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Sample records for calcium-activated chloride current

  1. Dynamic properties of calcium-activated chloride currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M De la Fuente, Ildefonso; Malaina, Iker; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Boyano, María Dolores; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Bringas, Carlos; Villarroel, Álvaro; Fedetz, María; Arellano, Rogelio; Cortes, Jesus M; Martínez, Luis

    2017-02-13

    Chloride is the most abundant permeable anion in the cell, and numerous studies in the last two decades highlight the great importance and broad physiological role of chloride currents mediated anion transport. They participate in a multiplicity of key processes, as for instance, the regulation of electrical excitability, apoptosis, cell cycle, epithelial secretion and neuronal excitability. In addition, dysfunction of Cl(-) channels is involved in a variety of human diseases such as epilepsy, osteoporosis and different cancer types. Historically, chloride channels have been of less interest than the cation channels. In fact, there seems to be practically no quantitative studies of the dynamics of chloride currents. Here, for the first time, we have quantitatively studied experimental calcium-activated chloride fluxes belonging to Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the main results show that the experimental Cl(-) currents present an informational structure characterized by highly organized data sequences, long-term memory properties and inherent "crossover" dynamics in which persistent correlations arise at short time intervals, while anti-persistent behaviors become dominant in long time intervals. Our work sheds some light on the understanding of the informational properties of ion currents, a key element to elucidate the physiological functional coupling with the integrative dynamics of metabolic processes.

  2. Calcium-activated chloride current expression in axotomized sensory neurons: what for?

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    Mathieu eBoudes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-activated chloride currents (CaCCs are activated by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Peripheral nerve injury induces the expression of CaCCs in a subset of adult sensory neurons in primary culture including mechano-and proprioceptors, though not nociceptors. Functional screenings of potential candidate genes established that Best1 is a molecular determinant for CaCC expression among axotomized sensory neurons, while Tmem16a accounts for inflammation-induced CaCC expression in nociceptors. In nociceptors, such CaCCs are preferentially activated under receptor-induced calcium mobilization contributing to cell excitability and pain. In axotomized mechano- and proprioceptors, CaCC activation does not promote electrical activity and prevents firing, a finding consistent with electrical silencing for growth competence of adult sensory neurons. In favor of a role in the process of neurite growth, CaCC expression is temporally correlated to neurons displaying a regenerative mode of growth. This perspective focuses on the molecular identity and role of CaCC in axotomized sensory neurons and the future directions to decipher the cellular mechanisms regulating CaCC during neurite (regrowth.

  3. A cyclic GMP-dependent calcium-activated chloride current in smooth-muscle cells from rat mesenteric resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2004-01-01

    M) in the pipette solution. The current was found to be a calcium-activated chloride current with an absolute requirement for cyclic GMP (EC50 6.4 microM). The current could be activated by the constitutively active subunit of PKG. Current activation was blocked by the protein kinase G antagonist Rp-8-Br-PET...... no voltage or time dependence. It was inhibited by nickel and zinc ions in the micromolar range, but was unaffected by cobalt and had a low sensitivity to inhibition by the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid, DIDS, and IAA-94. The properties of this current in mesenteric artery smooth-muscle cells...

  4. Calcium-activated chloride current determines action potential morphology during calcium alternans in atrial myocytes.

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    Kanaporis, Giedrius; Blatter, Lothar A

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac alternans--periodic beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic calcium transient (CaT) amplitude--is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, it remains an unresolved issue whether beat-to-beat alternations in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i ) or AP morphology are the primary cause of pro-arrhythmic alternans. Here we show that in atria AP alternans occurs secondary to CaT alternans. CaT alternans leads to complex beat-to-beat changes in Ca(2+)-regulated ion currents that determine alternans of AP morphology. We report the novel finding that alternans of AP morphology is largely sustained by the activity of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs). Suppression of the CaCCs significantly reduces AP alternans, while CaT alternans remains unaffected. The demonstration of a major role of CaCCs in the development of AP alternans opens new possibilities for atrial alternans and arrhythmia prevention. Cardiac alternans, described as periodic beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic Ca transient (CaT) amplitude, is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We investigated mechanisms of cardiac alternans in single rabbit atrial myocytes. CaTs were monitored simultaneously with membrane currents or APs recorded with the patch clamp technique. Beat-to-beat alternations of AP morphology and CaT amplitude revealed a strong quantitative correlation. Application of voltage clamp protocols in the form of pre-recorded APs (AP-clamp) during pacing-induced CaT alternans revealed a Ca(2+)-dependent current consisting of a large outward component (4.78 ± 0.58 pA pF(-1) in amplitude) coinciding with AP phases 1 and 2 that was followed by an inward current (-0.42 ± 0.03 pA pF(-1); n = 21) during AP repolarization. Approximately 90% of the initial outward current was blocked by substitution of Cl(-) ions or application

  5. A cyclic GMP-dependent calcium-activated chloride current in smooth-muscle cells from rat mesenteric resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2004-01-01

    no voltage or time dependence. It was inhibited by nickel and zinc ions in the micromolar range, but was unaffected by cobalt and had a low sensitivity to inhibition by the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid, DIDS, and IAA-94. The properties of this current in mesenteric artery smooth-muscle cells...

  6. Calcium-activated chloride channels in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

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    Dibattista, Michele; Amjad, Asma; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Sagheddu, Claudia; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2012-07-01

    The rodent vomeronasal organ plays a crucial role in several social behaviors. Detection of pheromones or other emitted signaling molecules occurs in the dendritic microvilli of vomeronasal sensory neurons, where the binding of molecules to vomeronasal receptors leads to the influx of sodium and calcium ions mainly through the transient receptor potential canonical 2 (TRPC2) channel. To investigate the physiological role played by the increase in intracellular calcium concentration in the apical region of these neurons, we produced localized, rapid, and reproducible increases in calcium concentration with flash photolysis of caged calcium and measured calcium-activated currents with the whole cell voltage-clamp technique. On average, a large inward calcium-activated current of -261 pA was measured at -50 mV, rising with a time constant of 13 ms. Ion substitution experiments showed that this current is anion selective. Moreover, the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid partially inhibited the calcium-activated current. These results directly demonstrate that a large chloride current can be activated by calcium in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. Furthermore, we showed by immunohistochemistry that the calcium-activated chloride channels TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 are present in the apical layer of the vomeronasal epithelium, where they largely colocalize with the TRPC2 transduction channel. Immunocytochemistry on isolated vomeronasal sensory neurons showed that TMEM16A and TMEM16B coexpress in the neuronal microvilli. Therefore, we conclude that microvilli of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons have a high density of calcium-activated chloride channels that may play an important role in vomeronasal transduction.

  7. Lipoxin A4 stimulates calcium-activated chloride currents and increases airway surface liquid height in normal and cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterised by a deficit in epithelial Cl(-) secretion which in the lung leads to airway dehydration and a reduced Airway Surface Liquid (ASL) height. The endogenous lipoxin LXA(4) is a member of the newly identified eicosanoids playing a key role in ending the inflammatory process. Levels of LXA(4) are reported to be decreased in the airways of patients with CF. We have previously shown that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, LXA(4) produced a rapid and transient increase in intracellular Ca(2+). We have investigated, the effect of LXA(4) on Cl(-) secretion and the functional consequences on ASL generation in bronchial epithelial cells obtained from CF and non-CF patient biopsies and in bronchial epithelial cell lines. We found that LXA(4) stimulated a rapid intracellular Ca(2+) increase in all of the different CF bronchial epithelial cells tested. In non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia, LXA(4) stimulated whole-cell Cl(-) currents which were inhibited by NPPB (calcium-activated Cl(-) channel inhibitor), BAPTA-AM (chelator of intracellular Ca(2+)) but not by CFTRinh-172 (CFTR inhibitor). We found, using confocal imaging, that LXA(4) increased the ASL height in non-CF and in CF airway bronchial epithelia. The LXA(4) effect on ASL height was sensitive to bumetanide, an inhibitor of transepithelial Cl(-) secretion. The LXA(4) stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+), whole-cell Cl(-) currents, conductances and ASL height were inhibited by Boc-2, a specific antagonist of the ALX\\/FPR2 receptor. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence for a novel role of LXA(4) in the stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signalling leading to Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion and enhanced ASL height in non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia.

  8. Conditional knockout of TMEM16A/anoctamin1 abolishes the calcium-activated chloride current in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

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    Amjad, Asma; Hernandez-Clavijo, Andres; Pifferi, Simone; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Boccaccio, Anna; Franzot, Jessica; Rock, Jason; Menini, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Pheromones are substances released from animals that, when detected by the vomeronasal organ of other individuals of the same species, affect their physiology and behavior. Pheromone binding to receptors on microvilli on the dendritic knobs of vomeronasal sensory neurons activates a second messenger cascade to produce an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Here, we used whole-cell and inside-out patch-clamp analysis to provide a functional characterization of currents activated by Ca(2+) in isolated mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons in the absence of intracellular K(+). In whole-cell recordings, the average current in 1.5 µM Ca(2+) and symmetrical Cl(-) was -382 pA at -100 mV. Ion substitution experiments and partial blockade by commonly used Cl(-) channel blockers indicated that Ca(2+) activates mainly anionic currents in these neurons. Recordings from inside-out patches from dendritic knobs of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons confirmed the presence of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in the knobs and/or microvilli. We compared the electrophysiological properties of the native currents with those mediated by heterologously expressed TMEM16A/anoctamin1 or TMEM16B/anoctamin2 Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, which are coexpressed in microvilli of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons, and found a closer resemblance to those of TMEM16A. We used the Cre-loxP system to selectively knock out TMEM16A in cells expressing the olfactory marker protein, which is found in mature vomeronasal sensory neurons. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the specific ablation of TMEM16A in vomeronasal neurons. Ca(2+)-activated currents were abolished in vomeronasal sensory neurons of TMEM16A conditional knockout mice, demonstrating that TMEM16A is an essential component of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. © 2015 Amjad et al.

  9. TMEM16 proteins: the long awaited calcium-activated chloride channels?

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    C.A. Flores

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Currents mediated by calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs, observed for the first time in Xenopus oocytes, have been recorded in many cells and tissues ranging from different types of neurons to epithelial and muscle cells. CaCCs play a role in the regulation of excitability in neurons including sensory receptors. In addition, they are crucial mediators of chloride movements in epithelial cells where their activity regulates electrolyte and fluid transport. The roles of CaCCs, particularly in epithelia, are briefly reviewed with emphasis on their function in secretory epithelia. The recent identification by three independent groups, using different strategies, of TMEM16A as the molecular counterpart of the CaCC is discussed. TMEM16A is part of a family that has 10 other members in mice. The discovery of the potential TMEM16 anion channel activity opens the way for the molecular investigation of the role of these anion channels in specific cells and in organ physiology and pathophysiology. The identification of TMEM16A protein as a CaCC chloride channel molecule represents a great triumph of scientific perseverance and ingenuity. The varied approaches used by the three independent research groups also augur well for the solidity of the discovery.

  10. Activation and inhibition of TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels.

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    Yu-Li Ni

    Full Text Available Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC encoded by family members of transmembrane proteins of unknown function 16 (TMEM16 have recently been intensely studied for functional properties as well as their physiological roles as chloride channels in various tissues. One technical hurdle in studying these channels is the well-known channel rundown that frequently impairs the precision of electrophysiological measurements for the channels. Using experimental protocols that employ fast-solution exchange, we circumvented the problem of channel rundown by normalizing the Ca(2+-induced current to the maximally-activated current obtained within a time period in which the channel rundown was negligible. We characterized the activation of the TMEM16A-encoded CaCC (also called ANO1 by Ca(2+, Sr(2+, and Ba(2+, and discovered that Mg(2+ competes with Ca(2+ in binding to the divalent-cation binding site without activating the channel. We also studied the permeability of the ANO1 pore for various anions and found that the anion occupancy in the pore-as revealed by the permeability ratios of these anions-appeared to be inversely correlated with the apparent affinity of the ANO1 inhibition by niflumic acid (NFA. On the other hand, the NFA inhibition was neither affected by the degree of the channel activation nor influenced by the types of divalent cations used for the channel activation. These results suggest that the NFA inhibition of ANO1 is likely mediated by altering the pore function but not through changing the channel gating. Our study provides a precise characterization of ANO1 and documents factors that can affect divalent cation activation and NFA inhibition of ANO1.

  11. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex.

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    Weiping Zhang

    Full Text Available Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16 protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum.

  12. Calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 promotes breast cancer progression by activating EGFR and CAMK signaling.

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    Britschgi, Adrian; Bill, Anke; Brinkhaus, Heike; Rothwell, Christopher; Clay, Ieuan; Duss, Stephan; Rebhan, Michael; Raman, Pichai; Guy, Chantale T; Wetzel, Kristie; George, Elizabeth; Popa, M Oana; Lilley, Sarah; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Gosling, Martin; Wang, Louis; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Borawski, Jason; Baffoe, Jonathan; Labow, Mark; Gaither, L Alex; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed

    2013-03-12

    The calcium-activated chloride channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1) is located within the 11q13 amplicon, one of the most frequently amplified chromosomal regions in human cancer, but its functional role in tumorigenesis has remained unclear. The 11q13 region is amplified in ∼15% of breast cancers. Whether ANO1 is amplified in breast tumors, the extent to which gene amplification contributes to ANO1 overexpression, and whether overexpression of ANO1 is important for tumor maintenance have remained unknown. We have found that ANO1 is amplified and highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Amplification of ANO1 correlated with disease grade and poor prognosis. Knockdown of ANO1 in ANO1-amplified breast cancer cell lines and other cancers bearing 11q13 amplification inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and reduced tumor growth in established cancer xenografts. Moreover, ANO1 chloride channel activity was important for cell viability. Mechanistically, ANO1 knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of its chloride-channel activity reduced EGF receptor (EGFR) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) signaling, which subsequently attenuated AKT, v-src sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (SRC), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in vitro and in vivo. Our results highlight the involvement of the ANO1 chloride channel in tumor progression and provide insights into oncogenic signaling in human cancers with 11q13 amplification, thereby establishing ANO1 as a promising target for therapy in these highly prevalent tumor types.

  13. Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels (CaCCs) Regulate Action Potential and Synaptic Response in Hippocampal Neurons

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    Huang, Wendy C.; Xiao, Shaohua; Huang, Fen; Harfe, Brian D.; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Central neurons respond to synaptic inputs from other neurons by generating synaptic potentials. Once the summated synaptic potentials reach threshold for action potential firing, the signal propagates leading to transmitter release at the synapse. The calcium influx accompanying such signaling opens calcium-activated ion channels for feedback regulation. Here we report a novel mechanism for modulating hippocampal neuronal signaling that involves calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs). We present the first evidence that CaCCs reside in hippocampal neurons and are in close proximity of calcium channels and NMDA receptors to shorten action potential duration, dampen excitatory synaptic potentials, impede temporal summation, and raise the threshold for action potential generation by synaptic potential. Having recently identified TMEM16A and TMEM16B as CaCCs, we further show that TMEM16B but not TMEM16A is important for hippocampal CaCC, laying the groundwork for deciphering the dynamic CaCC modulation of neuronal signaling in neurons important for learning and memory. PMID:22500639

  14. The transition from proliferation to differentiation in colorectal cancer is regulated by the calcium activated chloride channel A1.

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    Bo Yang

    Full Text Available Breaking the balance between proliferation and differentiation in animal cells can lead to cancer, but the mechanisms maintaining this balance remain largely undefined. The calcium activated chloride channel A1 (CLCA1 is a member of the calcium sensitive chloride conductance family of proteins and is expressed mainly in the colon, small intestine and appendix. We show that CLCA1 plays a functional role in differentiation and proliferation of Caco-2 cells and of intestinal tissue. Caco-2 cells spontaneously differentiate either in confluent culture or when treated with butyrate, a molecule present naturally in the diet. Here, we compared CLCA1 expressional levels between patients with and without colorectal cancer (CRC and determined the functional role of CLCA1 in differentiation and proliferation of Caco-2 cells. We showed that: 1 CLCA1 and CLCA4 expression were down-regulated significantly in CRC patients; 2 CLCA1 expression was up-regulated in Caco-2 cells induced to differentiate by confluent culture or by treatment with sodium butyrate (NaBT; 3 Knockdown of CLCA1 with siRNA significantly inhibited cell differentiation and promoted cell proliferation in Caco-2 confluent cultures, and 4 In Caco-2 3D culture, suppression of CLCA1 significantly increased cell proliferation and compromised NaBT-induced inhibition of proliferation. In conclusion, CLCA1 may contribute to promoting spontaneous differentiation and reducing proliferation of Caco-2 cells and may be a target of NaBT-induced inhibition of proliferation and therefore a potential diagnostic marker for CRC prognosis.

  15. Presynaptic Localization and Possible Function of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Anoctamin 1 in the Mammalian Retina.

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    Ji Hyun Jeon

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca(2+-activated chloride (Cl(- channels (CaCCs play a role in the modulation of action potentials and synaptic responses in the somatodendritic regions of central neurons. In the vertebrate retina, large Ca(2+-activated Cl(- currents (ICl(Ca regulate synaptic transmission at photoreceptor terminals; however, the molecular identity of CaCCs that mediate ICl(Ca remains unclear. The transmembrane protein, TMEM16A, also called anoctamin 1 (ANO1, has been recently validated as a CaCC and is widely expressed in various secretory epithelia and nervous tissues. Despite the fact that tmem16a was first cloned in the retina, there is little information on its cellular localization and function in the mammalian retina. In this study, we found that ANO1 was abundantly expressed as puncta in 2 synaptic layers. More specifically, ANO1 immunoreactivity was observed in the presynaptic terminals of various retinal neurons, including photoreceptors. ICl(Ca was first detected in dissociated rod bipolar cells expressing ANO1. ICl(Ca was abolished by treatment with the Ca(2+ channel blocker Co(2+, the L-type Ca(2+ channel blocker nifedipine, and the Cl(- channel blockers 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino benzoic acid (NPPB and niflumic acid (NFA. More specifically, a recently discovered ANO1-selective inhibitor, T16Ainh-A01, and a neutralizing antibody against ANO1 inhibited ICl(Ca in rod bipolar cells. Under a current-clamping mode, the suppression of ICl(Ca by using NPPB and T16Ainh-A01 caused a prolonged Ca(2+ spike-like depolarization evoked by current injection in dissociated rod bipolar cells. These results suggest that ANO1 confers ICl(Ca in retinal neurons and acts as an intrinsic regulator of the presynaptic membrane potential during synaptic transmission.

  16. [Regulatory role of calcium activated chloride channel in pulmonary vascular structural remodeling in rats with pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow].

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    Wang, K; Pang, Y S; Su, D Y; Ye, B B; Qin, S Y; Liu, D L; Han, Y L

    2016-09-01

    To explore the regulatory role of calcium activated chloride channel (CaCC) in vascular structural remodeling in pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow. An abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunting operation was used to induce high pulmonary blood flow and establish a PAH rat model.Seventy-five SD rats were randomly divided into normal, sham, shunt, niflumic acid (NFA) 1(0.2 mg/(kg·d))and NFA 2 (0.4 mg/(kg·d)) groups. There were 15 rats in each group. Pulmonary artery pressure and vascular structural remodeling were measured, arteriole contraction ratio among these groups were compared using vascular tone analysis system, and the electrophysiology of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) was recorded using patch clamp technology. Differences between multiple groups were compared through variance analysis and that between groups with q test. Compared with normal ((14.4±1.3 ) mmHg, 1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)and sham groups ((13.5±2.3 ) mmHg), mean pulmonary artery pressure in shunt group ((27.4±2.4 ) mmHg) increased significantly (Ppulmonary artery pressure in NFA 1 group ((21.2±2.0) mmHg) and NFA 2 group ((22.3±2.0) mmHg) decreased significantly (PPulmonary vascular structural remodeling including pulmonary artery stenosis presented in shunt group. Compared with normal ((114.3±1.2)%) and sham ((115.5±1.1)%) groups, arteriole contraction ratio to 10(-5) mol/L phenylephrine in shunt group ((132.6±1.4)%) increased significantly (Ppulmonary vascular structural remodeling alleviated in NFA 1 and NFA 2 groups. Arteriole contraction ratio in NFA 1 group ((126.4±1.3)%) and NFA 2 group ((124.6±1.0)%) decreased significantly compared with shunt group (Ppulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow through regulating membrane potential. NFA attenuate pulmonary vascular structural remodeling and pulmonary pressure through decreasing CaCC current density of PASMC membrane.

  17. Up-Regulation of Interleukin-9 and the Interleukin-9-Associated Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel hCLCA1 in Nasal Mucosa Following In Vivo Allergen Challenge

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    Hauber Hans-Peter

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-9 is a pleiotropic T helper 2-type cytokine that has been shown to be up-regulated in allergic airway disease, including asthma. IL-9 has been demonstrated to be a potent stimulus for the production and secretion of mucus from airway epithelial cells via induction of a calcium-activated chloride channel, hCLCA1. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of IL-9 and hCLCA1 following allergen challenge in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis patients. Nasal biopsies were obtained from allergic rhinitis patients out of allergen season both before (baseline and after local antigen challenge with either ragweed or diluent (control. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to assess IL-9 protein and hCLCA1 messenger ribonucleic acid. Eosinophils and T cells were detected using immunohistochemistry. IL-9 and hCLCA1 were very low at baseline, and expression was significantly up-regulated following ragweed challenge. Whereas the number of eosinophils increased after allergen challenge, T-cell counts did not change significantly. The results of this study demonstrate the relationship between specific allergen challenge and expression of both IL-9 and hCLCA1, suggesting a possible mechanism for the increased production of mucus from airway epithelial cells in allergic rhinitis.

  18. Inhibition of transmembrane member 16A calcium-activated chloride channels by natural flavonoids contributes to flavonoid anticancer effects.

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    Zhang, Xuan; Li, Honglin; Zhang, Huiran; Liu, Yani; Huo, Lifang; Jia, Zhanfeng; Xue, Yucong; Sun, Xiaorun; Zhang, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Natural flavonoids are ubiquitous in dietary plants and vegetables and have been proposed to have antiviral, antioxidant, cardiovascular protective and anticancer effects. Transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A)-encoded Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels play a variety of physiological roles in many organs and tissues. Overexpression of TMEM16A is also believed to be associated with cancer progression. Therefore, inhibition of TMEM16A current may be a potential target for cancer therapy. In this study, we screened a broad spectrum of flavonoids for their inhibitory activities on TMEM16A currents. A whole-cell patch technique was used to record the currents. The BrdU assay and transwell technique were used to investigate cell proliferation and migration. At a concentration of 100 μM, 10 of 20 compounds caused significant (>50%) inhibition of TMEM16A currents. The four most potent compounds - luteolin, galangin, quercetin and fisetin - had IC50 values ranging from 4.5 to 15 μM). To examine the physiological relevance of these findings, we also studied the effects of these flavonoids on endogenous TMEM16A currents in addition to cell proliferation and migration in LA795 cancer cells. Among the flavonoids tested, we detected a highly significant correlation between TMEM16A current inhibition and cell proliferation or reduction of migration. This study demonstrates that flavonoids inhibit TMEM16A currents and suggests that flavonoids could have anticancer effects via this mechanism. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Calcium-activated potassium current clamps the dark potential of vertebrate rods.

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    Moriondo, A; Pelucchi, B; Rispoli, G

    2001-07-01

    Vertebrate photoreceptors respond to light with a graded hyperpolarization from a membrane potential in the dark of approximately -35 mV. The present work investigates the physiological role of the Ca2+-activated K+ current in the photovoltage generation in mechanically isolated rods from salamander retina. Membrane current or voltage in isolated rods was recorded from light- and dark-adapted rods under voltage- or current-clamp conditions, respectively. In light-adapted rods of the salamander, selective blockade of Ca2+-activated K+ channels by means of charybdotoxin depolarized the plasma membrane of current-clamped rods by approximately 30 mV, from a resting potential of approximately -35 mV. A similar depolarization was observed if external Ca2+ (1 mM) was substituted with Ba2+ or Sr2+. Under control conditions, the injection of currents of increasing amplitude (up to -100 pA, to mimic the current entering the rod outer segment) could not depolarize the membrane potential beyond a saturating value of approximately -20 mV. However, in the presence of charybdotoxin, rods depolarized up to +20 mV. In experiments with dark-adapted current-clamped rods, charybdotoxin perfusion lead to transient depolarizations up to 0 mV and steady-state depolarizations of approximately 5 mV above the dark resting potential. Finally, the recovery phase of the voltage response to a flash of light in the presence of charybdotoxin showed a transient overshoot of the membrane potential. It was concluded that Ca2+-activated K+ current is necessary for clamping the rod photovoltage to values close to the dark potential, thus allowing faithful single photon detection and correct synaptic transmission.

  20. Contribution of presynaptic calcium-activated potassium currents to transmitter release regulation in cultured Xenopus nerve-muscle synapses.

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    Pattillo, J M; Yazejian, B; DiGregorio, D A; Vergara, J L; Grinnell, A D; Meriney, S D

    2001-01-01

    Using Xenopus nerve-muscle co-cultures, we have examined the contribution of calcium-activated potassium (K(Ca)) channels to the regulation of transmitter release evoked by single action potentials. The presynaptic varicosities that form on muscle cells in these cultures were studied directly using patch-clamp recording techniques. In these developing synapses, blockade of K(Ca) channels with iberiotoxin or charybdotoxin decreased transmitter release by an average of 35%. This effect would be expected to be caused by changes in the late phases of action potential repolarization. We hypothesize that these changes are due to a reduction in the driving force for calcium that is normally enhanced by the local hyperpolarization at the active zone caused by potassium current through the K(Ca) channels that co-localize with calcium channels. In support of this hypothesis, we have shown that when action potential waveforms were used as voltage-clamp commands to elicit calcium current in varicosities, peak calcium current was reduced only when these waveforms were broadened beginning when action potential repolarization was 20% complete. In contrast to peak calcium current, total calcium influx was consistently increased following action potential broadening. A model, based on previously reported properties of ion channels, faithfully reproduced predicted effects on action potential repolarization and calcium currents. From these data, we suggest that the large-conductance K(Ca) channels expressed at presynaptic varicosities regulate transmitter release magnitude during single action potentials by altering the rate of action potential repolarization, and thus the magnitude of peak calcium current.

  1. Effects of barium, lanthanum and gadolinium on endogenous chloride and potassium currents in Xenopus oocytes.

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    Tokimasa, T; North, R A

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of multivalent cations on membrane currents recorded from Xenopus oocytes were studied. 2. The hyperpolarization-activated chloride current was reversibly blocked by lanthanum; half-maximal block occurred at a concentration of 8 microM. Zinc, cadmium, cobalt and nickel were less potent than lanthanum, and gadolinium, manganese, barium and strontium had no effect at a concentration of 100 microM. 3. The calcium-activated chloride current was blocked by gadolinium (50 microM), and lanthanum, cadmium, cobalt, nickel and manganese were equally effective. The actions of gadolinium and lanthanum were almost irreversible, while partial (30-80%) recovery was observed with the other cations. Zinc (100 microM) had no effect. 4. In lanthanum (100 microM), membrane depolarizations from -70 mV activated an outward potassium current that was partially blocked by barium (0.1-2 mM). The barium-sensitive current was confined to potentials less negative than -70 mV. The current consisted of a time-independent as well as a time-dependent component, the latter of which had voltage dependence similar to the M-current. 5. It is proposed that lanthanum, gadolinium and barium can usefully separate these endogenous membrane currents in Xenopus oocytes. PMID:8930835

  2. A novel TMEM16A splice variant lacking the dimerization domain contributes to calcium-activated chloride secretion in human sweat gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertongur-Fauth, Torsten; Hochheimer, Andreas; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rapprich, Stefan; Krohn, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(acΔe3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(acΔe3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl(-) secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Bestrophin-3 (vitelliform macular dystrophy 2-like 3 protein) is essential for the cGMP-dependent calcium-activated chloride conductance in vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Larsen, Per; Bouzinova, Elena V.

    2008-01-01

    have recently characterized a cGMP-dependent Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current with unique characteristics in smooth muscle cells. This novel current has been shown to coexist with a "classic" (cGMP-independent) Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current and to have characteristics distinct from those previously...... interfering RNA both in cultured cells and in vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo was associated with a significant reduction of the cGMP-dependent Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current, whereas the magnitude of the classic Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current was not affected. The majority of previous suggestions...... that bestrophins are a new Cl(-) channel family were based on heterologous expression in cell culture studies. Our present results demonstrate that at least 1 family member, bestrophin-3, is essential for a well-defined endogenous Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current in smooth muscles in the intact vascular wall....

  4. Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Current Is Activated During Hypokalemia and Masks Short-Term Cardiac Memory Induced by Ventricular Pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi-Hsin; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Ko, Jum-Suk; Yin, Dechun; Chang, Po-Cheng; Rubart, Michael; Weiss, James N; Everett, Thomas H; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2015-10-13

    Hypokalemia increases the vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation. We hypothesize that the apamin-sensitive small-conductance calcium-activated potassium current (IKAS) is activated during hypokalemia and that IKAS blockade is proarrhythmic. Optical mapping was performed in 23 Langendorff-perfused rabbit ventricles with atrioventricular block and either right or left ventricular pacing during normokalemia or hypokalemia. Apamin prolonged the action potential duration (APD) measured to 80% repolarization (APD80) by 26 milliseconds (95% confidence interval [CI], 14-37) during normokalemia and by 54 milliseconds (95% CI, 40-68) during hypokalemia (P=0.01) at a 1000-millisecond pacing cycle length. In hypokalemic ventricles, apamin increased the maximal slope of APD restitution, the pacing cycle length threshold of APD alternans, the pacing cycle length for wave-break induction, and the area of spatially discordant APD alternans. Apamin significantly facilitated the induction of sustained ventricular fibrillation (from 3 of 9 hearts to 9 of 9 hearts; P=0.009). Short-term cardiac memory was assessed by the slope of APD80 versus activation time. The slope increased from 0.01 (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.12) at baseline to 0.34 (95% CI, 0.23-0.44) after apamin (Prabbit ventricular myocytes during hypokalemia (P=0.038). Hypokalemia activates IKAS to shorten APD and maintain repolarization reserve at late activation sites during ventricular pacing. IKAS blockade prominently lengthens the APD at late activation sites and facilitates ventricular fibrillation induction. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride as an effective corrosion inhibitor for stainless steel current collectors in magnesium chloride complex electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung Hoon; Cho, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Jong Hak; Cho, Byung Won; Oh, Si Hyoung

    2017-07-01

    Corrosion of current collectors is one of the most significant issues to tackle in rechargeable magnesium batteries where chloride-abundant electrolytes are commonly used since it can affect the electrochemical performance and the safety of battery system seriously. Here we investigate 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride ionic liquid as an effective corrosion inhibitor of the current collector in an electrolyte containing magnesium chloride complex. We find that adding just 0.2 wt.% ionic liquid increases the anodic stability of common current collectors by 0.1-0.3 V while maintaining the coulombic efficiencies for Mg deposition and stripping at over 98%. In particular, analytical studies of the passive film formed on 316L stainless steel show that the inhibitor efficiently prevents the formation of corrosion pits and preserves the protective property of the passive film upon repeated anodic scans. Furthermore, the inhibitor enables almost 100% efficiencies in the full cell cycling with Mo6S8 cathode, reflecting higher anodic stability of the current collectors in the electrolyte containing the inhibitor. We propose that the formation of an adsorbed layer of the ionic liquid as a plausible corrosion inhibition mechanism.

  6. Review on the current status of molten chloride reactor and its future prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seok Bin; Shin, Yukyung; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper has summarized and reviewed the current status of MCR as an online pyroprocessing reactor, and introduced the related works in UNIST. As the developments of the next generation nuclear energy systems require the fuel sustainability, passive operation safety, nuclear proliferation, and reduction of highly radioactive waste, only several types of nuclear reactor systems survive to the last. Among these, molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising concepts of next generation nuclear reactor system that deliver on these requirements. MSR have great advantages in the fuel cycle and reduction of nuclear waste, since MSR can serve the online reprocessing system for the reprocessing of spent fuel. Especially, MSR utilizing chloride-based fuel, called molten chloride reactor (MCR) has been recently highlighted in USA under the DOE’s Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) program. Recently, the interests in the molten chloride salt have arisen. The use of chloride-based salt gives great advantages to the reactor operating in a fast spectrum. Then MCR can serve waste management functions or fuel cycle sustainability functions, which can solve the current issues in nuclear field. Thus, research plan was established in UNIST which includes the investigation of thermal-hydraulic characteristics of chloride salt and optimization of heat transport system of MCR, using both numerical method and experimental method.

  7. The effect of pulse current on energy saving during Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Geiker, Mette R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is a factor influencing the cost of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete. The aims of this work were to investigate the possibility for energy saving when using a pulsed electric field during ECE and the effect of the pulsed current on removal of chloride. Four...... experiments with artificially polluted concrete under same charge transfer were conducted. Results showed that the energy consumption was decreased 15% by pulse current in experiments with 0.2 mA/cm2 current density, which was higher than that of 0.1 mA/cm2 experiments with a decrease of 9.6%. When comparing...... the voltage drop at different parts of the experimental cells, it was found that the voltage drop of the area across the concrete was the major contributor to energy consumption, and results indicated that the pulse current could decrease the voltage drop of this part by re-distribution of ions in pore fluid...

  8. Electrophysiological characterization of volume-activated chloride currents in mouse cholangiocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biyi; Nicol, Grant; Cho, Won Kyoo

    2004-12-01

    Recent electrophysiological and radioisotope efflux studies have demonstrated various Cl(-) channels in cholangiocytes including volume-activated Cl(-) channels (VACC). Because VACCs play prominent roles in many vital cellular functions and physiology in cholangiocytes, we have examined their electrophysiological characteristics in mouse cholangiocytes to provide an important framework for studying in the future. The present study is to characterize VACCs expressed in the mouse bile duct cell (MBDC) line, conditionally immortalized by SV40 virus. Conventional whole cell patch-clamp techniques were used to study the electrophysiological characteristics of VACC in MBDC. When the MBDCs were exposed to hypotonic solution, they exhibited an outwardly rectified current, which was significantly inhibited by replacing chloride in the bath solution with gluconate or glutamate and by administration of classic chloride channel inhibitors 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate, glybenclamide, DIDS, and tamoxifen. These inhibitory effects were reversible with washing them out from the bath solution. Moreover, the ion selectivity of the volume-activated channel to different anions indicates that it is more permeable to SCN(-) > I(-) >/= Cl(-) > F(-) >/= acetate >/= glutamate >/= gluconate. These electrophysiological characteristics demonstrate that the volume-activated current observed is a VACC. In addition, the VACC in MBDC has electrophysiological characteristics similar to those of the VACC in human cholangiocarcinoma cell line. The present study is the first to characterize the VACC in mouse cholangiocyte and will provide an important framework for further studies to examine and understand the role of the VACC in biliary secretion and ion-transport physiology.

  9. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  10. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  11. Comparative Effects of Chloride Channel Inhibitors on LRRC8/VRAC-Mediated Chloride Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friard, Jonas; Tauc, Michel; Cougnon, Marc; Compan, Vincent; Duranton, Christophe; Rubera, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Chloride channels play an essential role in a variety of physiological functions and in human diseases. Historically, the field of chloride channels has long been neglected owing to the lack of powerful selective pharmacological agents that are needed to overcome the technical challenge of characterizing the molecular identities of these channels. Recently, members of the LRRC8 family have been shown to be essential for generating the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) current, a chloride conductance that governs the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process. The inhibitory effects of six commonly used chloride channel inhibitors on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride transport were tested in wild-type HEK-293 cells expressing LRRC8 proteins and devoid of other types of chloride channels (CFTR and ANO1/2). We explored the effectiveness of the inhibitors using the patch-clamp whole-cell approach and fluorescence-based quantification of cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. Both DCPIB and NFA inhibited VRAC current in a whole-cell configuration, with IC50 values of 5 ± 1 μM and 55 ± 2 μM, respectively. Surprisingly, GlyH-101 and PPQ-102, two CFTR inhibitors, also inhibited VRAC conductance at concentrations in the range of their current use, with IC50 values of 10 ± 1 μM and 20 ± 1 μM, respectively. T16Ainh-A01, a so-called specific inhibitor of calcium-activated Cl- conductance, blocked the chloride current triggered by hypo-osmotic challenge, with an IC50 of 6 ± 1 μM. Moreover, RVD following hypotonic challenge was dramatically reduced by these inhibitors. CFTRinh-172 was the only inhibitor that had almost no effect on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance. All inhibitors tested except CFTRinh-172 inhibited VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance and cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. These results shed light on the apparent lack of chloride channel inhibitors specificity and raise the question of how these inhibitors

  12. Comparative Effects of Chloride Channel Inhibitors on LRRC8/VRAC-Mediated Chloride Conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Friard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride channels play an essential role in a variety of physiological functions and in human diseases. Historically, the field of chloride channels has long been neglected owing to the lack of powerful selective pharmacological agents that are needed to overcome the technical challenge of characterizing the molecular identities of these channels. Recently, members of the LRRC8 family have been shown to be essential for generating the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC current, a chloride conductance that governs the regulatory volume decrease (RVD process. The inhibitory effects of six commonly used chloride channel inhibitors on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride transport were tested in wild-type HEK-293 cells expressing LRRC8 proteins and devoid of other types of chloride channels (CFTR and ANO1/2. We explored the effectiveness of the inhibitors using the patch-clamp whole-cell approach and fluorescence-based quantification of cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. Both DCPIB and NFA inhibited VRAC current in a whole-cell configuration, with IC50 values of 5 ± 1 μM and 55 ± 2 μM, respectively. Surprisingly, GlyH-101 and PPQ-102, two CFTR inhibitors, also inhibited VRAC conductance at concentrations in the range of their current use, with IC50 values of 10 ± 1 μM and 20 ± 1 μM, respectively. T16Ainh-A01, a so-called specific inhibitor of calcium-activated Cl- conductance, blocked the chloride current triggered by hypo-osmotic challenge, with an IC50 of 6 ± 1 μM. Moreover, RVD following hypotonic challenge was dramatically reduced by these inhibitors. CFTRinh-172 was the only inhibitor that had almost no effect on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance. All inhibitors tested except CFTRinh-172 inhibited VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance and cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. These results shed light on the apparent lack of chloride channel inhibitors specificity and raise the question of how these

  13. Electrochemical oxidation of humic acid and sanitary landfill leachate: Influence of anode material, chloride concentration and current density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A; Santos, D; Pacheco, M J; Ciríaco, L; Lopes, A

    2016-01-15

    The influence of applied current density and chloride ion concentration on the ability of Ti/Pt/PbO2 and Ti/Pt/SnO2-Sb2O4 anodes for the electrochemical oxidation of humic acid and sanitary landfill leachate samples was assessed and compared with that of BDD anode. For the experimental conditions used, results show that both organic load and nitrogen removal rates increase with the applied current density and chloride ion concentration, although there is an optimum COD/[Cl-]0 ratio below which there is no further increase in COD removal. Metal oxide anodes present a similar performance to that of BDD, being the results obtained for Ti/Pt/PbO2 slightly better than for Ti/Pt/SnO2-Sb2O4. Contrary to BDD, Ti/Pt/PbO2 promotes lower nitrate formation and is the most suitable material for total nitrogen elimination. The importance of the optimum ratio of Cl-/COD/NH4 +initial concentrations is discussed.

  14. Effects of cisplatin on potassium currents in CT26 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Potassium currents were detected in CT26 cells and the currents were reduced by the application of tetraethylammonium (TEA chloride, iberiotoxin, a big conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blocker and barium. The potassium currents were enhanced to 192< by the application of cisplatin (0.5 mM. Moreover, the increase of potassium currents by cisplatin was further inhibited by the application of TEA confirming the action of cisplatin on potassium channels. In addition, relative current induced by cisplatin in CT26 cells was bit larger than in normal IEC-6 cells.

  15. Pulsed direct and constant direct currents in the pilocarpine iontophoresis sweat chloride test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carla Cristina Souza; Servidoni, Maria de Fatima; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Canavezi, Paulo Jose Coelho; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Toro, Adyleia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Pavan, Celia Regina; Rondon, Michelle Vivine Sá Dos Santos; Lorena, Sonia Leticia Silva; Vieria, Francisco Ubaldi; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu

    2014-12-13

    The classic sweat test (CST) is the golden standard for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. Then, our aim was compare the production and volume of sweat, and side effects caused by pulsed direct current (PDC) and constant direct current (CDC). To determine the optimal stimulation time (ST) for the sweat collection. To verify the PDC as CF diagnosis option. Prospective study with cross-sectional experimental intervention. Experiment 1 (right arm): PDC and CDC. ST at 10 min and sweat collected at 30 min. Currents of 0.5; 0.75; 1.0 and 1.5 mA and frequencies of 0, 200, 1,000 and 5,000 Hz applied. Experiment 2 (left arm): current of 1.0 mA, ST at 5 and 10 min and sweat collected at 15 and 30 min with frequencies of 0; 200; 1,000 and 5,000 Hz applied Experiments 1 and 2 were performed with current density (CD) from 0.07 to 0.21 mA/cm2. Experiment 3: PDC was used in typical CF patients with two CFTR mutations screened and or with CF diagnosis by rectal biopsy and patients with atypical CF. 48 subjects (79.16% female) with average of 29.54 ± 8.87 years old were enrolled. There was no statistical difference between the interaction of frequency and current in the sweat weight (p = 0.7488). Individually, positive association was achieved between weight sweat and stimulation frequency (p = 0.0088); and current (p = 0.0025). The sweat production was higher for 10 min of stimulation (p = 0.0023). The sweat collection was better for 30 min (p = 0.0019). The skin impedance was not influenced by ST and sweat collection (p > 0.05). The current frequency was inversely associated with the skin impedance (p sweat, without side effects. The optimal stimulation time and sweat collection were, respectively, 10 and 30 min.

  16. Subthalamic nucleus electrical stimulation modulates calcium activity of nigral astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Barat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, delivering inhibitory efferents to the relay nuclei of the thalamus. Pathological hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders e.g. in Parkinson's disease. One way to restore this pathological activity is to electrically stimulate one of the SNr input, the excitatory subthalamic nucleus (STN, which has emerged as an effective treatment for parkinsonian patients. The neuronal network and signal processing of the basal ganglia are well known but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous and induced excitability of afferent nuclei on SNr astrocytes calcium activity. Astrocytes represent the main cellular population in the SNr and display spontaneous calcium activities in basal conditions. Half of this activity is autonomous (i.e. independent of synaptic activity while the other half is dependent on spontaneous glutamate and GABA release, probably controlled by the pace-maker activity of the pallido-nigral and subthalamo-nigral loops. Modification of the activity of the loops by STN electrical stimulation disrupted this astrocytic calcium excitability through an increase of glutamate and GABA releases. Astrocytic AMPA, mGlu and GABA(A receptors were involved in this effect. SIGNIFICANCE: Astrocytes are now viewed as active components of neural networks but their role depends on the brain structure concerned. In the SNr, evoked activity prevails and autonomous calcium activity is lower than in the cortex or hippocampus. Our data therefore reflect a specific role of SNr astrocytes in sensing the STN-GPe-SNr loops activity and suggest that SNr astrocytes could potentially feedback on SNr neuronal activity. These findings have major implications given the

  17. Calcium Activated K+ Channels in The Electroreceptor of the Skate Confirmed by Cloning. Details of Subunits and Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    King, Benjamin L.; Shi, Ling Fang; Kao, Peter; Clusin, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Elasmobranchs detect small potentials using excitable cells of the ampulla of Lorenzini which have calcium-activated K+ channels, first described in l974. A distinctive feature of the outward current in voltage clamped ampullae is its apparent insensitivity to voltage. The sequence of a BK channel ? isoform expressed in the ampulla of the skate was characterized. A signal peptide is present at the beginning of the gene. When compared to human isoform 1 (the canonical sequence), the largest di...

