Sample records for calcium silicides

  1. Effect of Chemistry and Particle Size on the Performance of Calcium Disilicide Primers. Part 1 - Synthesis of Calcium Silicide (CaSi2) by Rotary Atomization (United States)


    refs. 8 and 9); electrolysis (refs. 10 and 11); calcium hydride (CaH2) and Si (ref. 12); SiC and CaO (ref. 13); and combustion synthesis (ref. 14...obtained using a goiniometer (Phillips Model PW 3040, Phillips, Eindhoven, the Netherlands) using copper (Cu) K„ radiation (X - 1.54183 A) with a graphite...34 Electrolysis of Molten Alkali and Alkaline Earth Silicates." Bull. Soc. Chim., 6,206, 1939. 12. Louis, V. and Franck, H. H., "Silicide of Calcium," Z. Anorq

  2. Optical properties of beta-iron silicide, ruthenium silicide and osmium silicide: Semiconducting transition metal silicides (United States)

    Birdwell, Anthony Glen


    Various optical techniques were used to study the semiconducting transition metal silicides of β- FeSi2, Ru2Si3, and OsSi2. The Raman spectra of ion beam synthesized (IBS) β-FeSi 2 were shown to provide evidence of a net tensile stress in these IBS materials. Possible origins of the observed stress were suggested and a simple model was proposed in order to calculate a value of the observed stress. A correlation between the tensile stress, the nature of the band gap, and the resulting light emitting properties of IBS β-FeSi2 was suggested. The photoreflectance (PR) spectra of IBS β- FeSi2 reveals a direct gap at 0.815 eV and were shown to agree with the band gap value obtained by photoluminescence (PL) once the adjustments for the temperature difference and trap related recombination effects were made. This provides very convincing evidence for intrinsic light emission from IBS β- FeSi2. Furthermore, a model was developed that helps to clarify the variety of inconsistent results obtained by optical absorption measurements. When the results of PL and PR were inserted into this model, a good agreement was obtained with our measured optical absorption results. We also obtained PR spectra of β-FeSi 2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. These spectra reveal the multiple direct transitions near the fundamental absorption edge of β-FeSi 2 that were predicted by theory. We suggest an order of these critical point transitions following the trends reported in the theoretical investigations. Doping these β-FeSi2 thin films with small amounts of chromium was shown to have a measurable effect on the interband optical spectra. We also report on the effects of alloying β- FeSi2 with cobalt. A decrease in the critical point transitions nearest the fundamental absorption edge was observed as the cobalt concentration increased. Finally, Raman spectroscopy was used to study the vibrational properties of β-FeSi2. The measured Raman spectra agreed very well with the

  3. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.; Park, Y.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.


    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the U.S. processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive U.S. processing industries.

  4. On Silicides in High Temperature Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ramachandra


    Full Text Available High temperature titanium alloys like IMI 685 contain small amounts of silicon (~ 0.25 wt. per cent to improve creep resistance. Different types of silicides, namely Ti5Si3 (TiZr5Si3(S1 and (TiZr6 Si3 (S2, have been observed to precipitate in various silicon-bearing titanium alloys depending upon their composition and heat treatment. The precipitation of silicides, their orientation relationship with the matrix in different alloys, and the beneficial influence of thermo-mechanical treatment on the distribution of silicides have been pointed out. The effect of silicides on mechanical properties and fracture of the commercial alloy IMI 685 is also indicated.

  5. Monitoring silicide formation via in situ resistance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Erik J.; Wolters, Rob A.M.; Rajasekharan, Bijoy; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan


    Silicide formation as a result of the reaction of metals with silicon is a widely studied topic in semiconductor industry since silicides form an essential part of modern day Integrated Circuits (ICs). In most situations the fundamental kinetics of silicide formation are analyzed using elaborate tec

  6. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others


    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the U.S. processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive U.S. processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Schuller International Inc. targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. Current experimental emphasis is on the development and characterization of MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and MoSi{sub 2}-SiC composites, the plasma spraying of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, and the joining of MoSi{sub 2} materials to metals.

  7. Microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Wang, Han; Guo, Huaihong; Yang, Teng; Tang, Wen-Shu; Li, Da; Ma, Song; Geng, Dianyu; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhidong


    The microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules prepared by an arc discharge method have been studied. The composition and the microstructure of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules were determined by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope observations. Silicides, in the forms of SiOx and SiC, mainly exist in the shells of the nanocapsules and result in a large amount of defects at the `core/shell' interfaces as well as in the shells. The complex permittivity and microwave absorption properties of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules are improved by the doped silicides. Compared with those of Ni/C nanocapsules, the positions of maximum absorption peaks of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules exhibit large red shifts. An electric dipole model is proposed to explain this red shift phenomenon.

  8. Solution synthesis of metal silicide nanoparticles. (United States)

    McEnaney, Joshua M; Schaak, Raymond E


    Transition-metal silicides are part of an important family of intermetallic compounds, but the high-temperature reactions that are generally required to synthesize them preclude the formation of colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we show that palladium, copper, and nickel nanoparticles react with monophenylsilane in trioctylamine and squalane at 375 °C to form colloidal Pd(2)Si, Cu(3)Si, and Ni(2)Si nanoparticles, respectively. These metal silicide nanoparticles were screened as electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction, and Pd(2)Si and Ni(2)Si were identified as active catalysts that require overpotentials of -192 and -243 mV, respectively, to produce cathodic current densities of -10 mA cm(-2).

  9. Electronic properties of epitaxial erbium silicide (United States)

    Veuillen, J. Y.; Tan, T. A. Nguyen; Lollman, D. B. B.; Guerfi, N.; Cinti, R.


    The electronic properties of erbium silicide thin films epitaxially grown on Si(111) have been investigated by X-ray and UV photoemission. The crystalline quality has been checked by low-energy electron diffraction. XPS indicates very weak charge transfer and metallic bonding in the silicide phase. The Si 2p core-level and the Auger transition Si KLL present double structures revealing two types of Si sites, the first one attributed to Si atoms in normal sites in the silicide and the second one to Si atoms in the vicinity of the vacancies and (or) the Si substrate portions seen through the holes of the film. The UPS valence band of about 4 eV width and formed of Er(6s5d)-Si(3s3p) hybridized states disperses weakly in the direction perpendicular to the surface and strongly in the surface plane. This valence band is compared to the ones already measured on YSi-1.7 and GdSi-1.7 and to the calculations made for YSi2

  10. The growth and applications of silicides for nanoscale devices. (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Chen; Chen, Yu; Huang, Yu


    Metal silicides have been used in silicon technology as contacts to achieve high device performance and desired device functions. The growth and applications of silicide materials have recently attracted increasing interest for nanoscale device applications. Nanoscale silicide materials have been demonstrated with various synthetic approaches. Solid state reaction wherein high quality silicides form through diffusion of metal atoms into silicon nano-templates and the subsequent phase transformation caught significant attention for the fabrication of nanoscale Si devices. Very interestingly, studies on the diffusion and phase transformation processes at the nanoscale have indicated possible deviations from the bulk and the thin film system. Here we present a review of fabrication, growth kinetics, electronic properties and device applications of nanoscale silicides formed through solid state reaction.

  11. Thermal Stability of Magnesium Silicide/Nickel Contacts (United States)

    de Boor, J.; Droste, D.; Schneider, C.; Janek, J.; Mueller, E.


    Magnesium silicide-based materials are a very promising class of thermoelectric materials with excellent potential for thermoelectric waste heat recovery. For the successful application of magnesium silicide-based thermoelectric generators, the development of long-term stable contacts with low contact resistance is as important as material optimization. We have therefore studied the suitability of Ni as a contact material for magnesium silicide. Co-sintering of magnesium silicide and Ni leads to the formation of a stable reaction layer with low electrical resistance. In this paper we show that the contacts retain their low electrical contact resistance after annealing at temperatures up to 823 K for up to 168 h. By employing scanning electron microscope analysis and time-of-flight (ToF)-secondary ion mass spectrometry, we can further show that elemental diffusion is occurring to a very limited extent. This indicates long-term stability under practical operation conditions for magnesium silicide/nickel contacts.

  12. Joule-assisted silicidation for short-channel silicon nanowire devices. (United States)

    Mongillo, Massimo; Spathis, Panayotis; Katsaros, Georgios; Gentile, Pascal; Sanquer, Marc; De Franceschi, Silvano


    We report on a technique enabling electrical control of the contact silicidation process in silicon nanowire devices. Undoped silicon nanowires were contacted by pairs of nickel electrodes, and each contact was selectively silicided by means of the Joule effect. By a real-time monitoring of the nanowire electrical resistance during the contact silicidation process we were able to fabricate nickel-silicide/silicon/nickel-silicide devices with controlled silicon channel length down to 8 nm.

  13. Silicide precipitation strengthened TiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T. [Special Steel Research Laboratory, Daido Steel Co. Ltd., 2-30 Daido-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457 (Japan); Okabe, M. [Special Steel Research Laboratory, Daido Steel Co. Ltd., 2-30 Daido-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457 (Japan); Isobe, S. [Special Steel Research Laboratory, Daido Steel Co. Ltd., 2-30 Daido-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457 (Japan); Sayashi, M. [Materials Research Laboratory, Nissan Research Center, Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., 1 Natushima-cho, Yokosuka 237 (Japan)


    Precipitation of a titanium silicide Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} was found to be beneficial to improvement of the creep resistance of a fully lamellar Ti-48Al-1.5Cr cast alloy without the sacrifice of tensile properties. The addition of 0.26-0.65 mol% Si generates fine precipitates less than 200 nm in size during aging at 900 C for 5 h. The precipitates are effective obstacles to dislocation motion and raise the stress exponents of power law creep significantly. The specific creep strength of Si-containing alloys is better than that of a conventional Ni-base cast superalloy Inconel 713C at 800 C for 10000 h. ((orig.))

  14. Rare earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Martina


    The growth, structure and electronic properties of rare earth silicide nanowires are investigated on planar and vicinal Si(001) und Si(111) surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). On all surfaces investigated within this work hexagonal disilicides are grown epitaxially with a lattice mismatch of -2.55% up to +0.83% along the hexagonal a-axis. Along the hexagonal c-axis the lattice mismatch is essentially larger with 6.5%. On the Si(001)2 x 1 surface two types of nanowires are grown epitaxially. The socalled broad wires show a one-dimensional metallic valence band structure with states crossing the Fermi level. Along the nanowires two strongly dispersing states at the anti J point and a strongly dispersing state at the anti {gamma} point can be observed. Along the thin nanowires dispersing states could not be observed. Merely in the direction perpendicular to the wires an intensity variation could be observed, which corresponds to the observed spacial structure of the thin nanowires. The electronic properties of the broad erbium silicide nanowires are very similar to the broad dysprosium silicide nanowires. The electronic properties of the DySi{sub 2}-monolayer and the Dy{sub 3}Si{sub 5}-multilayer on the Si(111) surface are investigated in comparison to the known ErSi{sub 2}/Si(111) and Er{sub 3}Si{sub 5}/Si(111) system. The positions and the energetic locations of the observed band in the surface Brillouin zone will be confirmed for dysprosium. The shape of the electron pockets in the (vector)k {sub parallel} space is elliptical at the anti M points, while the hole pocket at the anti {gamma} point is showing a hexagonal symmetry. On the Si(557) surface the structural and electronic properties depend strongly on the different preparation conditions likewise, in particular on the rare earth coverage. At submonolayer coverage the thin nanowires grow in wide areas

  15. Silicide Nanowires for Low-Resistance CMOS Transistor Contacts. (United States)

    Zollner, Stefan


    Transition metal (TM) silicide nanowires are used as contacts for modern CMOS transistors. (Our smallest wires are ˜20 nm thick and ˜50 nm wide.) While much research on thick TM silicides was conducted long ago, materials perform differently at the nanoscale. For example, the usual phase transformation sequences (e.g., Ni, Ni2Si, NiSi, NiSi2) for the reaction of thick metal films on Si no longer apply to nanostructures, because the surface and interface energies compete with the bulk energy of a given crystal structure. Therefore, a NiSi film will agglomerate into hemispherical droplets of NiSi by annealing before it reaches the lowest-energy (NiSi2) crystalline structure. These dynamics can be tuned by addition of impurities (such as Pt in Ni). The Si surface preparation is also a more important factor for nanowires than for silicidation of thick TM films. Ni nanowires formed on Si surfaces that were cleaned and amorphized by sputtering with Ar ions have a tendency to form NiSi2 pyramids (``spikes'') even at moderate temperatures (˜400^oC), while similar Ni films formed on atomically clean or hydrogen-terminated Si form uniform NiSi nanowires. Another issue affecting TM silicides is the barrier height between the silicide contact and the silicon transistor. For most TM silicides, the Fermi level of the silicide is aligned with the center of the Si band gap. Therefore, silicide contacts experience Schottky barrier heights of around 0.5 eV for both n-type and p-type Si. The resulting contact resistance becomes a significant term for the overall resistance of modern CMOS transistors. Lowering this contact resistance is an important goal in CMOS research. New materials are under investigation (for example PtSi, which has a barrier height of only 0.3 eV to p-type Si). This talk will describe recent results, with special emphasis on characterization techniques and electrical testing useful for the development of silicide nanowires for CMOS contacts. In collaboration

  16. Evaluation of Transmission Line Model Structures for Silicide-to-Silicon Specific Contact Resistance Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavitski, Natalie; Dal, van Mark J.H.; Lauwers, Anne; Vrancken, Christa; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Wolters, Rob A.M.


    In order to measure silicide-to-silicon specific contact resistance ρc, transmission line model (TLM) structures were proposed as attractive candidates for embedding in CMOS processes. We optimized TLM structures for nickel silicide and platinum silicide and evaluated them for various doping levels

  17. Formation of Silicide Coating layer on U-Mo Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Min; Kim, Sunghwan; Lee, Kyu Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    High-density U-Mo alloys are regarded as promising candidates for advanced research reactor fuel as they have shown stable irradiation performance when compared to other uranium alloys and compounds. However, interaction layer formation between the U-Mo alloys and Al matrix degrades the irradiation performance of U-Mo Dispersion fuel. Therefore, the addition of Ti in U-Mo alloys, the addition of Si in a Al matrix, and silicide or nitride coating on the surface of U-Mo particles have been proposed to inhibit the interaction layer growth. In this study, U-Mo alloy powder was produced using a centrifugal atomization method. In addition, silicide coating layers were fabricated by several mixing process changes on the surface of the U-Mo particles. The coated powders were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). Decreased annealing duration did not affect the forming of silicide coating layers on the surface of U-7wt%Mo powders. The variation in the mixing ratio between U-7wt%Mo and Si powders had an effect on the quality of silicide coating on the U-7wt%Mo powders. The weight of Si powders should be smaller than that of U-7wt%Mo powders for better silicide coating when it comes to the mixing ratio.

