosmic rays as well as to secondary radiations from the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere and with the aircraft. The radiation field at flight altitudes comprises neutrons, protons, electrons, positrons, photons, muons and pions. Generally, 50% of the effective dose to airplane passengers is due to neutrons. Care must be taken especially with pregnant aircrew members and frequent fliers so that the equivalent dose to the fetus will not exceed prescribed limits during pregnancy (1 mSv according to ICRP, and 5 mSv according to NCRP). Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the equivalent dose to a fetus in the maternal womb. Up to now, the equivalent dose rate to a fetus at commercial flight altitudes was obtained using stylized pregnant-female phantom models. The aim of this study was calculating neutron fluence to dose conversion coefficients for a fetus of six months of gestation age using a new, realistic pregnant-female mesh-phantom. The equivalent dose rate to a fetus during an intercontinental flight was also calculated by folding our conversion coefficients with published spectral neutron flux data. The calculated equivalent dose rate to the fetus was 2.35 μSv.h-1, that is 1.5 times higher than equivalent dose rates reported in the literature. The neutron fluence to dose conversion coefficients for the fetus calculated in this study were 2.7, 3.1 and 3.9 times higher than those from previous studies using fetus models of 3, 6 and 9 months of gestation age, respectively. The differences between our study and data from the literature highlight the importance of using more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms to estimate doses to a fetus in pregnant aircrew members.
Ma, A. K.; Altaher, K.; Hussein, M. A.; Amer, M.; Farid, K. Y.; Alghamdi, A. A.
2014-02-01
In this work we will present a new set of photon fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients using the Saudi population-based voxel phantom developed recently by our group. The phantom corresponds to an average Saudi male of 173 cm tall weighing 77 kg. There are over 125 million voxels in the phantom each of which is 1.37×1.37×1.00 mm3. Of the 27 organs and tissues of radiological interest specified in the recommendations of ICRP Publication 103, all but the oral mucosa, extrathoracic tissue and the lymph nodes were identified in the current version of the phantom. The bone surface (endosteum) is too thin to be identifiable; it is about 10 μm thick. The dose to the endosteum was therefore approximated by the dose to the bones. Irradiation geometries included anterior-posterior (AP), left (LLAT) and rotational (ROT). The simulations were carried out with the MCNPX code version 2.5.0. The fluence in free air and the energy depositions in each organ were calculated for monoenergetic photon beams from 10 keV to 10 MeV to obtain the conversion coefficients. The radiation and tissue weighting factors were taken from ICRP Publication 60 and 103. The results from this study will also be compared with the conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 116.
Monte Carlo calculations for reporting patient organ doses from interventional radiology
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Huo Wanli
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a project to generate organ dose data for the purposes of extending VirtualDose software from CT imaging to interventional radiology (IR applications. A library of 23 mesh-based anthropometric patient phantoms were involved in Monte Carlo simulations for database calculations. Organ doses and effective doses of IR procedures with specific beam projection, filed of view (FOV and beam quality for all parts of body were obtained. Comparing organ doses for different beam qualities, beam projections, patients’ ages and patient’s body mass indexes (BMIs which generated by VirtualDose-IR, significant discrepancies were observed. For relatively long time exposure, IR doses depend on beam quality, beam direction and patient size. Therefore, VirtualDose-IR, which is based on the latest anatomically realistic patient phantoms, can generate accurate doses for IR treatment. It is suitable to apply this software in clinical IR dose management as an effective tool to estimate patient doses and optimize IR treatment plans.
Calculation of Ambient (H*(10)) and Personal (Hp(10)) Dose Equivalent from a 252Cf Neutron Source
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Traub, Richard J.
2010-03-26
The purpose of this calculation is to calculate the neutron dose factors for the Sr-Cf-3000 neutron source that is located in the 318 low scatter room (LSR). The dose factors were based on the dose conversion factors published in ICRP-21 Appendix 6, and the Ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) and Personal dose equivalent (Hp(10)) dose factors published in ICRP Publication 74.
Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Vanetti, Eugenio; Clivio, Alessandro; Cozzi, Luca
2006-03-01
In July 2005 a new algorithm was released by Varian Medical Systems for the Eclipse planning system and installed in our institute. It is the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) for photon dose calculations, a convolution/superposition model for the first time implemented in a Varian planning system. It was therefore necessary to perform validation studies at different levels with a wide investigation approach. To validate the basic performances of the AAA, a detailed analysis of data computed by the AAA configuration algorithm was carried out and data were compared against measurements. To better appraise the performance of AAA and the capability of its configuration to tailor machine-specific characteristics, data obtained from the pencil beam convolution (PBC) algorithm implemented in Eclipse were also added in the comparison. Since the purpose of the paper is to address the basic performances of the AAA and of its configuration procedures, only data relative to measurements in water will be reported. Validation was carried out for three beams: 6 MV and 15 MV from a Clinac 2100C/D and 6 MV from a Clinac 6EX. Generally AAA calculations reproduced very well measured data, and small deviations were observed, on average, for all the quantities investigated for open and wedged fields. In particular, percentage depth-dose curves showed on average differences between calculation and measurement smaller than 1% or 1 mm, and computed profiles in the flattened region matched measurements with deviations smaller than 1% for all beams, field sizes, depths and wedges. Percentage differences in output factors were observed as small as 1% on average (with a range smaller than ±2%) for all conditions. Additional tests were carried out for enhanced dynamic wedges with results comparable to previous results. The basic dosimetric validation of the AAA was therefore considered satisfactory.
Fogliata, Antonella; Scorsetti, Marta; Navarria, Piera; Catalano, Maddalena; Clivio, Alessandro; Cozzi, Luca; Lobefalo, Francesca; Nicolini, Giorgia; Palumbo, Valentina; Pellegrini, Chiara; Reggiori, Giacomo; Roggio, Antonella; Vanetti, Eugenio; Alongi, Filippo; Pentimalli, Sara; Mancosu, Pietro
2013-04-01
To appraise the potential of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT, RapidArc) and proton beams to simultaneously achieve target coverage and enhanced sparing of bone tissue in the treatment of soft-tissue sarcoma with adequate target coverage. Ten patients presenting with soft-tissue sarcoma of the leg were collected for the study. Dose was prescribed to 66.5 Gy in 25 fractions to the planning target volume (PTV) while significant maximum dose to the bone was constrained to 50 Gy. Plans were optimised according to the RapidArc technique with 6 MV photon beams or for intensity modulated protons. RapidArc photon plans were computed with: 1) AAA; 2) Acuros XB as dose to medium; and 3) Acuros XB as dose to water. All plans acceptably met the criteria of target coverage (V95% >90-95%) and bone sparing (D(1 cm3) proton plans. Near-to-maximum dose to bone was similar for RapidArc and protons, while volume receiving medium/low dose levels was minimised with protons. Similar results were obtained for the remaining normal tissue. Dose distributions calculated with the dose to water option resulted ~5% higher than corresponding ones computed as dose to medium. High plan quality was demonstrated for both VMAT and proton techniques when applied to soft-tissue sarcoma.
Effects of the difference in tube voltage of the CT scanner on dose calculation
Rhee, Dong Joo; Moon, Young Min; Kim, Jung Ki; Jeong, Dong Hyeok
2015-01-01
Computed Tomography (CT) measures the attenuation coefficient of an object and converts the value assigned to each voxel into a CT number. In radiation therapy, CT number, which is directly proportional to the linear attenuation coefficient, is required to be converted to electron density for radiation dose calculation for cancer treatment. However, if various tube voltages were applied to take the patient CT image without applying the specific CT number to electron density conversion curve, the accuracy of dose calculation would be unassured. In this study, changes in CT numbers for different materials due to change in tube voltage were demonstrated and the dose calculation errors in percentage depth dose (PDD) and a clinical case were analyzed. The maximum dose difference in PDD from TPS dose calculation and Monte Carlo simulation were 1.3 % and 1.1 % respectively when applying the same CT number to electron density conversion curve to the 80 kVp and 140 kVp images. In the clinical case, the different CT nu...
Concept for calculating dose rates from activated groundwater at accelerator sites
Prolingheuer, N; Vanderborght, J; Schlögl, B; Nabbi, R; Moormann, R
Licensing of particle accelerators requires the proof that the groundwater outside of the site will not be significantly contaminated by activation products formed below accelerator and target. In order to reduce the effort for this proof, a site independent simplified but conservative method is under development. The conventional approach for calculation of activation of soil and groundwater is shortly described on example of a site close to Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany. Additionally an updated overview of a data library for partition coefficients for relevant nuclides transported in the aquifer at the site is presented. The approximate model for transport of nuclides with ground water including exemplary results on nuclide concentrations outside of the site boundary and of resulting effective doses is described. Further applications and developments are finally outlined.
Garger, Evgenii K; Meisenberg, Oliver; Odintsov, Oleksiy; Shynkarenko, Viktor; Tschiersch, Jochen
2013-10-15
Nuclear fuel particles of Chernobyl origin are carriers of increased radioactivity (hot particles) and are still present in the atmosphere of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Workers in the zone may inhale these particles, which makes assessment necessary. The residence time in the lungs and the transfer in the blood of the inhaled radionuclides are crucial for inhalation dose assessment. Therefore, the dissolution of several kinds of nuclear fuel particles from air filters sampled in the Chernobyl exclusion zone was studied. For this purpose filter fragments with hot particles were submersed in simulated lung fluids (SLFs). The activities of the radionuclides (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am were measured in the SLF and in the residuum of the fragments by radiometric methods after chemical treatment. Soluble fractions as well as dissolution rates of the nuclides were determined. The influence of the genesis of the hot particles, represented by the (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu ratio, on the availability of (137)Cs was demonstrated, whereas the dissolution of (90)Sr, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am proved to be independent of genesis. No difference in the dissolution of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu was observed for the two applied types of SLF. Increased solubility was found for smaller hot particles. A two-component exponential model was used to describe the dissolution of the nuclides as a function of time. The results were applied for determining individual inhalation dose coefficients for the workers at the Chernobyl construction site. Greater dose coefficients for the respiratory tract and smaller coefficients for the other organs were calculated (compared to ICRP default values). The effective doses were in general lower for the considered radionuclides, for (241)Am even by one order of magnitude. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Element-specific and constant parameters used for dose calculations in SR-Site
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Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden)); Avila, Rodolfo; De la Cruz, Idalmis; Stenberg, Kristofer; Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden))
2010-12-15
The report presents Best Estimate (BE) values and Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of Concentration Ratios (CR) for different types of terrestrial and aquatic biota and distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for organic and inorganic deposits, as well as for suspended matter in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The BE values have been used in deterministic simulations for derivation of Landscape Dose Factors (LDF) applied for dose assessments in SR-Site. The PDFs have been used in probabilistic simulations for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the LDFs. The derivation of LDFs for SR-Site is described in /Avila et al. 2010/. The CR and K{sub d} values have been derived using both site-specific data measured at Laxemar and Forsmark during the site investigation program and literature data. These two data sources have been combined using Bayesian updating methods, which are described in detail in an Appendix, along with the input data used in the statistical analyses and the results obtained. The report also describes a kinetic-allometric model that was applied for deriving values of CR for terrestrial herbivores in cases when site and literature data for an element were missing. In addition, the report presents values for a number of other parameters used in the SR-Site Radionuclide Model for the biosphere: radionuclide decay-ingrowth data, elemental diffusivities, fractions of element content released during decomposition processes, ingestion of food, water and soil by cattle, elements retention fraction on plant surfaces during irrigation. The report also presents parameter values used in calculation of doses to a reference man: dose coefficients for inhalation, ingestion and external exposure, inhalation rates, ingestion rates of food and water
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Ballester, Facundo, E-mail: Facundo.Ballester@uv.es [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa [Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 85, Sweden and Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm SE-171 76 (Sweden); Granero, Domingo [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia E-46014 (Spain); Haworth, Annette [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Mourtada, Firas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Delaware 19713 (United States); Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Zourari, Kyveli; Papagiannis, Panagiotis [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 MikrasAsias, Athens 115 27 (Greece); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Siebert, Frank-André [Clinic of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24105 (Germany); Sloboda, Ron S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); and others
2015-06-15
different investigators. MC results were then compared against dose calculated using TG-43 and MBDCA methods. Results: TG-43 and PSS datasets were generated for the generic source, the PSS data for use with the ACE algorithm. The dose-rate constant values obtained from seven MC simulations, performed independently using different codes, were in excellent agreement, yielding an average of 1.1109 ± 0.0004 cGy/(h U) (k = 1, Type A uncertainty). MC calculated dose-rate distributions for the two plans were also found to be in excellent agreement, with differences within type A uncertainties. Differences between commercial MBDCA and MC results were test, position, and calculation parameter dependent. On average, however, these differences were within 1% for ACUROS and 2% for ACE at clinically relevant distances. Conclusions: A hypothetical, generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source was designed and implemented in two commercially available TPSs employing different MBDCAs. Reference dose distributions for this source were benchmarked and used for the evaluation of MBDCA calculations employing a virtual, cubic water phantom in the form of a CT DICOM image series. The implementation of a generic source of identical design in all TPSs using MBDCAs is an important step toward supporting univocal commissioning procedures and direct comparisons between TPSs.
Kadowaki, Takashi; Ohtani, Tetsuya; Naito, Yusuke; Odawara, Masato
2012-01-01
Pragmatic methods for dose optimization are required for the successful basal management in daily clinical practice. To derive a useful formula for calculating recommended glargine doses, we analyzed data from the Add-on Lantus® to Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (ALOHA) study, a 24-week observation of Japanese type 2 diabetes patients. The patients who initiated insulin glargine in basal-supported oral therapy (BOT) regimen (n = 3506) were analyzed. The correlations between average changes in glargine dose and HbA1c were calculated, and its regression formula was estimated from grouped data categorized by baseline HbA1c levels. Starting doses of the background-subgroup achieving the HbA1c target with a last-observed dose above the average were compared to an assumed optimal starting dose of 0.15 U/kg/day. The difference in regression lines between background-subgroups was examined. A formula for determining the optimal starting and titration doses was thereby derived. The correlation coefficient between changes in dose and HbA1c was -0.9043. The estimated regression line formula was -0.964 × change in HbA1c+2.000. A starting dose of 0.15 U/kg/day was applicable to all background-subgroups except for patients with retinopathy (0.120 U/kg/day) and/or with eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (0.114 U/kg/day). Additionally, women (0.135 U/kg/day) and patients with sulfonylureas (0.132 U/kg/day) received a slightly decreased starting dose. We suggest a simplified and pragmatic dose calculation formula for type 2 diabetes patients starting glargine BOT optimal daily dose at 24 weeks = starting dose (0.15×weight) + incremental dose (baseline HbA1c - target HbA1c+2). This formula should be further validated using other samples in a prospective follow-up, especially since several patient groups required lower starting doses.
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Takashi Kadowaki
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pragmatic methods for dose optimization are required for the successful basal management in daily clinical practice. To derive a useful formula for calculating recommended glargine doses, we analyzed data from the Add-on Lantus® to Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (ALOHA study, a 24-week observation of Japanese type 2 diabetes patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The patients who initiated insulin glargine in basal-supported oral therapy (BOT regimen (n = 3506 were analyzed. The correlations between average changes in glargine dose and HbA1c were calculated, and its regression formula was estimated from grouped data categorized by baseline HbA1c levels. Starting doses of the background-subgroup achieving the HbA1c target with a last-observed dose above the average were compared to an assumed optimal starting dose of 0.15 U/kg/day. The difference in regression lines between background-subgroups was examined. A formula for determining the optimal starting and titration doses was thereby derived. The correlation coefficient between changes in dose and HbA1c was -0.9043. The estimated regression line formula was -0.964 × change in HbA1c+2.000. A starting dose of 0.15 U/kg/day was applicable to all background-subgroups except for patients with retinopathy (0.120 U/kg/day and/or with eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2 (0.114 U/kg/day. Additionally, women (0.135 U/kg/day and patients with sulfonylureas (0.132 U/kg/day received a slightly decreased starting dose. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest a simplified and pragmatic dose calculation formula for type 2 diabetes patients starting glargine BOT optimal daily dose at 24 weeks = starting dose (0.15×weight + incremental dose (baseline HbA1c - target HbA1c+2. This formula should be further validated using other samples in a prospective follow-up, especially since several patient groups required lower starting doses.
An OpenCL-based Monte Carlo dose calculation engine (oclMC) for coupled photon-electron transport
Tian, Zhen; Folkerts, Michael; Qin, Nan; Jiang, Steve B; Jia, Xun
2015-01-01
Monte Carlo (MC) method has been recognized the most accurate dose calculation method for radiotherapy. However, its extremely long computation time impedes clinical applications. Recently, a lot of efforts have been made to realize fast MC dose calculation on GPUs. Nonetheless, most of the GPU-based MC dose engines were developed in NVidia CUDA environment. This limits the code portability to other platforms, hindering the introduction of GPU-based MC simulations to clinical practice. The objective of this paper is to develop a fast cross-platform MC dose engine oclMC using OpenCL environment for external beam photon and electron radiotherapy in MeV energy range. Coupled photon-electron MC simulation was implemented with analogue simulations for photon transports and a Class II condensed history scheme for electron transports. To test the accuracy and efficiency of our dose engine oclMC, we compared dose calculation results of oclMC and gDPM, our previously developed GPU-based MC code, for a 15 MeV electron ...
Pappas, Eleftherios P.; Zoros, Emmanouil; Moutsatsos, Argyris; Peppa, Vasiliki; Zourari, Kyveli; Karaiskos, Pantelis; Papagiannis, Panagiotis
2017-05-01
There is an acknowledged need for the design and implementation of physical phantoms appropriate for the experimental validation of model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCA) introduced recently in 192Ir brachytherapy treatment planning systems (TPS), and this work investigates whether it can be met. A PMMA phantom was prepared to accommodate material inhomogeneities (air and Teflon), four plastic brachytherapy catheters, as well as 84 LiF TLD dosimeters (MTS-100M 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 microcubes), two radiochromic films (Gafchromic EBT3) and a plastic 3D dosimeter (PRESAGE). An irradiation plan consisting of 53 source dwell positions was prepared on phantom CT images using a commercially available TPS and taking into account the calibration dose range of each detector. Irradiation was performed using an 192Ir high dose rate (HDR) source. Dose to medium in medium, Dmm , was calculated using the MBDCA option of the same TPS as well as Monte Carlo (MC) simulation with the MCNP code and a benchmarked methodology. Measured and calculated dose distributions were spatially registered and compared. The total standard (k = 1) spatial uncertainties for TLD, film and PRESAGE were: 0.71, 1.58 and 2.55 mm. Corresponding percentage total dosimetric uncertainties were: 5.4-6.4, 2.5-6.4 and 4.85, owing mainly to the absorbed dose sensitivity correction and the relative energy dependence correction (position dependent) for TLD, the film sensitivity calibration (dose dependent) and the dependencies of PRESAGE sensitivity. Results imply a LiF over-response due to a relative intrinsic energy dependence between 192Ir and megavoltage calibration energies, and a dose rate dependence of PRESAGE sensitivity at low dose rates (required for the full characterization of dosimeter response for 192Ir and the reduction of experimental uncertainties.
TU-AB-BRA-01: Abdominal Synthetic CT Generation in Support of Liver SBRT Dose Calculation
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Bredfeldt, JS; Liu, L; Feng, M [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cao, Y [The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Balter, J [University Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To demonstrate and validate a technique for generating MRI-derived synthetic CT volumes (MRCTs) in support of adaptive liver SBRT. Methods: Under IRB approval, ten hepatocellular carcinoma patients were scanned using a single MR sequence (T1 Dixon-VIBE), yielding inherently-registered water, fat, and T1-weighted images. Air-containing voxels were identified by intensity thresholding. The envelope of the anterior vertebral bodies was segmented from the fat image by fitting a shape model to vertebral body candidate voxels, then using level sets to expand the contour outward. Fuzzy-C-Means (FCM) was then used to classify each non-air voxel in the image as fat, water, bone, or marrow. Bone and marrow only were classified within the vertebral body envelope. The MRCT was created by integrating the product of the FCM class probability with the assigned class density for each voxel. The resulting MRCTs were deformably aligned with planning CTs and 2-ARC SBRT VMAT plans were optimized on the MRCT density maps. Fluence was copied onto the CT density grids and dose recalculated. Results: The MRCTs faithfully reproduced most of the features visible in the corresponding CT image volumes, with exceptions of ribs and posterior spinous processes. The liver, vertebral bodies, kidneys, spleen and cord all had median HU differences of less than 75 between MRCT and CT images. PTV D99% values had an average 0.2% difference (standard deviation: 0.46%) between calculations on MRCT and CT density grids. The maximum difference in dose to 0.1cc of the PTV was 0.25% (std:0.49%). OAR dose differences were similarly small (mean:0.03Gy, std:0.26Gy). The largest normal tissue complication percentage (NTCP) difference was 1.48% (mean:0.06%, std:0.54%). Conclusions: MRCTs from a single abdominal imaging sequence are promising for use in SBRT dose calculation. Future work will focus on extending models to better define bones in the upper abdomen. Supported by NIHR01EB016079 and NIH1L30CA
Neutron-gamma flux and dose calculations in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brovchenko Mariya
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The present work deals with Monte Carlo simulations, aiming to determine the neutron and gamma responses outside the vessel and in the basemat of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR. The model is based on the Tihange-I Belgian nuclear reactor. With a large set of information and measurements available, this reactor has the advantage to be easily modelled and allows validation based on the experimental measurements. Power distribution calculations were therefore performed with the MCNP code at IRSN and compared to the available in-core measurements. Results showed a good agreement between calculated and measured values over the whole core. In this paper, the methods and hypotheses used for the particle transport simulation from the fission distribution in the core to the detectors outside the vessel of the reactor are also summarized. The results of the simulations are presented including the neutron and gamma doses and flux energy spectra. MCNP6 computational results comparing JEFF3.1 and ENDF-B/VII.1 nuclear data evaluations and sensitivity of the results to some model parameters are presented.
Ballester, Facundo; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Granero, Domingo; Haworth, Annette; Mourtada, Firas; Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Zourari, Kyveli; Papagiannis, Panagiotis; Rivard, Mark J; Siebert, Frank-André; Sloboda, Ron S; Smith, Ryan L; Thomson, Rowan M; Verhaegen, Frank; Vijande, Javier; Ma, Yunzhi; Beaulieu, Luc
2015-06-01
In order to facilitate a smooth transition for brachytherapy dose calculations from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) formalism to model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), treatment planning systems (TPSs) using a MBDCA require a set of well-defined test case plans characterized by Monte Carlo (MC) methods. This also permits direct dose comparison to TG-43 reference data. Such test case plans should be made available for use in the software commissioning process performed by clinical end users. To this end, a hypothetical, generic high-dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir source and a virtual water phantom were designed, which can be imported into a TPS. A hypothetical, generic HDR (192)Ir source was designed based on commercially available sources as well as a virtual, cubic water phantom that can be imported into any TPS in DICOM format. The dose distribution of the generic (192)Ir source when placed at the center of the cubic phantom, and away from the center under altered scatter conditions, was evaluated using two commercial MBDCAs [Oncentra(®) Brachy with advanced collapsed-cone engine (ACE) and BrachyVision ACUROS™ ]. Dose comparisons were performed using state-of-the-art MC codes for radiation transport, including ALGEBRA, BrachyDose, GEANT4, MCNP5, MCNP6, and PENELOPE2008. The methodologies adhered to recommendations in the AAPM TG-229 report on high-energy brachytherapy source dosimetry. TG-43 dosimetry parameters, an along-away dose-rate table, and primary and scatter separated (PSS) data were obtained. The virtual water phantom of (201)(3) voxels (1 mm sides) was used to evaluate the calculated dose distributions. Two test case plans involving a single position of the generic HDR (192)Ir source in this phantom were prepared: (i) source centered in the phantom and (ii) source displaced 7 cm laterally from the center. Datasets were independently produced by different investigators. MC results were then
Williams, David; Splaver, Theodore; Walker, Jason
2017-03-15
Calculation of maximum recommended doses for local anesthetic agents and added vasopressors is complex and error-prone with potentially fatal consequences. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a nomogram to calculate the maximum recommended doses, expressed as volumes (number of cartridges or ml) of local anesthetic for healthy U.S. pediatric dental patients based on body weight, and test its accuracy and reproducibility. Standard mathematical techniques were used to draft the nomogram. Validation was performed using simulated patient data, and Bland-Altman analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of the nomogram. The nomogram was found to have a bias of 0.01 ml, with limits of agreement -0.04ml to 0.06ml and, thus, was considered to be within an acceptable range for clinical use. Our nomogram rapidly calculated the maximum recommended doses by volume of local anesthetic agents in common use to a high degree of accuracy and repeatability.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lübeck Christiansen, Rasmus; Jensen, Henrik R.; Brink, Carsten
2017-01-01
Background: Current state of the art radiotherapy planning of prostate cancer utilises magnetic resonance (MR) for soft tissue delineation and computed tomography (CT) to provide an electron density map for dose calculation. This dual scan workflow is prone to setup and registration error....... This study evaluates the feasibility of an MR-only workflow and the validity of dose calculation from an MR derived pseudo CT. Material and methods: Thirty prostate cancer patients were CT and MR scanned. Clinical treatment plans were generated on CT using a single 18 MV arc volumetric modulated arc therapy...... was successfully delivered to one patient, including manually performed daily IGRT. Conclusions: Median gamma pass rates were high for pseudo CT and proved superior to uniform density. Local differences in dose calculations were concluded not to have clinical relevance. Feasibility of the MR-only workflow...
Panthere V2: Multipurpose Simulation Software for 3D Dose Rate Calculations
Penessot, Gaël; Bavoil, Éléonore; Wertz, Laurent; Malouch, Fadhel; Visonneau, Thierry; Dubost, Julien
2017-09-01
PANTHERE is a multipurpose radiation protection software developed by EDF to calculate gamma dose rates in complex 3D environments. PANTHERE takes a key role in the EDF ALARA process, enabling to predict dose rates and to organize and optimize operations in high radiation environments. PANTHERE is also used for nuclear waste characterization, transport of nuclear materials, etc. It is used in most of the EDF engineering units and their design service providers and industrial partners.
Impact of temporal probability in 4D dose calculation for lung tumors.
Rouabhi, Ouided; Ma, Mingyu; Bayouth, John; Xia, Junyi
2015-11-08
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric uncertainty in 4D dose calculation using three temporal probability distributions: uniform distribution, sinusoidal distribution, and patient-specific distribution derived from the patient respiratory trace. Temporal probability, defined as the fraction of time a patient spends in each respiratory amplitude, was evaluated in nine lung cancer patients. Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT), along with deformable image registration, was used to compute 4D dose incorporating the patient's respiratory motion. First, the dose of each of 10 phase CTs was computed using the same planning parameters as those used in 3D treatment planning based on the breath-hold CT. Next, deformable image registration was used to deform the dose of each phase CT to the breath-hold CT using the deformation map between the phase CT and the breath-hold CT. Finally, the 4D dose was computed by summing the deformed phase doses using their corresponding temporal probabilities. In this study, 4D dose calculated from the patient-specific temporal probability distribution was used as the ground truth. The dosimetric evaluation matrix included: 1) 3D gamma analysis, 2) mean tumor dose (MTD), 3) mean lung dose (MLD), and 4) lung V20. For seven out of nine patients, both uniform and sinusoidal temporal probability dose distributions were found to have an average gamma passing rate > 95% for both the lung and PTV regions. Compared with 4D dose calculated using the patient respiratory trace, doses using uniform and sinusoidal distribution showed a percentage difference on average of -0.1% ± 0.6% and -0.2% ± 0.4% in MTD, -0.2% ± 1.9% and -0.2% ± 1.3% in MLD, 0.09% ± 2.8% and -0.07% ± 1.8% in lung V20, -0.1% ± 2.0% and 0.08% ± 1.34% in lung V10, 0.47% ± 1.8% and 0.19% ± 1.3% in lung V5, respectively. We concluded that four-dimensional dose computed using either a uniform or sinusoidal temporal probability distribution can
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Azcona, J [Department of Radiation Physics, Clinica Universidad de Navarra (Spain); Burguete, J [Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To obtain the pencil beam kernels that characterize a megavoltage photon beam generated in a FFF linac by experimental measurements, and to apply them for dose calculation in modulated fields. Methods: Several Kodak EDR2 radiographic films were irradiated with a 10 MV FFF photon beam from a Varian True Beam (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) linac, at the depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20cm in polystyrene (RW3 water equivalent phantom, PTW Freiburg, Germany). The irradiation field was a 50 mm diameter circular field, collimated with a lead block. Measured dose leads to the kernel characterization, assuming that the energy fluence exiting the linac head and further collimated is originated on a point source. The three-dimensional kernel was obtained by deconvolution at each depth using the Hankel transform. A correction on the low dose part of the kernel was performed to reproduce accurately the experimental output factors. The kernels were used to calculate modulated dose distributions in six modulated fields and compared through the gamma index to their absolute dose measured by film in the RW3 phantom. Results: The resulting kernels properly characterize the global beam penumbra. The output factor-based correction was carried out adding the amount of signal necessary to reproduce the experimental output factor in steps of 2mm, starting at a radius of 4mm. There the kernel signal was in all cases below 10% of its maximum value. With this correction, the number of points that pass the gamma index criteria (3%, 3mm) in the modulated fields for all cases are at least 99.6% of the total number of points. Conclusion: A system for independent dose calculations in modulated fields from FFF beams has been developed. Pencil beam kernels were obtained and their ability to accurately calculate dose in homogeneous media was demonstrated.
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Ribeiro, Rosane M.; Santos, Denison de S.; Queiroz Filho, Pedro P. de; Mauricio, CLaudia L.P.; Silva, Livia K. da; Pessanha, Paula R., E-mail: rosanemribeiro@oi.com.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2014-07-01
Fluence to dose equivalent conversion coefficients provide the basis for the calculation of area and personal monitors. Recently, the ICRP has started a revision of these coefficients, including new Monte Carlo codes for benchmarking. So far, little information is available about neutron transport below 10 MeV in tissue-equivalent (TE) material performed with Monte Carlo GEANT4 code. The objective of this work is to calculate neutron fluence to personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients, H{sub p} (10)/Φ, with GEANT4 code. The incidence of monoenergetic neutrons was simulated as an expanded and aligned field, with energies ranging between thermal neutrons to 10 MeV on the ICRU slab of dimension 30 x 30 x 15 cm{sup 3}, composed of 76.2% of oxygen, 10.1% of hydrogen, 11.1% of carbon and 2.6% of nitrogen. For all incident energy, a cylindrical sensitive volume is placed at a depth of 10 mm, in the largest surface of the slab (30 x 30 cm{sup 2}). Physic process are included for neutrons, photons and charged particles, and calculations are made for neutrons and secondary particles which reach the sensitive volume. Results obtained are thus compared with values published in ICRP 74. Neutron fluence in the sensitive volume was calculated for benchmarking. The Monte Carlo GEANT4 code was found to be appropriate to calculate neutron doses at energies below 10 MeV correctly. (author)
Oliveira, C
2001-01-01
A systematic study of isodose distributions and dose uniformity in sample carriers of the Portuguese Gamma Irradiation Facility was carried out using the MCNP code. The absorbed dose rate, gamma flux per energy interval and average gamma energy were calculated. For comparison purposes, boxes filled with air and 'dummy' boxes loaded with layers of folded and crumpled newspapers to achieve a given value of density were used. The magnitude of various contributions to the total photon spectra, including source-dependent factors, irradiator structures, sample material and other origins were also calculated.
Applying graphics processor units to Monte Carlo dose calculation in radiation therapy.
Bakhtiari, M; Malhotra, H; Jones, M D; Chaudhary, V; Walters, J P; Nazareth, D
2010-04-01
We investigate the potential in using of using a graphics processor unit (GPU) for Monte-Carlo (MC)-based radiation dose calculations. The percent depth dose (PDD) of photons in a medium with known absorption and scattering coefficients is computed using a MC simulation running on both a standard CPU and a GPU. We demonstrate that the GPU's capability for massive parallel processing provides a significant acceleration in the MC calculation, and offers a significant advantage for distributed stochastic simulations on a single computer. Harnessing this potential of GPUs will help in the early adoption of MC for routine planning in a clinical environment.
Applying graphics processor units to Monte Carlo dose calculation in radiation therapy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bakhtiari M
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the potential in using of using a graphics processor unit (GPU for Monte-Carlo (MC-based radiation dose calculations. The percent depth dose (PDD of photons in a medium with known absorption and scattering coefficients is computed using a MC simulation running on both a standard CPU and a GPU. We demonstrate that the GPU′s capability for massive parallel processing provides a significant acceleration in the MC calculation, and offers a significant advantage for distributed stochastic simulations on a single computer. Harnessing this potential of GPUs will help in the early adoption of MC for routine planning in a clinical environment.
Geological calculations with SANGRE and MANTLE: Recent results
Carruthers, L. M.; Goldman, P.; Anderson, C. A.
1984-08-01
Q-13 has two finite-element calculational efforts involving geological studies, both two dimensional and both with extensive graphics output. The SANGRE code was developed at Los Alamos as an extension of TSAAS. Recent code developments include introduction of pore pressure, which has made possible some calculations with geologic folds that show the behavior of fluid during the geological fold process. The code has recently been linked to the STRAP code for graphical output--results will be shown. The MANTLE code work has continued in collaboration with Gerald Schubert of UCLA. Modeling efforts include slabs extending into the fluid region, with and without initial slab motion. Coupled calculations are made of temperature and creep. Graphics are internal to the code and show velocities, pressures, temperatures, stream functions, etc.