  18. Diagnosis of sources of current inefficiency in industrial molten salt electrolysis cells by Raman spectroscopy: A topical report on chlorides: Topical report, June 1982-June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadoway, D. R.

    1987-06-01

    Molten salt electrolysis, a very energy-intensive process, is used in the extraction of light metals. Aluminum production by the Hall process and magnesium production in the Dow and I.G. Farbenindustrie cells constitute the major commercial applications of metal electrowinning from molten-salt media at present. The energy input into the electrolysis cell is in the form of direct current, and the energy efficiencies in the magnesium or aluminum processes are only in the 30 to 40% range. Major energy reductions are achieved by reducing the cell voltage or by increasing the current efficiency. Goal of the research is to identify the sources of the current losses occurring in molten salt electrolysis. This research worked on the systems of I.G. Farben magnesium chloride and Alcoa smelting aluminum chloride processes. Raman spectra were measured and analyzed for each component or their mixtures of the electrolyte for magnesium and aluminum reduction in chloride melts. Raman measurements were also conducted on the melts of industrial composition for aluminum and magnesium electrolysis. In laboratory-scale cells which imitated industrial practice, Raman spectra were measured in situ during electrolysis in attempts to identify the streamers, coloration of electrolyte, and any subvalent species. They were known to occur only during electrolysis, and they have been reported to be possible current losses. Cyclic voltammetry was conducted to obtain information about the generation of subvalent species which were not detected by Raman measurement. These were thought to be kinetic entities present only during electrolysis. Results of Raman spectroscopy and electrochemistry of magnesium and aluminum reduction from molten chloride bath are presented. The results would be useful to establish the basis for the study of electrolysis of aluminum from molten fluoride media. 119 refs., 66 figs.

  19. Role of volume-regulated and calcium-activated anion channels in cell volume homeostasis, cancer and drug resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Sauter, Daniel Rafael Peter

    2015-01-01

    to be an essential component of both VRAC and VSOAC. Reduced VRAC and VSOAC activities are seen in drug resistant cancer cells. ANO1 is a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed on the plasma membrane of e.g. secretory epithelia. ANO1 is amplified and highly expressed in a large number of carcinomas. The gene...... functions as well as their role in cancer and drug resistance......., encoding for ANO1, maps to a region on chromosome 11 (11q13) that is frequently amplified in cancer cells. Knockdown of ANO1 impairs cell proliferation and cell migration in several cancer cells. Below we summarize the basic biophysical properties of VRAC, VSOAC and ANO1 and their most important cellular...

  20. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance . This test measures the level of chloride in ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base (pH) balance . Chloride and electrolyte tests may also be ordered ...

  1. Small and Intermediate Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Openers Improve Rat Endothelial and Erectile Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerma-Steffensen, Simon G.; Carvacho, Ingrid; Hedegaard, Elise R.; Simonsen, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Modulation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels has been proposed as an approach to restore endothelial function. The present study investigated whether novel openers of KCa channels with small (KCa2.x) and intermediate (KCa3.1) conductance, NS309 and NS4591, improve endothelium-dependent relaxation and erectile function. Rat corpus cavernosum (CC) strips were mounted for isometric tension recording and processed for immunoblotting. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), intracavernosal pressure (ICP), and electrocardiographic (ECG) measurements were conducted in anesthetized rats. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of KCa2.3 and large KCa conductance (KCa1.1) channels in the corpus cavernosum. NS309 and NS4591 increased current in CC endothelial cells in whole cell patch clamp experiments. Relaxation induced by NS309 (cavernous nerve stimulation with NS309 were unchanged, whereas NS4591 significantly improved erectile function. Administration of NS309 and NS4591 caused small changes in the electrocardiogram, but neither arrhythmic events nor prolongation of the QTc interval were observed. The present study suggests that openers of KCa2.x and KCa3.1 channels improve endothelial and erectile function. The effects of NS309 and NS4591 on heart rate and ECG are small, but will require additional safety studies before evaluating whether activation of KCa2.3 channels has a potential for treatment of erectile dysfunction. PMID:28993731

  2. Fear conditioning suppresses large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in lateral amygdala neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P; Zhang, Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, F; Wang, L; Yamamoto, R; Sugai, T; Kato, N

    2015-01-01

    It was previously shown that depression-like behavior is accompanied with suppression of the large-conductance calcium activated potassium (BK) channel in cingulate cortex pyramidal cells. To test whether BK channels are also involved in fear conditioning, we studied neuronal properties of amygdala principal cells in fear conditioned mice. After behavior, we made brain slices containing the amygdala, the structure critically relevant to fear memory. The resting membrane potential in lateral amygdala (LA) neurons obtained from fear conditioned mice (FC group) was more depolarized than in neurons from naïve controls. The frequencies of spikes evoked by current injections were higher in neurons from FC mice, demonstrating that excitability of LA neurons was elevated by fear conditioning. The depolarization in neurons from FC mice was shown to depend on BK channels by using the BK channel blocker charybdotoxin. Suppression of BK channels in LA neurons from the FC group was further confirmed on the basis of the spike width, since BK channels affect the descending phase of spikes. Spikes were broader in the FC group than those in the naïve control in a manner dependent on BK channels. Consistently, quantitative real-time PCR revealed a decreased expression of BK channel mRNA. The present findings suggest that emotional disorder manifested in the forms of fear conditioning is accompanied with BK channel suppression in the amygdala, the brain structure critical to this emotional disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Down-Regulation of ClC-3 Expression Reduces Epidermal Stem Cell Migration by Inhibiting Volume-Activated Chloride Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Pan, Fuqiang; Tian, Yanping; Li, Hongli; Li, Shirong; Cao, Chuan

    2016-06-01

    ClC-3, a member of the ClC chloride (Cl(-)) channel family, has recently been proposed as the primary Cl(-) channel involved in cell volume regulation. Changes in cell volume influence excitability, contraction, migration, pathogen-host interactions, cell proliferation, and cell death processes. In this study, expression and function of ClC-3 channels were investigated during epidermal stem cell (ESC) migration. We observed differential expression of CLC-3 regulates migration of ESCs. Further, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and image analysis demonstrated ClC-3 expression affected volume-activated Cl(-) current (I Cl,Vol) within ESCs. Live cell imaging systems, designed to observe cellular responses to overexpression and suppression of ClC-3 in real time, indicated ClC-3 may regulate ESC migratory dynamics. We employed IMARIS software to analyze the velocity and distance of ESC migration in vitro to demonstrate the function of ClC-3 channel in ESCs. As our data suggest volume-activated Cl(-) channels play a vital role in migration of ESCs, which contribute to skin repair by migrating from neighboring unwounded epidermis infundibulum, hair follicle or sebaceous glands, ClC-3 may represent a new and valuable target for stem cell therapies.

  4. Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on small conductance calcium - activated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó-Vicens, Rafel; Sauter, Daniel R P; Grunnet, Morten; Diness, Jonas G; Bentzen, Bo H

    2017-05-15

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia. Current pharmacological treatment for AF is moderately effective and/or increases the risk of serious ventricular adverse effects. To avoid ventricular adverse effects, a new target has been considered, the small conductance calcium-activated K+ channels (KCa2.X, SK channels). In the heart, KCa2.X channels are functionally more important in atria compared to ventricles, and pharmacological inhibition of the channel confers atrial selective prolongation of the cardiac action potential and converts AF to sinus rhythm in animal models of AF. Whether antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) recommended for treating AF target KCa2.X channels is unknown. To this end, we tested a large number of AADs on the human KCa2.2 and KCa2.3 channels to assess their effect on this new target using automated whole-cell patch clamp. Of the AADs recommended for treatment of AF only dofetilide and propafenone inhibited hKCa2.X channels, with no subtype selectivity. The calculated IC50 were 90±10µmol/l vs 60±10µmol/l for dofetilide and 42±4µmol/l vs 80±20µmol/l for propafenone (hKCa2.3 vs hKCa2.2). Whether this inhibition has clinical importance for their antiarrhythmic effect is unlikely, as the calculated IC50 values are very high compared to the effective free therapeutic plasma concentration of the drugs when used for AF treatment, 40,000-fold for dofetilide and 140-fold higher for propafenone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acetaldehyde - ethanol interactions on calcium-activated potassium (BK channels in pituitary tumor (GH3 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid G. Handlechner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the central nervous system ethanol (EtOH is metabolized to acetaldehyde (ACA primarily by the oxidative enzyme catalase. Evidence suggests that ACA is responsible for at least some of the effects on the brain that have been attributed to EtOH. Various types of ion channels which are involved in electrical signaling are targets of EtOH like maxi calcium-activated potassium (BK channels. BK channels exhibit various functions like action potential repolarization, blood pressure regulation, hormone secretion, or transmitter release. In most neuronal and neuroendocrine preparations at physiological intracellular calcium levels, EtOH increases BK channel activity. The simultaneous presence of ACA and EtOH reflects the physiological situation after drinking and may result in synergistic as well as antagonistic actions compared to a single application of either drug. The action of ACA on electrical activity has yet not been fully established.Methods: GH3 pituitary tumor cells were used for outside-out and inside-out patch-clamp recordings of BK activity in excised patches. Unitary current amplitude, open probability and channel mean open time of BK channels were measured. Results: Extracellular EtOH raised BK channel activity. In the presence of intracellular ACA this increment of BK activity was suppressed in a dose- as well as calcium-dependent manner. Mean channel open time was significantly reduced by internal ACA, whereas BK channel amplitudes were not affected. The EtOH counteracting effect of ACA was found to depend on succession of application. EtOH was prevented from activating BK channels by pre-exposure of membrane patches to ACA. In contrast BK activation by a hypotonic solution was not affected by internal ACA. Conclusions: Our data suggest an inhibitory impact of ACA on BK activation by EtOH. ACA appears to interact specifically with EtOH at BK channels since intracellular ACA had no effect when BK channels were activated by

  6. Small and Intermediate Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Openers Improve Rat Endothelial and Erectile Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon G. Comerma-Steffensen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium (KCa channels has been proposed as an approach to restore endothelial function. The present study investigated whether novel openers of KCa channels with small (KCa2.x and intermediate (KCa3.1 conductance, NS309 and NS4591, improve endothelium-dependent relaxation and erectile function. Rat corpus cavernosum (CC strips were mounted for isometric tension recording and processed for immunoblotting. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, intracavernosal pressure (ICP, and electrocardiographic (ECG measurements were conducted in anesthetized rats. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of KCa2.3 and large KCa conductance (KCa1.1 channels in the corpus cavernosum. NS309 and NS4591 increased current in CC endothelial cells in whole cell patch clamp experiments. Relaxation induced by NS309 (<1 μM was inhibited by endothelial cell removal and high extracellular potassium. An inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO synthase, and blockers of KCa2.x and KCa1.1 channels, apamin and iberiotoxin also inhibited NS309 relaxation. Incubation with NS309 (0.5 μM markedly enhanced acetylcholine relaxation. Basal erectile function (ICP/MAP increased during administration of NS309. Increases in ICP/MAP after cavernous nerve stimulation with NS309 were unchanged, whereas NS4591 significantly improved erectile function. Administration of NS309 and NS4591 caused small changes in the electrocardiogram, but neither arrhythmic events nor prolongation of the QTc interval were observed. The present study suggests that openers of KCa2.x and KCa3.1 channels improve endothelial and erectile function. The effects of NS309 and NS4591 on heart rate and ECG are small, but will require additional safety studies before evaluating whether activation of KCa2.3 channels has a potential for treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  7. Immunolocalization and expression of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in human myometrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Sofia T; Svalø, Julie; Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK3) channels have been detected in human myometrium and we have previously shown a functional role of SK channels in human myometrium in vitro. The aims of this study were to identify the precise localization of SK3 channels and to quantify SK3 mRNA...

  8. Tgf-beta downregulation of distinct chloride channels in cystic fibrosis-affected epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Sun

    Full Text Available The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and Calcium-activated Chloride Conductance (CaCC each play critical roles in maintaining normal hydration of epithelial surfaces including the airways and colon. TGF-beta is a genetic modifier of cystic fibrosis (CF, but how it influences the CF phenotype is not understood.We tested the hypothesis that TGF-beta potently downregulates chloride-channel function and expression in two CF-affected epithelia (T84 colonocytes and primary human airway epithelia compared with proteins known to be regulated by TGF-beta.TGF-beta reduced CaCC and CFTR-dependent chloride currents in both epithelia accompanied by reduced levels of TMEM16A and CFTR protein and transcripts. TGF-beta treatment disrupted normal regulation of airway-surface liquid volume in polarized primary human airway epithelia, and reversed F508del CFTR correction produced by VX-809. TGF-beta effects on the expression and activity of TMEM16A, wtCFTR and corrected F508del CFTR were seen at 10-fold lower concentrations relative to TGF-beta effects on e-cadherin (epithelial marker and vimentin (mesenchymal marker expression. TGF-beta downregulation of TMEM16A and CFTR expression were partially reversed by Smad3 and p38 MAPK inhibition, respectively.TGF-beta is sufficient to downregulate two critical chloride transporters in two CF-affected tissues that precedes expression changes of two distinct TGF-beta regulated proteins. Our results provide a plausible mechanism for CF-disease modification by TGF-beta through effects on CaCC.

  9. Measurement of atmospheric vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, S S

    1979-02-01

    Methods for atmospheric vinyl chloride measurement have been reviewed. The lowest detection limits and most specific measurement are achieved by scrubbing atmospheric samples with activated charcoal, desorbing the vinyl chloride, and assaying it by gas chromatography (GC). NIOSH currently recommends collecting samples using tubes packed with 150 mg of coconut shell charcoal, desorbing with carbon disulfide, and analyzing by GC equipped with flame-ionization detection (FID); the method is capable of detecting less than 1 ppm vinyl chloride and has an apparent recovery of abo the ppb level with no loss of accuracy or precision. Some field methods, such as infrared analysis and conductivity measurement, are capable of detecting 1 ppm or lower but are subject to interferences by other contaminants; th-y could be useful for evaluating sources of vinyl chloride leaks and for continuous monitoring. Permeation tubes are superior to gravimetric or volumetric methods for generating atmospheres of known vinyl chloride concentration.

  10. Prediction of Chloride Penetration into Hardening Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jie Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In marine and coastal environments, penetration of chloride ions is one of the main mechanisms causing concrete reinforcement corrosion. Currently, most of experimental investigations about submerged penetration of chloride ions are started after the four-week standard curing of concrete. The further hydration of cement and reduction of chloride diffusivity during submerged penetration period are ignored. To overcome this weak point, this paper presents a numerical procedure to analyze simultaneously cement hydration reaction and chloride ion penetration process. First, using a cement hydration model, degree of hydration and phase volume fractions of hardening concrete are determined. Second, the dependences of chloride diffusivity and chloride binding capacity on age of concrete are clarified. Third, chloride profiles in hardening concrete are calculated. The proposed numerical procedure is verified by using chloride submerged penetration test results of concrete with different mixing proportions.

  11. Tribenzylammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl−, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH23NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH33Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetrahedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16 (10°. In the crystal, the tribenzylammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin.

  12. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  13. Prediction of Chloride Penetration into Hardening Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Jie Fan; Xiao-Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    In marine and coastal environments, penetration of chloride ions is one of the main mechanisms causing concrete reinforcement corrosion. Currently, most of experimental investigations about submerged penetration of chloride ions are started after the four-week standard curing of concrete. The further hydration of cement and reduction of chloride diffusivity during submerged penetration period are ignored. To overcome this weak point, this paper presents a numerical procedure to analyze simult...

  14. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegetables. Foods with higher amounts of chloride include seaweed, rye, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, and olives. Chloride, combined ... RDA is an intake level based on scientific research evidence. Adequate Intake (AI): This level is established ...

  15. MED resulting from recessively inherited mutations in the gene encoding calcium-activated nucleotidase CANT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Karthika; Li, Bing; Krakow, Deborah; Nevarez, Lisette; Ho, Patric J; Ainsworth, Julia A; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J; Immken, LaDonna; Lachman, Ralph S; Cohn, Daniel H

    2017-09-01

    Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia (MED) is a relatively mild skeletal dysplasia characterized by mild short stature, joint pain, and early-onset osteoarthropathy. Dominantly inherited mutations in COMP, MATN3, COL9A1, COL9A2, and COL9A3, and recessively inherited mutations in SLC26A2, account for the molecular basis of disease in about 80-85% of the cases. In two families with recurrent MED of an unknown molecular basis, we used exome sequencing and candidate gene analysis to identify homozygosity for recessively inherited missense mutations in CANT1, which encodes calcium-activated nucleotidase 1. The MED phenotype is thus allelic to the more severe Desbuquois dysplasia phenotype and the results identify CANT1 as a second locus for recessively inherited MED. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Nitric oxide regulates neuronal activity via calcium-activated potassium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ray Zhong

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an unconventional membrane-permeable messenger molecule that has been shown to play various roles in the nervous system. How NO modulates ion channels to affect neuronal functions is not well understood. In gastropods, NO has been implicated in regulating the feeding motor program. The buccal motoneuron, B19, of the freshwater pond snail Helisoma trivolvis is active during the hyper-retraction phase of the feeding motor program and is located in the vicinity of NO-producing neurons in the buccal ganglion. Here, we asked whether B19 neurons might serve as direct targets of NO signaling. Previous work established NO as a key regulator of growth cone motility and neuronal excitability in another buccal neuron involved in feeding, the B5 neuron. This raised the question whether NO might modulate the electrical activity and neuronal excitability of B19 neurons as well, and if so whether NO acted on the same or a different set of ion channels in both neurons. To study specific responses of NO on B19 neurons and to eliminate indirect effects contributed by other cells, the majority of experiments were performed on single cultured B19 neurons. Addition of NO donors caused a prolonged depolarization of the membrane potential and an increase in neuronal excitability. The effects of NO could mainly be attributed to the inhibition of two types of calcium-activated potassium channels, apamin-sensitive and iberiotoxin-sensitive potassium channels. NO was found to also cause a depolarization in B19 neurons in situ, but only after NO synthase activity in buccal ganglia had been blocked. The results suggest that NO acts as a critical modulator of neuronal excitability in B19 neurons, and that calcium-activated potassium channels may serve as a common target of NO in neurons.

  17. Calcium Activated K+ Channels in The Electroreceptor of the Skate Confirmed by Cloning. Details of Subunits and Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Benjamin L.; Shi, Ling Fang; Kao, Peter; Clusin, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Elasmobranchs detect small potentials using excitable cells of the ampulla of Lorenzini which have calcium-activated K+ channels, first described in l974. A distinctive feature of the outward current in voltage clamped ampullae is its apparent insensitivity to voltage. The sequence of a BK channel α isoform expressed in the ampulla of the skate was characterized. A signal peptide is present at the beginning of the gene. When compared to human isoform 1 (the canonical sequence), the largest difference was absence of a 59 amino acid region from the S8-S9 intracellular linker that contains the strex regulatory domain. The ampulla isoform was also compared with the isoform predicted˜ in late skate embryos where strex was also absent. The BK voltage sensors were conserved in both skate isoforms. Differences between the skate and human BK channel included alternative splicing. Alternative splicing occurs at seven previously defined sites that are characteristic for BK channels in general and hair cells in particular. Skate BK sequences were highly similar to the Australian ghost shark and several other vertebrate species. Based on alignment of known BK sequences with the skate genome and transcriptome, there are at least two isoforms of Kcnma1α expressed in the skate. One of the β subunits (β4), which is known to decrease voltage sensitivity, was also identified in the skate genome and transcriptome and in the ampulla. These studies advance our knowledge of BK channels and suggest further studies in the ampulla and other excitable tissues. PMID:26687710

  18. Calcium activated K⁺ channels in the electroreceptor of the skate confirmed by cloning. Details of subunits and splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Benjamin L; Shi, Ling Fang; Kao, Peter; Clusin, William T

    2016-03-01

    Elasmobranchs detect small potentials using excitable cells of the ampulla of Lorenzini which have calcium-activated K(+) channels, first described in 1974. A distinctive feature of the outward current in voltage clamped ampullae is its apparent insensitivity to voltage. The sequence of a BK channel α isoform expressed in the ampulla of the skate was characterized. A signal peptide is present at the beginning of the gene. When compared to human isoform 1 (the canonical sequence), the largest difference was absence of a 59 amino acid region from the S8-S9 intra-cellular linker that contains the strex regulatory domain. The ampulla isoform was also compared with the isoform predicted in late skate embryos where strex was also absent. The BK voltage sensors were conserved in both skate isoforms. Differences between the skate and human BK channel included alternative splicing. Alternative splicing occurs at seven previously defined sites that are characteristic for BK channels in general and hair cells in particular. Skate BK sequences were highly similar to the Australian ghost shark and several other vertebrate species. Based on alignment of known BK sequences with the skate genome and transcriptome, there are at least two isoforms of Kcnma1α expressed in the skate. One of the β subunits (β4), which is known to decrease voltage sensitivity, was also identified in the skate genome and transcriptome and in the ampulla. These studies advance our knowledge of BK channels and suggest further studies in the ampulla and other excitable tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels with small conductance in bradykinin-induced vasodilation of porcine retinal arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Thomas; Kroigaard, Christel; Bek, Toke

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Endothelial dysfunction and impaired vasodilation may be involved in the pathogenesis of retinal vascular diseases. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying bradykinin vasodilation were examined and whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca)) and intermediate (I...

  20. The calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 is an important modulator of hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Linda Maria Sevelsted; Fialla, Annette Dam; Schierwagen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 controls different cellular processes such as proliferation and volume homeostasis. We investigated the role of KCa3.1 in experimental and human liver fibrosis. KCa3.1 gene expression was investigated in healthy and injured human and rodent liver. Ef...

  1. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels contribute to action potential repolarization in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Poulet, Claire; Diness, Jonas Goldin

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels are expressed in the heart of various species, including humans. The aim of the present study was to address whether SK channels play a functional role in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed...

  2. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...

  3. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...... of inhibitors (thiocyanate, furosemide, phloretin, and acetazolamide) also affects chloride exchange diffusion, hyperpolarization current as well as chloride influx during hyperpolarization. Although in some cases, effects on the short circuit current were also observed none of the effects on chloride transport....... On the basis of these findings, and the results reported in the previous paper (Hviid Larsen and Kristensen 1977) it is considered probable that the membrane molecules responsible to chloride exchange diffusion under short circuit conditions, are rearranged under the influence of a hyperpolarizing clamping...

  4. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  5. GABAergic striatal neurons project dendrites and axons into the postnatal subventricular zone leading to calcium activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Z Young

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available GABA regulates the behavior of neuroblasts and neural progenitor cells in the postnatal neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ through GABAA receptor (GABAAR-mediated calcium increases. However, the source of GABA necessary for sufficient GABAAR-mediated depolarization and calcium increase has remained speculative. Here, we explored whether GABAergic striatal neurons functionally connect with SVZ cells. Using patch clamp recordings or single cell electroporation, striatal neurons along the SVZ were filled with a fluorescent dye revealing that they send both dendrites and axons into the SVZ. About 93% of the recorded neurons were medium spiny or aspiny GABAergic neurons and each neuron sent 3-4 processes into the SVZ covering ~56 µm. Using calcium imaging, we found that depolarization of striatal neurons led to increased calcium activity in SVZ cells that were mediated by GABAAR activation. Collectively, these findings undercover a novel mode of signaling in the SVZ providing a mechanism of brain activity-mediated regulation of postnatal neurogenesis through GABAergic striatal activity.

  6. Calcium activity of upper thoracic dorsal root ganglion neurons in zucker diabetic Fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Marie Louise; Nyborg, Niels C B; Fjalland, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    or in combination with algogenic chemicals (bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E2 (all 10(-5)¿M), and adenosine (10(-3)¿M)) at pH 7.4 and 6.0. Neurons from diabetic animals exhibited an overall increased response to stimulation with 20¿mM¿K(+) compared to neurons from control. Stimulation with Capsaicin alone...... caused an augmented response in neurons from diabetic animals compared to control animals. When stimulated with a combination of Capsaicin and algogenic chemicals, no differences between the two groups of neurons were measured, neither at pH 7.4 nor 6.0. In conclusion, diabetes-induced alterations......The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated...

  7. Blockade of chloride channels by DIDS stimulates renin release and inhibits contraction of afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Skøtt, O

    1996-01-01

    arterioles with the chloride channel blocker 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS). Renin secretion was equally enhanced by omission of extracellular calcium and by addition of 0.5 mM DIDS. The inhibitory effect of calcium was blocked by DIDS. The stimulatory effects of low calcium [with......Calcium-activated chloride channels have been proposed to control renin release from juxtaglomerular cells and to be involved in the excitation-contraction coupling of the renal afferent arteriole. The hypothesis was tested on renin release from rat glomeruli and in microperfused rabbit afferent...... or without ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] and DIDS were not additive. In the absence of chloride, basal renin release was suppressed and the stimulatory effect of DIDS was abolished. The DIDS-induced enhancement of renin release was not dependent on bicarbonate...

  8. Distribution of high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in rat vestibular epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Felix E; Savin, David; Luu, Cindy; Sultemeier, David R; Hoffman, Larry F

    2009-11-10

    Voltage- and calcium-activated potassium channels (BK) are important regulators of neuronal excitability. BK channels seem to be crucial for frequency tuning in nonmammalian vestibular and auditory hair cells. However, there are a paucity of data concerning BK expression in mammalian vestibular hair cells. We therefore investigated the localization of BK channels in mammalian vestibular hair cells, specifically in rat vestibular neuroepithelia. We find that only a subset of hair cells in the utricle and the crista ampullaris express BK channels. BK-positive hair cells are located mainly in the medial striolar region of the utricle, where they constitute at most 12% of hair cells, and in the central zone of the horizontal crista. A majority of BK-positive hair cells are encapsulated by a calretinin-positive calyx defining them as type I cells. The remainder are either type I cells encapsulated by a calretinin-negative calyx or type II hair cells. Surprisingly, the number of BK-positive hair cells in the utricle peaks in juvenile rats and declines in early adulthood. BK channels were not found in vestibular afferent dendrites or somata. Our data indicate that BK channel expression in the mammalian vestibular system differs from the expression pattern in the mammalian auditory and the nonmammalian vestibular system. The molecular diversity of vestibular hair cells indicates a functional diversity that has not yet been fully characterized. The predominance of BK-positive hair cells within the medial striola of juvenile animals suggests that they contribute to a scheme of highly lateralized coding of linear head movements during late development.

  9. Calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are encoded by duplicate slo1 genes in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmann, Kevin N; Deitcher, David L; Bass, Andrew H

    2009-07-01

    Calcium-activated, large conductance potassium (BK) channels in tetrapods are encoded by a single slo1 gene, which undergoes extensive alternative splicing. Alternative splicing generates a high level of functional diversity in BK channels that contributes to the wide range of frequencies electrically tuned by the inner ear hair cells of many tetrapods. To date, the role of BK channels in hearing among teleost fishes has not been investigated at the molecular level, although teleosts account for approximately half of all extant vertebrate species. We identified slo1 genes in teleost and nonteleost fishes using polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequence databases. In contrast to tetrapods, all teleosts examined were found to express duplicate slo1 genes in the central nervous system, whereas nonteleosts that diverged prior to the teleost whole-genome duplication event express a single slo1 gene. Phylogenetic analyses further revealed that whereas other slo1 duplicates were the result of a single duplication event, an independent duplication occurred in a basal teleost (Anguilla rostrata) following the slo1 duplication in teleosts. A third, independent slo1 duplication (autotetraploidization) occurred in salmonids. Comparison of teleost slo1 genomic sequences to their tetrapod orthologue revealed a reduced number of alternative splice sites in both slo1 co-orthologues. For the teleost Porichthys notatus, a focal study species that vocalizes with maximal spectral energy in the range electrically tuned by BK channels in the inner ear, peripheral tissues show the expression of either one (e.g., vocal muscle) or both (e.g., inner ear) slo1 paralogues with important implications for both auditory and vocal physiology. Additional loss of expression of one slo1 paralogue in nonneural tissues in P. notatus suggests that slo1 duplicates were retained via subfunctionalization. Together, the results predict that teleost fish achieve a diversity of BK channel subfunction via

  10. The β1 Subunit Enhances Oxidative Regulation of Large-Conductance Calcium-activated K+ Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Lindsey Ciali; Chen, Jianguo; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may alter the functions of many proteins including the Slo1 large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa). Previous results demonstrated that in the virtual absence of Ca2+, the oxidant chloramine-T (Ch-T), without the involvement of cysteine oxidation, increases the open probability and slows the deactivation of BKCa channels formed by human Slo1 (hSlo1) α subunits alone. Because native BKCa channel complexes may include the auxiliary subunit β1, we investigated whether β1 influences the oxidative regulation of hSlo1. Oxidation by Ch-T with β1 present shifted the half-activation voltage much further in the hyperpolarizing direction (−75 mV) as compared with that with α alone (−30 mV). This shift was eliminated in the presence of high [Ca2+]i, but the increase in open probability in the virtual absence of Ca2+ remained significant at physiologically relevant voltages. Furthermore, the slowing of channel deactivation after oxidation was even more dramatic in the presence of β1. Oxidation of cysteine and methionine residues within β1 was not involved in these potentiated effects because expression of mutant β1 subunits lacking cysteine or methionine residues produced results similar to those with wild-type β1. Unlike the results with α alone, oxidation by Ch-T caused a significant acceleration of channel activation only when β1 was present. The β1 M177 mutation disrupted normal channel activation and prevented the Ch-T–induced acceleration of activation. Overall, the functional effects of oxidation of the hSlo1 pore-forming α subunit are greatly amplified by the presence of β1, which leads to the additional increase in channel open probability and the slowing of deactivation. Furthermore, M177 within β1 is a critical structural determinant of channel activation and oxidative sensitivity. Together, the oxidized BKCa channel complex with β1 has a considerable chance of being open within the physiological voltage

  11. BESTROPHIN1 mutations cause defective chloride conductance in patient stem cell-derived RPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshfegh, Yasmin; Velez, Gabriel; Li, Yao; Bassuk, Alexander G; Mahajan, Vinit B; Tsang, Stephen H

    2016-07-01

    Bestrophin1 (BEST1) is expressed in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and mutations in the BEST1 gene commonly cause retinal dysfunction and macular degeneration. BEST1 is presumed to assemble into a calcium-activated chloride channel and be involved in chloride transport but there is no direct evidence in live human RPE cells to support this idea. To test whether BEST1 functions as a chloride channel in living tissue, BEST1-mutant RPE (R218H, L234P, A243T) were generated from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells and compared with wild-type RPE in a retinal environment, using a biosensor that visualizes calcium-induced chloride ion flux in the cell. Calcium stimulation elicited chloride ion export in normal RPE but not in RPE derived from three patients with BEST1 mutations. These data, along with three-dimensional modeling, provide evidence that BEST1 assembles into a key calcium-sensing chloride channel in human RPE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Methyl chloride via oxhydrochlorination of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, R.F. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Dow Corning is developing a route from methane to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) chemistry with joint support from the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center. Dow Corning is the world`s largest producer of methyl chloride and uses it as an intermediate in the production of silicone materials. Other uses include production of higher hydrocarbons, methyl cellulose, quaternary ammonium salts and herbicides. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and develop a route to methyl chloride with reduced variable cost by using methane instead of methanol raw materials. Methyl chloride is currently produced from methanol, but U.S. demand is typically higher than available domestic supply, resulting in fluctuating prices. OHC technology utilizes domestic natural gas as a feedstock, which allows a lower-cost source of methyl chloride which is independent of methanol. In addition to other uses of methyl chloride, OHC could be a key step in a gas-to-liquid fuels process. These uses could divert significant methanol demand to methane. A stable and selective catalyst has been developed in the laboratory and evaluated in a purpose-built demonstration unit. Materials of construction issues have been resolved and the unit has been run under a range of conditions to evaluate catalyst performance and stability. Many technological advances have been made, especially in the areas of catalyst development, online FTIR analysis of the product stream, and recovery of methyl chloride product via an absorber/stripper system. Significant technological hurdles still remain including heat transfer, catalysts scaleup, orthogonality in modeling, and scaleable absorption data. Economics of the oxyhydrochlorination process have been evaluated an found to be unfavorable due to high capital and utility costs. Future efforts will focus on improved methane conversion at high methyl chloride selectivity.

  13. Twenty years of fluorescence imaging of intracellular Chloride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eArosio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chloride homeostasis has a pivotal role in controlling neuronal excitability in the adult brain and during development. The intracellular concentration of chloride is regulated by the dynamic equilibrium between passive fluxes through membrane conductances and the active transport mediated by importers and exporters. In cortical neurons, chloride fluxes are coupled to network activity by the opening of the ionotropic GABAA receptors that provides a direct link between the activity of interneurons and chloride fluxes. These molecular mechanisms are not evenly distributed and regulated over the neuron surface and this fact can lead to a compartmentalized control of the intracellular concentration of chloride. The inhibitory drive provided by the activity of the GABAA receptors depends on the direction and strength of the associated currents, which are ultimately dictated by the gradient of chloride, the main charge carrier flowing through the GABAA channel. Thus, the intracellular distribution of chloride determines the local strength of ionotropic inhibition and influences the interaction between converging excitation and inhibition. The importance of chloride regulation is also underlined by its involvement in several brain pathologies, including epilepsy and disorders of the autistic spectra.The full comprehension of the physiological meaning of GABAergic activity on neurons requires the measure of the spatiotemporal dynamics of chloride fluxes across the membrane. Nowadays, there are several available tools for the task, and both synthetic and genetically encoded indicators have been successfully used for chloride imaging. Here, we will review the available sensors analyzing their properties and outlining desirable future developments.

  14. Moxifloxacinium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Xiang Wu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 7-[(1S,6S-8-aza-2-azoniabicyclo[4.3.0]non-8-yl]-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-methoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid chloride monohydrate}, C21H25FN3O4+·Cl−·H2O, crystallizes with two moxifloxacinium cations, two chloride ions and two uncoordinated water molecules in the unit cell. The crystal structure has a pseudo-inversion center except for the chloride ions. In both moxifloxacinium cations, the quinoline rings are approximately planar, the maximum atomic deviations being 0.107 (3 and 0.118 (3 Å. The piperidine rings adopt a chair conformation while the pyrrolidine rings display a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups, the protonated piperidyl groups, the uncoordinated water molecule and chloride anions participate in O—H...O, O—H...Cl and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonding; weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonding is also present in the crystal structure.

  15. Strontium-89 Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may harm the fetus.notify any health care professional (especially other doctors) giving you treatment that you will be taking strontium-89 chloride.do not have any vaccinations (e.g., measles or flu shots) without talking to your doctor.

  16. Detection of chloride ion concentration using chronopotentiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is reported for the electrochemical measurement of chloride ions using chronopotentiometry. A current pulse is applied at the Ag/AgCl working electrode and the potential change is measured with respect to another identical Ag/AgCl electrode in the bulk electrolyte.

  17. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bishi, Laila; Mustafa,

    2011-01-01

    Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to...

  18. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  19. Extracellular protons enable activation of the calcium-dependent chloride channel TMEM16A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rangel, Silvia; De Jesús-Pérez, José J; Aréchiga-Figueroa, Iván A; Rodríguez-Menchaca, Aldo A; Pérez-Cornejo, Patricia; Hartzell, H Criss; Arreola, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    The calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A provides a pathway for chloride ion movements that are key in preventing polyspermy, allowing fluid secretion, controlling blood pressure, and enabling gastrointestinal activity. TMEM16A is opened by voltage-dependent calcium binding and regulated by permeant anions and intracellular protons. Here we show that a low proton concentration reduces TMEM16A activity while maximum activation is obtained when the external proton concentration is high. In addition, protonation conditions determine the open probability of TMEM16A without changing its calcium sensitivity. External glutamic acid 623 (E623) is key for TMEM16A's ability to respond to external protons. At physiological pH, E623 is un-protonated and TMEM16A is activated when intracellular calcium increases; however, under acidic conditions E623 is partially protonated and works synergistically with intracellular calcium to activate the channel. These findings are critical for understanding physiological and pathological processes that involve changes in pH and chloride flux via TMEM16A. Transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), also known as ANO1, the pore-forming subunit of a Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) channel (CaCC), is activated by direct, voltage-dependent, binding of intracellular Ca(2+) . Endogenous CaCCs are regulated by extracellular protons; however, the molecular basis of such regulation remains unidentified. Here, we evaluated the effects of different extracellular proton concentrations ([H(+) ]o ) on mouse TMEM16A expressed in HEK-293 cells using whole-cell and inside-out patch-clamp recordings. We found that increasing the [H(+) ]o from 10(-10) to 10(-5.5)  m caused a progressive increase in the chloride current (ICl ) that is described by titration of a protonatable site with pK = 7.3. Protons regulate TMEM16A in a voltage-independent manner, regardless of channel state (open or closed), and without altering its apparent Ca(2+) sensitivity. Noise analysis

  20. Electrochemical oxidation of acid black 210 dye on the boron-doped diamond electrode in the presence of phosphate ions: Effect of current density, pH, and chloride ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carla Regina [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, CEP 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Montilla, Francisco; Morallon, Emilia [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado de Correos 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain); Olivi, Paulo [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, CEP 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: olivip@ffclrp.usp.br

    2009-11-30

    The electrochemical oxidation of acid black 210 dye (AB-210) on the boron-doped diamond (BDD) was investigated under different pH conditions. The best performance for the AB-210 oxidation occurred in alkaline phosphate solution. This is probably due to oxidizing agents such as phosphate radicals and peroxodiphosphate ions, which can be electrochemically produced with good yields on the BDD anode, mainly in alkaline solution. Under this condition, the COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal was higher than that obtained from the model proposed by Comninellis. Electrolyses performed in phosphate buffer and in the presence of chloride ions resulted in faster COD and color removals in acid and neutral solutions, but in alkaline phosphate solution, a better performance in terms of TOC removal was obtained in the absence of chloride. Moreover, organochloride compounds were detected in all electrolyses performed in the presence of chloride. The AB-210 electrooxidation on BDD using phosphate as supporting electrolyte proved to be interesting since oxidizing species generated from phosphate ions were able to completely degrade the dye without producing organochloride compounds.

  1. The calcium-activated slow AHP: cutting through the Gordian knot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rodrigo; Foehring, Robert C; Tzingounis, Anastasios V

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon known as the slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) was originally described more than 30 years ago in pyramidal cells as a slow, Ca(2+)-dependent afterpotential controlling spike frequency adaptation. Subsequent work showed that similar sAHPs were widely expressed in the brain and were mediated by a Ca(2+)-activated potassium current that was voltage-independent, insensitive to most potassium channel blockers, and strongly modulated by neurotransmitters. However, the molecular basis for this current has remained poorly understood. The sAHP was initially imagined to reflect the activation of a potassium channel directly gated by Ca(2+) but recent studies have begun to question this idea. The sAHP is distinct from the Ca(2+)-dependent fast and medium AHPs in that it appears to sense cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)](i) and recent evidence implicates proteins of the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) family as diffusible cytoplasmic Ca(2+) sensors for the sAHP. Translocation of Ca(2+)-bound sensor to the plasma membrane would then be an intermediate step between Ca(2+) and the sAHP channels. Parallel studies strongly suggest that the sAHP current is carried by different potassium channel types depending on the cell type. Finally, the sAHP current is dependent on membrane PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and Ca(2+) appears to gate this current by increasing PtdIns(4,5)P(2) levels. Because membrane PtdIns(4,5)P(2) is essential for the activity of many potassium channels, these finding have led us to hypothesize that the sAHP reflects a transient Ca(2+)-induced increase in the local availability of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) which then activates a variety of potassium channels. If this view is correct, the sAHP current would not represent a unitary ionic current but the embodiment of a generalized potassium channel gating mechanism. This model can potentially explain the cardinal features of the sAHP, including its cellular heterogeneity, slow kinetics, dependence on cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)], high

  2. The Calcium-Activated Slow AHP: Cutting Through the Gordian Knot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eAndrade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon known as the slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP was originally described more than 30 years ago in pyramidal cells as a slow, Ca2+-dependent afterpotential controlling spike frequency adaptation. Subsequent work showed that similar sAHPs were widely expressed in the brain and were mediated by a Ca2+-activated potassium current that was voltage independent, insensitive to most potassium channel blockers, and strongly modulated by neurotransmitters. However the molecular basis for this current has remained poorly understood. The sAHP was initially imagined to reflect the activation of a potassium channel directly gated by Ca2+ but recent studies have begun to question this idea. The sAHP is distinct from the Ca2+-dependent fast and medium AHPs in that it appears to sense cytoplasmic [Ca2+]i and recent evidence implicates proteins of the neuronal calcium sensor family as diffusible cytoplasmic Ca2+ sensors for the sAHP. Translocation of Ca2+-bound sensor to the plasma membrane would then be an intermediate step between Ca2+ and the sAHP channels. Parallel studies strongly suggest that the sAHP current is carried by different potassium channel types depending on the cell type. Finally, the sAHP current is dependent on membrane PtdIns(4,5P2 and Ca2+ appears to gate this current by increasing PtdIns(4,5P2 levels. Because membrane PtdIns(4,5P2 is essential for the activity of many potassium channels, these finding have led us to hypothesize that the sAHP reflects a transient Ca2+-induced increase in the local availability of PtdIns(4,5P2 which then activates a variety of potassium channels. If this view is correct, the sAHP current would not represent a unitary ionic current but the embodiment of a generalized potassium channel gating mechanism. This model can potentially explain the cardinal features of the sAHP, including its cellular heterogeneity, slow kinetics, dependence on cytoplasmic [Ca2+], high temperature-dependence, and

  3. Dendritic calcium activity precedes inspiratory bursts in preBotzinger complex neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Negro, Christopher A; Hayes, John A; Rekling, Jens C

    2011-01-01

    Medullary interneurons of the preBötzinger complex assemble excitatory networks that produce inspiratory-related neural rhythms, but the importance of somatodendritic conductances in rhythm generation is still incompletely understood. Synaptic input may cause Ca(2+) accumulation postsynaptically...... to evoke a Ca(2+)-activated inward current that contributes to inspiratory burst generation. We measured Ca(2+) transients by two-photon imaging dendrites while recording neuronal somata electrophysiologically. Dendritic Ca(2+) accumulation frequently precedes inspiratory bursts, particularly at recording...... suggest that dendritic Ca(2+) activates an inward current to electrotonically depolarize the soma, rather than propagate as a regenerative Ca(2+) wave. These data provide new evidence that respiratory rhythmogenesis may depend on dendritic burst-generating conductances activated in the context of network...