  18. Silicide/Silicon Hetero-Junction Structure for Thermoelectric Applications. (United States)

    Jun, Dongsuk; Kim, Soojung; Choi, Wonchul; Kim, Junsoo; Zyung, Taehyoung; Jang, Moongyu


    We fabricated silicide/silicon hetero-junction structured thermoelectric device by CMOS process for the reduction of thermal conductivity with the scatterings of phonons at silicide/silicon interfaces. Electrical conductivities, Seebeck coefficients, power factors, and temperature differences are evaluated using the steady state analysis method. Platinum silicide/silicon multilayered structure showed an enhanced Seebeck coefficient and power factor characteristics, which was considered for p-leg element. Also, erbium silicide/silicon structure showed an enhanced Seebeck coefficient, which was considered for an n-leg element. Silicide/silicon multilayered structure is promising for thermoelectric applications by reducing thermal conductivity with an enhanced Seebeck coefficient. However, because of the high thermal conductivity of the silicon packing during thermal gradient is not a problem any temperature difference. Therefore, requires more testing and analysis in order to overcome this problem. Thermoelectric generators are devices that based on the Seebeck effect, convert temperature differences into electrical energy. Although thermoelectric phenomena have been used for heating and cooling applications quite extensively, it is only in recent years that interest has increased in energy generation.

  19. Submicron Features in Higher Manganese Silicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatir Sadia


    Full Text Available The world energy crisis had increased the demand for alternative energy sources and as such is one of the topics at the forefront of research. One way for reducing energy consumption is by thermoelectricity. Thermoelectric effects enable direct conversion of thermal into electrical energy. Higher manganese silicide (HMS, MnSi1.75 is one of the promising materials for applications in the field of thermoelectricity. The abundance and low cost of the elements, combined with good thermoelectric properties and high mechanical and chemical stability at high temperatures, make it very attractive for thermoelectric applications. Recent studies have shown that Si-rich HMS has improved thermoelectric properties. The most interesting of which is the unusual reduction in thermal conductivity. In the current research, transmission (TEM and scanning (SEM electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffraction methods were applied for investigation of the govern mechanisms resulting in very low thermal conductivity values of an Si-rich HMS composition, following arc melting and hot-pressing procedures. In this paper, it is shown that there is a presence of sub-micron dislocations walls, stacking faults, and silicon and HMS precipitates inside each other apparent in the matrix, following a high temperature (0.9 Tm hot pressing for an hour. These are not just responsible for the low thermal conductivity values observed but also indicate the ability to create complicate nano-structures that will last during the production process and possibly during the application.

  20. Formation of cobalt silicide by ion beam mixing (United States)

    Min, Ye; Burte, Edmund P.; Ryssel, Heiner


    The formation of cobalt silicides by arsenic ion implantation through a cobalt film which causes a mixing of the metal with the silicon substrate was investigated. Furthermore, cobalt suicides were formed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Sheet resistance and silicide phases of implanted Co/Si samples depend on the As dose. Ion beam mixing at doses higher than 5 × 10 15 cm -2 and RTA at temperatures T ⩾ 900° C result in almost equal values of Rs. RBS and XRD spectra of these samples illustrate the formation of a homogeneous CoSi 2 layer. Significant lateral growth of cobalt silicide beyond the edge of patterned SiO 2 was observed in samples which were only subjected to an RTA process ( T ⩾ 900 ° C), while this lateral suicide growth could be reduced efficiently by As implantation prior to RTA.

  1. Si-Ge Nano-Structured with Tungsten Silicide Inclusions (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred


    Traditional silicon germanium high temperature thermoelectrics have potential for improvements in figure of merit via nano-structuring with a silicide phase. A second phase of nano-sized silicides can theoretically reduce the lattice component of thermal conductivity without significantly reducing the electrical conductivity. However, experimentally achieving such improvements in line with the theory is complicated by factors such as control of silicide size during sintering, dopant segregation, matrix homogeneity, and sintering kinetics. Samples are prepared using powder metallurgy techniques; including mechanochemical alloying via ball milling and spark plasma sintering for densification. In addition to microstructural development, thermal stability of thermoelectric transport properties are reported, as well as couple and device level characterization.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.H. Zhang; Z.Z. Yi; X.Y. Wu; S.J. Zhang; Y.G. Wu; X. Zhang; H.X. Zhang; A.D. Liu; X.J. Zhang


    Mo silicides MosSi3 with high quality were prepared using ion beam deposition equip-ment with two Filter Metal Vacuum Arc Deposition (FMEVAD). When the numberof alternant deposition times was 198, total thickness of the coating is 40nm. Thecoatings with droplet free can be readily obtained, so the surface is smooth. TEMobservation shows that Mo and Si alternant deposition coating is conpact structure.The fine Mo silicide grains densely distributed in the coating. The coating adherenceon silicon is excellent.

  3. Spin, Charge, and Bonding in Transition Metal Mono Silicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, D. van der; Damascelli, A.; Schulte, K.; Menovsky, A. A.


    Published in: Physica B 244 (1998) 138-147 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We review some of the relevant physical properties of the transition metal mono-silicides with the FeSi structure (CrSi, MnSi, FeSi, CoSi, NiSi, etc) and explore the relation between their structural

  4. Neutronic design of the RSG-GAS silicide core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sembiring, T.M.; Kuntoro, I.; Hastowo, H. [Center for Development of Research Reactor Technology National Nuclear Energy Agency BATAN, PUSPIPTEK Serpong Tangerang, 15310 (Indonesia)


    The objective of core conversion program of the RSG-GAS multipurpose reactor is to convert the fuel from oxide, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al to silicide, U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al. The aim of the program is to gain longer operation cycle by having, which is technically possible for silicide fuel, a higher density. Upon constraints of the existing reactor system and utilization, an optimal fuel density in amount of 3.55 g U/cc was found. This paper describes the neutronic parameter design of the silicide equilibrium core and the design of its transition cores as well. From reactivity control point of view, a modification of control rod system is also discussed. All calculations are carried out by means of diffusion codes, Batan-EQUIL-2D, Batan-2DIFF and -3DIFF. The silicide core shows that longer operation cycle of 32 full power days can be achieved without decreasing the safety criteria and utilization capabilities. (author)

  5. Study of nickel silicide formation by physical vapor deposition techniques (United States)

    Pancharatnam, Shanti

    Metal silicides are used as contacts to the highly n-doped emitter in photovoltaic devices. Thin films of nickel silicide (NiSi) are of particular interest for Si-based solar cells, as they form at lower temperature and consume less silicon. However, interfacial oxide limits the reduction in sheet resistance. Hence, different diffusion barriers were investigated with regard to optimizing the conductivity and thermal stability. The formation of NiSi, and if it can be doped to have good contact with the n-side of a p-n junction were studied. Reduction of the interfacial oxide by the interfacial Ti layer to allow the formation of NiSi was observed. Silicon was treated in dilute hydrofluoric acid for removing the surface oxide layer. Ni and a Ti diffusion barrier were deposited on Si by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods - electron beam evaporation and sputtering. The annealing temperature and time were varied to observe the stability of the deposited film. The films were then etched to observe the retention of the silicide. Characterization was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford back scattering (RBS). Sheet resistance was measured using the four-point probe technique. Annealing temperatures from 300°C showed films began to agglomerate indicating some diffusion between Ni and Si in the Ti layer, also supported by the compositional analysis in the Auger spectra. Films obtained by evaporation and sputtering were of high quality in terms of coverage over substrate area and uniformity. Thicknesses of Ni and Ti were optimized to 20 nm and 10 nm respectively. Resistivity was low at these thicknesses, and reduced by about half post annealing at 300°C for 8 hours. Thus a low resistivity contact was obtained at optimized thicknesses of the metal layers. It was also shown that some silicide formation occurs at temperatures starting from 300°C and can thus be used to make good silicide contacts.

  6. Texture in thin film silicides and germanides: A review (United States)

    De Schutter, B.; De Keyser, K.; Lavoie, C.; Detavernier, C.


    Silicides and germanides are compounds consisting of a metal and silicon or germanium. In the microelectronics industry, silicides are the material of choice for contacting silicon based devices (over the years, CoSi2, C54-TiSi2, and NiSi have been adopted), while germanides are considered as a top candidate for contacting future germanium based electronics. Since also strain engineering through the use of Si1-xGex in the source/drain/gate regions of MOSFET devices is an important technique for improving device characteristics in modern Si-based microelectronics industry, a profound understanding of the formation of silicide/germanide contacts to silicon and germanium is of utmost importance. The crystallographic texture of these films, which is defined as the statistical distribution of the orientation of the grains in the film, has been the subject of scientific studies since the 1970s. Different types of texture like epitaxy, axiotaxy, fiber, or combinations thereof have been observed in such films. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that film texture can have a profound influence on the formation and stability of silicide/germanide contacts, as it controls the type and orientation of grain boundaries (affecting diffusion and agglomeration) and the interface energy (affecting nucleation during the solid-state reaction). Furthermore, the texture also has an impact on the electrical characteristics of the contact, as the orientation and size of individual grains influences functional properties such as contact resistance and sheet resistance and will induce local variations in strain and Schottky barrier height. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the scientific work that has been published in the field of texture studies on thin film silicide/germanide contacts.

  7. Titanium-based silicide quantum dot superlattices for thermoelectrics applications. (United States)

    Savelli, Guillaume; Stein, Sergio Silveira; Bernard-Granger, Guillaume; Faucherand, Pascal; Montès, Laurent; Dilhaire, Stefan; Pernot, Gilles


    Ti-based silicide quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) are grown by reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition. They are made of titanium-based silicide nanodots scattered in an n-doped SiGe matrix. This is the first time that such nanostructured materials have been grown in both monocrystalline and polycrystalline QDSLs. We studied their crystallographic structures and chemical properties, as well as the size and the density of the quantum dots. The thermoelectric properties of the QDSLs are measured and compared to equivalent SiGe thin films to evaluate the influence of the nanodots. Our studies revealed an increase in their thermoelectric properties-specifically, up to a trifold increase in the power factor, with a decrease in the thermal conductivity-making them very good candidates for further thermoelectric applications in cooling or energy-harvesting fields.

  8. Oxidation behavior of molybdenum silicides and their composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Deevi, S. C.


    A key materials issue associated with the future of high-temperature structural silicides is the resistance of these materials to oxidation at low temperatures. Oxidation tests were conducted on Mo-based silicides over a wide temperature range to evaluate the effects of alloy composition and temperature on the protective scaling characteristics and testing regime for the materials. The study included Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} alloys that contained several concentrations of B. In addition, oxidation characteristics of MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites that contained 20--80 vol.% Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were evaluated at 500--1,400 C.

  9. Infrared and Raman characterization of beta iron silicide (United States)

    Lefki, K.; Muret, P.; Bustarret, E.; Boutarek, N.; Madar, R.; Chevrier, J.; Derrien, J.; Brunel, M.


    Samples of beta-iron silicide were prepared by three different methods : solid phase reaction on silicon (111), on a monocrystaline FeSi substrate, and from the melt. These samples have been characterized by x-ray diffraction and investigated by Infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The infrared and Raman lines are compared with theoretical predictions given by the factor group analysis of the silicide primitive cell, which yields the number and the symmetry of the different modes. We relate the red shift of the Infrared and Raman lines on samples with smaller lattice parameters to the presence of Iron vacancies in films deposited on silicon, in agreement with the sign of the thermoelectric power.

  10. Controlling nickel silicide phase formation by Si implantation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihard, M.; Turcotte-Tremblay, P. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Gaudet, S.; Coia, C. [Departement de Genie Physique, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Roorda, S. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Desjardins, P. [Departement de Genie Physique, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Lavoie, C. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York (United States); Schiettekatte, F. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal (Canada)], E-mail:


    In the context of fabrication process of contacts in CMOS integrated circuits, we studied the effect of implantation-induced damage on the Ni silicide phase formation sequence. The device layers of Silicon-on-insulator samples were implanted with 30 or 60 keV Si ions at several fluences up to amorphization. Next, 10 or 30 nm Ni layers were deposited. The monitoring of annealing treatments was achieved with time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and pole figure XRD were also used to characterize some intermediate phase formations. We show the existence of an implantation threshold (1 ions/nm{sup 2}) from where the silicidation behaviour changes significantly, the formation temperature of the disilicide namely shifting abruptly from 800 to 450 deg. C. It is also found that the monosilicide formation onset temperature for the thinner Ni deposits increases linearly by about 30 deg. C with the amount of damage.

  11. Stacked Metal Silicide/Silicon Far-Infrared Detectors (United States)

    Maserjian, Joseph


    Selective doping of silicon in proposed metal silicide/silicon Schottky-barrier infrared photodetector increases maximum detectable wavelength. Stacking layers to form multiple Schottky barriers increases quantum efficiency of detector. Detectors of new type enhance capabilities of far-infrared imaging arrays. Grows by molecular-beam epitaxy on silicon waferscontaining very-large-scale integrated circuits. Imaging arrays of detectors made in monolithic units with image-preprocessing circuitry.

  12. Preparation of Magnesium Silicide from Recycled Materials for Energy Storage.


    Bumba, Jakub


    Recycling technologies help to save energy, materials and environment. This is the main reason of their popularity. The recovery of semiconductors and metals depends on recycling treatment. A new multi-step technology, which enables to obtain pure silicon and hydrogen from waste materials,is reported in this study. The only by-product is magnesium phosphate, which is a desired fertilizer. Magnesium silicide was successfully prepared from milled silicon photovoltaic (PV) panels and mill...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Q. Xie; W.W. Wang; N. Jiang; D.Y. He


    Manganese silicide MnSi2-x thin films have been prepared on n-type silicon substratesthrough solid phase reaction. The heterostructures were analyzed by X-ray diffraction,Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared transmittance spec-troscopy and the four-point probe technique. The results show that two manganese sili-cides have been formed sequentially via the reaction of thin layer Mn with Si substrateat different irradiation annealing stages, i.e., MnSi at 450℃ and MnSi1.73 at 550℃.MnSi1.73 phase exhibits preferred growth after irradiation with infrared. In situ four-point probe measurements of sheet resistance during infrared irradiation annealingshow that nucleation of MnSi and phase transformation of MnSi to MnSi1. 73 occur at410℃ and 530℃, respectively; the MnSi phase shows metallic behavior, while MnSi1.73exhibits semiconducting behavior. Characteristic phonon bands of MnSi2-x silicides,which can be used for phase identification along with conventional XRD techniques,have been observed by FTIR spectroscopy.

  14. Fuel management strategy for the new equilibrium silicide core design of RSG GAS (MPR-30)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Liem Peng; Arbie, Bakri; Sembiring, T.M. [National Atomic Energy Agency (Batan), Center for Multipurpose Reactor, Tangerang (Indonesia)


    The design procedure and fuel management strategy were proposed for converting the oxide core of RSG GAS (MPR-30) to the new equilibrium silicide core using higher uranium loading. The obtained silicide core gave significant extension of the core cycle length and thus increasing the reactor availability and utilisation. (author)

  15. Fuel management strategy for the new equilibrium silicide core design of RSG GAS (MPR-30)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Liem Peng; Arbie, Bakri; Sembiring, T.M. [National Atomic Energy Agency (Batan), Center for Multipurpose Reactor, Tangerang (Indonesia)


    The design procedure and fuel management strategy were proposed for converting the oxide core of RSG GAS (MPR-30) to the new equilibrium silicide core using higher uranium loading. The obtained silicide core gave significant extension of the core cycle length and thus increasing the reactor availability and utilisation. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  16. Mechanoactivation of chromium silicide formation in the SiC-Cr-Si system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova M.