Habib, B; Poumarede, B; Tola, F; Barthe, J
2010-01-01
The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the potential of accelerated dose calculations, using the fast Monte Carlo (MC) code referred to as PENFAST, rather than the conventional MC code PENELOPE, without losing accuracy in the computed dose. For this purpose, experimental measurements of dose distributions in homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms were compared with simulated results using both PENELOPE and PENFAST. The simulations and experiments were performed using a Saturne 43 linac operated at 12 MV (photons), and at 18 MeV (electrons). Pre-calculated phase space files (PSFs) were used as input data to both the PENELOPE and PENFAST dose simulations. Since depth-dose and dose profile comparisons between simulations and measurements in water were found to be in good agreement (within +/-1% to 1 mm), the PSF calculation is considered to have been validated. In addition, measured dose distributions were compared to simulated results in a set of clinically relevant, inhomogeneous phantoms, consisting of lung and bone heterogeneities in a water tank. In general, the PENFAST results agree to within a 1% to 1 mm difference with those produced by PENELOPE, and to within a 2% to 2 mm difference with measured values. Our study thus provides a pre-clinical validation of the PENFAST code. It also demonstrates that PENFAST provides accurate results for both photon and electron beams, equivalent to those obtained with PENELOPE. CPU time comparisons between both MC codes show that PENFAST is generally about 9-21 times faster than PENELOPE. Copyright 2009 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Monte Carlo calculations of the depth-dose distribution in skin contaminated by hot particles
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Patau, J.-P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France))
1991-01-01
Accurate computer programs were developed in order to calculate the spatial distribution of absorbed radiation doses in the skin, near high activity particles (''hot particles''). With a view to ascertaining the reliability of the codes the transport of beta particles was simulated in a complex configuration used for dosimetric measurements: spherical {sup 60}Co sources of 10-1000 {mu}m fastened to an aluminium support with a tissue-equivalent adhesive overlaid with 10 {mu}m thick aluminium foil. Behind it an infinite polystyrene medium including an extrapolation chamber was assumed. The exact energy spectrum of beta emission was sampled. Production and transport of secondary knock-on electrons were also simulated. Energy depositions in polystyrene were calculated with a high spatial resolution. Finally, depth-dose distributions were calculated for hot particles placed on the skin. The calculations will be continued for other radionuclides and for a configuration suited to TLD measurements. (author).
SU-E-T-463: Impact to Total Scatter Factors On the Calculated Dose Distribution in Radiosurgery
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Garcia, O; Larraga-Gutierrez, J [National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)
2015-06-15
Purpose: To assess the impact of relative measurements: off axis ratios (OAR), tissue phantom ratios (TPR) and especially total scatter factor (TSF) on the calculated dose distribution in stereotactic radiosurgery with circular cones. Methods: Six detectors were employed to characterize circular collimated photon beams of 6 MV: three diodes (SFD, E, SRS), one ionization chamber (CC01) and two radiochromic films (EBT, EBT2). The relative measurements were incorporated in the treatment planning system (TPS) in order to compare and analyze the calculated dose distributions (DD). Each dose distribution was re-scaled by the TSF to observe its effect in the final dose distribution. The comparison was performed by using the gamma index. A Monte Carlo generated dosimetry was used as reference. Results: The results showed that in terms of relative dosimetry all the detectors have a good agreement within 2%, with the exception of the CC01 and EBT2 film. However, the analysis performed with the dose distributions re-scaled relative to the TSF for each detector showed that the impact it was not only to the isocenter dose. The dose to the PTV and normal tissue showed differences up to 13% depending of the dosimeter used for TSF measurements. Conclusion: With the exception of the CC01 ionization chamber and EBT2 radiochromic film, all the studied dosimeters were adequate for the measurement of OAR and TPR. However, attention must be put in the measurement of TSF. The use of the wrong detector does not only affect the isocenter dose, it may have an impact in the PTV and normal tissue dose.
Zhan, L; Schaly, B; Jiang, R; Osei, E K
2012-07-01
Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) is an option for early stage non-small cell lung cancer treatment. In SBRT treatment, high biological effective dose is delivered to the patient within a small number of fractions. High level of confidence in accuracy is required in the entire treatment procedure, from patient setup, tumour delineation, treatment simulation and planning, to the final dose delivery. SBRT lung treatment utilizes small fields that are incident on large tissue inhomogeneities within the patient. It is difficult for commercially available treatment planning systems (TPS) to model the lack of charged particle equilibrium and the dose near tissue-lung interfaces accurately. The Monte Carlo (MC) technique calculates the dose distribution from the first principles thereby providing a feasible tool for verifying the dose distribution computed from TPS. In this study, we compared the SBRT dose distribution between Eclipse 8.9 and BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc for both conformal and RapidArc plans. Calculation results for five clinical SBRT conformal lung plans were compared. Eclipse and MC results for each plan showed good agreement in dose received by organs at risk. MC simulation predicted uniformly hotter or similar PTV coverage for three cases with tumor either small or attached to the chest wall. When tumor is inside lung and at relatively medium to larger size for SBRT, MC predicted lower PTV coverage. The variation in dose coverage may depend on the tumour size and its position within the lung. Dose comparison for RapidArc plans shows similar dependence. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
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Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; Rabovsky, J. (Environmental Science Division); (USDOE)
2011-08-02
The purpose of this report is to evaluate the potential dose distribution resulting from surface radioactivity, using occupational radiation exposure scenarios. The surface radioactivity clearance values considered in this analysis may ultimately replace those currently specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and guidance for radiological protection of workers, the public and the environment. The surface contamination values apply to radioactive contamination deposited on a surface (i.e., not incorporated into the interior of the material). For these calculations, the dose coefficients for intake of radionuclides were taken from ICRP Publication 68 (ICRP 1994), and external exposure dose coefficients were taken from the compact disc (CD) that accompanied Federal Guidance Report (FGR) 13 (Eckerman et al. 1999). The ICRP Publication 68 dose coefficients were based on ICRP Publication 60 (ICRP 1990) and were used specifically for worker dose calculations. The calculated dose in this analysis is the 'effective dose' (ED), rather than the 'effective dose equivalent' (EDE).
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Fairchild, R.G.; Greenberg, D.; Kamen, Y.; Fiarman, S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA). Medical Dept.); Benary, V. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA). Medical Dept. Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)); Kalef-Ezra, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA). Medical Dept. Ioannina Univ. (Greece)); Wielopolski, L. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA). Medical Dept. State Univ. of New
1990-01-01
The characteristics of the epithermal neutron beam at BMRR were measured, calculated, and reported. This beam has already been used for animal irradiations. We anticipate that it will be used for clinical trials. Thermal and epithermal neutron flux densities distributions, and dose rate distributions, as a function of depth were measured in a lucite dog-head phantom. Monte Carlo calculations were performed and compared with the measured values. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
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Sakamoto, Yukio; Endo, Akira; Tsuda, Shuichi; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
2001-01-01
Dose quantity in the shielding design calculation will be changed from the 1 cm depth dose equivalent to effective dose on the occasion of the introduction of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1990 Recommendations (ICRP Publication 60) into domestic laws. In the shielding calculation for the radiation facilities, simple dose estimation methods by using the shielding calculation constants instead of calculation of radiation energy spectra behind the shielding materials are effective and widely used. These shielding calculation constants depend on the dose quantity to be estimated and those for the evaluation of 1 cm depth dose equivalents should be replaced by those for the evaluation of effective dose. In the present report, the shielding calculation constants are summarized for photons, neutrons and Bremsstrahlung from beta-ray. For mono-energetic photons with energies from 0.015 MeV to 10 MeV, effective dose buildup factors, effective conversion coefficients from air kerma to effective dose and transmission data of effective dose were calculated. Effective dose rate constants, which represent an effective dose value at 1 m apart from a source without shielding, and transmission data of effective dose were also calculated for gamma-ray and X-ray from 33 radioisotopes, Bremsstrahlung from 13 radioisotopes beta-ray and 4 neutron sources. (author)
Brugger, Markus; Assmann, R W; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Menzel, Hans Gregor; Roesler, Stefan; Vincke, Helmut H
2005-01-01
Radiation protection of the personnel who will perform interventions in the LHC Beam Cleaning Insertions is mandatory and includes the design of equipment and the establishment of work procedures. Residual dose rates due to activated equipment are expected to reach significant values such that any maintenance has to be planned and optimized in advance. Three-dimensional maps of dose equivalent rates at different cooling times after operation of the LHC have been calculated with FLUKA. The simulations are based on an explicit calculation of induced radioactivity and of the transport of the radiation from the radioactive decay. The paper summarizes the results for the Beam Cleaning Insertions and discusses the estimation of individual and collective doses received by personnel during critical interventions, such as the exchange of a collimator or the installation of Phase 2. The given examples outline the potential and the need to optimize, in an iterative way, the design of components as well as the layout of ...
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Sampson, Andrew; Le Yi; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)
2012-02-15
Purpose: To demonstrate potential of correlated sampling Monte Carlo (CMC) simulation to improve the calculation efficiency for permanent seed brachytherapy (PSB) implants without loss of accuracy. Methods: CMC was implemented within an in-house MC code family (PTRAN) and used to compute 3D dose distributions for two patient cases: a clinical PSB postimplant prostate CT imaging study and a simulated post lumpectomy breast PSB implant planned on a screening dedicated breast cone-beam CT patient exam. CMC tallies the dose difference, {Delta}D, between highly correlated histories in homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries. The heterogeneous geometry histories were derived from photon collisions sampled in a geometrically identical but purely homogeneous medium geometry, by altering their particle weights to correct for bias. The prostate case consisted of 78 Model-6711 {sup 125}I seeds. The breast case consisted of 87 Model-200 {sup 103}Pd seeds embedded around a simulated lumpectomy cavity. Systematic and random errors in CMC were unfolded using low-uncertainty uncorrelated MC (UMC) as the benchmark. CMC efficiency gains, relative to UMC, were computed for all voxels, and the mean was classified in regions that received minimum doses greater than 20%, 50%, and 90% of D{sub 90}, as well as for various anatomical regions. Results: Systematic errors in CMC relative to UMC were less than 0.6% for 99% of the voxels and 0.04% for 100% of the voxels for the prostate and breast cases, respectively. For a 1 x 1 x 1 mm{sup 3} dose grid, efficiency gains were realized in all structures with 38.1- and 59.8-fold average gains within the prostate and breast clinical target volumes (CTVs), respectively. Greater than 99% of the voxels within the prostate and breast CTVs experienced an efficiency gain. Additionally, it was shown that efficiency losses were confined to low dose regions while the largest gains were located where little difference exists between the homogeneous and
Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank
2011-03-01
The goal of this work is to compare D(m,m) (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in medium) and D(w,m) (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in water) obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for a subset of human tissues of interest in low energy photon brachytherapy. Using low dose rate seeds and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the authors quantify the large cavity theory conversion factors required. The authors also assess whether ap plying large cavity theory utilizing the sources' initial photon spectra and average photon energy induces errors related to spatial spectral variations. First, ideal spherical geometries were investigated, followed by clinical brachytherapy LDR seed implants for breast and prostate cancer patients. Two types of dose calculations are performed with the GEANT4 MC code. (1) For several human tissues, dose profiles are obtained in spherical geometries centered on four types of low energy brachytherapy sources: 125I, 103Pd, and 131Cs seeds, as well as an EBS operating at 50 kV. Ratios of D(w,m) over D(m,m) are evaluated in the 0-6 cm range. In addition to mean tissue composition, compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean are also studied. (2) Four clinical breast (using 103Pd) and prostate (using 125I) brachytherapy seed implants are considered. MC dose calculations are performed based on postimplant CT scans using prostate and breast tissue compositions. PTV D90 values are compared for D(w,m) and D(m,m). (1) Differences (D(w,m)/D(m,m)-1) of -3% to 70% are observed for the investigated tissues. For a given tissue, D(w,m)/D(m,m) is similar for all sources within 4% and does not vary more than 2% with distance due to very moderate spectral shifts. Variations of tissue composition about the assumed mean composition influence the conversion factors up to 38%. (2) The ratio of D90(w,m) over D90(m,m) for clinical implants matches D(w,m)/D(m,m) at 1 cm from the single point sources, Given
Nasrollah, Jabbari; Mikaeil, Molazadeh; Omid, Esnaashari; Mojtaba, Seyed Siahi; Ahad, Zeinali
2014-01-01
The impact of intravenous (IV) contrast media (CM) on radiation dose calculations must be taken into account in treatment planning. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of an intravenous contrast media on dose calculations in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for lower esophageal and rectal cancers. Seventeen patients with lower esophageal tumors and 12 patients with rectal cancers were analyzed. At the outset, all patients were planned for 3D-CRT based on the computed tomography (CT) scans with IV contrast media. Subsequently, all the plans were copied and replaced on the scans without intravenous CM. The radiation doses calculated from the two sets of CTs were compared. The dose differences between the planning image set using intravenous contrast and the image set without contrast showed an average increase in Monitor Units (MUs) in the lower esophageal region that was 1.28 and 0.75% for 6 and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. There was no statistical significant difference in the rectal region between the two sets of scans in the 3D-CRT plans. The results showed that the dose differences between the plans for the CT scans with and without CM were small and clinically tolerable. However, the differences in the lower esophageal region were significant in the statistical analysis.
Kanematsu, Nobuyuki
2011-04-01
This work addresses computing techniques for dose calculations in treatment planning with proton and ion beams, based on an efficient kernel-convolution method referred to as grid-dose spreading (GDS) and accurate heterogeneity-correction method referred to as Gaussian beam splitting. The original GDS algorithm suffered from distortion of dose distribution for beams tilted with respect to the dose-grid axes. Use of intermediate grids normal to the beam field has solved the beam-tilting distortion. Interplay of arrangement between beams and grids was found as another intrinsic source of artifact. Inclusion of rectangular-kernel convolution in beam transport, to share the beam contribution among the nearest grids in a regulatory manner, has solved the interplay problem. This algorithmic framework was applied to a tilted proton pencil beam and a broad carbon-ion beam. In these cases, while the elementary pencil beams individually split into several tens, the calculation time increased only by several times with the GDS algorithm. The GDS and beam-splitting methods will complementarily enable accurate and efficient dose calculations for radiotherapy with protons and ions. Copyright © 2010 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Papanikolaou, Niko; Stathakis, Sotirios
2009-10-01
Radiation therapy has witnessed a plethora of innovations and developments in the past 15 years. Since the introduction of computed tomography for treatment planning there has been a steady introduction of new methods to refine treatment delivery. Imaging continues to be an integral part of the planning, but also the delivery, of modern radiotherapy. However, all the efforts of image guided radiotherapy, intensity-modulated planning and delivery, adaptive radiotherapy, and everything else that we pride ourselves in having in the armamentarium can fall short, unless there is an accurate dose-calculation algorithm. The agreement between the calculated and delivered doses is of great significance in radiation therapy since the accuracy of the absorbed dose as prescribed determines the clinical outcome. Dose-calculation algorithms have evolved greatly over the years in an effort to be more inclusive of the effects that govern the true radiation transport through the human body. In this Vision 20/20 paper, we look back to see how it all started and where things are now in terms of dose algorithms for photon beams and the inclusion of tissue heterogeneities. Convolution-superposition algorithms have dominated the treatment planning industry for the past few years. Monte Carlo techniques have an inherent accuracy that is superior to any other algorithm and as such will continue to be the gold standard, along with measurements, and maybe one day will be the algorithm of choice for all particle treatment planning in radiation therapy.
The validation of tomotherapy dose calculations in low-density lung media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaudhari, Summer R; Pechenaya, Olga L; Goddu, S Murty; Mutic, Sasa; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Low, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)], E-mail: sgoddu@radonc.wustl.edu
2009-04-21
The dose-calculation accuracy of the tomotherapy Hi-Art II (registered) (Tomotherapy, Inc., Madison, WI) treatment planning system (TPS) in the presence of low-density lung media was investigated. In this evaluation, a custom-designed heterogeneous phantom mimicking the mediastinum geometry was used. Gammex LN300 and balsa wood were selected as two lung-equivalent materials with different densities. Film analysis and ionization chamber measurements were performed. Treatment plans for esophageal cancers were used in the evaluation. The agreement between the dose calculated by the TPS and the dose measured via ionization chambers was, in most cases, within 0.8%. Gamma analysis using 3% and 3 mm criteria for radiochromic film dosimetry showed that 98% and 95% of the measured dose distribution had passing gamma values {<=}1 for LN300 and balsa wood, respectively. For a homogeneous water-equivalent phantom, 95% of the points passed the gamma test. It was found that for the interface between the low-density medium and water-equivalent medium, the TPS calculated the dose distribution within acceptable limits. The phantom developed for this work enabled detailed quality-assurance testing under realistic conditions with heterogeneous media.
The validation of tomotherapy dose calculations in low-density lung media
Chaudhari, Summer R.; Pechenaya, Olga L.; Goddu, S. Murty; Mutic, Sasa; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Low, Daniel
2009-04-01
The dose-calculation accuracy of the tomotherapy Hi-Art II® (Tomotherapy, Inc., Madison, WI) treatment planning system (TPS) in the presence of low-density lung media was investigated. In this evaluation, a custom-designed heterogeneous phantom mimicking the mediastinum geometry was used. Gammex LN300 and balsa wood were selected as two lung-equivalent materials with different densities. Film analysis and ionization chamber measurements were performed. Treatment plans for esophageal cancers were used in the evaluation. The agreement between the dose calculated by the TPS and the dose measured via ionization chambers was, in most cases, within 0.8%. Gamma analysis using 3% and 3 mm criteria for radiochromic film dosimetry showed that 98% and 95% of the measured dose distribution had passing gamma values balsa wood, respectively. For a homogeneous water-equivalent phantom, 95% of the points passed the gamma test. It was found that for the interface between the low-density medium and water-equivalent medium, the TPS calculated the dose distribution within acceptable limits. The phantom developed for this work enabled detailed quality-assurance testing under realistic conditions with heterogeneous media.
Sensitivity of NTCP parameter values against a change of dose calculation algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brink, Carsten; Berg, Martin; Nielsen, Morten
2007-01-01
predicted for a given treatment will in general depend on the algorithm. The purpose of this work is to test whether the optimal NTCP parameter values change significantly when the dose calculation algorithm is changed. The treatment plans for 17 breast cancer patients have retrospectively been recalculated...
Iriuchijima, Akiko; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Takahito; Tsushima, Yoshito; Ogura, Akio
2017-07-28
The purpose of this study is to develop a new and simple methodology for calculating mean size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) over the entire scan range (mSSDE) from weight and volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). We retrospectively analyzed data from a dose index registry. Scan areas were divided into two regions: chest and abdomen-pelvis. The original mSSDE was calculated by a commercially available software. The conversion formulas for mSSDE were estimated from weight and CTDIvol (SSDEweight) in each region. SSDEweight were compared with the original mSSDE using Bland-Altman analysis. Root mean square differences were 1.4 mGy for chest and 1.5 mGy for abdomen-pelvis. Our method using formulae can calculate SSDEweight using weight and CTDIvol without a dedicated software, and can be used to calculate DRL to optimize CT exposure doses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Mashouf, Shahram; Lechtman, Eli; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank; Keller, Brian M.; Ravi, Ananth; Pignol, Jean-Philippe
2013-09-01
The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 (AAPM TG-43) formalism is the standard for seeds brachytherapy dose calculation. But for breast seed implants, Monte Carlo simulations reveal large errors due to tissue heterogeneity. Since TG-43 includes several factors to account for source geometry, anisotropy and strength, we propose an additional correction factor, called the inhomogeneity correction factor (ICF), accounting for tissue heterogeneity for Pd-103 brachytherapy. This correction factor is calculated as a function of the media linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient, and it is independent of the source internal structure. Ultimately the dose in heterogeneous media can be calculated as a product of dose in water as calculated by TG-43 protocol times the ICF. To validate the ICF methodology, dose absorbed in spherical phantoms with large tissue heterogeneities was compared using the TG-43 formalism corrected for heterogeneity versus Monte Carlo simulations. The agreement between Monte Carlo simulations and the ICF method remained within 5% in soft tissues up to several centimeters from a Pd-103 source. Compared to Monte Carlo, the ICF methods can easily be integrated into a clinical treatment planning system and it does not require the detailed internal structure of the source or the photon phase-space.
GPU-based ultra-fast dose calculation using a finite size pencil beam model.
Gu, Xuejun; Choi, Dongju; Men, Chunhua; Pan, Hubert; Majumdar, Amitava; Jiang, Steve B
2009-10-21
Online adaptive radiation therapy (ART) is an attractive concept that promises the ability to deliver an optimal treatment in response to the inter-fraction variability in patient anatomy. However, it has yet to be realized due to technical limitations. Fast dose deposit coefficient calculation is a critical component of the online planning process that is required for plan optimization of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Computer graphics processing units (GPUs) are well suited to provide the requisite fast performance for the data-parallel nature of dose calculation. In this work, we develop a dose calculation engine based on a finite-size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm and a GPU parallel computing framework. The developed framework can accommodate any FSPB model. We test our implementation in the case of a water phantom and the case of a prostate cancer patient with varying beamlet and voxel sizes. All testing scenarios achieved speedup ranging from 200 to 400 times when using a NVIDIA Tesla C1060 card in comparison with a 2.27 GHz Intel Xeon CPU. The computational time for calculating dose deposition coefficients for a nine-field prostate IMRT plan with this new framework is less than 1 s. This indicates that the GPU-based FSPB algorithm is well suited for online re-planning for adaptive radiotherapy.
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Galván de la Cruz, Olga Olinca [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel, E-mail: jlarraga@innn.edu.mx [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Moreno-Jiménez, Sergio [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); García-Garduño, Olivia Amanda [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Celis, Miguel Angel [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico)
2013-07-01
It is reported in the literature that the material used in an embolization of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can attenuate the radiation beams used in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) up to 10% to 15%. The purpose of this work is to assess the dosimetric impact of this attenuating material in the SRS treatment of embolized AVMs, using Monte Carlo simulations assuming clinical conditions. A commercial Monte Carlo dose calculation engine was used to recalculate the dose distribution of 20 AVMs previously planned with a pencil beam dose calculation algorithm. Dose distributions were compared using the following metrics: average, minimal and maximum dose of AVM, and 2D gamma index. The effect in the obliteration rate was investigated using radiobiological models. It was found that the dosimetric impact of the embolization material is less than 1.0 Gy in the prescription dose to the AVM for the 20 cases studied. The impact in the obliteration rate is less than 4.0%. There is reported evidence in the literature that embolized AVMs treated with SRS have low obliteration rates. This work shows that there are dosimetric implications that should be considered in the final treatment decisions for embolized AVMs.
Chan, EuJin; Lydon, Jenny; Kron, Tomas
2015-03-07
This study aims to investigate the effects of oblique incidence, small field size and inhomogeneous media on the electron dose distribution, and to compare calculated (Elekta/CMS XiO) and measured results. All comparisons were done in terms of absolute dose. A new measuring method was developed for high resolution, absolute dose measurement of non-standard beams using Gafchromic® EBT3 film. A portable U-shaped holder was designed and constructed to hold EBT3 films vertically in a reproducible setup submerged in a water phantom. The experimental film method was verified with ionisation chamber measurements and agreed to within 2% or 1 mm. Agreement between XiO electron Monte Carlo (eMC) and EBT3 was within 2% or 2 mm for most standard fields and 3% or 3 mm for the non-standard fields. Larger differences were seen in the build-up region where XiO eMC overestimates dose by up to 10% for obliquely incident fields and underestimates the dose for small circular fields by up to 5% when compared to measurement. Calculations with inhomogeneous media mimicking ribs, lung and skull tissue placed at the side of the film in water agreed with measurement to within 3% or 3 mm. Gafchromic film in water proved to be a convenient high spatial resolution method to verify dose distributions from electrons in non-standard conditions including irradiation in inhomogeneous media.
GPU-based fast Monte Carlo dose calculation for proton therapy.
Jia, Xun; Schümann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald; Jiang, Steve B
2012-12-07
Accurate radiation dose calculation is essential for successful proton radiotherapy. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is considered to be the most accurate method. However, the long computation time limits it from routine clinical applications. Recently, graphics processing units (GPUs) have been widely used to accelerate computationally intensive tasks in radiotherapy. We have developed a fast MC dose calculation package, gPMC, for proton dose calculation on a GPU. In gPMC, proton transport is modeled by the class II condensed history simulation scheme with a continuous slowing down approximation. Ionization, elastic and inelastic proton nucleus interactions are considered. Energy straggling and multiple scattering are modeled. Secondary electrons are not transported and their energies are locally deposited. After an inelastic nuclear interaction event, a variety of products are generated using an empirical model. Among them, charged nuclear fragments are terminated with energy locally deposited. Secondary protons are stored in a stack and transported after finishing transport of the primary protons, while secondary neutral particles are neglected. gPMC is implemented on the GPU under the CUDA platform. We have validated gPMC using the TOPAS/Geant4 MC code as the gold standard. For various cases including homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms as well as a patient case, good agreements between gPMC and TOPAS/Geant4 are observed. The gamma passing rate for the 2%/2 mm criterion is over 98.7% in the region with dose greater than 10% maximum dose in all cases, excluding low-density air regions. With gPMC it takes only 6-22 s to simulate 10 million source protons to achieve ∼1% relative statistical uncertainty, depending on the phantoms and energy. This is an extremely high efficiency compared to the computational time of tens of CPU hours for TOPAS/Geant4. Our fast GPU-based code can thus facilitate the routine use of MC dose calculation in proton therapy.
Organ dose calculation in CT based on scout image data and automatic image registration.
Kortesniemi, Mika; Salli, Eero; Seuri, Raija
2012-10-01
Computed tomography (CT) has become the main contributor of the cumulative radiation exposure in radiology. Information on cumulative exposure history of the patient should be available for efficient management of radiation exposures and for radiological justification. To develop and evaluate automatic image registration for organ dose calculation in CT. Planning radiograph (scout) image data describing CT scan ranges from 15 thoracic CT examinations (9 men and 6 women) and 10 abdominal CT examinations (6 men and 4 women) were co-registered with the reference trunk CT scout image. 2-D affine transformation and normalized correlation metric was used for image registration. Longitudinal (z-axis) scan range coordinates on the reference scout image were converted into slice locations on the CT-Expo anthropomorphic male and female models, following organ and effective dose calculations. The average deviation of z-location of studied patient images from the corresponding location in the reference scout image was 6.2 mm. The ranges of organ and effective doses with constant exposure parameters were from 0 to 28.0 mGy and from 7.3 to 14.5 mSv, respectively. The mean deviation of the doses for fully irradiated organs (inside the scan range), partially irradiated organs and non-irradiated organs (outside the scan range) was 1%, 5%, and 22%, respectively, due to image registration. The automated image processing method to registrate individual chest and abdominal CT scout radiograph with the reference scout radiograph is feasible. It can be used to determine the individual scan range coordinates in z-direction to calculate the organ dose values. The presented method could be utilized in automatic organ dose calculation in CT for radiation exposure tracking of the patients.
GPU-based fast Monte Carlo dose calculation for proton therapy
Jia, Xun; Schümann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald; Jiang, Steve B.
2012-12-01
Accurate radiation dose calculation is essential for successful proton radiotherapy. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is considered to be the most accurate method. However, the long computation time limits it from routine clinical applications. Recently, graphics processing units (GPUs) have been widely used to accelerate computationally intensive tasks in radiotherapy. We have developed a fast MC dose calculation package, gPMC, for proton dose calculation on a GPU. In gPMC, proton transport is modeled by the class II condensed history simulation scheme with a continuous slowing down approximation. Ionization, elastic and inelastic proton nucleus interactions are considered. Energy straggling and multiple scattering are modeled. Secondary electrons are not transported and their energies are locally deposited. After an inelastic nuclear interaction event, a variety of products are generated using an empirical model. Among them, charged nuclear fragments are terminated with energy locally deposited. Secondary protons are stored in a stack and transported after finishing transport of the primary protons, while secondary neutral particles are neglected. gPMC is implemented on the GPU under the CUDA platform. We have validated gPMC using the TOPAS/Geant4 MC code as the gold standard. For various cases including homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms as well as a patient case, good agreements between gPMC and TOPAS/Geant4 are observed. The gamma passing rate for the 2%/2 mm criterion is over 98.7% in the region with dose greater than 10% maximum dose in all cases, excluding low-density air regions. With gPMC it takes only 6-22 s to simulate 10 million source protons to achieve ˜1% relative statistical uncertainty, depending on the phantoms and energy. This is an extremely high efficiency compared to the computational time of tens of CPU hours for TOPAS/Geant4. Our fast GPU-based code can thus facilitate the routine use of MC dose calculation in proton therapy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reda Sonia M.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Radiation dose distributions in various parts of the body are of importance in radiotherapy. Also, the percent depth dose at different body depths is an important parameter in radiation therapy applications. Monte Carlo simulation techniques are the most accurate methods for such purposes. Monte Carlo computer calculations of photon spectra and the dose ratios at surfaces and in some internal organs of a human equivalent phantom were performed. In the present paper, dose distributions in different organs during bladder radiotherapy by 6 MeV X-rays were measured using thermoluminescence dosimetry placed at different points in the human-phantom. The phantom was irradiated in exactly the same manner as in actual bladder radiotherapy. Four treatment fields were considered to maximize the dose at the center of the target and minimize it at non-target healthy organs. All experimental setup information was fed to the MCNP-4b code to calculate dose distributions at selected points inside the proposed phantom. Percent depth dose distribution was performed. Also, the absorbed dose as ratios relative to the original beam in the surrounding organs was calculated by MCNP-4b and measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. Both measured and calculated data were compared. Results indicate good agreement between calculated and measured data inside the phantom. Comparison between MCNP-4b calculations and measurements of depth dose distribution indicated good agreement between both.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND: Immune suppression may be a critical effect associated with exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), as indicated by recent data on vaccine antibody responses in children. Therefore, this information may be crucial when deciding on exposure limits. METHODS: Results obtained from...... with complete data using linear and logarithmic curves, and sensitivity analyses were included to explore the impact of the low-dose curve shape. RESULTS: Under different linear assumptions regarding dose-dependence of the effects, benchmark dose levels were about 1.3 ng/mL serum for perfluorooctane sulfonic...... acid and 0.3 ng/mL serum for perfluorooctanoic acid at a benchmark dose response of 5%. These results are below average serum concentrations reported in recent population studies. Even lower results were obtained using logarithmic dose--response curves. Assumption of no effect below the lowest observed...
Ladtap XL Version 2017: A Spreadsheet For Estimating Dose Resulting From Aqueous Releases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minter, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2017-06-15
LADTAP XL© is an EXCEL© spreadsheet used to estimate dose to offsite individuals and populations resulting from routine and accidental releases of radioactive materials to the Savannah River. LADTAP XL© contains two worksheets: LADTAP and IRRIDOSE. The LADTAP worksheet estimates dose for environmental pathways including external exposure resulting from recreational activities on the Savannah River and internal exposure resulting from ingestion of water, fish, and invertebrates originating from the Savannah River. IRRIDOSE estimates offsite dose to individuals and populations from irrigation of foodstuffs with contaminated water from the Savannah River. In 2004, a complete description of the LADTAP XL© code and an associated user’s manual was documented in LADTAP XL©: A Spreadsheet for Estimating Dose Resulting from Aqueous Release (WSRC-TR-2004-00059) and revised input parameters, dose coefficients, and radionuclide decay constants were incorporated into LADTAP XL© Version 2013 (SRNL-STI-2011-00238). LADTAP XL© Version 2017 is a slight modification to Version 2013 with minor changes made for more user-friendly parameter inputs and organization, updates in the time conversion factors used within the dose calculations, and fixed an issue with the expected time build-up parameter referenced within the population shoreline dose calculations. This manual has been produced to update the code description, verification of the models, and provide an updated user’s manual. LADTAP XL© Version 2017 has been verified by Minter (2017) and is ready for use at the Savannah River Site (SRS).
Xiao, Kai; Chen, Danny Z; Hu, X Sharon; Zhou, Bo
2012-12-01
The three-dimensional digital differential analyzer (3D-DDA) algorithm is a widely used ray traversal method, which is also at the core of many convolution∕superposition (C∕S) dose calculation approaches. However, porting existing C∕S dose calculation methods onto graphics processing unit (GPU) has brought challenges to retaining the efficiency of this algorithm. In particular, straightforward implementation of the original 3D-DDA algorithm inflicts a lot of branch divergence which conflicts with the GPU programming model and leads to suboptimal performance. In this paper, an efficient GPU implementation of the 3D-DDA algorithm is proposed, which effectively reduces such branch divergence and improves performance of the C∕S dose calculation programs running on GPU. The main idea of the proposed method is to convert a number of conditional statements in the original 3D-DDA algorithm into a set of simple operations (e.g., arithmetic, comparison, and logic) which are better supported by the GPU architecture. To verify and demonstrate the performance improvement, this ray traversal method was integrated into a GPU-based collapsed cone convolution∕superposition (CCCS) dose calculation program. The proposed method has been tested using a water phantom and various clinical cases on an NVIDIA GTX570 GPU. The CCCS dose calculation program based on the efficient 3D-DDA ray traversal implementation runs 1.42 ∼ 2.67× faster than the one based on the original 3D-DDA implementation, without losing any accuracy. The results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce branch divergence in the original 3D-DDA ray traversal algorithm and improve the performance of the CCCS program running on GPU. Considering the wide utilization of the 3D-DDA algorithm, various applications can benefit from this implementation method.