  4. Voltage-dependent sodium channels and calcium-activated potassium channels in human odontoblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hideki; Kim, Hyong-Jung; Shuprisha, Apichai; Shikano, Tetsuo; Tsumura, Maki; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Tazaki, Masakazu

    2012-10-01

    Transmembrane ionic signaling regulates many cellular processes in both physiological and pathologic settings. In this study, the biophysical properties of voltage-dependent Na(+) channels in odontoblasts derived from human dental pulp (HOB cells) were investigated together with the effect of bradykinin on intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and expression of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. Ionic channel activity was characterized by using whole-cell patch-clamp recording and fura-2 fluorescence. Mean resting membrane potential in the HOB cells was -38 mV. Depolarizing steps from a holding potential of -80 mV activated transient voltage-dependent inward currents with rapid activation/inactivation properties. At a holding potential of -50 mV, no inward current was recorded. Fast-activation kinetics exhibited dependence on membrane potential, whereas fast-inactivation kinetics did not. Steady-state inactivation was described by a Boltzmann function with a half-maximal inactivation potential of -70 mV, indicating that whereas the channels were completely inactivated at physiological resting membrane potential, they could be activated when the cells were hyperpolarized. Inward currents disappeared in Na(+)-free extracellular solution. Bradykinin activated intracellular Ca(2+)-releasing and influx pathways. When the HOB cells were clamped at a holding potential of -50 mV, outward currents were recorded at positive potentials, indicating sensitivity to inhibitors of intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. Human odontoblasts expressed voltage-dependent Na(+) channels, bradykinin receptors, and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, which play an important role in driving cellular functions by channel-receptor signal interaction and membrane potential regulation. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Bishi L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to control the electrolyte imbalance. The disease was difficult to control for a year after diagnosis. Late presentation is associated with severe chronic electrolyte disturbances and high-dose replacement therapy.Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, high stool chloride

  6. Activation of endothelial and epithelial K(Ca) 2.3 calcium-activated potassium channels by NS309 relaxes human small pulmonary arteries and bronchioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Nielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small (K(Ca) 2) and intermediate (K(Ca) 3.1) conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (K(Ca) ) may contribute to both epithelium- and endothelium-dependent relaxations, but this has not been established in human pulmonary arteries and bronchioles. Therefore, we inv...

  7. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  8. Calcium-activated SK channels control firing regularity by modulating sodium channel availability in midbrain dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rajeshwari; Ungless, Mark A; Faisal, Aldo A

    2017-07-12

    Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area regulate behaviours such as reward-related learning, and motor control. Dysfunction of these neurons is implicated in Schizophrenia, addiction to drugs, and Parkinson's disease. While some dopamine neurons fire single spikes at regular intervals, others fire irregular single spikes interspersed with bursts. Pharmacological inhibition of calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels increases the variability in their firing pattern, sometimes also increasing the number of spikes fired in bursts, indicating that SK channels play an important role in maintaining dopamine neuron firing regularity and burst firing. However, the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are still unclear. Here, we develop a biophysical model of a dopamine neuron incorporating ion channel stochasticity that enabled the analysis of availability of ion channels in multiple states during spiking. We find that decreased firing regularity is primarily due to a significant decrease in the AHP that in turn resulted in a reduction in the fraction of available voltage-gated sodium channels due to insufficient recovery from inactivation. Our model further predicts that inhibition of SK channels results in a depolarisation of action potential threshold along with an increase in its variability.

  9. Disruption of dopaminergic transmission remodels tripartite synapse morphology and astrocytic calcium activity within substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Anthony; Boisseau, Sylvie; Buisson, Alain; Savasta, Marc; Albrieux, Mireille

    2015-04-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia circuitry particularly sensitive to pathological dopamine depletion. Indeed, hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders characteristic of Parkinson's disease. The neuronal processing of basal ganglia dysfunction is well understood but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has rarely been considered. We thus investigated the influence of the disruption of dopaminergic transmission on plastic changes at tripartite glutamatergic synapses in the rat SNr and on astrocyte calcium activity. In 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, we observed structural plastic changes of tripartite glutamatergic synapses and perisynaptic astrocytic processes. These findings suggest that subthalamonigral synapses undergo morphological changes that accompany the pathophysiological processes of Parkinson's disease. The pharmacological blockade of dopaminergic transmission (with sulpiride and SCH-23390) increased astrocyte calcium excitability, synchrony and gap junction coupling within the SNr, suggesting a functional adaptation of astrocytes to dopamine transmission disruption in this output nucleus. This hyperactivity is partly reversed by subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation which has emerged as an efficient symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease. Therefore, our results demonstrate structural and functional reshaping of neuronal and glial elements highlighting a functional plasticity of neuroglial interactions when dopamine transmission is disrupted. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Emerging roles of calcium-activated K channels and TRPV4 channels in lung oedema and pulmonary circulatory collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, U; Wandall-Frostholm, C; Oliván-Viguera, A; Köhler, R

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that the transient receptor potential cation (TRP) channel subfamily V (vanilloid) type 4 (TRPV4) and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa3.1) channels contribute to endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Here, we summarize very recent evidence for a synergistic interplay of TRPV4 and KCa3.1 channels in lung disease. Among the endothelial Ca2+ -permeable TRPs, TRPV4 is best characterized and produces arterial dilation by stimulating Ca2+ -dependent nitric oxide synthesis and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization. Besides these roles, some TRP channels control endothelial/epithelial barrier functions and vascular integrity, while KCa3.1 channels provide the driving force required for Cl- and water transport in some cells and most secretory epithelia. The three conditions, increased pulmonary venous pressure caused by left heart disease, high inflation pressure and chemically induced lung injury, may lead to activation of TRPV4 channels followed by Ca2+ influx leading to activation of KCa3.1 channels in endothelial cells ultimately leading to acute lung injury. We find that a deficiency in KCa3.1 channels protects against TRPV4-induced pulmonary arterial relaxation, fluid extravasation, haemorrhage, pulmonary circulatory collapse and cardiac arrest in vivo. These data identify KCa3.1 channels as crucial molecular components in downstream TRPV4 signal transduction and as a potential target for the prevention of undesired fluid extravasation, vasodilatation and pulmonary circulatory collapse. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Role of calcium activated-potassium channels in the injury to rat alveolar macrophages induced by quartz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Sun, Jingzhi; Yang, Li; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Zhenglun; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of calcium activated-potassium channels (KCa) in the injury to rat alveolar macrophages induced by quartz. The experiments were conducted on a rat alveolar macrophage cell line (NR8383) in vitro, where crystal silica (100 üg/ml) and amorphous silica (100 üg/ml) were used as the test substances and the cells without any treatment as negative controls. At first the effects of two kinds of quartz were compared. Then KCa special inhibitors (Paxilline for BK, Tram-34 for IK, Apamin for SK) were added in different doses to the in vitro test system with 100 üg/ml crystal quartz as matrix, to observe the function of such channels. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) were tested. Comparing to the negative control group, cell viability reduced, LDH leakage, IL-1β and TNF-α release increased significantly in the amorphous quartz group, furthermore, the effects by crystal quartz were much more serious than those by amorphous quartz, with a statistical significance (P quartz group, IK blockers (Tram-34) led to increase in cell viability significantly, with a statistical significance (P quartz in the rat alveolar macrophages cell line in vitro, which might serve as a signal in the early regulation of inflammatory responses by quartz.

  12. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride, and/or polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section. (a...

  13. Effects of chloride channel blockers on hypotonicity-induced contractions of the rat trachea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Roberta R; Souza, Emmanuel P; Soares, Pedro M G; Meireles, Ana Vaneska P; Santos, Geam C M; Scarparo, Henrique C; Assreuy, Ana Maria S; Criddle, David N

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the inhibitory effects of blockers of volume-activated (Clvol) and calcium-activated (ClCa) chloride channels on hypotonic solution (HS)-induced contractions of rat trachea, comparing their effects with those of the voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blocker nifedpine. HS elicited large, stable contractions that were partially dependent on the cellular chloride gradient; a reduction to 41.45±7.71% of the control response was obtained when extracellular chloride was removed. In addition, HS-induced responses were reduced to 26.8±5.6% of the control by 1 μM nifedipine, and abolished under calcium-free conditions, indicating a substantial requirement for extracellular calcium entry, principally via VDCCs. The established Clvol blockers tamoxifen (⩽10 μM) and 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (1–100 μM), at concentrations previously reported to inhibit Clvol in smooth muscle, did not significantly inhibit HS-induced contractions. In contrast, the recognized ClCa blocker niflumic acid (NFA; 1–100 μM) produced a reversible, concentration-dependent inhibition of HS responses, with a reduction to 36.6±6.4% of control contractions at the highest concentration. The mixed Clvol and ClCa blocker, 5-nitro 2-(3-phenylpropylamine) benzoic acid (NPPB; 10–100 μM) also elicited concentration-related inhibition of HS-induced contractions, producing a decrease to 35.9±11.3% of the control at 100 μM. Our results show that HS induces reversible, chloride-dependent contractions of rat isolated trachea that were inhibited by NFA and NPPB, while exhibiting little sensitivity to recognized blockers of Clvol. The data support the possibility that opening of calcium-activated chloride channels under hypotonic conditions in respiratory smooth muscle may ultimately lead to VDCC-mediated calcium entry and contraction. PMID:14691057

  14. Shear stress induction of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene is calcium-dependent but not calcium-activated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Z; Zhang, Z; Ranjan, V; Diamond, S L

    1997-05-01

    Arterial levels of shear stress (25 dynes/cm2) can elevate constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression in cultured endothelial cells (Ranjan et al., 1995). By PhosphorImaging of Northern blots, we report that the eNOS/glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) messenger RNA (mRNA) ratio in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) increased by 4.8- and 7.95-fold after 6-hr shear stress exposure of 4 and 25 dynes/cm2, respectively. Incubation of BAEC with dexamethasone (1 microM) had no effect on shear stress induction of eNOS mRNA. Buffering of intracellular calcium in BAEC with bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)-ester (BAPTA/AM) reduced shear stress induction of eNOS mRNA by 70%. Yet, stimulation of BAEC with ionomycin (0.1-1.0 microM) for 6-24 hr to elevate intracellular calcium had no effect on eNOS mRNA. These studies indicated that the shear stress induction of eNOS mRNA was a calcium-dependent, but not calcium-activated, process. Shear stress was a very potent and rapid inducer of the eNOS mRNA, which could not be mimicked with phorbol myristrate acetate or endotoxin. Inhibition of tyrosine kinases with genistein (10 microM) or tyrphostin B46 (10 microM) or inhibition of G-protein signaling with guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP-betaS) (600 microM, 6-hr preincubation) did not block the shear stress elevation of eNOS mRNA.

  15. TRAM-34, a putatively selective blocker of intermediate-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels, inhibits cytochrome P450 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay J Agarwal

    Full Text Available TRAM-34, a clotrimazole analog characterized as a potent and selective inhibitor of intermediate-conductance, calcium-activated K(+ (IKCa channels, has been used extensively in vitro and in vivo to study the biological roles of these channels. The major advantage of TRAM-34 over clotrimazole is the reported lack of inhibition of the former drug on cytochrome P450 (CYP activity. CYPs, a large family of heme-containing oxidases, play essential roles in endogenous signaling and metabolic pathways, as well as in xenobiotic metabolism. However, previously published work has only characterized the effects of TRAM-34 on a single CYP isoform. To test the hypothesis that TRAM-34 may inhibit some CYP isoforms, the effects of this compound were presently studied on the activities of four rat and five human CYP isoforms. TRAM-34 inhibited recombinant rat CYP2B1, CYP2C6 and CYP2C11 and human CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 with IC50 values ranging from 0.9 µM to 12.6 µM, but had no inhibitory effects (up to 80 µM on recombinant rat CYP1A2, human CYP1A2, or human CYP19A1. TRAM-34 also had both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on human CYP3A4 activity, depending on the substrate used. These results show that low micromolar concentrations of TRAM-34 can inhibit several rat and human CYP isoforms, and suggest caution in the use of high concentrations of this drug as a selective IKCa channel blocker. In addition, in vivo use of TRAM-34 could lead to CYP-related drug-drug interactions.

  16. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  17. Properties of a conductive cellular chloride pathway in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, P

    1978-01-01

    Two types of chloride current response to a step-wise hyperpolarization of the toad skin is demonstrated: (1) An "instantaneous" response observed immediately upon voltage change, and (2) a subsequent slow response, the time course of which is sigmoidal. The slow response is due to an increase......-state phenomenon: In skins hyperpolarized for a few minutes, the "instantaneous" I-V curves show that the chloride pathway in the conducting state allows a large inward chloride current (outward chloride flux) to pass in the voltage range 40 mV greater than V greater than 0 mV. Calculations based on a three...

  18. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  19. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  20. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  1. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  2. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  3. Incidence of cancer among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldaas, S S; Langård, S L; Andersen, A

    1984-01-01

    The results of a follow up study of the incidence of cancer and the mortality in a cohort of 454 male workers producing vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride are presented. The study population was restricted to employees with more than one year's work experience in the study plant between 1950 and 1969 and the cohort was followed up from 1953 to the end of 1979. Twenty three new cases of cancer were observed compared with 20.2 expected; one case of liver angiosarcoma was found. Five cases of lung cancer were found (2.8 expected) and four cases of malignant melanoma of the skin were observed (0.8 expected). The possibility of a causal relationship between exposure to vinyl chloride and the development of malignant melanomas is discussed. PMID:6691932

  4. Application of low current intensity electrolytic treatment for the chlorides extraction in underwater archaeological objects of iron. Observation of the mineralogical phases evolution through XRD-Rietveld; Aplicacion de tratamiento electroquimico a baja intensidad de corriente para la extraccion de cloruros en objectos arqueilogicos de hierro de procedencia subaciatoca. Observacion de la evolucion de fases mineralogicas mediante XRD-Rietveld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethencourt, M.; Gil, M. L. A.; Fernandez-Lorenzo, C.; Santos, A.

    2004-07-01

    With the purpose of optimising a suitable methodology for the conservation of an archaeological object of iron, a low current intensities electrolytic treatment has been applied, to a piece of cast iron, proving to be effective in the extraction of chloride ions from the structure of akaganeite, principal corrosion product of iron in the marine medium. The monitoring of the electrolytic treatment has been proven by applying the Rietveld method to the patterns XRD of samples extracted from the corroded surface before and after the treatment. This method has permitted the unequivocal determination of the akaganeite and its chemical composition. This identification has been corroborated by means of SEM and EDS. After the electrolytic treatment, akaganeite was not present in the sample. (Author) 9 refs.

  5. Lubiprostone: chloride channel activator for chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, Anastasia; Chagan, Larisa

    2006-12-01

    Chronic constipation is a common and costly health problem occurring in approximately 4.5 million Americans. Current management of constipation is suboptimal and requires a stepwise approach using a combination of laxatives to decrease symptoms. The objective of this review was to describe the efficacy and safety of a new therapeutic entity, lubiprostone, recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. Computerized searches of MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were conducted (1966-July 10, 2006). Search terms utilized were lubiprostone, RU-0211, and chronic constipation. References of selected articles were searched for additional articles or abstracts. All relevant published literature regarding lubiprostone was included in this review. Pertinent abstracts presented at meetings of the American College of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases Week were also included. Lubiprostone activates a chloride channel (ie, subtype 2) and increases chloride and fluid secretion into the intestines, resulting in relief of constipation. It is poorly absorbed after oral administration, and its metabolism occurs primarily in the stomach and jejunum. Lubiprostone was evaluated in 6 placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized Phase II or III clinical trials. Overall, in clinical trials, >1400 patients were exposed to 24 mug of lubiprostone BID for up to 48 weeks. It improved the number of bowel movements, stool consistency, bloating, and global assessment of constipation compared with placebo (P lubiprostone was given with food. Lubiprostone is the first in its class of chloride channel activators that results in improvement of symptoms of constipation. It has not been compared with other laxatives but, based on the available placebo-controlled studies, its efficacy is superior to placebo and its safety is acceptable. Considering the currently available laxatives, lubiprostone will become an

  6. Opening of small and intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels induces relaxation mainly mediated by nitric-oxide release in large arteries and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in small arteries from rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankevicius, Edgaras; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Kroigaard, Christel

    2011-01-01

    current, and NO release that were blocked by apamin and TRAM-34 or charybdotoxin. These findings suggest that opening of SK(Ca) and IK(Ca) channels leads to endothelium-dependent relaxation that is mediated mainly by NO in large mesenteric arteries and by EDHF-type relaxation in small mesenteric arteries......This study was designed to investigate whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca) or K(Ca)2) and intermediate (IK(Ca) or K(Ca)3.1) conductance activated by 6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime (NS309) are involved in both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium......-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-type relaxation in large and small rat mesenteric arteries. Segments of rat superior and small mesenteric arteries were mounted in myographs for functional studies. NO was recorded using NO microsensors. SK(Ca) and IK(Ca) channel currents and mRNA expression were investigated...

  7. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Q; Shi, C.; Schutter, G. de; K. Audenaert; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  8. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  9. Localization of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and their effect on calcitonin gene-related peptide release in the rat trigemino-neuronal pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Johansson, H.; Amrutkar, D.V.; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels are membrane proteins contributing to electrical propagation through neurons. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide found in the trigeminovascular system (TGVS). Both BK(Ca) channels and CGRP are involved in migraine...... pathophysiology. Here we study the expression and localization of BK(Ca) channels and CGRP in the rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) and the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) as these structures are involved in migraine pain. Also the effect of the BK(Ca) channel blocker iberiotoxin and the BK(Ca) channel opener NS...

  10. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general

  11. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  12. [Headspace GC/MS analysis of residual vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride in polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene chloride products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Suzuki, Masako; Aoyama, Taiki

    2005-02-01

    A headspace GC/MS analysis method for the simultaneous determination of residual vinyl chloride (VC) and vinylidene chloride (VDC) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) products was developed. A test sample was swelled overnight with N,N-dimethylacetamide in a sealed vial. The vial was incubated for 1 hour at 90 degrees C, then the headspace gas was analyzed by GC/MS using a PLOT capillary column. The recoveries from spiked PVC and PVDC samples were 90.0-112.3% for VC and 85.2-108.3% for VDC. The determination limits were 0.01 microg/g for VC and 0.06/microg/g for VDC, respectively. By this method, VC was detected in two PVC water supply pipes at the levels of 0.61 and 0.01 microg/g. On the other hand, VC and VDC were not detected in any of the food container-packages or toys tested.

  13. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones. BHUPINDER KAUR and HARISH KUMAR. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal 148 106, India e-mail: choprahk67@gmail.com. MS received 21 May 2012; revised 30 January ...

  14. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.

    2010-01-01

    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de

  15. Catchment conceptualisation for examining applicability of chloride mass balance method in an area with historical forest clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the various approaches for estimating groundwater recharge, the chloride mass balance (CMB method is one of the most frequently used, especially for arid and semiarid regions. Widespread native vegetation clearance, common in many areas globally, has changed the land surface boundary condition, posing the question as to whether the current system has reached new chloride equilibrium, required for a CMB application. Although a one-dimensional CMB can be applied at a point where the water and chloride fluxes are locally in steady state, the CMB method is usually applied at a catchment scale owing to significant lateral flows in mountains. The applicability of the CMB method to several conceptual catchment types of various chloride equilibrium conditions is examined. The conceptualisation, combined with some local climate conditions, is shown to be useful in assessing whether or not a catchment has reached new chloride equilibrium. The six conceptual catchment types are tested with eleven selected catchments in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area in South Australia having experienced widespread historical forest clearance. The results show that six of the eleven catchments match a type VI chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a gaining stream, with the ratios of stream chloride output (O over atmospheric chloride input (I, or catchment chloride O/I ratios, ranging from 2 to 4. Two catchments match a type V chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a losing stream, with catchment chloride O/I ratios about 0.5. For these type V and type VI catchments, the CMB method is not applicable. The results also suggest that neither a chloride O/I ratio less than one nor a low seasonal fluctuation of streamflow chloride concentration (a factor below 4 guarantees a chloride equilibrium condition in the study area. A large chloride O/I value (above one and a large fluctuation of streamflow chloride

  16. Resveratrol Protects Against Ultraviolet A-Mediated Inhibition of the Phagocytic Function of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Via Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwu-Jiuan Sheu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to examine the protective effect of resveratrol on human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cell phagocytosis against ultraviolet irradiation damage. Cultured RPE cells were exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA, 20 minutes irradiation, and treated with meclofenamic acid (30μM, 20 minutes, paxilline (100 μM, 20 minutes or resveratrol (10μM, 20 minutes. Meclofenamic acid and resveratrol were given after exposure to UVA. Pretreatment with meclofenamic acid, resveratrol or paxilline before UVA irradiation was also performed. Fluorescent latex beads were then fed for 4 hours and the phagocytotic function was assessed by flow cytometry. UVA irradiation inhibited the phagocytic function of human RPE cells. The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activator meclofenamic acid ameliorated the damage caused by UVA irradiation. Pretreatment with resveratrol acid also provided protection against damage caused by UVA. Posttreatment with meclofenamic acid offered mild protection, whereas resveratrol did not. In conclusion, the red wine flavonoid resveratrol ameliorated UVA-mediated inhibition of human RPE phagocytosis. The underlying mechanism might involve the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.

  17. Calcium-activated-calcineurin reduces the In vitro and In vivo sensitivity of fluconazole to Candida albicans via Rta2p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jia

    Full Text Available Due to the emergence of drug-resistance, first-line therapy with fluconazole (FLC increasingly resulted in clinical failure for the treatment of candidemia. Our previous studies found that in vitro RTA2 was involved in the calcineurin-mediated resistance to FLC in C. albicans. In this study, we found that calcium-activated-calcineurin significantly reduced the in vitro sensitivity of C. albicans to FLC by blocking the impairment of FLC to the plasma membrane via Rta2p. Furthermore, we found that RTA2 itself was not involved in C. albicans virulence, but the disruption of RTA2 dramatically increased the therapeutic efficacy of FLC in a murine model of systemic candidiasis. Conversely, both re-introduction of one RTA2 allele and ectopic expression of RTA2 significantly reduced FLC efficacy in a mammalian host. Finally, we found that calcium-activated-calcineurin, through its target Rta2p, dramatically reduced the efficacy of FLC against candidemia. Given the critical roles of Rta2p in controlling the efficacy of FLC, Rta2p can be a potential drug target for antifungal therapies.

  18. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  19. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  20. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  1. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  3. Evaluation of Electrochemical Treatment of Chloride Contaminated Mortar Containing GGBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hong Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns the influence of cementitious binder on electrochemical treatment of steel embedded in salt contaminated mortar. As binder, ordinary Portland cement (OPC and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS were used and the current density of 250–750 mA/m2 was applied for 4 weeks to complete electrochemical chloride extraction. To evaluate the effect of electrochemical treatment the chloride profile and corrosion behaviour covering chloride concentration, galvanic current density, linear polarization resistance, open circuit potential, and mass loss were measured. An increase in the applied direct current density resulted in a decrease in the chloride concentration at the vicinity of steel, accompanying the mitigated corrosion damage. The performance of electrochemical treatment was more remarkable in mortar containing GGBS presumably due to binding mechanism. However, corrosion damage was more detrimental in GGBS rather than OPC at a given potential, while GGBS had superior corrosion resistance to a corrosive environment and treatment conditions. Therefore, the electrochemical treatment should be conducted prudently to evaluate the corrosion state of embedded steel depending on binder type.

  4. MLS/Aura Level 2 Methyl Chloride (CH3CL) Mixing Ratio V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2CH3CL is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for methyl chloride derived from radiances measured by the 640 GHz radiometer. The current...

  5. MLS/Aura L2 Methyl Chloride (CH3CL) Mixing Ratio V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2CH3CL is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for methyl chloride derived from radiances measured by the 640 GHz radiometer. The current...

  6. Partial replacement of sodium chloride in Italian salami and the influence on the sensory properties and texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fieira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cured meat products, such as Italian salami, exhibit high levels of sodium from NaCl, added to ensure flavor and texture. Studies indicates a close relationship between the consumption of these products and hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride on the texture and sensory attributes of Italian salami and to quantify the levels of minerals in the finished product. Four formulations were prepared: without a starter culture (F1; with a starter culture (F2; partial replacement of 60% sodium chloride by  potassium chloride (F3; and partial replacement of sodium chloride by a mixture containing potassium chloride,  magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride (F4. Analyses of Na+, K+, Ca+2 and Mg+2 contents, texture profile and sensory attributes (acceptance test were carried out. Formulations F1, F2, F3 and F4 presented levels of Na+ 0.53, 0.44, 0.36 and 0.30, respectively. The formulations presented a reduction in the sodium chloride content over 25%, thus complying with the requirements of the current legislation. The addition of these salts affected certain important sensory attributes, such as flavor and global impression, and increased hardness and chewiness values.

  7. 4-(Methylsulfonylpiperazin-1-ium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, C5H13N2O2S+·Cl−, the complete cation is generated by crystallographic mirror symmetry, with both N atoms, the S atom and one C atom lying on the reflecting plane. The chloride ion also lies on the mirror plane. The piperazinium ring adopts a chair conformation and the N—S bond adopts an equatorial orientation. In the crystal structure, the component ions are linked into a three-dimensional framework by intermolecular N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  8. Resistance of Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete to Chloride-Induced Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Woo Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of steel in alkali-activated slag (AAS mortar was evaluated by a monitoring of the galvanic current and half-cell potential with time against a chloride-contaminated environment. For chloride transport, rapid chloride penetration test was performed, and chloride binding capacity of AAS was evaluated at a given chloride. The mortar/paste specimens were manufactured with ground granulated blast-furnace slag, instead of Portland cement, and alkali activators were added in mixing water, including Ca(OH2, KOH and NaOH, to activate hydration process. As a result, it was found that the corrosion behavior was strongly dependent on the type of alkali activator: the AAS containing the Ca(OH2 activator was the most passive in monitoring of the galvanic corrosion and half-cell potential, while KOH, and NaOH activators indicated a similar level of corrosion to Portland cement mortar (control. Despite a lower binding of chloride ions in the paste, the AAS had quite a higher resistance to chloride transport in rapid chloride penetration, presumably due to the lower level of capillary pores, which was ensured by the pore distribution of AAS mortar in mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a pink, translucent, crystalline product. It is also known as manganese...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg..._locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  12. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-02-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  13. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs ...

  14. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  16. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used as th...

  17. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  18. Uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride by PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froehling, P.E.; Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Bantjes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC) by poly(vinyl chloride) has been investigated to provide a more quantitative basis for the preparation of blood-compatible surfaces based on TDMAC-heparin coatings. Sorption isotherms of TDMAC from toluene-cyclohexane and toluene-methanol

  19. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  20. Inhibition of ANO1/TMEM16A Chloride Channel by Idebenone and Its Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Seo

    Full Text Available The expression levels of anoctamin 1 (ANO1, TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC, are significantly increased in several tumors, and inhibition of ANO1 is known to reduce cell proliferation and migration. Here, we performed cell-based screening of a collection of natural products and drug-like compounds to identify inhibitors of ANO1. As a result of the screening, idebenone, miconazole and plumbagin were identified as novel ANO1 inhibitors. Electrophysiological studies showed that idebenone, a synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10, completely blocked ANO1 activity in FRT cells expressing ANO1 without any effect on intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR, a cAMP-regulated chloride channel. The CaCC activities in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells expressing abundant endogenous ANO1 were strongly blocked by idebenone. Idebenone inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells, but not in A549 cells, which do not express ANO1. These data suggest that idebenone, a novel ANO1 inhibitor, has potential for use in cancer therapy.

  1. Selective cognitive deficits and reduced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in small-conductance calcium-activated K+ channel deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, J P R; Redrobe, J P; Hansen, H H

    2009-01-01

    Small-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels 1-3 (SK1-3) are important for neuronal firing regulation and are considered putative CNS drug targets. For instance non-selective SK blockers improve performance in animal models of cognition. The SK subtype(s) involved herein awaits identification...... and the question is difficult to address pharmacologically due to the lack of subtype-selective SK-channel modulators. In this study, we used doxycycline-induced conditional SK3-deficient (T/T) mice to address the cognitive consequences of selective SK3 deficiency. In T/T mice SK3 protein is near-eliminated from...... performed equally well in passive avoidance, object recognition and the Morris water maze. Thus, some aspects of working/short-term memory are disrupted in T/T mice. Using in situ hybridization, we further found the cognitive deficits in T/T mice to be paralleled by reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor...

  2. Overexpression of Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels in Human Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells and Their Role in Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Paolo; Sforna, Luigi; Carlomagno, Silvia; Mangino, Giorgio; Miscusi, Massimo; Pessia, Mauro; Franciolini, Fabio; Calogero, Antonella; Catacuzzeno, Luigi

    2017-09-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are brain tumors characterized by diffuse invasion of cancer cells into the healthy brain parenchyma, and establishment of secondary foci. GBM cells abundantly express large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels that are thought to promote cell invasion. Recent evidence suggests that the GBM high invasive potential mainly originates from a pool of stem-like cells, but the expression and function of BK channels in this cell subpopulation have not been studied. We investigated the expression of BK channels in GBM stem-like cells using electrophysiological and immunochemical techniques, and assessed their involvement in the migratory process of this important cell subpopulation. In U87-MG cells, BK channel expression and function were markedly upregulated by growth conditions that enriched the culture in GBM stem-like cells (U87-NS). Cytofluorimetric analysis further confirmed the appearance of a cell subpopulation that co-expressed high levels of BK channels and CD133, as well as other stem cell markers. A similar association was also found in cells derived from freshly resected GBM biopsies. Finally, transwell migration tests showed that U87-NS cells migration was much more sensitive to BK channel block than U87-MG cells. Our data show that BK channels are highly expressed in GBM stem-like cells, and participate to their high migratory activity. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2478-2488, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Michael D. [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom); Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: j.ahluwalia@uel.ac.uk [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-17

    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  4. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  5. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...... on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  6. Evaluation Technique of Chloride Penetration Using Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Neural Network Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Yong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion coefficient from chloride migration test is currently used; however this cannot provide a conventional solution like total chloride contents since it depicts only ion migration velocity in electrical field. This paper proposes a simple analysis technique for chloride behavior using apparent diffusion coefficient from neural network algorithm with time-dependent diffusion phenomena. For this work, thirty mix proportions of high performance concrete are prepared and their diffusion coefficients are obtained after long term-NaCl submerged test. Considering time-dependent diffusion coefficient based on Fick’s 2nd Law and NNA (neural network algorithm, analysis technique for chloride penetration is proposed. The applicability of the proposed technique is verified through the results from accelerated test, long term submerged test, and field investigation results.

  7. Suppression of adenosine-activated chloride transport by ethanol in airway epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammeta V Raju

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is associated with increased lung infections. Molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms is not complete. Airway epithelial ion transport regulates the homeostasis of airway surface liquid, essential for airway mucosal immunity and lung host defense. Here, air-liquid interface cultures of Calu-3 epithelial cells were basolaterally exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol (0, 25, 50 and 100 mM for 24 hours and adenosine-stimulated ion transport was measured by Ussing chamber. The ethanol exposure reduced the epithelial short-circuit currents (I(SC in a dose-dependent manner. The ion currents activated by adenosine were chloride conductance mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, a cAMP-activated chloride channel. Alloxazine, a specific inhibitor for A(2B adenosine receptor (A(2BAR, largely abolished the adenosine-stimulated chloride transport, suggesting that A(2BAR is a major receptor responsible for regulating the chloride transport of the cells. Ethanol significantly reduced intracellular cAMP production upon adenosine stimulation. Moreover, ethanol-suppression of the chloride secretion was able to be restored by cAMP analogs or by inhibitors to block cAMP degradation. These results imply that ethanol exposure dysregulates CFTR-mediated chloride transport in airways by suppression of adenosine-A(2BAR-cAMP signaling pathway, which might contribute to alcohol-associated lung infections.

  8. Correlation between Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) analysis of hardened concrete for chlorides vs. Atomic Absorption (AA) analysis in accordance with AASHTO T- 260; sampling and testing for chloride ion in concrete and concrete raw mater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    A correlation between Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence(WDXRF) analysis of Hardened : Concrete for Chlorides and Atomic Absorption (AA) analysis (current method AASHTO T-260, procedure B) has been : found and a new method of analysis has been ...

  9. Reconstruction of Cell Surface Densities of Ion Pumps, Exchangers, and Channels from mRNA Expression, Conductance Kinetics, Whole-Cell Calcium, and Current-Clamp Voltage Recordings, with an Application to Human Uterine Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Atia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Uterine smooth muscle cells remain quiescent throughout most of gestation, only generating spontaneous action potentials immediately prior to, and during, labor. This study presents a method that combines transcriptomics with biophysical recordings to characterise the conductance repertoire of these cells, the 'conductance repertoire' being the total complement of ion channels and transporters expressed by an electrically active cell. Transcriptomic analysis provides a set of potential electrogenic entities, of which the conductance repertoire is a subset. Each entity within the conductance repertoire was modeled independently and its gating parameter values were fixed using the available biophysical data. The only remaining free parameters were the surface densities for each entity. We characterise the space of combinations of surface densities (density vectors consistent with experimentally observed membrane potential and calcium waveforms. This yields insights on the functional redundancy of the system as well as its behavioral versatility. Our approach couples high-throughput transcriptomic data with physiological behaviors in health and disease, and provides a formal method to link genotype to phenotype in excitable systems. We accurately predict current densities and chart functional redundancy. For example, we find that to evoke the observed voltage waveform, the BK channel is functionally redundant whereas hERG is essential. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that activation of calcium-activated chloride conductances by intracellular calcium release is the key factor underlying spontaneous depolarisations.

  10. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of.... Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the Commission...

  11. Bicarbonate secretion and chloride absorption by rabbit cortical collecting ducts. Role of chloride/bicarbonate exchange.

    OpenAIRE

    Star, R A; Burg, M. B.; Knepper, M A

    1985-01-01

    Cortical collecting ducts (CCD) from rabbits treated with deoxycorticosterone (DOC) actively secrete bicarbonate at high rates. To investigate the mechanism of bicarbonate secretion, we measured bicarbonate and chloride transport in CCD from rabbits treated with DOC for 9-24 d. Removal of chloride (replaced with gluconate) from both perfusate and bath inhibited bicarbonate secretion without changing transepithelial voltage. Removal of chloride only from the bath increased bicarbonate secretio...

  12. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  13. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  14. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  15. A small conductance calcium-activated K+ channel in C. elegans, KCNL-2, plays a role in the regulation of the rate of egg-laying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavita K Chotoo

    Full Text Available In the nervous system of mice, small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK channels function to regulate neuronal excitability through the generation of a component of the medium afterhyperpolarization that follows action potentials. In humans, irregular action potential firing frequency underlies diseases such as ataxia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Due to the complexity of studying protein function in the mammalian nervous system, we sought to characterize an SK channel homologue, KCNL-2, in C. elegans, a genetically tractable system in which the lineage of individual neurons was mapped from their early developmental stages. Sequence analysis of the KCNL-2 protein reveals that the six transmembrane domains, the potassium-selective pore and the calmodulin binding domain are highly conserved with the mammalian homologues. We used widefield and confocal fluorescent imaging to show that a fusion construct of KCNL-2 with GFP in transgenic lines is expressed in the nervous system of C. elegans. We also show that a KCNL-2 null strain, kcnl-2(tm1885, demonstrates a mild egg-laying defective phenotype, a phenotype that is rescued in a KCNL-2-dependent manner. Conversely, we show that transgenic lines that overexpress KCNL-2 demonstrate a hyperactive egg-laying phenotype. In this study, we show that the vulva of transgenic hermaphrodites is highly innervated by neuronal processes and by the VC4 and VC5 neurons that express GFP-tagged KCNL-2. We propose that KCNL-2 functions in the nervous system of C. elegans to regulate the rate of egg-laying.

  16. Compartmentalized beta subunit distribution determines characteristics and ethanol sensitivity of somatic, dendritic, and terminal large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, P M; Puig, S I; Martin, G E; Treistman, S N

    2009-06-01

    Neurons are highly differentiated and polarized cells, whose various functions depend upon the compartmentalization of ion channels. The rat hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system (HNS), in which cell bodies and dendrites reside in the hypothalamus, physically separated from their nerve terminals in the neurohypophysis, provides a particularly powerful preparation in which to study the distribution and regional properties of ion channel proteins. Using electrophysiological and immunohistochemical techniques, we characterized the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel in each of the three primary compartments (soma, dendrite, and terminal) of HNS neurons. We found that dendritic BK channels, in common with somatic channels but in contrast to nerve terminal channels, are insensitive to iberiotoxin. Furthermore, analysis of dendritic BK channel gating kinetics indicates that they, like somatic channels, have fast activation kinetics, in contrast to the slow gating of terminal channels. Dendritic and somatic channels are also more sensitive to calcium and have a greater conductance than terminal channels. Finally, although terminal BK channels are highly potentiated by ethanol, somatic and dendritic channels are insensitive to the drug. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of somatic and dendritic versus nerve terminal channels are consistent with the characteristics of exogenously expressed alphabeta1 versus alphabeta4 channels, respectively. Therefore, one possible explanation for our findings is a selective distribution of auxiliary beta1 subunits to the somatic and dendritic compartments and beta4 to the terminal compartment. This hypothesis is supported immunohistochemically by the appearance of distinct punctate beta1 or beta4 channel clusters in the membrane of somatic and dendritic or nerve terminal compartments, respectively.

  17. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gai-Fei; Feng, Nai-Qian; Song, Qi-Ming

    2014-04-30

    The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short), composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel's salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO₂(-) in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel's salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  18. High temperature alloy chloridation at 850 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, S.; Bekaddour, A. [Laboratoire de Recherches sur la Reactivite des Solides, UMR 5613 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, 21078 Dijon (France); Ched' Homme, S. [DTM/SRPU/LPPU, CEA Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Amilain-Basset, K.; Buisson, L. [Interface Caracterisation des Materiaux, Universite de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon (France)

    2007-05-15

    The resistance of eight alloys against chloridation was tested at 850 C in Ar/Cl{sub 2} (2.5% Cl{sub 2}) for 15 min. Pre-oxidation treatments were performed for 1 h and 8 h at 850 C in order to produce a thin, adherent and protective oxide scale able to improve the chloridation behaviour of the tested materials. The chloridised sample morphologies were compared to the morphologies observed on the non pre-oxidised samples. The alloys containing a large amount of iron did not exhibit any chloridation resistance, even after pre-oxidation, and were severely damaged. The nickel based alloys gave interesting results but were also attacked by chloride, probably by the ''active oxidation'' mechanism. The duration of the pre-oxidation treatment plays an important role, since the 8 h pre-oxidation appears more beneficial than the 1 h pre-oxidation, to delay the chloridation, probably because of the best quality of the oxide layer grown during 8 h. For the nickel based materials, the effects of chloride appear less severe than for the iron-based alloys, but are not stopped. The ''active oxidation'' mechanism is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of the tested materials. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. External control of anodic dissolution mechanisms of 100Cr6 in nitrate/chloride mixed electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREAS LESCH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The anodic dissolution of 100Cr6 steel in neutral electrolytes containing sodium chloride and sodium nitrate was investigated potentiodynamically and galvanodynamically with a rotating disc electrode at room temperature. The total concentration of the mixed electrolyte was 3 mol L-1 with variation of chloride/nitrate mole ratios. The potentiodynamic linear sweep voltammograms (LSVs in mixed electrolytes are similar to the LSVs in pure chloride electrolyte at lower current densities and switch to behaviour observed in pure nitrate electrolytes at higher current densities. Provided that both anions are present, it seems that the dissolution reactions at the steel anode are determined by the interface layer only. The effect of these layers on surface quality and current efficiency was also investigated in a flow channel applying galvanostatic pulses. An evidence for different dissolution mechanisms can be seen with an important influence of duty cycle and flow conditions. This allows external control of the desired dissolution mechanism in mixed electrolytes.

  20. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    selective electrode has been developed to analyze free chloride in the pore water extracted from cement paste.16 The accuracy and reliability of this ... Chloride analysis in fresh or hardened concrete and its raw materials is of great .... ular mass of chloride (35.45 g mol–1), Us = chloride ISE reading of each sample, Uå ...

  1. Preparation and characterization of poly-(methacrylatoethyl trimethylammonium chloride-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-ethylene dimethacrylate monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Malis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A polymer monolithic column, poly-(methacrylatoethyltrimethylammonium chloride-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-ethylene dimethacrylate or poly-(MATE-co-VBC-co-EDMA was successfully prepared in the current study by one-step thermally initiated in situ polymerization, confined in a steel tubing of 0.5 mm i.d. and 1/16” o.d. The monoliths were prepared from methacrylatoethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MATE and vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC as monomer and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA as crosslinker using a binary porogen system of 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol. The inner wall of steel tubing was pretreated with 3-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MAPS. In order to obtain monolith with adequate column efficiency and low flow resistance, some parameters such as total monomer concentration (%T and crosslinker concentration (%C were optimized. The morphology of this monolith was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The properties of the monolithic column, such as permeability, binding capacity, and pore size distribution were also characterized in detail. From the results of the characterization of all monolith variation, monolith with %T 30 %C 50 and %T 35 %C 50 give the best characteristic. These monoliths have high permeability, adequate molecular recognition sites (represented with binding capacity value of over 20 mg/mL, and have over 80% flow through pores in their pore structure contribute to low flow resistance. The resulted monolithic columns have promising potential for dual mode liquid chromatography. MATE may contribute for anion-exchange while VBC may responsible for reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

  2. The role of chloride channels in rat corpus cavernosum: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Hsieh, Ju-Ton

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have identified the existence of outward, depolarizing chloride currents in isolated rat, rabbit, and human corpus cavernosum muscle cells. However, few articles have demonstrated the functional role of chloride channels in vivo in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Aim. To investigate the role of calcium-dependent chloride channels in erectile function of rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Adult male Wistar rats were used to perform an in vivo study in a rat model of erection. Both crura of the rats were isolated to in order to record intracavernosal pressure (ICP) during basal conditions and electrical stimulation of erection, with and without intracorporeal injection of norepinephrine, chloride transport inhibitors, and chloride channel blockers. ICP. ICP increased as the amplitude of electrical stimulation increased, and decreased in a dose-dependent manner (during electrical stimulation) as norepinephrine injection strength increased. Injection into the corpus cavernosum of the Cl(-) channel blockers, niflumic acid, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene-disulfonic acid increased ICP. Injection into the corpus cavernosum of the Cl(-) channel transport inhibitors bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, and HCO(3)-free 4-(2-hydroxyethyl )-1-1- piperazine ethanesulphonic acid buffer, and also increase the ICP. The effects of both Cl(-) channel blockers and Cl(-) channel transport inhibitors on ICP were concentration-dependent. Our findings suggest that chloride channels play an important role in the regulation of corpus cavernous smooth muscle tone in vivo.