    Full Text Available The processes of simultaneous grinding of the components of a SiC-Cr-Si mixture and further temperature treatment in the temperature range 1073-1793 K were studied by X-ray phase analysis, IR spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis. It was established that, during grinding of the mixture, chromium silicides form. A temperature treatment completes the process. Silicide formation proceeds within the framework of the diffusion of silicon into chromium. In the presence of SiO2 in the mixture, silicide formation occurs also as a result of the reduction of silica by silicon and silicon carbide. The sintering of synthesized composite SiC-chromium silicides powders at a high temperature under a high pressure (T = 2073 K, P = 5 GPa is accompanied by the destruction of cc-SiC particles, the cc/3 transition in silicon carbide and deformation distortions of the lattices of chromium silicides.

  17. Atomic size effects studied by transport in single silicide nanowires (United States)

    Miccoli, I.; Edler, F.; Pfnür, H.; Appelfeller, S.; Dähne, M.; Holtgrewe, K.; Sanna, S.; Schmidt, W. G.; Tegenkamp, C.


    Ultrathin metallic silicide nanowires with extremely high aspect ratios can be easily grown, e.g., by deposition of rare earth elements on semiconducting surfaces. These wires play a pivotal role in fundamental research and open intriguing perspectives for CMOS applications. However, the electronic properties of these one-dimensional systems are extremely sensitive to atomic-sized defects, which easily alter the transport characteristics. In this study, we characterized comprehensively TbSi2 wires grown on Si(100) and correlated details of the atomic structure with their electrical resistivities. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as all transport experiments were performed in situ using a four-tip STM system. The measurements are complemented by local spectroscopy and density functional theory revealing that the silicide wires are electronically decoupled from the Si template. On the basis of a quasiclassical transport model, the size effect found for the resistivity is quantitatively explained in terms of bulk and surface transport channels considering details of atomic-scale roughness. Regarding future applications the full wealth of these robust nanostructures will emerge only if wires with truly atomically sharp interfaces can be reliably grown.

  18. Work function characterization of solution-processed cobalt silicide (United States)

    Shihab Ullah, Syed; Robinson, Matt; Hoey, Justin; Sky Driver, M.; Caruso, A. N.; Schulz, Douglas L.


    Cobalt silicide thin films were prepared by spin-coating liquid cyclohexasilane-based inks onto silicon substrates followed by a thermal treatment. The work function of the solution-processed Co-Si was determined by both capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures as well as by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Variable frequency C-V of MOS structures with silicon oxide layers of variable thickness showed that solution-processed metal silicide films exhibit a work function of 4.36 eV with one Co-Si film on Si giving a UPS-derived work function of 4.80 eV. Similar work function measurements were collected for vapor-deposited MOS capacitors where Al thin films were prepared according to standard class 100 cleanroom handling techniques. In both instances, the work function values established by the electrical measurements were lower than those measured by UPS and this difference appears to be a consequence of parasitic series resistance.

  19. Silicidation in Pd/Si thin film junction-Defect evolution and silicon surface segregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhaya, S. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)], E-mail:; Venugopal Rao, G.; Rajaraman, R.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Sastry, V.S. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)


    Depth resolved positron annihilation studies on Pd/Si thin film system have been carried out to investigate silicide phase formation and vacancy defect production induced by thermal annealing. The evolution of defect sensitive S-parameter clearly indicates the presence of divacancy defects across the interface, due to enhanced Si diffusion beyond 870 K consequent to silicide formation. Corroborative glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) have elucidated the aspects related to silicide phase formation and Si surface segregation.

  20. Comparison of nickel silicide and aluminium ohmic contact metallizations for low-temperature quantum transport measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polley Craig


    Full Text Available Abstract We examine nickel silicide as a viable ohmic contact metallization for low-temperature, low-magnetic-field transport measurements of atomic-scale devices in silicon. In particular, we compare a nickel silicide metallization with aluminium, a common ohmic contact for silicon devices. Nickel silicide can be formed at the low temperatures (<400°C required for maintaining atomic precision placement in donor-based devices, and it avoids the complications found with aluminium contacts which become superconducting at cryogenic measurement temperatures. Importantly, we show that the use of nickel silicide as an ohmic contact at low temperatures does not affect the thermal equilibration of carriers nor contribute to hysteresis in a magnetic field.

  1. Controlled assembly of graphene-capped nickel, cobalt and iron silicides (United States)

    Vilkov, O.; Fedorov, A.; Usachov, D.; Yashina, L. V.; Generalov, A. V.; Borygina, K.; Verbitskiy, N. I.; Grüneis, A.; Vyalikh, D. V.


    The unique properties of graphene have raised high expectations regarding its application in carbon-based nanoscale devices that could complement or replace traditional silicon technology. This gave rise to the vast amount of researches on how to fabricate high-quality graphene and graphene nanocomposites that is currently going on. Here we show that graphene can be successfully integrated with the established metal-silicide technology. Starting from thin monocrystalline films of nickel, cobalt and iron, we were able to form metal silicides of high quality with a variety of stoichiometries under a Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene layer. These graphene-capped silicides are reliably protected against oxidation and can cover a wide range of electronic materials/device applications. Most importantly, the coupling between the graphene layer and the silicides is rather weak and the properties of quasi-freestanding graphene are widely preserved.

  2. Mechanical, elastic and thermodynamic properties of crystalline lithium silicides

    CERN Document Server

    Schwalbe, Sebastian; Trepte, Kai; Biedermann, Franziska; Mertens, Florian; Kortus, Jens


    We investigate crystalline thermodynamic stable lithium silicides phases (LixSiy) with density functional theory (DFT) and a force-field method based on modified embedded atoms (MEAM) and compare our results with experimental data. This work presents a fast and accurate framework to calculate thermodynamic properties of crystal structures with large unit cells with MEAM based on molecular dynamics (MD). Mechanical properties like the bulk modulus and the elastic constants are evaluated in addition to thermodynamic properties including the phonon density of states, the vibrational free energy and the isochoric/isobaric specific heat capacity for Li, Li12Si7, Li7Si3, Li13Si4, Li15Si4, Li21Si5, Li17Si4, Li22Si5 and Si. For a selected phase (Li13Si4) we study the effect of a temperature dependent phonon density of states and its effect on the isobaric heat capacity.

  3. Capping of rare earth silicide nanowires on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelfeller, Stephan; Franz, Martin; Kubicki, Milan; Dähne, Mario [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Reiß, Paul; Niermann, Tore; Lehmann, Michael [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Schubert, Markus Andreas [IHP–Leibniz-Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)


    The capping of Tb and Dy silicide nanowires grown on Si(001) was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Several nanometers thick amorphous Si films deposited at room temperature allow an even capping, while the nanowires maintain their original structural properties. Subsequent recrystallization by thermal annealing leads to more compact nanowire structures and to troughs in the Si layer above the nanowires, which may even reach down to the nanowires in the case of thin Si films, as well as to V-shaped stacking faults forming along (111) lattice planes. This behavior is related to strain due to the lattice mismatch between the Si overlayer and the nanowires.

  4. Status of the atomized uranium silicide fuel development at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C.K.; Kim, K.H.; Park, H.D.; Kuk, I.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    While developing KMRR fuel fabrication technology an atomizing technique has been applied in order to eliminate the difficulties relating to the tough property of U{sub 3}Si and to take advantage of the rapid solidification effect of atomization. The comparison between the conventionally comminuted powder dispersion fuel and the atomized powder dispersion fuel has been made. As the result, the processes, uranium silicide powdering and heat treatment for U{sub 3}Si transformation, become simplified. The workability, the thermal conductivity and the thermal compatibility of fuel meat have been investigated and found to be improved due to the spherical shape of atomized powder. In this presentation the overall developments of atomized U{sub 3}Si dispersion fuel and the planned activities for applying the atomizing technique to the real fuel fabrication are described.

  5. Synthesis of Co-silicides and fabrication of microwavepower device using MEVVA source implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张通和; 吴瑜光; 钱卫东; 刘要东; 张旭


    Co synthesis silicides with good properties were prepared using MEVVA ion implantation with flux of 25-125 mA/cm2 to does of 5×1017/cm2. The structure of the silicides was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analysis shows that if the ion dose is greater than 2×1017/cm2, a continuous silicide layer will be formed. The sheet resistance of Co silicide decreases with an increase in ion flux and ion dose. The formation of silicides with CoSi and CoSi2 are identified by XRD analysis. After annealing, the sheet resistance decreases further. A continuous silicide layer with a width of 90-133 nm is formed. The optimal implantation condition is that the ion flux and dose are 50 mA/cm2 and 5×1017/cm2, respectively. The optimal annealing temperature and time are 900℃ and 10 s, respectively. The ohmic contact for power microwave transistors is fabricated using Co ion implantation technique for the first time. The emitter contact resistance and noise of the transistors decrease markedly; the microwave property has been improved obviously.

  6. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.; Park, Y.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.


    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the US processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive US processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Johns Manville Corporation targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. With Combustion Technology Inc., they are developing silicide-based periscope sight tubes for the direct observation of glass melts. With Accutru International Corporation, they are developing silicide-based protective sheaths for self-verifying temperature sensors which may be used in glass furnaces and other industrial applications. The progress made on the program in this period is summarized.

  7. Production Cycle for Large Scale Fission Mo-99 Separation by the Processing of Irradiated LEU Uranium Silicide Fuel Element Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hadi Ali Sameh


    Full Text Available Uranium silicide fuels proved over decades their exceptional qualification for the operation of higher flux material testing reactors with LEU elements. The application of such fuels as target materials, particularly for the large scale fission Mo-99 producers, offers an efficient and economical solution for the related facilities. The realization of such aim demands the introduction of a suitable dissolution process for the applied U3Si2 compound. Excellent results are achieved by the oxidizing dissolution of the fuel meat in hydrofluoric acid at room temperature. The resulting solution is directly behind added to an over stoichiometric amount of potassium hydroxide solution. Uranium and the bulk of fission products are precipitated together with the transuranium compounds. The filtrate contains the molybdenum and the soluble fission product species. It is further treated similar to the in-full scale proven process. The generated off gas stream is handled also as experienced before after passing through KOH washing solution. The generated alkaline fluoride containing waste solution is noncorrosive. Nevertheless fluoride can be selectively bonded as in soluble CaF2 by addition of a mixture of solid calcium hydroxide calcium carbonate to the sand cement mixture used for waste solidification. The generated elevated amounts of LEU remnants can be recycled and retargeted. The related technology permits the minimization of the generated fuel waste, saving environment, and improving processing economy.

  8. On the size-dependent magnetism and all-optical magnetization switching of transition-metal silicide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glushkov, G. I.; Tuchin, A. V.; Popov, S. V.; Bityutskaya, L. A., E-mail: [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)


    Theoretical investigations of the electronic structure, synthesis, and all-optical magnetization switching of transition-metal silicide nanostructures are reported. The magnetic moment of the nanostructures is studied as a function of the silicide cluster size and configuration. The experimentally demonstrated magnetization switching of nanostructured nickel silicide by circularly polarized light makes it possible to create high-speed storage devices with high density data recording.

  9. Simulated Fission Gas Behavior in Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harp, Jason [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions need to be well-understood. However, existing experimental post-irradiation examination (PIE) data are limited to the research reactor conditions, which involve lower fuel temperature compared to LWR conditions. This lack of appropriate experimental data significantly affects the development of fuel performance codes that can precisely predict the microstructure evolution and property degradation at LWR conditions and therefore evaluate the qualification of U3Si2 as an AFT for LWRs. Considering the high cost, long timescale, and restrictive access of the in-pile irradiation experiments, this study aims to utilize ion irradiation to simulate the inpile behavior of the U3Si2 fuel. Both in situ TEM ion irradiation and ex situ high-energy ATLAS ion irradiation experiments were employed to simulate different types of microstructure modifications in U3Si2. Multiple PIE techniques were used or will be used to quantitatively analyze the microstructure evolution induced by ion irradiation so as to provide valuable reference for the development of fuel performance code prior to the availability of the in-pile irradiation data.

  10. High Quality Factor Platinum Silicide Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Szypryt, P; Ulbricht, G; Bumble, B; Meeker, S R; Bockstiegel, C; Walter, A B


    We report on the development of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) using platinum silicide as the sensor material. MKIDs are an emerging superconducting detector technology, capable of measuring the arrival times of single photons to better than two microseconds and their energies to around ten percent. Previously, MKIDs have been fabricated using either sub-stoichiometric titanium nitride or aluminum, but TiN suffers from spatial inhomogeneities in the superconducting critical temperature and Al has a low kinetic inductance fraction, causing low detector sensitivity. To address these issues, we have instead fabricated PtSi microresonators with superconducting critical temperatures of 944$\\pm$12~mK and high internal quality factors ($Q_i \\gtrsim 10^6$). These devices show typical quasiparticle lifetimes of $\\tau_{qp} \\approx 30$--$40~\\mu$s and spectral resolution, $R = \\lambda / \\Delta \\lambda$, of 8 at 406.6~nm. We compare PtSi MKIDs to those fabricated with TiN and detail the substantial advanta...

  11. Simulated Fission Gas Behavior in Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harp, Jason [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions needs to be well-understood. However, existing experimental post-irradiation examination (PIE) data are limited to the research reactor conditions, which involve lower fuel temperature compared to LWR conditions. This lack of appropriate experimental data significantly affects the development of fuel performance codes that can precisely predict the microstructure evolution and property degradation at LWR conditions, and therefore evaluate the qualification of U3Si2 as an AFT for LWRs. Considering the high cost, long timescale, and restrictive access of the in-pile irradiation experiments, this study aims to utilize ion irradiation to simulate the inpile behavior of the U3Si2 fuel. Both in situ TEM ion irradiation and ex situ high-energy ATLAS ion irradiation experiments were employed to simulate different types of microstructure modifications in U3Si2. Multiple PIE techniques were used or will be used to quantitatively analyze the microstructure evolution induced by ion irradiation so as to provide valuable reference for the development of fuel performance code prior to the availability of the in-pile irradiation data.

  12. Attempt to produce silicide fuel elements in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soentono, S. (Nuclear Fuel Element Centre, BATAN Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia)); Suripto, A. (Nuclear Fuel Element Centre, BATAN Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia))


    After the successful experiment to produce U[sub 3]Si[sub 2] powder and U[sub 3]Si[sub 2]-Al fuel plates using depleted U and Si of semiconductor quality, silicide fuel was synthesized using <20% enriched U metal and silicon chips employing production train of UAl[sub x]-Al available at the Fuel Element Production Installation (FEPI) at Serpong, Indonesia. Two full-size U[sub 3]Si[sub 2]-Al fuel elements, having similar specifications to the ones of U[sub 3]O[sub 8]-Al for the RSG-GAS (formerly known as MPR-30), have been produced at the FEPI. All quality controls required have been imposed to the feeds, intermediate, as well as final products throughout the production processes of the two fuel elements. The current results show that these fuel elements are qualified from fabrication point of view, therefore it is expected that they will be permitted to be tested in the RSG-GAS, sometime by the end of 1989, for normal ([proportional to]50%) and above normal burn-up. (orig.)