Monte Carlo-based dose calculation for 32 P patch source for superficial brachytherapy applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sridhar Sahoo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Skin cancer treatment involving 32 P source is an easy, less expensive method of treatment limited to small and superficial lesions of approximately 1 mm deep. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC has indigenously developed 32 P nafion-based patch source (1 cm Χ 1 cm for treating skin cancer. For this source, the values of dose per unit activity at different depths including dose profiles in water are calculated using the EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo code system. For an initial activity of 1 Bq distributed in 1 cm 2 surface area of the source, the calculated central axis depth dose values are 3.62 Χ 10 -10 GyBq -1 and 8.41 Χ 10 -11 GyBq -1 at 0.0125 and 1 mm depths in water, respectively. Hence, the treatment time calculated for delivering therapeutic dose of 30 Gy at 1 mm depth along the central axis of the source involving 37 MBq activity is about 2.7 hrs.
Absorbed dose calculations using mesh-based human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kramer, Richard [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)
2010-07-01
Full text. Health risks attributable to ionizing radiation are considered to be a function of the absorbed dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. However, as human tissue cannot express itself in terms of absorbed dose, exposure models have to be used to determine the distribution of absorbed dose throughout the human body. An exposure model, be it physical or virtual, consists of a representation of the human body, called phantom, plus a method for transporting ionizing radiation through the phantom and measuring or calculating the absorbed dose to organ and tissues of interest. Female Adult meSH (FASH) and the Male Adult meSH (MASH) virtual phantoms have been developed at the University of Pernambuco in Recife/Brazil based on polygon mesh surfaces using open source software tools. Representing standing adults, FASH and MASH have organ and tissue masses, body height and mass adjusted to the anatomical data published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the reference male and female adult. For the purposes of absorbed dose calculations the phantoms have been coupled to the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, which transports photons, electrons and positrons through arbitrary media. This presentation reports on the development of the FASH and the MASH phantoms and will show dosimetric applications for X-ray diagnosis and for prostate brachytherapy. (author)
Ma, Yunzhi; Vijande, Javier; Ballester, Facundo; Tedgren, Åsa Carlsson; Granero, Domingo; Haworth, Annette; Mourtada, Firas; Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Zourari, Kyveli; Papagiannis, Panagiotis; Rivard, Mark J; Siebert, Frank André; Sloboda, Ron S; Smith, Ryan; Chamberland, Marc J P; Thomson, Rowan M; Verhaegen, Frank; Beaulieu, Luc
2017-11-01
A joint working group was created by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), and the Australasian Brachytherapy Group (ABG) with the charge, among others, to develop a set of well-defined test case plans and perform calculations and comparisons with model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs). Its main goal is to facilitate a smooth transition from the AAPM Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) dose calculation formalism, widely being used in clinical practice for brachytherapy, to the one proposed by Task Group No. 186 (TG-186) for MBDCAs. To do so, in this work a hypothetical, generic high-dose rate (HDR) 192 Ir shielded applicator has been designed and benchmarked. A generic HDR 192 Ir shielded applicator was designed based on three commercially available gynecological applicators as well as a virtual cubic water phantom that can be imported into any DICOM-RT compatible treatment planning system (TPS). The absorbed dose distribution around the applicator with the TG-186 192 Ir source located at one dwell position at its center was computed using two commercial TPSs incorporating MBDCAs (Oncentra® Brachy with Advanced Collapsed-cone Engine, ACE™, and BrachyVision ACUROS™) and state-of-the-art Monte Carlo (MC) codes, including ALGEBRA, BrachyDose, egs_brachy, Geant4, MCNP6, and Penelope2008. TPS-based volumetric dose distributions for the previously reported "source centered in water" and "source displaced" test cases, and the new "source centered in applicator" test case, were analyzed here using the MCNP6 dose distribution as a reference. Volumetric dose comparisons of TPS results against results for the other MC codes were also performed. Distributions of local and global dose difference ratios are reported. The local dose differences among MC codes are comparable to the statistical uncertainties of the reference datasets for the "source centered in water" and "source displaced" test
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Ejiri, Kazutaka; Minami, Kazuyuki; Orito, Takeo [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). Health Science; Suzuki, Kasuo; Kikukawa, Kaoru; Naito, Aiko; Shimura, Masami; Toyama, Hiroshi; Koga, Sukehiko
1999-05-01
In order to estimate the effective dose (E) of a person who may come into close contact to the {sup 99m}Tc-GSA patients. Radiation dose rates around 21 adult patients (male: 14, female: 7) were measured with three ionization surveymeters (Aloka, ICS-301) at distances of 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m from the patients. Measurements were carried out at 0.75, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 h after the administrations of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA. Surveymeters were set up to the first cervical vertebrae (Level I), xiphoid process (Level II) and anterior superior iliac spine (Level III) of the patients with their standing erect. The maximum dose equivalent (H{sub 1cm}) rate of 64.98 {mu}Svh{sup -1} per 185 MBq was recorded in the level II. Effective half life of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA was 5.8 h. Total E around the patients were calculated by the initial H{sub 1cm} rates and the effective half life. Total E were 285, 62, 23 and 13 {mu}Sv per 185 MBq at distances of 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m, respectively. E for the first 24 h was corresponding to 94.3% of the total E. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ejiri, Kazutaka; Minami, Kazuyuki; Orito, Takeo [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Health Sciences; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kikukawa, Kaoru; Naito, Aiko; Shimura, Masami; Toyama, Hiroshi; Koga, Sukehiko
1999-05-01
In order to estimate the effective dose (E) of a person who may come into close contact to the {sup 99m}Tc-GSA patients. Radiation dose rates around 21 adult patients (male: 14, female: 7) were measured with three ionization surveymeters (Aloka, ICS-301) at distances of 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m from the patients. Measurements were carried out at 0.75, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 h after the administrations of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA. Surveymeters were set up to the first cervical vertebrae (Level I), xiphoid process (Level II) and anterior superior iliac spine (Level III) of the patients with their standing erect. The maximum dose equivalent (H{sup 1cm}) rate of 64.98 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} per 185 MBq was recorded in the Level II. Effective half life of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA was 5.8 h. Total E around the patients were calculated by the initial H{sup 1cm} rates and the effective half life. Total E were 285, 62, 23 and 13 {mu}Sv per 185 MBq at distances of 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m, respectively. E for the first 24 h was corresponding to 94.3% of the total E. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ejiri, Kazutaka; Minami, Kazuyuki; Orito, Takeo (Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). Health Science); Suzuki, Kasuo; Kikukawa, Kaoru; Naito, Aiko; Shimura, Masami; Toyama, Hiroshi; Koga, Sukehiko
1999-05-01
In order to estimate the effective dose (E) of a person who may come into close contact to the [sup 99m]Tc-GSA patients. Radiation dose rates around 21 adult patients (male: 14, female: 7) were measured with three ionization surveymeters (Aloka, ICS-301) at distances of 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m from the patients. Measurements were carried out at 0.75, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 h after the administrations of [sup 99m]Tc-GSA. Surveymeters were set up to the first cervical vertebrae (Level I), xiphoid process (Level II) and anterior superior iliac spine (Level III) of the patients with their standing erect. The maximum dose equivalent (H[sub 1cm]) rate of 64.98 [mu]Svh[sup -1] per 185 MBq was recorded in the level II. Effective half life of [sup 99m]Tc-GSA was 5.8 h. Total E around the patients were calculated by the initial H[sub 1cm] rates and the effective half life. Total E were 285, 62, 23 and 13 [mu]Sv per 185 MBq at distances of 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m, respectively. E for the first 24 h was corresponding to 94.3% of the total E. (author)
Comparison of absorbed doses resulting from various intraoral periapical radiography
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Kang, Mi Ae; Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1995-08-15
This study was designed to measure the absorbed dose to organs of special interest from full mouth with intraoral film (14 films) and to compare the five periapical techniques. Thermoluminescent crystals (TLD-100 chip) were located in brain, orbit, bone marrow of mandibular ramus, bone marrow of mandibular body, bone marrow of 4th cervical spine, parotid gland, submandibular gland and thyroid gland. X-ray machine was operated at 70 kVp and round collimating film holding device (XCP) and rectangular collimating film holding device (Precision Instrument) were used. The distance from the X-ray focus to the open end of the collimator was 8 inch, 12 inch and 16 inch. The following results obtained; 1. The absorbed dose was the highest in bone marrow of mandibular body (5.656 mGy) and the lowest in brain (0.050 mGy). 2. Generally, the lowest absorbed dose was measured from 16 inch cylinder, rectangular collimating film holding device with paralleling technique. But, in bone marrow of mandibular body and the floor of mouth, the highest absorbed dose was measured from 12 inch cylinder, rectangular collimating film holding device with paralleling techniques. 3. Comparing of five intraoral radiographic techniques, it was appeared statistically significant reduction of the absorbed doses measured with rectangualr collimating film holding device compared to XCP film holding device (p<0.05). 4. No statistically significant reduction in the absorbed dose was found as cylinder length was change (p>0.05).
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Geng, C [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Daartz, J; Cheung, K; Bussiere, M; Shih, H; Paganetti, H; Schuemann, J [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of dose calculations by analytical dose calculation methods (ADC) for small field proton therapy in a gantry based passive scattering facility. Methods: 50 patients with intra-cranial disease were evaluated in the study. Treatment plans followed standard prescription and optimization procedures of proton stereotactic radiosurgery. Dose distributions calculated with the Monte Carlo (MC) toolkit TOPAS were used to represent delivered treatments. The MC dose was first adjusted using the output factor (OF) applied clinically. This factor is determined from the field size and the prescribed range. We then introduced a normalization factor to measure the difference in mean dose between the delivered dose (MC dose with OF) and the dose calculated by ADC for each beam. The normalization was determined by the mean dose of the center voxels of the target area. We compared delivered dose distributions and those calculated by ADC in terms of dose volume histogram parameters and beam range distributions. Results: The mean target dose for a whole treatment is generally within 5% comparing delivered dose (MC dose with OF) and ADC dose. However, the differences can be as great as 11% for shallow and small target treated with a thick range compensator. Applying the normalization factor to the MC dose with OF can reduce the mean dose difference to less than 3%. Considering range uncertainties, the generally applied margins (3.5% of the prescribed range + 1mm) to cover uncertainties in range might not be sufficient to guarantee tumor coverage. The range difference for R90 (90% distal dose falloff) is affected by multiple factors, such as the heterogeneity index. Conclusion: This study indicates insufficient accuracy calculating proton doses using ADC. Our results suggest that uncertainties of target doses are reduced using MC techniques, improving the dosimetric accuracy for proton stereotactic radiosurgery. The work was supported by NIH/NCI under CA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julia Hofbauer
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose : To analyze the impact of heterogeneity-corrected dose calculation on dosimetric quality parameters in gyne¬cological and breast brachytherapy using Acuros, a grid-based Boltzmann equation solver (GBBS, and to evaluate the shielding effects of different cervix brachytherapy applicators. Material and methods: Calculations with TG-43 and Acuros were based on computed tomography (CT retrospectively, for 10 cases of accelerated partial breast irradiation and 9 cervix cancer cases treated with tandem-ring applicators. Phantom CT-scans of different applicators (plastic and titanium were acquired. For breast cases the Vdose volume histogram (DVH analysis. Absorbed dose and equivalent dose to 2 Gy fractionation (EQD2 were used for comparison. Results : Calculations with TG-43 overestimated the dose for all dosimetric indices investigated. For breast, a decrease of ~8% was found for D 10cm³ to the skin and 5% for D 2cm³ to rib, resulting in a difference ~ –1.5 Gy EQD2 for overall treatment. Smaller effects were found for cervix cases with the plastic applicator, with up to –2% (–0.2 Gy EQD2 per fraction for organs at risk and –0.5% (–0.3 Gy EQD2 per fraction for CTV HR . The shielding effect of the titanium applicator resulted in a decrease of 2% for D 2cm³ to the organ at risk versus 0.7% for plastic. Conclusions : Lower doses were reported when calculating with Acuros compared to TG-43. Differences in dose parameters were larger in breast cases. A lower impact on clinical dose parameters was found for the cervix cases. Applicator material causes
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Yeom, Yeon Soo; Nguyen, Thang Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Choi, Chan Soo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-04-15
The current ICRP-110 reference phantoms cannot represent the 50-μm-thick sensitive target layer within the skin due to their limited voxel resolutions. Thus, skin doses have been approximated by averaging absorbed dose over the entire skin of the ICRP-110 phantoms and were used to produce the skin dose coefficients (SDC) for whole body external exposures given in ICRP Publication 116. In order to address the limitation, the present study included the 50-μm-thick skin target layer in the mesh-type ICRP reference phantoms which have been converted from the ICRP-110 phantoms in a research project under ICRP Committee 2. The mesh phantoms including the target layer were then used to calculate SDCs for whole body external exposures and the calculated values were compared with the values in the ICRP-116 values. In order to address the limitation of the ICRP-110 phantoms, the present study included the 50-μm-thick target layer in the skin of the mesh-type ICRP reference phantoms under development and calculated SDCs considering the target layer for whole body external exposures. The results of the study showed significant dose differences for electron exposures when compared with the ICRP-116 data.
Yang, Zi-Yi; Tsai, Pi-En; Lee, Shao-Chun; Liu, Yen-Chiang; Chen, Chin-Cheng; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Sheu, Rong-Jiun
2017-09-01
The dose distributions from proton pencil beam scanning were calculated by FLUKA, GEANT4, MCNP, and PHITS, in order to investigate their applicability in proton radiotherapy. The first studied case was the integrated depth dose curves (IDDCs), respectively from a 100 and a 226-MeV proton pencil beam impinging a water phantom. The calculated IDDCs agree with each other as long as each code employs 75 eV for the ionization potential of water. The second case considered a similar condition of the first case but with proton energies in a Gaussian distribution. The comparison to the measurement indicates the inter-code differences might not only due to different stopping power but also the nuclear physics models. How the physics parameter setting affect the computation time was also discussed. In the third case, the applicability of each code for pencil beam scanning was confirmed by delivering a uniform volumetric dose distribution based on the treatment plan, and the results showed general agreement between each codes, the treatment plan, and the measurement, except that some deviations were found in the penumbra region. This study has demonstrated that the selected codes are all capable of performing dose calculations for therapeutic scanning proton beams with proper physics settings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Zi-Yi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The dose distributions from proton pencil beam scanning were calculated by FLUKA, GEANT4, MCNP, and PHITS, in order to investigate their applicability in proton radiotherapy. The first studied case was the integrated depth dose curves (IDDCs, respectively from a 100 and a 226-MeV proton pencil beam impinging a water phantom. The calculated IDDCs agree with each other as long as each code employs 75 eV for the ionization potential of water. The second case considered a similar condition of the first case but with proton energies in a Gaussian distribution. The comparison to the measurement indicates the inter-code differences might not only due to different stopping power but also the nuclear physics models. How the physics parameter setting affect the computation time was also discussed. In the third case, the applicability of each code for pencil beam scanning was confirmed by delivering a uniform volumetric dose distribution based on the treatment plan, and the results showed general agreement between each codes, the treatment plan, and the measurement, except that some deviations were found in the penumbra region. This study has demonstrated that the selected codes are all capable of performing dose calculations for therapeutic scanning proton beams with proper physics settings.
THE RESULTS OF INDIVIDUAL DOSE CONTROL OF HEALTH INSTITUTIONS STAFF
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. N. Shleenkova
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The work provides comparative assessment of the levels of occupational exposure of Saint-Petersburg health institutions staff. The analysis was carried out of the 891 individual doses measurement results which have being obtained during 5 years investigations (2009-2013. The comparing of the average annual effective doses was carried out for 4 groups of medical specialists: x-ray laboratory assistant, radiotherapist, radiographer of dental clinics and X-ray surgery staff (surgeons, anesthesiologists and surgical nurses who are working close to irradiation source. It is shown that the annual effective dose average value is about 0.5 mSv for the first three groups of medical specialists. The same value for X-ray surgery staff is 1.6 mSv. Individual annual exposure doses have not exceeded the main dose limits required by Radiation Safety Standard 99/2009. The issues are considered of the estimation exactness of the effective dose basing on the results of individual dose equivalent measurement.
Volumic activities measurements and equivalent doses calculation of indoor 222Rn in Morocco
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdelmajid Choukri
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Purpose: As a way of prevention, we have measured the volumic activities of indoor 222Rn and we have calculated the corresponding effective dose in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morocco. Seasonal variation of Radon activities and Relationships between variation of these activities and some parameters such height, depth and type of construction were also established in this work.Methods: The passive time-integrated method of using a solid state nuclear track detector (LR-115 type II was employed. These films, cut in pieces of 3.4 ´ 2.5 cm2, were placed in detector holders and enclosed in heat-scaled polyethylene bags.Results: The measured volumic activities of radon vary in houses, between 31 and 136 Bq/m3 (0.55 and 2.39 mSv/year with an average value of 80 Bq/m3 (1.41 mSv/year. In enclosed work area, they vary between 60 Bq/m3 (0.38 mSv/year in an ordinary area to 1884 Bq/m3 (11.9 mSv/year at not airy underground level of 12 m. the relatively higher volumic activities of 222Rn in houses were measured in Youssoufia and khouribga towns situated in regions rich in phosphate deposits. Measurements at the geophysical observatory of Berchid show that the volumic activity of radon increases with depth, this is most probably due to decreased ventilation. Conclusion: The obtained results show that the effective dose calculated for indoor dwellings are comparable to those obtained in other regions in the word. The risks related to the volumic activities of indoor radon could be avoided by simple precautions such the continuous ventilation. The reached high value of above 1884 Bq/m3 don't present any risk for workers health in the geophysical observatory of Berchid because workers spend only a few minutes by day in the cellar to control and reregister data.
Morales, J E; Hill, R; Crowe, S B; Kairn, T; Trapp, J V
2014-06-01
Stereotactic radiosurgery treatments involve the delivery of very high doses for a small number of fractions. To date, there is limited data in terms of the skin dose for the very small field sizes used in these treatments. In this work, we determine relative surface doses for small size circular collimators as used in stereotactic radiosurgery treatments. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using the BEAMnrc code with a model of the Novalis Trilogy linear accelerator and the BrainLab circular collimators. The surface doses were calculated at the ICRP skin dose depth of 70 μm all using the 6 MV SRS x-ray beam. The calculated surface doses varied between 15 and 12 % with decreasing values as the field size increased from 4 to 30 mm. In comparison, surface doses were measured using Gafchromic EBT3 film positioned at the surface of a Virtual Water phantom. The absolute agreement between calculated and measured surface doses was better than 2.0 % which is well within the uncertainties of the Monte Carlo calculations and the film measurements. Based on these results, we have shown that the Gafchromic EBT3 film is suitable for surface dose estimates in very small size fields as used in SRS.
GPUMCD: a new GPU-oriented Monte Carlo dose calculation platform
Hissoiny, Sami; Ozell, Benoît; Després, Philippe
2011-01-01
Purpose: Monte Carlo methods are considered the gold standard for dosimetric computations in radiotherapy. Their execution time is however still an obstacle to the routine use of Monte Carlo packages in a clinical setting. To address this problem, a completely new, and designed from the ground up for the GPU, Monte Carlo dose calculation package for voxelized geometries is proposed: GPUMCD. Method : GPUMCD implements a coupled photon-electron Monte Carlo simulation for energies in the range 0.01 MeV to 20 MeV. An analogue simulation of photon interactions is used and a Class II condensed history method has been implemented for the simulation of electrons. A new GPU random number generator, some divergence reduction methods as well as other optimization strategies are also described. GPUMCD was run on a NVIDIA GTX480 while single threaded implementations of EGSnrc and DPM were run on an Intel Core i7 860. Results : Dosimetric results obtained with GPUMCD were compared to EGSnrc. In all but one test case, 98% o...
Hofbauer, Julia; Kirisits, Christian; Resch, Alexandra; Xu, Yingjie; Sturdza, Alina; Pötter, Richard; Nesvacil, Nicole
2016-04-01
To analyze the impact of heterogeneity-corrected dose calculation on dosimetric quality parameters in gynecological and breast brachytherapy using Acuros, a grid-based Boltzmann equation solver (GBBS), and to evaluate the shielding effects of different cervix brachytherapy applicators. Calculations with TG-43 and Acuros were based on computed tomography (CT) retrospectively, for 10 cases of accelerated partial breast irradiation and 9 cervix cancer cases treated with tandem-ring applicators. Phantom CT-scans of different applicators (plastic and titanium) were acquired. For breast cases the V20Gyαβ3 to lung, the D0.1cm(3) , D1cm(3) , D2cm(3) to rib, the D0.1cm(3) , D1cm(3) , D10cm(3) to skin, and Dmax for all structures were reported. For cervix cases, the D0.1cm(3) , D2cm(3) to bladder, rectum and sigmoid, and the D50, D90, D98, V100 for the CTVHR were reported. For the phantom study, surrogates for target and organ at risk were created for a similar dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Absorbed dose and equivalent dose to 2 Gy fractionation (EQD2) were used for comparison. Calculations with TG-43 overestimated the dose for all dosimetric indices investigated. For breast, a decrease of ~8% was found for D10cm(3) to the skin and 5% for D2cm(3) to rib, resulting in a difference ~ -1.5 Gy EQD2 for overall treatment. Smaller effects were found for cervix cases with the plastic applicator, with up to -2% (-0.2 Gy EQD2) per fraction for organs at risk and -0.5% (-0.3 Gy EQD2) per fraction for CTVHR. The shielding effect of the titanium applicator resulted in a decrease of 2% for D2cm(3) to the organ at risk versus 0.7% for plastic. Lower doses were reported when calculating with Acuros compared to TG-43. Differences in dose parameters were larger in breast cases. A lower impact on clinical dose parameters was found for the cervix cases. Applicator material causes systematic shielding effects that can be taken into account.
Heavy ion track-structure calculations for radial dose in arbitrary materials
Cucinotta, Francis A.; Katz, Robert; Wilson, John W.; Dubey, Rajendra R.
1995-01-01
The delta-ray theory of track structure is compared with experimental data for the radial dose from heavy ion irradiation. The effects of electron transmission and the angular dependence of secondary electron ejection are included in the calculations. Several empirical formulas for electron range and energy are compared in a wide variety of materials in order to extend the application of the track-structure theory. The model of Rudd for the secondary electron-spectrum in proton collisions, which is based on a modified classical kinematics binary encounter model at high energies and a molecular promotion model at low energies, is employed. For heavier projectiles, the secondary electron spectrum is found by scaling the effective charge. Radial dose calculations for carbon, water, silicon, and gold are discussed. The theoretical data agreed well with the experimental data.
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Gomes, Renato G.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Junior, Luis M., E-mail: renatoguedes@ime.eb.br, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: vellozo@cbpf.br, E-mail: luisjrmoreira@hotmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Barra de Guaratiba, RJ (Brazil); Rusin, Tiago, E-mail: tiago.rusin@mma.gov.br [Ministerio do Meio Ambiente, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2013-07-01
MCNPX simulations have been performed in order to calculate dose rates as well as spectra along the four experimental channels of the gamma irradiating facility at the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (CTEx). Safety, operational and research requirements have led to the need to determine both the magnitude and spectra of the leaking gamma fluxes. The CTEx experimental facility is cavity type with a moveable set of 28 horizontally positioned rods, filled with Cesium-137 chloride and doubly encased in stainless steel that yields an approximately plane 42 kCi-source that provides a maximum dose rate of about 1.5 kG/h into two irradiating chambers. The channels are intended for irradiation tests outside facility. They would allow larger samples to be exposed to lower gamma dose rates under controlled conditions. Dose rates have been calculated for several positions inside the channels as well as at their exits. In addition, for purposes related to the safety of operators and personnel, the angles submitted by the exiting beams have also been evaluated as they spread when leaving the channels. All calculations have been performed by using a computational model of the CTEx facility that allows its characteristics and operation to be accurately simulated by using the Monte Carlo Method. Virtual dosimeters filled with Fricke (ferrous sulfate) were modeled and positioned throughout 2 vertical channels (top and bottom) and 2 horizontal ones (front and back) in order to map dose rates and gamma spectrum distributions. The calculations revealed exiting collimated beams in the order of tenths of Grays per minute as compared to the maximum 25 Gy / min dose rate in the irradiator chamber. In addition, the beams leaving the two vertical channels were found to exhibit a widespread cone-shaped distribution with aperture angle ranging around 85 deg. The data calculated in this work are intended for use in the design of optimized experiments (better positioning of samples and
Dose Calculations for the Co-Disposal WP-of HLW-Glass and the Triga SNF
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G. Radulescu
1999-08-02
This calculation is prepared by the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Waste Package Operations (WPO). The purpose of this calculation is to determine the surface dose rates of a codisposal waste package (WP) containing a centrally located Department of Energy (DOE) standardized 18-in. spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister, loaded with the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) SNF. This canister is surrounded by five 3-m long canisters, loaded with Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) glass. The results are to support the WP design and radiological analyses.
SU-E-T-416: Experimental Evaluation of a Commercial GPU-Based Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Algorithm
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Paudel, M R; Beachey, D J; Sarfehnia, A; Sahgal, A; Keller, B [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Kim, A; Ahmad, S [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center, Toronto, ON (Canada)
2015-06-15
Purpose: A new commercial GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm (GPUMCD) developed by the vendor Elekta™ to be used in the Monaco Treatment Planning System (TPS) is capable of modeling dose for both a standard linear accelerator and for an Elekta MRI-Linear accelerator (modeling magnetic field effects). We are evaluating this algorithm in two parts: commissioning the algorithm for an Elekta Agility linear accelerator (the focus of this work) and evaluating the algorithm’s ability to model magnetic field effects for an MRI-linear accelerator. Methods: A beam model was developed in the Monaco TPS (v.5.09.06) using the commissioned beam data for a 6MV Agility linac. A heterogeneous phantom representing tumor-in-lung, lung, bone-in-tissue, and prosthetic was designed/built. Dose calculations in Monaco were done using the current clinical algorithm (XVMC) and the new GPUMCD algorithm (1 mm3 voxel size, 0.5% statistical uncertainty) and in the Pinnacle TPS using the collapsed cone convolution (CCC) algorithm. These were compared with the measured doses using an ionization chamber (A1SL) and Gafchromic EBT3 films for 2×2 cm{sup 2}, 5×5 cm{sup 2}, and 10×10 cm{sup 2} field sizes. Results: The calculated central axis percentage depth doses (PDDs) in homogeneous solid water were within 2% compared to measurements for XVMC and GPUMCD. For tumor-in-lung and lung phantoms, doses calculated by all of the algorithms were within the experimental uncertainty of the measurements (±2% in the homogeneous phantom and ±3% for the tumor-in-lung or lung phantoms), except for 2×2 cm{sup 2} field size where only the CCC algorithm differs from film by 5% in the lung region. The analysis for bone-in-tissue and the prosthetic phantoms are ongoing. Conclusion: The new GPUMCD algorithm calculated dose comparable to both the XVMC algorithm and to measurements in both a homogeneous solid water medium and the heterogeneous phantom representing lung or tumor-in-lung for 2×2 cm
OSCAAR calculations for the Hanford dose reconstruction scenario of BIOMASS Theme 2
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Homma, Toshimitsu; Tomita, Kenichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Inoue, Yoshihisa [Visible Information Center Inc., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)
2000-10-01
This report presents the results obtained from the application of the accident consequence assessment code, called OSCAAR, developed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to the Hanford dose reconstruction scenario of BIOMASS Theme 2 organized by International Atomic Energy Agency. The scenario relates to an inadvertent release of {sup 131}I to atmosphere from the Hanford Purex Chemical Separations Plant on 2-5 September 1963. This exercise was used to test the atmospheric dispersion and deposition models and food chain transport models for {sup 131}I in OSCAAR with actual measurements and to identify the most important sources of uncertainty with respect both to the part of the assessment and to the overall assessment. The OSCAAR food chain model performed relatively well, while the atmospheric dispersion and deposition calculations made using wind data at the release height and wind fields by simple interpolation of the surrounding surface wind data indicated limited capabilities. The Monte Carlo based uncertainty and sensitivity method linked with OSCAAR successfully demonstrated its usefulness in the scenario. The method presented here also allowed the determination of the parameters that have the most important impact in accident consequence assessments. (author)
Maneval, Daniel; Bouchard, Hugo; Ozell, Benoît; Després, Philippe
2018-01-01
The equivalent restricted stopping power formalism is introduced for proton mean energy loss calculations under the continuous slowing down approximation. The objective is the acceleration of Monte Carlo dose calculations by allowing larger steps while preserving accuracy. The fractional energy loss per step length ɛ was obtained with a secant method and a Gauss–Kronrod quadrature estimation of the integral equation relating the mean energy loss to the step length. The midpoint rule of the Newton–Cotes formulae was then used to solve this equation, allowing the creation of a lookup table linking ɛ to the equivalent restricted stopping power L eq, used here as a key physical quantity. The mean energy loss for any step length was simply defined as the product of the step length with L eq. Proton inelastic collisions with electrons were added to GPUMCD, a GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation code. The proton continuous slowing-down was modelled with the L eq formalism. GPUMCD was compared to Geant4 in a validation study where ionization processes alone were activated and a voxelized geometry was used. The energy straggling was first switched off to validate the L eq formalism alone. Dose differences between Geant4 and GPUMCD were smaller than 0.31% for the L eq formalism. The mean error and the standard deviation were below 0.035% and 0.038% respectively. 99.4 to 100% of GPUMCD dose points were consistent with a 0.3% dose tolerance. GPUMCD 80% falloff positions (R80 ) matched Geant’s R80 within 1 μm. With the energy straggling, dose differences were below 2.7% in the Bragg peak falloff and smaller than 0.83% elsewhere. The R80 positions matched within 100 μm. The overall computation times to transport one million protons with GPUMCD were 31–173 ms. Under similar conditions, Geant4 computation times were 1.4–20 h. The L eq formalism led to an intrinsic efficiency gain factor ranging between 30–630, increasing with the prescribed accuracy of
Maneval, Daniel; Bouchard, Hugo; Ozell, Benoît; Després, Philippe
2017-10-05
The equivalent restricted stopping power formalism is introduced for proton mean energy loss calculations under the continuous slowing down approximation. The objective is the acceleration of Monte Carlo dose calculations by allowing larger steps while preserving accuracy. The fractional energy loss per step length ε was obtained with a secant method and a Gauss-Kronrod quadrature estimation of the integral equation relating the mean energy loss to the step length. The midpoint rule of the Newton-Cotes formulae was then used to solve this equation, allowing the creation of a lookup table linking ε to the equivalent restricted stopping power L_{eq}, used here as a key physical quantity. The mean energy loss for any step length was simply defined as the product of the step length with L_{eq}. Proton inelastic collisions with electrons were added to GPUMCD, a GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation code. The proton continuous slowing-down was modelled with the L_{eq} formalism. GPUMCD was compared to Geant4 in a validation study where ionization processes alone were activated and a voxelized geometry was used. The energy straggling was first switched off to validate the L_{eq} formalism alone. Dose differences between Geant4 and GPUMCD were smaller than 0.31% for the L_{eq} formalism. The mean error and the standard deviation were below 0.035% and 0.038% respectively. 99.4 to 100% of GPUMCD dose points were consistent with a 0.3% dose tolerance. GPUMCD 80% falloff positions (R_{80}) matched Geant's R_{80} within 1 μm. With the energy straggling, dose differences were below 2.7% in the Bragg peak falloff and smaller than 0.83% elsewhere. The R_{80} positions matched within 100 μm. The overall computation times to transport one million protons with GPUMCD were 31-173 ms. Under similar conditions, Geant4 computation times were 1.4-20 hours. The L_{eq} formalism led to an intrinsic
Educational audit on drug dose calculation learning in a Tanzanian school of nursing.
Savage, Angela Ruth
2015-06-01
Patient safety is a key concern for nurses; ability to calculate drug doses correctly is an essential skill to prevent and reduce medication errors. Literature suggests that nurses' drug calculation skills should be monitored. The aim of the study was to conduct an educational audit on drug dose calculation learning in a Tanzanian school of nursing. Specific objectives were to assess learning from targeted teaching, to identify problem areas in performance and to identify ways in which these problem areas might be addressed. A total of 268 registered nurses and nursing students in two year groups of a nursing degree programme were the subjects for the audit; they were given a pretest, then four hours of teaching, a post-test after two weeks and a second post-test after eight weeks. There was a statistically significant improvement in correct answers in the first post-test, but none between the first and second post-tests. Particular problems with drug calculations were identified by the nurses / students, and the teacher; these identified problems were not congruent. Further studies in different settings using different methods of teaching, planned continuing education for all qualified nurses, and appropriate pass marks for students in critical skills are recommended.
DITTY - a computer program for calculating population dose integrated over ten thousand years
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Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.
1986-03-01
The computer program DITTY (Dose Integrated Over Ten Thousand Years) was developed to determine the collective dose from long term nuclear waste disposal sites resulting from the ground-water pathways. DITTY estimates the time integral of collective dose over a ten-thousand-year period for time-variant radionuclide releases to surface waters, wells, or the atmosphere. This document includes the following information on DITTY: a description of the mathematical models, program designs, data file requirements, input preparation, output interpretations, sample problems, and program-generated diagnostic messages.