  3. Effect Of Adsorption Of Tetrabutylammonium Chloride In Polarography

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza, A. [عبد الغني حمزة; Amireh, Tawfiq A.; Al-Doudam, Saeed H.

    1994-01-01

    The polarographic behaviour of chromate, iodate and zinc has been investigated in the presence of different concentrations of tetrabutylammonium chloride in 0.1 M Na2SO4 and 0.1 M H2SO4. The effect of organic compound on the half-wave potential and on the limiting current of the polarographic wave was investigated. The results are discussed in terms of displacement of these species from the electrode surface by the adsorbed orga'nic species and the retardation of the charge-transfer process. ...

  4. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  5. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  6. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  7. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K.; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Nissen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding. PMID:23641004

  8. An automatic molecular dispenser of chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Amendola, Valeria; Bergamaschi, Greta; Dollenz, Riccardo; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lo Vecchio, Carmelo

    2013-03-11

    The combined activity of the 1.1.1-cryptand and of a dicopper(II) bistren cryptate complex including chloride makes the Cl(-) ion be continuously and slowly delivered to the solution, without any external intervention. The 1.1.1-cryptand slowly releases OH(-) ions, according to a defined kinetics, and each OH(-) ion displaces a Cl(-) ion from the cryptate. Chloride displacement induces a sharp colour change from bright yellow to aquamarine and can be conveniently monitored spectrophotometrically, even in diluted solutions. The 1.1.1-cryptand is the motor of a molecular dispenser (the dicopper(II) cryptate) delivering chloride ion automatically, from the inside of the solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR CHLORIDE PENETRATION INTO REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Antoni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structures in marine environment are subjected to chloride penetration, which significantly degrades the structural performance due to the occurrence of corrosion in the steel reinforcement. The performance degradation of the structures would reduce the intended service life and caused higher maintenance and repair cost. Therefore, system to monitor chloride penetration into reinforced concrete before the starting corrosion of reinforcement is indispensable. An embedded probe system to detect chloride penetration into concrete was developed in Japan. This probe consists of a cementitious material body and some number of wires as sensors, which are set in the shallow ditches around the probe body. The system detect the chloride penetration by monitoring the initiation time of wire corrosion, it also has the advantages of continuous monitoring and early warning on the onset of corrosion in the reinforcement. However, the probe had not yet had high sensitivity for detecting critical chloride content in concrete. Therefore to increase its sensitivity, four types of improvements, namely partial coating of the wires, waterproofing on the probe body, filling the ditches with porous material and supplying small current on the wires were evaluated in this study. From the experimental result, it was observed that supplying small current and partial coating of the wires could improve the sensitivity of the probe significantly, while waterproofing treatment on the probe body and filling the ditches did not have significant contribution.

  10. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni......J/mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state.......An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia...

  11. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammitzbóll, Andreas L; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J

    2013-04-28

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 kJ∕mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state.

  12. Reaction between coal and ferric chloride (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkanyan, R.O.; Khripunov, S.V.; Baranov, S.N.

    1988-05-01

    Investigates absorption of ferric chloride (III) with free and filled (hexahydrate) coordination spheres, and antimony chloride (V) by various rank coal (brown coal to anthracite). Determines magnitude of specific absorption due to dynamic pore formation. Confirms polyassociative structure of coal with donor-acceptor characteristics and its similarity with polyassociative frame matrix in clathrate forming compounds. Gives specifications of coal used and provides data on specific absorption, diffractograms and paramagnetic characteristics of coal and adduct, and others. States that coal exhibits properties of intermolecular donor-acceptor complex with charge transfer and with comparatively unstable bonds which determine their paramagnetism and high specific absorption. 9 refs.

  13. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  14. Chloride channels in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E

    1982-01-01

    A study of the voltage and time dependence of a transepithelial Cl- current in toad skin (Bufo bufo) by the voltage-clamp method leads to the conclusion that potential has a dual role for Cl- transport. One is to control the permeability of an apical membrane Cl-pathway, the other is to drive Cl-......- transport through open channels does not obey the constant-field equation....

  15. Modeling the Time-to Corrosion Cracking of the Cover Concrete in Chloride Contaminated Reinforced Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Youping

    1996-01-01

    Significant factors on steel corrosion in chloride contaminated reinforced concrete and time-to-corrosion cracking were investigated in this study. Sixty specimens were designed with seven admixed chloride contents, three concrete cover depths, two reinforcing steel bar diameters, two exposure conditions, and a typical concrete with water to cement ratio of 0.45. Corrosion current density (corrosion rate), corrosion potential, ohmic resistance of concrete and temperature were measured monthly...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline...

  20. An improved calcium chloride method preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we have reported a modified method for preparation and transformation of competent cells. This modified method, improved from a classical protocol, has made some modifications on the concentration of calcium chloride and competent bacteria solution, rotation speed in centrifugation and centrifugation time.

  1. Influence of compaction on chloride ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences from practice show the need for more of an understanding and optimization of the compaction process in order to design a more durable concrete structure. Local variations in compaction are very often the reason for initiation of local damage and initiation of chloride induced corrosion.

  2. Electrical conduction mechanism of polyvinyl chloride (PVC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The electrical conduction mechanism in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)– polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend film has been studied at various temperatures in the range 313 K to 353 K. The results are presented in the form of I–V characteristics. Analysis has been made in the light of Poole–Frenkel, Fowler–Nordheim, ...

  3. Influence of nutrition on trypanosome isometamidium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty six weaner wistar rats were used to study the effect of protein nutrition on trypanosome isometamidium chloride prophylaxis. Two groups of rats A and B (n = 18 per group) were maintained on 21% and 14.5% crude protein diet respectively for the twenty eight days. Thereafter, group A was sub-divided into groups A1, ...

  4. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy...

  5. Sodium chloride damage to porous building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    This research studied sodium chloride (NaCl) damage to porous building materials with the aim of: i) gaining a better understanding of the damage process and ii) developing an effective crystallization test. It has been definitely proven that NaCl modifies the hygric dilation of a material

  6. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K W; Lee, C E; Kang, K H; Rhee, C; Kang, J K

    1999-01-01

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C sub 1 sub 0 H sub 2 sub 1 NH sub 3 Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer.

  7. 1-Allyl-2,3-cyclopentenopyridinium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Partl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H14N+·Cl−, was obtained by reaction of 2,3-cyclopentenopyridine and allyl chloride. A network of weak C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds is observed in the crystal structure.

  8. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  9. Electrodeposition of Zn-Co and Zn-Co-Fe alloys from acidic chloride electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodhi, Z.F.; Mol, J.M.C.; Hovestad, A.; Terryn, H.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    2007-01-01

    The electrodeposition operating conditions for Zn-Co and Zn-Co-Fe alloys from chloride baths were studied. The electrodeposition was performed on a high strength steel substrate, under galvanostatic conditions, for a range of current densities at varying Co2+ and Fe2+ bath concentrations and at

  10. A Study on Zinc-Iron Alloy Electrodeposition from a Chloride Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    1998-01-01

    this system ideal for production of compositional modulated alloy (CMA) electrodeposits. Chloride content, pH and agitation of the electrolyte have been observed to have a strong influence on the reaction at the cathode surface, just as the use of pulse reversal current during electrodeposition. A theory...... on the electrodeposition mechanism, accounting for the above observations, is presented....

  11. Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Frozen Chloride Salts on Icy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul; Thomas, Elena C.; Hodyss, Robert; Vu, Tuan; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    Currently, our understanding of the chemical composition of Europa's surface is our best means of inferring constraints on the subsurface ocean composition and its subsequent habitability. The bulk of our knowledge of Europa surface chemistry can be traced to near infrared spectra recorded by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on the Galileo spacecraft. However, the usefulness of this and other remote sensing data is limited by the availability of spectral libraries of candidate materials under relevant conditions (temperature, thermal/radiation history, etc.). Chloride salts are expected to exist on the surface of Europa, and other icy bodies, based on geochemical predictions of the ocean composition. In order to help improve our understanding of Europa's surface composition, we have conducted a study of frozen chloride-salt brines prepared under simulated Europa surface conditions (vacuum, temperature, and UV irradiation) using both near IR and Raman spectroscopies. Specifically, Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the hydration states of various chloride salts as a function of temperature. Near IR spectroscopy of identically prepared samples was used to provide reference reflectance spectra of the identified hydrated salts. Our results indicate that at temperatures ranging from 80 K to 233 K, hydrohalite is formed from the freezing of NaCl brines, while the freezing of KCl solutions does not form KCl hydrates. In addition, the freezing of MgCl2 solutions forms a stable hexahydrate, and the freezing of CaCl2 solutions forms a hexahydrate, a tetrahydrate, and a dihydrate. Dehydration of the salts was observed as temperatures were increased, leading to a succession of hydration states in the case of CaCl2.

  12. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  13. Pathology of angiosarcoma of the liver among vinyl chloride-polyvinyl chloride workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L B; Popper, H

    1975-01-31

    We described the histologic features of 13 hepatic angiosarcomas which developed in workers engaged in the polymerization of vinyl chloride to polyvinyl chloride. Although the histologic features varied considerably in different portions of the angiosarcoma in the same liver and in the angiosarcomas of the liver from different patients, many features were similar such as sinusoidal, papillary, and cavernous growth patterns coincident with the precursor lesions of proliferation and atypia of sinusoidal lining cells.

  14. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    OpenAIRE

    van Gils, C.; M.-C. Eckhardt; Nielsen, P E; Nybo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl?/HCO3 ? exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90?mmol/L) and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves whe...

  15. Effect of Cyclic Carbonation on Chloride Ingression in GGBS Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Backus, Jonathon; McPolin, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Carbonation and chloride ingress are the two main causes of corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. An investigation to monitor the ingress of chlorides and the effect of carbonation on chloride ingression during an accelerated 12 month cyclic wetting and drying exposure regime that simulates conditions in which multiple mode transport mechanisms are active was conducted on ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) concrete. The penetration of chloride and carbon dioxide was evaluated ...

  16. Concrete with Improved Chloride Binding and Chloride Resistivity by Blended Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Kopecskó

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Durability and service life of concrete structures can be endangered by chloride ions. Two phenomena help to keep control of chloride effects. On one hand cements are able to bind chloride ions by their aluminate clinker phases or by the clinker substituting materials. On the other hand resistivity of concrete against chloride penetration can be improved by careful selection of concrete constituents and production. Detailed results of two series of extensive experimental studies are presented herein. Chloride ion binding capacity of tested cements in decreasing sequence was the following: (1 CEM III/B 32,5 N-S; (2 CEM III/A 32,5 N; (3 CEM II/B 32,5 R; (4 CEM II/B-M (V-L 32,5 R; (5 CEM I 42,5 N. Test results indicated that the increasing substitution of clinkers by GGBS improves the chloride resistivity in concrete made with the same water to cement ratio. The application of air entraining agent increases considerably the values of Dnssm. Based on the migration coefficients (Dnssm the following sequence of efficiency was found (from the best: CEM III/B 32,5 N > CEM V/A (S-V 32,5 N > CEM III/A 32,5 N > CEM II/B-S 42,5 R > CEM II/A-S 42,5 N > CEM I 42,5 N.

  17. Chloride Transport through Supramolecular Barrel-Rosette Ion Channels: Lipophilic Control and Apoptosis-Inducing Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Tanmoy; Gautam, Amitosh; Mukherjee, Arnab; Lahiri, Mayurika; Talukdar, Pinaki

    2016-12-21

    Despite the great interest in artificial ion channel design, only a small number of channel-forming molecules are currently available for addressing challenging problems, particularly in the biological systems. Recent advances in chloride-mediated cell death, aided by synthetic ion carriers, encouraged us to develop chloride selective supramolecular ion channels. The present work describes vicinal diols, tethered to a rigid 1,3-diethynylbenzene core, as pivotal moieties for the barrel-rosette ion channel formation, and the activity of such channels was tuned by controlling the lipophilicity of designed monomers. Selective transport of chloride ions via an antiport mechanism and channel formation in the lipid bilayer membranes were confirmed for the most active molecule. A theoretical model of the supramolecular barrel-rosette, favored by a network of intermolecular hydrogen bonding, has been proposed. The artificial ion-channel-mediated transport of chloride into cells and subsequent disruption of cellular ionic homeostasis were evident. Perturbation of chloride homeostasis in cells instigates cell death by inducing the caspase-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.

  18. Safety of Continuous Peripheral Infusion of 3% Sodium Chloride Solution in Neurocritical Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G Morgan; Bode, Lauren; Riha, Heidi; Erdman, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    Numerous drug information resources recommend that continuous intravenous 3% sodium chloride solution be administered via a central catheter. To evaluate the incidence of infusion-related reactions and electrolyte abnormalities in neurocritical care patients treated with continuous intravenous infusion of 3% sodium chloride solution via a peripheral catheter. Data on patients treated with continuous intravenous infusion of 3% sodium chloride solution at 2 academic medical centers were evaluated retrospectively to determine the administration site. Electronic notes on catheter status were reviewed to determine the occurrence of infusion-related reactions. Prespecified thresholds were used to assess electrolyte abnormalities. Of 213 patients who had peripheral continuous intravenous infusions of 3% sodium chloride solution, 15 (7%) had infusion-related reactions. Administration was changed to a central catheter in 56 patients (26.3%), but only 5 changes were due to an infusion-related reaction. Most (157 patients, 73.7%) received their entire treatment peripherally, for a median duration of 44 hours, 3 minutes. The most common electrolyte abnormalities were hyperchloremia in 49.3% and hypokalemia in 46.9% of patients. Current recommendations that a central catheter is required for continuous intravenous infusion of 3% sodium chloride solution should be reevaluated. Only a few patients who had peripheral infusions had infusion-related reactions. Electrolyte abnormalities occurred frequently with peripheral infusion, but the clinical importance of the abnormalities remains unclear. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  19. 21 CFR 177.1980 - Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers. 177.1980... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1980 Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  20. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Corrosion of rebar in concrete is commonly associated with, and to a large degree influenced by, the free chloride concentration in the pore water. The amount of chloride in concrete is important because chloride can promote corrosion of steel reinforcement when moisture and oxygen are present. A potentiometric ...

  1. Accelerated testing for chloride threshold of reinforcing steel in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Put, M. van; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Testing for the chloride threshold (also called critical chloride content) for corrosion initiation of steel in concrete has been found difficult and, at best, time consuming. Nevertheless, the chloride threshold is an important parameter in service life design of new structures and for evaluation

  2. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  3. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid must comply with the following special requirements: (a) The tank car must comply with...

  4. Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: An Overview on Chloride Diffusion and Prediction of Corrosion Initiation Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Umar Khan; Shamsad Ahmad; Husain Jubran Al-Gahtani

    2017-01-01

    .... However, such models do not include the effects of various significant factors such as chloride binding by the cement, multidirectional ingress of chloride, and variation of [subscript] D c [/subscript...

  5. Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: An Overview on Chloride Diffusion and Prediction of Corrosion Initiation Time

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Umar Khan; Shamsad Ahmad; Husain Jubran Al-Gahtani

    2017-01-01

    Initiation of corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete (RC) structures subjected to chloride exposures mainly depends on coefficient of chloride diffusion, Dc, of concrete. Therefore, Dc is one of the key parameters needed for prediction of initiation of reinforcement corrosion. Fick’s second law of diffusion has been used for long time to derive the models for chloride diffusion in concrete. However, such models do not include the effects of various significant factors such as chloride bind...

  6. Accurate ab initio vibrational energies of methyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Alec, E-mail: owens@mpi-muelheim.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Thiel, Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2015-06-28

    Two new nine-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been generated using high-level ab initio theory for the two main isotopologues of methyl chloride, CH{sub 3}{sup 35}Cl and CH{sub 3}{sup 37}Cl. The respective PESs, CBS-35{sup  HL}, and CBS-37{sup  HL}, are based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, and incorporate a range of higher-level (HL) additive energy corrections to account for core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms, scalar relativistic effects, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. Variational calculations of the vibrational energy levels were performed using the computer program TROVE, whose functionality has been extended to handle molecules of the form XY {sub 3}Z. Fully converged energies were obtained by means of a complete vibrational basis set extrapolation. The CBS-35{sup  HL} and CBS-37{sup  HL} PESs reproduce the fundamental term values with root-mean-square errors of 0.75 and 1.00 cm{sup −1}, respectively. An analysis of the combined effect of the HL corrections and CBS extrapolation on the vibrational wavenumbers indicates that both are needed to compute accurate theoretical results for methyl chloride. We believe that it would be extremely challenging to go beyond the accuracy currently achieved for CH{sub 3}Cl without empirical refinement of the respective PESs.

  7. Conformational changes in gastric mucoproteins induced by caesium chloride and guanidinium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snary, David; Allen, Adrian; Pain, Roger H.

    1974-01-01

    1. Caesium chloride and guanidinium chloride were shown to cause conformational changes in the high-molecular-weight mucoprotein A of water-soluble gastric mucus with no change in molecular weight. 2. Increasing concentrations of CsCl decrease the viscosity of the mucoprotein bringing about a transition which is essentially complete in 0.1m-CsCl. The shear-dependence of viscosity of the mucoprotein is abolished by low concentrations of CsCl. The normally highly expanded molecule becomes contracted in CsCl to a molecule having the same symmetry but a smaller volume and decreased solvation, in keeping with an increased sedimentation coefficient (18.7S→33S). 3. This contracted form does not revert to the native conformation on removal of the CsCl. 4. A mechanism is discussed in terms of the effect of the Cs+ and Cl−ions on water structure and the water–mucoprotein interaction. 5. Guanidinium chloride causes the CsCl-treated material to expand, in keeping with a decrease in s025,w (33S→26S). This is analogous to the known unfolding effect of guanidinium chloride on proteins and suggests that guanidinium chloride solubilizes groups involved in stabilizing the contracted structure. Removal of the guanidinium chloride results in a limited aggregation of four mucoprotein molecules. 6. These results show that caution must be exercised before interpreting the physical properties of mucoproteins which have been treated with CsCl and/or guanidinium chloride. PMID:4463954

  8. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... mixtures are tested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures. Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP water absorption in fresh concrete and without extra water, the internal curing water held by SAP may...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient...

  9. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  10. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of new pyridinium and benzimidazolium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Rogoza, J; Mirska, I

    2001-04-01

    A novel class of pyridinium and benzimidazolium chloride has been obtained in high yield. The antimicrobial activities of three homologous series of pyridinium and benzimidazolium chlorides against cocci, rods, fungi and bacillus have been measured. The antimicrobial activities of N,N'-bis[3-(1-alkoxymethyl)pyridinium chloride]methylenediamines, 1-undecyloxymethyl-3-(1-benzimidazolmethylamino)pyridinium, 1-undecyloxymethyl- and 1-dodecyloxymethyl-3-[1(benzotriazol-1-yl)methylamino]pyridinium chlorides exhibited strong activity and wide antibacterial spectra similar to the activity of benzalkonium chloride.

  11. Pharmacological actions of pure muscarine chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, P. J.

    1957-01-01

    The action of chromatographically pure crystalline muscarine chloride, prepared from Amanita muscaria, has been compared with acetylcholine chloride (ACh) on a number of different organs from a variety of species. Muscarine caused spasm in vivo and in vitro of muscles of the gut, uterus, urinary bladder, and bronchus. It also caused contraction of the horse ureter and carotid artery chain in vitro and slowed the isolated auricles of the guinea-pig and rabbit, and the frog heart. Muscarine caused a drop in blood pressure, although in vitro it produced either constriction or dilatation of the blood vessels of the rabbit ear. All these actions resembled those of acetylcholine, though muscarine was usually more potent. Muscarine effects were readily prevented by atropine sulphate. It had a slight action on the frog rectus abdominis muscle, causing a contracture at high concentrations. Muscarine was destroyed neither by pepsin nor by boiling at any pH. It was inactive by mouth in a monkey in a quantity many times that which would cause poisoning by ingestion of Amanita muscaria in the human being. Muscarine neither inhibited nor was hydrolysed by either true- or pseudo-cholinesterase. Muscarine chloride did not cause paralysis of the neuromuscular junctions of the rat diaphragm or of the cat gastrocnemius. PMID:13413151

  12. Electrochemical degradation of diuron in chloride medium using DSA Registered-Sign based anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipi, Angelo R. F.; Aquino Neto, Sidney; Andrade, Adalgisa R. de, E-mail: ardandra@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    This work presents a study of the electrochemical degradation of the herbicide diuron using Ti/Ru{sub x}Ti{sub (1-x)}O{sub 2} and Ti/Ir{sub x}Ti{sub (1-x)}O{sub 2} (x 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7) anodes. The investigation of the degradation was conducted in the presence and in the absence of chloride. The study of the herbicide removal as a function of the current density in the absence of chloride yielded 41 and 49% COD (chemical oxygen demand) removals and 10 and 14% TOC (total organic carbon) removal at 100 mA cm{sup -2}, respectively. By keeping the electrolysis time constant (4 h), Ti/Ru{sub 0.7}Ti{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} anode composition was determined as the most active for removal of diuron and its byproduct. The maximum removal value achieved after 4 h was 58%. Addition of chloride doubled the removal ratio, and 100% COD removal was obtained for Ti/Ru{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 2} . High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed the total removal of the herbicide in chloride medium and indicated the formation of byproducts. The generated byproducts presented as function of the applied current density and the anode composition. Ir-based anodes promoted milder oxidation and furnished more byproducts in aqueous medium. (author)

  13. Safety of Strontium Chloride as a Skeletal Marking Agent for Pacific Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Rodman G; Bowser, Paul R; Cornwell, Emily R; Pavek, Todd; Baneux, Philippe; Kirby, Drew; Sams, Kelly L; Marquis, Hélène

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects associated with administering strontium chloride as a marking agent to age-0 Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha fry. Fish were held in a 0× (0 mg/L), 1× (3,000 mg/L; current standard dosage), 3× (9,000 mg/L), or 5× (15,000 mg/L) solution of strontium chloride for 72 h (three times the standard duration of 24 h). The mortality among fish in the 5× strontium chloride exposure group was significantly higher than that observed in the other groups. A dose-related effect on general fish behavior and on feeding behavior was observed. Fish in all test tanks appeared to feed to satiation, except for fish in the 5× tanks during days 2 and 3. Fish in all other test tanks behaved normally. No dose-related effect on fish growth was detected. Histopathological evaluations showed that fish in the 5× exposure group had a significantly higher number of gill lesions than the 0× group. Our mortality, behavioral, and histological assessments suggested that juvenile Chinook Salmon could be safely immersed for three consecutive days in a 9,000-mg/L solution of strontium chloride. This finding potentially expands the present 1,000-3,000-mg/L dosage and 24-h holding period that can be used to mark juvenile fish with strontium chloride solutions. The research also provides necessary target animal safety data for U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of strontium chloride as an alternative marking method that is suitable for fish with a short holding time. Received February 19, 2017; accepted July 16, 2017.

  14. Stability study of carboplatin infusion solutions in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yang-Ping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Trinh, Van A; Tran, Huyentran; Smith, Judith A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Carboplatin is a platinum-containing compound with efficacy against various malignancies. The physico-chemical stability of carboplatin in dextrose 5% water (D5W) has been thoroughly studied; however, there is a paucity of stability data in clinically relevant 0.9% sodium chloride infusion solutions. The manufacturer's limited stability data in sodium chloride solutions hampers the flexibility of carboplatin usage in oncology patients. Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine the physical and chemical stability of carboplatin-sodium chloride intravenous solutions under different storage conditions. The physico-chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL carboplatin-sodium chloride solutions prepared in polyvinyl chloride bags was determined following storage at room temperature under ambient fluorescent light and under refrigeration in the dark. Concentrations of carboplatin were measured at predetermined time points up to seven days using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. All tested solutions were found physically stable for at least seven days. The greatest chemical stability was observed under refrigerated storage conditions. At 4℃, all tested solutions were found chemically stable for at least seven days, with nominal losses of ≤6%. Following storage at room temperature exposed to normal fluorescent light, the chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL solutions was three days, five days, and seven days, respectively. The extended physico-chemical stability of carboplatin prepared in sodium chloride reported herein permits advance preparation of these admixtures, facilitating pharmacy utility and operations. Since no antibacterial preservative is contained within these carboplatin solutions, we recommend storage, when prepared under specified aseptic conditions, no greater than 24 h at room temperature or three days under refrigeration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Interaction between vanadyl chloride solutions and aerosil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skopenko, V.V.; Golub, A.A. (Kievskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1980-08-01

    Interaction of aqueous and methanol solutions of vanadyl chloride with aerosil in the presence of bases is studied. The complexes prepared are studied using the methods of electron-reflective, ESR- and IR spectroscopy. It is shown that in aqueous solutions the exchange of hydrogen ions of aerosil surface proceeds in a greater degree than in methanol. ''Highly acid'' protons are most easily substituted and their concentration equals 0.05 mgxion/g SiO/sub 2/. On the basis of electron spectra a supposition is made on distorted-octahedral surrounding of vanadium (4) ions on aerosil surface.

  16. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Güler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is to draw attention to the fact that BAC application to the scalp for treating pediculosis capitis may resemble the herpes encephalitis clinical picture.

  17. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg....../m(3) rapid-hardening Portland cement, w/c = 0.5, maturity minimum 6 months) stored at 65% and 85% RH, as well as in vacuum-saturated mortar samples, illustrate the applicability of the method. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. N-(2-Benzoylethylpropan-2-aminium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aydın

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C12H18NO+·Cl−, N—H...Cl interactions between the free chloride anions and the organic cations connect the molecules into hydrogen-bond dimers, forming a R22(8 motif. The dimers are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains extending along [301]. The carbonyl group is co-planar with the phenyl ring [C—C—C=O torsion angle = −3.3 (7°]. The side chain has an E conformation.

  19. Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: An Overview on Chloride Diffusion and Prediction of Corrosion Initiation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Initiation of corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete (RC structures subjected to chloride exposures mainly depends on coefficient of chloride diffusion, Dc, of concrete. Therefore, Dc is one of the key parameters needed for prediction of initiation of reinforcement corrosion. Fick’s second law of diffusion has been used for long time to derive the models for chloride diffusion in concrete. However, such models do not include the effects of various significant factors such as chloride binding by the cement, multidirectional ingress of chloride, and variation of Dc with time due to change in the microstructure of concrete during early period of cement hydration. In this paper, a review is presented on the development of chloride diffusion models by incorporating the effects of the key factors into basic Fick’s second law of diffusion. Determination of corrosion initiation time using chloride diffusion models is also explained. The information presented in this paper would be useful for accurate prediction of corrosion initiation time of RC structures subjected to chloride exposure, considering the effects of chloride binding, effect of time and space on Dc, and interaction effect of multidirectional chloride ingress.

  20. Protective Effect of Origanum Oil on Alterations of Some Trace Elements and Antioxidant Levels Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Naglaa El-Shahat

    2017-06-14

    In the current study, 48 male rats were classified into four groups (12 rats/group): 1-control group received 1 ml distilled water, 2-origanum oil group treated daily with oral dose of origanum oil (5 mg/kg) for 30 and 60 days, 3-mercuric chloride group treated daily with oral dose of mercuric chloride (4 mg/kg) for 30 and 60 days, and 4-origanum oil + mercuric chloride group treated with both origanum oil and mercuric chloride (5 and 4 mg/kg, respectively) for 30 and 60 days. All treatments were carried out by stomach tube. The results showed that administration of mercuric chloride induced significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and decrease in glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and super oxide dismutase (SOD) in testis and spleen tissues. The data also showed significant increase in tumor necrossis factor-α (TNF-α), 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG), acid phosphatase (ACP), urea, and creatinine. Furthermore, significant decreases in serum zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and testosterone in mercuric chloride group were recorded. The histological examination of testis and spleen tissues showed some degenerative changes while significant improvement in the antioxidant levels, biochemical, trace elements, and histological changes were observed in mercuric chloride group treated with origanum oil. It could be concluded that origanum oil through its antioxidant potential may possess health promoting properties and could protect cells from oxidative damage induced by mercuric chloride.

  1. Chloride Ingress in Concrete Cracks under Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Olesen, John Forbes

    2005-01-01

    , there is increasing focus on the need for modeling the ingress of chloride into cracked concrete. Present models quantify chloride ingress in static cracks only, although several structural applications display dynamic loading conditions in an environment containing chlorides, e.g. marine structures and car parks....... Preliminary investigations have been undertaken to quantify the effect of dynamic load application on the chloride ingress into concrete cracks. Specimens were designed allowing ingress of a chloride solution into a single crack of a saturated unreinforced mortar beam. One set of specimens was subjected...... to a load frequency of ten applications per minute and a second set to one application per hour simulating static cracks, however limiting the ingress hampering effects of autogenous healing and a possible dense precipitation on the crack faces. The averaged chloride exposure interval of the crack faces...

  2. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    -Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel....... The results show that K+-induced contraction of smooth muscle cells in the afferent arteriole is highly sensitive to chloride, whereas neurotransmitter release and ensuing contraction is not dependent on chloride. Thus, there are different activation pathways for depolarizing vasoconstrictors...

  3. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA...... is demonstated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  4. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children

    OpenAIRE

    Elrefae, Fawaz; Elhassanien, Ahmed Farag; Alghiaty, Hesham Abdel-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Fawaz Elrefae,1 Ahmed Farag Elhassanien,2 Hesham Abdel-Aziz Alghiaty3 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Elmansoura University, El Mansoura, El Dakahleya, Egypt; 3Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon) with high fecal chloride. Objective: To spo...

  5. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  6. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  7. Purification of Food-grade Magnesium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Lianmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the varying weights of bischofite dissolved in the distilled water was investigated. The effects of the temperature on the rate of evaporation and the thermal precipitation time on the purity of the crystal products were fully investigated. Two validation tests including magnifying tests and recycling residue were also studied. Our results demonstrate that the contents of NaCl, KCl and CaSO4in the filtrate reached a minimum value after the pretreatment of 350 g bischofite dissolved in 100 mldistilled water. In the crystal products from the second evaporating stage of the validation tests, the contents of MgCl2·6H2O, SO4 and NaCl+KCl are 99%, ≤0.1±0.01%and ≤0.8±0.04%, respectively. The content of magnesium chloride in the solution was increased to a greater extent, and the impurities reduced correspondingly through thedissolution pretreatments of bischofite. This could decrease energy consumption for the impurity removing stage, evaporation and crystallization process, and thus reduce costs for the industrial production of food-grade magnesium chloride

  8. The sodium chloride primary pressure gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, A. L.; Chhabildas, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The failure of a central force model for sodium chloride is discussed. It is noted that it does not closely satisfy the Cauchy conditions at low temperatures, and that it fails the central force requirement of the Love condition. The available shock data for sodium chloride and its analysis is examined, and two reasons why the Hugoniot transformation pressure is likely to be less than 231 kbar are discussed. The important (but unjustified) theoretical assumptions made in converting Hugoniot to isothermal data is discussed; it is noted that serious error can enter for very large pressures for a given material and that at such high pressures the isothermal data should thus be considered only semiquantitative even if the Hugoniot data itself is accurate. An alternate method of estimating the isothermal transformation pressure from the Hugoniot transformation pressure is used. This method is based on the temperature derivative of the transformation pressure. On this basis it is concluded that an upper bound for the isothermal transformation of NaCl (to a CsCl-type structure) at room temperature is 257 kbar; it is noted that the actual value may be considerably less than this.

  9. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by exposing beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached, using a newly developed test setup. Exposure to a concentrated chloride solution is...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....... is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well...

  10. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions are immersed in NaCl solution with a mass concentration of 5%, to simulate the shallow immersion condition in sea water, and the surface chloride concentrations are measured at different ages. It is found that the surface chloride concentration increases following the increasing immersion durations, and varies from a weight percentage of 0.161%–0.781% in concretes with different mix proportions. The w/c (water-to-cement ratio influences the surface chloride concentration significantly, and the higher the w/c is, the higher the surface chloride concentration will be, at the same age. However, following the prolonging of immersion duration, the difference in surface chloride concentration induced by w/c becomes smaller and smaller. The incorporation of fly ash leads to higher surface chloride concentration. The phenomena are explained based on pore structure analyses.

  11. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V. [Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl{sub 2}-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl{sub 2}-MCl systems.

  12. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  14. Biological variability of the sweat chloride in diagnostic sweat tests: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, F; Lebecque, P; De Boeck, K; Leal, T

    2017-01-01

    The sweat test is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). CF is unlikely when sweat chloride (Cl sw ) is lower than 30mmol/L, Cl sw >60 is suggestive of CF, with intermediate values between 30 and 60mmol/L. To correctly interpret a sweat chloride value, the biological variability of the sweat chloride has to be known. Sweat tests performed in two centers using the classic Gibson and Cooke method were retrospectively reviewed (n=5904). Within test variability of Cl sw was measured by comparing results from right and left arm collected on the same day. Between test variability was calculated from subjects with sweat tests performed on more than one occasion. Within test variability of Cl sw calculated in 1022 subjects was low with differences between -3.2 (p5) and +3.6mmol/L (p95). Results from left and right arm were classified differently in only 3 subjects. Between test variability of Cl sw in 197 subjects was larger, with differences between -18.2mmol/L (p5) and +14.1mmol/L (p95) between repeat tests. Changes in diagnostic conclusion were seen in 55/197 subjects, the most frequent being changing from indeterminate to 'CF unlikely' range (48/102). Variability of sweat chloride is substantial, with frequent changes in diagnostic conclusion, especially in the intermediate range. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chloride-Reinforced Carbon Nanofiber Host as Effective Polysulfide Traps in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L; Zhang, Kaihang; Cooper, Valentino R; Li, Qi; Lu, Yingying

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising alternatives for the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical energy density and low production cost from the use of sulfur. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries has been so far limited to the cyclability and the retention of active sulfur materials. Using co-electrospinning and physical vapor deposition procedures, we created a class of chloride-carbon nanofiber composites, and studied their effectiveness on polysulfides sequestration. By trapping sulfur reduction products in the modified cathode through both chemical and physical confinements, these chloride-coated cathodes are shown to remarkably suppress the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling between lithium and sulfur electrodes. From adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations, it is shown that not only the sulfide-adsorption effect but also the diffusivity in the vicinity of these chlorides materials plays an important role on the reversibility of sulfur-based cathode upon repeated cycles. Balancing the adsorption and diffusion effects of these nonconductive materials could lead to the enhanced cycling performance of an Li-S cell. Electrochemical analyses over hundreds of cycles indicate that cells containing indium chloride-modified carbon nanofiber outperform cells with other halogenated salts, delivering an average specific capacity of above 1200 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C.

  16. Effect of chloride impurities on the performance and durability of polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Syed Talat; Li, Qingfeng; Pan, Chao

    2011-01-01

    . The performance loss was recovered when switching from the HCl solution back to pure water in the air humidifier. Under an accelerated aging performance test conducted through potential cycling between 0.9 V and 1.2 V, the PBI-based fuel cell initially containing 0.5 NaCl mg cm−2 on the cathode catalyst layer......The effect of chloride as an air impurity and as a catalyst contaminant on the performance and durability of polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) was studied. The ion chromatographic analysis reveals the existence of chloride contaminations...... temperatures in 85% phosphoric acid containing chloride ions showed both increase in oxidation and reduction current densities. The fuel cell performance, i.e. the current density at a constant voltage of 0.4 V and 0.5 V was found to be degraded as soon as HCl was introduced in the air humidifier...

  17. Acid Chlorides as Formal Carbon Dianion Linchpin Reagents in the Aluminum Chloride-Mediated Dieckmann Cyclization of Dicarboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaly, Ahlam M; Bar, Sukanta; Schindler, Corinna S

    2017-08-04

    The development of acid chlorides as formal dianion linchpin reagents that enable access to cyclic 2-alkyl- and 2-acyl-1,3-alkanediones from dicarboxylic acids is described herein. Mechanistic experiments relying on (13)C-labeling studies confirm the role of acid chlorides as carbon dianion linchpin reagents and have led to a revised reaction mechanism for the aluminum(III)-mediated Dieckmann cyclization of dicarboxylic acids with acid chlorides.

  18. Inhibitory actions by ibandronate sodium, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on calcium-activated potassium channels in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Nan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates used for management of the patients with osteoporosis were reported to influence the function of renal tubular cells. However, how nitrogen-containing bisphosphates exert any effects on ion currents remains controversial. The effects of ibandronate (Iban, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on ionic channels, including two types of Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa channels, namely, large-conductance KCa (BKCa and intermediate-conductance KCa (IKCa channels, were investigated in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. In whole-cell current recordings, Iban suppressed the amplitude of voltage-gated K+ current elicited by long ramp pulse. Addition of Iban caused a reduction of BKCa channels accompanied by a right shift in the activation curve of BKCa channels, despite no change in single-channel conductance. Ca2+ sensitivity of these channels was modified in the presence of this compound; however, the magnitude of Iban-mediated decrease in BKCa-channel activity under membrane stretch with different negative pressure remained unchanged. Iban suppressed the probability of BKCa-channel openings linked primarily to a shortening in the slow component of mean open time in these channels. The dissociation constant needed for Iban-mediated suppression of mean open time in MDCK cells was 12.2 μM. Additionally, cell exposure to Iban suppressed the activity of IKCa channels, and DC-EBIO or 9-phenanthrol effectively reversed its suppression. Under current-clamp configuration, Iban depolarized the cells and DC-EBIO or PF573228 reversed its depolarizing effect. Taken together, the inhibitory action of Iban on KCa-channel activity may contribute to the underlying mechanism of pharmacological or toxicological actions of Iban and its structurally similar bisphosphonates on renal tubular cells occurring in vivo.

  19. Vertebrate rod photoreceptors express both BK and IK calcium-activated potassium channels, but only BK channels are involved in receptor potential regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelucchi, Bruna; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Moriondo, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    In salamander rods, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current (I(KCa)) provides an effective "clamp" of the dark membrane potential to its normal resting level. By a combination of electrophysiological, pharmacological, and immunohistochemical approaches, we show that salamander rods functionally express large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent potassium (BK) channel and intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-dependent potassium (IK) channel, but not small-conductance Ca(2+)-dependent potassium channel (SK) subtypes. Application of 100 nM iberiotoxin and 100 nM clotrimazole reduced net I(KCa) to 36% and 63%, respectively, whereas the current was unaffected by application of 1 microM apamin. Consistently, anti- SK1, -SK2, and -SK3 antibodies were unable to stain rod photoreceptors, whereas both anti-BK and -SK4/ IK1 antibodies heavily stained the ellipsoid region of the inner segments of the rods. Moreover, by using current-clamp experiments, it was clearly seen that the strong clamping effect of the total I(KCa) was lost when IbTx, but not CLTZ, was applied to the bath. This behavior strongly suggests that of BK and IK channels, only the former are responsible for the clamping effect on the photoreceptor membrane potential.

  20. Electrochemistry of vanadium(II and the electrodeposition of aluminum-vanadium alloys in the aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of vanadium(II was examined in the 66.7-33.3 mole percent aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt containing dissolved VCl2 at 353 K. Voltammetry experiments revealed that V(II could be electrochemically oxidized to V(III and V(IV. However at slow scan rates the V(II/V(III electrode reaction is complicated by the rapid precipitation of V(III as VCl3. The reduction of V(II occurs at potentials considerably negative of the Al(III/Al electrode reaction, and Al-V alloys cannot be electrodeposited from this melt. However electrodeposition experiments conducted in VCl2-saturated melt containing the additive, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, resulted in Al-V alloys. The vanadium content of these alloys increased with increasing cathodic current density or more negative applied potentials. X-ray analysis of Al-V alloys that were electrodeposited on a rotating copper wire substrate indicated that these alloys did not form or contain an intermetallic compound, but were non-equilibrium or metastable solid solutions. The chloride-pitting corrosion properties of these alloys were examined in aqueous NaCl by using potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Alloys containing ~10 a/o vanadium exhibited a pitting potential that was 0.3 V positive of that for pure aluminum.

  1. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...... DDC increased cadmium-induced acute mortality and testicular necrosis, and it enhanced cadmium-induced reduction of intestinal motility and increased the whole-body retention of cadmium, indicating increased intestinal cadmium absorption. Also, DDC changed the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium...

  2. Information draft on the development of air standards for hydrogen chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen chloride is a colourless gas with a strong pungent odour at ambient temperatures. It is readily transformed into hydrochloric acid (HCl) and washes down with precipitation. HCl is produced naturally in volcanoes, and by chemical reactions in the atmosphere, although HCl measured in the atmosphere usually originates from anthropogenic sources. It is used in a wide range of industrial applications, such as a neutralizing agent, ore refining, food processing, in the manufacture of fertilizers and dyes as well as in the rubber and textile industries. According to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) 5,046 tonnes of hydrogen chloride were released to the atmosphere, 85 per cent of which came from Ontario. About 80 per cent of Ontario`s contribution came from coal-fired electrical generating stations. Hydrogen chloride is extremely corrosive and its handling, storage and transportation are subject to high safety standards. High concentrations of hydrogen chloride cause immediate irritation of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Low levels of exposure will produce coughing and wheezing. Long-term moderate exposure will cause erosion and discoloration of teeth. At present, there is insufficient evidence to classify hydrogen chloride as a carcinogen. Results of the review of relevant world-wide literature shows that agencies based their current guidelines on the avoidance of injury to the respiratory system. Recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency revised its reference concentration to 20 microgram/cubic meter. American states are expected to revise their own guidelines in line with this new EPA value. 29 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  3. 33 Effects of Sodium Chloride Solutions on Compressive Strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Keywords: Sodium chloride, concrete, compressive strength. Introduction. Sodium chloride or rock salt could be used as a deicing agent to melt ice at temperatures below 20oF; it has a characteristic sharp taste and is readily soluble in water. (encyclopedia.com, 2010). It has been known to be relatively benign on concrete.

  4. Biological denitrification of fertiliser wastewater at high chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater from the fertiliser industry is characterised by high chloride concentration, normally varying between 60 and 76 g/ℓ. Experiments with biological denitrification were performed in laboratory-scale \\'fill and draw\\' reactors with synthetic fertiliser wastewater, with chloride concentrations up to 96.7 g Cl/ℓ at 37oC; the ...

  5. Biological denitrification of fertiliser wastewater at high chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... Wastewater from the fertiliser industry is characterised by high chloride concentration, normally varying between 60 and 76 g/ l. Experiments with biological denitrification were performed in laboratory-scale 'fill and draw' reactors with synthetic fertiliser wastewater, with chloride concentrations up to 96.7 g ...

  6. System reliability of concrete structures subjected to chloride ingress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leira, B.J.; Thöns, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    are obtained based on measurements from the Gimsøystraumen bridge in Norway. These probability distributions are subsequently employed as input to a prediction model for chloride concentration at the steel reinforcement for a single but arbitrary position along the reinforcement. In order to address chloride...