  13. Silicidation in Ni/Si thin film system investigated by X-ray diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhaya, S. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)]. E-mail:; Kalavathi, S. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Gopalan, Padma [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kamruddin, M. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sastry, V.S. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sundar, C.S. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)


    Silicide formation induced by thermal annealing in Ni/Si thin film system has been investigated using glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Silicide formation takes place at 870 K with Ni{sub 2}Si, NiSi and NiSi{sub 2} phases co-existing with Ni. Complete conversion of intermediate silicide phases to the final NiSi{sub 2} phase takes place at 1170 K. Atomic force microscopy measurements have revealed the coalescence of pillar-like structures to ridge-like structures upon silicidation. A comparison of the experimental results in terms of the evolution of various silicide phases is presented.

  14. Role of Ti3Al/silicides on tensile properties of Timetal 834 at various temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Sai Srinadh; Nidhi Singh; V Singh


    Extremely fine coherent precipitates of ordered Ti3Al and relatively coarse incoherent precipitates of 2 silicide exist together in the near -titanium alloy, Timetal 834, in the dual phase matrix of primary and transformed . In order to assess the role of these precipitates, three heat treatments viz. WQ, WQ–A and WQ–OA, were given to have no precipitates, Ti3Al and silicide and only silicide precipitates in the respective conditions. Tensile properties in the above three heat treated conditions were determined at room temperature, 673 K and 873 K. It was observed that largely Ti3Al precipitates were responsible for increase in the yield strength and decrease in ductility in this alloy.

  15. Anisotropic thermal expansion of Ni, Pd and Pt germanides and silicides (United States)

    Geenen, F. A.; Knaepen, W.; Moens, F.; Brondeel, L.; Leenaers, A.; Van den Berghe, S.; Detavernier, C.


    Silicon or germanium-based transistors are nowadays used in direct contact with silicide or germanide crystalline alloys for semiconductor device applications. Since these compounds are formed at elevated temperatures, accurate knowledge of the thermal expansion of both substrate and the contact is important to address temperature depending effects such as thermal stress. Here we report the linear coefficients of thermal expansion of Ni-, Pd- and Pt-based mono-germanides, mono-silicides and di-metal-silicides as determined by powder-based x-ray diffraction between 300 and 1225 K. The investigated mono-metallic compounds, all sharing the MnP crystal structure, as well as Pd2Si and Pt2Si exhibit anisotropic expansion. By consequence, this anisotropic behaviour should be taken into account for evaluating the crystal unit’s cell at elevated temperatures.

  16. Use of silicide fuel in the Ford Nuclear Reactor - to lengthen fuel element lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Burn, R.R.; Lee, J.C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Phoenix Memorial Lab.


    Based on economic considerations, it has been proposed to increase the lifetime of LEU fuel elements in the Ford Nuclear Reactor by raising the {sup 235}U plate loading from 9.3 grams in aluminide (UAl{sub x}) fuel to 12.5 grams in silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) fuel. For a representative core configuration, preliminary neutronic depletion and steady state thermal hydraulic calculations have been performed to investigate core characteristics during the transition from an all-aluminide to an all-silicide core. This paper discusses motivations for this fuel element upgrade, results from the calculations, and conclusions.

  17. Self-organized growth and magnetic properties of epitaxial silicide nanoislands (United States)

    Tripathi, J. K.; Levy, R.; Camus, Y.; Dascalu, M.; Cesura, F.; Chalasani, R.; Kohn, A.; Markovich, G.; Goldfarb, I.


    Self-organized transition-metal (Ni and Fe) and rare-earth (Er) silicide nanostructures were grown on Si(1 1 1) and Si(0 0 1) surfaces under low coverage conditions, in a "solid phase" and "reactive deposition" epitaxial regimes. Island evolution was continuously monitored in-situ, using real-time scanning tunneling microscopy and surface electron diffraction. After anneal of a Ni/Si(1 1 1) surface at 700 °C, we observed small hemispherical Ni-silicide nanoislands ∼10 nm in diameter decorating surface steps in a self-ordered fashion and pinning them. Fe-silicide nanoislands formed after a 550 °C anneal of a Fe-covered surface, were also self-ordered along the surface step-bunches, however were significantly larger (∼70 × 10 nm) and exhibited well-developed three-dimensional polyhedral shapes. Ni-silicide islands were sparsely distributed, separated by about ∼100 nm from one another, on average, whereas Fe-silicide islands were more densely packed, with only ∼50 nm mean separation distance. In spite of the above differences between both types of island in size, shape, and number density, the self-ordering in both cases was close to ideal, with practically no islands nucleated on terraces. Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry showed considerable superparamagnetism, in particular in Fe-silicide islands with ∼1.9 μB/Fe atom, indicating stronger ferromagnetic coupling of individual magnetic moments, contrary to Ni-silicide islands with the calculated moments of only ∼ 0.5μB /Ni atom. To elucidate the effects of the island size, shape, and lateral ordering on the measured magnetic response, we have controllably changed the island morphology by varying deposition methods and conditions and even using differently oriented Si substrates. We have also begun experimenting with rare-earth silicide islands. In the forthcoming experiments we intend to compare the magnetic response of these variously built and composed islands and correlate

  18. Optically probing the detection mechanism in a molybdenum silicide superconducting nanowire single-photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Caloz, Misael; Timoney, Nuala; Weiss, Markus; Gariglio, Stefano; Warburton, Richard J; Schönenberger, Christian; Renema, Jelmer; Zbinden, Hugo; Bussieres, Felix


    We experimentally investigate the detection mechanism in a meandered molybdenum silicide (MoSi) superconducting nanowire single-photon detector by characterising the detection probability as a function of bias current in the wavelength range of 750 to 2050 nm. Contrary to some previous observations on niobium nitride (NbN) or tungsten silicide (WSi) detectors, we find that the energy-current relation is nonlinear in this range. Furthermore, thanks to the presence of a saturated detection efficiency over the whole range of wavelengths, we precisely quantify the shape of the curves. This allows a detailed study of their features, which are indicative of both Fano fluctuations and position-dependent effects.

  19. Radiation Re-solution Calculation in Uranium-Silicide Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andersson, Anders David Ragnar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The release of fission gas from nuclear fuels is of primary concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants. Although the production of fission gas atoms can be easily calculated from the fission rate in the fuel and the average yield of fission gas, the actual diffusion, behavior, and ultimate escape of fission gas from nuclear fuel depends on many other variables. As fission gas diffuses through the fuel grain, it tends to collect into intra-granular bubbles, as portrayed in Figure 1.1. These bubbles continue to grow due to absorption of single gas atoms. Simultaneously, passing fission fragments can cause collisions in the bubble that result in gas atoms being knocked back into the grain. This so called “re-solution” event results in a transient equilibrium of single gas atoms within the grain. As single gas atoms progress through the grain, they will eventually collect along grain boundaries, creating inter-granular bubbles. As the inter-granular bubbles grow over time, they will interconnect with other grain-face bubbles until a pathway is created to the outside of the fuel surface, at which point the highly pressurized inter-granular bubbles will expel their contents into the fuel plenum. This last process is the primary cause of fission gas release. From the simple description above, it is clear there are several parameters that ultimately affect fission gas release, including the diffusivity of single gas atoms, the absorption and knockout rate of single gas atoms in intra-granular bubbles, and the growth and interlinkage of intergranular bubbles. Of these, the knockout, or re-solution rate has an particularly important role in determining the transient concentration of single gas atoms in the grain. The re-solution rate will be explored in the following sections with regards to uranium-silicide fuels in order to support future models of fission gas bubble behavior.

  20. Theoretical investigation of silicide Schottky barrier detector integrated in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide. (United States)

    Zhu, Shiyang; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L


    An ultracompact integrated silicide Schottky barrier detector (SBD) is designed and theoretically investigated to electrically detect the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) propagating along horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. An ultrathin silicide layer inserted between the silicon core and the insulator, which can be fabricated precisely using the well-developed self-aligned silicide process, absorbs the SPP power effectively if a suitable silicide is chosen. Moreover, the Schottky barrier height in the silicide-silicon-silicide configuration can be tuned substantially by the external voltage through the Schottky effect owing to the very narrow silicon core. For a TaSi(2) detector with optimized dimensions, numerical simulation predicts responsivity of ~0.07 A/W, speed of ~60 GHz, dark current of ~66 nA at room temperature, and minimum detectable power of ~-29 dBm. The design also suggests that the device's size can be reduced and the overall performances will be further improved if a silicide with smaller permittivity is used.

  1. Real-time monitoring of the silicidation process of tungsten filaments at high temperature used as catalysers for silane decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nos, O., E-mail:; Frigeri, P.A.; Bertomeu, J.


    The scope of this work is the systematic study of the silicidation process affecting tungsten filaments at high temperature (1900 °C) used for silane decomposition in the hot-wire chemical vapour deposition technique (HWCVD). The correlation between the electrical resistance evolution of the filaments, R{sub fil}(t), and the different stages of the their silicidation process is exposed. Said stages correspond to: the rapid formation of two WSi{sub 2} fronts at the cold ends of the filaments and their further propagation towards the middle of the filaments; and, regarding the hot central portion of the filaments: an initial stage of silicon dissolution into the tungsten bulk, with a random duration for as-manufactured filaments, followed by the inhomogeneous nucleation of W{sub 5}Si{sub 3} (which is later replaced by WSi{sub 2}) and its further growth towards the filaments core. An electrical model is used to obtain real-time information about the current status of the filaments silicidation process by simply monitoring their R{sub fil}(t) evolution during the HWCVD process. It is shown that implementing an annealing pre-treatment to the filaments leads to a clearly repetitive trend in the monitored R{sub fil}(t) signatures. The influence of hydrogen dilution of silane on the filaments silicidation process is also discussed. - Highlights: • The silicidation process of tungsten filaments at 1900 °C has been elucidated. • The silicidation process is correlated with the electrical resistance evolution. • Hydrogen dilution of silane delays the precipitation of silicides. • A thermal treatment of the filaments makes the silicidation process repeatable. • Raman spectroscopy and EDX analysis allow the tungsten silicides identification.

  2. High pressure studies on uranium and thorium silicide compounds: Experiment and theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagoubi, S.; Heathman, S.; Svane, A.


    The actinide silicides ThSi, USi and USi2 have been studied under high pressure using both theory and experiment. High pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments were performed on polycrystalline samples in diamond anvil cells at room temperature and for pressures up to 54, 52 and 26 GPa...

  3. Reversibility of silicidation of Ta filaments in HWCVD of thin film silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, C.H.M.; Li, H. B. T.; Verlaan, V.; Oliphant, C.J.; Bakker, R.; Houweling, Z.S.; Schropp, R.E.I.


    If tantalum filaments are used for the hot wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD) of thin film silicon, various types of tantalum silicides are formed, depending on the filament temperature. Under deposition conditions employed for device quality amorphous and microcrystalline silicon (Twire ≈ 1750

  4. Thermal Stability Study from Room Temperature to 1273 K (1000 °C) in Magnesium Silicide (United States)

    Stefanaki, Eleni-Chrysanthi; Hatzikraniotis, Euripides; Vourlias, George; Chrissafis, Konstantinos; Kitis, George; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M.; Polymeris, George S.


    Doped magnesium silicide has been identified as a promising and environmentally friendly advanced thermoelectric material in the temperature range between 500 K and 800 K (227 °C and 527 °C). Besides the plethora of magnesium silicide thermoelectric advantages, it is well known for its high sensitivity to oxidation. Oxidation is one of the primary instability mechanisms of degradation of high-temperature Mg2Si thermoelectric devices, as in the presence of O2, Mg2Si decomposes to form MgO and Si. In this work, commercial magnesium silicide in bulk form was used for thermal stability study from room temperature to 1273 K (1000 °C). Various techniques such as DTA-TG, PXRD, and FTIR have been applied. Moreover, the application of thermoluminescence (TL) as an effective and alternative probe for the study of oxidation and decomposition has been exploited. The latter provides qualitative but very helpful hints toward oxidation studies. The low-detection threshold of thermoluminescence, in conjunction with the chemical composition of the oxidation byproducts, consisting of MgO, Mg2SiO4, and SiO2, constitute two powerful motivations for further investigating its viable use as proxy for instability/decomposition studies of magnesium silicide. The partial oxidation reaction has been adopted due to the experimental fact that magnesium silicide is monitored throughout the heating temperature range of the present study. Finally, the role of silicon dioxide to the decomposition procedure, being in amorphous state and gradually crystallizing, has been highlighted for the first time in the literature. Mg2Si oxidation takes place in two steps, including a mild oxidation process with temperature threshold of 573 K (300 °C) and an abrupt one after 773 K (500 °C). Implications on the optimum operational temperature range for practical thermoelectric (TE) applications have also been briefly discussed.

  5. Calcium supplements (United States)

    ... do not help. Always tell your provider and pharmacist if you are taking extra calcium. Calcium supplements ... 2012:chap 251. The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF). Clinician's Guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis . National ...

  6. Impact of silicide layer on single photon avalanche diodes in a 130 nm CMOS process (United States)

    Cheng, Zeng; Palubiak, Darek; Zheng, Xiaoqing; Deen, M. Jamal; Peng, Hao


    Single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) is an attractive solid-state optical detector that offers ultra-high photon sensitivity (down to the single photon level), high speed (sub-nanosecond dead time) and good timing performance (less than 100 ps). In this work, the impact of the silicide layer on SPAD’s characteristics, including the breakdown voltage, dark count rate (DCR), after-pulsing probability and photon detection efficiency (PDE) is investigated. For this purpose, two sets of SPAD structures in a standard 130 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process are designed, fabricated, measured and compared. A factor of 4.5 (minimum) in DCR reduction, and 5 in PDE improvements are observed when the silicide layer is removed from the SPAD structure. However, the after-pulsing probability of the SPAD without silicide layer is two times higher than its counterpart with silicide. The reasons for these changes will be discussed.

  7. Study of optical and luminescence properties of silicon — semiconducting silicide — silicon multilayer nanostructures (United States)

    Galkin, N. G.; Galkin, K. N.; Dotsenko, , S. A.; Goroshko, D. L.; Shevlyagin, A. V.; Chusovitin, E. A.; Chernev, I. M.


    By method of in situ differential spectroscopy it was established that at the formation of monolayer Fe, Cr, Ca, Mg silicide and Mg stannide islands on the atomically clean silicon surface an appearance of loss peaks characteristic for these materials in the energy range of 1.1-2.6 eV is observed. An optimization of growth processes permit to grow monolithic double nanoheterostructures (DNHS) with embedded Fe, Cr and Ca nanocrystals, and also polycrystalline DNHS with NC of Mg silicide and Mg stannide and Ca disilicide. By methods of optical spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy it was shown that embedded NC form intensive peaks in the reflectance spectra at energies up to 2.5 eV and Raman peaks. In DNS with β-FeSi2 NC a photoluminescence and electroluminescence at room temperature were firstly observed.