Towards real-time photon Monte Carlo dose calculation in the cloud
Ziegenhein, Peter; Kozin, Igor N.; Kamerling, Cornelis Ph; Oelfke, Uwe
2017-06-01
Near real-time application of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation in clinic and research is hindered by the long computational runtimes of established software. Currently, fast MC software solutions are available utilising accelerators such as graphical processing units (GPUs) or clusters based on central processing units (CPUs). Both platforms are expensive in terms of purchase costs and maintenance and, in case of the GPU, provide only limited scalability. In this work we propose a cloud-based MC solution, which offers high scalability of accurate photon dose calculations. The MC simulations run on a private virtual supercomputer that is formed in the cloud. Computational resources can be provisioned dynamically at low cost without upfront investment in expensive hardware. A client-server software solution has been developed which controls the simulations and transports data to and from the cloud efficiently and securely. The client application integrates seamlessly into a treatment planning system. It runs the MC simulation workflow automatically and securely exchanges simulation data with the server side application that controls the virtual supercomputer. Advanced encryption standards were used to add an additional security layer, which encrypts and decrypts patient data on-the-fly at the processor register level. We could show that our cloud-based MC framework enables near real-time dose computation. It delivers excellent linear scaling for high-resolution datasets with absolute runtimes of 1.1 seconds to 10.9 seconds for simulating a clinical prostate and liver case up to 1% statistical uncertainty. The computation runtimes include the transportation of data to and from the cloud as well as process scheduling and synchronisation overhead. Cloud-based MC simulations offer a fast, affordable and easily accessible alternative for near real-time accurate dose calculations to currently used GPU or cluster solutions.
Towards real-time photon Monte Carlo dose calculation in the cloud.
Ziegenhein, Peter; Kozin, Igor N; Kamerling, Cornelis Ph; Oelfke, Uwe
2017-06-07
Near real-time application of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation in clinic and research is hindered by the long computational runtimes of established software. Currently, fast MC software solutions are available utilising accelerators such as graphical processing units (GPUs) or clusters based on central processing units (CPUs). Both platforms are expensive in terms of purchase costs and maintenance and, in case of the GPU, provide only limited scalability. In this work we propose a cloud-based MC solution, which offers high scalability of accurate photon dose calculations. The MC simulations run on a private virtual supercomputer that is formed in the cloud. Computational resources can be provisioned dynamically at low cost without upfront investment in expensive hardware. A client-server software solution has been developed which controls the simulations and transports data to and from the cloud efficiently and securely. The client application integrates seamlessly into a treatment planning system. It runs the MC simulation workflow automatically and securely exchanges simulation data with the server side application that controls the virtual supercomputer. Advanced encryption standards were used to add an additional security layer, which encrypts and decrypts patient data on-the-fly at the processor register level. We could show that our cloud-based MC framework enables near real-time dose computation. It delivers excellent linear scaling for high-resolution datasets with absolute runtimes of 1.1 seconds to 10.9 seconds for simulating a clinical prostate and liver case up to 1% statistical uncertainty. The computation runtimes include the transportation of data to and from the cloud as well as process scheduling and synchronisation overhead. Cloud-based MC simulations offer a fast, affordable and easily accessible alternative for near real-time accurate dose calculations to currently used GPU or cluster solutions.
Tissue decomposition from dual energy CT data for MC based dose calculation in particle therapy
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Hünemohr, Nora, E-mail: n.huenemohr@dkfz.de; Greilich, Steffen [Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Paganetti, Harald; Seco, Joao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Jäkel, Oliver [Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Therapy, University Hospital of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2014-06-15
Purpose: The authors describe a novel method of predicting mass density and elemental mass fractions of tissues from dual energy CT (DECT) data for Monte Carlo (MC) based dose planning. Methods: The relative electron density ϱ{sub e} and effective atomic number Z{sub eff} are calculated for 71 tabulated tissue compositions. For MC simulations, the mass density is derived via one linear fit in the ϱ{sub e} that covers the entire range of tissue compositions (except lung tissue). Elemental mass fractions are predicted from the ϱ{sub e} and the Z{sub eff} in combination. Since particle therapy dose planning and verification is especially sensitive to accurate material assignment, differences to the ground truth are further analyzed for mass density, I-value predictions, and stopping power ratios (SPR) for ions. Dose studies with monoenergetic proton and carbon ions in 12 tissues which showed the largest differences of single energy CT (SECT) to DECT are presented with respect to range uncertainties. The standard approach (SECT) and the new DECT approach are compared to reference Bragg peak positions. Results: Mean deviations to ground truth in mass density predictions could be reduced for soft tissue from (0.5±0.6)% (SECT) to (0.2±0.2)% with the DECT method. Maximum SPR deviations could be reduced significantly for soft tissue from 3.1% (SECT) to 0.7% (DECT) and for bone tissue from 0.8% to 0.1%. MeanI-value deviations could be reduced for soft tissue from (1.1±1.4%, SECT) to (0.4±0.3%) with the presented method. Predictions of elemental composition were improved for every element. Mean and maximum deviations from ground truth of all elemental mass fractions could be reduced by at least a half with DECT compared to SECT (except soft tissue hydrogen and nitrogen where the reduction was slightly smaller). The carbon and oxygen mass fraction predictions profit especially from the DECT information. Dose studies showed that most of the 12 selected tissues would
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Zhen, X; Chen, H; Liao, Y; Zhou, L [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Hrycushko, B; Albuquerque, K; Gu, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To study the feasibility of employing deformable registration methods for accurate rectum dose volume parameters calculation and their potentials in revealing rectum dose-toxicity between complication and non-complication cervical cancer patients with brachytherapy treatment. Method and Materials: Data from 60 patients treated with BT including planning images, treatment plans, and follow-up clinical exam were retrospectively collected. Among them, 12 patients complained about hematochezia were further examined with colonoscopy and scored as Grade 1–3 complication (CP). Meanwhile, another 12 non-complication (NCP) patients were selected as a reference group. To seek for potential gains in rectum toxicity prediction when fractional anatomical deformations are account for, the rectum dose volume parameters D0.1/1/2cc of the selected patients were retrospectively computed by three different approaches: the simple “worstcase scenario” (WS) addition method, an intensity-based deformable image registration (DIR) algorithm-Demons, and a more accurate, recent developed local topology preserved non-rigid point matching algorithm (TOP). Statistical significance of the differences between rectum doses of the CP group and the NCP group were tested by a two-tailed t-test and results were considered to be statistically significant if p < 0.05. Results: For the D0.1cc, no statistical differences are found between the CP and NCP group in all three methods. For the D1cc, dose difference is not detected by the WS method, however, statistical differences between the two groups are observed by both Demons and TOP, and more evident in TOP. For the D2cc, the CP and NCP cases are statistically significance of the difference for all three methods but more pronounced with TOP. Conclusion: In this study, we calculated the rectum D0.1/1/2cc by simple WS addition and two DIR methods and seek for gains in rectum toxicity prediction. The results favor the claim that accurate dose
Yeh, Peter C. Y.; Lee, C. C.; Chao, T. C.; Tung, C. J.
2017-11-01
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is an effective treatment modality for the nasopharyngeal carcinoma. One important aspect of this cancer treatment is the need to have an accurate dose algorithm dealing with the complex air/bone/tissue interface in the head-neck region to achieve the cure without radiation-induced toxicities. The Acuros XB algorithm explicitly solves the linear Boltzmann transport equation in voxelized volumes to account for the tissue heterogeneities such as lungs, bone, air, and soft tissues in the treatment field receiving radiotherapy. With the single beam setup in phantoms, this algorithm has already been demonstrated to achieve the comparable accuracy with Monte Carlo simulations. In the present study, five nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with the intensity-modulated radiation therapy were examined for their dose distributions calculated using the Acuros XB in the planning target volume and the organ-at-risk. Corresponding results of Monte Carlo simulations were computed from the electronic portal image data and the BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc code. Analysis of dose distributions in terms of the clinical indices indicated that the Acuros XB was in comparable accuracy with Monte Carlo simulations and better than the anisotropic analytical algorithm for dose calculations in real patients.
The MARS15-based FermiCORD Code System for Calculation of the Accelerator-Induced Residual Dose
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Grebe, A.; Leveling, A.; Lu, T.; Mokhov, N.; Pronskikh, V.
2016-09-01
The FermiCORD code system, a set of codes based on MARS15 that calculates the accelerator-induced residual doses at experimental facilities of arbitrary configurations, has been developed. FermiCORD is written in C++ as an add-on to Fortran-based MARS15. The FermiCORD algorithm consists of two stages: 1) simulation of residual doses on contact with the surfaces surrounding the studied location and of radionuclide inventories in the structures surrounding those locations using MARS15, and 2) simulation of the emission of the nuclear decay gamma-quanta by the residuals in the activated structures and scoring the prompt doses of these gamma-quanta at arbitrary distances from those structures. The FermiCORD code system has been benchmarked against similar algorithms based on other code systems and showed a good agreement. The code system has been applied for calculation of the residual dose of the target station for the Mu2e experiment and the results have been compared to approximate dosimetric approaches.
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Valdes, Gilmer, E-mail: gilmer.valdes@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Robinson, Clifford [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Lee, Percy [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Morel, Delphine [Department of Biomedical Engineering, AIX Marseille 2 University, Marseille (France); Department of Medical Physics, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France); Low, Daniel; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Lamb, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2015-04-01
Four-dimensional (4D) dose calculations for lung cancer radiotherapy have been technically feasible for a number of years but have not become standard clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinically significant differences in tumor control probability (TCP) exist between 3D and 4D dose calculations so as to inform the decision whether 4D dose calculations should be used routinely for treatment planning. Radiotherapy plans for Stage I-II lung cancer were created for 8 patients. Clinically acceptable treatment plans were created with dose calculated on the end-exhale 4D computed tomography (CT) phase using a Monte Carlo algorithm. Dose was then projected onto the remaining 9 phases of 4D-CT using the Monte Carlo algorithm and accumulated onto the end-exhale phase using commercially available deformable registration software. The resulting dose-volume histograms (DVH) of the gross tumor volume (GTV), planning tumor volume (PTV), and PTV{sub setup} were compared according to target coverage and dose. The PTV{sub setup} was defined as a volume including the GTV and a margin for setup uncertainties but not for respiratory motion. TCPs resulting from these DVHs were estimated using a wide range of alphas, betas, and tumor cell densities. Differences of up to 5 Gy were observed between 3D and 4D calculations for a PTV with highly irregular shape. When the TCP was calculated using the resulting DVHs for fractionation schedules typically used in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), the TCP differed at most by 5% between 4D and 3D cases, and in most cases, it was by less than 1%. We conclude that 4D dose calculations are not necessary for most cases treated with SBRT, but they might be valuable for irregularly shaped target volumes. If 4D calculations are used, 4D DVHs should be evaluated on volumes that include margin for setup uncertainty but not respiratory motion.
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Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Hu, Q; Tie, J; Wu, H [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Radiotherapy, Peking University Cancer Hospital ' Institute, Beijing (China); Deng, J [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To investigate the possibility of applying optimized scanning protocols for pediatric CT simulation by quantifying the dosimetric inaccuracy introduced by using a fixed HU to density conversion. Methods: The images of a CIRS electron density reference phantom (Model 062) were acquired by a Siemens CT simulator (Sensation Open) using the following settings of tube voltage and beam current: 120 kV/190mA (the reference protocol used to calibrate CT for our treatment planning system (TPS)); Fixed 190mA combined with all available kV: 80, 100, and 140; fixed 120 kV and various current from 37 to 444 mA (scanner extremes) with interval of 30 mA. To avoid the HU uncertainty of point sampling in the various inserts of known electron densities, the mean CT numbers of the central cylindrical volume were calculated using DICOMan software. The doses per 100 MU to the reference point (SAD=100cm, Depth=10cm, Field=10X10cm, 6MV photon beam) in a virtual cubic phantom (30X30X30cm) were calculated using Eclipse TPS (calculation model: AcurosXB-11031) by assigning the CT numbers to HU of typical materials acquired by various protocols. Results: For the inserts of densities less than muscle, CT number fluctuations of all protocols were within the tolerance of 10 HU as accepted by AAPM-TG66. For more condensed materials, fixed kV yielded stable HU with any mA combination where largest disparities were found in 1750mg/cc insert: HU{sub reference}=1801(106.6cGy), HU{sub minimum}=1799 (106.6cGy, error{sub dose}=0.00%), HU{sub maximum}=1815 (106.8cGy, error{sub dose}=0.19%). Yet greater disagreements were observed with increasing density when kV was modified: HU{sub minimum}=1646 (104.5cGy, error{sub dose}=- 1.97%), HU{sub maximum}=2487 (116.4cGy, error{sub dose}=9.19%) in 1750mg/cc insert. Conclusion: Without affecting treatment dose calculation, personalized mA optimization of CT simulator can be conducted by fixing kV for a better cost-effectiveness of imaging dose and quality
Carrasco, P; Jornet, N; Duch, M A; Panettieri, V; Weber, L; Eudaldo, T; Ginjaume, M; Ribas, M
2007-08-01
To evaluate the dose values predicted by several calculation algorithms in two treatment planning systems, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and measurements by means of various detectors were performed in heterogeneous layer phantoms with water- and bone-equivalent materials. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), plane parallel and cylindrical ionization chambers, and beam profiles with films. The MC code used for the simulations was the PENELOPE code. Three different field sizes (10 x 10, 5 x 5, and 2 x 2 cm2) were studied in two phantom configurations and a bone equivalent material. These two phantom configurations contained heterogeneities of 5 and 2 cm of bone, respectively. We analyzed the performance of four correction-based algorithms and one based on convolution superposition. The correction-based algorithms were the Batho, the Modified Batho, the Equivalent TAR implemented in the Cadplan (Varian) treatment planning system (TPS), and the Helax-TMS Pencil Beam from the Helax-TMS (Nucletron) TPS. The convolution-superposition algorithm was the Collapsed Cone implemented in the Helax-TMS. All the correction-based calculation algorithms underestimated the dose inside the bone-equivalent material for 18 MV compared to MC simulations. The maximum underestimation, in terms of root-mean-square (RMS), was about 15% for the Helax-TMS Pencil Beam (Helax-TMS PB) for a 2 x 2 cm2 field inside the bone-equivalent material. In contrast, the Collapsed Cone algorithm yielded values around 3%. A more complex behavior was found for 6 MV where the Collapsed Cone performed less well, overestimating the dose inside the heterogeneity in 3%-5%. The rebuildup in the interface bone-water and the penumbra shrinking in high-density media were not predicted by any of the calculation algorithms except the Collapsed Cone, and only the MC simulations matched the experimental values
A virtual photon energy fluence model for Monte Carlo dose calculation.
Fippel, Matthias; Haryanto, Freddy; Dohm, Oliver; Nüsslin, Fridtjof; Kriesen, Stephan
2003-03-01
The presented virtual energy fluence (VEF) model of the patient-independent part of the medical linear accelerator heads, consists of two Gaussian-shaped photon sources and one uniform electron source. The planar photon sources are located close to the bremsstrahlung target (primary source) and to the flattening filter (secondary source), respectively. The electron contamination source is located in the plane defining the lower end of the filter. The standard deviations or widths and the relative weights of each source are free parameters. Five other parameters correct for fluence variations, i.e., the horn or central depression effect. If these parameters and the field widths in the X and Y directions are given, the corresponding energy fluence distribution can be calculated analytically and compared to measured dose distributions in air. This provides a method of fitting the free parameters using the measurements for various square and rectangular fields and a fixed number of monitor units. The next step in generating the whole set of base data is to calculate monoenergetic central axis depth dose distributions in water which are used to derive the energy spectrum by deconvolving the measured depth dose curves. This spectrum is also corrected to take the off-axis softening into account. The VEF model is implemented together with geometry modules for the patient specific part of the treatment head (jaws, multileaf collimator) into the XVMC dose calculation engine. The implementation into other Monte Carlo codes is possible based on the information in this paper. Experiments are performed to verify the model by comparing measured and calculated dose distributions and output factors in water. It is demonstrated that open photon beams of linear accelerators from two different vendors are accurately simulated using the VEF model. The commissioning procedure of the VEF model is clinically feasible because it is based on standard measurements in air and water. It is
Jones, Bernard L; Krishnan, Sunil; Cho, Sang Hyun
2010-07-01
An approach known as gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy (GNRT) is a recent development in radiation therapy which seeks to make a tumor more susceptible to radiation damage by modifying its photon interaction properties with an infusion of gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The purpose of this study was to quantify the energy deposition due to secondary electrons from GNPs on a nanometer scale and to calculate the corresponding microscopic dose enhancement factor around GNPs. The Monte Carlo code EGSnrc was modified to obtain the spectra of secondary electrons from atoms of gold approximating GNPs and molecules of water under photon irradiation of a tumor loaded with GNPs. Six different photon sources were used: 125I, 103Pd, 169Yb, 192Ir, 50 kVp, and 6 MV x rays. Treating the scored electron spectra as point sources within an infinite medium of water, the event-by-event Monte Carlo code NOREC was used to quantify the radial dose distribution, giving rise to gold/water electron dose point kernels and corresponding microscopic dose enhancement factors. These kernels were applied to a test case based on a scanning electron microscope image of a GNP distribution in tissue, enabling the determination of the microscopic dose enhancement at each dose point. For the lower energy sources 125I, 103Pd, 169Yb, and 50 kVp, the secondary electron fluence within a GNP-loaded tumor was increased by as much as two orders of magnitude, leading to two orders of magnitude increase in electron energy deposition over radial distances up to 10 microm. For the test case considered, the dose was enhanced by factors ranging from 2 to 20 within 5 microm of GNPs, and by 5% as far away as 30 microm. This study demonstrates a remarkable microscopic dose enhancement due to GNPs and low energy photon sources. By quantifying the microscopic dose enhancement factor for a given photon source as a function of distance from GNPs, it also enables the selection of either a passive or an active tumor
Tissue decomposition from dual energy CT data for MC based dose calculation in particle therapy.
Hünemohr, Nora; Paganetti, Harald; Greilich, Steffen; Jäkel, Oliver; Seco, Joao
2014-06-01
The authors describe a novel method of predicting mass density and elemental mass fractions of tissues from dual energy CT (DECT) data for Monte Carlo (MC) based dose planning. The relative electron density ϱ(e) and effective atomic number Z(eff) are calculated for 71 tabulated tissue compositions. For MC simulations, the mass density is derived via one linear fit in the ϱ(e) that covers the entire range of tissue compositions (except lung tissue). Elemental mass fractions are predicted from the ϱ(e) and the Z(eff) in combination. Since particle therapy dose planning and verification is especially sensitive to accurate material assignment, differences to the ground truth are further analyzed for mass density, I-value predictions, and stopping power ratios (SPR) for ions. Dose studies with monoenergetic proton and carbon ions in 12 tissues which showed the largest differences of single energy CT (SECT) to DECT are presented with respect to range uncertainties. The standard approach (SECT) and the new DECT approach are compared to reference Bragg peak positions. Mean deviations to ground truth in mass density predictions could be reduced for soft tissue from (0.5±0.6)% (SECT) to (0.2±0.2)% with the DECT method. Maximum SPR deviations could be reduced significantly for soft tissue from 3.1% (SECT) to 0.7% (DECT) and for bone tissue from 0.8% to 0.1%. Mean I-value deviations could be reduced for soft tissue from (1.1±1.4%, SECT) to (0.4±0.3%) with the presented method. Predictions of elemental composition were improved for every element. Mean and maximum deviations from ground truth of all elemental mass fractions could be reduced by at least a half with DECT compared to SECT (except soft tissue hydrogen and nitrogen where the reduction was slightly smaller). The carbon and oxygen mass fraction predictions profit especially from the DECT information. Dose studies showed that most of the 12 selected tissues would profit significantly (up to 2.2%) from DECT
Influence of metallic dental implants and metal artefacts on dose calculation accuracy
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Maerz, Manuel; Koelbl, Oliver; Dobler, Barbara [Regensburg University Medical Center, Department of Radiotherapy, Regensburg (Germany)
2014-10-31
Metallic dental implants cause severe streaking artefacts in computed tomography (CT) data, which inhibit the correct representation of shape and density of the metal and the surrounding tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of dental implants on the accuracy of dose calculations in radiation therapy planning and the benefit of metal artefact reduction (MAR). A second aim was to determine the treatment technique which is less sensitive to the presence of metallic implants in terms of dose calculation accuracy. Phantoms consisting of homogeneous water equivalent material surrounding dental implants were designed. Artefact-containing CT data were corrected using the correct density information. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were calculated on corrected and uncorrected CT data and compared to 2-dimensional dose measurements using GafChromic trademark EBT2 films. For all plans the accuracy of dose calculations is significantly higher if performed on corrected CT data (p = 0.015). The agreement of calculated and measured dose distributions is significantly higher for VMAT than for IMRT plans for calculations on uncorrected CT data (p = 0.011) as well as on corrected CT data (p = 0.029). For IMRT and VMAT the application of metal artefact reduction significantly increases the agreement of dose calculations with film measurements. VMAT was found to provide the highest accuracy on corrected as well as on uncorrected CT data. VMAT is therefore preferable over IMRT for patients with metallic implants, if plan quality is comparable for the two techniques. (orig.) [German] Zahnimplantate aus Metall verursachen in Computertomographiedaten (CT) streifenfoermige Artefakte. Diese verhindern eine korrekte Zuordnung von Form und Dichteeigenschaften des Metalls und des umgebenden Gewebes. Ziel dieser Studie war es, den Einfluss von Zahnimplantaten auf die Genauigkeit der Dosisberechnung in der
Santos, W. S.; Carvalho, A. B., Jr.; Hunt, J. G.; Maia, A. F.
2014-02-01
The objective of this study was to estimate doses in the physician and the nurse assistant at different positions during interventional radiology procedures. In this study, effective doses obtained for the physician and at points occupied by other workers were normalised by air kerma-area product (KAP). The simulations were performed for two X-ray spectra (70 kVp and 87 kVp) using the radiation transport code MCNPX (version 2.7.0), and a pair of anthropomorphic voxel phantoms (MASH/FASH) used to represent both the patient and the medical professional at positions from 7 cm to 47 cm from the patient. The X-ray tube was represented by a point source positioned in the anterior posterior (AP) and posterior anterior (PA) projections. The CC can be useful to calculate effective doses, which in turn are related to stochastic effects. With the knowledge of the values of CCs and KAP measured in an X-ray equipment, at a similar exposure, medical professionals will be able to know their own effective dose.
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Kim, Min Joo; Lee, Seu Ran; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)
2011-11-15
Modern radiation therapy techniques, such as Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) has become a routine clinical practice on linear accelerators for the increase the tumor dose conformity and improvement of normal tissue sparing at the same time. For these highly developed techniques, megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) system produce volumetric images at just one rotation of the x-ray beam source and detector on the bottom of conventional linear accelerator for real-time application of patient condition into treatment planning. MV CBCT image scan be directly registered to a reference CT data set which is usually kilo-voltage fan-beam computed tomography (kVFBCT) on treatment planning system and the registered image scan be used to adjust patient set-up error. However, to use MV CBCT images in radiotherapy, reliable electron density (ED) distribution are required. Patients scattering, beam hardening and softening effect caused by different energy application between kVCT, MV CBCT can cause cupping artifacts in MV CBCT images and distortion of Houns field Unit (HU) to ED conversion. The goal of this study, for reliable application of MV CBCT images into dose calculation, MV CBCT images was modified to correct distortion of HU to ED using the relationship of HU and ED from kV FBCT and MV CBCT images. The HU-density conversion was performed on MV CBCT image set using Dose difference map was showing in Figure 1. Finally, percentage differences above 3% were reduced depending on applying density calibration method. As a result, total error co uld be reduced to under 3%. The present study demonstrates that dose calculation accuracy using MV CBCT image set can be improved my applying HU-density conversion method. The dose calculation and comparison of dose distribution from MV CBCT image set with/without HU-density conversion method was performed. An advantage of this study compared to other approaches is that HU
Effects of CT based Voxel Phantoms on Dose Distribution Calculated with Monte Carlo Method
Chen, Chaobin; Huang, Qunying; Wu, Yican
2005-04-01
A few CT-based voxel phantoms were produced to investigate the sensitivity of Monte Carlo simulations of x-ray beam and electron beam to the proportions of elements and the mass densities of the materials used to express the patient's anatomical structure. The human body can be well outlined by air, lung, adipose, muscle, soft bone and hard bone to calculate the dose distribution with Monte Carlo method. The effects of the calibration curves established by using various CT scanners are not clinically significant based on our investigation. The deviation from the values of cumulative dose volume histogram derived from CT-based voxel phantoms is less than 1% for the given target.
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Maerz, Manuel; Mittermair, Pia; Koelbl, Oliver; Dobler, Barbara [Regensburg University Medical Center, Department of Radiotherapy, Regensburg (Germany); Krauss, Andreas [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Forchheim (Germany)
2016-06-15
Metallic dental implants cause severe streaking artifacts in computed tomography (CT) data, which affect the accuracy of dose calculations in radiation therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the benefit of the metal artifact reduction algorithm iterative metal artifact reduction (iMAR) in terms of correct representation of Hounsfield units (HU) and dose calculation accuracy. Heterogeneous phantoms consisting of different types of tissue equivalent material surrounding metallic dental implants were designed. Artifact-containing CT data of the phantoms were corrected using iMAR. Corrected and uncorrected CT data were compared to synthetic CT data to evaluate accuracy of HU reproduction. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were calculated in Oncentra v4.3 on corrected and uncorrected CT data and compared to Gafchromic trademark EBT3 films to assess accuracy of dose calculation. The use of iMAR increased the accuracy of HU reproduction. The average deviation of HU decreased from 1006 HU to 408 HU in areas including metal and from 283 HU to 33 HU in tissue areas excluding metal. Dose calculation accuracy could be significantly improved for all phantoms and plans: The mean passing rate for gamma evaluation with 3 % dose tolerance and 3 mm distance to agreement increased from 90.6 % to 96.2 % if artifacts were corrected by iMAR. The application of iMAR allows metal artifacts to be removed to a great extent which leads to a significant increase in dose calculation accuracy. (orig.) [German] Metallische Implantate verursachen streifenfoermige Artefakte in CT-Bildern, welche die Dosisberechnung beeinflussen. In dieser Studie soll der Nutzen des iterativen Metall-Artefakt-Reduktions-Algorithmus iMAR hinsichtlich der Wiedergabetreue von Hounsfield-Werten (HU) und der Genauigkeit von Dosisberechnungen untersucht werden. Es wurden heterogene Phantome aus verschiedenen Arten gewebeaequivalenten Materials mit
Training software using virtual-reality technology and pre-calculated effective dose data.
Ding, Aiping; Zhang, Di; Xu, X George
2009-05-01
This paper describes the development of a software package, called VR Dose Simulator, which aims to provide interactive radiation safety and ALARA training to radiation workers using virtual-reality (VR) simulations. Combined with a pre-calculated effective dose equivalent (EDE) database, a virtual radiation environment was constructed in VR authoring software, EON Studio, using 3-D models of a real nuclear power plant building. Models of avatars representing two workers were adopted with arms and legs of the avatar being controlled in the software to simulate walking and other postures. Collision detection algorithms were developed for various parts of the 3-D power plant building and avatars to confine the avatars to certain regions of the virtual environment. Ten different camera viewpoints were assigned to conveniently cover the entire virtual scenery in different viewing angles. A user can control the avatar to carry out radiological engineering tasks using two modes of avatar navigation. A user can also specify two types of radiation source: Cs and Co. The location of the avatar inside the virtual environment during the course of the avatar's movement is linked to the EDE database. The accumulative dose is calculated and displayed on the screen in real-time. Based on the final accumulated dose and the completion status of all virtual tasks, a score is given to evaluate the performance of the user. The paper concludes that VR-based simulation technologies are interactive and engaging, thus potentially useful in improving the quality of radiation safety training. The paper also summarizes several challenges: more streamlined data conversion, realistic avatar movement and posture, more intuitive implementation of the data communication between EON Studio and VB.NET, and more versatile utilization of EDE data such as a source near the body, etc., all of which needs to be addressed in future efforts to develop this type of software.
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Petrizzi, L.; Batistoni, P.; Migliori, S. [Associazione EURATOM ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Chen, Y.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P. [Association FZK-EURATOM Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Loughlin, M. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX (United Kingdom); Secco, A. [Nice Srl Via Serra 33 Camerano Casasco AT (Italy)
2003-07-01
In deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasmas neutrons are produced causing activation of JET machine components. For safe operation and maintenance it is important to be able to predict the induced activation and the resulting shut down dose rates. This requires a suitable system of codes which is capable of simulating both the neutron induced material activation during operation and the decay gamma radiation transport after shut-down in the proper 3-D geometry. Two methodologies to calculate the dose rate in fusion devices have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines, both using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. FZK has developed a more classical approach, the rigorous 2-step (R2S) system in which MCNP is coupled to the FISPACT inventory code with an automated routing. ENEA, in collaboration with the ITER Team, has developed an alternative approach, the direct 1 step method (D1S). Neutron and decay gamma transport are handled in one single MCNP run, using an ad hoc cross section library. The intention was to tightly couple the neutron induced production of a radio-isotope and the emission of its decay gammas for an accurate spatial distribution and a reliable calculated statistical error. The two methods have been used by the two Associations to calculate the dose rate in five positions of JET machine, two inside the vacuum chamber and three outside, at cooling times between 1 second and 1 year after shutdown. The same MCNP model and irradiation conditions have been assumed. The exercise has been proposed and financed in the frame of the Fusion Technological Program of the JET machine. The scope is to supply the designers with the most reliable tool and data to calculate the dose rate on fusion machines. Results showed that there is a good agreement: the differences range between 5-35%. The next step to be considered in 2003 will be an exercise in which the comparison will be done with dose-rate data from JET taken during and
Dosimetric study of the effective doses resulting during dental X-ray and panoramic radiography
Shousha, Hany A.; Abd-El Hafez, A. I.; Ahmad, Fawzia
2011-01-01
The panoramic image is one of the most commonly used radiographic examinations in dentistry, owing to its low dose and large area for evaluation, including bone and teeth in the same image. Although digital images are usually reported to deliver a lower radiation dose to the patient, conventional images are still available, especially in countries where digital systems are not widely economically available. Dentists should weigh the benefits of dental radiographs against the consequences of increasing a patient's exposure to radiation, the effects of which accumulate from multiple sources over time. The "as low as reasonably achievable" principle should be followed to minimize the exposure to radiation. The purpose of this investigation is to measure the absorbed radiation doses at 12 anatomical sites of a Rando-phantom and calculate the effective doses result from a full-mouth survey and panoramic radiography. Organ-absorbed doses are measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD 100) and effective organ doses (μ Sv) are estimated according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection in 2007. The total effective dose results from the panoramic imaging system have so far been below those obtained using the full-mouth survey technique used in intra-oral radiographic examination.
Prostate dose calculations for permanent implants using the MCNPX code and the Voxels phantom MAX
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Reis Junior, Juraci Passos dos; Silva, Ademir Xavier da, E-mail: jjunior@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: Ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Facure, Alessandro N.S., E-mail: facure@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2010-07-01
This paper presents the modeling of 80, 88 and 100 of {sup 125}I seeds, punctual and volumetric inserted into the phantom spherical volume representing the prostate and prostate phantom voxels MAX. Starting values of minimum and maximum activity, 0.27 mCi and 0.38 mCi, respectively, were simulated in the Monte Carlo code MCNPX in order to determine whether the final dose, according to the integration of the equation of decay at time t = 0 to t = {infinity} corresponds to the default value set by the AAPM 64 which is 144 Gy. The results showed that consider sources results in doses exceeding the percentage discrepancy of the default value of 200%, while volumetric consider sources result in doses close to 144 Gy. (author)
Chaikh, Abdulhamid; Balosso, Jacques
2017-06-01
During the past decades, in radiotherapy, the dose distributions were calculated using density correction methods with pencil beam as type 'a' algorithm. The objectives of this study are to assess and evaluate the impact of dose distribution shift on the predicted secondary cancer risk (SCR), using modern advanced dose calculation algorithms, point kernel, as type 'b', which consider change in lateral electrons transport. Clinical examples of pediatric cranio-spinal irradiation patients were evaluated. For each case, two radiotherapy treatment plans with were generated using the same prescribed dose to the target resulting in different number of monitor units (MUs) per field. The dose distributions were calculated, respectively, using both algorithms types. A gamma index (γ) analysis was used to compare dose distribution in the lung. The organ equivalent dose (OED) has been calculated with three different models, the linear, the linear-exponential and the plateau dose response curves. The excess absolute risk ratio (EAR) was also evaluated as (EAR = OED type 'b' / OED type 'a'). The γ analysis results indicated an acceptable dose distribution agreement of 95% with 3%/3 mm. Although, the γ-maps displayed dose displacement >1 mm around the healthy lungs. Compared to type 'a', the OED values from type 'b' dose distributions' were about 8% to 16% higher, leading to an EAR ratio >1, ranged from 1.08 to 1.13 depending on SCR models. The shift of dose calculation in radiotherapy, according to the algorithm, can significantly influence the SCR prediction and the plan optimization, since OEDs are calculated from DVH for a specific treatment. The agreement between dose distribution and SCR prediction depends on dose response models and epidemiological data. In addition, the γ passing rates of 3%/3 mm does not translate the difference, up to 15%, in the predictions of SCR resulting from alternative algorithms. Considering that modern algorithms are more accurate, showing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schloemer, Luc Laurent Alexander
2014-12-17
The compliance with the dose rate limits for transport and storage casks (TLB) for spent nuclear fuel from pressurised water reactors can be proved by calculation. This includes the determination of the radioactive sources and the shielding-capability of the cask. In this thesis the entire computational chain, which extends from the determination of the source terms to the final Monte-Carlo-transport-calculation is analysed and the arising uncertainties are quantified not only by benchmarks but also by variational calculi. The background of these analyses is that the comparison with measured dose rates at different TLBs shows an overestimation by the values calculated. Regarding the studies performed, the overestimation can be mainly explained by the detector characteristics for the measurement of the neutron dose rate and additionally in case of the gamma dose rates by the energy group structure, which the calculation is based on. It turns out that the consideration of the uncertainties occurring along the computational chain can lead to even greater overestimation. Concerning the dose rate calculation at cask loadings with spent uranium fuel assemblies an uncertainty of (({sup +21}{sub -28}) ±2) % (rel.) for the total gamma dose rate and of ({sup +28±23}{sub -55±4}) % (rel.) for the total neutron dose rate are estimated. For mixed-loadings with spent uranium and MOX fuel assemblies an uncertainty of ({sup +24±3}{sub -27±2}) % (rel.) for the total gamma dose rate and of ({sup +28±23}{sub -55±4}) % (rel.) for the total neutron dose rate are quantified. The results show that the computational chain has not to be modified, because the calculations performed lead to conservative dose rate predictions, even if high uncertainties at neutron dose rate measurements arise. Thus at first the uncertainties of the neutron dose rate measurement have to be decreased to enable a reduction of the overestimation of the calculated dose rate afterwards. In the present thesis
Preliminary Calculations of Shutdown Dose Rate for the CTS Diagnostics System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Nonbøl, Erik; Lauritzen, Bent
2015-01-01
DTU and IST 2 are partners in the design of a collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics for ITER through a contract with F4E. The CTS diagnostic utilizes probing radiation of ~60 GHz emitted into the plasma and, using a mirror, collects the scattered radiation by an array of receivers. Having...... on supplying input which affect the system design. Examples include: - Heatloads on plasma facing mirrors and preliminary stress and thermal analysis - Port plug cooling requirements and it's dependence on system design (in particular blanket cut-out) - Shutdown dose-rate calculations (relative analysis...