  7. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of the leaves of this plant was investigated in streptozotocin ... methanol/methylene chloride (1:1) for 7 days. (with occasional stirring) at room temperature. ..... muscle and promote hepatic production of glucose22,23, whereas reduction of plasma.

  8. An insight into the passivation of cupronickel alloys in chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cupronickels offer enhanced corrosion protection in marine environments by the formation of passive films on the surface. Cyclic voltammetric studies were carried on cupronickels in chloride solutions at H 6.3 to understand the role of chloride ions in passive film formation. Increase in nickel content of the alloy and of ...

  9. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of new 1-benzylbenzimidazolium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Arndt, A; Brycki, B

    1997-08-01

    1-Benzylbenzimidazole reacts with chloromethylalkyl ethers or sulfides or chloromethylcycloalkyl ethers to produce 3-alkoxymethyl-1-benzylbenzimidazolium or 3-alkylthiomethyl-1-benzylbenzimidazolium or 1-benzyl-3-cycloalkoxymethylbenzimidazolium chlorides in very good yields. All the 1-benzylbenimidazolium chlorides showed antimicrobial activity. The relationship between chemical structure and antimicrobial activity was analyzed by quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR).

  10. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of new quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brycki, B; Skrzypczak, A; Mirska, I; Pernak, J

    1996-06-01

    Decyldimethylamine reacts readily with chloromethylalkyl ethers of sulfides, chloromethylbenzyl ethers or sulfides and chloromethylcycloalkyl ethers to give quaternary ammonium chlorides in very good yields. All the chlorides studied showed antimicrobial activity. The relationship between the chemical structure and antimicrobial activity was analyzed by rough sets.

  11. determination of serum chloride ion concentration in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yusif

    Increased level of chloride indicates dehydration but can occur with other problems causing high blood sodium or hyperventilated. (Anderson and Scotti, 1980). Decreased levels of serum chloride also occur with disorders that result in low blood sodium, prolonged vomiting or gastric sunction, chronic diarrhea, with loss of ...

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of chloride ingress in cracked concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šavija, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chloride induced corrosion of reinforcing steel is recognized as the most common deterioration mechanism affecting reinforced concrete structures. As such, it has been in focus of research for more than thirty years. Numerous studies of chloride ingress, corrosion initiation, and corrosion

  13. In-situ measurement of chloride ion concentration in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar

    2015-01-01

    Chloride ions are one of the major contributors to degradation of reinforcement-concrete. The presence of these ions initiate pitting corrosion in the reinforcement steel and ultimately results in the failure of the construction. Thus, the chloride ion concentration inside concrete is a crucial

  14. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  15. 46 CFR 151.50-75 - Ferric chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferric chloride solution. 151.50-75 Section 151.50-75... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-75 Ferric chloride solution... solution must be lined with rubber, corrosion resistant plastic, or a material approved by the Commandant...

  16. Lattice dynamical calculations for bcc caesium chloride | Taura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, the obtained results agree reasonably well with the experimental data of the bcc Caesium Chloride. Keywords: Bcc caesium chloride; Lattice dynamics; Phonon dispersion; Density of state; Specific heat. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 20 (March, 2012), pp 261 – 266 ...

  17. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method proved to be useful for exploring cement hydration-induced changes in the diffusion coefficient of cement paste.

    Se ha desarrollado un método para medir el coeficiente de difusión de los iones cloruro en la pasta de cemento, partiendo de una aplicación analítica de la segunda ley de Fick en un sistema de coordinadas cilíndrico. Este método, que es natural, demostró ser capaz de producir resultados de difusividad en tan solo un mes. Se consiguió reducir el tiempo de ensayo mediante el aprovechamiento de la tridimensionalidad del flujo desde el exterior al interior de la probeta. A fin de determinar la concentración de saturación, se sometieron las pastas de cemento Portland a una disolución de cloruros concentrada. Este método resultó ser útil en el estudio de los cambios del coeficiente de difusión de la pasta de cemento provocados por las reacciones de hidratación que tienen lugar en esta.

  18. Genetically encoded optical sensors for monitoring of intracellular chloride and chloride-selective channel activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bregestovski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This review briefly discusses the main approaches for monitoring chloride (Cl−, the most abundant physiological anion. Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular Cl− ([Cl−]i is a challenging task owing to two main difficulties: (i the low transmembrane ratio for Cl−, approximately 10:1; and (ii the small driving force for Cl−, as the Cl− reversal potential (ECl is usually close to the resting potential of the cells. Thus, for reliable monitoring of intracellular Cl−, one has to use highly sensitive probes. From several methods for intracellular Cl− analysis, genetically encoded chloride indicators represent the most promising tools. Recent achievements in the development of genetically encoded chloride probes are based on the fact that yellow fluorescent protein (YFP exhibits Cl−-sensitivity. YFP-based probes have been successfully used for quantitative analysis of Cl− transport in different cells and for high-throughput screening of modulators of Cl−-selective channels. Development of a ratiometric genetically encoded probe, Clomeleon, has provided a tool for noninvasive estimation of intracellular Cl− concentrations. While the sensitivity of this protein to Cl− is low (EC50 about 160 mM, it has been successfully used for monitoring intracellular Cl− in different cell types. Recently a CFP–YFP-based probe with a relatively high sensitivity to Cl− (EC50 about 30 mM has been developed. This construct, termed Cl-Sensor, allows ratiometric monitoring using the fluorescence excitation ratio. Of particular interest are genetically encoded probes for monitoring of ion channel distribution and activity. A new molecular probe has been constructed by introducing into the cytoplasmic domain of the Cl−-selective glycine receptor (GlyR channel the CFP–YFP-based Cl-Sensor. This construct, termed BioSensor-GlyR, has been successfully expressed in cell lines. The new genetically encoded chloride probes offer means of screening

  19. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-01-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  20. Emerging Role of Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel in the Regulation of Cell Viability Following Potassium Ions Challenge in HEK293 Cells and Pharmacological Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, Domenico; Mele, Antonietta; Calzolaro, Sara; Cannone, Gianluigi; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Dinardo, Maria Maddalena; Latorre, Ramon; Conte Camerino, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidences suggest that Ca2+activated-K+-(BK) channel is involved in the regulation of cell viability. The changes of the cell viability observed under hyperkalemia (15 mEq/L) or hypokalemia (0.55 mEq/L) conditions were investigated in HEK293 cells expressing the hslo subunit (hslo-HEK293) in the presence or absence of BK channel modulators. The BK channel openers(10-11-10-3M) were: acetazolamide(ACTZ), Dichlorphenamide(DCP), methazolamide(MTZ), bendroflumethiazide(BFT), ethoxzolamide(ETX), hydrochlorthiazide(HCT), quercetin(QUERC), resveratrol(RESV) and NS1619; and the BK channel blockers(2x10-7M-5x10-3M) were: tetraethylammonium(TEA), iberiotoxin(IbTx) and charybdotoxin(ChTX). Experiments on cell viability and channel currents were performed using cell counting kit-8 and patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Hslo whole-cell current was potentiated by BK channel openers with different potency and efficacy in hslo-HEK293. The efficacy ranking of the openers at -60 mV(Vm) was BFT> ACTZ >DCP ≥RESV≥ ETX> NS1619> MTZ≥ QUERC; HCT was not effective. Cell viability after 24 h of incubation under hyperkalemia was enhanced by 82+6% and 33+7% in hslo-HEK293 cells and HEK293 cells, respectively. IbTx, ChTX and TEA enhanced cell viability in hslo-HEK293. BK openers prevented the enhancement of the cell viability induced by hyperkalemia or IbTx in hslo-HEK293 showing an efficacy which was comparable with that observed as BK openers. BK channel modulators failed to affect cell currents and viability under hyperkalemia conditions in the absence of hslo subunit. In contrast, under hypokalemia cell viability was reduced by -22+4% and -23+6% in hslo-HEK293 and HEK293 cells, respectively; the BK channel modulators failed to affect this parameter in these cells. In conclusion, BK channel regulates cell viability under hyperkalemia but not hypokalemia conditions. BFT and ACTZ were the most potent drugs either in activating the BK current and in preventing the cell

  1. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.; Storteboom, T. T. R.; Mulder, A. M.; de Jong, W. H. A.; Rottier, B. L.; Kema, I. P.

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis

  2. Levels of CEA among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.A. (City Univ. of New York, NY); Snyder, J.; Lewinson, T.; Woo, C.; Lilis, R.; Selikoff, I.J

    1978-09-01

    In 1974, vinyl chloride exposed workers were found to have an increased risk of malignant disease (hemangiosarcoma of the liver). We have examined 1,147 workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in three VC/PVC polymerization plants, and 269 workers from a PVC extrusion plant manufacturing PVC textile leather, exposed to much lower concentrations of vinyl chloride. Included among the comprehensive clinical and laboratory studies conducted was the CEA titer. We obtained, respectively, 1,115 and 248 CEA titers. Multiple factors were demonstrated which affected the distribution of CEA titers. Cigarette use had the greatest effect, followed by history of specific past illnesses and alcohol intake history. After removing these possible confounding effects, the distribution of CEA titers among the polymerization workers was significantly different from the extrusion plant group and from an unexposed comparison group. Of the six job categories analyzed, only production and maintenance workers had CEA titer distributions significantly different from the comparison group and the extrusion workers. The investigation demonstrates that occupational exposures in VC/PVC polymerization plants can cause elevations in the CEA titers of otherwise healthy individuals. Prospective follow-up is necessary before conclusions can be drawn concerning the usefulness of the CEA titer as a predictive indicator of possible increased risk.

  3. Functional modifications of acid-sensing ion channels by ligand-gated chloride channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanmao Chen

    Full Text Available Together, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs and epithelial sodium channels (ENaC constitute the majority of voltage-independent sodium channels in mammals. ENaC is regulated by a chloride channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Here we show that ASICs were reversibly inhibited by activation of GABA(A receptors in murine hippocampal neurons. This inhibition of ASICs required opening of the chloride channels but occurred with both outward and inward GABA(A receptor-mediated currents. Moreover, activation of the GABA(A receptors modified the pharmacological features and kinetic properties of the ASIC currents, including the time course of activation, desensitization and deactivation. Modification of ASICs by open GABA(A receptors was also observed in both nucleated patches and outside-out patches excised from hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, ASICs and GABA(A receptors interacted to regulate synaptic plasticity in CA1 hippocampal slices. The activation of glycine receptors, which are similar to GABA(A receptors, also modified ASICs in spinal neurons. We conclude that GABA(A receptors and glycine receptors modify ASICs in neurons through mechanisms that require the opening of chloride channels.

  4. Microstructure-based simulation of time-dependent chloride diffusivity in saturated cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingzhong; Ye, Guang; Van Breugel, K.

    2010-01-01

    For accurately predicting the service life and evaluating the durability of reinforced concrete structure exposed to chloride environments, it is highly desirable to determine the chloride diffusivity in cement paste. Because of continuous cement hydration and chloride binding during the process of chloride diffusion, chloride diffusivity varies with time. In this paper, a computational approacht for predicting the time-depending chloride diffusivity in cement paste is presented. HYMOSTRUC3D,...

  5. Ab initio calculations and kinetic modeling of thermal conversion of methyl chloride: implications for gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Mallika; Rasmussen, Morten Lund; Hashemi, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Limitations in current hot gas cleaning methods for chlorine species from biomass gasification may be a challenge for end use such as gas turbines, engines, and fuel cells, all requiring very low levels of chlorine. During devolatilization of biomass, chlorine is released partly as methyl chloride....... In the present work, the thermal conversion of CH3Cl under gasification conditions was investigated. A detailed chemical kinetic model for pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl chloride was developed and validated against selected experimental data from the literature. Key reactions of CH2Cl with O2 and C2H4...... for which data are scarce were studied by ab initio methods. The model was used to analyze the fate of methyl chloride in gasification processes. The results indicate that CH3Cl emissions will be negligible for most gasification technologies, but could be a concern for fluidized bed gasifiers, in particular...

  6. Material Solutions to Mitigate the Alkali Chloride-Induced High Temperature Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiamehr, Saeed

    in the course of corrosion as well as the role of potassium chloride vapor. Results showed that while the majority of the alloys formed protective slow-growing oxides in the absence of KCl, they all suffered from significant attack when KCl was present. Thereby the inability of Cr to form a protective oxide......High temperature corrosion induced by potassium chloride (KCl) is a major challenge for biomass-based power plants. The current study aims at identification or development of alloys or coatings that can yield a better performance at a target metal temperature of 600oC compared to austenitic...... of metals. This was aimed at identifying the constituent elements of a corrosion resistant alloy. Calculations suggested Al, Si, Cr, Ti, Y, Ce, Ta, Hf and Zr as suitable oxide-forming elements as well as Mo, Ni and Co as suitable matrix-forming elements. However, the presence of potassium in the environment...

  7. Effects of concentration of sodium chloride solution on the pitting corrosion behavior of AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaduzzaman M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pitting corrosion behavior of the austenitic stainless steel in aqueous chloride solution was investigated using electrochemical technique. Corrosion potential (Ecorr measurement, potentiodynamic experiments, potential-hold experiments in the passive range, and microscopic examination were used for the evaluation of corrosion characteristics. The experimental parameters were chloride ion concentration, immersion time and anodic-hold potential. Ecorr measurements along with microscopic examinations suggest that in or above 3.5 % NaCl at pH 2 pitting took place on the surface in absence of applied potential after 6 hour immersion. The potentiodynamic experiment reveals that Ecorr and pitting potential (Epit decreased and current density in the passive region increased with the increase of chloride ion concentrations. A linear relationship between Epit and chloride ion concentrations was found in this investigation. The analysis of the results suggests that six chloride ions are involved for the dissolution of iron ion in the pitting corrosion process of austenitic stainless steel.

  8. Continuous microcellular foaming of polyvinyl chloride and compatibilization of polyvinyl chloride and polylactide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bhavesh

    This dissertation focuses on overcoming existing limitations of WPCs which prevent them from realizing their full market potential. These limitations include: (i) lack of a continuous extrusion process for microcellular foaming of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and its composites using supercritical fluids to reduce the high density of the WPCs, (ii) need for an efficient coupling agent for WPCs to overcome the poor compatibility between wood and plastic, and (iii) unproven use of wood as a filler for the biopolymer polylactide (PLA) to make "green" composites. These limitations were addressed through experimentation to develop a continuous extrusion process for microcellular foaming, and through surface modification of wood flour using natural coupling agents. The effects of wood flour, acrylic modifier and plasticizer content on the rheological properties of PVC based WPCs were studied using an extrusion capillary rheometer and a two-level factorial design. Wood flour content and acrylic modifier content were the major factors affecting the die swell ratio. Addition of plasticizer decreased the true viscosity of unfilled and filled PVC, irrespective of the acrylic modifier content. However, the addition of acrylic modifier significantly increased the viscosity of unfilled PVC but decreased the composite viscosity. Results of the rheological study were used to set baseline conditions for the continuous extrusion foaming of PVC WPCs using supercritical CO 2. Effects of material composition and processing conditions on the morphology of foamed samples were investigated. Foamed samples were produced using various material compositions and processing conditions, but steady-state conditions could not be obtained for PVC. Thus the relationships could not be determined. Incompatibility between wood flour and PVC was the focus of another study. The natural polymers chitin and chitosan were used as novel coupling agents to improve interfacial adhesion between the polymer matrix

  9. Studies on the mercuric chloride resistance of Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaczi, L.; Fodor, M.; Milch, H.; Rethy, A.

    1962-01-01

    Among 409 pathogenic Staph. aureus strains 34% have been found to be sensitive, and 66% resistant, to mercuric chloride. The incidence of mercuric chloride resistant cultures among antibiotic sensitive staphylococci was 20%; among strains resistant to penicillin or to more than one antibiotic, 70%. Mercuric chloride resistant organisms occurred chiefly among phage group I and untypable strains; they were especially common among the so called epidemic strains of phage group I, and among cultures resistant to 4-6 antibiotics. In mercuric chloride sensitivity a thirtyfold, in merthiolate sensitivity only a two-fold difference has been revealed among the strains. The sulfydryl group content of mercuric chloride resistant organisms was only 1 1/2 times higher than that of sensitive bacteria. As to p-chlor mercuric benzoate binding capacity, a twofold difference was found between mercuric chloride sensitive and resistant staphylococci. The differences in the mercuric chloride resistance of various staphylococcal strains might be due to differences in the chemical structure of the cell surface. 9 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  10. Effect of selected factors on the current flow and voltage loss at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, laboratory scale study was conducted to investigate the current flow and voltage loss at the electrodes in the electrochemical treatment of a tropical laterite. Three different tests using calcium chloride (CC) as anolyte and sodium chloride (SC) as catholyte (NC); SC as anolyte and Phosphoric acid (PA) as ...

  11. Use and Effectiveness of Ethyl Chloride for Hand Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Orrin I; Stern, Peter J

    2017-03-01

    Limited literature supports using ethyl chloride topical spray as an anesthetic for hand injections whereas documented risks include frostbite, skin irritation, and inhalation toxicity. We hypothesize that ethyl chloride spray imparts no benefit to patients' perception of pain or anxiety for routine hand injections. We first surveyed all members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand to discern the prevalence of ethyl chloride use during routine injections. We then performed a prospective, randomized, study at 2 institutions evaluating the efficacy of ethyl chloride spray compared with "routine injection" (no topical spray) in patients indicated for a hand injection. All patients completed a pre- and postinjection 11-point questionnaire that inquired about various components of pain and anxiety. A total of 2,083 (73% response rate) American Society for Surgery of the Hand members responded to the survey and revealed that 59% of hand surgeons always or often use ethyl chloride, and 24% never use it. There were no differences for region or practice setting, but experienced surgeons were less likely to routinely use ethyl chloride (35%) compared with younger surgeons (66%). Among 151 patients participating in the clinical study (75 with ethyl chloride), there were no differences for any outcome measure assessed. Injection pain in the spray and no-spray groups, pain after 1 minute, and overall anxiety were equivalent. Subgroup analysis demonstrated no effect of sex, anticipated anxiety, or pain threshold. Ethyl chloride is widely used among hand surgeons but imparts no benefit for routine hand injections in the clinical setting. The potential risks and costs of ethyl chloride use may outweigh its benefits. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  13. A photochemical source of methyl chloride in saline waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert M

    2008-03-15

    It is shown experimentallythatthe methoxy group in simple lignin-like molecules can be the source of the methyl group in CH3Cl produced by a photochemical reaction in an aqueous solution of chloride. Terrestrially derived colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in river water also yields CH3Cl through a photochemical process in a chloride solution. CDOM extracted from subsurface ocean waters showed some ability to enhance photochemical production of CH3Cl while CDOM from surface water showed no effect. Reactions of the kind described in this paper may be contributors to the marine source of methyl chloride and possibly other alkyl halides.

  14. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  15. Chloride ion erosion experiment research in cracked concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Shu; Yang, Li

    2017-08-01

    For the study of chloride ion erosion in cracked concrete, this essay tries to take advantages of relevant trails to build up concrete chloride ion diffusion model based on the Fick’s second law. The parameter of this model is easy to be set, and many factors such as the effect of cracks are taken into consideration in this experiment. The concept of “chloride ion diffusion coefficient of equivalent apparent” is introduced to simplify the calculation. It can help simplify the calculation process, and get a more accurate test result, as well as facilitating the practical application of this parameter.

  16. [Effect of pilocarpine chloride on pseudoplastic hydrogel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatloukal, Z

    2003-05-01

    Colloidal aqueous dispersions of 2 to 5% (weight) of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HMPC 4000) yield pseudoplastic mucilages and gels. Rotational viscosimetry in the cone-plate arrangement enables rapid and reproducible evaluation of the transitional region between pseudoplastic and plastic deformation, characterized by Herschel-Bulkley equation. To the traditional Ostwald's two-parameter relationship it adds a third one, revealing a deviation from the beginning of the coordinates of the rheogram caused by the limiting yield stress. The obtained equations make it possible not only to estimate apparent and real viscosity, but also the area under the curve of the pseudoplastic rheogram. The actual precondition of integration, however, is the estimation of the limiting yield stress as the shear rate for the zero shear stress. Experimental estimation of the bottom margin for the integration of the area under the curve makes mutual comparability of rheograms possible. At a temperature of 32 degrees C, analysis of variance demonstrated a significant diminution of this area in the presence of about 2% of pilocarpinium chloride.

  17. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  18. Flocculation of thermomechanical pulping spent liquor with polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yonghui; Liu, Zhong; Fatehi, Pedram

    2017-09-15

    Currently, the dissolved lignocelluloses in the spent liquor (SL) of a thermomechanical pulping process are treated in wastewater treatment systems and thus they are wasted. In this work, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC), with different molecular weights, was used for flocculating lignocelluloses of SL and thus isolating them from SL. Results showed that the maximum removals were 38% via treating SL with 100 mg/L of PDADMAC (with 1045 kg/mol molecular weight) at 25 °C for 30 min. The focused beam reflectance measurement of the flocculation process revealed that the chord length of the flocs with the maximum square weighted counts was increased from 70 to 100 μm and also their maximum square weighted counts was increased from 5 to 25 μm(2)/s. The flocs contained 60.71-74.41 wt% PDADMAC, the balance of lignocelluloses and the heating value of 24-25 MJ/kg. The high molecular PDADMAC generated flocs with more organics and a higher heating value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth of Aeromonas species on increasing concentrations of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamare, A P; Costa, S O; Da Silveira, M M; Echeverrigaray, S

    2000-01-01

    The growth of 16 strains of Aeromonas, representing 12 species of the genera, were examined at different salt levels (0-1.71 M NaCl). All the strains grew on media with 0.34 M NaCl, and nine on media with 0.68 M. Two strains, Aer. enteropelogenes and Aer. trota, were able to grow on media with 0.85 M and 1.02 M NaCl, respectively. Comparison of the growth curves of Aer. hydrophila ATCC7966 and Aer. trota ATCC 49657 on four concentrations of NaCl (0.08, 0.34, 0.68 and 1.02 M) confirm the high tolerance of Aer. trota, and indicate that high concentrations of salt increase the lag time and decrease the maximum growth rate. However, both strains were able to grow, slowly, in at least 0.68 M NaCl, a sodium chloride concentration currently used as food preservative.

  20. Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of the small-conductance calcium activated potassium channel (SK3) gene as genetic modifier of the cardiac phenotype in myotonic dystrophy type 1 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, F; Botta, A; Vallo, L; Contino, G; Morgante, A; Iraci, R; Catalli, C; Silvestri, G; Ventriglia, V M; Politano, L; Novelli, G

    2008-12-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most frequently inherited neuromuscular disease in adults. It is a multisystemic disorder with major cardiac involvement most commonly represented by first-degree atrioventricular heart block (AVB), followed by different degrees of bundle-branch and intraventricular blocks In search for candidate genes, modifiers of the AVB phenotype in DM1, the expression of the small-conductance calcium activated potassium channel (SK3) gene was analysed in muscle biopsies from DM1 patients. The association between SK3 polymorphisms and the AVB phenotype was then studied analyzing 40 DM1 patients with AVB and 40 age-matched DM1 affected individuals with no ECG abnormalities. [CTG]n repeat length and cardiac clinical picture were also assessed for correlation. QRT-PCR experiments showed an over-expression of the SK3 transcript in DM1 muscle biopsies compared to healthy controls. However, no statistical association between the AVB phenotype and either the [CTG]n expansion length or the presence of specific SNPs in the SK3 gene were detected. These findings suggest that modifier genes, other than SK3, should be identified in order to explain the cardiac phenotypic variability among DM1 patients.

  1. Preliminary Studies of Acute Cadmium Administration Effects on the Calcium-Activated Potassium (SKCa and BKCa) Channels and Na+/K+-ATPase Activity in Isolated Aortic Rings of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Dalton V; Almenara, Camila C P; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson Brás; Teixeira, Ariane Calazans; da Silva, David Chaves F; Angeli, Jhuli K; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2017-09-13

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant closely linked with cardiovascular diseases that seems to involve endothelium dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Knowing that NO causes dilatation through the activation of potassium channels and Na+/K+-ATPase, we aimed to determine whether acute cadmium administration (10 μM) alters the participation of K+ channels, voltage-activated calcium channel, and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in vascular function of isolated aortic rings of rats. Cadmium did not modify the acetylcholine-induced relaxation. After L-NAME addition, the relaxation induced by acetylcholine was abolished in presence or absence of cadmium, suggesting that acutely, this metal did not change NO release. However, tetraethylammonium (a nonselective K+ channels blocker) reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation but this effect was lower in the preparations with cadmium, suggesting a decrease of K+ channels function in acetylcholine response after cadmium incubation. Apamin (a selective blocker of small Ca2+-activated K+ channels-SKCa), iberiotoxin (a selective blocker of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels-BKCa), and verapamil (a blocker of calcium channel) reduced the endothelium-dependent relaxation only in the absence of cadmium. Finally, cadmium decreases Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Our results provide evidence that the cadmium acute incubation unaffected the calcium-activated potassium channels (SKCa and BKCa) and voltage-calcium channels on the acetylcholine vasodilatation. In addition, acute cadmium incubation seems to reduce the Na+/K+-ATPase activity.

  2. Hydrothermal fluoride and chloride complexation of indium: an EXAFS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loges, Anselm; Testemale, Denis; Huotari, Simo; Honkanen, Ari-Pekka; Potapkin, Vasily; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Indium (In) is one of the geochemically lesser studied ore metals, and the factors that control the hydrothermal transport and deposition are largely unknown. It has no ore deposits of its own and is commonly mined as a by-product of Zn ores, and there are very few minerals that contain In as an essential structural component. Recently, industrial application of In in touch screen devices has drastically increased demand, which is projected to exceed supply from the current sources in the near future. Since the most relevant In sources are hydrothermal sphalerite ores and to a lesser extent hydrothermal greisen-type deposits in evolved granitic plutons, the aqueous geochemistry of In is of particular interest for understanding its ore forming processes. As a first step towards a comprehensive model for hydrothermal In solubility and speciation, we have studied In speciation in fluoride and chloride bearing solutions at 30-400˚ C and 500 bar using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. The experiments were conducted in a unique hydrothermal autoclave setup at beamline BM30B-FAME at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. Our results show that the complexation of In changes dramatically between 30 and 400˚ C. Below ca. 200˚ C, fluoride complexes are the most stable ones, but they break down at higher temperatures. Chloride complexes on the other hand become increasingly stable with increasing temperature. This behavior has interesting consequences for natural ore forming systems. In Cl-rich systems (e.g. massive sulfide ores formed in sea floor environments), cooling can be an effective precipitating mechanism. In F-rich systems, fluoride complexation can extend In mobility to low temperatures and In will only precipitate when F is effectively removed from the fluid, e.g. by mixing with a Ca-rich fluid and precipitation of fluorite (CaF2) as is commonly observed in skarn or greisen-type deposits. Due to In complexing with

  3. Enhanced brightness of organic light-emitting diodes based on Mg:Ag cathode using alkali metal chlorides as an electron injection layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Ye [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Deng Zhenbo, E-mail: zbdeng@bjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Xu Denghui [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100037 (China); Lue Zhaoyue; Yin Yuehong; Du Hailiang; Chen Zheng; Wang Yongsheng [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Different thicknesses of cesium chloride (CsCl) and various alkali metal chlorides were inserted into organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) as electron injection layers (EILs). The basic structure of OLED is indium tin oxide (ITO)/N,N Prime -diphenyl-N,N Prime -bis(1-napthyl-phenyl)-1.1 Prime -biphenyl-4.4 Prime -diamine (NPB)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3})/Mg:Ag/Ag. The electroluminescent (EL) performance curves show that both the brightness and efficiency of the OLEDs can be obviously enhanced by using a thin alkali metal chloride layer as an EIL. The electron injection barrier height between the Alq{sub 3} layer and Mg:Ag cathode is reduced by inserting a thin alkali metal chloride as an EIL, which results in enhanced electron injection and electron current. Therefore, a better balance of hole and electron currents at the emissive interface is achieved and consequently the brightness and efficiency of OLEDs are improved. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline metal chlorides were used as electron injection layers in organic light-emitting diodes based on Mg:Ag cathode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brightness and efficiency of OLEDs with alkaline metal chlorides as electron injection layers were all greatly enhanced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Improved OLED performance was attributed to the possible interfacial chemical reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-only devices are fabricated to demonstrate the electron injection enhancement.

  4. Effect of chloride-based deicers on reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We conducted an extensive literature review and performed laboratory tests to assess the effect of chloride-based deicers on the rebars and dowel bars in concrete and to determine whether or not deicer corrosion inhibitors help preserve the transport...

  5. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  6. Stochastic modeling of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2004-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride....... The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by simulation. As an example a bridge pier in a marine environment is considered....

  7. Stochastic Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Chloride Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride....... The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by simulation. As an example a bridge pier in a marine environment is considered....

  8. Prediction of chloride ingress and binding in cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Nielsen, Erik Pram; Herforth, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work on an analytical model for predicting the ingress rate of chlorides in cement-based materials. An integral part of this is a thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement. The model’s ability to predict chloride binding...... in Portland cement pastes at any content of chloride, alkalis, sulfates and carbonate was verified experimentally and found to be equally valid when applied to other data in the literature. The thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement was introduced into an existing...... Finite Difference Model for the ingress of chlorides into concrete which takes into account its multi-component nature. The “composite theory” was then used to predict the diffusivity of each ion based on the phase assemblage present in the hydrated Portland cement paste. Agreement was found between...

  9. Generation of nitryl chloride from chlorotrimethylsilane-acetyl nitrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    amyl nitrate does not yield NO2Cl with silicon reagent. However, acetyl nitrate reacts successfully with chlorotrimethylsi- lane to give nitryl chloride, which is characterized by its UV spectrum. If it is generated in presence of ketoximes ...

  10. Evaluation of an alternative deicing chemical vs. conventional sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A research project was initiated to evaluate the performance and cost effectiveness of a proprietary, pre-blended, : roadway-deicing chemical on New Hampshire highways. The evaluated material is a patented blend of sodium chloride, liquid : magnesium...

  11. An insight into the passivation of cupronickel alloys in chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    state model; cyclic voltammetry; marine environment. 1. Introduction. Cupronickels are widely used in chloride environments due to their marked corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of these alloys is due to passivation, which occurs at.

  12. Lithium orotate, carbonate and chloride: pharmacokinetics, polyuria in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D F

    1976-04-01

    1 The pharmacokinetics of the lithium ion administered as lithium orotate were studied in rats. Parallel studies were carried out with lithium carbonate and lithium chloride. 2 No differences in the uptake, distribution and excretion of the lithium ion were observed between lithium orotate, lithium carbonate and lithium chloride after single intraperitoneal, subcutaneous or intragastric injections (0.5-1.0 mEq lithium/kg) or after administration of the lithium salts for 20 days in the food. 3 The findings oppose the notion that the pharmacokinetics of the lithium ion given as lithium orotate differ from lithium chloride or lithium carbonate. 4 Polyuria and polydipsia developed more slowly in rats given lithium orotate than in those given lithium carbonate or lithium chloride, perhaps due to an effect of the orotate anion.

  13. Diffusion vs. concentration of chloride ions in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This investigation was performed to gain insight and assist in determining the long-term durability of : reinforced concrete structures where the external chloride concentrations are different than those typically : observed at the permanently immers...

  14. Diffusion vs. concentration of chloride ions in concrete : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation : (FDOT) maintains hundreds of bridges, and also : builds new ones, in marine environments. These : structures are built with reinforced steel, and : over time, chloride ions from sea salt can migrate : throug...

  15. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  16. Combined uses of water-table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    unconfined aquifer of Thiaroye zone using both water table fluctuation (WTF), chloride ... Therefore, in the urban area, the CMB method cannot be .... contribution from other sources such as human activities ..... in India: What has been learned?

  17. Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  18. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Fenfen, E-mail: zhu@hse.gcoe.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl{sub 2} decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.CaCl{sub 2}) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl{sub 2}. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl{sub 2}.

  19. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyaniline/cobalt chloride composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asha, E-mail: arana5752@gmail.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Bhagat Phool Singh Mahilla Vishwavidyalaya, Khanpur Kalan, Sonipat-131305 (India); Goyal, Sneh Lata; Kishore, Nawal [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polyaniline (PANI) and PANI /cobalt chloride composites were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O using ammonium peroxidisulphate as an oxidant. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD study reveals that both PANI and composites are amorphous. The XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of cobalt chloride in the composites.

  20. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing

    2015-07-01

    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy.

  1. cis-Dichloridobis(1,10-phenanthrolinechromium(III chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Gao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CrCl2(C12H8N22]Cl, the CrIII ion is situated on a twofold rotation axis and displays a slightly distorted octahedral CrCl2N4 coordination geometry. The Cr environment is composed of a cis arrangement of two 1,10-phenanthroline and two chloride ligands. The chloride counter-anion exhibits half-occupation and is equally disordered over two positions.

  2. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  3. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F; Izbicki, John A

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality-possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Prediction of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete Structure Using Meshless Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Ling; Li, Xiaolu; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of RC structures due to chloride penetration followed by reinforcement corrosion is a serious problem in civil engineering. The numerical simulation methods at present mainly involve finite element methods (FEM), which are based on mesh generation. In this study, element-free Galerkin (EFG) and meshless weighted least squares (MWLS) methods are used to solve the problem of simulation of chloride diffusion in concrete. The range of a scaling parameter is presented using numerical e...

  5. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM FROM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Horner, D.E.

    1960-05-24

    An improvement was made in a uranium extraction process wherein the organic extractant is a phosphine oxide. An aqueous solution containing phosphate ions or sulfate ions together with uranium is provided with a source of chloride ions during the extraction step. The presence of the chloride ions enables a phosphine oxide to extract uranium in the presence of strong uranium- complexing ions such as phosphate or sulfate ions.

  6. Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glykys, J; Dzhala, V; Egawa, K

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-)](i) is an important determinant of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition and cytoplasmic volume regulation. Equilibrative cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) move Cl(-) across the membrane, but accumulat...... anions determine the homeostatic set point for [Cl(-)], and hence, neuronal volume and the polarity of local GABA(A)R signaling....

  7. Comparison of a novel polytitanium chloride coagulant with polyaluminium chloride: coagulation performance and floc characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y X; Phuntsho, S; Gao, B Y; Yang, Y Z; Kim, J-H; Shon, H K

    2015-01-01

    Polymerized inorganic coagulants are increasingly being used in the water supply and wastewater treatment process, yet there is limited research on the development of polytitanium coagulants. The aim of this study is to synthesize polytitanium chloride (PTC) coagulants and investigate their coagulation behavior and floc characteristics for humic acid removal in comparison to polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The PTC samples with different B (molar ratios of OH/Ti) values were prepared using an instantaneous base-feeding method, employing sodium carbonate as the basification agent. The coagulation efficiency was significantly influenced by different B values. The results suggest that the humic acid removal increased with the increasing B value for PAC, while the inverse trend was observed for PTC. The optimum B value was chosen at 1.0 and 2.0 for PTC and PAC, respectively. Under the optimum coagulant dose and initial solution pH conditions, the PTC coagulant performed better than the PAC coagulant and the floc properties were significantly improved in terms of floc growth rate and floc size. However, the PAC coagulants produced flocs with better floc recoverability than the PTC coagulants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezei Radouanne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  9. Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

  10. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrefae F

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fawaz Elrefae,1 Ahmed Farag Elhassanien,2 Hesham Abdel-Aziz Alghiaty3 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Elmansoura University, El Mansoura, El Dakahleya, Egypt; 3Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon with high fecal chloride. Objective: To spotlight the common presentation of CCD for early management and prevention of complications. Subjects and methods: This is a retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed as CCD who were followed up in the pediatric department of Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait. Results: Twelve patients diagnosed with CCD were born to consanguineous parents; had antenatal history of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR; polyhydramnios; and distended hypoechoic fetal bowel; and presented with abdominal distension, hypotonia and muscle wasting. 90% of patients had maternal hypertension and 75% of patients had absence of normal meconium at birth. Our patients showed a decrease in serum sodium, potassium, chloride and urine chloride. Conclusion: A high level of suspicion for an early diagnosis of CCD should be considered for any infant presenting with chronic diarrhea, especially in the presence of consanguineous marriage, and the characteristic features in antenatal ultrasound. Thus, allowing for early investigations and appropriate management. Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, children, chronic diarrhea, metabolic alkalosis, prenatal diagnosis

  11. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  12. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China); Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei [National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: li_zhiyuan@gibh.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.

  13. 21 CFR 177.1990 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers. 177... chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 25038...) Identity. For the purposes of this section vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers consist of basic...

  14. The influence of particles of a minor component on the matrix strength of sodium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, B.; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Bolhuis, G.K; Gons, M.; Zuurman, K.; Frijlink, H.W

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the matrix strength of sodium chloride particles in pure sodium chloride tablets and in tablets compressed from binary mixtures of sodium chloride with low concentrations of pregelatinised starch. Because this study concerns the strength of the sodium chloride matrix, the

  15. 21 CFR 178.3790 - Polymer modifiers in semirigid and rigid vinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chloride plastics. 178.3790 Section 178.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... modifiers in semirigid and rigid vinyl chloride plastics. The polymers identified in paragraph (a) of this... semirigid and rigid vinyl chloride plastic food-contact articles prepared from vinyl chloride homopolymers...

  16. Ab initio Investigations of the Equilibria between Trichlorothioacetyl Chloride, Tetrachlorothiirane, and Trichloroethenesulfenyl Chloride, their Reactants and Decomposition Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Vestergaard; Christensen, Henrik; Shim, Irene

    2004-01-01

    Trichlorothioacetyl chloride 1, tetrachlorothiirane 2, and trichloroethenesulfenyl chloride 3 and the equilibria between them have been investigated by ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF), Møller-Plesset second order perturbation (MP2) calculations, and by Gaussian-3 theory, G3(MP2). The transition states...... of the isomerization reactions have been identified. Also investigated were possible reactions leading to the isomers and their possible decomposition products. The results show that the unobserved isomerization reactions are feasible....

  17. /sup 203/Hg excretion and tissue distribution in Holstein calves following single tracer intravenous doses of methyl mercury chloride or mercuric chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stake, P.E.; Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    Eight male Holstein calves were given a single tracer intravenous dose of /sup 203/Hg as mercuric chloride or methyl mercury chloride 7 days before sacrifice. Total 7-day fecal and urinary Hg excretions were much higher from mercuric chloride dosing than from methyl mercury chloride. Retention of Hg from mercuric chloride was greater in kidney, liver, spleen, lung, testicle, rib shaft, tibia joint, tibia shaft, abomasum, small intestine, cecum, large intestine and pancreas and less in brain cerebellum and cerebrum, supraspinatus muscle and heart, and substantially lower in psoas and semitendinosus muscles. Fifteen minutes after dosing, whole blood Hg was lower from mercuric chloride followed by a similar rapid clearance for both Hg forms. Throughout the 7-day period, plasma Hg was greater from mercuric chloride. In red blood cells, Hg from methyl mercury chloride was higher during the first 2 hr after dosing, with no significant differences thereafter. 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  18. Acetylcholine chloride 1% usage for intraoperative cataract surgery miosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Macei Drudi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To test the efficacy of Acetylcholine chloride use in obtaining intraoperative miosis on phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Methods: Patients with cataract diagnosis and elected for surgical phacoemulsification procedure were selected. All patients underwent conventional phacoemulsification procedure performed by a single surgeon and all patients had 0.2 ml of Acetylcholine chloride 1% irrigated in the anterior chamber at the end of the surgery. The pupillary diameter was measured immediately before the beginning of surgery, immediately before and two minutes after the use of acetylcholine chloride 1%. Results: A total of 30 eyes from 30 patients were included in the study. 18 were female, and mean age was of 69.5 years with a 7.2y standard deviation on the population study. The mean pupillary diameter immediately before the beginning of surgery was 7.5 mm with a standard deviation of 0.56 mm; the mean pupillary diameter immediately before the acetylcholine chloride 1% use (after the intraocular lens im-plantation was 7.1 mm with a standard deviation of 0.57 mm. The mean pupillary diameter two minutes after the use of acetylcholine chloride 1% in the anterior chamber was 3.4 mm with standard deviation of 0.66 mm. The mean maximum action time of ACH chloride 1% was 64 seconds, with a standard deviation of 8 seconds. The mean intraocular pressure on the first postoperative day was 19.1 mmHg with a standard deviation of 2.45 mmHg. Conclusion: We conclude that acetylcholine chloride 1% is an important drug to obtaining intraoperative miosis in cataract surgery.

  19. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrefae, Fawaz; Elhassanien, Ahmed Farag; Alghiaty, Hesham Abdel-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon) with high fecal chloride. To spotlight the common presentation of CCD for early management and prevention of complications. This is a retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed as CCD who were followed up in the pediatric department of Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait. Twelve patients diagnosed with CCD were born to consanguineous parents; had antenatal history of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR); polyhydramnios; and distended hypoechoic fetal bowel; and presented with abdominal distension, hypotonia and muscle wasting. 90% of patients had maternal hypertension and 75% of patients had absence of normal meconium at birth. Our patients showed a decrease in serum sodium, potassium, chloride and urine chloride. A high level of suspicion for an early diagnosis of CCD should be considered for any infant presenting with chronic diarrhea, especially in the presence of consanguineous marriage, and the characteristic features in antenatal ultrasound. Thus, allowing for early investigations and appropriate management.

  20. Shaker and Shal mediate transient calcium-independent potassium current in a Drosophila flight motoneuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryglewski, Stefanie; Duch, Carsten

    2009-12-01

    Ionic currents underlie the firing patterns, excitability, and synaptic integration of neurons. Despite complete sequence information in multiple species, our knowledge about ion channel function in central neurons remains incomplete. This study analyzes the potassium currents of an identified Drosophila flight motoneuron, MN5, in situ. MN5 exhibits four different potassium currents, two fast-activating transient ones and two sustained ones, one of each is calcium activated. Pharmacological and genetic manipulations unravel the specific contributions of Shaker and Shal to the calcium independent transient A-type potassium currents. alpha-dendrotoxin (Shaker specific) and phrixotoxin-2 (Shal specific) block different portions of the transient calcium independent A-type potassium current. Following targeted expression of a Shaker dominant negative transgene in MN5, the remaining A-type potassium current is alpha-dendrotoxin insensitive. In Shal RNAi knock down the remaining A-type potassium current is phrixotoxin-2 insensitive. Additionally, barium blocks calcium-activated potassium currents but also a large portion of phrixotoxin-2-sensitive A-type currents. Targeted knock down of Shaker or Shal channels each cause identical reduction in total potassium current amplitude as acute application of alpha-dendrotoxin or phrixotoxin-2, respectively. This shows that the knock downs do not cause upregulation of potassium channels underlying other A-type channels during development. Immunocytochemistry and targeted expression of modified GFP-tagged Shaker channels with intact targeting sequence in MN5 indicate predominant axonal localization. These data can now be used to investigate the roles of Shaker and Shal for motoneuron intrinsic properties, synaptic integration, and spiking output during behavior by targeted genetic manipulations.