  8. Influence of the initial nitrogen content in titanium films on the nitridation and silicidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, C.; Perez-Casero, R.; Martinez-Duart, J.M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Perez-Rigueiro, J. [Dpto. Ciencia de Materiales, ETSI Caminos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Vazquez, L.; Fernandez, M. [Instituto Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)


    The rapid thermal annealing of Ti films on silicon in a nitrogen atmosphere seems to be a very promising method to obtain the Si/TiSi{sub 2}/TiN structure. We have tried to increase the final nitrogen content (i.e. TiN thickness) by incorporating nitrogen during the deposition of the initial Ti films. The influence of the nitrogen present in the titanium film on the silicidation process has been studied by comparison with the silicidation of pure titanium. The evolution of the nitrogen content with thermal treatment conditions has been established by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The nitrogen initially incorporated in the Ti film plays a passive role during the nitridation process, since its initial presence does not strongly influence the further incorporation of nitrogen from the atmosphere. The final nitrogen content of the N-doped samples is the addition of the nitrogen incorporated from the atmosphere during the thermal treatment in pure titanium samples and the nitrogen incorporated during deposition. The silicidation process has been studied using complementary techniques. The sheet resistances, Rutherford backscattering spectra and grazing X-ray diffraction (GXRD) diagrams have allowed us to establish the evolution of the reaction. Silicidation is not affected by the nitrogen incorporated during deposition. No differences have been found due to the presence of nitrogen. Nevertheless, changes in the surface morphology were found by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Ti(N{sub 2}) samples are characterized by lower root mean square (rms) surface roughness values and different features. (orig.) 14 refs.

  9. High-Temperature Compatible Nickel Silicide Thermometer And Heater For Catalytic Chemical Microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Quaade, U.J.; Hansen, Ole


    Integration of heaters and thermometers is important for agile and accurate control and measurement of the thermal reaction conditions in microfabricated chemical reactors (microreactors). This paper describes development and operation of nickel silicide heaters and temperature sensors...... for temperatures exceeding 700 °C. The heaters and thermometers are integrated with chemical microreactors for heterogeneous catalytic conversion of gasses, and thermally activated catalytic conversion of CO to CO2 in the reactors is demonstrated. The heaters and thermometers are shown to be compatible...

  10. Low-Temperature Wet Conformal Nickel Silicide Deposition for Transistor Technology through an Organometallic Approach. (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Han; Margossian, Tigran; De Marchi, Michele; Thammasack, Maxime; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Kumar, Sudhir; Jagielski, Jakub; Zheng, Li-Qing; Shih, Chih-Jen; Zenobi, Renato; De Micheli, Giovanni; Baudouin, David; Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Copéret, Christophe


    The race for performance of integrated circuits is nowadays facing a downscale limitation. To overpass this nanoscale limit, modern transistors with complex geometries have flourished, allowing higher performance and energy efficiency. Accompanying this breakthrough, challenges toward high-performance devices have emerged on each significant step, such as the inhomogeneous coverage issue and thermal-induced short circuit issue of metal silicide formation. In this respect, we developed a two-step organometallic approach for nickel silicide formation under near-ambient temperature. Transmission electron and atomic force microscopy show the formation of a homogeneous and conformal layer of NiSix on pristine silicon surface. Post-treatment decreases the carbon content to a level similar to what is found for the original wafer (∼6%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also reveals an increasing ratio of Si content in the layer after annealing, which is shown to be NiSi2 according to X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation on a Si nanoparticle model. I-V characteristic fitting reveals that this NiSi2 layer exhibits a competitive Schottky barrier height of 0.41 eV and series resistance of 8.5 Ω, thus opening an alternative low-temperature route for metal silicide formation on advanced devices.

  11. Pt silicide/poly-Si Schottky diodes as temperature sensors for bolometers (United States)

    Yuryev, V. A.; Chizh, K. V.; Chapnin, V. A.; Mironov, S. A.; Dubkov, V. P.; Uvarov, O. V.; Kalinushkin, V. P.; Senkov, V. M.; Nalivaiko, O. Y.; Novikau, A. G.; Gaiduk, P. I.


    Platinum silicide Schottky diodes formed on films of polycrystalline Si doped by phosphorus are demonstrated to be efficient and manufacturable CMOS-compatible temperature sensors for microbolometer detectors of radiation. Thin-film platinum silicide/poly-Si diodes have been produced by a CMOS-compatible process on artificial Si3N4/SiO2/Si(001) substrates simulating the bolometer cells. Layer structure and phase composition of the original Pt/poly-Si films and the Pt silicide/poly-Si films synthesized by a low-temperature process have been studied by means of the scanning transmission electron microscopy; they have also been explored by means of the two-wavelength X-ray structural phase analysis and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Temperature coefficient of voltage for the forward current of a single diode is shown to reach the value of about -2%/ °C in the temperature interval from 25 to 50 °C.

  12. Pt silicide/poly-Si Schottky diodes as temperature sensors for bolometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuryev, V. A., E-mail:; Chizh, K. V.; Chapnin, V. A.; Mironov, S. A.; Dubkov, V. P.; Uvarov, O. V.; Kalinushkin, V. P. [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Senkov, V. M. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 53 Leninskiy Avenue, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Nalivaiko, O. Y. [JSC “Integral” – “Integral” Holding Management Company, 121A, Kazintsa I. P. Street, Minsk 220108 (Belarus); Novikau, A. G.; Gaiduk, P. I. [Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220030 Minsk (Belarus)


    Platinum silicide Schottky diodes formed on films of polycrystalline Si doped by phosphorus are demonstrated to be efficient and manufacturable CMOS-compatible temperature sensors for microbolometer detectors of radiation. Thin-film platinum silicide/poly-Si diodes have been produced by a CMOS-compatible process on artificial Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates simulating the bolometer cells. Layer structure and phase composition of the original Pt/poly-Si films and the Pt silicide/poly-Si films synthesized by a low-temperature process have been studied by means of the scanning transmission electron microscopy; they have also been explored by means of the two-wavelength X-ray structural phase analysis and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Temperature coefficient of voltage for the forward current of a single diode is shown to reach the value of about −2%/ °C in the temperature interval from 25 to 50 °C.

  13. Thermal transport across metal silicide-silicon interfaces: An experimental comparison between epitaxial and nonepitaxial interfaces (United States)

    Ye, Ning; Feser, Joseph P.; Sadasivam, Sridhar; Fisher, Timothy S.; Wang, Tianshi; Ni, Chaoying; Janotti, Anderson


    Silicides are used extensively in nano- and microdevices due to their low electrical resistivity, low contact resistance to silicon, and their process compatibility. In this work, the thermal interface conductance of TiSi2, CoSi2, NiSi, and PtSi are studied using time-domain thermoreflectance. Exploiting the fact that most silicides formed on Si(111) substrates grow epitaxially, while most silicides on Si(100) do not, we study the effect of epitaxy, and show that for a wide variety of interfaces there is no dependence of interface conductance on the detailed structure of the interface. In particular, there is no difference in the thermal interface conductance between epitaxial and nonepitaxial silicide/silicon interfaces, nor between epitaxial interfaces with different interface orientations. While these silicide-based interfaces yield the highest reported interface conductances of any known interface with silicon, none of the interfaces studied are found to operate close to the phonon radiation limit, indicating that phonon transmission coefficients are nonunity in all cases and yet remain insensitive to interfacial structure. In the case of CoSi2, a comparison is made with detailed computational models using (1) full-dispersion diffuse mismatch modeling (DMM) including the effect of near-interfacial strain, and (2) an atomistic Green' function (AGF) approach that integrates near-interface changes in the interatomic force constants obtained through density functional perturbation theory. Above 100 K, the AGF approach significantly underpredicts interface conductance suggesting that energy transport does not occur purely by coherent transmission of phonons, even for epitaxial interfaces. The full-dispersion DMM closely predicts the experimentally observed interface conductances for CoSi2, NiSi, and TiSi2 interfaces, while it remains an open question whether inelastic scattering, cross-interfacial electron-phonon coupling, or other mechanisms could also account for

  14. Local solid phase growth of few-layer graphene on silicon carbide from nickel silicide supersaturated with carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo-Cousin, Enrique; Vassilevski, Konstantin; Hopf, Toby; Wright, Nick; O' Neill, Anthony; Horsfall, Alton; Goss, Jonathan [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Cumpson, Peter [School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)


    Patterned few-layer graphene (FLG) films were obtained by local solid phase growth from nickel silicide supersaturated with carbon, following a fabrication scheme, which allows the formation of self-aligned ohmic contacts on FLG and is compatible with conventional SiC device processing methods. The process was realised by the deposition and patterning of thin Ni films on semi-insulating 6H-SiC wafers followed by annealing and the selective removal of the resulting nickel silicide by wet chemistry. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to confirm both the formation and subsequent removal of nickel silicide. The impact of process parameters such as the thickness of the initial Ni layer, annealing temperature, and cooling rates on the FLG films was assessed by Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and atomic force microscopy. The thickness of the final FLG film estimated from the Raman spectra varied from 1 to 4 monolayers for initial Ni layers between 3 and 20 nm thick. Self-aligned contacts were formed on these patterned films by contact photolithography and wet etching of nickel silicide, which enabled the fabrication of test structures to measure the carrier concentration and mobility in the FLG films. A simple model of diffusion-driven solid phase chemical reaction was used to explain formation of the FLG film at the interface between nickel silicide and silicon carbide.

  15. Calcium in diet (United States)

    ... D is needed to help your body use calcium. Milk is fortified with vitamin D for this reason. ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ...

  16. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;


    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  17. X-ray photoemission spectromicroscopy of titanium silicide formation in patterned microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Stoughton, WI (United States)] [and others


    Titanium silicide has the lowest resistivity of all the refractory metal silicides and has good thermal stability as well as excellent compatibility with Al metallization. It is used as an intermediate buffer layer between W vias and the Si substrate to provide good electrical contact in ULSI technology, whose submicron patterned features form the basis of the integrated circuits of today and tomorrow, in the self aligned silicide (salicide) formation process. TiSi{sub 2} exists in two phases: a metastable C49 base-centered orthorhombic phase with specific resistivity of 60-90 {mu}{Omega}-cm that is formed at a lower temperature (formation anneal) and the stable 12-15 {mu}{Omega}-cm resistivity face-centered orthorhombic C54 phase into which C49 is transformed with a higher temperature (conversion anneal) step. C54 is clearly the target for low resistivity VLSI interconnects. However, it has been observed that when dimensions shrink below 1/mic (or when the Ti thickness drops below several hundred angstroms), the transformation of C49 into C54 is inhibited and agglomeration often occurs in fine lines at high temperatures. This results in a rise in resistivity due to incomplete transformation to C54 and because of discontinuities in the interconnect line resulting from agglomeration. Spectromicroscopy is an appropriate tool to study the evolution of the TiSi2 formation process because of its high resolution chemical imaging ability which can detect bonding changes even in the absence of changes in the relative amounts of species and because of the capability of studying thick {open_quotes}as is{close_quotes} industrial samples.

  18. Combustion synthesis of molybdenum silicides and borosilicides for ultrahigh-temperature structural applications (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Shafiul

    Molybdenum silicides and borosilicides are promising structural materials for gas-turbine power plants. A major challenge, however, is to simultaneously achieve high oxidation resistance and acceptable mechanical properties at high temperatures. For example, molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) has excellent oxidation resistance and poor mechanical properties, while Mo-rich silicides such as Mo5Si3 (called T 1) have much better mechanical properties but poor oxidation resistance. One approach is based on the fabrication of MoSi2-T 1 composites that combine high oxidation resistance of MoSi2 and good mechanical properties of T1. Another approach involves the addition of boron to Mo-rich silicides for improving their oxidation resistance through the formation of a borosilicate surface layer. In particular, Mo 5SiB2 (called T2) phase is considered as an attractive material. In the thesis, MoSi2-T1 composites and materials based on T2 phase are obtained by mechanically activated SHS. Use of SHS compaction (quasi-isostatic pressing) significantly improves oxidation resistance of the obtained MoSi2-T1 composites. Combustion of Mo-Si-B mixtures for the formation of T2 phase becomes possible if the composition is designed for the addition of more exothermic reactions leading to the formation of molybdenum boride. These mixtures exhibit spin combustion, the characteristics of which are in good agreement with the spin combustion theory. Oxidation resistance of the obtained Mo-Si-B materials is independent on the concentration of Mo phase in the products so that the materials with a higher Mo content are preferable because of better mechanical properties. Also, T2 phase has been obtained by the chemical oven combustion synthesis technique.

  19. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Formation of Silicides and the Surface Morphologies of PtSi Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effect of annealing temperature on the formation of the PtSi phase, distribution of silicides and the surface morphologies of silicides films is investigated by XPS, AFM. It is shown that the phase sequences of the films change from Pt-Pt2Si-PtSi-Si to Pt+Pt2Si+PtSi-PtSi-Si or Pt+Pt2Si+PtSi-PtSi-Si with an increase of annealing temperature and the reason for the formation of mixed layers is discussed.

  20. Synthesis of metallic silicide fullerenes and the characteristics thereof by mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Direct current arc discharge is used for the study on the synthesis of metallo-fullerenes (MFs) to discover whether there exist metallic silicide fullerenes and silicon fullerenes. The resultant components are isolated by the multistage high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed with the Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. Results show that there exist fullerenes such as SiC69, YSi2C64, YSi2C78, Y3Si2C78 as well as Y2Si2C90 which are structurally similar to (Y2C2)@C82.

  1. Synthesis of metallic silicide fullerenes and the characteristics thereof by mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN YiChi; GUO Liang; ZHU LiQun


    Direct current arc discharge is used for the study on the synthesis of metallofullerenes (MFs) to discover whether there exist metallic silicide fullerenes and silicon fullerenes. The resultant components are isolated by the multistage high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed with the Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. Results show that there exist fullerenes such as SiC69, YSi2C64, YSi2C78, Y3Si2C78 as well as Y2Si2C90 which are structurally similar to (Y2C2)@C82.

  2. Current enhancement in crystalline silicon photovoltaic by low-cost nickel silicide back contact

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, R. R.


    We report short circuit current (Jsc) enhancement in crystalline silicon (C-Si) photovoltaic (PV) using low-cost Ohmic contact engineering by integration of Nickel mono-silicide (NiSi) for back contact metallization as an alternative to the status quo of using expensive screen printed silver (Ag). We show 2.6 mA/cm2 enhancement in the short circuit current (Jsc) and 1.2 % increment in the efficiency by improving the current collection due to the low specific contact resistance of the NiSi on the heavily Boron (B) doped Silicon (Si) interface.

  3. Superconductivity at 3.7 K in Ternary Silicide Li2IrSi3


    Hirai, Daigorou; Kawakami, Rui; Magdysyuk, Oxana V.; Dinnebier, Robert E; Yaresko, Alexander; Takagi, Hidenori


    We report the discovery of superconductivity at Tc = 3.7 K in the new ternary lithium silicide Li2IrSi3. The crystal structure of Li2IrSi3 consists of IrSi6 antiprisms connected by Si triangles, giving rise to a three dimensional framework of covalent Si-Si and Si-Ir bonds. Electronic specific-heat in superconducting phase suggests that Li2IrSi3 is a BCS weak-coupling superconductor.