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Rodrigues, Adenilson Paiva, E-mail: adenilson-fisica@hotmail.com.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Meireles, Ramiro Conceicao [Fundacao do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2016-07-01
This work is the result of a laboratory activity performed in Radiological Sciences Laboratory (CRL), linked to the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). This practice aimed to determine the absorbed dose to water, through the primary calibration method called dosimetry Fricke, which consists of ferrous ions (Fe + 2) to ferric (Fe + 3), generated by water radiolysis products which is the structural change of water molecule caused by ionizing radiation. A spectrophotometer was used to extract data for analysis at a wavelength (λ) 304 and 224 nm with function of measuring the absorbance using bottles with irradiated and nonirradiated Fricke solution. (author)
Characterizing a Proton Beam Scanning System for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation in Patients
Grassberger, C; Lomax, Tony; Paganetti, H
2015-01-01
The presented work has two goals. First, to demonstrate the feasibility of accurately characterizing a proton radiation field at treatment head exit for Monte Carlo dose calculation of active scanning patient treatments. Second, to show that this characterization can be done based on measured depth dose curves and spot size alone, without consideration of the exact treatment head delivery system. This is demonstrated through calibration of a Monte Carlo code to the specific beam lines of two institutions, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Comparison of simulations modeling the full treatment head at MGH to ones employing a parameterized phase space of protons at treatment head exit reveals the adequacy of the method for patient simulations. The secondary particle production in the treatment head is typically below 0.2% of primary fluence, except for low–energy electrons (protons), whose contribution to skin dose is negligible. However, there is significant difference between the two methods in the low-dose penumbra, making full treatment head simulations necessary to study out-of field effects such as secondary cancer induction. To calibrate the Monte Carlo code to measurements in a water phantom, we use an analytical Bragg peak model to extract the range-dependent energy spread at the two institutions, as this quantity is usually not available through measurements. Comparison of the measured with the simulated depth dose curves demonstrates agreement within 0.5mm over the entire energy range. Subsequently, we simulate three patient treatments with varying anatomical complexity (liver, head and neck and lung) to give an example how this approach can be employed to investigate site-specific discrepancies between treatment planning system and Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:25549079
Oner, F.; Okumuolu, N.
2003-11-01
We estimate the radiation doses in the human body, in the Gudalore region in India, following the inadvertent ingestion of soil and exposure to other soil pathways by measuring Th-232, U-238, and K-40. We estimate the equivalent dose in eleven different organs and the absorbed dose calculations for the whole body. The annual effective doses are calculated, the lowest is in Kariyasolai at 7.8 x 10(-3) mSv whereas the highest is in Ponnur at 8.9 x 10(-2) mSv. In all regions, the lowest equivalent doses through inadvertent soil ingestion are calculated in the kidney and thyroid whereas the highest doses are in the red marrow and on the bone surface.
Stability analysis of a deterministic dose calculation for MRI-guided radiotherapy
Zelyak, O.; Fallone, B. G.; St-Aubin, J.
2018-01-01
Modern effort in radiotherapy to address the challenges of tumor localization and motion has led to the development of MRI guided radiotherapy technologies. Accurate dose calculations must properly account for the effects of the MRI magnetic fields. Previous work has investigated the accuracy of a deterministic linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE) solver that includes magnetic field, but not the stability of the iterative solution method. In this work, we perform a stability analysis of this deterministic algorithm including an investigation of the convergence rate dependencies on the magnetic field, material density, energy, and anisotropy expansion. The iterative convergence rate of the continuous and discretized LBTE including magnetic fields is determined by analyzing the spectral radius using Fourier analysis for the stationary source iteration (SI) scheme. The spectral radius is calculated when the magnetic field is included (1) as a part of the iteration source, and (2) inside the streaming-collision operator. The non-stationary Krylov subspace solver GMRES is also investigated as a potential method to accelerate the iterative convergence, and an angular parallel computing methodology is investigated as a method to enhance the efficiency of the calculation. SI is found to be unstable when the magnetic field is part of the iteration source, but unconditionally stable when the magnetic field is included in the streaming-collision operator. The discretized LBTE with magnetic fields using a space-angle upwind stabilized discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) was also found to be unconditionally stable, but the spectral radius rapidly reaches unity for very low-density media and increasing magnetic field strengths indicating arbitrarily slow convergence rates. However, GMRES is shown to significantly accelerate the DFEM convergence rate showing only a weak dependence on the magnetic field. In addition, the use of an angular parallel computing strategy
Petillion, Saskia; Swinnen, Ans; Defraene, Gilles; Verhoeven, Karolien; Weltens, Caroline; Van den Heuvel, Frank
2014-07-08
The comparison of the pencil beam dose calculation algorithm with modified Batho heterogeneity correction (PBC-MB) and the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) and the mutual comparison of advanced dose calculation algorithms used in breast radiotherapy have focused on the differences between the physical dose distributions. Studies on the radiobiological impact of the algorithm (both on the tumor control and the moderate breast fibrosis prediction) are lacking. We, therefore, investigated the radiobiological impact of the dose calculation algorithm in whole breast radiotherapy. The clinical dose distributions of 30 breast cancer patients, calculated with PBC-MB, were recalculated with fixed monitor units using more advanced algorithms: AAA and Acuros XB. For the latter, both dose reporting modes were used (i.e., dose-to-medium and dose-to-water). Next, the tumor control probability (TCP) and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of each dose distribution were calculated with the Poisson model and with the relative seriality model, respectively. The endpoint for the NTCP calculation was moderate breast fibrosis five years post treatment. The differences were checked for significance with the paired t-test. The more advanced algorithms predicted a significantly lower TCP and NTCP of moderate breast fibrosis then found during the corresponding clinical follow-up study based on PBC calculations. The differences varied between 1% and 2.1% for the TCP and between 2.9% and 5.5% for the NTCP of moderate breast fibrosis. The significant differences were eliminated by determination of algorithm-specific model parameters using least square fitting. Application of the new parameters on a second group of 30 breast cancer patients proved their appropriateness. In this study, we assessed the impact of the dose calculation algorithms used in whole breast radiotherapy on the parameters of the radiobiological models. The radiobiological impact was eliminated by
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Côté, Nicolas [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Pavillon Roger-Gaudry (D-428), 2900 Boulevard Édouard-Montpetit, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Bedwani, Stéphane [Département de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM), 1560 Rue Sherbrooke Est, Montréal, Québec H2L 4M1 (Canada); Carrier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.carrier.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Pavillon Roger-Gaudry (D-428), 2900 Boulevard Édouard-Montpetit, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM), 1560 Rue Sherbrooke Est, Montréal, Québec H2L 4M1 (Canada)
2016-05-15
Purpose: An improvement in tissue assignment for low-dose rate brachytherapy (LDRB) patients using more accurate Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation was accomplished with a metallic artifact reduction (MAR) method specific to dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). Methods: The proposed MAR algorithm followed a four-step procedure. The first step involved applying a weighted blend of both DECT scans (I {sub H/L}) to generate a new image (I {sub Mix}). This action minimized Hounsfield unit (HU) variations surrounding the brachytherapy seeds. In the second step, the mean HU of the prostate in I {sub Mix} was calculated and shifted toward the mean HU of the two original DECT images (I {sub H/L}). The third step involved smoothing the newly shifted I {sub Mix} and the two original I {sub H/L}, followed by a subtraction of both, generating an image that represented the metallic artifact (I {sub A,(H/L)}) of reduced noise levels. The final step consisted of subtracting the original I {sub H/L} from the newly generated I {sub A,(H/L)} and obtaining a final image corrected for metallic artifacts. Following the completion of the algorithm, a DECT stoichiometric method was used to extract the relative electronic density (ρ{sub e}) and effective atomic number (Z {sub eff}) at each voxel of the corrected scans. Tissue assignment could then be determined with these two newly acquired physical parameters. Each voxel was assigned the tissue bearing the closest resemblance in terms of ρ{sub e} and Z {sub eff}, comparing with values from the ICRU 42 database. A MC study was then performed to compare the dosimetric impacts of alternative MAR algorithms. Results: An improvement in tissue assignment was observed with the DECT MAR algorithm, compared to the single-energy computed tomography (SECT) approach. In a phantom study, tissue misassignment was found to reach 0.05% of voxels using the DECT approach, compared with 0.40% using the SECT method. Comparison of the DECT and SECT D
Mohammadyari, Parvin; Faghihi, Reza; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Rahim Hematiyan, Mohammad; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S.
2015-12-01
Compression is a technique to immobilize the target or improve the dose distribution within the treatment volume during different irradiation techniques such as AccuBoost® brachytherapy. However, there is no systematic method for determination of dose distribution for uncompressed tissue after irradiation under compression. In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast tissue between compressed and uncompressed states was investigated. With that, a novel method was developed to determine the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue after irradiation of compressed breast tissue. Dosimetry was performed using two different methods, namely, Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 code and measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The displacement of the breast elements was simulated using a finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software. From these results, the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of six different women volunteers. The mechanical properties were modeled by using the Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material model. Experimental dosimetry was performed by placing the TLD chips into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom. The results determined that the nodal displacements, due to the gravitational force and the 60 Newton compression forces (with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in the orthogonal direction) were determined. Finally, a comparison of the experimental data and the simulated data showed agreement within 11.5% ± 5.9%.
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Sotiropoulou, Maria [INRASTES, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Athens (Greece); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki (Greece); Florou, Heleny [INRASTES, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Athens (Greece); Kitis, Georgios [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki (Greece)
2017-11-15
The substantial complexity in ecosystem-radionuclide interactions is difficult to be represented in terms of radiological doses. Thus, radiological dose assessment tools use typical exposure situations for generalized organisms and ecosystems. In the present study, site-specific data and radioactivity measurements of terrestrial organisms (grass and herbivore mammals) and abiotic components (soil) are provided. The retrieved data are used in combination with the ERICA Assessment Tool for calculation of radiological parameters. The process of radionuclide transfer within ecosystem components is represented using concentration ratios (CRs), while for the calculation of dose rates the dose conversion coefficient (DCC) methodology is applied. Comparative assessments are performed between the generic and assessment-specific radiological parameters and between the resulting dose rates. Significant differences were observed between CRs calculated in this study and those reported in the literature for cesium and thorium, which can easily be explained. On the other hand, CRs calculated for radium are in very good agreement with those reported in the literature. The DCCs exhibited some small differences between the reference and the assessment-specific organism due to mass differences. The differences were observed for internal and external dose rates, but they were less pronounced for total dose rates which are typically used in the assessment of radiological impact. The results of the current work can serve as a basis for further studies of the radiological parameters in environments that have not been studied yet. (orig.)
A GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation code for photon transport in a voxel phantom
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Bellezzo, M.; Do Nascimento, E.; Yoriyaz, H., E-mail: mbellezzo@gmail.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2014-08-15
As the most accurate method to estimate absorbed dose in radiotherapy, Monte Carlo method has been widely used in radiotherapy treatment planning. Nevertheless, its efficiency can be improved for clinical routine applications. In this paper, we present the CUBMC code, a GPU-based Mc photon transport algorithm for dose calculation under the Compute Unified Device Architecture platform. The simulation of physical events is based on the algorithm used in Penelope, and the cross section table used is the one generated by the Material routine, als present in Penelope code. Photons are transported in voxel-based geometries with different compositions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the algorithm developed in the present work four 128 x 128 x 128 voxel phantoms have been considered. One of them is composed by a homogeneous water-based media, the second is composed by bone, the third is composed by lung and the fourth is composed by a heterogeneous bone and vacuum geometry. Simulations were done considering a 6 MeV monoenergetic photon point source. There are two distinct approaches that were used for transport simulation. The first of them forces the photon to stop at every voxel frontier, the second one is the Woodcock method, where the photon stop in the frontier will be considered depending on the material changing across the photon travel line. Dose calculations using these methods are compared for validation with Penelope and MCNP5 codes. Speed-up factors are compared using a NVidia GTX 560-Ti GPU card against a 2.27 GHz Intel Xeon CPU processor. (Author)
Beaulieu, Luc; Carlsson Tedgren, Asa; Carrier, Jean-Francois; Davis, Stephen D; Mourtada, Firas; Rivard, Mark J; Thomson, Rowan M; Verhaegen, Frank; Wareing, Todd A; Williamson, Jeffrey F
2012-10-01
The charge of Task Group 186 (TG-186) is to provide guidance for early adopters of model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) for brachytherapy (BT) dose calculations to ensure practice uniformity. Contrary to external beam radiotherapy, heterogeneity correction algorithms have only recently been made available to the BT community. Yet, BT dose calculation accuracy is highly dependent on scatter conditions and photoelectric effect cross-sections relative to water. In specific situations, differences between the current water-based BT dose calculation formalism (TG-43) and MBDCAs can lead to differences in calculated doses exceeding a factor of 10. MBDCAs raise three major issues that are not addressed by current guidance documents: (1) MBDCA calculated doses are sensitive to the dose specification medium, resulting in energy-dependent differences between dose calculated to water in a homogeneous water geometry (TG-43), dose calculated to the local medium in the heterogeneous medium, and the intermediate scenario of dose calculated to a small volume of water in the heterogeneous medium. (2) MBDCA doses are sensitive to voxel-by-voxel interaction cross sections. Neither conventional single-energy CT nor ICRU∕ICRP tissue composition compilations provide useful guidance for the task of assigning interaction cross sections to each voxel. (3) Since each patient-source-applicator combination is unique, having reference data for each possible combination to benchmark MBDCAs is an impractical strategy. Hence, a new commissioning process is required. TG-186 addresses in detail the above issues through the literature review and provides explicit recommendations based on the current state of knowledge. TG-43-based dose prescription and dose calculation remain in effect, with MBDCA dose reporting performed in parallel when available. In using MBDCAs, it is recommended that the radiation transport should be performed in the heterogeneous medium and, at minimum, the dose
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Xu, Y [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Tian, Z; Jiang, S; Jia, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Scanderbeg, D; Yashar, C [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States); Zhang, M [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: The current standard TG-43 dose calculation method for SAVI-based Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) assumes an ideal geometry of infinite homogeneous water. However, in SAVI treatments, the air cavity inside the device and the short source-to-skin distance raise concerns about the dose accuracy of the TG-43 method. This study is to evaluate TG-43 dose calculation accuracy in SAVI treatments using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: We recalculated the dose distributions of 15 APBI patients treated with SAVI devices, including five cases with a size of 6–1, five with 8−1 and five with 10−1, using our in-house developed fast MC dose package for HDR brachytherapy (gBMC). A phase-space file was used to model the Ir-192 HDR source. For each case, the patient CT was converted into a voxelized phantom and the dwell positions and times were extracted from treatment plans for MC dose calculations. Clinically relevant dosimetric parameters of the recalculated dose were compared to those computed via the TG-43 approach. Results: A systematic overestimation of doses was found for the 15 cases in TG-43 results, with D90, V150, and V200 for PTV-eval 2.8±1.8%, 2.0±2.2%, and 1.8±3.5% higher than MC results. TG-43 also overestimated the dose to skin with the maximum dose 4.4±8.4% higher on average. The relatively large standard deviation seen in the difference of maximum skin dose is partially ascribed to the statistical uncertainty of MC simulations when computing the maximum dose. It took gBMC ∼1 minute to compute dose for a SAVI plan. Conclusion: The high efficiency of our gBMC package facilitated the studies with a relatively large number of cases. An overestimation of TG-43 doses was found when using this MC package to recompute doses in SAVI cases. Clinical utilization of TG-43 dose calculation method in this scenario should be aware of this fact.
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Guegan, C.; Nadour, A.; Alison, M.; Sebag, G.
2009-10-15
Objective: to know the efficient dose that will allow to compare the induced irradiation to natural irradiation. To know this magnitude in order to sensitize the medical profession and the patient. To know a software allowing to calculate the efficient dose in function of the organ explored by a multislice scanner. Messages to remember: This software is easy to use and allows to get easily an equivalent dose (in natural irradiation) for a pediatric CT scanning examination (Phillips, Brillance 64). (N.C.)
Zhang, Bintuan; Dang, Bingrong; Wang, Zhuanzi; Wei, Wei; Li, Wenjian
2013-10-01
The skin tissue-equivalent slab reported in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 116 to calculate the localised skin dose conversion coefficients (LSDCCs) was adopted into the Monte Carlo transport code Geant4. The Geant4 code was then utilised for computation of LSDCCs due to a circular parallel beam of monoenergetic electrons, protons and alpha particles electrons and alpha particles are found to be in good agreement with the results using the MCNPX code of ICRP 116 data. The present work thus validates the LSDCC values for both electrons and alpha particles using the Geant4 code.
Zhang, Guozhi; Liu, Qian; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming
2008-07-01
The voxel-based visible Chinese human (VCH) adult male phantom has offered a high-quality test bed for realistic Monte Carlo modeling in radiological dosimetry simulations. The phantom has been updated in recent effort by adding newly segmented organs, revising walled and smaller structures as well as recalibrating skeletal marrow distributions. The organ absorbed dose against external proton exposure was calculated at a voxel resolution of 2 × 2 × 2 mm3 using the MCNPX code for incident energies from 20 MeV to 10 GeV and for six idealized irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), left-lateral (LLAT), right-lateral (RLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO), respectively. The effective dose on the VCH phantom was derived in compliance with the evaluation scheme for the reference male proposed in the 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Algorithm transitions from the revised radiation and tissue weighting factors are accountable for approximately 90% and 10% of effective dose discrepancies in proton dosimetry, respectively. Results are tabulated in terms of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for practical use and are compared with data from other models available in the literature. Anatomical variations between various computational phantoms lead to dose discrepancies ranging from a negligible level to 100% or more at proton energies below 200 MeV, corresponding to the spatial geometric locations of individual organs within the body. Doses show better agreement at higher energies and the deviations are mostly within 20%, to which the organ volume and mass differences should be of primary responsibility. The impact of body size on dose distributions was assessed by dosimetry of a scaled-up VCH phantom that was resized in accordance with the height and total mass of the ICRP reference man. The organ dose decreases with the directionally uniform enlargement of voxels. Potential
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Tamura, K; Araki, F; Ohno, T [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto (Japan)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To investigate the difference of dose distributions with/without the effect of inter-seed attenuation and tissue compositions in prostate {sup 125}I brachytherapy dose calculations, using Monte Carlo simulations of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). Methods: The dose distributions in {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy were calculated using PHITS for non-simultaneous and simultaneous alignments of STM1251 sources in water or prostate phantom for six patients. The PHITS input file was created from DICOM-RT file which includes source coordinates and structures for clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) of urethra and rectum, using in-house Matlab software. Photon and electron cutoff energies were set to 1 keV and 100 MeV, respectively. The dose distributions were calculated with the kerma approximation and the voxel size of 1 × 1 × 1 mm{sup 3}. The number of incident photon was set to be the statistical uncertainty (1σ) of less than 1%. The effect of inter-seed attenuation and prostate tissue compositions was evaluated from dose volume histograms (DVHs) for each structure, by comparing to results of the AAPM TG-43 dose calculation (without the effect of inter-seed attenuation and prostate tissue compositions). Results: The dose reduction due to the inter-seed attenuation by source capsules was approximately 2% for CTV and OARs compared to those of TG-43. In additions, by considering prostate tissue composition, the D{sub 90} and V{sub 100} of CTV reduced by 6% and 1%, respectively. Conclusion: It needs to consider the dose reduction due to the inter-seed attenuation and tissue composition in prostate {sup 125}I brachytherapy dose calculations.
Numerical calculations of high-altitude differential charging: Preliminary results
Laframboise, J. G.; Godard, R.; Prokopenko, S. M. L.
1979-01-01
A two dimensional simulation program was constructed in order to obtain theoretical predictions of floating potential distributions on geostationary spacecraft. The geometry was infinite-cylindrical with angle dependence. Effects of finite spacecraft length on sheath potential profiles can be included in an approximate way. The program can treat either steady-state conditions or slowly time-varying situations, involving external time scales much larger than particle transit times. Approximate, locally dependent expressions were used to provide space charge, density profiles, but numerical orbit-following is used to calculate surface currents. Ambient velocity distributions were assumed to be isotropic, beam-like, or some superposition of these.
Mairani, A; Valente, M; Battistoni, G; Botta, F; Pedroli, G; Ferrari, A; Cremonesi, M; Di Dia, A; Ferrari, M; Fasso, A
2011-01-01
Purpose: The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, FLUKA Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, FLUKA has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. Methods: FLUKA DPKS have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10-3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy ((89)Sr, (90)Y, (131)I, (153)Sm, (177)Lu, (186)Re, and (188)Re). Point isotropic...
Mackie, Jane E; Bruce, Catherine D
2016-05-01
Accurate calculation of medication dosages can be challenging for nursing students. Specific interventions related to types of errors made by nursing students may improve the learning of this important skill. The objective of this study was to determine areas of challenge for students in performing medication dosage calculations in order to design interventions to improve this skill. Strengths and weaknesses in the teaching and learning of medication dosage calculations were assessed. These data were used to create online interventions which were then measured for the impact on student ability to perform medication dosage calculations. The setting of the study is one university in Canada. The qualitative research participants were 8 nursing students from years 1-3 and 8 faculty members. Quantitative results are based on test data from the same second year clinical course during the academic years 2012 and 2013. Students and faculty participated in one-to-one interviews; responses were recorded and coded for themes. Tests were implemented and scored, then data were assessed to classify the types and number of errors. Students identified conceptual understanding deficits, anxiety, low self-efficacy, and numeracy skills as primary challenges in medication dosage calculations. Faculty identified long division as a particular content challenge, and a lack of online resources for students to practice calculations. Lessons and online resources designed as an intervention to target mathematical and concepts and skills led to improved results and increases in overall pass rates for second year students for medication dosage calculation tests. This study suggests that with concerted effort and a multi-modal approach to supporting nursing students, their abilities to calculate dosages can be improved. The positive results in this study also point to the promise of cross-discipline collaborations between nursing and education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
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Pacaci, P; Cebe, M; Mabhouti, H; Codel, G; Serin, E; Sanli, E; Kucukmorkoc, E; Doyuran, M; Kucuk, N; Canoglu, D; Altinok, A; Acar, H; Caglar Ozkok, H [Medipol University, Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey)
2016-06-15
Purpose: In this study, dosimetric comparison of field in field (FIF) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques used for treatment of whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) were made. The dosimetric accuracy of treatment planning system (TPS) for Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB (AXB) algorithms in predicting PTV and OAR doses was also investigated. Methods: Two different treatment planning techniques of left-sided breast cancer were generated for rando phantom. FIF and IMRT plans were compared for doses in PTV and OAR volumes including ipsilateral lung, heart, left ascending coronary artery, contralateral lung and the contralateral breast. PTV and OARs doses and homogeneity and conformality indexes were compared between two techniques. The accuracy of TPS dose calculation algorithms was tested by comparing PTV and OAR doses measured by thermoluminescent dosimetry with the dose calculated by the TPS using AAA and AXB for both techniques. Results: IMRT plans had better conformality and homogeneity indexes than FIF technique and it spared OARs better than FIF. While both algorithms overestimated PTV doses they underestimated all OAR doses. For IMRT plan, PTV doses, overestimation up to 2.5 % was seen with AAA algorithm but it decreased to 1.8 % when AXB algorithm was used. Based on the results of the anthropomorphic measurements for OAR doses, underestimation greater than 7 % is possible by the AAA. The results from the AXB are much better than the AAA algorithm. However, underestimations of 4.8 % were found in some of the points even for AXB. For FIF plan, similar trend was seen for PTV and OARs doses in both algorithm. Conclusion: When using the Eclipse TPS for breast cancer, AXB the should be used instead of the AAA algorithm, bearing in mind that the AXB may still underestimate all OAR doses.
Calculating tumor trajectory and dose-of-the-day using cone-beam CT projections
Jones, Bernard L; Miften, Moyed
2015-01-01
Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) projection images provide anatomical data in real-time over several respiratory cycles, forming a comprehensive picture of tumor movement. We developed and validated a method which uses these projections to determine the trajectory of and dose to highly mobile tumors during each fraction of treatment. Methods: CBCT images of a respiration phantom were acquired, the trajectory of which mimicked a lung tumor with high amplitude (up to 2.5 cm) and hysteresis. A template-matching algorithm was used to identify the location of a steel BB in each CBCT projection, and a Gaussian probability density function for the absolute BB position was calculated which best fit the observed trajectory of the BB in the imager geometry. Two modifications of the trajectory reconstruction were investigated: first, using respiratory phase information to refine the trajectory estimation (Phase), and second, using the Monte Carlo (MC) method to sample the estimated Gaussian tumor position distribution. Resu...
Strolin, Silvia; Minosse, Silvia; D'Andrea, Marco; Fracchiolla, Francesco; Bruzzaniti, Vicente; Luppino, Stefano; Benassi, Marcello; Strigari, Lidia
2016-12-01
To investigate the applicability of the formalism described in BJR supplement n.25 for Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beams in determining the zero-field tissue maximum ratio (TMR) for an independent calculation method of Percentage Depth Doses (PDDs) and relative dose factors (RDFs) at different experimental setups. Experimental PDDs for field size from 40×40cm(2) to 2×2cm(2) with Source Surface Distance (SSD) 100cm were acquired. The normalized peak scatter factor for each square field was obtained by fitting experimental RDFs in water and collimator factors (CFs) in air. Maximum log-likelihood methods were used to extract fit parameters in competing models and the Bayesian Information Criterion was used to select the best one. In different experimental setups additional RDFs and TPR10(20)s for field sizes other than reference field were measured and Monte Carlo simulations of PDDs at SSD 80cm were carried out to validate the results. PDD agreements were evaluated by gamma analysis. The BJR formalism allowed to predict the PDDs obtained with MC within 2%/2mm at SSD 80cm from 100% down to 50% of the maximum dose. The agreement between experimental TPR10(20)s and RDFs values at SSD=90cm and BJR calculations were within 1% for field sizes greater than 5×5cm(2) while it was within 3% for fields down to 2×2cm(2). BJR formalism can be used for FFF beams to predict PDD and RDF at different SSDs and can be used for independent MU calculations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Monte Carlo Calculations of Dose to Medium and Dose to Water for Carbon Ion Beams in Various Media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herrmann, Rochus; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.; Jäkel, Oliver
treatment plans. Here, we quantisize the effect of dose to water vs. dose to medium for a series of typical target materials found in medical physics. 2 Material and Methods The Monte Carlo code FLUKA [Battistioni et al. 2007] is used to simulate the particle fluence spectrum in a series of target...
Rana, S; Rogers, K
2012-06-01
To evaluate accuracy of Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation Algorithm and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) with measurements in predicting doses beyond air gaps. Three virtual phantoms with layers were created in Eclipse Treatment Planning System. Each layer in phantoms was assigned in terms of water (top), air (middle) and water (bottom) medium. Central axis depth dose in water (bottom medium) beyond 2, 4 and 6 cm air gaps were computed for 5 cm water equivalent material positioned before air gaps. Dose computation was performed for 6MV photon beam with 3×3 and 5×5 cm(2) field sizes at 100 cm SSD to surface of phantoms using AAA_10.0.28 and Acuros XB_10.0.28. Next, solid water and Styrofoam were manufactured to mimic virtual phantoms. By keeping identical field, beam parameters, and geometries that were used for dose computation, 100 MUs were delivered to phantoms, and measurements at selected depths were acquired with cylindrical ionization chamber. Measured central axis depth doses were compared against calculated central axis depth doses computed from Acuros XB and AAA. Acuros XB predicted doses within ±2% of measured doses except at 1cm depth in phantoms with 4 cm air gap (-2.4%) and 6 cm air gap (-2.8%) for field size 3×3cm(2) . Acuros XB showed better dose prediction compared to AAA at all measured depths. Smallest test field size in phantom with largest air gap produced highest range (between depths 1 and 5 cm) in percentage dose difference (AAA: -2.9% to -9.9% and Acuros XB: -2.8% to 1.5%). Improper modeling of primary beam attenuation or lateral scatter (or combination of both) within air gap may have resulted into dose discrepancies. The findings suggest Acuros XB is more accurate to use in dose predictions when tumor is located beyond small air cavity (heterogeneity) within the patient. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Transfer of buprenorphine into breast milk and calculation of infant drug dose.
Lindemalm, Synnove; Nydert, Per; Svensson, Jan-Olov; Stahle, Lars; Sarman, Ihsan
2009-05-01
Little is known about the safety of buprenorphine (BUP) in breastfeeding. The aim of this work was to investigate the transfer of buprenorphine and its main active metabolite, norbuprenorphine (n-BUP), into human milk and to determine the drug dose and effects in exposed infants. Seven lactating women, who were maintained on BUP treatment because of previous opiate addiction, were studied in an open observational study. All mothers had a strong wish to breastfeed their newborn infants. Buprenorphine samples for analysis were collected from the urine of 6 infants together with breast milk, blood, and urine from their mothers during a 24-hour period in the week after birth. One mother-infant pair was studied at 9 months of age. Buprenorphine and n-BUP were analyzed by a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method suitable for handling different matrices. Buprenorphine and n-BUP were found in low levels in the infants' urine. Breastfed infants were exposed to a calculated BUP dose per kg bodyweight less than 1%, with an average milk/plasma area under the curve of 1.7 (range, 1.1-2.8) for BUP and 0.7 (range, 0.4-1.2) for n-BUP. These data support the use of BUP during breastfeeding. However, the authors recommend that infants be monitored closely.
Calculation of Doses Due to Accidentally Released Plutonium From An LMFBR
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Fish, B.R.
2001-08-07
Experimental data and analytical models that should be considered in assessing the transport properties of plutonium aerosols following a hypothetical reactor accident have been examined. Behaviors of released airborne materials within the reactor containment systems, as well as in the atmosphere near the reactor site boundaries, have been semiquantitatively predicted from experimental data and analytical models. The fundamental chemistry of plutonium as it may be applied in biological systems has been used to prepare models related to the intake and metabolism of plutonium dioxide, the fuel material of interest. Attempts have been made to calculate the possible doses from plutonium aerosols for a typical analyzed release in order to evaluate the magnitude of the internal exposure hazards that might exist in the vicinity of the reactor after a hypothetical LMFBR (Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) accident. Intake of plutonium (using data for {sup 239}Pu as an example) and its distribution in the body were treated parametrically without regard to the details of transport pathways in the environment. To the extent possible, dose-response data and models have been reviewed, and an assessment of their adequacy has been made so that recommended or preferred practices could be developed.
Hardiansyah, D.; Male, S.; Haryanto, F.
2014-09-01
Prism is a non-commercial Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System (RTPS) develop by Ira J. Kalet from Washington University. Inhomogeneity factor is included in Prism TPS dose calculation. The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dose calculation on Prism using Monte Carlo simulation. Phase space source from head linear accelerator (LINAC) for Monte Carlo simulation is implemented. To achieve this aim, Prism dose calculation is compared with EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and R50 from both calculations are observed. BEAMnrc is simulated electron transport in LINAC head and produced phase space file. This file is used as DOSXYZnrc input to simulated electron transport in phantom. This study is started with commissioning process in water phantom. Commissioning process is adjusted Monte Carlo simulation with Prism RTPS. Commissioning result is used for study of inhomogeneity phantom. Physical parameters of inhomogeneity phantom that varied in this study are: density, location and thickness of tissue. Commissioning result is shown that optimum energy of Monte Carlo simulation for 6 MeV electron beam is 6.8 MeV. This commissioning is used R50 and PDD with Practical length (Rp) as references. From inhomogeneity study, the average deviation for all case on interest region is below 5 %. Based on ICRU recommendations, Prism has good ability to calculate the radiation dose in inhomogeneity tissue.