  1. The effect of verapamil and diltiazem on cardiac stimulant effect of adrenaline and calcium chloride on isolated frog heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhavat Sudhakar, Naveen Kumar T, Tadvi NA, Venkata Rao Y

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers block voltage dependent L-type of calcium channel and thus reduce the frequency of opening of these channels in response to depolarization. The result is a marked decrease in transmembrane calcium current associated with long lasting relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, reduction in contractility in cardiac muscle, decrease in pacemaker activity in the SA node and decrease in conduction velocity in the AV node. Among Calcium channel blockers verapamil, is cardio selective, nifedipine is vascular smooth muscle selective, while diltiazem exhibits intermediate selectivity. Methods: In the present study, the effect of two Ca++ channel blocker, Verapamil and Diltiazem were compared on the isolated frog heart by using adrenaline & calcium chloride as standard on frog heart contractility. Results and conclusion: Adrenaline and calcium chloride increased the amplitude of contraction of isolated perfused frog heart. The L- type of Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil and diltiazem produced dose dependent (2mg, 4mg, 8mg, and 16mg reduction in the amplitude of contraction produced by calcium chloride in isolated perfused frog heart. There was no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05 between the inhibitory effect of diltiazem and verapamil on calcium chloride induced contraction of isolated frog heart.

  2. Cyclic voltammetric studies of carbon steel corrosion in chloride-formation water solution and effect of some inorganic salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Deyab

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sulfide, sulfate and bicarbonate anions on the pitting corrosion behavior of carbon steel in formation water containing chloride ions were analyzed by means of cyclic voltammetry technique and complemented by X-ray diffraction (XRD investigation. The anodic response exhibits a well-defined anodic peak A, followed by a passive region. A pronounced increase in the anodic current density is observed in the passive region at pitting potential (Epit. On the other hand, the cathodic sweep shows two cathodic peaks CI and CII. The data show that the presence of chloride ions causes pitting corrosion of carbon steel in formation water. It was found that both the pitting potential Epit and the repassivation potential (Epro decreased with increase in Cl− ions concentration. Data clearly show that the presence of Na2S with 0.3 M of chloride ions has a strong accelerating effect on the active dissolution and pitting corrosion of carbon steel in formation water, while the presence of Na2SO4 and NaHCO3 with chloride ions has an inhibiting effect on the active dissolution and pitting corrosion.

  3. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  4. Preparation of graphene–Ag composites and their application for electrochemical detection of chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mei, E-mail: yumei@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Pengrui; Zhang, Shilu; Liu, Jianhua; An, Junwei; Li, Songmei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Graphene–Ag composites were prepared in situ using ascorbic acid as green reducing agent. ► The morphology of Ag particles was irregular sheet and Ag particles homogeneously distributed on the graphene matrix. ► The surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement factor of D band is 5.85 for composites. ► The composites exhibited good sensitivity for the detection of chloride ions. -- Abstract: Graphene–Ag composites were prepared in situ using ascorbic acid as green reducing agent. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected-area electronic diffraction (SAED), and Raman spectrometer. It was showed that Ag particles homogeneously distributed on the graphene matrix. The morphology of Ag particles was irregular sheet with (1 1 1) basal plane. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement factor of D band is 5.85 for composites. The application of the composites for electrochemical detection of chloride was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The composites exhibited good sensitivity for the detection of chloride ions. The maximum peak current of cyclic voltammetry curve in 5 mM KCl was 0.80 mA. In the range of 500 μM to 50 mM for Cl{sup −}, the current response was proportional and linear to the Cl{sup −} concentration. The sensitivity to the detection for Cl{sup −} was 0.059 (mA/mM) and the detection limit was 61 μM for Cl{sup −}. It indicates graphene–Ag composites would be a competitive material for detection of halide.

  5. Cystic fibrosis with normal sweat chloride concentration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Filho Luiz Vicente Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease usually diagnosed by abnormal sweat testing. We report a case of an 18-year-old female with bronchiectasis, chronic P. aeruginosa infection, and normal sweat chloride concentrations who experienced rapid decrease of lung function and clinical deterioration despite treatment. Given the high suspicion ofcystic fibrosis, broad genotyping testing was performed, showing a compound heterozygous with deltaF508 and 3849+10kb C->T mutations, therefore confirming cystic fibrosis diagnosis. Although the sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, alternative diagnostic tests such as genotyping and electrophysiologic measurements must be performed if there is suspicion of cystic fibrosis, despite normal or borderline sweat chloride levels.

  6. 4-Chloropropofol enhances chloride currents in human hyperekplexic and artificial mutated glycine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Roche Jeanne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian neurological disorder hereditary hyperekplexia can be attributed to various mutations of strychnine sensitive glycine receptors. The clinical symptoms of “startle disease” predominantly occur in the newborn leading to convulsive hypertonia and an exaggerated startle response to unexpected mild stimuli. Amongst others, point mutations R271Q and R271L in the α1-subunit of strychnine sensitive glycine receptors show reduced glycine sensitivity and cause the clinical symptoms of hyperekplexia. Halogenation has been shown to be a crucial structural determinant for the potency of a phenolic compound to positively modulate glycine receptor function. The aim of this in vitro study was to characterize the effects of 4-chloropropofol (4-chloro-2,6-dimethylphenol at four glycine receptor mutations. Methods Glycine receptor subunits were expressed in HEK 293 cells and experiments were performed using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Results 4-chloropropofol exerted a positive allosteric modulatory effect in a low sub-nanomolar concentration range at the wild type receptor (EC50 value of 0.08 ± 0.02 nM and in a micromolar concentration range at the mutations (1.3 ± 0.6 μM, 0.1 ± 0.2 μM, 6.0 ± 2.3 μM and 55 ± 28 μM for R271Q, L, K and S267I, respectively. Conclusions 4-chloropropofol might be an effective compound for the activation of mutated glycine receptors in experimental models of startle disease.

  7. Dielectric relaxation and alternating current conductivity of polyvinylidene fluoride doped with lanthanum chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, A.; Hanafy, T.; El-Sayed, S.; Himanshu, A.

    2011-12-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), dielectric constant (ɛ'), dielectric loss factor (ɛ″), and ac conductivity (σac) of pure and LaCl3-doped polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) have been carried out. The dielectric properties have been studied in the temperature and frequency ranges; 140-450 K and 0.1-1000 kHz, respectively. XRD results reveal that pure and LaCl3-PVDF samples are in the α-phase. The incorporation of La3+ ions within the PVDF polymer matrix forms complexes which reduce the order structure of PVDF. Three relaxation processes, namely; ρ, αa, and αc were observed for pure PVDF. The first relaxation can be explained based on space charge formation or Maxwell-Wagner polarization. The second one occurs around the glass transition temperature, Tg, and is related to the micro-Brownian motion of the main polymer chain. It becomes broad and shifted to higher temperatures with the doping of LaCl3. The third process appears below the melting temperature of PVDF and can be attributed to molecular motions of the main polymer chain. The behavior of the ac conductivity shows that the conduction mechanism of pure, 5 wt. % and 10 wt. % of LaCl3-doped PVDF samples is follows the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model, while 3 wt. % of LaCl3-doped PVDF exhibits a small polaron tunneling (SPT) conduction.

  8. [Effectiveness of new quarternary ammonium chloride compounds against selected bacteria and fungi. XXI. Synthesis of alkoxymethyl-3,4-dimethyl- pyridine and 1-ethyloxymethyl-3-alkylthiomethylimidazole chlorides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Krysiński, J; Skrzypczak, A; Michalak, L

    1989-01-01

    Syntheses and antibacterial properties of alkoxymethyl-3,4-dimethylpyridinium chlorides and 1-ethyloxymethyl-3-alkylthiomethylimidazolium chlorides are described. Alkoxymetgyl-3,4-dimethylpyridinium chlorides were synthetized by reacting 3,4-dimethylpyridine with chloromethyl alkyl ethers, while 1-ethyloxymethyl-3-alkylthiomethylimidazolium chlorides were obtained in reactions of 1-ethyloxymethylimidazol with chloromethyl alkyl sulfides. Antibacterial properties of the obtained compounds were tested on 13 strains of bacteria and fungi. Strong bacteriostatic activity was found to be displayed by iminium chlorides with octyloxymethyl, decyloxymethyl, octylthiomethyl and decylthiomethyl groups.

  9. Diamagnetic currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macris, N.; Martin, Ph. A.; Pulé, J. V.

    1988-06-01

    We study the diamagnetic surface currents of particles in thermal equilibrium submitted to a constant magnetic field. The current density of independent electrons with Boltzmann (respectively Fermi) statistics has a gaussian (respectively exponential) bound for its fall off into the bulk. For a system of interacting particles at low activity with Boltzmann statistics, the current density is localized near to the boundary and integrable when the two-body potential decays as |x|-α, α >4, α>4, in three dimensions. In all cases, the integral of the current density is independent of the nature of the confining wall and correctly related to the bulk magnetisation. The results hold for hard and soft walls and all field strength. The analysis relies on the Feynman-Kac-Ito representation of the Gibbs state and on specific properties of the Brownian bridge process.

  10. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  11. A Simplified Extemporaneously Prepared Potassium Chloride Oral Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannous, Elias; Tal, Yana; Amarny, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Although commercial preparations of oral potassium supplements are usually available, there are times when our Medical Center is faced with situations in which the oral solution of potassium chloride is not available. This solution is necessary for our pediatric outpatients who cannot swallow tablets and need an oral solution. Moreover, there are no studies available which describe an extemporaneously prepared potassium chloride oral solution on which we can rely for assigning a beyond-use date. The aim of this study was to formulate an extemporaneous pediatric oral solution of potassium chloride and to determine the physical and chemical stability of this preparation. We prepared 1 mMoL/mL by withdrawing 25 mL of potassium chloride 14.9%. Ora-Sweet SF was added to 50 mL in a metered flask. The solution was kept refrigerated (2°C to 8°C). Samples were withdrawn to measure potassium concentration, pH, and microbial overgrowth. The test was performed by our biochemical laboratory. The oral solution of potassium chloride 1 mMoL/mL stored at 2°C to 8°C maintained at least 91% of the initial concentration for 28 days. There were no notable changes in pH, and the solution remained physically stable with no visual microbial growth. The oral solution of potassium chloride 1 mMoL/mL prepared in Ora-Sweet and stored at 2°C to 8°C in amber glass bottles is expected to remain stable for 28 days. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  12. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Strug, Lisa J.; Knowles, Michael R.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. Objectives: To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. Methods: A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Measurements and Main Results: Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H2 = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0–0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Conclusions: Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker

  13. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1996-01-01

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which...... the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORM/SORM-analysis....

  14. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Svend; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which...... the chloride content in a 1reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORMISORM-analysis....

  15. Physicochemical changes in dry-cured hams salted with potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride as a partial replacement for sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliño, M; Grau, R; Toldrá, F; Barat, J M

    2010-10-01

    The reduction of added sodium chloride in dry-cured ham has been proposed to reduce dietary sodium intake in Mediterranean countries. The effect of substituting sodium chloride with potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride on some physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham during processing was evaluated. The results showed that hams salted with a mixture of sodium and potassium chloride registered higher salt concentrations and lower water contents and thus, needed less time to reach the required weight loss at the end of the process. The opposite effect was observed when calcium and magnesium chloride were added to the salt mixture. The observed differences in the texture and colour parameters were mainly due to differences in water and salt content. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neutral currents

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069482

    1986-01-01

    The present status of weak neutral currents is reviewed. F.mphasis is put on the comparison of recent experimental results with earlier ones, and with predictions of gauge models of the SU(Z) ® U(l) type. The coupling constants governing the weak neutral current interaction are given, and their quantitative agreement with the Salam-Weinberg model is critically examined. 1. INrRODUCT ION 25 The last year has been a period of consolidation for neutral current physics. Important new results and improvements of old results have been reported, but our picture of the neutral current interaction did not change compared to that of one year ago 1 • 2). Hence the emphasis of this review is put on recent experimental results, and on a critical discussion of the precision of those experiments which yield the most stringent constraints on model parameters. The processes which can occur via the weak neutral current interaction are depicted in the "Sakurai tetragon" 3) which is shown in Fig. 1. It is an analogue to the P...

  17. Hybrid electrooxidation and adsorption process for the removal of ammonia in low concentration chloride wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing; Zhao, Qing-Liang; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Jun-Qiu; Li, Wei; Yu, Hang; Huang, Li-Kun; Zhang, Yun-Shu

    2017-02-01

    The ammonia removal performance of a hybrid electrooxidation and adsorption reactor (HEAR) is evaluated. The influences of current density, chloride concentration, and packing particles for ammonia removal in HEAR were investigated, and the performance of HEAR under serials circulation was studied. Results indicated that ammonia removal efficiency achieved around 70 % under the optimal condition after 30-min electrolysis. The optimal condition was determined as current density of 10 mA/cm 2 , Cl - /NH 4 + molar ratio of 1.8, and modified zeolites as particles. The ammonia adsorption kinetic and adsorption isotherm on zeolites fitted well with second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Adsorption amount of ammonia on zeolites sampled at 30-min electrolysis achieved 2.4 mg/L, higher than 1.9 mg/L of zeolites at 20-min electrolysis, indicating that electrooxidation coupled with adsorption led to simultaneous ammonia removal and zeolite regeneration in HEAR. No decrease of ammonia removal efficiency was observed over several cycles with the electrooxidation treatment. The presence of free chlorine indicating ammonia removal in HEAR was due to the combined influence by adsorption and indirect electrooxidation. These results showed that HEAR was a prospective alternative as a tertiary treatment for wastewater with low chloride ions.

  18. Age-dependent chloride channel expression in skeletal muscle fibres of normal and HSALR myotonic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranco, Marino; Yu, Carl; Quiñonez, Marbella; Vergara, Julio L

    2013-01-01

    We combine electrophysiological and optical techniques to investigate the role that the expression of chloride channels (ClC-1) plays on the age-dependent electrical properties of mammalian muscle fibres. To this end, we comparatively evaluate the magnitude and voltage dependence of chloride currents (ICl), as well as the resting resistance, in fibres isolated from control and human skeletal actin (HSA)LR mice (a model of myotonic dystrophy) of various ages. In control mice, the maximal peak chloride current ([peak-ICl]max) increases from −583 ± 126 to −956 ± 260 μA cm−2 (mean ± SD) between 3 and 6 weeks old. Instead, in 3-week-old HSALR mice, ICl are significantly smaller (−153 ± 33 μA cm−2) than in control mice, but after a long period of ∼14 weeks they reach statistically comparable values. Thus, the severe ClC-1 channelopathy in young HSALR animals is slowly reversed with aging. Frequency histograms of the maximal chloride conductance (gCl,max) in fibres of young HSALR animals are narrow and centred in low values; alternatively, those from older animals show broad distributions, centred at larger gCl,max values, compatible with mosaic expressions of ClC-1 channels. In fibres of both animal strains, optical data confirm the age-dependent increase in gCl, and additionally suggest that ClC-1 channels are evenly distributed between the sarcolemma and transverse tubular system membranes. Although gCl is significantly depressed in fibres of young HSALR mice, the resting membrane resistance (Rm) at −90 mV is only slightly larger than in control mice due to upregulation of a Rb-sensitive resting conductance (gK,IR). In adult animals, differences in Rm are negligible between fibres of both strains, and the contributions of gCl and gK,IR are less altered in HSALR animals. We surmise that while hyperexcitability in young HSALR mice can be readily explained on the basis of reduced gCl, myotonia in adult HSALR animals may be explained on the basis of a

  19. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  20. Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manure

    Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on growth, cell morphological changes, membrane disorganization, ion homeostasis, exoenzyme activities and fermentation performance in Zymomonas. mobilis232B cultures were presented. In batch cultures containing 0.15 M NaCl, Z. mobilis232B developed filaments, and ...

  1. 1, 3, 5-Trimethylpyrazolium chloride based ionogel as an efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1,3,5-Trimethylpyrazolium chloride based ionogel as an efficient and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of benzimidazoles ... Catalytic activity of ionogel was compared with silica coated with ionic liquid (silica-IL) and it was found that ionogel is highly active compared to silica-IL for the synthesis of ...

  2. Chlorocholine chloride residue distribution in eggs, breast and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) residue or its metabolites in the meat and eggs of laying hens was studied using the 15N delta value (d15N) and 15N atom % derived from 15N-CCC containing diets. In a completely randomised design, 20 laying hens were divided into four groups allocated four different ...

  3. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera and Polyaluminium Chloride for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The viability of using Moringa oleifera seed extract as a plant based coagulant in comparison to Polyaluminium Chloride a commonly used chemical coagulant for the thickening of activated sludge was investigated. Moringa oleifera also known as the drumstick tree or horseradish is widely found throughout Mauritius.

  4. Sweat chloride concentrations in children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Lokesh; Moir, Devin; Jain, Amrish

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome (INS) has been believed to cause a false positive elevation of sweat chloride concentrations, as measured by the sweat test. Sweat tests were done for 11 children with acute onset INS at admission and again while they were in remission, with results being compared to normal historical controls. The initial sweat chloride concentration for 10 patients was normal (mean16.7 ± 11.02 mmol/L) and 1 patient had inadequate collection. This latter patient and two others were excluded during follow-up because of diagnoses other than INS. Sweat test results for the eight INS patients during follow up remained unchanged when they were in remission (16.94 ± 7.88 mmol/L; P = 0.98; Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed Rank Test). In comparing sweat chloride concentrations from INS patients to those from 20 historical control subjects, we found no significant differences (Mann-Whitney Test; initial vs. control P = 0.643; follow up vs. control P = 0.806). INS does not cause a false positive sweat test. Further studies should be done to objectively assess the conditions that have been reported to affect sweat chloride concentrations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Chloride coordination by oligoureas: from mononuclear crescents to dinuclear foldamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Biao; Jia, Chuandong; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Shaoguang; Huang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Xiao-Juan

    2012-02-03

    A series of acyclic oligourea receptors which closely resemble the scaffolds and coordination behavior of oligopyridines have been synthesized. Assembly of the receptors with chloride ions afforded mononuclear anion complexes or dinuclear foldamers depending on the number of the urea groups. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  6. Antihypertensive effects of the methylene chloride leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Celtis durandii (Ulmaceae), one of the plants used in traditional medicine to cure migraine, epilepsy,and high blood pressure, was administrated as antihypertensive in normotensive rats (NTR) and hypertensive saline rats (HSR). The antihypertensive effects of the methylene chloride extract of the plant were evaluated in ...

  7. Chloride ingress of carbonated blast furnace slag cement mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuizen, P.E.; Çopuroglu, O.; Polder, R.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands civil engineering structures, such as overpasses, bridges and tunnels are generally built using blast furnace slag cement (BFSC, CEM III/B) concrete, because of its high resistance against chloride penetration. Although the Dutch experience regarding durability performance of BFSC

  8. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  9. 1 Efficiency of Moringa Oleifera and Polyaluminium chloride for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-29

    Jun 29, 2015 ... The viability of using Moringa Oleifera seed extract as a plant based coagulant in comparison to Polyaluminium Chloride a commonly used chemical coagulant for the thickening of activated sludge was investigated. Moringa Oleifera also known as the drumstick tree or horseradish is widely found ...

  10. Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on growth, cell morphological changes, membrane disorganization, ion homeostasis, exoenzyme activities and fermentation performance in Zymomonas mobilis232B cultures were presented. In batch cultures containing 0.15 M NaCl, Z. mobilis232B developed filaments, and ...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862.1170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... diagnosis and treatment of electrolyte and metabolic disorders such as cystic fibrosis and diabetic acidosis...

  12. Effects of Oral Supplementation with Manganese chloride on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty healthy adult albino rats of both sexes were used in two experiments to study the effect of Manganese chloride supplementation on the severity of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma congolense infections. In each experiment, forty rats were divided into four groups of 10 rats each, namely; A, ...

  13. The effect of high oral magnesium chloride supplementation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty healthy adult albino rats of both sex weighing 200-240 grams were used to assess the effect of high oral Magnesium chloride (100mg/kg body weight) supplementation on the pathogenicity of T. b. brucei (Basa strain) or T, congolense (Gboko strain) infections. Two studies were carried out and the rats were divided ...

  14. Combined uses of water-table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical and isotopic characterization of groundwater, rainfall and the unsaturated zone were also carried out using a network of 48 points consisting of 8 rainfall stations, 10 unsaturated zone profiles and 30 dug wells, boreholes and piezometers. The concentrations of chloride in rainwater are between 3.2 and 53.4 mg/L.

  15. Autogeneous healing and chloride ingress in cracked concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savija, B.; Schlangen, E.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study of the influence of autogeneous healing on chloride ingress in cracked concrete is presented. In the study, two concrete mixtures (a Portland cement mix and a blast furnace slag mix), two healing regimes (submerged and fog room regime), two cracking ages (14 and 28 days), and

  16. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A matrix composed of polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) mixed with different concentration ratios of the granular strontium chloride (SrCl2.6H2O) were prepared by casting technique method at room temperature (about 30°C). The electric and dielectric properties such as a.c. electrical conductivity by a conventional method, using ...

  17. Combined uses of water-table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    unconfined aquifer of Thiaroye zone using both water table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass balance. (CMB) methods and environmental ... applied computes both infiltration from rainwater and domestic waste water, while the CMB method estimates potential recharge .... Piezometric map (mars 2008). Department, UCAD.

  18. Chloride transport in normal and cystic fibrosis epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Kansen (Maarten)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe experimental work described in this thesis was aimed at a better understanding of the pathogenesis of CF with the emphasis on electrophysiological studies on Cl" transport. Chloride transport was studied with Ussing chamber, isotopic ('25I")-efflux and fluorescent (SPQ) measurements

  19. Comparative effects of Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey (Mellifica sp) is produced by Apis mellifera africana, widely consumed without prescription or restriction, and has been shown to possess wound healing and antitusive properties. Comparative study of the effects of honey paste and Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture on the healing of incisional wound on albino ...

  20. Evaluating the Potential Use of Polyaluminium Chloride in the Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alum is one of the world's oldest chemical used in water treatment. However, one of its disadvantages is that it operates over a limited range of pH. Recently, polyaluminium chloride (PACI) has come on the market and due to the various advantages, many countries have shifted to the use of PACI. At La Nicolière water ...

  1. Structure transitions between copper-sulphate and copper-chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Structure transitions between copper-sulphate and copper-chloride UPD phases on Au(111). 755. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by Research Center Jülich and the University of Bern. I V P also acknowledges support of Deutscher Akademischer Austausch. Dienst (DAAD) for a Ph D Fellowship. References.

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride): In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. This ...

  3. Methyl chloride and other chlorocarbons in polluted air during INDOEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, HA; Lelieveld, J; de Gouw, JA; van der Veen, C; Fischer, H

    2002-01-01

    [1] Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) is the most abundant, natural, chlorine-containing gas in the atmosphere, with oceans and biomass burning as major identified sources. Estimates of global emissions suffer from large uncertainties, mostly for the tropics, partly due to a lack of measurements. We present

  4. Evaluation of Sulfonamide Derivatives of Dagenan Chloride as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the enzyme inhibition activity of various sulfonamides derived from dagenan chloride. ... Results: Molecules 5e and 5j showed good lipoxygenase inhibition activity with IC50 (50 % inhibition concentration) value of 132.21 ± 0.73 and 133.33 ± 0.87 μmol/L, respectively, relative to reference, while 5m was ...

  5. Cholesterol-lowering drug, in combination with chromium chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since the parasite synthesizesergosterol instead of cholesterol, using the same biochemical pathway and enzymes, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA-Reductase ... Lovastatin, being an inhibitor of HMG-CoA-Reductase, inhibitsinfection by cholesterol depletion, while chromium chloride complexes, at their higher concentrations, are ...

  6. Isolation of polyvinyl chloride degrading bacterial strains from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, potent microbial strains degrading plastic constituting polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were isolated using enrichment culture technique. To increase the chances of isolating such strain which could have adapted to metabolize plastic constituting polymers, samples were collected from different ...

  7. Prenatal Mercuric Chloride Exposure Causes Developmental Deficits in Rat Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Rastegar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution with heavy metals such as mercury is a major health problem. Growing studies on the field have shown the deleterious effects of mercury on human and nonhuman nervous system, especially in infants, however the effects of prenatal exposure to mercuricchloride on cortical development are not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride on morphological characteristics of brain cortex. Methods: Mercuric chloride (2 mg/kg or normal saline were injected (I.P. to 36 Sprague – dawley rats in the 8th, 9th or 10th day of gestation. The embryos were surgically removed in the 15th day of gestation, and brain cortices were studied by histological techniques. Results: Histological studies showed that embryos of mercuric chloride treated rats hadcortical neuronal disarrangement withdifferent orientations of nuclei, increased diameter of cortex, increased mitosis of cells, increased cell death, decreased cellular density and increased intracellular space. Conclusion: These findings suggest some micro structural abnormalities in cortical regions after prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride. These structural abnormalities may underliesome neurologic disturbances following mercury intoxication.

  8. Quantitative assessment of the effect of anhydrous zinc chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... MgSO4, H3COOH, Mg(ClO4)2 to activate the carbonyl group of benzaldehyde, catalyse the nucleophilic attack by amines, and dehydrate the system, and eliminate water as the final steps. Anhydrous zinc chloride has been extensively used in literature for its affordability and reliability, however there is limited information ...

  9. Mercury chloride-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Key words: Mercury chloride, vitamins C and E, oxidative stress, erythrocytes, in vitro. ... of free radicals induced by oxidative damage to lipids and lipoproteins in various cellular ... metals toxicity in different experimental systems ..... vitamins C, E and beta carotene aganist gamma-ray-induced DNA damage ...

  10. Design and performance characteristics of a krypton chloride (λ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 1. Design and performance characteristics of a krypton chloride ( = 222 nm) excimer laser. N S Benerji N ... In this paper the design, successful realization and operating characteristics of KrCl excimer laser are reported. The laser is driven ...

  11. Analysis of the properties of dehydrochlorinated polyvinyl chloride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshtob, V. I.; Rasmagin, S. I.

    2017-11-01

    The effect of the time of thermolysis (thermal degradation) on the absorption spectra, specific resistivity, and concentration of holes of partially dehydrochlorinated polyvinyl chloride films has been studied. The number of conjugated carbon double bonds in films has been determined as a function of the time of thermolysis.

  12. Heterogeneous chemistry of trichloroacetyl chloride in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, C.; Mirabel, P.; Ponche, J.L. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l`Atmosphere, Strasbourg (France); Lagrange, J.; Lagrange, P.; Pallares, C. [Laboratoire de Cinetique et Analyse, Strasbourg (France)

    1994-01-20

    This article investigates the effects of anthropogenic releases of partially and fully halogenated hydrocarbons on the stratospheric ozone layer. Experiments using direct measurements of the reaction rates of hydrolysis and direct uptake of trichloroacetyl chlorides by water droplets are described. 32 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. The toxicology of zinc chloride smoke producing bombs and screens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Idrissi, Ayman; van Berkel, Lisanne; Bonekamp, Nadia E; Dalemans, Diana J Z; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    CONTEXT: Zinc chloride (ZnCl2)-based smoke bombs and screens are in use since the Second World War (1939-1945). Many case descriptions on ZnCl2 smoke inhalation incidents appeared since 1945. OBJECTIVE: We provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms and underlying pathophysiology due

  14. Effect of benzimidazole fungicides and calcium chloride on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fungicides benomyl, methyl-thiophanate, thiabendazole and calcium chloride on fungal decay of pears caused by Alternaria alternata and Penicillium expansum. Both in vitro and in vivo, the efficacy of fungicides alone against the two fungi was shown to be weak and without any practical interest. In vitro, CaCl2 alone was ...

  15. Late termination of pregnancy by intracardiac potassium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To report our experience with intracardiac potassium chloride (KCl) injection as a method of feticide for severe congenital abnormalities beyond 24 weeksf gestation. Method. A retrospective chart review. Patient demographics and types of fetal anomalies were analysed according to the groups that accepted

  16. Inventories and mobilization of unsaturated zone sulfate, fluoride, and chloride related to land use change in semiarid regions, southwestern United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B.R.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Reedy, R.C.; Leaney, F.W.; Gates, J.; Cresswell, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Unsaturated zone salt reservoirs are potentially mobilized by increased groundwater recharge as semiarid lands are cultivated. This study explores the amounts of pore water sulfate and fluoride relative to chloride in unsaturated zone profiles, evaluates their sources, estimates mobilization due to past land use change, and assesses the impacts on groundwater quality. Inventories of water-extractable chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were determined from borehole samples of soils and sediments collected beneath natural ecosystems (N = 4), nonirrigated ("rain-fed") croplands (N = 18), and irrigated croplands (N = 6) in the southwestern United States and in the Murray Basin, Australia. Natural ecosystems contain generally large sulfate inventories (7800-120,000 kg/ha) and lower fluoride inventories (630-3900 kg/ha) relative to chloride inventories (6600-41,000 kg/ha). Order-of-magnitude higher chloride concentrations in precipitation and generally longer accumulation times result in much larger chloride inventories in the Murray Basin than in the southwestern United States. Atmospheric deposition during the current dry interglacial climatic regime accounts for most of the measured sulfate in both U.S. and Australian regions. Fluoride inventories are greater than can be accounted for by atmospheric deposition in most cases, suggesting that fluoride may accumulate across glacial/ interglacial climatic cycles. Chemical modeling indicates that fluorite controls fluoride mobility and suggests that water-extractable fluoride may include some fluoride from mineral dissolution. Increased groundwater drainage/recharge following land use change readily mobilized chloride. Sulfate displacement fronts matched or lagged chloride fronts by up to 4 m. In contrast, fluoride mobilization was minimal in all regions. Understanding linkages between salt inventories, increased recharge, and groundwater quality is important for quantifying impacts of anthropogenic activities on groundwater

  17. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Luca, Annamaria

    2014-10-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Fluorinated tripodal receptors for potentiometric chloride detection in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratova, Nadezda; Cuartero, Maria; Jowett, Laura A; Howe, Ethan N W; Gale, Philip A; Bakker, Eric; Crespo, Gastón A

    2018-01-15

    Fluorinated tripodal compounds were recently reported to be efficient transmembrane transporters for a series of inorganic anions. In particular, this class of receptors has been shown to be suitable for the effective complexation of chloride, nitrate, bicarbonate and sulfate anions via hydrogen bonding. The potentiometric properties of urea and thiourea-based fluorinated tripodal receptors are explored here for the first time, in light of the need for reliable sensors for chloride monitoring in undiluted biological fluids. The ion selective electrode (ISE) membranes with tren-based tris-urea bis(CF3) tripodal compound (ionophore I) were found to exhibit the best selectivity for chloride over major lipophilic anions such as salicylate ( [Formula: see text] ) and thiocyanate ( [Formula: see text] ). Ionophore I-based ISEs were successfully applied for chloride determination in undiluted human serum as well as artificial serum sample, the slope of the linear calibration at the relevant background of interfering ions being close to Nernstian (49.8±1.7mV). The results of potentiometric measurements were confirmed by argentometric titration. Moreover, the ionophore I-based ISE membrane was shown to exhibit a very good long-term stability of potentiometric performance over the period of 10 weeks. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titrations, potentiometric sandwich membrane experiments and density functional theory (DFT) computational studies were performed to determine the binding constants and suggest 1:1 complexation stoichiometry for the ionophore I with chloride as well as salicylate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microstructures and dynamics of tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Li, Bin; Sarman, Sten; Laaksonen, Aatto

    2017-12-01

    Atomistic simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of aliphatic chain length in tetraalkylphosphonium cations on liquid morphologies, microscopic ionic structures, and dynamical quantities of tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids. The liquid morphologies are characterized by sponge-like interpenetrating polar and apolar networks in ionic liquids consisting of tetraalkylphosphonium cations with short aliphatic chains. The lengthening aliphatic chains in tetraalkylphosphonium cations lead to polar domains consisting of chloride anions and central polar groups in cations being partially or totally segregated in ionic liquid matrices due to a progressive expansion of apolar domains in between. Prominent polarity alternation peaks and adjacency correlation peaks are observed at low and high q range in total X-ray scattering structural functions, respectively, and their peak positions gradually shift to lower q values with lengthening aliphatic chains in tetraalkylphosphonium cations. The charge alternation peaks registered in the intermediate q range exhibit complicated tendencies due to a cancellation of peaks and anti-peaks in partial structural functions for ionic subcomponents. The particular microstructures and liquid morphologies in tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids intrinsically contribute to distinct dynamics characterized by mean square displacements, van Hove correlation functions, and non-Gaussian parameters for ionic species in the heterogeneous ionic environment. Most tetraalkylphosphonium cations have higher translational mobilities than their partner anions due to strong coordination of chloride anions with central polar groups in tetraalkylphosphonium cations through strong Coulombic and hydrogen bonding interactions. The increase of aliphatic chain length in tetraalkylphosphonium cations leads to a concomitant shift of van Hove correlation functions and non-Gaussian parameters to larger radial distances and longer time

  20. Catalytic oxidation of model soot by metal chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mul, Guido; Kapteijn, Freek; Moulijn, Jacob A. [Delft University of Technology, Industrial Catalysis, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-05-16

    Several metal chlorides were screened for their catalytic activity in the oxidation of model soot (Printex-U) in `loose contact` by means of TGA/DSC. HgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, BaCl{sub 2}, CoCl{sub 2}, and NiCl{sub 2} show little activity. Hydrated BiCl{sub 3} and FeCl{sub 3} are converted in air into BiOCl and FeOCl, which have a moderate soot oxidation activity. MoCl{sub 5} is converted into the corresponding metal oxide and also shows a moderate `loose contact` activity. PbCl{sub 2}, CuCl{sub 2} and CuCl are very active catalysts; the soot oxidation temperature is lowered by 200-275K. The activity of metal chlorides is thought to be induced by in situ formation of intimate contact between the soot and the metal chloride via `wetting` and/or gas phase transport. A correlation between the melting point and the catalytic activity was found. Furthermore, a catalytic cycle is proposed involving activation of oxygen on the surface of the (oxy)chloride, followed by transfer of activated oxygen to the soot surface. DRIFT analyses showed that this results in the formation of carbon surface oxygen complexes. Decomposition of those complexes yields CO and CO{sub 2}. Practical application of metal chlorides for the removal of soot from diesel exhaust is not recommended, because they suffer from instability or high vapour pressures

  1. Factors that influence the efficiency of electrochemical chloride extraction during corrosion mitigation in reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an electrochemical bridge restoration method for mitigating corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. ECE does this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultan...

  2. Sweat chloride as a biomarker of CFTR activity: proof of concept and ivacaftor clinical trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Frank J; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J; Dong, Qunming; Ordonez, Claudia L; Rowe, Steven M; Clancy, John Paul; Konstan, Michael W; Hoch, Heather E; Heltshe, Sonya L; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Campbell, Preston W; Ashlock, Melissa A

    2014-03-01

    We examined data from a Phase 2 trial {NCT00457821} of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with aG551D mutation to evaluate standardized approaches to sweat chloride measurement and to explore the use of sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (NPD) to estimate CFTR activity. Sweat chloride and NPD were secondary endpoints in this placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Standardization of sweat collection, processing,and analysis was employed for the first time. Sweat chloride and chloride ion transport (NPD) were integrated into a model of CFTR activity. Within-patient sweat chloride determinations showed sufficient precision to detect differences between dose-groups and assess ivacaftor treatment effects. Analysis of changes in sweat chloride and NPD demonstrated that patients treated with ivacaftor achieved CFTR activity equivalent to approximately 35%–40% of normal. Sweat chloride is useful in multicenter trials as a biomarker of CFTR activity and to test the effect of CFTR potentiators.

  3. Cutaneous haemangioendothelioma: a possible link with chronic exposure to vinyl chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, M F; Curtis, M; Howat, J M

    1990-01-01

    A patient who worked with polyvinyl chloride developed a malignant haemangioendothelioma of a toe. This rare tumour is more commonly found in the liver where it has been reported to arise in association with exposure to the vinyl chloride monomer.

  4. Hemostatic effect of aluminum chloride in liver bleeding: an animal model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nouri

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Aluminum chloride compare to the control method (i.e. controlling liver bleeding by simple suturing needs less time to control liver bleeding. Aluminum chloride is an effective agent in controlling liver hemorrhage in an animal model.

  5. Altered Chloride Homeostasis Decreases the Action Potential Threshold and Increases Hyperexcitability in Hippocampal Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Ledri, Marco; Melis, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    flows through activated GABAA receptors into the neurons causing hyperpolarization or shunting inhibition, and in turn inhibits action potential (AP) generation. However, in situations when intracellular chloride concentration is increased, chloride ions can flow in opposite direction, depolarize...

  6. corIncorporating cracking of concrete on chloride ingress and service life modeling of concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, Jose; Polder, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    Chloride induced reinforcement corrosion is the most common degradation mechanisms for reinforced concrete structures. The service life of concrete structures is normally predicted by estimating the rate of chloride ingress and the necessary time to initiate reinforcement corrosion. Normally,

  7. Surface resistivity test evaluation as an indicator of the chloride permeability of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Many agencies have adopted the standard tests for electrical : indication of concretes ability to resist chloride ion penetration : (AASHTO T 277 and ASTM C1202), commonly known as the rapid : chloride permeability test (RCPT), in their specificat...

  8. Improved ion-selective detection method using nanopipette with poly(vinyl chloride)-based membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Ji; Takami, Tomohide; Deng, Xiao Long; Son, Jong Wan; Kawai, Tomoji; Park, Bae Ho

    2014-05-15

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) are widely used to detect targeted ions in solution selectively. Application of an ISE to a small area detection system with a nanopipette requires a special measurement method in order to avoid the enhanced background signal problem caused by a cation-rich layer near the charged inner surface of the nanopipette and the selectivity change problem due to relatively fast saturation of the ISE inside the nanopipette. We developed a novel ion-selective detection system using a nanopipette that measures an alternating current (AC) signal mediated by saturated ionophores in a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane located at the conical shank of the nanopipette to solve the above problems. Small but reliable K(+) and Na(+) ionic current passing through a PVC membrane containing saturated bis(benzo-15-crown-5) and bis(12-crown-4) ionophore, respectively, could be selectively detected using the AC signal measurement system equipped with a lock-in amplifier.

  9. Changes in groundwater reserves and radiocarbon and chloride content due to a wet period intercalated in an arid climate sequence in a large unconfined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, E.; Jódar, J.; Herrera, C.; Custodio-Ayala, J.; Medina, A.

    2018-01-01

    The concentration of atmospheric tracers in groundwater samples collected from springs and deep wells is, in most cases, the result of a mixture of waters with a wide range of residence times in the ground. Such is the case of an unconfined aquifer recharged over all its surface area. Concentrations greatly differ from the homogeneous residence time case. Data interpretation relies on knowledge of the groundwater flow pattern. To study relatively large systems, the conservative ion chloride and the decaying radiocarbon (14C) are considered. Radiocarbon (14C) activity in groundwater, after correction to discount the non-biogenic contribution, is often taken as an indication of water age, while chloride can be used to quantify recharge. In both cases, the observed tracer content in groundwater is an average value over a wide range which is related to water renewal time in the ground. This is shown considering an unconfined aquifer recharged all over its area under arid conditions, in which a period of greater recharge happened some millennia ago. The mathematical solution is given. As the solution cannot be made general, to show and discuss the changes in water reserve and in chloride and radiocarbon concentration (apparent ages), two scenarios are worked out, which are loosely related to current conditions in Northern Chile. It is shown that tracer concentration and the estimated water age are not directly related to the time since recharge took place. The existence of a previous wetter-than-present period has an important and lasting effect on current aquifer water reserves and chloride concentration, although the effect on radiocarbon activity is less pronounced. Chloride concentrations are smaller than in current recharge and apparent 14C ages do not coincide with the timing, duration and characteristics of the wet period, except in the case in which recharge before and after the wet period is negligible and dead aquifer reserves are non-significant. The use of

  10. Nitrate removal from water using alum and ferric chloride: A comparative study of alum and ferric chloride efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmad Aghapour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrate is an acute and well-known hazardous contaminant, and its contamination of water sources has been a growing concern worldwide in recent years. This study evaluated the feasibility of nitrate removal from water using the traditional coagulants alum and ferric chloride with lower concentrations than those used in the conventional coagulation process. Methods: In this research, two coagulants, alum and ferric chloride, were compared for their efficiency in removing nitrate in a conventional water treatment system. The removal process was done in a batch system (jar test to examine the effects of coagulant dosages and determine the conditions required to achieve optimum results. Results: The results revealed that ferric chloride at an initial dose rate of 4 mg/L reduced nitrate concentration from 70 mg/L to less than the World Health Organization (WHO guideline value (50 mg/L N-NO 3. However, the removal efficiency of alum was not salient to significant nitrate reduction. Conclusion: In conclusion, ferric chloride was more effective than alumin removing NO-3, even in common dosage range, and can be considered a cost-effective and worthy treatment option to remediate nitratepolluted water. Furthermore, the removal of nitrate by coagulation can be simple and more economical than other treatment alternatives.

  11. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides: ⢠A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc

  12. separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon N. Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl and strontium chloride (SrCl2 from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8–5 mm/h and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl2 separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  13. Transient elevation of sweat chloride concentration in a malnourished girl with the Mauriac syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, F P; Transue, D J; Belknap, W M; Freij, B J; Aughton, D J

    1995-02-01

    Elevated sweat chloride concentration in a patient with Mauriac syndrome has been reported only once. The authors of that report regarded their patient's underlying malnutrition, and not Mauriac syndrome per se, as the cause of the elevated sweat chloride concentration. We describe a second example of transient elevation of sweat chloride concentration, which confirms that the malnutrition intrinsic to Mauriac syndrome, rather than the syndrome itself, was the probable cause of elevated sweat chloride values.

  14. Chloride is essential for contraction of afferent arterioles after agonists and potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Ellekvist, Peter; Skøtt, O

    1997-01-01

    A depolarizing chloride efflux has been suggested to activate voltage-dependent calcium channels in renal afferent arteriolar smooth muscle cells in response to vasoconstrictors. To test this proposal, rabbit afferent arterioles were microperfused, and the contractile dose responses...... chloride. We conclude that norepinephrine and ANG II use different mechanisms for contraction and that extracellular chloride is essential for contraction in afferent arterioles after activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels. We suggest that a chloride influx pathway is activated concomitantly...

  15. Synthesis and anti-microbial activities of choline-like quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, Juliusz; Chwała, Przemysław

    2003-01-01

    New choline-like quaternary ammonium chlorides were obtained. The work-up procedure of synthesis was quick and efficient. The obtained chlorides showed anti-microbial activities. Quaternary ammonium chlorides derivatives of deanol esters exhibited strong activity and wide anti-bacterial spectra, similar to the activity of benzalkonium chloride. The relationship between chemical structure and anti-microbial activity was analyzed by the QSAR method.