  4. On the structural and electronic properties of Ir-silicide nanowires on Si(001) surface (United States)

    Fatima, Can Oguz, Ismail; ćakır, Deniz; Hossain, Sehtab; Mohottige, Rasika; Gulseren, Oguz; Oncel, Nuri


    Iridium (Ir) modified Silicon (Si) (001) surface is studied with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy (STM/STS) and Density Functional Theory (DFT). A model for Ir-silicide nanowires based on STM images and ab-initio calculations is proposed. According to our model, the Ir adatom is on the top of the substrate dimer row and directly binds to the dimer atoms. I-V curves measured at 77 K shows that the nanowires are metallic. DFT calculations confirm strong metallic nature of the nanowires.

  5. Magnetization reversal of ultrathin Fe film grown on Si(111) using iron silicide template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Wei; Zhan Qing-Feng; Wang De-Yong; Chen Li-Jun; Sun Young; Cheng Zhao-Hua


    Ultrathin Fe films were epitaxially grown on Si(111) by using an ultrathin iron silicide film with p(2 × 2) surface reconstruction as a template. The surface structure and magnetic properties were investigated in situ by low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), and surface magneto-optical effect (SMOKE). Polar SMOKE hysteresis loops demonstrate that the Fe ultrathin films with thickness t< 6 ML (monolayers) exhibit perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The characters of M-H loops with the external magnetic field at difference angles and the angular dependence of coercivity suggest that the domain-wall pinning plays a dominant role in the magnetization reversal process.

  6. Microstructure of the irradiated U 3Si 2/Al silicide dispersion fuel (United States)

    Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Jue, J.-F.; Robinson, A. B.; Madden, J. W.; Medvedev, P. G.; Wachs, D. M.


    The silicide dispersion fuel of U 3Si 2/Al is recognized as the best performance fuel for many nuclear research and test reactors with up to 4.8 gU/cm 3 fuel loading. An irradiated U 3Si 2/Al dispersion fuel ( 235U ˜ 75%) from the high-flux side of a fuel plate (U0R040) from the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR)-8 test was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) for 105 days. The average irradiation temperature and fission density of the U 3Si 2 fuel particles for the TEM sample are estimated to be approximately 110 °C and 5.4 × 10 27 f/m 3. The characterization was performed using a 200-kV TEM. The U/Si ratio for the fuel particle and (Si + Al)/U for the fuel-matrix-interaction layer are approximately 1.1 and 4-10, respectively. The estimated average diameter, number density and volume fraction for small bubbles (fuel particle are ˜94 nm, 1.05 × 10 20 m -3 and ˜11%, respectively. The results and their implication on the performance of the U 3Si 2/Al silicide dispersion fuel are discussed.

  7. Magnesium and Manganese Silicides For Efficient And Low Cost Thermo-Electric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Sudhir B. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Kutcher, Susan W. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Rosemeier, Cory A. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Mayers, David [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Singh, Jogender [Pennsylvania State University


    Thermoelectric Power Generation (TEPG) is the most efficient and commercially deployable power generation technology for harvesting wasted heat from such things as automobile exhausts, industrial furnaces, and incinerators, and converting it into usable electrical power. We investigated the materials magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) and manganese silicide (MnSi) for TEG. MgSi2 and MnSi are environmentally friendly, have constituent elements that are abundant in the earth's crust, non-toxic, lighter and cheaper. In Phase I, we successfully produced Mg2Si and MnSi material with good TE properties. We developed a novel technique to synthesize Mg2Si with good crystalline quality, which is normally very difficult due to high Mg vapor pressure and its corrosive nature. We produced n-type Mg2Si and p-type MnSi nanocomposite pellets using FAST. Measurements of resistivity and voltage under a temperature gradient indicated a Seebeck coefficient of roughly 120 V/K on average per leg, which is quite respectable. Results indicated however, that issues related to bonding resulted in high resistivity contacts. Determining a bonding process and bonding material that can provide ohmic contact from room temperature to the operating temperature is an essential part of successful device fabrication. Work continues in the development of a process for reproducibly obtaining low resistance electrical contacts.

  8. "Nanoparticle-in-alloy" approach to efficient thermoelectrics: silicides in SiGe. (United States)

    Mingo, N; Hauser, D; Kobayashi, N P; Plissonnier, M; Shakouri, A


    We present a "nanoparticle-in-alloy" material approach with silicide and germanide fillers leading to a potential 5-fold increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit of SiGe alloys at room temperature and 2.5 times increase at 900 K. Strong reductions in computed thermal conductivity are obtained for 17 different types of silicide nanoparticles. We predict the existence of an optimal nanoparticle size that minimizes the nanocomposite's thermal conductivity. This thermal conductivity reduction is much stronger and strikingly less sensitive to nanoparticle size for an alloy matrix than for a single crystal one. At the same time, nanoparticles do not negatively affect the electronic conduction properties of the alloy. The proposed material can be monolithically integrated into Si technology, enabling an unprecedented potential for micro refrigeration on a chip. High figure-of-merit at high temperatures (ZT approximately 1.7 at 900 K) opens up new opportunities for thermoelectric power generation and waste heat recovery at large scale.

  9. Absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon thin films via plasmonic resonances in nickel silicide nanoparticles (United States)

    Hachtel, Jordan; Shen, Xiao; Pantelides, Sokrates; Sachan, Ritesh; Gonzalez, Carlos; Dyck, Ondrej; Fu, Shaofang; Kalnayaraman, Ramki; Rack, Phillip; Duscher, Gerd


    Silicon is a near ideal material for photovoltaics due to its low cost, abundance, and well documented optical properties. The sole detriment of Si in photovoltaics is poor absorption in the infrared. Nanoparticle surface plasmon resonances are predicted to increase absorption by scattering to angles greater than the critical angle for total internal reflection (16° for a Si/air interface), trapping the light in the film. Experiments confirm that nickel silicide nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silicon increases absorption significantly in the infrared. However, it remains to be seen if electron-hole pair generation is increased in the solar cell, or whether the light is absorbed by the nanoparticles themselves. The nature of the absorption is explored by a study of the surface plasmon resonances through electron energy loss spectrometry and scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments, as well as first principles density functional theory calculations. Initial experimental results do not show strong plasmon resonances on the nanoparticle surfaces. Calculations of the optical properties of the nickel silicide particles in amorphous silicon are performed to understand why this resonance is suppressed. Work supported by NSF EPS 1004083 (TN-SCORE).

  10. Electrical characterization of strained and unstrained silicon nanowires with nickel silicide contacts. (United States)

    Habicht, S; Zhao, Q T; Feste, S F; Knoll, L; Trellenkamp, S; Ghyselen, B; Mantl, S


    We present electrical characterization of nickel monosilicide (NiSi) contacts formed on strained and unstrained silicon nanowires (NWs), which were fabricated by top-down processing of initially As(+) implanted and activated strained and unstrained silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates. The resistivity of doped Si NWs and the contact resistivity of the NiSi to Si NW contacts are studied as functions of the As(+) ion implantation dose and the cross-sectional area of the wires. Strained silicon NWs show lower resistivity for all doping concentrations due to their enhanced electron mobility compared to the unstrained case. An increase in resistivity with decreasing cross section of the NWs was observed for all implantation doses. This is ascribed to the occurrence of dopant deactivation. Comparing the silicidation of uniaxially tensile strained and unstrained Si NWs shows no difference in silicidation speed and in contact resistivity between NiSi/Si NW. Contact resistivities as low as 1.2 x 10(-8) Omega cm(-2) were obtained for NiSi contacts to both strained and unstrained Si NWs. Compared to planar contacts, the NiSi/Si NW contact resistivity is two orders of magnitude lower.

  11. Design of transition cores of RSG GAS (MPR-30) with higher loading silicide fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liem, Peng Hong, E-mail: [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Sembiring, Tagor Malem [Center for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan), Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang 15310 (Indonesia)


    A procedure of designing transition cores to achieve the equilibrium silicide core of RSG GAS with higher fuel loading of 300 g U/fuel element (FE) (meat density of 3.55 g U/cm{sup 3}) has been proposed. In the proposed procedure, the EOC excess reactivity of each transition core is minimized in order to satisfy the safety design limit of one-stuck-rod sub-criticality margin while keeping the maximum of radial power peaking factor below the allowable value. Under the design procedure, the initial fuel loadings are increased gradually in two steps, i.e. from 250 to 275 g U/FE followed by 275-300 g U/FE. The analysis results show that all transition cores can satisfy all design requirements and safety limits. We concluded that the obtained transition core design should be adopted into the future core conversion program of RSG GAS. The targeted silicide core can be achieved practically in at least 24 transition cores.

  12. Crystal structure of the ternary silicide Gd2Re3Si5. (United States)

    Fedyna, Vitaliia; Kozak, Roksolana; Gladyshevskii, Roman


    A single crystal of the title compound, the ternary silicide digadolinium trirhenium penta-silicide, Gd2Re3Si5, was isolated from an alloy of nominal composition Gd20Re30Si50 synthesized by arc melting and investigated by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Its crystal structure belongs to the U2Mn3Si5 structure type. All atoms in the asymmetric lie on special positions. The Gd site has site symmetry m..; the two Mn atoms have site symmetries m.. and 2.22; the three Si atoms have site symmetries m.., ..2 and 4.. . The coordination polyhedra of the Gd atoms have 21 vertices, while those of the Re atoms are cubo-octa-hedra and 13-vertex polyhedra. The Si atoms are arranged as tricapped trigonal prisms, bicapped square anti-prisms, or 11-vertex polyhedra. The crystal structure of the title compound is also related to the structure types CaBe2Ge2 and W5Si3. It can be represented as a stacking of Gd-centred polyhedra of composition [GdSi9]. The Re atoms form infinite chains with an Re-Re distance of 2.78163 (5) Å and isolated squares with an Re-Re distance of 2.9683 (6) Å.

  13. Effect of annealing on magnetic properties and silicide formation at Co/Si interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shivani Agarwal; V Ganesan; A K Tyagi; I P Jain


    The interaction of Co (30 nm) thin films on Si (100) substrate in UHV using solid state mixing technique has been studied. Cobalt was deposited on silicon substrate using electron beam evaporation at a vacuum of 4 × 10-8 Torr having a deposition rate of about 0.1 Å/s. Reactivity at Co/Si interface is important for the understanding of silicide formation in thin film system. In the present paper, cobalt silicide films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) in terms of the surface and interface morphologies and depth profile, respectively. The roughness of the samples was found to increase up to temperature, 300°C and then decreased with further rise in temperature, which was due to the formation of crystalline CoSi2 phase. The effect of mixing on magnetic properties such as coercivity, remanence etc at interface has been studied using magneto optic Kerr effect (MOKE) techniques at different temperatures. The value of coercivity of pristine sample and 300°C annealed sample was found to be 66 Oe and 40 Oe, respectively, while at high temperature i.e. 748°C, the hysteresis disappears which indicates the formation of CoSi2 compound.

  14. Preliminary investigations on the use of uranium silicide targets for fission Mo-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cols, H.; Cristini, P.; Marques, R.


    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentine Republic owns and operates an installation for production of molybdenum-99 from fission products since 1985, and, since 1991, covers the whole national demand of this nuclide, carrying out a program of weekly productions, achieving an average activity of 13 terabecquerel per week. At present they are finishing an enlargement of the production plant that will allow an increase in the volume of production to about one hundred of terabecquerel. Irradiation targets are uranium/aluminium alloy with 90% enriched uranium with aluminium cladding. In view of international trends held at present for replacing high enrichment uranium (HEU) for enrichment values lower than 20 % (LEU), since 1990 the authors are in contact with the RERTR program, beginning with tests to adapt their separation process to new irradiation target conditions. Uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) was chosen as the testing material, because it has an uranium mass per volume unit, so that it allows to reduce enrichment to a value of 20%. CNEA has the technology for manufacturing miniplates of uranium silicide for their purposes. In this way, equivalent amounts of Molybdenum-99 could be obtained with no substantial changes in target parameters and irradiation conditions established for the current process with Al/U alloy. This paper shows results achieved on the use of this new target.

  15. Organometallic halide perovskite/barium di-silicide thin-film double-junction solar cells (United States)

    Vismara, R.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.


    Barium di-silicide (BaSi2) is an abundant and inexpensive semiconductor with appealing opto-electrical properties. In this work we show that a 2-μm thick BaSi2-based thin-film solar cell can exhibit an implied photo-current density equal to 41.1 mA/cm2, which is higher than that of a state-of-the-art wafer-based c-Si hetero-junction solar cell. This performance makes BaSi2 an attractive absorber for high-performing thin-film and multi-junction solar cells. In particular, to assess the potential of barium di-silicide, we propose a thin-film double-junction solar cell based on organometallic halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) as top absorber and BaSi2 as bottom absorber. The resulting modelled ultra-thin double-junction CH3NH3PbI3 / BaSi2 (< 2 μm) exhibits an implied total photo-current density equal to 38.65 mA/cm2 (19.84 mA/cm2 top cell, 18.81 mA/cm2 bottom cell) and conversion efficiencies up to 28%.

  16. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi


    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm2, and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p+-n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  17. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology. (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi


    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm(2), and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p(+-)n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  18. Intercalation synthesis of graphene-capped iron silicide atop Ni(111): Evolution of electronic structure and ferromagnetic ordering (United States)

    Grebenyuk, G. S.; Vilkov, O. Yu.; Rybkin, A. G.; Gomoyunova, M. V.; Senkovskiy, B. V.; Usachov, D. Yu.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Molodtsov, S. L.; Pronin, I. I.


    A new method for synthesis of graphene-protected iron silicides has been tested, which consists in formation of graphene on Ni(111) followed by two-step intercalation of the system with Fe and Si. Characterization of the samples was performed in situ by low-energy electron diffraction, angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, core-level photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation and magnetic linear dichroism in photoemission of Fe 3p electrons. It is shown, that at 400 °C the intercalation of graphene/Ni(111) with iron occurs in a range up to 14 ML. The graphene layer strongly interacts with the topmost Fe atoms and stabilizes the fcc structure of the film. The in-plane ferromagnetic ordering of the film has a threshold nature and arises after the intercalation of 5 ML Fe due to the thickness-driven spin reorientation transition. Subsequent intercalation of graphene/Fe/Ni(111) with Si leads to the formation of the inhomogeneous system consisted of intercalated and nonintercalated areas. The intercalated islands coalesce at 2 ML Si when a Fe-Si solid solution covered with the Fe3Si surface silicide is formed. The Fe3Si silicide is ferromagnetic and has an ordered (√3 × √3)R30° structure. The graphene layer is weakly electronically coupled to the silicide phase keeping its remarkable properties ready for use.

  19. Calcium and bones (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  20. Calcium Test (United States)

    ... if a person has symptoms of a parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , or an overactive thyroid. A total calcium level is often measured as part of a routine health screening. It is included in the comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) and the basic metabolic panel (BMP) , ...

  1. Calcium Carbonate (United States)

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease or stomach conditions.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor.