Yamashita, Mikiko; Takahashi, Ryo; Kokubo, Masaki; Takayama, Kenji; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Sueoka, Masaki; Ishii, Masao; Tachibana, Hidenobu
2018-01-25
Dose verification for a gimbal-mounted image-guided radiotherapy system, Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) is usually carried out by pretreatment measurement. Independent verification calculations using Monte Carlo methods for Vero4DRT have been published. As the Clarkson method is faster and easier to use than measurement and Monte Carlo methods, we evaluated the accuracy of an independent calculation verification program and its feasibility as a secondary check for Vero4DRT. Computed tomography (CT)-based dose calculation was performed using a modified Clarkson-based algorithm. In this study, 120 patients' treatment plans were collected in our institute. The treatments were performed using conventional irradiation for lung and prostate, 3-dimensional (3D) conformal stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the lung, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the prostate. Differences between the treatment planning system (TPS) and the Clarkson-based independent dose verification software were computed, and confidence limits (CLs, mean ± 2 standard deviation %) for Vero4DRT were compared with the CLs for the C-arms linear accelerators in the previous study. The results of the CLs, the conventional irradiation, SBRT, and IMRT showed 2.2 ± 3.5% (CL of the C-arms linear accelerators: 2.4 ± 5.3%), 1.1 ± 1.7% (-0.3 ± 2.0%), 4.8 ± 3.7% (5.4 ± 5.3%), and -0.5 ± 2.5% (-0.1 ± 3.6%) differences, respectively. The dose disagreement between the TPS and CT-based independent dose verification software was less than the 5% action level of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 114 (TG114). The CLs for the gimbal-mounted Vero4DRT were similar to the deviations for C-arms linear accelerators. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lens of the eye dose calculation for neuro-interventional procedures and CBCT scans of the head
Xiong, Zhenyu; Vijayan, Sarath; Rana, Vijay; Jain, Amit; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.
2016-03-01
The aim of this work is to develop a method to calculate lens dose for fluoroscopically-guided neuro-interventional procedures and for CBCT scans of the head. EGSnrc Monte Carlo software is used to determine the dose to the lens of the eye for the projection geometry and exposure parameters used in these procedures. This information is provided by a digital CAN bus on the Toshiba Infinix C-Arm system which is saved in a log file by the real-time skin-dose tracking system (DTS) we previously developed. The x-ray beam spectra on this machine were simulated using BEAMnrc. These spectra were compared to those determined by SpekCalc and validated through measured percent-depth-dose (PDD) curves and half-value-layer (HVL) measurements. We simulated CBCT procedures in DOSXYZnrc for a CTDI head phantom and compared the surface dose distribution with that measured with Gafchromic film, and also for an SK150 head phantom and compared the lens dose with that measured with an ionization chamber. Both methods demonstrated good agreement. Organ dose calculated for a simulated neuro-interventional-procedure using DOSXYZnrc with the Zubal CT voxel phantom agreed within 10% with that calculated by PCXMC code for most organs. To calculate the lens dose in a neuro-interventional procedure, we developed a library of normalized lens dose values for different projection angles and kVp's. The total lens dose is then calculated by summing the values over all beam projections and can be included on the DTS report at the end of the procedure.
Marchant, T. E.; Joshi, K. D.; Moore, C. J.
2017-03-01
Cone-beam CT (CBCT) images are routinely acquired to verify patient position in radiotherapy (RT), but are typically not calibrated in Hounsfield Units (HU) and feature non-uniformity due to X-ray scatter and detector persistence effects. This prevents direct use of CBCT for re-calculation of RT delivered dose. We previously developed a prior-image based correction method to restore HU values and improve uniformity of CBCT images. Here we validate the accuracy with which corrected CBCT can be used for dosimetric assessment of RT delivery, using CBCT images and RT plans for 45 patients including pelvis, lung and head sites. Dose distributions were calculated based on each patient's original RT plan and using CBCT image values for tissue heterogeneity correction. Clinically relevant dose metrics were calculated (e.g. median and minimum target dose, maximum organ at risk dose). Accuracy of CBCT based dose metrics was determined using an "override ratio" method where the ratio of the dose metric to that calculated on a bulk-density assigned version of the image is assumed to be constant for each patient, allowing comparison to "gold standard" CT. For pelvis and head images the proportion of dose errors >2% was reduced from 40% to 1.3% after applying shading correction. For lung images the proportion of dose errors >3% was reduced from 66% to 2.2%. Application of shading correction to CBCT images greatly improves their utility for dosimetric assessment of RT delivery, allowing high confidence that CBCT dose calculations are accurate within 2-3%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. A. Drozd
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The basis of methodical approach for calculation of the individualized internal doses is the con-firmed original scientific hypothesis that every group of individuals which are homogeneous on demographic characteristics (gender and age, on a curve of dose distribution that is constructed according to the data of individual measurements of Cs137 in the human body (WB measurements, has the determined location, thus, that is constant in time, i.e. percentiles of dose distribution corresponding to the average internal dose of every age group of men and women on a curve of dose distribution occupy the certain, steady in time, location. Keywords: individualized internal dose, percentile of dose distribution, stability.
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Ohl, A [University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Boer, S De [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To investigate the differences in relative electron density for different energy (kVp) settings and the effect that these differences have on dose calculations. Methods: A Nuclear Associates 76-430 Mini CT QC Phantom with materials of known relative electron densities was imaged by one multi-slice (16) and one single-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner. The Hounsfield unit (HU) was recorded for each material with energies ranging from 80 to 140 kVp and a representative relative electron density (RED) curve was created. A 5 cm thick inhomogeneity was created in the treatment planning system (TPS) image at a depth of 5 cm. The inhomogeneity was assigned HU for various materials for each kVp calibration curve. The dose was then calculated with the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) at points within and below the inhomogeneity and compared using the 80 kVp beam as a baseline. Results: The differences in RED values as a function of kVp showed the largest variations of 580 and 547 HU for the Aluminum and Bone materials; the smallest differences of 0.6 and 3.0 HU were observed for the air and lung inhomogeneities. The corresponding dose calculations for the different RED values assigned to the 5 cm thick slab revealed the largest differences inside the aluminum and bone inhomogeneities of 2.2 to 6.4% and 4.3 to 7.0% respectively. The dose differences beyond these two inhomogeneities were between 0.4 to 1.6% for aluminum and 1.9 to 2.2 % for bone. For materials with lower HU the calculated dose differences were less than 1.0%. Conclusion: For high CT number materials the dose differences in the phantom calculation as high as 7.0% are significant. This result may indicate that implementing energy specific RED curves can increase dose calculation accuracy.
Impact on Dose Coefficients Calculated with ICRP Adult Mesh-type Reference Computational Phantoms
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Yeom, Yeon Soo; Nguyen, Thang Tat; Choi, Chan Soo; Lee, Han Jin; Han, Hae Gin; Han, Min Cheol; Shin, Bang Ho; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-04-15
In 2016, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) formulated a new Task Group (TG) (i.e., TG 103) within Committee 2. The ultimate aim of the TG 103 is to develop the mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) that can address dosimetric limitations of the currently used voxel-type reference computational phantoms (VRCPs) due to their limited voxel resolutions. The objective of the present study is to investigate dosimetric impact of the adult MRCPs by comparing dose coefficients (DCs) calculated with the MRCPs for some external and internal exposure cases and the reference DCs in ICRP Publications 116 and 133 that were produced with the adult VRCPs. In the present study, the DCs calculated with the adult MRCPs for some exposure cases were compared with the values in ICRP Publications 116 and 133. This comparison shows that in general the MRCPs provide very similar DCs for uncharged particles, but for charged particles provide significantly different DCs due to the improvement of the MRCPs.
Dose calculations using MARS for Bremsstrahlung beam stops and collimators in APS beamline stations.
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Dooling, J.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)
2010-11-01
The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MARS is used to model the generation of gas bremsstrahlung (GB) radiation from 7-GeV electrons which scatter from residual gas atoms in undulator straight sections within the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Additionally, MARS is employed to model the interactions of the GB radiation with components along the x-ray beamlines and then determine the expected radiation dose-rates that result. In this manner, MARS can be used to assess the adequacy of existing shielding or the specifications for new shielding when required. The GB radiation generated in the 'thin-target' of an ID straight section will consist only of photons in a 1/E-distribution up to the full energy of the stored electron beam. Using this analytical model, the predicted GB power for a typical APS 15.38-m insertion device (ID) straight section is 4.59 x 10{sup -7} W/nTorr/mA, assuming a background gas composed of air (Z{sub eff} = 7.31) at room temperature (293K). The total GB power provides a useful benchmark for comparisons between analytical and numerical approaches. We find good agreement between MARS and analytical estimates for total GB power. The extended straight section 'target' creates a radial profile of GB, which is highly peaked centered on the electron beam. The GB distribution reflects the size of the electron beam that creates the radiation. Optimizing the performance of MARS in terms of CPU time per incident trajectory requires the use of a relatively short, high-density gas target (air); in this report, the target density is {rho}L = 2.89 x 10{sup -2} g/cm{sup 2} over a length of 24 cm. MARS results are compared with the contact dose levels reported in TB-20, which used EGS4 for radiation transport simulations. Maximum dose-rates in 1 cc of tissue phantom form the initial basis for comparison. MARS and EGS4 results are approximately the same for maximum 1-cc dose-rates and attenuation in the photon
Recommended environmental dose calculation methods and Hanford-specific parameters. Revision 2
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Schreckhise, R.G.; Rhoads, K.; Napier, B.A.; Ramsdell, J.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Davis, J.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)
1993-03-01
This document was developed to support the Hanford Environmental Dose overview Panel (HEDOP). The Panel is responsible for reviewing all assessments of potential doses received by humans and other biota resulting from the actual or possible environmental releases of radioactive and other hazardous materials from facilities and/or operations belonging to the US Department of Energy on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. This document serves as a guide to be used for developing estimates of potential radiation doses, or other measures of risk or health impacts, to people and other biota in the environs on and around the Hanford Site. It provides information to develop technically sound estimates of exposure (i.e., potential or actual) to humans or other biotic receptors that could result from the environmental transport of potentially harmful materials that have been, or could be, released from Hanford operations or facilities. Parameter values and information that are specific to the Hanford environs as well as other supporting material are included in this document.
Efficient voxel navigation for proton therapy dose calculation in TOPAS and Geant4
Schümann, J.; Paganetti, H.; Shin, J.; Faddegon, B.; Perl, J.
2012-06-01
A key task within all Monte Carlo particle transport codes is ‘navigation’, the calculation to determine at each particle step what volume the particle may be leaving and what volume the particle may be entering. Navigation should be optimized to the specific geometry at hand. For patient dose calculation, this geometry generally involves voxelized computed tomography (CT) data. We investigated the efficiency of navigation algorithms on currently available voxel geometry parameterizations in the Monte Carlo simulation package Geant4: G4VPVParameterisation, G4VNestedParameterisation and G4PhantomParameterisation, the last with and without boundary skipping, a method where neighboring voxels with the same Hounsfield unit are combined into one larger voxel. A fourth parameterization approach (MGHParameterization), developed in-house before the latter two parameterizations became available in Geant4, was also included in this study. All simulations were performed using TOPAS, a tool for particle simulations layered on top of Geant4. Runtime comparisons were made on three distinct patient CT data sets: a head and neck, a liver and a prostate patient. We included an additional version of these three patients where all voxels, including the air voxels outside of the patient, were uniformly set to water in the runtime study. The G4VPVParameterisation offers two optimization options. One option has a 60-150 times slower simulation speed. The other is compatible in speed but requires 15-19 times more memory compared to the other parameterizations. We found the average CPU time used for the simulation relative to G4VNestedParameterisation to be 1.014 for G4PhantomParameterisation without boundary skipping and 1.015 for MGHParameterization. The average runtime ratio for G4PhantomParameterisation with and without boundary skipping for our heterogeneous data was equal to 0.97: 1. The calculated dose distributions agreed with the reference distribution for all but the G4
Haug, Jon Birger; Reikvam, Åsmund
2013-12-01
To investigate effects on surveillance results of hospital antibiotic use when WHO defined daily doses (WHO DDDs) are adjusted to doses recommended for hospitalized patients [hospital-adjusted defined daily doses (haDDDs)]. Data for antibiotic use in 2006-11 for all 22 Norwegian Health Enterprises were analysed with both WHO DDDs and haDDDs as numerators. The haDDDs were determined from recommendations given in regional and national guidelines on antibiotic use in hospitals. The two ways of calculating the amount of antibiotic use were compared, with either the number of bed days (BDs) or the number of discharges as the denominator. The drug utilization 90% methodology was applied for ranking the use of the various antibiotics. DDD adjustments altered the figures for total antibiotic use from 67.1 WHO DDDs/100 BDs to 49.3 haDDDs/100 BDs (-26.4%). The most marked difference was found for penicillins: 31.1 WHO DDDs/100 BDs versus 13.4 haDDDs/100 BDs (-56.8%). The corresponding figures for broad-spectrum antibiotics were 17.3 and 15.5 (-10.4%), respectively; for these antibiotics, the conversion changes varied significantly between institutions, from -16.7% to -3.3%. Ranking antibiotic use based on haDDDs resulted in higher positions for metronidazole, cefuroxime, cefotaxime and cefalotin/cefalexin compared with the WHO DDD-based ranking, where the penicillins dominated. The low-set WHO DDDs for penicillins caused skewed surveillance results that concealed the real magnitude of broad-spectrum antibiotic use and distorted interhospital comparisons. For surveillance of antibiotic use in hospitals, WHO DDDs should be supplemented with haDDDs.
Hirayama, Shusuke; Takayanagi, Taisuke; Fujii, Yusuke; Fujimoto, Rintaro; Fujitaka, Shinichiro; Umezawa, Masumi; Nagamine, Yoshihiko; Hosaka, Masahiro; Yasui, Keisuke; Omachi, Chihiro; Toshito, Toshiyuki
2016-03-01
The main purpose in this study was to present the results of beam modeling and how the authors systematically investigated the influence of double and triple Gaussian proton kernel models on the accuracy of dose calculations for spot scanning technique. The accuracy of calculations was important for treatment planning software (TPS) because the energy, spot position, and absolute dose had to be determined by TPS for the spot scanning technique. The dose distribution was calculated by convolving in-air fluence with the dose kernel. The dose kernel was the in-water 3D dose distribution of an infinitesimal pencil beam and consisted of an integral depth dose (IDD) and a lateral distribution. Accurate modeling of the low-dose region was important for spot scanning technique because the dose distribution was formed by cumulating hundreds or thousands of delivered beams. The authors employed a double Gaussian function as the in-air fluence model of an individual beam. Double and triple Gaussian kernel models were also prepared for comparison. The parameters of the kernel lateral model were derived by fitting a simulated in-water lateral dose profile induced by an infinitesimal proton beam, whose emittance was zero, at various depths using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The fitted parameters were interpolated as a function of depth in water and stored as a separate look-up table. These stored parameters for each energy and depth in water were acquired from the look-up table when incorporating them into the TPS. The modeling process for the in-air fluence and IDD was based on the method proposed in the literature. These were derived using MC simulation and measured data. The authors compared the measured and calculated absolute doses at the center of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) under various volumetric irradiation conditions to systematically investigate the influence of the two types of kernel models on the dose calculations. The authors investigated the difference
Wolkanin-Bartnik, Jolanta; Pogorzelska, Hanna; Szperl, Małgorzata; Bartnik, Aleksandra; Koziarek, Jacek; Bilinska, Zofia T
2013-11-01
Despite the recent emergence of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists remain the primary therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and the only therapy licensed for use in patients with artificial heart valves. The aim of this study was (a) to assess the impact of clinical and genetic factors on acenocoumarol (AC) dose requirements and the percentage of time in therapeutic range (%TTR) and (b) to develop pharmacogenetic-guided AC dose calculation algorithm. We included 235 outpatients of the Institute of Cardiology (Warsaw), mean age 69.3, 46.9% women, receiving AC for artificial heart valves and/or atrial fibrillation. A multiple linear-regression analysis was performed using log-transformed effective AC dose as the dependent variable, and combining CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping with other clinical factors as independent predictors. We identified factors that influenced the AC dose: CYP2C9 polymorphisms (P=0.004), VKORC1 polymorphisms (Pgenetic factors explained 49.0% of AC dose variability. We developed a dosing calculation algorithm that is, to the best of our knowledge, the first one to assess the effect of such clinical factors as creatinine clearance and dietary vitamin K intake on the AC dose. The clinical usefulness of the algorithm was assessed on separate validation group (n=50) with 70% accuracy. Dietary vitamin K intake higher than 200 mcg/day improved international normalized ratio control (%TTR 73.3±17 vs. 67.7±18, respectively, P=0.04). Inclusion of a variety of genetic and clinical factors in the dosing calculation algorithm allows for precise AC dose estimation in most patients and thus improves the efficacy and safety of the therapy.
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Zhang, B; Lee, S; Chen, S; Zhou, J; Prado, K; D’Souza, W; Yi, B [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: Monitoring the delivered dose is an important task for the adaptive radiotherapy (ART) and for determining time to re-plan. A software tool which enables automatic delivered dose calculation using cone-beam CT (CBCT) has been developed and tested. Methods: The tool consists of four components: a CBCT Colleting Module (CCM), a Plan Registration Moduel (PRM), a Dose Calculation Module (DCM), and an Evaluation and Action Module (EAM). The CCM is triggered periodically (e.g. every 1:00 AM) to search for newly acquired CBCTs of patients of interest and then export the DICOM files of the images and related registrations defined in ARIA followed by triggering the PRM. The PRM imports the DICOM images and registrations, links the CBCTs to the related treatment plan of the patient in the planning system (RayStation V4.5, RaySearch, Stockholm, Sweden). A pre-determined CT-to-density table is automatically generated for dose calculation. Current version of the DCM uses a rigid registration which regards the treatment isocenter of the CBCT to be the isocenter of the treatment plan. Then it starts the dose calculation automatically. The AEM evaluates the plan using pre-determined plan evaluation parameters: PTV dose-volume metrics and critical organ doses. The tool has been tested for 10 patients. Results: Automatic plans are generated and saved in the order of the treatment dates of the Adaptive Planning module of the RayStation planning system, without any manual intervention. Once the CTV dose deviates more than 3%, both email and page alerts are sent to the physician and the physicist of the patient so that one can look the case closely. Conclusion: The tool is capable to perform automatic dose tracking and to alert clinicians when an action is needed. It is clinically useful for off-line adaptive therapy to catch any gross error. Practical way of determining alarming level for OAR is under development.
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Barnett, J. Matthew; Rhoads, Kathleen
2008-09-29
This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.
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Barnett, J. Matthew; Rhoads, Kathleen
2009-06-11
This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.
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Veiga, Catarina, E-mail: catarina.veiga.11@ucl.ac.uk; Lourenço, Ana; Ricketts, Kate; Annkah, James; Royle, Gary [Radiation Physics Group, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); McClelland, Jamie; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sébastien [Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Moinuddin, Syed [Department of Radiotherapy, University College London Hospital, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); D’Souza, Derek [Department of Radiotherapy Physics, University College London Hospital, London NW1 2PG (United Kingdom)
2014-03-15
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of using computed tomography (CT) to cone-beam CT (CBCT) deformable image registration (DIR) for the application of calculating the “dose of the day” received by a head and neck patient. Methods: NiftyReg is an open-source registration package implemented in our institution. The affine registration uses a Block Matching-based approach, while the deformable registration is a GPU implementation of the popular B-spline Free Form Deformation algorithm. Two independent tests were performed to assess the suitability of our registrations methodology for “dose of the day” calculations in a deformed CT. A geometric evaluation was performed to assess the ability of the DIR method to map identical structures between the CT and CBCT datasets. Features delineated in the planning CT were warped and compared with features manually drawn on the CBCT. The authors computed the dice similarity coefficient (DSC), distance transformation, and centre of mass distance between features. A dosimetric evaluation was performed to evaluate the clinical significance of the registrations errors in the application proposed and to identify the limitations of the approximations used. Dose calculations for the same intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan on the deformed CT and replan CT were compared. Dose distributions were compared in terms of dose differences (DD), gamma analysis, target coverage, and dose volume histograms (DVHs). Doses calculated in a rigidly aligned CT and directly in an extended CBCT were also evaluated. Results: A mean value of 0.850 in DSC was achieved in overlap between manually delineated and warped features, with the distance between surfaces being less than 2 mm on over 90% of the pixels. Deformable registration was clearly superior to rigid registration in mapping identical structures between the two datasets. The dose recalculated in the deformed CT is a good match to the dose calculated on
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarup, Lasse Rye; Nahum, Alan E; Zacharatou, Christina
2009-01-01
and tumour have unit density). The lung tissue was assigned five densities (rho(lung)): 0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 1g/cm(3). Four-field treatment plans were calculated with 6- and 18 MV narrow beams for each value of rho(lung). We considered the Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC(Ecl)) and the Analytical Anisotropic...... Algorithm (AAA(Ecl)) from Varian Eclipse and the Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC(OMP)) and the Collapsed Cone Convolution (CCC(OMP)) algorithms from Oncentra MasterPlan. RESULTS: When changing rho(lung) from 0.4 to 0.1g/cm(3), the MC median target dose decreased from 89.2% to 74.9% for 6 MV and from 83...... Treatment Planning System (TPS) algorithms and one Monte Carlo (MC) system (EGSnrc). We compared the performance of the algorithms in calculating the target dose for different degrees of lung inflation. The phantoms had a cubic 'body' and 'lung' and a central 2-cm diameter spherical 'tumour' (the body...
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Pietrzak, Robert [Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Konefał, Adam, E-mail: adam.konefal@us.edu.pl [Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Sokół, Maria; Orlef, Andrzej [Department of Medical Physics, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center, Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland)
2016-08-01
The success of proton therapy depends strongly on the precision of treatment planning. Dose distribution in biological tissue may be obtained from Monte Carlo simulations using various scientific codes making it possible to perform very accurate calculations. However, there are many factors affecting the accuracy of modeling. One of them is a structure of objects called bins registering a dose. In this work the influence of bin structure on the dose distributions was examined. The MCNPX code calculations of Bragg curve for the 60 MeV proton beam were done in two ways: using simple logical detectors being the volumes determined in water, and using a precise model of ionization chamber used in clinical dosimetry. The results of the simulations were verified experimentally in the water phantom with Marcus ionization chamber. The average local dose difference between the measured relative doses in the water phantom and those calculated by means of the logical detectors was 1.4% at first 25 mm, whereas in the full depth range this difference was 1.6% for the maximum uncertainty in the calculations less than 2.4% and for the maximum measuring error of 1%. In case of the relative doses calculated with the use of the ionization chamber model this average difference was somewhat greater, being 2.3% at depths up to 25 mm and 2.4% in the full range of depths for the maximum uncertainty in the calculations of 3%. In the dose calculations the ionization chamber model does not offer any additional advantages over the logical detectors. The results provided by both models are similar and in good agreement with the measurements, however, the logical detector approach is a more time-effective method. - Highlights: • Influence of the bin structure on the proton dose distributions was examined for the MC simulations. • The considered relative proton dose distributions in water correspond to the clinical application. • MC simulations performed with the logical detectors and the
Hu, Weigang; Ye, Jinsong; Wang, Jiazhou; Ma, Xuejun; Zhang, Zhen
2010-04-19
To evaluate the accuracy of using kilovoltage x-ray cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) imaging for in vivo dose calculations. A Region-of-Interest (ROI) CT number mapping method was developed to generate the cone-beam CT number vs. relative electron density calibration curve for 3D dose calculations. The stability of the results was validated for three consecutive months. The method was evaluated on three brain tumors and three head-and-neck tumor cases. For each patient, kV-CBCT images were acquired on the first treatment day and two-week intervals on the Elekta XVI system. The delivered dose distributions were calculated by applying the patients' treatment plans to the kV-CBCT images. The resulting dose distributions and dose volume histograms (DVHs) of the tumor and critical structures were compared to the original treatment plan. The kV-CBCT electron density calibration was stable within 1.5% over a three-month period. The DVH and dose distribution comparison based on the planning CT and the initial kV-CBCT showed good agreements for majority of cases. The doses calculated from the planning CT and kV-CBCT were compared on planes perpendicular to the beam axes and passing through the isocenter. Using gamma analysis with a criterion of 2 mm/2% and a threshold of 10%, more than 99.5% of the points on the iso-planes exhibited gamma head-and-neck and brain tumor patients. Dose variations as monitored using kV-CBCT imaging suggest that some patients can benefit from adaptive treatment plan re-optimization.
Topping, David; Alibay, Irfan; Bane, Michael
2017-04-01
To predict the evolving concentration, chemical composition and ability of aerosol particles to act as cloud droplets, we rely on numerical modeling. Mechanistic models attempt to account for the movement of compounds between the gaseous and condensed phases at a molecular level. This 'bottom up' approach is designed to increase our fundamental understanding. However, such models rely on predicting the properties of molecules and subsequent mixtures. For partitioning between the gaseous and condensed phases this includes: saturation vapour pressures; Henrys law coefficients; activity coefficients; diffusion coefficients and reaction rates. Current gas phase chemical mechanisms predict the existence of potentially millions of individual species. Within a dynamic ensemble model, this can often be used as justification for neglecting computationally expensive process descriptions. Indeed, on whether we can quantify the true sensitivity to uncertainties in molecular properties, even at the single aerosol particle level it has been impossible to embed fully coupled representations of process level knowledge with all possible compounds, typically relying on heavily parameterised descriptions. Relying on emerging numerical frameworks, and designed for the changing landscape of high-performance computing (HPC), in this study we focus specifically on the ability to capture activity coefficients in liquid solutions using the UNIFAC method. Activity coefficients are often neglected with the largely untested hypothesis that they are simply too computationally expensive to include in dynamic frameworks. We present results demonstrating increased computational efficiency for a range of typical scenarios, including a profiling of the energy use resulting from reliance on such computations. As the landscape of HPC changes, the latter aspect is important to consider in future applications.
Paudel, Moti R; Kim, Anthony; Sarfehnia, Arman; Ahmad, Sayed B; Beachey, David J; Sahgal, Arjun; Keller, Brian M
2016-11-08
A new GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm (GPUMCD), devel-oped by the vendor Elekta for the Monaco treatment planning system (TPS), is capable of modeling dose for both a standard linear accelerator and an Elekta MRI linear accelerator. We have experimentally evaluated this algorithm for a standard Elekta Agility linear accelerator. A beam model was developed in the Monaco TPS (research version 5.09.06) using the commissioned beam data for a 6 MV Agility linac. A heterogeneous phantom representing several scenarios - tumor-in-lung, lung, and bone-in-tissue - was designed and built. Dose calculations in Monaco were done using both the current clinical Monte Carlo algorithm, XVMC, and the new GPUMCD algorithm. Dose calculations in a Pinnacle TPS were also produced using the collapsed cone convolution (CCC) algorithm with heterogeneity correc-tion. Calculations were compared with the measured doses using an ionization chamber (A1SL) and Gafchromic EBT3 films for 2 × 2 cm2, 5 × 5 cm2, and 10 × 10 cm2 field sizes. The percentage depth doses (PDDs) calculated by XVMC and GPUMCD in a homogeneous solid water phantom were within 2%/2 mm of film measurements and within 1% of ion chamber measurements. For the tumor-in-lung phantom, the calculated doses were within 2.5%/2.5 mm of film measurements for GPUMCD. For the lung phantom, doses calculated by all of the algorithms were within 3%/3 mm of film measurements, except for the 2 × 2 cm2 field size where the CCC algorithm underestimated the depth dose by ~ 5% in a larger extent of the lung region. For the bone phantom, all of the algorithms were equivalent and calculated dose to within 2%/2 mm of film measurements, except at the interfaces. Both GPUMCD and XVMC showed interface effects, which were more pronounced for GPUMCD and were comparable to film measurements, whereas the CCC algorithm showed these effects poorly. © 2016 The Authors.
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Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Daros, Kellen Adriana Curci; Idagawa, Marcos Hideki [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem
2000-02-01
The radiation dose absorbed by the patient on the skin during urograms was determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters (Ca SO{sub 4}:Dy). The measure dose values were compared to the results of the radiological equipment quality control program. Consequently, an equation to calculate the absorbed dose was proposed as a function of the dose rate associated with the X-rays output (m C/kg.m As). This allows calculation of the absorbed dose in urogramsin any radiological center provided that operational conditions are known through the quality control program and the applied technique is compared to the one used in this study. (author)
Kase, Yuki; Himukai, Takeshi; Nagano, Ai; Tameshige, Yuji; Minohara, Shinichi; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Mizoe, Junetsu; Fossati, Piero; Hasegawa, Azusa; Kanai, Tatsuaki
2011-01-01
Cerebral radionecrosis is a significant side effect in radiotherapy for brain cancer. The purpose of this study is to calculate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon-ion beams on brain cells and to show RBE-weighted dose distributions for cerebral radionecrosis speculation in a carbon-ion treatment planning system. The RBE value of the radionecrosis for the carbon-ion beam is calculated by the modified microdosimetric kinetic model on the assumption of a typical clinical α/β ratio of 2 Gy for cerebral radionecrosis in X-rays. This calculation method for the RBE-weighted dose is built into the treatment planning system for the carbon-ion radiotherapy. The RBE-weighted dose distributions are calculated on computed tomography (CT) images of four patients who had been treated by carbon-ion radiotherapy for astrocytoma (WHO grade 2) and who suffered from necrosis around the target areas. The necrotic areas were detected by brain scans via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after the treatment irradiation. The detected necrotic areas are easily found near high RBE-weighted dose regions. The visual comparison between the RBE-weighted dose distribution and the necrosis region indicates that the RBE-weighted dose distribution will be helpful information for the prediction of radionecrosis areas after carbon-ion radiotherapy.
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Damilakis, J; Stratakis, J; Solomou, G [University of Crete, Heraklion (Greece)
2014-06-01
Purpose: It is well known that pacemaker implantation is sometimes needed in pregnant patients with symptomatic bradycardia. To our knowledge, there is no reported experience regarding radiation doses to the unborn child resulting from fluoroscopy during pacemaker implantation. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for estimating embryo/fetus dose from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all trimesters of gestation. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study. Three mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms representing the average pregnant patient at the first, second and third trimesters of gestation were generated using Bodybuilder software (White Rock science, White Rock, NM). The normalized embryo/fetus dose from the posteroanterior (PA), the 30° left-anterior oblique (LAO) and the 30° right-anterior oblique (RAO) projections were calculated for a wide range of kVp (50–120 kVp) and total filtration values (2.5–9.0 mm Al). Results: The results consist of radiation doses normalized to a) entrance skin dose (ESD) and b) dose area product (DAP) so that the dose to the unborn child from any fluoroscopic technique and x-ray device used can be calculated. ESD normalized doses ranged from 0.008 (PA, first trimester) to 2.519 μGy/mGy (RAO, third trimester). DAP normalized doses ranged from 0.051 (PA, first trimester) to 12.852 μGy/Gycm2 (RAO, third trimester). Conclusion: Embryo/fetus doses from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be estimated using the method developed in this study. This study was supported by the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Operational Program ‘Education and Lifelong Learning’, ARISTIA (Research project: CONCERT)
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Traeber, S.C.; Li, W.B.; Hoellriegl, V.; Oeh, U. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Neuherberg (Germany); Nebelung, K. [Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Institute of Geosciences, Jena (Germany); Michalke, B. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit BioGeoChemistry and Analytics, Neuherberg (Germany); Ruehm, W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)
2015-08-15
The aim of the present study was to determine the internal dose in humans after the ingestion of soil highly contaminated with uranium. Therefore, an in vitro solubility assay was performed to estimate the bioaccessibility of uranium for two types of soil. Based on the results, the corresponding bioavailabilities were assessed by using a recently published method. Finally, these bioavailability data were used together with the biokinetic model of uranium to assess the internal doses for a hypothetical but realistic scenario characterized by a daily ingestion of 10 mg of soil over 1 year. The investigated soil samples were from two former uranium mining sites of Germany with {sup 238}U concentrations of about 460 and 550 mg/kg. For these soils, the bioavailabilities of {sup 238}U were quantified as 0.18 and 0.28 % (geometric mean) with 2.5th percentiles of 0.02 and 0.03 % and 97.5th percentiles of 1.48 and 2.34 %, respectively. The corresponding calculated annual committed effective doses for the assumed scenario were 0.4 and 0.6 μSv (GM) with 2.5th percentiles of 0.2 and 0.3 μSv and 97.5th percentiles of 1.6 and 3.0 μSv, respectively. These annual committed effective doses are similar to those from natural uranium intake by food and drinking water, which is estimated to be 0.5 μSv. Based on the present experimental data and the selected ingestion scenario, the investigated soils - although highly contaminated with uranium - are not expected to pose any major health risk to humans related to radiation. (orig.)
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NONE
2005-11-15
This Regulation refers to the requirements of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01. 'Basic Act of Radiological Protection', as expressed in the section 5.9, and its application to the effective dose calculation for individual occupationally exposed. from the internal and external individual monitoring data
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Heinzelman, K M; Mansfield, W G
2010-04-27
This document evaluates the expected radiation dose due to the consumption of several specific food classes (dairy, meat, produce, etc.) contaminated with specific radionuclides, and relates concentration levels in food to the detection abilities of typical aboratory analysis/measurement methods. The attached charts present the limiting organ dose as a function of the radionuclide concentration in a particular food class, and allow the user to compare these concentrations and doses to typical analytical detection apabilities. The expected radiation dose depends on several factors: the age of the individual; the radionuclide present in the food; the concentration of the radionuclide in the food; and the amount of food consumed. Food consumption rates for individuals of various ges were taken from the 1998 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) document, Accidental Radioactive Contamination of HUman Food and Animal Feeds: Recommendations for State and Local Agencies. In that document, the FDA defines the erived Intervention Level (DIL), which is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in food that if consumed could result in an individual receiving a radiation dose exceeding the Protection Action Guide (PAG) thresholds for intervention. This document also resents odified, food class specific DIL, which is calculated using a somewhat modified version of the FDA's procedure. This document begins with an overview of the FDA's DIL calculation, followed by a description of the food class specific DIL calculations, and finally charts of the radiation dose per radioactivity concentration for several food class/radionuclide combinations.