  16. Spectroscopic investigation of cement hydrate phases and their chloride binding properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping

    This thesis investigates the chloride binding properties of the hydrate phases present in Portland cement paste and the relationships between chloride binding capacity and the structure of these phases, using primarily NMR spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, XRD, thermal analysis, and chemical analysis. It provides important basic data and new insights into the effects of the structure of the individual hydrate phases on their chloride binding properties, and the atomic level structural states and dynamic behavior of the bound chloride in the cement hydrate crystals and at the solid/solution interface. The chloride binding capacity depends on the structure and surface properties of the individual hydrates. Portlandite and AFm surfaces have high affinity for chloride due to their positive zeta-potentials. For C-S-H samples, the chloride binding capacity increases with increasing C/S ratio due to increased numbers of surface Ca-OH sites and decreased polymerization of silicate chains. Aluminum substitution in C-S-H is unfavorable for chloride binding due to reduced layer charge and increased chain polymerization. For all hydrate phases the mechanism of chloride binding is not simply electrostatic attraction. Formation of metal-chloride clusters in the solution and sorption in the Stem layer may contribute substantially. The bound chlorides near the cement hydrate surfaces are in water solvated environments similar to those in the bulk solution and are in rapid exchange (>2kHz) with free chloride in the bulk solution. The chloride concentration near the surfaces is much higher than in the equilibrium bulk solution, and the reorientational frequency of the water molecules solvating the bound chloride is slower than those in the bulk solution. Chloride has a well-defined structural site in Friedel's salt. In solid solutions between Friedel's salt and hydroxyl-AFm, chloride occurs predominantly in Cl-rich domains except at high OH-contents.

  17. Environmental and energy gains from using molten magnesium–sodium–potassium chlorides for electro-metallisation of refractory metal oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The molten eutectic mixture of magnesium, sodium and potassium chlorides (MgCl2–NaCl–KCl has inappreciable solubility for oxide ions, and can help disengage a carbon anode from the oxide ions generated at a metal oxide cathode, and effectively avoid carbon dioxide formation. This “disengaging strategy” was successfully demonstrated in electro-reduction of solid oxides of zirconium and tantalum. It has led to significantly higher current efficiency (93%, and lower energy consumption (1.4 kW h kg−1 in electrolysis of tantalum oxide to tantalum metal compared to the conventional electrolysis in molten calcium chloride (e.g. 78% and 2.4 kW h/kg-Ta.

  18. Metal Fluorides, Metal Chlorides and Halogenated Metal Oxides as Lewis Acidic Heterogeneous Catalysts. Providing Some Context for Nanostructured Metal Fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, David; Winfield, John M

    2017-01-28

    Aspects of the chemistry of selected metal fluorides, which are pertinent to their real or potential use as Lewis acidic, heterogeneous catalysts, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to β-aluminum trifluoride, aluminum chlorofluoride and aluminas γ and η, whose surfaces become partially fluorinated or chlorinated, through pre-treatment with halogenating reagents or during a catalytic reaction. In these cases, direct comparisons with nanostructured metal fluorides are possible. In the second part of the review, attention is directed to iron(III) and copper(II) metal chlorides, whose Lewis acidity and potential redox function have had important catalytic implications in large-scale chlorohydrocarbons chemistry. Recent work, which highlights the complexity of reactions that can occur in the presence of supported copper(II) chloride as an oxychlorination catalyst, is featured. Although direct comparisons with nanostructured fluorides are not currently possible, the work could be relevant to possible future catalytic developments in nanostructured materials.

  19. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may...

  20. 77 FR 22847 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... a surrogate for chlorine gas. In setting limits for all HAP emitted at PVC major sources, we... limits for HCl as a surrogate for all acid gas HAP and chlorine gas, vinyl chloride, and CDD/CDF... limits (ppmw) limits (ppmw) \\a\\ \\b\\ \\a\\ \\b\\ Existing Vinyl Chloride 0.48 37 Total Non-Vinyl Chloride...

  1. Potentiometric measurement with a Kelvin probe: Contactless measurement of chloride ions in aqueous electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Zhu, X.; de Boer, Hans L.; Tanvir, N.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    For the first time the chloride ion concentration in electrolyte is measured using a Kelvin probe. A silver-silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode, which is a chloride ion selective electrode, is used as a sample plate in the electrolyte and the Kelvin probe is used as a reference plate that is

  2. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. 177...-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. The vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers identified in paragraph... section vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers consist of basic copolymers produced by the...

  3. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') would... of initiation of the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from the...

  4. The Influence of C3A Content in Cement on the Chloride Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns the influence of C3A in cement on chloride transport in reinforced concrete. Three modified cement was manufactured in the variation of the C3A content, ranging from 6.0 and 10.5 up to 16.9%. The setting time of fresh concrete was measured immediately after mixing, together with the temperature at the time of initial set. For properties of hardened concrete in the variation in the C3A, a development of the compressive strength and chloride permeation were measured using mortar specimens. Simultaneously, chloride binding capacity was measured by the water extraction method. To ensure the influence of pore structure on chloride transport, the pore structure was examined by the mercury intrusion porosimetry. As a result, it was found that an increase in the C3A content resulted in an increase in chloride binding capacity. However, it seemed that increased binding of chlorides is related to the higher ingress of chlorides, despite denser pore structure. It may be attributed to the higher surface chloride, which could increase the gradient of chloride concentration from the surface, thereby leading to the higher level of chloride profiles. Substantially, the benefit of high C3A in resisting corrosion, arising from removal of free chlorides in the pore solution, would be offset by increased chloride ingress at a given duration, when it comes to the corrosion-free service life.

  5. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed..., the proposed rule, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production, under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0037 (available at http...

  6. 76 FR 42613 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production is being extended for 14... extend the public comment period for the May 20, 2011, Proposed Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

  7. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard for polyvinyl... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a...

  8. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  9. The Western Noachis Terra Chloride Deposits: An Improved Characterization of the Proposed Human Exploration Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. R.; Plaut, J. J.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    At the First Landing Site and Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars (Oct 27-30, 2015, Houston, TX), planetary scientists, students and members of the public proposed forty-seven sites that meet the engineering requirements for a human mission and would also allow astronauts to investigate important scientific questions while on the surface. The chloride deposits in western Noachis Terra at -37.2°N, 350.5°E were proposed as a potential exploration zone due to their proximity to craters containing glacier-like forms and imperfectly-formed concentric crater fill. The high astrobiological preservation potential of the chloride deposits exposed on the surface would allow astronauts to investigate the past habitability of a well-preserved Noachian fluvial system, while the subsurface ice features suggest astronauts would have relatively easy access to enough water to meet the requirements of NASA's current baseline mission architecture. Since the workshop, the proposed exploration zone has been further characterized using additional datasets, as well as new data collected by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter as part of the exploration zone data acquisition effort organized by NASA's Human Landing Sites Study (HLS2) team. First, SHARAD radar data were used to constrain the subsurface structure of the imperfectly-formed concentric crater fill within the two large craters, which makes a more accurate assessment of the potential subsurface water ice resources possible. Second, newly acquired HiRISE images were used to better assess the traversability of the terrain between the habitation zone and the primary resource and science regions-of-interest (ROIs). And third, the exploration zone was shifted in order to place the central landing site closer to potential subsurface water ice resources. Although this would require crews to travel further to investigate the chloride deposits, it reduces the distance between the subsurface water ice

  10. Reconnaissance Estimates of Recharge Based on an Elevation-dependent Chloride Mass-balance Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Russell; Tim Minor

    2002-08-31

    Significant uncertainty is associated with efforts to quantity recharge in arid regions such as southern Nevada. However, accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are necessary to understanding the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and predictions of groundwater flow rates and directions. Currently, the most widely accepted method for estimating recharge in southern Nevada is the Maxey and Eakin method. This method has been applied to most basins within Nevada and has been independently verified as a reconnaissance-level estimate of recharge through several studies. Recharge estimates derived from the Maxey and Eakin and other recharge methodologies ultimately based upon measures or estimates of groundwater discharge (outflow methods) should be augmented by a tracer-based aquifer-response method. The objective of this study was to improve an existing aquifer-response method that was based on the chloride mass-balance approach. Improvements were designed to incorporate spatial variability within recharge areas (rather than recharge as a lumped parameter), develop a more defendable lower limit of recharge, and differentiate local recharge from recharge emanating as interbasin flux. Seventeen springs, located in the Sheep Range, Spring Mountains, and on the Nevada Test Site were sampled during the course of this study and their discharge was measured. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the springs were determined. Discharge and chloride concentrations from these springs were compared to estimates provided by previously published reports. A literature search yielded previously published estimates of chloride flux to the land surface. {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios and discharge rates of the three largest springs in the Amargosa Springs discharge area were compiled from various sources. This information was utilized to determine an effective chloride concentration for recharging precipitation and its associated uncertainty via Monte Carlo simulations

  11. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  12. Electrochemical extraction of chlorides from reinforced concrete: variables affecting treatment efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Climent, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of applying electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE to a series of chloride-contaminated concrete specimens. Experimental conditions were varied to study the efficiency of this technique under different circumstances. The survey covered the possible relationship between efficiency and the location of the sampling point, current density, type of concrete and treatment intermittence. Experiments were also conducted with different reinforcement configurations used in standard structural members such as columns and beams to ascertain the impact of rebar geometry.Este documento aporta los resultados de investigaciones realizadas en diferentes estudios en los que se aplicó la técnica de Extracción Electroquímica de Cloruros (EEC a diferentes estructuras de hormigón contaminado con cloruros. Se cambiaron las condiciones experimentales con el fin de estudiar la eficiencia de la misma en cada una de ellas. Se estudió la dependencia con la posición del punto de toma de las muestras, con la densidad de corriente aplicada, con el tipo de hormigón utilizado y con las paradas realizadas en etapas intermedias del tratamiento. Para ver la influencia de la disposición geométrica de las armaduras,se realizó una experiencia con tipos diferentes de disposiciones de las armaduras, correspondiente a componentes estructurales típicos como los pilares y las vigas.

  13. The effect of rubidium chloride on properties of organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Zhaoyue; Deng, Zhenbo; Du, Hailiang; Li, Degang; Zou, Ye; Xu, Denghui; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Yongsheng

    2009-11-01

    A multilayer organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was fabricated with a thin rubidium chloride (RbCl) layer inserted inside an electron transport layer (ETL), tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq 3). Here, we set d is the distance of the RbCl layer away from the Alq 3/Al interface. The rubidium chloride layer was inserted inside 60 nm Alq 3 at d = 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10, 20 and 30 nm positions. When the RbCl layer is positioned closer to the Al cathode, both the current density and EL efficiency are enhanced due to the enhanced electron injection. The devices show the electroluminescent (EL) efficiency improvement without an enhanced injection if the value of d is lager than 5.0 nm. The suggested mechanism of RbCl EL efficiency enhancer is carrier trap sites induced by the thin RbCl layer. The trapped charges alter the distribution of the field inside the OLED and, consequently, give better recombination in the device.

  14. DIELECTRIC AND PYROELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF THE COMPOSITES OF FERROELECTRIC CERAMIC AND POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Olszowy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric and pyroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate/poly(vinyl chloride [PZT/PVC] and barium titanate/poly(vinyl chloride [BaTiO3/ PVC] composites were studied. Flexible composites were fabricated in the thin films form (200-400 μm by hot-pressed method. Powders of PZT or BaTiO3 in the shape of ≤ 75 μm ceramics particles were dispersed in a PVC matrix, providing composites with 0-3} connectivity. Distribution of the ceramic particles in the polymer phase was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The analysis of the thermally stimulated currents (TSC have also been done. The changes of dielectric and pyroelectric data on composites with different contents of ceramics up to 40% volume were investigated. The dielectric constants were measured in the frequency range from 600 Hz to 6 MHz at room temperature. The pyroelectric coefficient for BaTiO3/PVC composite at 343 K is about 35 μC/m2K which is higher than that of β-PVDF (10 μC/m2 K.

  15. [Evaluating risk of health disorders in workers engaged into polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and caustic soda production (according to data collected by polls)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'iakovich, O A

    2014-01-01

    The authors represent data of automated system for quantitative risk evaluation of main pathologic syndromes in workers engaged into polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and caustic soda production. Vinyl chloride and mercury levels at the investigation time corresponded with MAC. Relationship was seen between value of arterial hypertension risk and duration of contact with both vinyl chloride and mercury. Risk values for functional disorders of liver, endocrine system and nervous system were in weak correlation with length of exposure to mercury at work. Workers exposed to mercury appeared to have lower self-estimation of health state and higher dissatisfaction with the work.

  16. Increasing of Mechanical Parameters of Clay soil Using Calcium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshty, Seyyed Amir Hossein; Moosa Aniran, Mir; Firoozfar, Alireza; Kiamehr, Ramin

    2017-04-01

    Research on roads to increase the resistance of weak soils to build structures on it has been increased in recent years. The present article provide the effects of different mixtures containing calcium chloride solution and clay soil on mechanical parameters such as, compressibility, compressive strength, shear strength and durability characteristic. In this study also is investigated evaluation the effect of road subgrade based on proposed material. The used clay soil in this research was obtained from zanjan city where is located in northwestern of Iran. The obtained results show that the calcium chloride solution could play a major role in reducing the cost and required time for building roads and also building foundation on these types of soils.

  17. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Abdurrahman Erdem; Karataş-Torun, Nimet; Maslak, İbrahim Cemal; Bingöl, Ayşen; Alper, Özgül M

    2017-01-01

    Başaran AE, Karataş-Torun N, Maslak İC, Bingöl A, Alper ÖM. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 68-70. A 5-month-old patient presented with complaints of fever and cough. He was hospitalized with the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia and pseudo-Bartter's syndrome. Patient was further investigated for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. The chloride (Cl) level in sweat was determined within the normal range (25.1 mmol/L, 20.3 mmol/L). CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator gene; NM_000492.2) genotyping results were positive for p.E92K; p.F1052V mutations. The patient was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. In our patient, with features of CF and normal sweat test, mutation analysis was helpful for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

  18. Successful computational modeling of isobornyl chloride ion-pair mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing; Schleyer, Paul v R; Rzepa, Henry S

    2010-08-06

    Along with the directly related Wagner-Meerwein camphene hydrochloride-isobornyl chloride rearrangement, the racemization of isobornyl chloride involves intermediate carbocation-anion ion pairs; both processes have become mechanistic icons in organic chemistry. The two known racemization pathways, involving either a hydride transfer or a methyl migration, are observed to be concurrent. However, prior quantitative computational modeling has not been able to reproduce the fine kinetic balance of these processes. We demonstrate that a density functional approach, which includes two explicit solvent molecules embedded in a continuum solvent field, coupled with full geometric optimization using smoothed solvent cavities and free energy calculation, yields results in accord with experiment. Alternative racemization routes also have been explored.

  19. Molybdenum chloride catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ming Joo; Nguyen, Thach T.; Lam, Jonathan K.; Torker, Sebastian; Hyvl, Jakub; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2017-01-01

    The development of catalyst-controlled stereoselective olefin metathesis processes has been a pivotal recent advance in chemistry. The incorporation of appropriate ligands within complexes based on molybdenum, tungsten and ruthenium has led to reactivity and selectivity levels that were previously inaccessible. Here we show that molybdenum monoaryloxide chloride complexes furnish higher-energy (Z) isomers of trifluoromethyl-substituted alkenes through cross-metathesis reactions with the commercially available, inexpensive and typically inert Z-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene. Furthermore, otherwise inefficient and non-stereoselective transformations with Z-1,2-dichloroethene and 1,2-dibromoethene can be effected with substantially improved efficiency and Z selectivity. The use of such molybdenum monoaryloxide chloride complexes enables the synthesis of representative biologically active molecules and trifluoromethyl analogues of medicinally relevant compounds. The origins of the activity and selectivity levels observed, which contradict previously proposed principles, are elucidated with the aid of density functional theory calculations.

  20. STABILIZATION OF PERTUSSIS VACCINE IN THE PRESENCE OF BENZETHONIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, B. H.; Eldering, Grace; Graham, Bernice

    1964-01-01

    Olson, B. H. (Division of Laboratories, Michigan Department of Health, Lansing), Grace Eldering, and Bernice Graham. Stabilization of pertussis vaccine in the presence of benzethonium chloride. J. Bacteriol. 87:543–546. 1964.—Data are presented showing that pertussis vaccine preserved with benzethonium chloride (BC; Phemerol) was inactivated during storage. BC-preserved vaccine stored at 37 C showed no measurable mouse-protective potency at 16 weeks. That stored at 0 to 4 C lost approximately 80% of its potency within 1 year. Treatment of pertussis vaccines with aluminum, calcium, magnesium, choline, or dl-lysine before the addition of the BC prevented its uptake by the cells. Pertussis vaccines pretreated with 0.004 m Ca++ or 0.0004 m Al+++ retained 70% of the initial potency after 42 weeks of storage at 37 C. Similar vaccines showed no loss of protective antigens when stored for 1 year at 0 to 4 C. PMID:14127568

  1. Antidepressants and seizure-interactions at the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatynska, E.; Knapp, R.J.; Ikeda, M.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    Convulsive seizures are a potential side effect of antidepressant drug treatment and can be produced by all classes of antidepressants. It is also know that some convulsant and anticonvulsant drug actions are mediated by the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex. Drugs acting at this complex appear to induce convulsions by inhibiting chloride conductance through the associated chloride channel. Using the method of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl-uptake by rat cerebral cortical vesicles, we show that some antidepressant drugs can inhibit the GABA-receptor chloride uptake, and that the degree of chloride channel inhibition by these drugs correlates with the frequency of convulsive seizures induced by them.

  2. Tomato pomace protects against mercuric chloride-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato is reported to possess antioxidant activity and this study investigated tomato pomace powder's (TPP) effect on mercuric chloride (HgCl2) intoxication in rats. Thirty male rats were assigned randomly into five groups (n=6): Control; Propylene glycol; TPP (50 mg/kg bwt) for 19 days; HgCl2 (4 mg/bwt) from day 5 to 19 of ...

  3. Studies of Degradation of Plasticized Polyvinyl Chloride (PPVC)

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Elena Gavrilă

    2016-01-01

    Commercial plasticizers are introduced in Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) to obtain flexibility, high elongation to break, durability, resistance to heat and chemicals. Very used plasticizers are phthalates, most commonly phthalate being di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP). The phthalates are not chemically bound to PVC and can migrate from different devices and objects due to the influence of temperature, or to other types of degradation. In article are presented the harm effects of phtha...

  4. Medium effect on cyclohexene hydrocarbomethoxylation catalyzed by ruthenium (III) chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sevostyanova N.; Batashev S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents influence of some solvents on cyclohexene hydrocarbomethoxylation catalyzed by ruthenium(III) chloride. The objective of the work was contained in the determination of medium influence on the reaction rate and yield of product — methyl cyclohexanecarboxylate. The kinetic method was used as the main method of investigation. The gas–liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the reaction mass. Influence of methanol, toluene, acetone and water on the hydrocarmothoxy...

  5. Cu(II) chloride complexes in frozen ethanol solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plyusnin, V.F.; Usov, O.M.

    1985-12-01

    This paper examines the photochemical properties of Cu(II) chloride complexes in frozen organic matrices. It was necessary to determine the spectroscopic parameters and conditions of the existence of individual complexes at 77 K. Ethanol was saturated with gaseous HC1, the solubility of which is appreciably greater than that of such salts as LiC1, NaC1, or KC1. The spectroscopic parameters of the complexes are determined and discussed.

  6. Lost bits: particle shedding with polyvinyl chloride intravenous administration sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Peter; Ainsworth, Paul; Cassey, John; Phelan, David

    2002-12-01

    Silicone particles have been demonstrated in the effluent from silicone intravenous (IV) tubing. It has been widely suspected that polyvinyl chloride (PVC) particles are also lost. We sought to clarify the situation in a carefully controlled laboratory setting using the apparatus and flow rates common in a paediatric setting, using scanning electron microscope techniques (SEM), we found that particles were indeed shed from IV tubing during use, but they were not PVC.

  7. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Logothetis, Stelios; Walker,Graeme

    2010-01-01

    Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride) on growth, viabi...

  8. Synthesis and thermal behavior of polyacrylonitrile/vinylidene chloride copolymer

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Fleming; Luiz Claudio Pardini; Nilton Alves; Elson Garcia; Carlos Brito Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile fiber encompasses a broad range of products based on acrylonitrile (AN) which is readily copolymerized with a wide range of ethylenic unsaturated monomers giving rise to polymers with different characteristics and applications. Such products can be designed for cost-effective, flame and heat resistant solutions for the textile industry, aircraft and automotive markets. In the present work acrylonitrile was copolymerized with vinylidene chloride (VDC) by conventional suspensi...

  9. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2012-08-01

    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete Structure Using Meshless Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of RC structures due to chloride penetration followed by reinforcement corrosion is a serious problem in civil engineering. The numerical simulation methods at present mainly involve finite element methods (FEM, which are based on mesh generation. In this study, element-free Galerkin (EFG and meshless weighted least squares (MWLS methods are used to solve the problem of simulation of chloride diffusion in concrete. The range of a scaling parameter is presented using numerical examples based on meshless methods. One- and two-dimensional numerical examples validated the effectiveness and accuracy of the two meshless methods by comparing results obtained by MWLS with results computed by EFG and FEM and results calculated by an analytical method. A good agreement is obtained among MWLS and EFG numerical simulations and the experimental data obtained from an existing marine concrete structure. These results indicate that MWLS and EFG are reliable meshless methods that can be used for the prediction of chloride ingress in concrete structures.

  11. Evaluation of Phenylephrine Stability in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldland, Alan R.; Kiser, Tyree H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Phenylephrine hydrochloride (HCl) is commonly used to maintain adequate blood pressure during shock and shocklike states. Phenylephrine is prepared in concentrated stock vials that require further dilution prior to administration. This study evaluated the physical and chemical stability of phenylephrine in extemporaneously prepared polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags. Methods: Phenylephrine HCl 10 mg/mL solution was diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride for injection to final concentrations of 200 µg/mL and 400 µg/mL and stored at room temperature (23°C-25°C) exposed to fluorescent light. Stability of phenylephrine HCl was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, 45, and 60. Results: Phenylephrine HCl 200 and 400 µg/mL solutions in PVC bags were physically stable during the entire 60-day study period. Phenylephrine HCl retained > 95% of the original concentration. Conclusion: Phenylephrine HCl diluted to 200 or 400 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride for injection is both physically and chemically stable for a period of 60 days with ≤5% degradation when stored at room temperature and exposed to fluorescent lighting. PMID:24958958

  12. Stannic chloride impregnated chitosan for defluoridation of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahu, Shashikant; Shekhawat, Anita; Saravanan, D; Jugade, Ravin

    2017-11-01

    Chitosan, a potent amino polysaccharide, has been impregnated with Sn(IV) chloride for effective adsorption of fluoride from water. The Sn(IV) chloride impregnated chitosan was synthesized using microwave assisted technique. The material was thoroughly characterized using FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. The decrease in surface area and pore volume has been revealed from BET studies. Enhanced thermal stability of this material was ascertained by TGA-DTA studies. This Sn(IV) chloride impregnated chitosan(Sn-Ch) has been exploited for its defluoridation property. Various parameters like pH, amount of adsorbent, adsorption time etc have been optimized to achieve maximum defluoridation efficiency. Under optimum conditions, Sn-Ch was found to have adsorption capacity of 17. 63mg/g. The equilibrium studies showed that the data fits well with Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamics and kinetics parameters have been evaluated. The material has been applied for the defluoridation of real water sample. It was found to be recyclable material and can be regenerated and reused multiple times adding a greener dimension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.vigier@ec.europa.eu [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laplace, Annabelle [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Renard, Catherine [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Miguirditchian, Manuel [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, Francis [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10{sup −4.0}, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl{sub 3} precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO{sub 2} powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation. - Highlights: • Precipitation of Uranium (III) is quantitative in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%). • The salt is oxoacid with a water dissociation constant of 10{sup −4.0} at 705 °C. • Volatility of uranium chloride is strongly reduced in reductive conditions. • Coprecipitation of U(III) and Nd(III) leads to a consecutive precipitation of the two elements.

  14. Stabilized gold nanoparticles by laser ablation in ferric chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouraddini, M. I.; Ranjbar, M.; Dobson, P. J.; Farrokhpour, H.; Johnston, C.; Jurkschat, K.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, laser ablation of gold was performed in different ferric chloride solutions and water as a reference. The ferric chloride solutions included hexachloro iron(III) and aquachloro iron(III) having low and high hydrolysis degree. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed spherical gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in water, particles which are strongly agglomerated with intimate contact at their interfaces in hexachloro iron(III) and individual separated particles with a halo of an iron component in aquachloro iron(III). In addition, no combination of Au and Fe was found in HAADF analysis or X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. In optical investigations, it was observed that gold nanoparticles made in hexachloro iron(III) solutions have localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks broader than in the case of water that are quenched after a few hours, while ablation in the aquachloro iron(III) solution provides narrow LSPR absorption with a long-term stability. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) there are metallic Au and Fe2+ states in the drop-casted samples. By comparison of cyclic voltammetry of solutions before and after laser ablation, strong agglomeration in hexachloro iron(III) was attributed to the reducing role of iron(III) creating an unstable gold surface in the chloride solution. In aquachloro iron(III), however, the observed stability was attributed to the formation of the halo of an iron compound around the particles.

  15. Chloride transport and chloride thresholdvalues-Studies on concretes and mortars with Portland cement and limestone blended cement

    OpenAIRE

    Boubitsas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used building materials and if it is properly designed and produced, it is an extremely durable material with a service life up to 100 years. However, under certain environmental conditions the service life of reinforced concrete structures is more limited. Deterioration of concrete structure is in most cases caused by the penetration of aggressive media from the surrounding environment. Chloride initiated reinforcement corrosion is one of t...

  16. Shape Effect of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction in Structural Reinforced Concrete Elements Using a New Cement-Based Anodic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Carmona

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the research carried out by the authors focused on how the shape of structural reinforced concrete elements treated with electrochemical chloride extraction can affect the efficiency of this process. Assuming the current use of different anode systems, the present study considers the comparison of results between conventional anodes based on Ti-RuO2 wire mesh and a cement-based anodic system such as a paste of graphite-cement. Reinforced concrete elements of a meter length were molded to serve as laboratory specimens, to closely represent authentic structural supports, with circular and rectangular sections. Results confirm almost equal performances for both types of anode systems when electrochemical chloride extraction is applied to isotropic structural elements. In the case of anisotropic ones, such as rectangular sections with no uniformly distributed rebar, differences in electrical flow density were detected during the treatment. Those differences were more extreme for Ti-RuO2 mesh anode system. This particular shape effect is evidenced by obtaining the efficiencies of electrochemical chloride extraction in different points of specimens.

  17. Ab initio calculations and kinetic modeling of thermal conversion of methyl chloride: implications for gasification of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Mallika; Rasmussen, Morten Lund; Hashemi, Hamid; Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Pelucchi, Matteo; Faravelli, Tiziano; Marshall, Paul

    2018-01-24

    Limitations in current hot gas cleaning methods for chlorine species from biomass gasification may be a challenge for end use such as gas turbines, engines, and fuel cells, all requiring very low levels of chlorine. During devolatilization of biomass, chlorine is released partly as methyl chloride. In the present work, the thermal conversion of CH 3 Cl under gasification conditions was investigated. A detailed chemical kinetic model for pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl chloride was developed and validated against selected experimental data from the literature. Key reactions of CH 2 Cl with O 2 and C 2 H 4 for which data are scarce were studied by ab initio methods. The model was used to analyze the fate of methyl chloride in gasification processes. The results indicate that CH 3 Cl emissions will be negligible for most gasification technologies, but could be a concern for fluidized bed gasifiers, in particular in low-temperature gasification. The present work illustrates how ab initio theory and chemical kinetic modeling can help to resolve emission issues for thermal processes in industrial scale.

  18. Temperature Dependence of Mineral Solubility in Water. Part I. Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Chlorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumgalz, B. S.

    2017-12-01

    A database of alkaline and alkaline earth chloride solubilities in water at various temperatures was created using data from more than 670 publications over about the last two centuries. Statistical critical evaluations of the created database were produced since there were enough independent data sources to justify such evaluations. The reliable experimental data were adequately described by polynomial expressions over various temperature ranges. Using the Pitzer approach for ionic activity and osmotic coefficients, the thermodynamic solubility products for the discussed minerals have been calculated at various temperature intervals and also represented by polynomial expressions. The solubility products calculated in the current study yield excellent agreement between the predicted and experimental mineral solubility values in natural waters over a wide range of temperature and ionic solution matrices.

  19. New Resistive Switching and Self-Regulating Heating in Foliated Graphite/Nickel Polyvinyl Chloride Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Al-Hartomy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl chloride- (PVC- based nanocomposites containing nanosized graphite and nickel nanoparticles (GN as conductive fillers to achieve positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR thermistors and self-regulating heater function have been successfully fabricated. The microstructure of the foliated graphite and nanocomposites was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effect of GN content on the static electrical conductivity, carrier's mobility, and number of charge carriers of the nanocomposites was studied. The applicability of nanocomposites as PTCR thermistors was examined by monitoring the conductivity as a function of temperature. It is found that the conduction mechanism in PVC/GN nanocomposites is governed by tunneling mechanism. Also, the applied voltage versus current and temperature were studied to check the applicability of composites as self-regulating heater. The results show that the PVC/GN nanocomposites might have potential applications in PTCR devices, self-regulating heater, and temperature sensors.

  20. Studies of Poly(vinyl chloride) Based Endotracheal Tubes From the Microscopic to Macroscopic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Kristin; Ortiz, Christine

    2003-03-01

    The endotracheal tube (ET) is a polymeric conduit that forms a closed system of pulmonary ventilation that is most often used to allow delivery of air to critically ill patients via intubation. Currently used ETs cause a wide variety of clinical problems including laryngeal edema (inflammation), severe morbidity, and occasionally death. To investigate the origins of this behavior, mechanical, chemical, morphological, and biocompatibility characterization of injection-molded (Endotrol) tubes of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) containing 35 wtplasticizer was conducted. Experiments included fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, accelerated solvent extraction, uniaxial tensile testing, high-resolution force spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and plasticizer leaching. We intend for these studies to form the basis for future ET materials selection and design.

  1. Exposure to vinyl chloride and angiosarcoma of the liver: a report of the register of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, D; Bennett, B; Stafford, J; Doll, R

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Plastic Manufacturers in Europe maintains a register of all cases of angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL) resulting from exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). This register has recorded all known VCM related cases of the disease worldwide that have been histologically confirmed. Although likely to be incomplete, it is the most comprehensive tabulation of such cases available and, by the end of 1984, 118 men had been registered. The information from analysis of the cases currently on the register is used to make an approximate projection of the number of cases to be expected in the future. The conclusion from this projection is that the industry is reaching the halfway stage in the appearance of VCM related ASL. PMID:4063218

  2. Lithium based alloy-thionyl chloride cells for applications at temperatures to 200 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, P.; Marincic, N.; Epstein, J.; Lindsey, A.

    A long-life lithium battery for industrial applications at temperatures up to 200 C was developed by combining Li-based alloy anodes with oxyhalide electrolytes. Cathodes were fabricated by rolling the blend of polycarbonomonofluoride, a conductive carbon additive, and a binder, while anodes were fabricated as those used in oxyhalide cells, incorporating a modified anode current collector designed to prevent the formation of 'lithium islands' at the end of discharge; nonwoven glass fiber separators were pretreated to remove excessive binders and lubricants. Various active electrode surface areas were combined with a corresponding thickness of electrodes and separators, matched in capacity. Tests of the high-rate electrode structure, using Li-Mg alloy anode in conjunction with thionyl chloride electrolyte, have demonstrated that the battery with this anode can be used under abusive conditions such as short circuit and external heating (at 175 C). Raising the operating temperature to 200 C did require some modifications of regular cell hardware.

  3. Chloride transporting capability of Calu-3 epithelia following persistent knockdown of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVinish, L J; Cope, G; Ropenga, A; Cuthbert, A W

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Calu-3 cells are derived from serous cells of human lung submucosal glands, a prime target for therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF). Calu-3 cells can be cultured to form epithelia capable of transepithelial transport of chloride. A CF Calu-3 cell is not available. Experimental approach: A retroviral vector was used to cause persistent down regulation of CFTR using siRNA methodology, in Calu-3 cells. A Calu-3 cell line with CFTR content less than 5% of the original line has been established. Epithelia grown using the modified cells have been used in comparative studies of transporting capability. Key results: All aspects of cAMP activated chloride secretion were attenuated in the epithelia with reduced CFTR content. However transporting capability was reduced less than the CFTR content. From studies with the CFTR channel inhibitor, GlyH-101, it was concluded that wild type Calu-3 cells have a reserve of CFTR channels not located in the membrane, but available for replacement, while in the modified Calu-3 cell line there was little or no reserve. Lubiprostone, a putative ClC-2 activator, increased transepithelial chloride secretion in both modified and wild type Calu-3 epithelia. Modified Calu-3 epithelia with the residual CFTR currents blocked with GlyH-101 responded equally well to lubiprostone as those without the blocking agent. Conclusions and implications: It appears that lubiprostone is capable of stimulating a non-CFTR dependent transepithelial chloride secretion in Calu-3 monolayers, with obvious implications for CF therapy. Cell lines, however, do not always reflect the behaviour of the native tissue with integrity. PMID:17339840

  4. Use of Strontium Chloride for the Treatment of Osteoporosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, Sarah M; Awker, Amy; Torkelson, Carolyn J

    2016-03-01

    Context • Strontium ranelate is an approved prescription medication for the treatment of osteoporosis in Europe. In the United States, the only available forms of strontium are those that are nonprescription, dietary supplements. Some patients with osteoporosis use those products because they prefer an alternate treatment to conventional therapy. Currently, no controlled trials have been conducted on the effectiveness of the supplements for treating osteoporosis. Objective • The study intended to examine how one woman responded to the use of strontium chloride. Design • This was a retrospective case study. Setting • The woman in the case study was a patient in an academic urban women's health clinic in Minneapolis, MN, USA. Participant • The participant was a postmenopausal woman with a history of vertebral fracture. Intervention • The participant took 680 mg daily of strontium chloride for 2.5 y. Outcome Measures • The patient had begun receiving dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans in 2004 and continued to receive follow-up scans every 2 y. After beginning strontium therapy in December 2011, she received DXA scans in March 2012 and May 2014. Results • During the study, the analysis of the patient's DXA scans showed a positive increase in the bone mineral density (BMD) of her vertebrae and her right hip and maintenance of her BMD in her left hip. Conclusions • Although the current case report does not provide enough evidence to conclude that US dietary supplements of strontium are effective in preventing fractures, it demonstrates a positive experience for one patient.

  5. Bipolar membrane electrodialysis for generation of hydrochloric acid and ammonia from simulated ammonium chloride wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Shi, Shaoyuan; Cao, Hongbin; Wu, Xinmin; Zhao, Zhijuan; Wang, Liying

    2016-02-01

    Simulated ammonium chloride wastewater was treated by a lab-scale bipolar membrane electrodialysis for the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination. The influence of initial concentration of NH4Cl, current density, salt solution volume, initial concentration of acid and base and membrane stack structure on the yields of HCl and NH3·H2O was investigated. The current efficiency and energy consumption were also examined under different conditions. The results showed that, at the current density of 48 mA/cm(2), the highest concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O with initial concentration of 110 g/L NH4Cl was 57.67 g/L and 45.85 g/L, respectively. Higher initial concentration of NH4Cl was favor to reduce unit energy consumption and increase current efficiency of the BMED system. The membrane stack voltage of BMED increased quickly under constant current when the concentration of NH4Cl contained in the solution of salt compartment was depleted below the "inflection point concentration" about 8000 mg/L. It means that the concentration of NH4Cl below 8000 mg/L was no longer suitable for BMED because of higher energy consumption. The HCl and NH3·H2O concentration increased more quickly following the increase of current density. When increasing the volume of NH4Cl, the concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O also increased. The high initial concentration of acid and base could improve the final concentration of them, while the growth rate was decreased. Compared with the BMED system with three compartments, the growth rate of HCl concentration with the two compartments was higher and its unit energy consumption was lower. It meant that the performance of the BMED system could be improved by optimizing operation conditions. The application feasibility of the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination of ammonium chloride wastewater by BMED was proved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Investigation and analysis of chloride channels distribution over the surface and T-tubule membranes of frog skeletal muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasov, I V; Arutiunian, R S

    2012-09-01

    Two types of muscle fibre integral currents (T1T and T2T) were recorded using narrow-tipped extracellular pipettes in isolated sartorius muscles of frog, Rana temporaria. T1T and T2T responses presumably were generated by currents originating in the muscle fibers sarcolemma (M-band region) or both sarcolemma and T-system (Z-line region), respectively, and differently responded to the selective blockade of C1C chloride channels with anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9-AC). Eva- luation of the role of prolongation of T1T responses in generation of multiple peaks of the second phase (Na current) of T2T integral currents in muscle fibers are discussed.

  7. A pH-independent DNA nanodevice for quantifying chloride transport in organelles of living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sonali; Prakash, Ved; Halder, Saheli; Chakraborty, Kasturi; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2015-07-01

    The concentration of chloride ions in the cytoplasm and subcellular organelles of living cells spans a wide range (5-130 mM), and is tightly regulated by intracellular chloride channels or transporters. Chloride-sensitive protein reporters have been used to study the role of these chloride regulators, but they are limited to a small range of chloride concentrations and are pH-sensitive. Here, we show that a DNA nanodevice can precisely measure the activity and location of subcellular chloride channels and transporters in living cells in a pH-independent manner. The DNA nanodevice, called Clensor, is composed of sensing, normalizing and targeting modules, and is designed to localize within organelles along the endolysosomal pathway. It allows fluorescent, ratiometric sensing of chloride ions across the entire physiological regime. We used Clensor to quantitate the resting chloride concentration in the lumen of acidic organelles in Drosophila melanogaster. We showed that lumenal lysosomal chloride, which is implicated in various lysosomal storage diseases, is regulated by the intracellular chloride transporter DmClC-b.

  8. Synthesis and antibiotic activity of 1-cycloalkoxymethyl-4-dimethylaminopyridinium and 1-[(1-alkoxy)ethyl]-4-dimethylaminopyridinium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Michalak, L; Krysinski, J; Kuncewicz, Z

    1995-06-01

    DMAP reacts readily with chloromethylcycloalkyl ethers and alpha-chloroethyl alkyl ethers to give stable (1a-1e) and unstable (2a-2h) pyridinium chlorides. Reaction of these chlorides with NaOH produces the corresponding 4-pyridones. All the chlorides synthesized showed antibiotic activity. Particularly high activity against microbes representing cocci, rods, fungi, and bacilli was shown by 1-cyclododecyloxymethyl-4-dimethylaminopyridinium chloride 1d and 1-[(1-dodecyloxy)ethyl]-4-dimethylaminopyridinium chloride 2f.

  9. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenthal Eric

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual

  10. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 degrees C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not

  11. Effects of methylmercury chloride on rat incisor odontoblasts and dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, J E

    1984-08-01

    Methylmercury chloride, a well-known nerve cell toxicant, was administered to 40 rats in 2 groups, in doses of 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg. Histomorphologic investigation of maxillary incisors after 2 and 4 days revealed granular and hydropic changes in parts of the odontoblastema. Deposition of interglobular dentin was seen after 7 and 11 days. The most vulnerable cells seemed to be the mantle dentin-producing odontoblasts, and the alterations found are probably due to interference with the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

  12. Electrochemical Migration on Electronic Chip Resistors in Chloride Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical migration behavior of end terminals on ceramic chip resistors (CCRs) was studied using a novel experimental setup in varying sodium chloride concentrations from 0 to 1000 ppm. The chip resistor used for the investigation was 10-kΩ CCR size 0805 with end terminals made of 97Sn3Pb...... alloy. Anodic polarization behavior of the electrode materials was investigated using a microelectrochemical setup. Material makeup of the chip resistor was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy and focused-ion-beam SEM. Results showed that the dissolution...

  13. Chlorine and hydrogen chloride gas emissions cleaning in vinylchloride production

    OpenAIRE

    Гармаш, Роман Вікторович

    2013-01-01

    The paper gives the data on mathematical modeling of simultaneous absorption of chlorine and hydrogen chloride by alkaline solutions. The mathematical model of the process includes the system of differential equations of component-wise material balance and the system of kinetic equations. The system of material balance equations describes the change in concentrations of components along the column height. For its solving it is necessary to know the numerical values of chemisorption accelerati...

  14. QUALITY OF YOGHURTS FROM GOAT'S MILK ENRICHED WITH MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Znamirowska; Dorota Kalicka; Małgorzata Pawlos; Katarzyna Szajnar

    2015-01-01

    Goat’s milk can be enriched with magnesium in the form of chloride before pasteurization with a save dose, i.e. 20 mg of magnesium for 100 g of milk. Higher doses of magnesium can lead to coagulation of proteins since together with the increase of the dose of fortification there increases general acidity while pH of milk decreases. Together with the increase of the dose of fortification of yoghurts with magnesium there was shown an essential proportional increase of acidity and hardness of cu...

  15. Chloride Migration in Heterogeneous Soil - 1. Experimental Methodology and Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassner, Mona; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Destouni, Georgia

    1994-01-01

    was estimated to about 10 m. The ratio between the arrival time of the peak in chloride concentration and the water residence time given by the measured flow parameters indicated a mobile water content that was smaller than the measured water content. The large variability in hydraulic conductivity in both......, the individual monoliths showed large and irregular variability in their soil characteristics and in their flow and transport properties. The distribution of the specific discharge of water could be quantified by a bimodal distribution; the horizontal correlation length for the specific discharge of water...

  16. Concrete Carbonation and Chloride Resistance Under Initial Hot Water Curing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guo; Li, Xiaoling L.; Wei, Rongrong R.; Du, Jianmin M.; Wu, Xiaosuo S.

    2014-01-01

    Three concrete mix proportions were designed and prepared, respectively, such as fly ash concrete (abbreviated as “FAC”) with 30% fly ash replacement ratio of cement, fly ash, and slag concrete (abbreviated as “FSC”) with each of 20% fly ash and slag replacement ratio and ordinary Portland cement concrete (abbreviated as “OPC”) for the research of carbonation and chloride resistance of concrete under different initial hot water curing. Specimens with precuring were put into 20°C water tank fo...

  17. Corrosion Resistance of Some Stainless Steels in Chloride Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzyk D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work compares corrosion behaviour of four types of S30403, S31603, S32615 austenitic and S32404 austenitic-ferritic stainless steels in chloride solutions (1%, 3% NaCl and in Ringer solution, at 37°C temperature. Corrosion resistance was determined by potentiodynamic polarization measurements and a thirty day immersion test conducted in Ringer solution. The immersion test was performed in term of biomedical application. These alloy were spontaneously passivated in all electrolytes, wherein S30403, S31603 and S32404 undergo pitting corrosion. Only S32615 containing 5.5% Si shows resistance to pitting corrosion.