  2. The mechanism behind the calcium aluminum silicide ternary structural preference and the origin of its semimetal behavior (United States)

    Semi, Torey Elizabeth

    CaAl2Si2 is the prototype of the CaAl 2Si2 class of Zintl structures established to be useful as thermoelectrics. We propose that CaAl2Si2 be interpreted as an ordinary covalently bonded, tetrahedrally coordinated quasi-semiconductor consisting of a large distortion of the wurtzite structure with the almost fully ionized Ca inserted at an interstitial site. We support this interpretation via a structural mapping and calculations for both a charged binary primitive cell and a Si4primitive cell. Our intent is to explain the unusual structure of the CaAl2Si 2 class of semiconductors, the origin of its semimetallic behavior, the basis for its stability and the effect of substituting other column II atoms for Ca on these properties. To be clear, this work does not examine the nature of the true band gap, or the transport coefficients of CaAl 2Si2. GW corrections are not discussed, in view of the focus on the origins of stability of this peculiar structure.

  3. Understanding and Improving High-Temperature Structural Properties of Metal-Silicide Intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce S. Kang


    The objective of this project was to understand and improve high-temperature structural properties of metal-silicide intermetallic alloys. Through research collaboration between the research team at West Virginia University (WVU) and Dr. J.H. Schneibel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), molybdenum silicide alloys were developed at ORNL and evaluated at WVU through atomistic modeling analyses, thermo-mechanical tests, and metallurgical studies. In this study, molybdenum-based alloys were ductilized by dispersing MgAl2O4 or MgO spinel particles. The addition of spinel particles is hypothesized to getter impurities such as oxygen and nitrogen from the alloy matrix with the result of ductility improvement. The introduction of fine dispersions has also been postulated to improve ductility by acting as a dislocation source or reducing dislocation pile-ups at grain boundaries. The spinel particles, on the other hand, can also act as local notches or crack initiation sites, which is detrimental to the alloy mechanical properties. Optimization of material processing condition is important to develop the desirable molybdenum alloys with sufficient room-temperature ductility. Atomistic analyses were conducted to further understand the mechanism of ductility improvement of the molybdenum alloys and the results showed that trace amount of residual oxygen may be responsible for the brittle behavior of the as-cast Mo alloys. For the alloys studied, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at different loading rates, and at room and elevated temperatures. Thermal cycling effect on the mechanical properties was also studied. Tensile tests for specimens subjected to either ten or twenty thermal cycles were conducted. For each test, a follow-up detailed fractography and microstructural analysis were carried out. The test results were correlated to the size, density, distribution of the spinel particles and processing time. Thermal expansion tests were carried out using thermo

  4. Strain-promoted growth of Mn silicide nanowires on Si(001) (United States)

    Miki, Kazushi; Liu, Hongjun; Owen, James H. G.; Renner, Christoph


    We have discovered a method to promote the growth of Mn silicide nanowires on the Si(001) at 450° C. Deposition of sub-monolayer quantities of Mn onto a Si(001) surface with a high density of Bi nanolines results in the formation of nanowires, 5-10 nm wide, and up to 600 nm long. These nanowires are never formed if the same growth procedure is followed in the absence of the Bi nanolines. The Haiku core of the Bi nanoline is known to induce short-range stress in the surrounding silicon surface, straining neighbouring dimers, and repelling step edges. We discuss the possible mechanisms for this effect, including the effect of the Bi nanolines on the surface stress tensor and alteration of the available diffusion channels on the surface. This research was partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, the Iketani Science and Technology Foundation.

  5. Chemical vapour deposition of tungsten and tungsten silicide layers for applications in novel silicon technology

    CERN Document Server

    Li, F X


    This work was a detailed investigation into the Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) of tungsten and tungsten silicide for potential applications in integrated circuit (IC) and other microelectronic devices. These materials may find novel applications in contact schemes for transistors in advanced ICs, buried high conductivity layers in novel Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology and in power electronic devices. The CVD techniques developed may also be used for metal coating of recessed or enclosed features which may occur in novel electronic or electromechanical devices. CVD of tungsten was investigated using the silicon reduction reaction of WF sub 6. W layers with an optimum self-limiting thickness of 100 nm and resistivity 20 mu OMEGA centre dot cm were produced self-aligned to silicon. A hydrogen passivation technique was developed as part of the wafer pre-clean schedule and proved essential in achieving optimum layer thickness. Layers produced by this approach are ideal for intimate contact to shallow junct...

  6. Comparative study of metallic silicide-germanide orthorhombic MnP systems. (United States)

    Connétable, Damien; Thomas, Olivier


    We present a comparative study of the structural, energetic, electronic and elastic properties of MX type MnP systems (where X=Si or Ge, and M=Pt, Pd or Ni) using first-principles calculations. The optimized ground state properties of these systems are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. A detailed comparative study of the elastic properties of polycrystalline structures is also presented. We analyze the relationship between the composition and the properties of the systems. Finally, we present the properties of NiSi1-xGex alloys. We show that these properties depend linearly on the Ge content of the alloy. This work has important consequences for semiconductor devices in which silicides, germanides and alloys thereof are used as contact materials.

  7. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies of cobalt silicide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naftel, S.J.; Coulthard, I.; Hu, Y.; Sham, T.K.; Zinke-Allmang, M. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)


    Cobalt silicide thin films, prepared on Si(100) wafers, have been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) at the Si K-, L{sub 2,3}- and Co K-edges utilizing both total electron (TEY) and fluorescence yield (FLY) detection as well as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Co K-edge. Samples made using DC sputter deposition on clean Si surfaces and MBE were studied along with a bulk CoSi{sub 2} sample. XANES and EXAFS provide information about the electronic structure and morphology of the films. It was found that the films studied have essentially the same structure as bulk CoSi{sub 2}. Both the spectroscopy and materials characterization aspects of XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structures) are discussed.

  8. Crystalline structures and misfit strain inside Er silicide nanocrystals self-assembled on Si(001) substrates. (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Wu, Yueqin; Song, Junqiang; Li, Juan; Huang, Han; Zou, Jin; Cai, Qun


    The morphology and crystalline structure of Er silicide nanocrystals self-assembled on the Si(001) substrate were investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the nanowires and nanorods formed at 630 °C has dominant hexagonal AlB(2)-type structure, while inside the nanoislands self-organized at 800 °C the tetragonal ThSi(2)-type structure is prevalent. The lattice analysis via cross-sectional high-resolution TEM demonstrated that internal misfit strain plays an important role in controlling the growth of nanocrystals. With the relaxation of strain, the nanoislands could evolve from a pyramid-like shape into a truncated-hut-like shape.

  9. The modulation of Schott ky barrier height of NiSi/n-Si Schottky diodes by silicide as diffusion source technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Xia; Fan Chun-Hui; Huang Ru; Guo Yue; Xu Cong; Zhang Xing; Wang Yang-Yuan


    This paper reports that the Schottky barrier height modulation of NiSi/n-si is experimentally investigated by adopting a novel silicide-as-diffusion-source technique. which avoids the damage to the NiSi/Si interface induced from the conventional dopant segregation method. In addition, the impact of post-BF_2 implantation after silicidation on the surface morphology of Ni silicides is also illustrated. The thermal stability of Ni silicides can be improved by sihcideas-diffusion-source technique. Besides, the electron Schottky barrier height is successfully modulated by 0.11 eV at a boron dose of 10~(15) cm~(-2) in comparison with the non. implanted samples. The change of barrier height is not attributed to the phase change of silicide films but due to the boron pile-up at the interface of NiSi and Si substrate which causes the upward bending of conducting band. The results demonstrate the feasibility of novel silicide-as-diffusion-source technique for the fabrication of Schottky source/drain Si MOS devices.

  10. Pack cementation Cr-Al coating of steels and Ge-doped silicide coating of Cr-Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.R.; Zheng, M.H.; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    Carbon steels or low-alloy steels used in utility boilers, heat exchangers, petrochemical plants and coal gasification systems are subjected to high temperature corrosion attack such as oxidation, sulfidation and hot corrosion. The pack cementation coating process has proven to be an economical and effective method to enhance the corrosion resistance by modifying the surface composition of steels. With the aid of a computer program, STEPSOL, pack cementation conditions to produce a ferrite Cr-Al diffusion coating on carbon-containing steels by using elemental Cr and Al powders have been calculated and experimentally verified. The cyclic oxidation kinetics for the Cr-Al coated steels are presented. Chromium silicide can maintain high oxidation resistance up to 1100{degrees}C by forming a SiO{sub 2} protective scale. Previous studies at Ohio State University have shown that the cyclic oxidation resistance of MOSi{sub 2} and TiSi{sub 2} can be further improved by Ge addition introduced during coating growth. The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating in a single processing step for the ORNL-developed Cr-Nb advanced intermetallic alloy. The oxidation behavior of the silicide-coated Cr-Nb alloy was excellent: weight gain of about 1 mg/cm{sup 2} upon oxidation at 1100{degrees}C in air for 100 hours.

  11. Thin manganese films on Si(111)-(7 x 7): electronic structure and strain in silicide formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Tallarida, M; Hansmann, M; Starke, U; Horn, K [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)


    The electronic and structural properties of thin epitaxial Mn films on Si(111)-(7 x 7) and their silicide reaction are studied by means of low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and photoemission spectroscopy (PES). The deposition of Mn at room temperature initially results in the growth of islands. The metal-silicon reaction already occurs at this temperature, which is further enhanced by annealing up to 400 deg. C, leading to the formation of manganese silicide and turning islands into nearly closed films at higher coverage. A pseudo-(1 x 1) phase develops for Mn films of up to 1 monolayer (ML) thickness. For films of higher thicknesses of up to 5 ML, a ( {radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 deg. phase is observed. STM images show that then the silicide film is almost closed and exhibits a strain relief network reflecting an incommensurate interface structure. PES reveals that the (1 x 1) phase is semiconducting while the ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 deg. phase is metallic. For both phases, Si 2p core level photoemission data indicate that the surface is probably terminated by Si atoms.

  12. Thin manganese films on Si(111)-(7 × 7): electronic structure and strain in silicide formation (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Tallarida, M.; Hansmann, M.; Starke, U.; Horn, K.


    The electronic and structural properties of thin epitaxial Mn films on Si(111)-(7 × 7) and their silicide reaction are studied by means of low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and photoemission spectroscopy (PES). The deposition of Mn at room temperature initially results in the growth of islands. The metal-silicon reaction already occurs at this temperature, which is further enhanced by annealing up to 400°C, leading to the formation of manganese silicide and turning islands into nearly closed films at higher coverage. A pseudo-(1 × 1) phase develops for Mn films of up to 1 monolayer (ML) thickness. For films of higher thicknesses of up to 5 ML, a ( \\sqrt{3}\\times\\sqrt{3} )R30° phase is observed. STM images show that then the silicide film is almost closed and exhibits a strain relief network reflecting an incommensurate interface structure. PES reveals that the (1 × 1) phase is semiconducting while the ( \\sqrt{3}\\times\\sqrt{3} )R30° phase is metallic. For both phases, Si 2p core level photoemission data indicate that the surface is probably terminated by Si atoms.

  13. Electrical and optical properties of sub-10 nm nickel silicide films for silicon solar cells (United States)

    Brahmi, Hatem; Ravipati, Srikanth; Yarali, Milad; Shervin, Shahab; Wang, Weijie; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Mavrokefalos, Anastassios


    Highly conductive and transparent films of ultra-thin p-type nickel silicide films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of nickel on silicon substrates followed by rapid thermal annealing in an inert environment in the temperature range 400-600 °C. The films are uniform throughout the wafer with thicknesses in the range of 3-6 nm. The electrical and optical properties are presented for nickel silicide films with varying thickness. The Drude-Lorentz model and Fresnel equations were used to calculate the dielectric properties, sheet resistance, absorption and transmission of the films. These ultrathin nickel silicide films have excellent optoelectronic properties for p-type contacts with optical transparencies up to 80% and sheet resistance as low as ~0.15 µΩ cm. Furthermore, it was shown that the use of a simple anti-reflection (AR) coating can recover most of the reflected light approaching the values of a standard Si solar cell with the same AR coating. Overall, the combination of ultra-low thickness, high transmittance, low sheet resistance and ability to recover the reflected light by utilizing standard AR coating makes them ideal for utilization in silicon based photovoltaic technologies as a p-type transparent conductor.

  14. On the interdiffusion in multilayered silicide coatings for the vanadium-based alloy V-4Cr-4Ti (United States)

    Chaia, N.; Portebois, L.; Mathieu, S.; David, N.; Vilasi, M.


    To provide protection against corrosion at high temperatures, silicide diffusion coatings were developed for the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, which can be used as the fuel cladding in next-generation sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. The multilayered coatings were prepared by halide-activated pack cementation using MgF2 as the transport agent and pure silicon (high activity) as the master alloy. Coated pure vanadium and coated V-4Cr-4Ti alloy were studied and compared as substrates. In both cases, the growth of the silicide layers (V3Si, V5Si3, V6Si5 and VSi2) was controlled exclusively by solid-state diffusion, and the growth kinetics followed a parabolic law. Wagner's analysis was adopted to calculate the integrated diffusion coefficients for all silicides. The estimated values of the integrated diffusion coefficients range from approximately 10-9 to 10-13 cm2 s-1. Then, a diffusion-based numerical approach was used to evaluate the growth and consumption of the layers when the coated substrates were exposed at critical temperatures. The estimated lifetimes of the upper VSi2 layer were 400 h and 280 h for pure vanadium and the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, respectively. The result from the numeric simulation was in good agreement with the layer thicknesses measured after aging the coated samples at 1150 °C under vacuum.

  15. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulations of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ye, Bei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mei, Zhigang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hofman, Gerard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Uranium silicide (U3Si2) fuel has higher thermal conductivity and higher uranium density, making it a promising candidate for the accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs). However, previous studies on the fuel performance of U3Si2, including both experimental and computational approaches, have been focusing on the irradiation conditions in research reactors, which usually involve low operation temperatures and high fuel burnups. Thus, it is important to examine the fuel performance of U3Si2 at typical LWR conditions so as to evaluate the feasibility of replacing conventional uranium dioxide fuel with this silicide fuel material. As in-reactor irradiation experiments involve significant time and financial cost, it is appropriate to utilize modeling tools to estimate the behavior of U3Si2 in LWRs based on all those available research reactor experimental references and state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculation capabilities at the early development stage. Hence, in this report, a comprehensive investigation of the fission gas swelling behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is introduced. The modeling efforts mentioned in this report was based on the rate theory (RT) model of fission gas bubble evolution that has been successfully applied for a variety of fuel materials at devious reactor conditions. Both existing experimental data and DFT-calculated results were used for the optimization of the parameters adopted by the RT model. Meanwhile, the fuel-cladding interaction was captured by the coupling of the RT model with simplified mechanical correlations. Therefore, the swelling behavior of U3Si2 fuel and its consequent interaction with cladding in LWRs was predicted by the rate theory modeling, providing valuable information for the development of U3Si2 fuel as an accident

  16. Characteristics of high wear resistant Ni-base materials strengthened by precipitation hardening of wolfram silicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, Kiyoshi; Ide, Hisayuki; Ishiyama, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The practical application of Co-base Stellite and Ni base Inconel for reactor core components with high allowable stress levels is considered to be limited by the formation of radioactive cruds and the susceptibility to IASCC respectively. For this view-point, W-silicide strengthened Cr-W-Si Ni-base high wear resistant alloy so-called HWI alloy was newly developed as an alternative material. The chemical composition and the alloy making process were optimized by applying the electron beam purification process and the thermo-mechanical treatment. The mechanical strength higher than it of above commercial alloys was easily obtained by both solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening, because this alloy has the excellent cold and hot workabilities. The irradiation resistance and the corrosion resistance superior than these of above commercial alloys were verified by several laboratory tests of HWI heats. To maintain austenite phase stability at the practical temperature and to enrich oxide former alloying elements were clarified to be the most important means for this alloy development. (author)

  17. The ability of silicide coating to delay the catastrophic oxidation of vanadium under severe conditions (United States)

    Chaia, N.; Mathieu, S.; Rouillard, F.; Vilasi, M.