Xiang, Hong F; Song, Jun S; Chin, David W H; Cormack, Robert A; Tishler, Roy B; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Court, Laurence E; Chin, Lee M
2007-04-01
This work is intended to investigate the application and accuracy of micro-MOSFET for superficial dose measurement under clinically used MV x-ray beams. Dose response of micro-MOSFET in the build-up region and on surface under MV x-ray beams were measured and compared to Monte Carlo calculations. First, percentage-depth-doses were measured with micro-MOSFET under 6 and 10 MV beams of normal incidence onto a flat solid water phantom. Micro-MOSFET data were compared with the measurements from a parallel plate ionization chamber and Monte Carlo dose calculation in the build-up region. Then, percentage-depth-doses were measured for oblique beams at 0 degrees-80 degrees onto the flat solid water phantom with micro-MOSFET placed at depths of 2 cm, 1 cm, and 2 mm below the surface. Measurements were compared to Monte Carlo calculations under these settings. Finally, measurements were performed with micro-MOSFET embedded in the first 1 mm layer of bolus placed on a flat phantom and a curved phantom of semi-cylindrical shape. Results were compared to superficial dose calculated from Monte Carlo for a 2 mm thin layer that extends from the surface to a depth of 2 mm. Results were (1) Comparison of measurements with MC calculation in the build-up region showed that micro-MOSFET has a water-equivalence thickness (WET) of 0.87 mm for 6 MV beam and 0.99 mm for 10 MV beam from the flat side, and a WET of 0.72 mm for 6 MV beam and 0.76 mm for 10 MV beam from the epoxy side. (2) For normal beam incidences, percentage depth dose agree within 3%-5% among micro-MOSFET measurements, parallel-plate ionization chamber measurements, and MC calculations. (3) For oblique incidence on the flat phantom with micro-MOSFET placed at depths of 2 cm, 1 cm, and 2 mm, measurements were consistent with MC calculations within a typical uncertainty of 3%-5%. (4) For oblique incidence on the flat phantom and a curved-surface phantom, measurements with micro-MOSFET placed at 1.0 mm agrees with the MC
Ehrbar, Stefanie; Jöhl, Alexander; Tartas, Adrianna; Stark, Luisa Sabrina; Riesterer, Oliver; Klöck, Stephan; Guckenberger, Matthias; Tanadini-Lang, Stephanie
2017-07-01
Respiratory motion-management techniques (MMT) aim to ensure tumor dose coverage while sparing lung tissue. Dynamic treatment-couch tracking of the moving tumor is a promising new MMT and was compared to the internal-target-volume (ITV) concept, the mid-ventilation (MidV) principle and the gating approach in a planning study based on 4D dose calculations. For twenty patients with lung lesions, planning target volumes (PTV) were adapted to the MMT and stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments were prepared with the 65%-isodose enclosing the PTV. For tracking, three concepts for target volume definition were considered: Including the gross tumor volume of one phase (single-phase tracking), including deformations between phases (multi-phase tracking) and additionally including tracking latencies of a couch tracking system (reliable couch tracking). The accumulated tumor and lung doses were estimated with 4D dose calculations based on 4D-CT datasets and deformable image registration. Single-phase tracking showed the lowest ipsilateral lung Dmean (median: 3.3Gy), followed by multi-phase tracking, gating, reliable couch tracking, MidV and ITV concepts (3.6, 3.8, 4.1, 4.3 and 4.8Gy). The 4D dose calculations showed the MidV and single-phase tracking overestimated the target mean dose (-2.3% and -1.3%), while it was slightly underestimated by the other MMT (concept ensures tumor coverage, but exposes the lung tissue to a higher dose. The MidV, gating and tracking concepts were shown to reduce the lung dose. Neglecting non-translational changes of the tumor in the target volume definition for tracking results in a slightly reduced target coverage. The slightly inferior dose coverage for MidV should be considered when applying this technique clinically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody levels against two of the most carcinogenic types of HPV (16 and 18), compared to a standard three dose regimen. Among women who received only one dose, antibody levels were also high and remained stable four years after vaccination. The results suggest that fewer doses of an HPV vaccine may confer necessary long-term protection against new infection and appeared Nov. 4, 2013, in Cancer Prevention Research... |
Kauweloa, Kevin I; Gutierrez, Alonso N; Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Niko; Mavroidis, Panayiotis
2016-07-01
A toolkit has been developed for calculating the 3-dimensional biological effective dose (BED) distributions in multi-phase, external beam radiotherapy treatments such as those applied in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and in multi-prescription treatments. This toolkit also provides a wide range of statistical results related to dose and BED distributions. MATLAB 2010a, version 7.10 was used to create this GUI toolkit. The input data consist of the dose distribution matrices, organ contour coordinates, and treatment planning parameters from the treatment planning system (TPS). The toolkit has the capability of calculating the multi-phase BED distributions using different formulas (denoted as true and approximate). Following the calculations of the BED distributions, the dose and BED distributions can be viewed in different projections (e.g. coronal, sagittal and transverse). The different elements of this toolkit are presented and the important steps for the execution of its calculations are illustrated. The toolkit is applied on brain, head & neck and prostate cancer patients, who received primary and boost phases in order to demonstrate its capability in calculating BED distributions, as well as measuring the inaccuracy and imprecision of the approximate BED distributions. Finally, the clinical situations in which the use of the present toolkit would have a significant clinical impact are indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Ding, George X. [Medical Physics, Fraser Valley Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Surrey, BC (Canada)]. E-mail: gding@bccancer.bc.ca; Duzenli, Cheryl; Kalach, Nina I. [Medical Physics, Fraser Valley Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Surrey, BC (Canada)
2002-09-07
This study presents measured neutron dose using a neutron dosimeter in a water phantom and investigates a hypothesis that neutrons in a high-energy photon beam may be responsible for the reported significant dose discrepancies between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements at the build-up region in large fields. Borated polyethylene slabs were inserted between the accelerator head and the phantom in order to remove neutrons generated in the accelerator head. The thickness of the slab ranged from 2.5 cm to 10 cm. A lead slab of 3 mm thickness was also used in the study. The superheated drop neutron dosimeter was used to measure the depth-dose curve of neutrons in a high-energy photon beam and to verify the effectiveness of the slab to remove these neutrons. Total dose measurements were performed in water using a WELLHOFER WP700 beam scanner with an IC-10 ionization chamber. The Monte Carlo code BEAM was used to simulate an 18 MV photon beam from a Varian Clinac-2100EX accelerator. Both EGS4/DOSXYZ and EGSnrc/DOSRZnrc were used in the dose calculations. Measured neutron dose equivalents as a function of depth per unit total dose in water were presented for 10x10 and 40x40 cm{sup 2} fields. The measured results have shown that a 5-10 cm thick borated polyethylene slab can reduce the neutron dose by a factor of 2 when inserted between the accelerator head and the detector. In all cases the measured neutron dose equivalent was less than 0.5% of the photon dose. In order to study if the ion chamber was highly sensitive to the neutron dose, we have investigated the disagreement between the Monte Carlo calculated and measured central-axis depth-dose curves in the build-up region when different shielding materials were used. The result indicated that the IC-10 chamber was not highly sensitive to the neutron dose. Therefore, neutrons present in a high-energy photon beam were unlikely to be responsible for the reported discrepancies in the build-up region for large fields
Ding, George X; Duzenli, Cheryl; Kalach, Nina I
2002-09-07
This study presents measured neutron dose using a neutron dosimeter in a water phantom and investigates a hypothesis that neutrons in a high-energy photon beam may be responsible for the reported significant dose discrepancies between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements at the build-up region in large fields. Borated polyethylene slabs were inserted between the accelerator head and the phantom in order to remove neutrons generated in the accelerator head. The thickness of the slab ranged from 2.5 cm to 10 cm. A lead slab of 3 mm thickness was also used in the study. The superheated drop neutron dosimeter was used to measure the depth-dose curve of neutrons in a high-energy photon beam and to verify the effectiveness of the slab to remove these neutrons. Total dose measurements were performed in water using a WELLHOFER WP700 beam scanner with an IC-10 ionization chamber. The Monte Carlo code BEAM was used to simulate an 18 MV photon beam from a Varian Clinac-2100EX accelerator. Both EGS4/DOSXYZ and EGSnrc/DOSRZnrc were used in the dose calculations. Measured neutron dose equivalents as a function of depth per unit total dose in water were presented for 10 x 10 and 40 x 40 cm2 fields. The measured results have shown that a 5-10 cm thick borated polyethylene slab can reduce the neutron dose by a factor of 2 when inserted between the accelerator head and the detector. In all cases the measured neutron dose equivalent was less than 0.5% of the photon dose. In order to study if the ion chamber was highly sensitive to the neutron dose, we have investigated the disagreement between the Monte Carlo calculated and measured central-axis depth-dose curves in the build-up region when different shielding materials were used. The result indicated that the IC-10 chamber was not highly sensitive to the neutron dose. Therefore, neutrons present in a high-energy photon beam were unlikely to be responsible for the reported discrepancies in the build-up region for large fields.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roger Lédée
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The hyperthyroid disease treatment consists in swallowing iodine 131. The quantity of these radio isotope results in an evaluation of the thyroid volume from a single scintigraphic image. In medical routine, the volume is calculated from a manual selection of an isocontour defining the boundary of the thyroid. We propose in this paper an automatic method to extract this boundary using Cellular Neural Network (CNN. Results show that our method is comparable to manual choice given by four experts. Studied on 35 patients with hyperthyroid diseases, we conclude that CNN is a comprising approach in segmentation of scintigraphic images.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dmitrijus Styra
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Equivalent dose rate measurements were carried out in the Baltic Sea coast near Juodkrantė. The measurements were performed at the ground level and 1 meter above it at 63 points within the territory of 2,0´0,2 km on 2 July 2008 and 10 July 2008 under conditions of northern and southern wind directions respectively. The extreme rates of the equivalent dose rate were 51 and 90 nSv/h respectively which means that the structure of the equivalent dose field was unhomogeneous. The method of optimal interpollation was used to calculate and evaluate the structure of the equivalent dose rate field. This method was used in 3 cases when 63, 33 and 18 numbers of measurement were carried out. The identical structures of the equivalent dose field were accepted. Using 18 measurement points, coincidence between the measured and calculated values of the equivalent dose rate was satisfactory. Difference between the measured and calculated values does not exceed 15% in 80% of the measurement points.Article in Lithuanian
Wang, L; Xing, L; Sawkey, D; Constantin, M; Svatos, M; Mok, E
2012-06-01
To validate the generic phase space files for Varian TrueBeam linac head simulations. The generic phase space files include the simulation results of 6MV, 10MV, 6MV FFF, and 10MV FFF (flattening-filter free) operating modes of TrueBeam for patient-independent linac head components. Using the generic phase space files as the radiation sources, the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo codes are used to simulate the patient-dependent parts of the TrueBeam linac and the resulting phase space files are generated at a plane just before entering a water phantom for 4 different field sizes (5×5, 10×10, 20×20, and 40×40 cm(2) ). Dose distributions are calculated by DOSXYZnrc in the water phantom of size 50×50×40 cm(3) . The percentage-depth-dose (PDD) curves and lateral dose profiles at three different depths (dmax, 10cm, 20cm) are obtained. Comprehensive comparisons have been made for a total of 64 dose profiles (including PDDs) between the Monte Carlo calculations and the measured data. The gamma index analysis is performed for all the comparisons. The matching of the calculated dose distributions to the measured ones is analyzed by the gamma index method with a criterion of 2% dose tolerance and 2 mm distance-to-agreement. Of the 64 comparisons, the minimum gamma index passing rate is at least 92%, after taking into account the statistical nature of the Monte Carlo calculated dose values. Despite the existence of latent variance of phase space files, the phantom dose calculation uncertainty can be less than 1% for field sizes as small as 5×5 cm(2) . The computing time saved by using phase space files could be a factor of 5-10. The Varian generic phase space files are accurate and efficient radiation sources for Monte Carlo calculations of radiation dose distributions for TrueBeam linac head. This work was supported in part by Varian Medical Systems and the NIH (1R01 CA104205 and 1R21 CA153587). © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
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Rusin, Tiago; Rebello, Wilson F.; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Gomes, Renato G., E-mail: tiagorusin@ime.eb.b, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.b, E-mail: vellozo@cbpf.b, E-mail: renatoguedes@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.b [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear
2011-07-01
A cavity-type cesium-137 research irradiating facility at CTEx has been modeled by using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The irradiator has been daily used in experiments to optimize the use of ionizing radiation for conservation of many kinds of food and to improve materials properties. In order to correlate the effects of the treatment, average doses have been calculated for each irradiated sample, accounting for the measured dose rate distribution in the irradiating chambers. However that approach is only approximate, being subject to significant systematic errors due to the heterogeneous internal structure of most samples that can lead to large anisotropy in attenuation and Compton scattering properties across the media. Thus this work is aimed at further investigating such uncertainties by calculating the dose rate distribution inside the items treated such that a more accurate and representative estimate of the total absorbed dose can be determined for later use in the effects-versus-dose correlation curves. Samples of different simplified geometries and densities (spheres, cylinders, and parallelepipeds), have been modeled to evaluate internal dose rate distributions within the volume of the samples and the overall effect on the average dose. (author)
Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Chastan, Mathieu; Edet-Sanson, Agathe; Ekmekcioglu, Ozgul; Erdogan, Ezgi Basak; Hapdey, Sebastien; Hindie, Elif; Stabin, Michael G
2016-11-01
Data from the literature show that the fetal absorbed dose from 18F-FDG administration to the pregnant mother ranges from 0.5E-2 to 4E-2 mGy/MBq. These figures were, however, obtained using different quantification techniques and with basic geometric anthropomorphic phantoms. The aim of this study was to refine the fetal dose estimates of published as well as new cases using realistic voxel-based phantoms. The 18F-FDG doses to the fetus (n = 19; 5-34 wk of pregnancy) were calculated with new voxel-based anthropomorphic phantoms of the pregnant woman. The image-derived fetal time-integrated activity values were combined with those of the mothers' organs from the International Commission on Radiological Protection publication 106 and the dynamic bladder model with a 1-h bladder-voiding interval. The dose to the uterus was used as a proxy for early pregnancy (up to 10 wk). The time-integrated activities were entered into OLINDA/EXM 1.1 to derive the dose with the classic anthropomorphic phantoms of pregnant women, then into OLINDA/EXM 2.0 to assess the dose using new voxel-based phantoms. The average fetal doses (mGy/MBq) with OLINDA/EXM 2.0 were 2.5E-02 in early pregnancy, 1.3E-02 in the late part of the first trimester, 8.5E-03 in the second trimester, and 5.1E-03 in the third trimester. The differences compared with the doses calculated with OLINDA/EXM 1.1 were +7%, +70%, +35%, and -8%, respectively. Except in late pregnancy, the doses estimated with realistic voxelwise anthropomorphic phantoms are higher than the doses derived from old geometric phantoms. The doses remain, however, well below the threshold for any deterministic effects. Thus, pregnancy is not an absolute contraindication of a clinically justified 18F-FDG PET scan. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.
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Moignier, C; Huet, C [Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute IRSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Barraux, V; Loiseau, C; Sebe-Mercier, K; Batalla, A [Francois Baclesse Center, Caen (France); Makovicka, L [IRMA/CE UMR 6249 CNRS, Franche-Comte University, Montbeliard (France)
2014-06-15
Purpose: Advanced stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments require accurate dose calculation for treatment planning especially for treatment sites involving heterogeneous patient anatomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of dose calculation algorithms, Raytracing and Monte Carlo (MC), implemented in the MultiPlan treatment planning system (TPS) in presence of heterogeneities. Methods: First, the LINAC of a CyberKnife radiotherapy facility was modeled with the PENELOPE MC code. A protocol for the measurement of dose distributions with EBT3 films was established and validated thanks to comparison between experimental dose distributions and calculated dose distributions obtained with MultiPlan Raytracing and MC algorithms as well as with the PENELOPE MC model for treatments planned with the homogenous Easycube phantom. Finally, bones and lungs inserts were used to set up a heterogeneous Easycube phantom. Treatment plans with the 10, 7.5 or the 5 mm field sizes were generated in Multiplan TPS with different tumor localizations (in the lung and at the lung/bone/soft tissue interface). Experimental dose distributions were compared to the PENELOPE MC and Multiplan calculations using the gamma index method. Results: Regarding the experiment in the homogenous phantom, 100% of the points passed for the 3%/3mm tolerance criteria. These criteria include the global error of the method (CT-scan resolution, EBT3 dosimetry, LINAC positionning …), and were used afterwards to estimate the accuracy of the MultiPlan algorithms in heterogeneous media. Comparison of the dose distributions obtained in the heterogeneous phantom is in progress. Conclusion: This work has led to the development of numerical and experimental dosimetric tools for small beam dosimetry. Raytracing and MC algorithms implemented in MultiPlan TPS were evaluated in heterogeneous media.
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Mille, M; Lee, C [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD (United States); Failla, G [Varian Medical Systems, Gig Harbor, WA (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To use the Attila deterministic solver as a supplement to Monte Carlo for calculating out-of-field organ dose in support of epidemiological studies looking at the risks of second cancers. Supplemental dosimetry tools are needed to speed up dose calculations for studies involving large-scale patient cohorts. Methods: Attila is a multi-group discrete ordinates code which can solve the 3D photon-electron coupled linear Boltzmann radiation transport equation on a finite-element mesh. Dose is computed by multiplying the calculated particle flux in each mesh element by a medium-specific energy deposition cross-section. The out-of-field dosimetry capability of Attila is investigated by comparing average organ dose to that which is calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. The test scenario consists of a 6 MV external beam treatment of a female patient with a tumor in the left breast. The patient is simulated by a whole-body adult reference female computational phantom. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using MCNP6 and XVMC. Attila can export a tetrahedral mesh for MCNP6, allowing for a direct comparison between the two codes. The Attila and Monte Carlo methods were also compared in terms of calculation speed and complexity of simulation setup. A key perquisite for this work was the modeling of a Varian Clinac 2100 linear accelerator. Results: The solid mesh of the torso part of the adult female phantom for the Attila calculation was prepared using the CAD software SpaceClaim. Preliminary calculations suggest that Attila is a user-friendly software which shows great promise for our intended application. Computational performance is related to the number of tetrahedral elements included in the Attila calculation. Conclusion: Attila is being explored as a supplement to the conventional Monte Carlo radiation transport approach for performing retrospective patient dosimetry. The goal is for the dosimetry to be sufficiently accurate for use in retrospective
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Utsunomiya, S; Kushima, N; Katsura, K; Tanabe, S; Hayakawa, T; Sakai, H; Yamada, T; Takahashi, H; Abe, E; Wada, S; Aoyama, H [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To establish a simple relation of backscatter dose enhancement around a high-Z dental alloy in head and neck radiation therapy to its average atomic number based on Monte Carlo calculations. Methods: The PHITS Monte Carlo code was used to calculate dose enhancement, which is quantified by the backscatter dose factor (BSDF). The accuracy of the beam modeling with PHITS was verified by comparing with basic measured data namely PDDs and dose profiles. In the simulation, a high-Z alloy of 1 cm cube was embedded into a tough water phantom irradiated by a 6-MV (nominal) X-ray beam of 10 cm × 10 cm field size of Novalis TX (Brainlab). The ten different materials of high-Z alloys (Al, Ti, Cu, Ag, Au-Pd-Ag, I, Ba, W, Au, Pb) were considered. The accuracy of calculated BSDF was verified by comparing with measured data by Gafchromic EBT3 films placed at from 0 to 10 mm away from a high-Z alloy (Au-Pd-Ag). We derived an approximate equation to determine the relation of BSDF and range of backscatter to average atomic number of high-Z alloy. Results: The calculated BSDF showed excellent agreement with measured one by Gafchromic EBT3 films at from 0 to 10 mm away from the high-Z alloy. We found the simple linear relation of BSDF and range of backscatter to average atomic number of dental alloys. The latter relation was proven by the fact that energy spectrum of backscatter electrons strongly depend on average atomic number. Conclusion: We found a simple relation of backscatter dose enhancement around high-Z alloys to its average atomic number based on Monte Carlo calculations. This work provides a simple and useful method to estimate backscatter dose enhancement from dental alloys and corresponding optimal thickness of dental spacer to prevent mucositis effectively.
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Park, So Yeon; Park, Jong Min; Choi, Chang Heon; Chun, MinSoo; Han, Ji Hye; Cho, Jin Dong; Kim, Jung In [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-03-15
The purpose of this study is to assign an appropriate density to virtual phantom for 2D diode array detector with different dose calculation algorithms to guarantee the accuracy of patient-specific QA. Ten VMAT plans with 6 MV photon beam and ten VMAT plans with 15 MV photon beam were selected retrospectively. The computed tomography (CT) images of MapCHECK2 with MapPHAN were acquired to design the virtual phantom images. For all plans, dose distributions were calculated for the virtual phantoms with four different materials by AAA and AXB algorithms. The four materials were polystyrene, 455 HU, Jursinic phantom, and PVC. Passing rates for several gamma criteria were calculated by comparing the measured dose distribution with calculated dose distributions of four materials. For validation of AXB modeling in clinic, the mean percentages of agreement in the cases of dose difference criteria of 1.0% and 2.0% for 6 MV were 97.2%±2.3%, and 99.4%±1.1%, respectively while those for 15 MV were 98.5%±0.85% and 99.8%±0.2%, respectively. In the case of 2%/2 mm, all mean passing rates were more than 96.0% and 97.2% for 6 MV and 15 MV, respectively, regardless of the virtual phantoms of different materials and dose calculation algorithms. The passing rates in all criteria slightly increased for AXB as well as AAA when using 455 HU rather than polystyrene. The virtual phantom which had a 455 HU values showed high passing rates for all gamma criteria. To guarantee the accuracy of patent-specific VMAT QA, each institution should fine-tune the mass density or HU values of this device.
Aldelaijan, Saad; Bekerat, Hamed; Buzurovic, Ivan; Devlin, Phillip; DeBlois, Francois; Seuntjens, Jan; Devic, Slobodan
Current high-dose-rate brachytherapy skin treatments with the Freiburg flap (FF) applicator are planned with treatment planning systems based on the American Association of Physicists in Medicine TG-43 data sets, which assume full backscatter conditions in dose calculations. The aim of this work is to describe an experimental method based on radiochromic film dosimetry to evaluate dose calculation accuracy during surface treatments with the FF applicator at different depths and bolus thicknesses. Absolute doses were measured using a reference EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry system within a Solid Water phantom at different depths (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 cm) with respect to the phantom surface. The impact of bolus (up to 3-cm thickness) placed on top of the applicator was investigated for two clinical loadings created using Oncentra MasterPlan: 5 cm × 5 cm and 11 cm × 11 cm. For smaller loading and depths beyond 2 cm and for larger loading and depths beyond 1 cm, the dose difference was less than 3% (±4%). At shallower depths, differences of up to 6% (±4%) at the surface were observed if no bolus was added. The addition of 2-cm bolus for the smaller loading and 1 cm for larger loading minimized the difference to less than 3% (±4%). For typical FF applicator loading sizes, the actual measured dose was 6% (±4%) lower at the skin level when compared with TG-43. Additional bolus above the FF was shown to decrease the dose difference. The consideration of change in clinical practice should be carefully investigated in light of clinical reference data. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Kunishima, Naoaki; Tani, Kotaro; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Furuyama, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Shozo; Akashi, Makoto
2017-09-01
A tool was developed to facilitate the calculation of the early internal doses to residents involved in the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster based on atmospheric transport and dispersion model (ATDM) simulations performed using Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Information 2nd version (WSPEEDI-II) together with personal behavior data containing the history of the whereabouts of individul's after the accident. The tool generates hourly-averaged air concentration data for the simulation grids nearest to an individual's whereabouts using WSPEEDI-II datasets for the subsequent calculation of internal doses due to inhalation. This paper presents an overview of the developed tool and provides tentative comparisons between direct measurement-based and ATDM-based results regarding the internal doses received by 421 persons from whom personal behavior data available.
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Kurihara Osamu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A tool was developed to facilitate the calculation of the early internal doses to residents involved in the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster based on atmospheric transport and dispersion model (ATDM simulations performed using Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Information 2nd version (WSPEEDI-II together with personal behavior data containing the history of the whereabouts of individul’s after the accident. The tool generates hourly-averaged air concentration data for the simulation grids nearest to an individual’s whereabouts using WSPEEDI-II datasets for the subsequent calculation of internal doses due to inhalation. This paper presents an overview of the developed tool and provides tentative comparisons between direct measurement-based and ATDM-based results regarding the internal doses received by 421 persons from whom personal behavior data available.
A GPU OpenCL based cross-platform Monte Carlo dose calculation engine (goMC).
Tian, Zhen; Shi, Feng; Folkerts, Michael; Qin, Nan; Jiang, Steve B; Jia, Xun
2015-10-07
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has been recognized as the most accurate dose calculation method for radiotherapy. However, the extremely long computation time impedes its clinical application. Recently, a lot of effort has been made to realize fast MC dose calculation on graphic processing units (GPUs). However, most of the GPU-based MC dose engines have been developed under NVidia's CUDA environment. This limits the code portability to other platforms, hindering the introduction of GPU-based MC simulations to clinical practice. The objective of this paper is to develop a GPU OpenCL based cross-platform MC dose engine named goMC with coupled photon-electron simulation for external photon and electron radiotherapy in the MeV energy range. Compared to our previously developed GPU-based MC code named gDPM (Jia et al 2012 Phys. Med. Biol. 57 7783-97), goMC has two major differences. First, it was developed under the OpenCL environment for high code portability and hence could be run not only on different GPU cards but also on CPU platforms. Second, we adopted the electron transport model used in EGSnrc MC package and PENELOPE's random hinge method in our new dose engine, instead of the dose planning method employed in gDPM. Dose distributions were calculated for a 15 MeV electron beam and a 6 MV photon beam in a homogenous water phantom, a water-bone-lung-water slab phantom and a half-slab phantom. Satisfactory agreement between the two MC dose engines goMC and gDPM was observed in all cases. The average dose differences in the regions that received a dose higher than 10% of the maximum dose were 0.48-0.53% for the electron beam cases and 0.15-0.17% for the photon beam cases. In terms of efficiency, goMC was ~4-16% slower than gDPM when running on the same NVidia TITAN card for all the cases we tested, due to both the different electron transport models and the different development environments. The code portability of our new dose engine goMC was validated by
Jagetic, Lydia J; Newhauser, Wayne D
2015-06-21
State-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment planning systems provide reliable estimates of the therapeutic radiation but are known to underestimate or neglect the stray radiation exposures. Most commonly, stray radiation exposures are reconstructed using empirical formulas or lookup tables. The purpose of this study was to develop the basic physics of a model capable of calculating the total absorbed dose both inside and outside of the therapeutic radiation beam for external beam photon therapy. The model was developed using measurements of total absorbed dose in a water-box phantom from a 6 MV medical linear accelerator to calculate dose profiles in both the in-plane and cross-plane direction for a variety of square field sizes and depths in water. The water-box phantom facilitated development of the basic physical aspects of the model. RMS discrepancies between measured and calculated total absorbed dose values in water were less than 9.3% for all fields studied. Computation times for 10 million dose points within a homogeneous phantom were approximately 4 min. These results suggest that the basic physics of the model are sufficiently simple, fast, and accurate to serve as a foundation for a variety of clinical and research applications, some of which may require that the model be extended or simplified based on the needs of the user. A potentially important advantage of a physics-based approach is that the model is more readily adaptable to a wide variety of treatment units and treatment techniques than with empirical models.
Maspero, Matteo; Van den Berg, Cornelis A T|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817422; Landry, Guillaume; Belka, Claus; Parodi, Katia; Seevinck, Peter R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821039; Raaymakers, Bas W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229639410; Kurz, Christopher
2017-01-01
A magnetic resonance (MR)-only radiotherapy workflow can reduce cost, radiation exposure and uncertainties introduced by CT-MRI registration. A crucial prerequisite is generating the so called pseudo-CT (pCT) images for accurate dose calculation and planning. Many pCT generation methods have been
Iwai, G.; Takase, W.; Aso, T.; Watase, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Akagi, T.; Yamashita, T.; Maeda, Y.; Nishio, T.
2014-03-01
While Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is believed to be the most reliable method of dose calculation in particle therapy, the simulation time is critical in attaining sufficient statistical accuracy for clinical applications. Therefore, parallelization of simulations is essential. This paper describes a common platform of MC dose calculation in grid-distributed computing environments. The platform is flexible and effective for dose calculation in both clinical and research applications for particle therapy. The platform consists of the universal grid interface (UGI) and the Geant4-based particle therapy simulation framework (PTSIM). The UGI, written in Python, provides a command-line interface for job submission, file manipulation, and monitoring in multiple-grid middleware environments. The PTSIM is a single software application for modeling a treatment port with patient data obtained from CT images. The common platform was constructed in grid computing environments using the computing resources in five institutions. The platform utilized these resources through the NAREGI grid middleware under UGI to provide stable computing resources and a common environment for MC dose calculation in particle therapy.
Mesbahi, Asghar; Dadgar, Habib; Ghareh-Aghaji, Nahideh; Mohammadzadeh, Mohammad
2014-01-01
In the current study, the effect of electronic disequilibrium on lung dose with small photon beams was verified. The central axis absorbed dose in lung phantom was calculated by Monte Carlo (MC) method. The 6 and 18 MV photon beams of Varian Clinac 2100EX were simulated using MCNPX MC Code (Los Alamos national lab, USA). The MC model was used to calculate the depth doses water and low density water resembling the soft-tissue and lung, respectively. Four small field sizes including 0.5 cm2×0.5 cm2, 1 cm2×1 cm2, 2 cm2×2 cm2, and 3 cm2×3 cm2 were used in this study. Percentage of dose reduction in lung region relative to homogenous phantom for 6 MV photon beam were 44.6%, 39%, 13%, and 7% for 0.5 cm2×0.5 cm2, 1 cm2×1 cm2, 2 cm2×2 cm2, and 3 cm2×3 cm2 fields, respectively. For 18 MV photon beam, the results were found to be 82%, 69%, 46%, and 25.8% for the same field sizes, respectively. The solid tumor dose inside lung was reduced considerably between 17% and 35% for 18 MV beam, while there was only 9% dose reduction for tumor dose for 0.5 and 1 cm field sizes. Our study showed that the dose reduction with small fields in the lung was very enormous. Thus, inaccurate prediction of absorbed dose inside lung and also lung soft-tissue interfaces with small photon beams may lead to critical consequences for treatment outcome.
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None
1978-06-01
A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10/sup -4/ millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references.
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Mohammadyari, P [Nuclear Engineering Department, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz Un, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi, R [Nuclear Engineering Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirazi, M Mosleh [Radiotherapy and Oncology Department, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz University of M, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfi, M [Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Medical Imaging Research Center, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meigooni, A [Comprehensive cancer center of Nevada - University of Nevada Las Vegas UNL, Las Vegas, NV (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: the accuboost is the most modern method of breast brachytherapy that is a boost method in compressed tissue by a mammography unit. the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue, as compressed tissue is important that should be characterized. Methods: In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast in mammography loading, the displacement of breast tissue and the dose distribution in compressed and uncompressed tissue, are investigated. Dosimetry was performed by two dosimeter methods of Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP5 code and thermoluminescence dosimeters. For Monte Carlo simulations, the dose values in cubical lattice were calculated using tally F6. The displacement of the breast elements was simulated by Finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software, from which the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model is constructed from MR images of 6 volunteers. Experimental dosimetery was performed by placing the thermoluminescence dosimeters into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom and on the proximal edge of compression plates to the chest. Results: The results indicate that using the cone applicators would deliver more than 95% of dose to the depth of 5 to 17mm, while round applicator will increase the skin dose. Nodal displacement, in presence of gravity and 60N forces, i.e. in mammography compression, was determined with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in orthogonal orientation. Finally, in comparison of the acquired from thermoluminescence dosimeters with MCNP5, they are consistent with each other in breast phantom and in chest's skin with average different percentage of 13.7±5.7 and 7.7±2.3, respectively. Conclusion: The major advantage of this kind of dosimetry is the ability of 3D dose calculation by FE Modeling. Finally, polyvinyl alcohol is a reliable material as a breast tissue equivalent dosimetric phantom that provides the ability of TLD
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Afsharpour, Hossein; Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de recherche en cancerologie de l' Universite Laval, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, 11 Cote du Palais, Quebec, QC G1R 2J6 (Canada); Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Keller, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook and Women' s Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Carrier, Jean-Francois [Departement de Radiologie, Radio-Oncologie et Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Notre-Dame de CHUM, 1560 Sherbrooke E, Montreal, QC H2L 4M1 (Canada); Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank, E-mail: beaulieu@phy.ulaval.c [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands)
2010-08-21
The impact of tissue heterogeneity and interseed attenuation is studied in post-implant evaluation of five clinical permanent breast {sup 103}Pd seed implants using the Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation method. Dose metrics for the target (PTV) as well as an organ at risk (skin) are used to visualize the differences between a TG43-like MC method and more accurate MC methods capable of considering the breast tissue heterogeneity as well as the interseed attenuation. PTV dose is reduced when using a breast tissue model instead of water in MC calculations while the dose to the skin is increased. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of varying the glandular/adipose proportion of the breast tissue on dose distributions. The dose to the PTV (skin) decreases (increases) with the increasing adipose proportion inside the breast. In a complete geometry and compared to a TG43-like situation, the average PTV D{sub 90} reduction varies from 3.9% in a glandular breast to 35.5% when the breast consists entirely of adipose. The skin D{sub 10} increases by 28.2% in an entirely adipose breast. The results of this work show the importance of an accurate and patient-dependent breast tissue model to be used in the dosimetry for this kind of low energy implant.