  18. Chlorination of (PheboxIr(mesityl(OAc by Thionyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pincer (PheboxIr(mesityl(OAc (2 (Phebox = 3,5-dimethylphenyl-2,6-bis(oxazolinyl complex, formed by benzylic C-H activation of mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene using (PheboxIr(OAc2OH2 (1, was treated with thionyl chloride to rapidly form 1-(chloromethyl-3,5-dimethylbenzene in 50% yield at 23 °C. A green species was obtained at the end of reaction, which decomposed during flash column chromatography to form (PheboxIrCl2OH2 in 87% yield.

  19. Electrowinning of cobalt from sulfate-chloride and sulfate solutions of cobalt and manganese under dynamic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. П. Хоменко

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of an electrolyzer for electrowinning in dynamic conditions is developed. The dependence of the results of electrowinning of cobalt and manganese from sulfate and sulfate-chloride solutions under dynamic conditions using a titanium cathode and a lead anode with 1 % of silver was studied. It was found that the best extraction results for the current yield and the specific energy consumption were obtained by electrolysis from sulfate solutions at a low concentration of manganese in an electrolyser without a perforated baffle plate separating the cathode and anode spaces.

  20. Changes in cationic selectivity of the nicotinic channel at the rat ganglionic synapse: a role for chloride ions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Sacchi

    Full Text Available The permeability of the nicotinic channel (nAChR at the ganglionic synapse has been examined, in the intact rat superior cervical ganglion in vitro, by fitting the Goldman current equation to the synaptic current (EPSC I-V relationship. Subsynaptic nAChRs, activated by neurally-released acetylcholine (ACh, were thus analyzed in an intact environment as natively expressed by the mature sympathetic neuron. Postsynaptic neuron hyperpolarization (from -40 to -90 mV resulted in a change of the synaptic potassium/sodium permeability ratio (P(K/P(Na from 1.40 to 0.92, corresponding to a reversible shift of the apparent acetylcholine equilibrium potential, E(ACh, by about +10 mV. The effect was accompanied by a decrease of the peak synaptic conductance (g(syn and of the EPSC decay time constant. Reduction of [Cl(-](o to 18 mM resulted in a change of P(K/P(Na from 1.57 (control to 2.26, associated with a reversible shift of E(ACh by about -10 mV. Application of 200 nM αBgTx evoked P(K/P(Na and g(syn modifications similar to those observed in reduced [Cl(-](o. The two treatments were overlapping and complementary, as if the same site/mechanism were involved. The difference current before and after chloride reduction or toxin application exhibited a strongly positive equilibrium potential, which could not be explained by the block of a calcium component of the EPSC. Observations under current-clamp conditions suggest that the driving force modification of the EPSC due to P(K/P(Na changes represent an additional powerful integrative mechanism of neuron behavior. A possible role for chloride ions is suggested: the nAChR selectivity was actually reduced by increased chloride gradient (membrane hyperpolarization, while it was increased, moving towards a channel preferentially permeable for potassium, when the chloride gradient was reduced.

  1. The Influence of Supporting Ions on the Electrochemical Detection of Individual Silver Nanoparticles: Understanding the Shape and Frequency of Current Transients in Nano-impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kay J; Brings, Fabian; Schnitker, Jan; Kätelhön, Enno; Rinklin, Philipp; Mayer, Dirk; Compton, Richard G; Lemay, Serge G; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Wolfrum, Bernhard

    2017-04-03

    We report the influence of electrolyte composition and concentration on the stochastic amperometric detection of individual silver nanoparticles at microelectrode arrays and show that the sensor response at certain electrode potentials is dependent on both the conductivity of the electrolyte and the concentration of chloride ions. We further demonstrate that the chloride concentration in solution heavily influences the characteristic current spike shape of recorded nanoparticle impacts: While typically too short to be resolved in the measured current, the spike widths are significantly broadened at low chloride concentrations below 10 mm and range into the millisecond regime. The analysis of more than 25 000 spikes reveals that this effect can be explained by the diffusive mass transport of chloride ions to the nanoparticle, which limits the oxidation rate of individual silver nanoparticles to silver chloride at the chosen electrode potential. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. [Changes in the expression of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons after electrical injury in rats' sciatic nerves and its influence on sensory conduction function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangning; Li, Xueyong; Xu, Xiaoli; Ren, Pan

    2016-06-01

    To study the changes in the expression of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after electrical injury in rats' sciatic nerves and its influence on sensory conduction function. One-hundred and thirty-six adult SD rats were divided into normal control group, sham electrical injury group, and 75, 100, 125 V electrical injury groups according to the random number table, with 8 rats in normal control group and 32 rats in each of the rest 4 groups. Rats in normal control group were routinely fed without any treatment. Blunt dissection of the sciatic nerves of left hind leg of rats was performed in sham electrical injury group, while sciatic nerves of left hind leg of rats in electrical injury groups were electrically injured with corresponding voltage. Eight rats of normal control group fed for one week, and 8 rats from each of the rest four groups on post injury day (PID) 3 and in post injury week (PIW) 1, 2, 3 respectively were collected to detect the paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT). In addition, rats of 100 V electrical injury group in PIW 1 were collected and intrathecally injected with NS1619 after former PWMT detection, and PWMT was detected per 30 minutes within three hours post injection. The rats in each group at each time point were sacrificed after PWMT detection. The DRG of L4 to L6 segments of spinal cord was sampled to observe the BKCa channels distribution with immunohistochemical staining and to detect the protein and mRNA expressions of BKCa channels with Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction respectively. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, analysis of variance of factorial design, and SNK test. (1) The PWMT values of rats in 75 and 100 V electrical injury groups on PID 3 and in PIW 1, 2, 3 were (5.8±0.6), (5.0±0.8), (4.2±0.3), (5.9±1.1) g; (5.3±1.3), (5.9±2.0), (4.5±2.7), (4.3±1.3) g, respectively, which were

  3. Interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica removals using an advanced lime-aluminum softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Batchelor, Bill

    2006-12-01

    An advanced softening process called the ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA) was initiated in this research. The UHLA process has the ability to remove sulfate, silica, and chloride from waters such as recycled cooling water and desalination brines. Furthermore, it can remove other scale-forming materials, such as calcium, magnesium, carbonate, and phosphate. The purpose of this paper is to study the interactions among chloride, sulfate, and silica in the UHLA process. Results of equilibrium experiments indicated that sulfate is preferentially removed over chloride. Final chloride concentration increased with increasing initial sulfate concentration. However, initial chloride concentration was found to have negligible effect on final sulfate concentration. Silica was found to have only a small effect on chloride removal.

  4. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies.

  5. Chloride analysis in magnesium metal using ion chromatography with conductometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sangita D; Tripathi, V S; Shenoy, Niyoti; Maiti, B

    2004-08-13

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the determination of chloride in magnesium metal has been developed. The quantitative determination of chloride was accomplished by anion exchange chromatography with conductometric determination. A Metrosep Anion Dual 2 analytical column connected in series with a Metrosep RP guard column was used for chloride separation. A solution containing a mixture of 1.3 mM Na2CO3 and 2 mM NaHCO3 was used as eluent. The method requires a sample dissolution using nitric acid. The limit of detection for the determination of chloride is 50 mg kg(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 5% for the overall method. The recovery of chloride added was 99-102%. No interference was observed from either the closely eluting "system peak" or the nitrate peak in the determination of chloride.

  6. Highly microporous carbons derived from a complex of glutamic acid and zinc chloride for use in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Ling; Lu, An-Hui; He, Bin; Li, Wen-Cui

    2016-09-01

    The selection of carbon precursor is an important factor when designing carbon materials. In this study, a complex derived from L-glutamic acid and zinc chloride was used to prepare highly microporous carbons via facile pyrolysis. L-glutamic acid, a new carbon precursor with nitrogen functionality, coordinated with zinc chloride resulted in a homogeneous distribution of Zn2+ on the molecular level. During pyrolysis, the evaporation of the in situ formed zinc species creates an abundance of micropores together with the inert gases. The obtained carbons exhibit high specific surface area (SBET: 1203 m2 g-1) and a rich nitrogen content (4.52 wt%). In excess of 89% of the pore volume consists of micropores with pore size ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 nm. These carbons have been shown to be suitable for use as supercapacitor electrodes, and have been tested in 6 M KOH where a capacitance of 217 F g-1 was achieved at a current density of 0.5 A g-1. A long cycling life of 30 000 cycles was achieved at a current density of 1 A g-1, with only a 9% loss in capacity. The leakage current through a two-electrode device was measured as 2.3 μA per mg of electrode and the self-discharge characteristics were minimal.

  7. The Role of Chloride Complexation on Anaerobic and Aerobic Mercury Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzler, B.; Ruuskanen, M.; Hinz, A.; Poulain, A.

    2016-12-01

    In the absence of dissolved organic matter, chloride and sulphide are the dominant complexing agents affecting mercury (Hg) speciation in the environment. Bioreporters are good tools in evaluating bioavailable species of Hg. However, signal production for current Hg bioreporters requires oxygen, namely for lux and gfp gene encoded proteins, resulting in a paucity of data in anaerobic bioavailability of Hg species where it is methylated to toxic CH3Hg+. We developed and optimized a whole-cell Hg bioreporter using Escherichia coli 5α capable of functioning in aerobic and anaerobic conditions by transforming a vector containing the gene fusion between the regulatory circuitry of the mer-operon and a flavin mononucleotide-based fluorescent protein. The bioreporter exhibited no physiological limitations with respect to signal production over a chloride gradient ranging from 0 to 0.7 M. The bioreporter had a detection limit of 1 nM Hg(II) however we used 5nM Hg(II) as the optimal working concentration for Hg speciation assays. We report that HgCl42- is highly bioavailable under anoxic conditions in contrast to what was observed under oxic conditions where Hg was not bioavailable. HgCl3- was not bioavailable regardless of the presence of oxygen which we attributed to either coordination polymers consisting of [HgCl3-]x chains on the cell surface or molecular mimicry of HgCl42- onto anaerobically expressed periplasmic binding proteins specific for divalent polyatomic anions shuttling Hg to the inner membrane. In the presence of HgCl42- in saline media and Hg(OH)2 in non-saline media the addition of 2.5 and 5 μM Zn, respectively, completely inhibited uptake of neutral and negatively charged Hg species regardless of the presence of oxygen. The presence of S2- inhibited Hg uptake regardless of the presence or absence of chloride. Our experiments also suggest that ligand exchange occurred faster between S2- and Cl- than between S2- and OH-. The unexpected bioavailability of

  8. Synaptic Conversion of Chloride-Dependent Synapses in Spinal Nociceptive Circuits: Roles in Neuropathic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Mark S; Przebinda, Adam S.

    2011-01-01

    Electrophysiological conversion of chloride-dependent synapses from inhibitory to excitatory function, as a result of aberrant neuronal chloride homeostasis, is a known mechanism for the genesis of neuropathic pain. This paper examines theoretically how this type of synaptic conversion can disrupt circuit logic in spinal nociceptive circuits. First, a mathematical scaling factor is developed to represent local aberration in chloride electrochemical driving potential. Using this mathematical ...

  9. Methylene Chloride Alternative HAP-Free Chemical Paint Strippers at Anniston Army Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Methylene Chloride Alternative HAP-Free Chemical Paint Strippers at Anniston Army... Chloride Alternative HAP-Free Chemical Paint Strippers at Anniston Army Depot Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Report Documentation... Methylene Chloride in the immersion paint stripping process at ANAD? Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Survey HAP emitting Army

  10. On the corrosion of reinforcing steels in concrete in the presence of chlorides

    OpenAIRE

    R. Genin, Jean Marie; Raharinaivo, Andre

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to give a scientific justification to some empirical results, in steel corrosion field, from concrete containing chlorides. First, it appears that corrosion products on the steels, have different structures and natures in function of the chloride content would be inferior or superior to a characteristic value. Second, the penetration of the chlorides in the concrete can be described by a simple Fick's diffusion law in the most frecuent cases. When cement...

  11. Characteristic X-ray imaging for palliative therapy using strontium-89 chloride: understanding the mechanism of nuclear medicine imaging of strontium-89 chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owaki, Yoshiki; Inoue, Kazumasa; Narita, Hiroto; Tsuda, Keisuke; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Strontium-89 (Sr-89) chloride is a targeted palliative therapy used for painful bone metastasis in which repeated doses can be administered, and its usefulness has been reported in the case of bone metastasis of various primary tumors. However, the effectiveness of the pain relief treatment is only described using a subjective index such as the visual analog scale, which lacks objectivity. Although various attempts at quantifying the effectiveness of Sr-89 chloride therapy have been reported using nuclear medicine imaging for energy peaks around 70-80 keV, the principle of Sr-89 chloride imaging has not been explained. In this study, the principle of nuclear medicine imaging for Sr-89 chloride was evaluated using a fundamental study. Additionally, the optimal collimator for acquiring Sr-89 chloride image data was evaluated. Based on the results, the principle of nuclear medicine imaging for Sr-89 chloride could be explained: the energy peaks were characteristic X-rays produced by interactions between gamma rays (514 keV) emitted from Sr-85, which is included during the manufacturing process of the Sr-89 chloride solution, and the lead collimator used in the imaging. The optimal collimator for generating characteristic X-rays efficiently was identified as a middle-to-high energy collimator.

  12. The influence of Group I metal chlorides on water loss and chloride release from magnesium oxychloride cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Cannesson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The water loss and chloride release from four different formulations of magnesium oxychloride cement have been studied. The formulations were all based on 25% m/m aqueous MgCl2 and the solutions employed to prepare cements consisted of either MgCl2:water or MgCl2:aqueous MCl (M = Li, Na or K, all MCl salts at 1 mol dm-3. Solutions were mixed with solid MgO at a ratio of 1:1 (m/v and allowed to harden at room temperature for 1 hour. Five disc-shaped specimens (6 mm diameter × 2 mm thickness of each were prepared, stored in a desiccating atmosphere and weighed at regular intervals. All were found to lose water rapidly, equilibrating within three hours. Water loss was Fickian to values of Mt/M∞ of around 0.7 in all cases. Diffusion coefficients were slightly smaller than for the additive-free cement (1.52 × 10-6 cm2/s and fell in the range 1.27-1.39 × 10-6 cm2/s. Equilibrium water losses varied from 23.1% (with NaCl to 20.0% (with KCl, but only with NaCl did the value differ significantly from that for the additive-free cement (20.7%. Chloride release was increased by the presence of the additives. It followed a consistent pattern, with a maximum generally at about 5 hours, followed by a reduction up to 2 weeks (336 hours. This shows that a proportion of the released chloride was taken back up as the cement matured.

  13. Investigation of factors affecting the accumulation of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride piping used in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ryan K; Lin, Po-Hsun; Edwards, Marc; Richardson, Ruth E

    2011-04-01

    Plastic piping made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and chlorinated PVC (CPVC), is being increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Given the formulation of the material from vinyl chloride (VC), there has been concern that the VC (a confirmed human carcinogen) can leach from the plastic piping into drinking water. PVC/CPVC pipe reactors in the laboratory and tap samples collected from consumers homes (n = 15) revealed vinyl chloride accumulation in the tens of ng/L range after a few days and hundreds of ng/L after two years. While these levels did not exceed the EPA's maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 μg/L, many readings that simulated stagnation times in homes (overnight) exceeded the MCL-Goal of 0 μg/L. Considerable differences in VC levels were seen across different manufacturers, while aging and biofilm effects were generally small. Preliminary evidence suggests that VC may accumulate not only via chemical leaching from the plastic piping, but also as a disinfection byproduct (DBP) via a chlorine-dependent reaction. This is supported from studies with CPVC pipe reactors where chlorinated reactors accumulated more VC than dechlorinated reactors, copper pipe reactors that accumulated VC in chlorinated reactors and not in dechlorinated reactors, and field samples where VC levels were the same before and after flushing the lines where PVC/CPVC fittings were contributing. Free chlorine residual tests suggest that VC may be formed as a secondary, rather than primary, DBP. Further research and additional studies need to be conducted in order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and tease apart relative contributions of VC accumulation from PVC/CPVC piping and chlorine-dependent reactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Speciation of copper(II) complexes in an ionic liquid based on choline chloride and in choline chloride/water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vreese, Peter; Brooks, Neil R; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Matthijs, Edward; Binnemans, Koen; Van Deun, Rik

    2012-05-07

    A deep-eutectic solvent with the properties of an ionic liquid is formed when choline chloride is mixed with copper(II) chloride dihydrate in a 1:2 molar ratio. EXAFS and UV-vis-near-IR optical absorption spectroscopy have been used to compare the coordination sphere of the cupric ion in this ionic liquid with that of the cupric ion in solutions of 0.1 M of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O in solvents with varying molar ratios of choline chloride and water. The EXAFS data show that species with three chloride ions and one water molecule coordinated to the cupric ion as well as species with two chloride molecules and two water molecules coordinated to the cupric ion are present in the ionic liquid. On the other hand, a fully hydrated copper(II) ion is formed in an aqueous solution free of choline chloride, and the tetrachlorocuprate(II) complex forms in aqueous choline chloride solutions with more than 50 wt % of choline chloride. In solutions with between 0 and 50 wt % of choline chloride, mixed chloro-aquo complexes occur. Upon standing at room temperature, crystals of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O and of Cu(choline)Cl(3) formed in the ionic liquid. Cu(choline)Cl(3) is the first example of a choline cation coordinating to a transition-metal ion. Crystals of [choline](3)[CuCl(4)][Cl] and of [choline](4)[Cu(4)Cl(10)O] were also synthesized from molecular or ionic liquid solvents, and their crystal structures were determined.

  15. A genetically-encoded YFP sensor with enhanced chloride sensitivity, photostability and reduced ph interference demonstrates augmented transmembrane chloride movement by gerbil prestin (SLC26a5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhong

    Full Text Available Chloride is the major anion in cells, with many diseases arising from disordered Cl- regulation. For the non-invasive investigation of Cl- flux, YFP-H148Q and its derivatives chameleon and Cl-Sensor previously were introduced as genetically encoded chloride indicators. Neither the Cl- sensitivity nor the pH-susceptibility of these modifications to YFP is optimal for precise measurements of Cl- under physiological conditions. Furthermore, the relatively poor photostability of YFP derivatives hinders their application for dynamic and quantitative Cl- measurements. Dynamic and accurate measurement of physiological concentrations of chloride would significantly affect our ability to study effects of chloride on cellular events.In this study, we developed a series of YFP derivatives to remove pH interference, increase photostability and enhance chloride sensitivity. The final product, EYFP-F46L/Q69K/H148Q/I152L/V163S/S175G/S205V/A206K (monomeric Cl-YFP, has a chloride Kd of 14 mM and pKa of 5.9. The bleach time constant of 175 seconds is over 15-fold greater than wild-type EYFP. We have used the sensor fused to the transmembrane protein prestin (gerbil prestin, SLC26a5, and shown for the first time physiological (mM chloride flux in HEK cells expressing this protein. This modified fluorescent protein will facilitate investigations of dynamics of chloride ions and their mediation of cell function.Modifications to YFP (EYFP-F46L/Q69K/H148Q/I152L/V163S/S175G/S205V/A206K (monomeric Cl-YFP results in a photostable fluorescent protein that allows measurement of physiological changes in chloride concentration while remaining minimally affected by changes in pH.

  16. Chloride:Sodium Ratio May Accurately Predict Corrected Chloride Disorders and the Presence of Unmeasured Anions in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Myers, Marc; De Rosa, Sage; Zager, Erik; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Disorders of chloride and mixed acid-base disturbances are common in veterinary emergency medicine. Rapid identification of these alterations and the presence of unmeasured anions aid prompt patient assessment and management. This study aimed to determine in dogs and cats if site-specific reference values for [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and [Na+] - [Cl-] difference accurately identify corrected chloride abnormalities and to evaluate the predictive ability of the [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio for the identification of unmeasured anions. A database containing 33,117 canine, and 7,604 feline blood gas and electrolyte profiles was generated. Institution reference intervals were used to calculate site-specific reference values for the [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and the [Na+] - [Cl-] difference. Contingency tables were used to assess the ability of these values to correctly identify corrected chloride disorders. Unmeasured anions were estimated by calculating strong ion gap (SIG). Continuous variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between continuous variables were assessed using Spearman's rho (rs). In dogs, site-specific reference values for the [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio correctly identified 94.6% of profiles as hyper-, normo-, or hypochloremic. For dogs with normal sodium concentrations, site-specific reference values for the [Na+] - [Cl-] difference correctly identified 97.0% of profiles. In dogs with metabolic acidosis (base deficit > 4.0), [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and SIG were moderately but significantly negatively correlated (rs -0.592, P SIG was significantly greater in dogs with metabolic acidosis and hypochloremia compared to those without hypochloremia (P SIG were moderately significantly negatively correlated (rs -0.730, P SIG was significantly greater in cats with metabolic acidosis and hypochloremia compared to those without hypochloremia (P < 0.0001). Site-specific values for [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and [Na+] - [Cl-] difference accurately identify

  17. Purification of biodiesel by choline chloride based deep eutectic solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niawanti, Helda; Zullaikah, Siti; Rachimoellah, M.

    2017-05-01

    Purification is a crucial step in biodiesel production to meet the biodiesel standard. This study purified biodiesel using choline chloride based deep eutectic solvent (DES). DES was used to reduce unreacted oil and unsaponifiable matter in rice bran oil based biodiesel. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction time using DES on the content and yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Rice bran used in this work contains 16.49 % of oil with initial free fatty acids (FFA) of 44.75 %. Acid catalyzed methanolysis was employed to convert rice bran oil (RBO) into biodiesel under following operation conditions: T = 60 °C, t = 8 h, molar ratio of oil to methanol = 1/10, H2SO4 = 1% w/w of oil. Rice bran oil based biodiesel obtained contain 89.05 % of FAME with very low FFA content (0.05 %). DES was made from a mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol with molar ratio of 1/2. Molar ratio of crude biodiesel to DES were 1/2 and 1/4. Extraction time was varied from 15 minutes to 240 minutes at 30 °C. The highest FAME content was obtained after purification for 240 min. at molar ratio crude biodiesel to DES 1/4 was 96.60 %. This work shows that DES has potential to purify biodiesel from non-edible raw material, such as RBO.

  18. Enhanced surface photochemistry in chloride-nitrate ion mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingen, Lisa M; Moskun, Amy C; Johnson, Stanley N; Thomas, Jennie L; Roeselová, Martina; Tobias, Douglas J; Kleinman, Michael T; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2008-10-01

    Heterogeneous reactions of sea salt aerosol with various oxides of nitrogen lead to replacement of chloride ion by nitrate ion. Studies of the photochemistry of a model system were carried out using deliquesced mixtures of NaCl and NaNO3 on a Teflon substrate. Varying molar ratios of NaCl to NaNO3 (1 : 9 Cl- : NO3-, 1 : 1 Cl- : NO3-, 3 : 1 Cl- : NO3-, 9 : 1 Cl- : NO3-) and NaNO3 at the same total concentration were irradiated in air at 299 +/- 3 K and at a relative humidity of 75 +/- 8% using broadband UVB light (270-380 nm). Gaseous NO2 production was measured as a function of time using a chemiluminescence NO(y) detector. Surprisingly, an enhanced yield of NO2 was observed as the chloride to nitrate ratio increased. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that as the Cl- : NO3- ratio increases, the nitrate ions are drawn closer to the interface due to the existence of a double layer of interfacial Cl- and subsurface Na+. This leads to a decreased solvent cage effect when the nitrate ion photodissociates to NO2+O*-, increasing the effective quantum yield and hence the production of gaseous NO2. The implications of enhanced NO2 and likely OH production as sea salt aerosols become processed in the atmosphere are discussed.

  19. Raman spectroscopic study of uranyl complex in alkali chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki, E-mail: tosiyuki@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Nuclear Engineering Science, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010, Asashiro Nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Uda, Takeshi [Division of Nuclear Engineering Science, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010, Asashiro Nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto daigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Iwadate, Yasuhiko [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Yayoi 1-33, Inage, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Nagai, Takayuki [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Lab., Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33, Muramatsu, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Uehara, Akihiro; Yamana, Hajimu [Division of Nuclear Engineering Science, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010, Asashiro Nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2013-09-15

    Raman spectra of alkali chloride melts containing 3 mol% U(VI) were measured at 823 K. The complexation of UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup 2-} in binary mixtures of LiCl-KCl, LiCl-RbCl, and LiCl-CsCl was investigated. The spectrum of UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup 2-} obtained was characterized by Raman active vibration modes, that is, totally symmetric stretching vibrations A{sub 1g} (ν{sub 1}: OUO) and A{sub 1g} (ν{sub 2}: UCl{sub 4}), and bending vibration E{sub g} (ν{sub 8:} UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). The dependence of polarizing power of solvent cations on the vibrational frequencies was clarified. The ν{sub 8} frequencies were insensitive to the change in the polarizing power. On the other hand, the ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 2} frequencies increased with the rise of polarizing power. The Raman shifts suggest that the square bipyramidal structure of UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup 2-} is kept in various binary alkali chlorides, while O{sup 2−} and Cl{sup −} around U(VI) are clearly polarized by the increase of polarizing power.

  20. Sulfation of Condensed Potassium Chloride by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Louise With; Hansen, Troels Bruun; Bartolomé, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K and with rea......The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K...... and with reactant concentrations of 500–3000 ppm SO2, 1–20% O2, and 4–15% H2O. The degree of sulfation was monitored by measuring the formation of HCl. Analysis of the solid residue confirmed that the reaction proceeds according to a shrinking core model and showed the formation of an eutectic at higher...... temperatures. On the basis of the experimental results, a rate expression for the sulfation reaction was derived. The model compared well with literature data for sulfation of KCl and NaCl, and the results indicate that it may be applied at even higher SO2 concentrations and temperatures than those...

  1. QUALITY OF YOGHURTS FROM GOAT'S MILK ENRICHED WITH MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Znamirowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Goat’s milk can be enriched with magnesium in the form of chloride before pasteurization with a save dose, i.e. 20 mg of magnesium for 100 g of milk. Higher doses of magnesium can lead to coagulation of proteins since together with the increase of the dose of fortification there increases general acidity while pH of milk decreases. Together with the increase of the dose of fortification of yoghurts with magnesium there was shown an essential proportional increase of acidity and hardness of curds persisting for 21 days of storage. Enriching goat’s milk yoghurts with magnesium decreased the intensity of „goat” smell and aftertaste and did not cause a change in colour. The most favourable solution is the production of goat’s milk yoghurts enriched with 10-20 mg of magnesium in the form of magnesium chloride. Such doses of enrichment caused successive lowering of perceptibility of „goat” aftertaste and smell together with extension of storage time.

  2. Synthesis and thermal behavior of polyacrylonitrile/vinylidene chloride copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fleming

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile fiber encompasses a broad range of products based on acrylonitrile (AN which is readily copolymerized with a wide range of ethylenic unsaturated monomers giving rise to polymers with different characteristics and applications. Such products can be designed for cost-effective, flame and heat resistant solutions for the textile industry, aircraft and automotive markets. In the present work acrylonitrile was copolymerized with vinylidene chloride (VDC by conventional suspension polymerization process via redox system, with an initial content of 10%/mass of the VDC monomer. The copolymer average molecular weight was obtained by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and by intrinsic viscosity analysis. To control the polymerization process continuously, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chloride content in the PAN AN/VDC copolymer structure was accomplished by using X-ray fluorescence and potentiometric titration techniques. A good correlation was found between these two techniques, leading to a straightforward verification of VDC in the polymer structure. The thermal behavior of PAN AN/VDC copolymer was performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. The results showed that VDC monomers exhibited a nearly stoichiometric reaction with acrylonitrile, copolymerizing about 90% of its initial mass. VDC changed significantly the polyacrylonitrile thermal behavior, decreasing the polymer degradation temperature by about 40-50°C.

  3. Large Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibres on Sodium Chloride Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Rajarao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Large scale synthesis of carbon nanofibres (CNFs on a sodium chloride support has been achieved. CNFs have been synthesized using metal oxalate (Ni, Co and Fe as catalyst precursors at 680 C by chemical vapour deposition method. Upon pyrolysis, this catalyst precursors yield catalyst nanoparticles directly. The sodium chloride was used as a catalyst support, it was chosen because of its non‐toxic and water soluble nature. Problems, such as the detrimental effect of CNFs, the detrimental effects on the environment and even cost, have been avoided by using a water soluble support. The structure of products was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The purity of the grown products and purified products were determined by the thermal analysis and X‐ray diffraction method. Here we report the 7600, 7000 and 6500 wt% yield of CNFs synthesized over nickel, cobalt and iron oxalate. The long, curved and worm shaped CNFs were obtained on Ni, Co and Fe catalysts respectively. The lengthy process of calcination and reduction for the preparation of catalysts is avoided in this method. This synthesis route is simple and economical, hence, it can be used for CNF synthesis in industries.

  4. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Logothetis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride on growth, viability and fermentation performance in a winemaking strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental fermentations were conducted in both laboratory-scale and industrial-scale experiments. Preculturing yeasts in elevated levels of sodium chloride, or salt “preconditioning” led to improved fermentation performance. This was manifest by preconditioned yeasts having an improved capability to ferment high-sugar containing media with increased cell viability and with elevated levels of produced ethanol. Salt-preconditioning most likely influenced the stress-tolerance of yeasts by inducing the synthesis of key metabolites such as trehalose and glycerol. These compounds may act to improve cells’ ability to withstand osmostress and ethanol toxicity during fermentations of grape must. Industrial-scale trials using salt-preconditioned yeasts verified the benefit of this novel physiological cell engineering approach to practical winemaking fermentations.Keywords: salt, preconditioning, fermentation performance, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine

  5. Formulation and Characterization of Cetylpyridinium Chloride Bioadhesive Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Akbari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bioadhesive polymers play an important role in biomedical and drug delivery applications. The aim of this study is to develop a sustained- release tablet for local application of Cetylpyridinium Chloride (CPC. This delivery system would supply the drug at an effective level for a long period of time, and thereby overcome the problem of the short retention time of CPC and could be used for buccal delivery as a topical anti-infective agent. Methods: CPC bioadhesive tablets were directly prepared using 7 mm flat-faced punches on a hydraulic press. The materials for each tablet were weighted, introduced into the die and compacted at constant compression pressure. The dissolution tests were performed to the rotation paddle method and the bioadhesive strength of the tablets were measured. Results: The results showed that as the concentration of polymer increased, the drug release rate was decreased. Also the type and ratio of polymers altered the release kinetic of Cetylpyridinium Chloride from investigated tablets. The bioadhesion strength increased with increasing the concentration of polymer and maximum bioadhesion strength was observed with HPMC K100M. Conclusion: The selected formulation of CPC bioadhesive tablet can be used as a suitable preparation for continuous release of CPC with appropriate bioadhesion strength.

  6. 75 FR 760 - Choline chloride; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ...; wetting, spreading, and dispersing agents; propellants in aerosol dispensers; microencapsulating agents... be carcinogenic or mutagenic. Since the 1930's choline chloride has been used as a widespread...

  7. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react with atm......An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react...

  8. Synthesis and bactericidal properties of pyridinium chlorides with alkylthiomethyl and alkoxymethyl hydrophobic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglewski, J; Pernak, J; Krysinski, J

    1991-01-01

    The products of a reaction between 3-ethoxymethylpyridine and chloromethylalkyl ether or sulfide were proven to be 1-[(alkylthio)-methyl]-3-[(ethoxy)methyl]pyridinium or 1-[(alkoxy)methyl]-3-[(ethoxy)-methyl]pyridinium chlorides. Bacteriostatic properties of the obtained chlorides against 13 different microbial strains representing cocci, rods, fungi, and bacilli were studied. The MICs were measured by serial dilution. All studied chlorides showed bacteriostatic properties. Particularly high activity against microbes was shown by 1-[(dodecylthio)-methyl]-3-[(ethoxy)methyl]pyridinium and 3-[(ethoxy)methyl]-1-[(tetradecylthio)methyl]pyridinium chlorides.

  9. On the Durability of Sealable Circular Concrete Structures under Chloride Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwen Mi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement corrosion resulting from chloride attack is one major mechanism that compromises concrete durability. Numerical methods were commonly used for tackling Fick’s diffusion equations. In this paper, we developed a Crank-Nicolson based finite difference scheme suitable for circular concrete structures. Both a time-dependent surface chloride model and diffusivity were considered. The impact of an ideal sealer on chloride redistribution was further investigated. Results suggested that the chloride threshold depth in a concrete structure is greatly affected by the radius of curvature, environment severity, and diffusivity. For sealable concrete structures, both the sealer application timing and location are of great importance.

  10. Effect of nickel chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation and glutathione concentration in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1989-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of nickel chloride enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation (HLP) in 6-wk-old and 8-12-wk-old male CBA-mice but not in 3-wk-old mice. Nickel chloride administration depleted hepatic GSH in 8-12-wk-old mice but not in the younger age groups. After 300 mumol NiCl2/kg morta......, enhance the toxicity of nickel chloride. This might be owing to chelation of the Ni(II)-ion by BSO. The results demonstrate age dependency and a protective effect of enhanced GSH synthesis in nickel chloride stimulated HLP....

  11. Response to comments on "Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glykys, J; Dzhala, V; Egawa, K

    2014-01-01

    We appreciate the interest in our paper and the opportunity to clarify theoretical and technical aspects describing the influence of Donnan equilibria on neuronal chloride ion (Cl(-)) distributions....

  12. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  13. The possibility of using underground chloride sodium brines in the territory of the Central Federal District to improve the efficiency, reliability and safety of power equipment of TPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, A. Y.; Burakov, I. A.; Verkhovsky, A. E.; Nikitina, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    Long-term use of ground sodium chloride brine at power plants of “Mosenergo” for the purposes of regeneration Na-cation unit of water treatment plants chemical plants provides the preconditions for operation of underground brines and other power systems of our country. Underground sodium chloride brines used in “Mosenergo” since 1979, when the first wells for the extraction of brines in the territory of TPP-22 was drilled. Currently production brines are well in 13 TPP of PJSC “Mosenergo”. Underground sodium chloride brines can be used to regenerate the sodium cation filters under the following conditions: salinity brines should be not less than 100 g/dm3; the ratio of sodium ion content (in mg-Eq/dm3) to the total rigidity brine (in mg-Eq/dm3) should not be less than 3.5. Performed zoning district on the possibility of using underground brine for regeneration of the sodium-cation filters On the basis of these requirements. The analysis of the possibility of using underground brine directly to the location of CHP stations in the northern part of the Central Federal District on the basis of geological and hydrogeological data. Particular attention is drawn to the area of large cities, where the use of underground brines most effectively. The conclusion about the possibility of using sodium chloride brines underground in most parts of the Central Federal District for energy purposes.

  14. Understanding the Chloride Regime of a Midwest Mixed-Land-Use Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Zeiger, S. J.; Hooper, L. W.

    2014-12-01

    Short and long-term exposure to elevated chloride (Cl) concentrations in receiving waters can affect mortality of aquatic organisms (e.g. fish, invertebrates) and alter aquatic biological community structure. Unfortunately, there remains a general lack of quantitative information pertaining to Cl regimes under a variety of land-use types and flow conditions. Hinkson Creek, located in Boone County, Missouri, was placed on the Missouri Department of Natural Resources 303(d) list of impaired waters in 1998 due to multiple stressors including Cl. A 4-yr study was initiated in 2010 to better understand the loading and persistence of Cl in Hinkson Creek and related implications for stream restoration. Using a scale-nested experimental watershed study design (n = 5 gauging sites), observed mean and maximum daily Cl was 25.0 and 247.7, 55.7 and 351.4, 78.1 and 1167.8, 74.7 and 1021.8 and 71.0 and 941.4 mg/l at forested, agricultural, suburban, and urban (n=2) gauging sites, respectively. Average daily flow was 0.75, 0.90, 1.40, 1.98, and 3.18 m3/s in forested, agricultural, suburban, and urban gauging sites, respectively. Daily Cl loading estimates were 1620, 4350, 9470, 12800 and 19400 kg/day for forested agricultural, rural, suburban, and urban gauging sites, respectively. Results indicate that current winter deicing practices by municipalities and homeowners in the HCW are contributing to year-round elevated chloride concentrations. This finding holds holding important implications for watershed management, aquatic ecosystem health, and stream restoration in the HCW and other developing mixed-land-use watersheds of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) and elsewhere.

  15. Behavior of copper in acidic sulfate solution: Comparison with acidic chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromans, D.; Silva, J.C. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The anodic polarization behavior of copper in a 0.1 M sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) + 1 M sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) solution (pH = 2.0) was studied at room temperature under quiescent and stirred conditions. The behavior was compared with aqueous equilibria via construction of a potential-vs-pH (E-pH) diagram for the copper-sulfate-water (Cu-SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-H{sub 2}O) system. Interpretation of the behavior was aided by comparison with aqueous equilibria and polarization studies of copper in a 0.2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) + 1 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution(pH = 0.8). The initial anodic dissolution region in the acidic sulfate solution exhibited Tafel behavior with a slope consistent with formation of cupric ions (Cu{sup 2+}) whose rate of formation was charge-transfer controlled. At higher potentials, limiting current density (i{sub L}) behavior was observed under E-pH conditions that were consistent with formation of a film of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO{sub 4} {degree} 5H{sub 2}O). Comparison of experimental i{sub L} values with those predicted by mass transport-controlled processes, using estimates of the diffusion layer thickness obtained from the mass transfer-influenced region of apparent Tafel behavior in the acidic chloride solution, were in sufficient agreement to indicate i{sub L} was controlled by the rate of dissolution of the CuSO{sub 4} {degree} 5H{sub 2}O film via transport of Cu{sup 2+} from the film-electrolyte interface into the bulk solution.

  16. Mechanisms of cellular synchronization in the vascular wall. Mechanisms of vasomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    that vasomotion initiates via interaction between intracellular calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and changes in membrane potential. Rhythmic changes in intracellular calcium induce, under certain conditions (in the presence of sufficient concentration of cGMP), changes in membrane potential...... family. There is one particular group of chloride channels, the calcium activated chloride channels (CaCCs), whose molecular structure is debated still. There are currently no pharmacological tools that activate or inhibit CaCCs with any significant selectivity. The existence of CaCCs in almost all cells...... high sensitivity to calcium and can be inhibited by low concentrations of zinc ions, while the traditional inhibitors of CaCCs affect this current only at very high concentrations. This cGMP-dependent, calcium-activated chloride current has a linear volt-age-dependence, which differs from previously...

  17. Influence of sodium chloride and weak organic acids (flux residues) on electrochemical migration of tin on surface mount chip components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2013-01-01

    The electrolytic properties of sodium chloride and no-clean solder flux residue, and their effects on electrochemical migration and dendrite growth on surface mount chip capacitors were investigated. The leakage current dependency on concentration of contaminants was measured by a solution...... conductivity method and compared with current measurements using DC voltage. The effect of electrolyte concentration and potential bias on the probability of electrochemical migration was investigated using a water droplet method on chip capacitors. The results from leakage current and conductivity measurement...... showed a difference which is caused by polarization effects, and demonstrated existing issues when indexing contamination levels on printed circuit board assemblies using a standardised solvent extract method. The experimental results showed that dendrite growth was dependent on the type and amount...

  18. Effect of Electrical Injection of Corrosion Inhibitor on the Corrosion of Steel Rebar in Chloride-Contaminated Repair Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Huyen Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical rehabilitation treatments of repair mortar were performed with tetrabutylammonium bromide salt (TBAB at an electrical current density of 5 A/m2, using two electrolytes (0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M Na3BO3 solutions, and for two time periods (1 and 4 weeks, respectively. The average organic cation-based inhibitor’s concentration in cement mortars before and after this treatment was quantified using the UV-Vis spectroscopy. The experimental results reveal that the EICI treatment with 0.1 M Na3BO3 was more effective in injecting the inhibitor and in improving the chloride penetration resistance and compressive strength of the mortar, relative to using 0.1 M NaOH as electrolyte. In this case, after the 4-week EICI treatment, [TBA+] contents were 2.3 % and 2.4% by mass of cement mortar for uncontaminated and salt-contaminated mortars, respectively. After the 4-week EICI treatment, the apparent diffusion coefficients of chloride anion in cement mortar were decreased by 40% from 1.52 × 10−10 m2/s. The EICI treatment was able to halt the chloride-induced corrosion of the steel rebar by promoting its passivation. The 2-week EICI treatment using sodium hydroxide and sodium borate solutions decreased the corrosion current density of the rebar by 77.8% and 78.5%, respectively, approximately two months after the treatment.

  19. Taste properties of potassium chloride alone and in mixtures with sodium chloride using a check-all-that-apply method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinopoli, Dominique A; Lawless, Harry T

    2012-09-01

    As consumers try to reduce their sodium consumption for health purposes, the food industry seeks ways to reduce the sodium content in products while maintaining palatability. One potential solution for lowering sodium content is using potassium chloride (KCl) as a substitute. However, many people find KCl to have unpleasant off-tastes, which limits its effectiveness to replace sodium chloride (NaCl). This study examined the taste properties of KCl using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) ballot. The objectives were to see which terms people use to describe KCl and in what ways this changes in various combinations with NaCl. Panelists were served mixtures of varying NaCl and KCl concentrations, and evaluated them using a set of predetermined terms on a CATA ballot. Frequency counts were taken, and binomial and McNemar tests were performed to see which stimuli changed the most between samples. Results showed that adding KCl increased salt perception slightly, and salty was chosen more frequently when in combination with NaCl. Adding NaCl in a mixture with KCl decreases unpleasant side tastes associated with KCl, such as bitter, chemical, and metallic. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Mortality and cancer morbidity in workers exposed to low levels of vinyl chloride monomer at a polyvinyl chloride processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmar, L.; Akesson, B.; Nielsen, J.; Andersson, C.; Linden, K.; Attewell, R.; Moeller, T. (University Hospital, Lund (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    To study whether exposure to low levels of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) causes increased risk for cancer morbidity and death from ischemic heart disease, a cohort study was performed among 2,031 male workers at a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) processing plant who had been employed for at least 3 months during the period 1945-1980. An almost significantly increased total mortality (SMR = 116, 95% CI 99-136) was found. Deaths caused by violence or intoxication were significantly increased (SMR = 153, 95% CI 109-213), but not deaths from ischemic heart disease (SMR = 100, 95% CI 73-135). A significant increase in total cancer morbidity was observed (SMR = 128, 95% CI 101-161). Respiratory cancers were significantly increased (SMR = 213, 95% CI 127-346). Furthermore, six brain tumors (vs. 2.6 expected) were observed. This increase, however, was not significant (SMR = 229, 95% CI 84-498). No liver hemangiosarcoma was observed. Applying a latency period of greater than or equal to 10 years from start of employment did not change the risk patterns. There were no significant exposure-response associations between exposure estimates for VCM, asbestos, and plasticizers and cancer morbidity.