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Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A., E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental
2011-10-26
This paper evaluates the recommendations of ICRP which has as objective the environmental radioprotection. It was analysed the recommendations 26, 60, 91, 103 and 108 of the ICRP. The ICRP-103 defined the concept of animal and plant of reference (APR) to be used in the RAP based on the calculation of absorbed dose based on APR concept. This last view allows to build a legal framework of environmental protection with a etic, moral and scientific visualization, more defensible than the anthropomorphic concept
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Savolainen, S. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Kairemo, K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry; Liewendahl, K. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Isotopes; Rannikko, S. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)
1995-10-01
In radioimmunotherapy (RIT) monoclonal antibodies to cancer-associated antigens can be utilized for the transport of therapeutic radioisotopes to cancer cells. Intravenous administration of radiolabelled antibody is a potentially curative form of therapy in hematological amignancies as circulating antibodies have easy access to tumour sites. Intravenous RIT is less effective in the treatment of solid tumours because of the low fractional uptake of the injected dose, particularly in the central parts of tumours. In solid tumours more promising results have been achieved by local RIT applications. The choice of radiation - {alpha}, {beta} or {gamma} - will depend of the characteristics of the tumour. The importance of radiation delivered by Auger electrons has been largely underestimated in the past, but recent research has resulted in a remarkable reassessment of this issue significantly influencing the selection of radioisotopes for RIT. Research is now being focused on the therapeutic aspects of different isotopes and microdosimetric problems. There are now good prospects of RIT becoming an important form of cancer treatment before year 2000. (orig.) (78 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.).
Evaluation of an enoxaparin dosing calculator using burn size and weight.
Faraklas, Iris; Ghanem, Maureen; Brown, Amalia; Cochran, Amalia
2013-01-01
Previous research has shown that inadequate antifactor Xa levels (anti-Xa) occur in burn patients and may increase the risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). The objective of this retrospective review was to investigate the usefulness of an enoxaparin dosing algorithm using a previously published equation. With institutional review board approval, all acute burn patients at an American Burn Association-verified regional burn center who were treated with enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis and had at least one anti-Xa from May 1, 2011 to December 15, 2012 were included. Patients with subprophylactic anti-Xa received increased enoxaparin dose per unit protocol with the goal of obtaining a prophylactic anti-Xa (0.2-0.4 U/ml). Sixty-four patients were included in our analysis. The regression equation was used in 33 patients for initial enoxaparin dosing (Eq) whereas 31 patients received traditionally recommended prophylaxis dosing (No-Eq). Groups were comparable in sex, age, weight, inhalation injury, and burn size. Initial enoxaparin dosing in Eq was significantly more likely to reach target than in No-Eq (73 vs 32%; P = .002). No episodes of hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, or heparin sensitivity were documented in either group. Median final enoxaparin dose required to reach prophylactic level was 40 mg every 12 hours (range, 30-80 mg). Twenty-one No-Eq patients ultimately reached target, and 11 of these final doses were equivalent to or greater than the predicted equation. Ten patients never reached prophylactic anti-Xa before enoxaparin was discontinued (nine from No-Eq). Two patients, one from each group, developed VTE complications despite appropriate anti-Xa for prophylaxis. A strong correlation was shown between weight, burn size, and enoxaparin dose (r = .68; P injury are highly variable. This simple equation improves enoxaparin dosing for acute adult burn patients.
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Hohl, C.; Muehlenbruch, G.; Wildberger, J.E.; Schmidt, T.; Guenther, R.W.; Mahnken, A.H. [University of Technology of Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Leidecker, C. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Medical Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Suess, C. [Siemens Medical Solutions Computed Tomography, Forchheim (Germany)
2006-08-15
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the achievable organ dose savings in low-dose multislice computed tomography (MSCT) of the heart using different tube voltages (80 kVp, 100 kVp, 120 kVp) and compare it with calculated values. A female Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in five different positions to assess the mean doses within representative organs (thyroid gland, thymus, oesophagus, pancreas, liver). Radiation exposure was performed on a 16-row MSCT scanner with six different routine scan protocols: a 120-kV and a 100-kV CT angiography (CTA) protocol with the same collimation, two 120-kV Ca-scoring (CS) protocols with different collimations and two 80-kV CS protocols with the same collimation as the 120-kV CS protocols. Each scan protocol was repeated five times. The measured dose values for the organs were compared with the values calculated by a commercially available computer program. Directly irradiated organs, such as the esophagus, received doses of 34.7 mSv (CTA 16 x 0.75 120 kVp), 21.9 mSv (CTA 16 x 0.75 100 kVp) and 4.96 mSv (CS score 12 x 1.5 80 kVp), the thyroid as an organ receiving only scattered radiation collected organ doses of 2.98 mSv (CTA 16 x 0.75 120 kVp), 1.97 mSv (CTA 16 x 0.75 100 kVp) and 0.58 mSv (CS score 12 x 1.5 80 kVp). The measured relative organ dose reductions from standard to low-kV protocols ranged from 30.9% to 55.9% and were statistically significant (P<0.05). The comparison with the calculated organ doses showed that the calculation program can predict the relative dose reduction of cardiac low photon-energy protocols precisely. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Erik R.; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Nyholm, Niels
2009-01-01
% inhibition). For illustration, data from closed, freshwater algal assays are analyzed using the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata with growth rate as the response parameter. Dose-response regressions for four test chemicals (tetraethylammonium bromide, musculamine, benzonitrile, and 4...
Loozen, C. S.; Kortram, K.; Kornmann, V. N. N.; van Ramshorst, B.; Vlaminckx, B.; Knibbe, C. A. J.; Kelder, J. C.; Donkervoort, S. C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, G. A. P.; Ponten, J. E. H.; van Geloven, A. A. W.; van Duijvendijk, P.; Bos, W. J. W.; Besselink, M. G. H.; Gouma, D. J.; van Santvoort, H. C.; Boerma, D.
2017-01-01
Many patients who have surgery for acute cholecystitis receive postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, with the intent to reduce infectious complications. There is, however, no evidence that extending antibiotics beyond a single perioperative dose is advantageous. This study aimed to determine the
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Wang, Y; Mazur, T; Green, O; Hu, Y; Wooten, H; Yang, D; Zhao, T; Mutic, S; Li, H [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: To build a fast, accurate and easily-deployable research platform for Monte-Carlo dose calculations. We port the dose calculation engine PENELOPE to C++, and accelerate calculations using GPU acceleration. Simulations of a Co-60 beam model provided by ViewRay demonstrate the capabilities of the platform. Methods: We built software that incorporates a beam model interface, CT-phantom model, GPU-accelerated PENELOPE engine, and GUI front-end. We rewrote the PENELOPE kernel in C++ (from Fortran) and accelerated the code on a GPU. We seamlessly integrated a Co-60 beam model (obtained from ViewRay) into our platform. Simulations of various field sizes and SSDs using a homogeneous water phantom generated PDDs, dose profiles, and output factors that were compared to experiment data. Results: With GPU acceleration using a dated graphics card (Nvidia Tesla C2050), a highly accurate simulation – including 100*100*100 grid, 3×3×3 mm3 voxels, <1% uncertainty, and 4.2×4.2 cm2 field size – runs 24 times faster (20 minutes versus 8 hours) than when parallelizing on 8 threads across a new CPU (Intel i7-4770). Simulated PDDs, profiles and output ratios for the commercial system agree well with experiment data measured using radiographic film or ionization chamber. Based on our analysis, this beam model is precise enough for general applications. Conclusions: Using a beam model for a Co-60 system provided by ViewRay, we evaluate a dose calculation platform that we developed. Comparison to measurements demonstrates the promise of our software for use as a research platform for dose calculations, with applications including quality assurance and treatment plan verification.
OSCAAR calculations for the Iput dose reconstruction scenario of BIOMASS theme 2
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Homma, Toshimitsu; Matsunaga, Takeshi [Department of Reactor Safety Research, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)
2001-01-01
This report presents the results obtained from the application of the accident consequence assessment code, called OSCAAR, developed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to the Iput dose reconstruction scenario of BIOMASS Theme 2 organized by International Atomic Energy Agency. The Iput Scenario deals with {sup 137}Cs contamination of the catchment basin and agricultural area in the Bryansk Region of Russia, which was heavily contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. This exercise was used to test the chronic exposure pathway models in OSCAAR with actual measurements and to identify the most important sources of uncertainly with respect to each part of the assessment. The OSCAAR chronic exposure pathway models almost successfully reconstructed the whole 10-year time course of {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in most requested types of agricultural products and natural foodstuffs. Modeling of {sup 137}Cs downward migration in soils is, however, still incomplete and more detail modeling of the changes of cesium bioavailability with time is needed for long term predictions of the contamination of food. (author)
Bronchoscopic phototherapy at comparable dose rates: Early results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pass, H.I.; Delaney, T.; Smith, P.D.; Bonner, R.; Russo, A.
1989-05-01
Photodynamic therapy is a recently introduced treatment for surface malignancies. Since January 1987, 10 patients with endobronchial neoplasms have had bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy at similar dose rates (400 mW/cm) for total atelectasis (2), carinal narrowing with respiratory insufficiency (2), or partial obstruction without collapse (4). Two patients underwent photodynamic therapy as a preliminary to immunotherapy. Histologies included endobronchial metastases (colon, ovary, melanoma, and sarcoma, 1 each; and renal cell, 3) and primary lung cancer (3). The 2 patients with total atelectasis had complete reexpansion after photodynamic therapy, which permitted eventual sleeve lobectomy in 1. Carinal narrowing was ameliorated in the 2 patients seen with inspiratory stridor, thereby permitting hospital discharge. Endoscopically resected fragments after photodynamic therapy exhibited avascular necrosis. These data support further controlled studies of photodynamic therapy by thoracic surgical oncologists to define its limitations as well as to improve and expand its efficacy as a palliative or surgical adjuvant.
Gu, Xuejun; Li, Jinsheng; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B
2011-01-01
Targeting at developing an accurate and efficient dose calculation engine for online adaptive radiotherapy, we have implemented a finite size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm with a 3D-density correction method on GPU. This new GPU-based dose engine is built on our previously published ultrafast FSPB computational framework [Gu et al. Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6287-97, 2009]. Dosimetric evaluations against MCSIM Monte Carlo dose calculations are conducted on 10 IMRT treatment plans with heterogeneous treatment regions (5 head-and-neck cases and 5 lung cases). For head and neck cases, when cavities exist near the target, the improvement with the 3D-density correction over the conventional FSPB algorithm is significant. However, when there are high-density dental filling materials in beam paths, the improvement is small and the accuracy of the new algorithm is still unsatisfactory. On the other hand, significant improvement of dose calculation accuracy is observed in all lung cases. Especially when the target is in the m...
Kauweloa, Kevin I; Gutierrez, Alonso N; Bergamo, Angelo; Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Mavroidis, Panayiotis
2014-07-01
There is a growing interest in the radiation oncology community to use the biological effective dose (BED) rather than the physical dose (PD) in treatment plan evaluation and optimization due to its stronger correlation with radiobiological effects. Radiotherapy patients may receive treatments involving a single only phase or multiple phases (e.g., primary and boost). Since most treatment planning systems cannot calculate the analytical BED distribution in multiphase treatments, an approximate multiphase BED expression, which is based on the total physical dose distribution, has been used. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the mathematical properties of the approximate BED formulation, relative to the true BED. The mathematical properties of the approximate multiphase BED equation are analyzed and evaluated. In order to better understand the accuracy of the approximate multiphase BED equation, the true multiphase BED equation was derived and the mathematical differences between the true and approximate multiphase BED equations were determined. The magnitude of its inaccuracies under common clinical circumstances was also studied. All calculations were performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using the three-dimensional dose matrices. Results showed that the approximate multiphase BED equation is accurate only when the dose-per-fractions (DPFs) in both the first and second phases are equal, which occur when the dose distribution does not significantly change between the phases. In the case of heterogeneous dose distributions, which significantly vary between the phases, there are fewer occurrences of equal DPFs and hence the inaccuracy of the approximate multiphase BED is greater. These characteristics are usually seen in the dose distributions being delivered to organs at risk rather than to targets. The finding of this study indicates that the true multiphase BED equation should be implemented in the treatment planning systems due to the inconsistent accuracy of
Nagata, Koichi; Pethel, Timothy D
2017-07-01
Although anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB (AXB) are both radiation dose calculation algorithms that take into account the heterogeneity within the radiation field, Acuros XB is inherently more accurate. The purpose of this retrospective method comparison study was to compare them and evaluate the dose discrepancy within the planning target volume (PTV). Radiation therapy (RT) plans of 11 dogs with intranasal tumors treated by radiation therapy at the University of Georgia were evaluated. All dogs were planned for intensity-modulated radiation therapy using nine coplanar X-ray beams that were equally spaced, then dose calculated with anisotropic analytical algorithm. The same plan with the same monitor units was then recalculated using Acuros XB for comparisons. Each dog's planning target volume was separated into air, bone, and tissue and evaluated. The mean dose to the planning target volume estimated by Acuros XB was 1.3% lower. It was 1.4% higher for air, 3.7% lower for bone, and 0.9% lower for tissue. The volume of planning target volume covered by the prescribed dose decreased by 21% when Acuros XB was used due to increased dose heterogeneity within the planning target volume. Anisotropic analytical algorithm relatively underestimates the dose heterogeneity and relatively overestimates the dose to the bone and tissue within the planning target volume for the radiation therapy planning of canine intranasal tumors. This can be clinically significant especially if the tumor cells are present within the bone, because it may result in relative underdosing of the tumor. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Fracchiolla, F.; Lorentini, S.; Widesott, L.; Schwarz, M.
2015-11-01
We propose a method of creating and validating a Monte Carlo (MC) model of a proton Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) machine using only commissioning measurements and avoiding the nozzle modeling. Measurements with a scintillating screen coupled with a CCD camera, ionization chamber and a Faraday Cup were used to model the beam in TOPAS without using any machine parameter information but the virtual source distance from the isocenter. Then the model was validated on simple Spread Out Bragg Peaks (SOBP) delivered in water phantom and with six realistic clinical plans (many involving 3 or more fields) on an anthropomorphic phantom. In particular the behavior of the moveable Range Shifter (RS) feature was investigated and its modeling has been proposed. The gamma analysis (3%,3 mm) was used to compare MC, TPS (XiO-ELEKTA) and measured 2D dose distributions (using radiochromic film). The MC modeling proposed here shows good results in the validation phase, both for simple irradiation geometry (SOBP in water) and for modulated treatment fields (on anthropomorphic phantoms). In particular head lesions were investigated and both MC and TPS data were compared with measurements. Treatment plans with no RS always showed a very good agreement with both of them (γ -Passing Rate (PR) > 95%). Treatment plans in which the RS was needed were also tested and validated. For these treatment plans MC results showed better agreement with measurements (γ -PR > 93%) than the one coming from TPS (γ -PR < 88%). This work shows how to simplify the MC modeling of a PBS machine for proton therapy treatments without accounting for any hardware components and proposes a more reliable RS modeling than the one implemented in our TPS. The validation process has shown how this code is a valid candidate for a completely independent treatment plan dose calculation algorithm. This makes the code an important future tool for the patient specific QA verification process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Mirzaie
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Background: The 131I radioisotope is used for diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. In optimized Iodine therapy, a specific dose must be reached to the thyroid gland with minimum radiation to the cervical spine, cervical vertebrae, neck tissue, subcutaneous fat and skin. Dose measurement inside the alive organ is difficult therefore the aim of this research was dose calculation in the organs by MCNPX code. Materials and Methods: First of all, the input file for MCNPX code has been prepared to calculate F6 and F8 tallies for ellipsoidal thyroid lobes with long axes is tow times of short axes which the 131I is distributed uniformly inside the lobes. Then the code has been run for F6 and F8 tallies for variation of lobe volume from 1 to 25 milliliters. From the output file of tally F6, the gamma absorbed dose in ellipsoidal thyroid, spinal neck, neck bone, neck tissue, subcutaneous fat layer and skin for the volume lobe variation from 1 ml to 25 ml have been derived and the graphs are drew. As well as, form the output of F8 tally the absorbed energy of beta in thyroid and soft tissue of neck is obtained and listed in the table and then absorbed dose of bate has been calculated. Results: The results of this research show that for constant activity in thyroid, the absorbed dose of gamma decreases about 88.3% in thyroid, 6.9% at soft tissue, 19.3% in adipose layer and 17.4% in skin, but it increases 32.1% in spinal of neck and 32.3% in neck bone when the lobe volume varied from 1 to 25 milliliters. For the same situation, the beta absorbed dose decreases 95.9% in thyroid and 64.2% in soft tissue. Conclusion: For the constant activity in thyroid by increasing the thyroid volume, absorbed dose of gamma in thyroid and soft tissue of neck, adipose layer under the skin and skin of neck decreased, but it increased at spinal of neck and neck bone. Also, by increasing of the lobe volume in constant activity, the beta absorbed dose
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Carranza, C; Lipnharski, I; Quails, N; Correa, N; Rill, L; Arreola, M [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: This retrospective study analyzes the exposure history of emergency department (ED) patients undergoing head and cervical spine trauma computed tomography (CT) studies. This study investigated dose levels received by trauma patients and addressed any potential concerns regarding radiation dose issues. Methods: Under proper IRB approval, a cohort of 300 trauma cases of head and cervical spine trauma CT scans received in the ED was studied. The radiological image viewing software of the hospital was used to view patient images and image data. The following parameters were extracted: the imaging history of patients, the reported dose metrics from the scanner including the volumetric CT Dose Index (CTDIvol) and Dose Length Product (DLP). A postmortem subject was scanned using the same scan techniques utilized in a standard clinical head and cervical spine trauma CT protocol with 120 kVp and 280 mAs. The CTDIvol was recorded for the subject and the organ doses were measured using optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters. Typical organ doses to the brain, thyroid, lens, salivary glands, and skin, based on the cadaver studies, were then calculated and reported for the cohort. Results: The CTDIvol reported by the CT scanner was 25.5 mGy for the postmortem subject. The average CTDIvol from the patient cohort was 34.1 mGy. From these metrics, typical average organ doses in mGy were found to be: Brain (44.57), Thyroid (33.40), Lens (82.45), Salivary Glands (61.29), Skin (47.50). The imaging history of the cohort showed that on average trauma patients received 26.1 scans over a lifetime. Conclusion: The average number of scans received on average by trauma ED patients shows that radiation doses in trauma patients may be a concern. Available dose tracking software would be helpful to track doses in trauma ED patients, highlighting the importance of minimizing unnecessary scans and keeping doses ALARA.
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Eleftherakis, A. [Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Rosen, R. [University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW (Australia). School of Safety Science
1999-03-01
Complementary experimental and theoretical techniques were employed to investigate the relationship between radiation doses measured on the surface of the body with those received by internal body organs, for a person standing on an infinite surface uniformly contaminated with gamma emitting radioactive material. This relationship for the critical organs (bone marrow, gastro-intestinal tract and brain) can be used to assess the likely biological response of persons receiving acute or chronic whole body doses of radiation. The experimental technique involved the use of a rotating RANDO phantom which was irradiated with discrete {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co sources placed at successive distances up to 20 m. The experimental dose rates were then extrapolated to derive the equivalent dose rates from an infinite area of contamination. Doses were measured by TLD detectors placed on and inside the phantom. A commercially available Monte Carlo dosimetric computer code, DISDOS-INHOPHO, which incorporated a mathematical phantom, was selected for the theoretical treatment. Extensive modifications were made to the computer code to simulate ground contamination; to account for the transport of photons through air and soil; and to calculate doses delivered to surface dosemeters. The results from the experimental and theoretical work were expressed as organ-to-surface dose ratios and as organ-to-air dose ratios to permit their direct intercomparison. The average of the dose ratio relating the critical organ dose to a surface dosemeter reading had a value of 0.81. Similarly, the dose ratio value for the effective dose had a value of 0.83 7 refs., 1 tab.
Vijande, Javier; Ballester, Facundo; Ouhib, Zoubir; Granero, Domingo; Pujades-Claumarchirant, M Carmen; Perez-Calatayud, Jose
2012-01-01
The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether the delivered dose to the skin surface and at the prescription depth when using a Freiburg flap applicator is in agreement with the one predicted by the treatment planning system (TPS) using the TG-43 dose-calculation formalism. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and radiochromic film measurements have been performed to obtain dose distributions with the source located at the center of one of the spheres and between two spheres. Primary and scatter dose contributions were evaluated to understand the role played by the scatter component. A standard treatment plan was generated using MC- and TG-43-based TPS applying the superposition principle. The MC model has been validated by performing additional simulations in the same conditions but transforming air and Freiburg flap materials into water to match TG-43 parameters. Both dose distributions differ less than 1%. Scatter defect compared with TG-43 data is up to 15% when the source is located at the center of the sphere and up to 25% when the source is between two spheres. Maximum deviations between TPS- and MC-based distributions are of 5%. The deviations in the TG-43-based dose distributions for a standard treatment plan with respect to the MC dose distribution calculated taking into account the composition and shape of the applicator and the surrounding air are lower than 5%. Therefore, this study supports the validity of the TPS used in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nurse exposure doses resulted from bone scintigraphy patient
Tunçman, Duygu; Kovan, Bilal; Poyraz, Leyla; ćapali, Veli; Demir, Bayram; Türkmen, Cüneyt
2016-03-01
Bone scintigraphy is used for displaying the radiologic undiagnosed bone lesions in nuclear medicine. It's general indications are researching bone metastases, detection of radiographically occult fractures, staging and follow-up in primary bone tumors, diagnosis of paget's disease, investigation of loosening and infection in orthopedic implants. It is applied with using 99mTc labeled radiopharmaceuticals (e.g 99m Tc MDP,99mTc HEDP and 99mTc HMDP). 20 -25 mCi IV radiotracer was injected into vein and radiotracer emits gamma radiation. Patient waits in isolated room for about 3 hours then a gamma camera scans radiation area and creates an image. When some patient's situation is not good, patients are hospitalized until the scanning because of patients' close contact care need. In this study, measurements were taken from ten patients using Geiger Muller counter. After these measurements, we calculated nurse's exposure radiations from patient's routine treatment, examination and emergency station.
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Botta, F.; Mairani, A.; Battistoni, G.; Cremonesi, M.; Di Dia, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, M.; Paganelli, G.; Pedroli, G.; Valente, M. [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (I.N.F.N.), Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Nuclear Medicine Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 2014 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba and CONICET, Cordoba, Argentina C.P. 5000 (Argentina)
2011-07-15
Purpose: The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10{sup -3} MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy ({sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} for monoenergetic electrons (R{sub CSDA} being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8{center_dot}X{sub 90} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for isotopes (X{sub 90} being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for electrons and isotopes, respectively. Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Greilich, Steffen; Hahn, Ute; Kiderlen, Markus
2014-01-01
We present an algorithm for fast and accurate computation of the local dose distribution in MeV beams of protons, carbon ions or other heavy charged particles. It uses compound Poisson modeling of track interaction and successive convolutions for fast computation. It can handle arbitrary complex ...... mixed particle fields over a wide range of fluences. Since the local dose distribution is the essential part of several approaches to model detector efficiency and cellular response it has potential use in ion-beam dosimetry, radiotherapy, and radiobiology.......We present an algorithm for fast and accurate computation of the local dose distribution in MeV beams of protons, carbon ions or other heavy charged particles. It uses compound Poisson modeling of track interaction and successive convolutions for fast computation. It can handle arbitrary complex...
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Na, Y; Kapp, D; Kim, Y; Xing, L [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Suh, T [Catholic UniversityMedical College, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To report the first experience on the development of a cloud-based treatment planning system and investigate the performance improvement of dose calculation and treatment plan optimization of the cloud computing platform. Methods: A cloud computing-based radiation treatment planning system (cc-TPS) was developed for clinical treatment planning. Three de-identified clinical head and neck, lung, and prostate cases were used to evaluate the cloud computing platform. The de-identified clinical data were encrypted with 256-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. VMAT and IMRT plans were generated for the three de-identified clinical cases to determine the quality of the treatment plans and computational efficiency. All plans generated from the cc-TPS were compared to those obtained with the PC-based TPS (pc-TPS). The performance evaluation of the cc-TPS was quantified as the speedup factors for Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations and large-scale plan optimizations, as well as the performance ratios (PRs) of the amount of performance improvement compared to the pc-TPS. Results: Speedup factors were improved up to 14.0-fold dependent on the clinical cases and plan types. The computation times for VMAT and IMRT plans with the cc-TPS were reduced by 91.1% and 89.4%, respectively, on average of the clinical cases compared to those with pc-TPS. The PRs were mostly better for VMAT plans (1.0 ≤ PRs ≤ 10.6 for the head and neck case, 1.2 ≤ PRs ≤ 13.3 for lung case, and 1.0 ≤ PRs ≤ 10.3 for prostate cancer cases) than for IMRT plans. The isodose curves of plans on both cc-TPS and pc-TPS were identical for each of the clinical cases. Conclusion: A cloud-based treatment planning has been setup and our results demonstrate the computation efficiency of treatment planning with the cc-TPS can be dramatically improved while maintaining the same plan quality to that obtained with the pc-TPS. This work was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute (1
Eclov, N; Loo, B; Graves, E; Maxim, P
2012-06-01
Precise tumor delineation is important in thoracic radiation therapy planning, and using a 'lung detail' computed tomography (CT) reconstruction algorithm can assist in visualizing the tumor. We seek to determine the dosimetric impact of utilizing a lung detail algorithm versus a standard algorithm on calculated dose in radiation treatment planning. Ten patients, with 12 tumors, were analyzed in this study. Two CT scans, one reconstructed using a standard algorithm and one using a lung detail algorithm, were generated for each of 12 lung tumors. Treatment plans were calculated for each CT scan, with 7 tumors receiving stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) and 5 receiving intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The Hounsfield unit (HU) and dose values for each voxel of the planning tumor volume (PTV), esophagus, spinal cord, and contralateral lung in both the CT and dose images were exported to MATLAB. For each contour, the voxel-by-voxel differences in the HU and dose distributions between the two scans were analyzed along with dose-volume histogram (DVH) data. Despite changes in HU values, the voxel-by-voxel analysis showed a negligible shift in dose values. The mean differences in dose for PTV, esophagus, spinal cord, and contralateral lung ranged from -12.12 to 22.57, -2.21 to 7.40, -0.50 to 5.93, and -1.12 to 7.41 cGy, respectively. DVH comparisons demonstrated no meaningful difference between plans. The mean PTV, esophagus, spinal cord, and contralateral lung doses measured from the DVH shifted between plans an average of 3.5, 2.93, -0.6 and -0.35 cGy, respectively. These dose differences are all less than 1% of the dose prescribed to the tumor and are not measurable by current technology. The lung detail reconstruction algorithm, when applied to thoracic radiation treatment planning CT scans, can help precisely delineate tumor with negligible dosimetric impact. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Pulse-Dose Radiofrequency in Athletic Pubalgia: Preliminary Results.
Masala, Salvatore; Fiori, Roberto; Raguso, Mario; Ojango, Christine; Morini, Marco; Cuzzolino, Alessandro; Calabria, Eros; Simonetti, Giovanni
2017-05-01
Chronic pubalgia affects around 10% of athletes. To determine the role of pulse-dose radiofrequency (PDRF) in athletes with chronic pubalgia and investigate the causes with imaging. Prospective nonrandomized single-group study. PDRF was performed on 32 patients with a chronic pain that had been refractory to conservative therapies during the last 3 mo. The genital branches of the genitofemoral, ilioinguinal, and iliohypogastric nerves and the obturator nerve were the goals of treatment. A 10-cm, 20-gauge cannula was inserted with a percutaneous access on the upper and lower edges of the iliopubic branch. After the spindle was removed, a radiofrequency needle with a 10-mm "active tip" was inserted. The radiofrequency technique was performed with 1200 pulses at 45 V and 20-ms duration, followed by a 480-ms silent phase. The follow-up with a clinical examination was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 9 mo after the procedure. During the follow-up visits, the patients were asked to rate their pain on a 0-10 VAS scale. All of the enrolled patients completed the study. Mean VAS score before the treatment was 8.4 ± 0.6. Twenty-four patients had a reduction of pain VAS scores more than 50% during all follow-up visits and started training and physiotherapy in the days after the radiofrequency procedure. Six patients, each treated 2 times, had a reduction more than 50% of VAS scores and could start training and physiotherapy only after the 2nd procedure. One patient had no pain relief with 2 treatments. Pain intensity decreased up to 9 mo in 31 patients (mean VAS scores 3.4 ± 0.5 at 6 mo and 3.8 ± 0.9 at 9 mo). No complications were observed. PDRF is an effective and safe technique in management of chronic pubalgia in athletes.
Botta, F; Mairani, A; Battistoni, G; Cremonesi, M; Di Dia, A; Fassò, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, M; Paganelli, G; Pedroli, G; Valente, M
2011-07-01
The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, FLUKA Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, FLUKA has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. FLUKA DPKS have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10-3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy (89Sr, 90Y, 131I 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, and 188Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. FLUKA outcomes have been compared to PENELOPE v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (ETRAN, GEANT4, MCNPX) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8.RCSDA and 0.9.RCSDA for monoenergetic electrons (RCSDA being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8.X90 and 0.9.X90 for isotopes (X90 being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9.RCSDA and 0.9.X90 for electrons and isotopes, respectively. Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8.RCSDA (where 90%-97% of the particle energy is deposed), FLUKA and PENELOPE agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mazurier, J
1999-05-28
This thesis has been performed in the framework of national reference setting-up for absorbed dose in water and high energy photon beam provided with the SATURNE-43 medical accelerator of the BNM-LPRI (acronym for National Bureau of Metrology and Primary standard laboratory of ionising radiation). The aim of this work has been to develop and validate different user codes, based on PENELOPE Monte Carlo code system, to determine the photon beam characteristics and calculate the correction factors of reference dosimeters such as Fricke dosimeters and graphite calorimeter. In the first step, the developed user codes have permitted the influence study of different components constituting the irradiation head. Variance reduction techniques have been used to reduce the calculation time. The phase space has been calculated for 6, 12 and 25 MV at the output surface level of the accelerator head, then used for calculating energy spectra and dose distributions in the reference water phantom. Results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements. The second step has been devoted to develop an user code allowing calculation correction factors associated with both BNM-LPRI's graphite and Fricke dosimeters thanks to a correlated sampling method starting with energy spectra obtained in the first step. Then the calculated correction factors have been compared with experimental and calculated results obtained with the Monte Carlo EGS4 code system. The good agreement, between experimental and calculated results, leads to validate simulations performed with the PENELOPE code system. (author)
78 FR 64030 - Monitoring Criteria and Methods To Calculate Occupational Radiation Doses
2013-10-25
...-available documents online in the NRC Library at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html . To begin the... the definition of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) in part 20 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal... Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities.'' Previously, the definition of the TEDE was the sum of...
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Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1999-01-01
Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has had efforts underway to provide the radiation protection community with age-dependent dose coefficients, i.e.g, the dose per unit intake. The Task Group on Dose Calculations, chaired by the author, is responsible for the computation of these coefficients. The Task Group, formed in 1974 to produce ICRP Publication 30, is now international in its membership and its work load has been distributed among the institutions represented on the task group. This paper discusses: (1) recent advances in biokinetic modeling; (2) the recent changes in the dosimetric methodology; (3) the novel computational problems with some of the ICRP quantities; and (4) quality assurance issues which the Task Group has encountered. Potential future developments of the dosimetric framework which might strengthen the relationships with the emerging understanding of radiation risk will also be discussed.
Nurse exposure doses resulted from bone scintigraphy patient
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Tunçman, Duygu, E-mail: duygutuncman@gmail.com; Demir, Bayram [Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Physics Department, Istanbul (Turkey); Kovan, Bilal; Poyraz, Leyla; Türkmen, Cüneyt [Istanbul University, Medicine Faculty, Nuclear Medicine Department, Istanbul (Turkey); Çapali, Veli [Physics Department, Arts and Sciences Faculty, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey)
2016-03-25
Bone scintigraphy is used for displaying the radiologic undiagnosed bone lesions in nuclear medicine. It’s general indications are researching bone metastases, detection of radiographically occult fractures, staging and follow-up in primary bone tumors, diagnosis of paget’s disease, investigation of loosening and infection in orthopedic implants. It is applied with using {sup 99m}Tc labeled radiopharmaceuticals (e.g {sup 99m} Tc MDP,{sup 99m}Tc HEDP and {sup 99m}Tc HMDP). 20 -25 mCi IV radiotracer was injected into vein and radiotracer emits gamma radiation. Patient waits in isolated room for about 3 hours then a gamma camera scans radiation area and creates an image. When some patient’s situation is not good, patients are hospitalized until the scanning because of patients’ close contact care need. In this study, measurements were taken from ten patients using Geiger Muller counter. After these measurements, we calculated nurse’s exposure radiations from patient’s routine treatment, examination and emergency station.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zucca Aparicio, D.; Perez Moreno, J. M.; Fernandez Leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrilla, J.; Pinto Monedero, M.; Marti Asensjo, J.; Alonso Iracheta, L.
2015-07-01
Treatment of lung injury SBRT requires great dosimetric accuracy, the increasing clinical importance of dose calculation heterogeneities introducing algorithms that adequately model the transport of particles narrow beams in media of low density, as with Monte Carlo calculation. (Author)
Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib
2017-08-01
Computational phantoms are commonly used in internal radiation dosimetry to assess the amount and distribution pattern of energy deposited in various parts of the human body from different internal radiation sources. Radiation dose assessments are commonly performed on predetermined reference computational phantoms while the argument for individualized patient-specific radiation dosimetry exists. This study aims to evaluate the influence of body habitus on internal dosimetry and to quantify the uncertainties in dose estimation correlated with the use of fixed reference models. The 5-year-old IT’IS male phantom was modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including bo