    V-4Cr-4Ti vanadium alloy is a potential cladding material for sodium-cooled fast-neutron reactors (SFRs). However, its affinity for oxygen and the subsequent embrittlement that oxygen induces causes a need for an oxygen diffusion barrier, which can be obtained by manufacturing a multi-layered silicide coating. The present work aims to evaluate the effects of thermal cycling (using a cyclic oxidation device) and tensile and compressive stresses (using the three-point flexure test) on the coated alloy system. Tests were performed in air up to 1100 °C, which is 200 °C higher than the accidental temperature for SFR applications. The results showed that the VSi2 coating was able to protect the vanadium substrate from oxidation for more than 400 1-h cycles between 1100 °C and room temperature. The severe bending applied to the coated alloy at 950 °C using a load of 75 MPa did not lead to specimen breakage. It can be suggested that the VSi2 coating has mechanical properties compatible with the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy for SFR applications.

  18. Crystal structure of the ternary silicide Gd2Re3Si5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliia Fedyna


    Full Text Available A single crystal of the title compound, the ternary silicide digadolinium trirhenium pentasilicide, Gd2Re3Si5, was isolated from an alloy of nominal composition Gd20Re30Si50 synthesized by arc melting and investigated by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Its crystal structure belongs to the U2Mn3Si5 structure type. All atoms in the asymmetric lie on special positions. The Gd site has site symmetry m..; the two Mn atoms have site symmetries m.. and 2.22; the three Si atoms have site symmetries m.., ..2 and 4.. . The coordination polyhedra of the Gd atoms have 21 vertices, while those of the Re atoms are cubooctahedra and 13-vertex polyhedra. The Si atoms are arranged as tricapped trigonal prisms, bicapped square antiprisms, or 11-vertex polyhedra. The crystal structure of the title compound is also related to the structure types CaBe2Ge2 and W5Si3. It can be represented as a stacking of Gd-centred polyhedra of composition [GdSi9]. The Re atoms form infinite chains with an Re—Re distance of 2.78163 (5 Å and isolated squares with an Re—Re distance of 2.9683 (6 Å.

  19. Formation of the Thermoelectric Candidate Chromium Silicide by Use of a Pack-Cementation Process (United States)

    Stathokostopoulos, D.; Chaliampalias, D.; Tarani, E.; Theodorakakos, A.; Giannoulatou, V.; Polymeris, G. S.; Pavlidou, E.; Chrissafis, K.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Vourlias, G.


    Transition-metal silicides are reported to be good candidates for thermoelectric applications because of their thermal and structural stability, high electrical conductivity, and generation of thermoelectric power at elevated temperatures. Chromium disilicide (CrSi2) is a narrow-gap semiconductor and a potential p-type thermoelectric material up to 973 K with a band gap of 0.30 eV. In this work, CrSi2 was formed from Si wafers by use of a two-step, pack-cementation, chemical diffusion method. Several deposition conditions were used to investigate the effect of temperature and donor concentration on the structure of the final products. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis were performed for phase identification, and thermal stability was evaluated by means of thermogravimetric measurements. The results showed that after the first step, chromizing, the structure of the products was a mixture of several Cr-Si phases, depending on the donor (Cr) concentration during the deposition process. After the second step, siliconizing, the pure CrSi2 phase was formed as a result of Si enrichment of the initial Cr-Si phases. It was also revealed that this compound has thermoelectric properties similar to those reported elsewhere. Moreover, it was found to have exceptional chemical stability even at temperatures up to 1273 K.

  20. Experimental studies of thermal and chemical interactions between oxide and silicide nuclear fuels with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    farahani, A.A.; Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsi, Madison, WI (United States)


    Given some transient power/cooling mismatch is a nuclear reactor and its inability to establish the necessary core cooling, energetic fuel-coolant interactions (FCI`s commonly called `vapor explosions`) could occur as a result of the core melting and coolant contact. Although a large number of studies have been done on energetic FCI`s, very few experiments have been performed with the actual fuel materials postulated to be produced in severe accidents. Because of the scarcity of well-characterized FCI data for uranium allows in noncommercial reactors (cermet and silicide fuels), we have conducted a series of experiments to provide a data base for the foregoing materials. An existing 1-D shock-tube facility was modified to handle depleted radioactive materials (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al, and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al). Our objectives have been to determine the effects of the initial fuel composition and temperature and the driving pressure (triggering) on the explosion work output, dynamic pressures, transient temperatures, and the hydrogen production. Experimental results indicate limited energetics, mainly thermal interactions, for these fuel materials as compared to aluminum where more chemical reactions occur between the molten aluminum and water.

  1. Status of core conversion with LEU silicide fuel in JRR-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Teruo; Ohnishi, Nobuaki; Shirai, Eiji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)


    Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4) is a light water moderated and cooled, 93% enriched uranium ETR-type fuel used and swimming pool type reactor with thermal output of 3.5MW. Since the first criticality was achieved on January 28, 1965, JRR-4 has been used for shielding experiments, radioisotope production, neutron activation analyses, training for reactor engineers and so on for about 30 years. Within the framework of the RERTR Program, the works for conversion to LEU fuel are now under way, and neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations emphasizing on safety and performance aspects are being carried out. The design and evaluation for the core conversion are based on the Guides for Safety Design and Evaluation of research and testing reactor facilities in Japan. These results show that the JRR-4 will be able to convert to use LEU fuel without any major design change of core and size of fuel element. LEU silicide fuel (19.75%) will be used and maximum neutron flux in irradiation hole would be slightly decreased from present neutron flux value of 7x10{sup 13}(n/cm{sup 2}/s). The conversion works are scheduled to complete in 1998, including with upgrade of the reactor building and utilization facilities.

  2. The whole-core LEU silicide fuel demonstration in the JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Akashi, Kazutomo; Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others


    The JMTR was fully converted to LEU silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) fuel with cadmium wires as burnable absorber in January, 1994. The reduced enrichment program for the JMTR was initiated in 1979, and the conversion to MEU (enrichment ; 45%) aluminide fuel was carried out in 1986 as the first step of the program. The final goal of the program was terminated by the present LEU conversion. This paper describes the results of core physics measurement through the conversion phase from MEU fuel core to LEU fuel core. Measured excess reactivities of the LEU fuel cores are mostly in good agreement with predicted values. Reactivity effect and burnup of cadmium wires, therefore, were proved to be well predicted. Control rod worth in the LEU fuel core is mostly less than that in the MEU fuel core. Shutdown margin was verified to be within the safety limit. There is no significant difference in temperature coefficient of reactivity between the MEU and LEU fuel cores. These results verified that the JMTR was successfully and safely converted to LEU fuel. Extension of the operating cycle period was achieved and reduction of spend fuel elements is expected by using the fuel with high uranium density.

  3. Calcium and Vitamin D (United States)

    ... Cart Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is ... the-counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D ...

  4. Imaging calcium in neurons. (United States)

    Grienberger, Christine; Konnerth, Arthur


    Calcium ions generate versatile intracellular signals that control key functions in all types of neurons. Imaging calcium in neurons is particularly important because calcium signals exert their highly specific functions in well-defined cellular subcompartments. In this Primer, we briefly review the general mechanisms of neuronal calcium signaling. We then introduce the calcium imaging devices, including confocal and two-photon microscopy as well as miniaturized devices that are used in freely moving animals. We provide an overview of the classical chemical fluorescent calcium indicators and of the protein-based genetically encoded calcium indicators. Using application examples, we introduce new developments in the field, such as calcium imaging in awake, behaving animals and the use of calcium imaging for mapping single spine sensory inputs in cortical neurons in vivo. We conclude by providing an outlook on the prospects of calcium imaging for the analysis of neuronal signaling and plasticity in various animal models.

  5. Comparing the electrical characteristics and reliabilities of BJTs and MOSFETs between Pt and Ti contact silicide processes (United States)

    Liu, Kaiping; Shang, Ling


    The sub-threshold characteristics and the reliability of BJTs, using platinum contact silicide (PtSi) or titanium contact silicide (TiSi2), are compared and analyzed. During processing, it is observed that the TiSi2 process produces higher interface state density (Dit) than the PtSi process. The increase in Dit not only leads to a higher base current in the BJTs, but also leads to a lower transconductance for the MOS transistors. The data also show that the impact on NPN and nMOS is more severe than the impact of PNP and pMOS, respectively. This can be explained by the non-symmetric interface state distribution, the re- activation of boron, and/or by substrate trap centers. The amount of interface states produced depends not only on the thickness of the titanium film deposited, but also on the temperature and duration of the titanium silicide process. The electrical data indicates that after all the Back-End- Of-The-Line processing steps, which includes a forming gas anneal, Dit is still higher on wafers with the TiSi2 transistor's base current increases at different rates between the two processes, but eventually levels off to the same final value. However, the PNP transistor's base current increases at approximately the same rate, but eventually levels off at different final values. These indicate that the TiSi2 process may have modified the silicon and oxygen dangling bond structure during its high temperature process in addition to removing the hydrogen from the passivated interface states.

  6. Orientation relationship between alpha-prime titanium and silicide S2 in alloy Ti-6Al-5Zr-0. 5Mo-0. 25Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandra, C.; Singh, V.


    Orientation relationships between the silicide S2 and the matrix of alpha-prime platelets are established for the titanium alloy 685 (Ti-6Al-5Zr-0.5Mo-0.25Si), a near-alpha alloy designed for the high-temperature components of jet engines. A stereogram showing the parallel planes of alpha-prime and S2 is presented for the alloy in the water-quenched and aged condition. A table is also presented which lists the parallel planes of the matrix and the silicide along with the misfit parameters. The results obtained are compared with the orientation relationships reported in the literature. 14 references.

  7. A study of nickel silicide in a conventional furnace for Ni/Cu contact monocrystalline-silicon solar cells (United States)

    Min, Seon Kyu; Lee, Soo Hong


    High-conductivity contacts in place of screen-printed contacts are in demand for commercial solar cells. Also, simplifying the process steps is required for commercial solar cells. In addition, very expensive metals are necessary improved efficiency without using scarce. In this research, we replaced screen-printed contacts with Ni/Cu contacts in passivated emitter solar cells. A layer of nickel was used as the seed and the adhesion layer. The main contact was formed by plating with copper. Firing conditions in a conventional furnace were varied so as to form nickel silicide. The best cell showed a solar cell efficiency of 18.76%.

  8. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulation of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Ye, Bei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hofman, Gerard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gamble, Kyle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Modeling and Simulation; Mei, Zhi-Gang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division


    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions needs to be well understood. In this report, rate theory model was developed based on existing experimental data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations so as to predict the fission gas behavior in U3Si2 at LWR conditions. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 can be divided into three temperature regimes. During steady-state operation, the majority of the fission gas stays in intragranular bubbles, whereas the dominance of intergranular bubbles and fission gas release only occurs beyond 1000 K. The steady-state rate theory model was also used as reference to establish a gaseous swelling correlation of U3Si2 for the BISON code. Meanwhile, the overpressurized bubble model was also developed so that the fission gas behavior at LOCA can be simulated. LOCA simulation showed that intragranular bubbles are still dominant after a 70 second LOCA, resulting in a controllable gaseous swelling. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is benign according to the rate theory prediction at both steady-state and LOCA conditions, which provides important references to the qualification of U3Si2 as a LWR fuel material with excellent fuel performance and enhanced accident tolerance.

  9. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulation of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Ye, Bei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hofman, Gerard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gamble, Kyle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Modeling and Simulation; Mei, Zhi-Gang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division


    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions need to be well-understood. In this report, rate theory model was developed based on existing experimental data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations so as to predict the fission gas behavior in U3Si2 at LWR conditions. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 can be divided into three temperature regimes. During steady-state operation, the majority of the fission gas stays in intragranular bubbles, whereas the dominance of intergranular bubbles and fission gas release only occurs beyond 1000 K. The steady-state rate theory model was also used as reference to establish a gaseous swelling correlation of U3Si2 for the BISON code. Meanwhile, the overpressurized bubble model was also developed so that the fission gas behavior at LOCA can be simulated. LOCA simulation showed that intragranular bubbles are still dominant after a 70 second LOCA, resulting in a controllable gaseous swelling. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is benign according to the rate theory prediction at both steady-state and LOCA conditions, which provides important references to the qualification of U3Si2 as a LWR fuel material with excellent fuel performance and enhanced accident tolerance.

  10. Hot wire chemical vapor deposition: limits and opportunities of protecting the tungsten catalyzer from silicide with a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigeri, P.A. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona-08028 (Spain); Nos, O., E-mail: oriol_nos@ub.ed [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona-08028 (Spain); Ecotecnia (ALSTOM Group) (Spain); Bengoechea, S.; Frevert, C.; Asensi, J.M.; Bertomeu, J. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona-08028 (Spain)


    Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) is one of the most promising techniques for depositing the intrinsic microcrystalline silicon layer for the production of micro-morph solar cells. However, the silicide formation at the colder ends of the tungsten wire drastically reduces the lifetime of the catalyzer, thus limiting its industrial exploitation. A simple but interesting strategy to decrease the silicide formation is to hide the electrical contacts of the catalyzer in a long narrow cavity which reduces the probability of the silane molecules to reach the colder ends of the wire. In this paper, the working mechanism of the cavity is elucidated. Measurements of the thickness profile of the silicon deposited in the internal walls of the cavity have been compared with those predicted using a simple diffusion model based on the assumption of Knudsen flow. A lifetime study of the protected and unprotected wires has been carried out. The different mechanisms which determine the deterioration of the catalyzer have been identified and discussed.

  11. Silicide induced surface defects in FePt nanoparticle fcc-to-fct thermally activated phase transition (United States)

    Chen, Shu; Lee, Stephen L.; André, Pascal


    Magnetic nanoparticles (MnPs) are relevant to a wide range of applications including high density information storage and magnetic resonance imaging to name but a few. Among the materials available to prepare MnPs, FePt is attracting growing attention. However, to harvest the strongest magnetic properties of FePt MnPs, a thermal annealing is often required to convert face-centered cubic as synthesized nPs into its tetragonal phase. Rarely addressed are the potential side effects of such treatments on the magnetic properties. In this study, we focus on the impact of silica shells often used in strategies aiming at overcoming MnP coalescence during the thermal annealing. While we show that this shell does prevent sintering, and that fcc-to-fct conversion does occur, we also reveal the formation of silicide, which can prevent the stronger magnetic properties of fct-FePt MnPs from being fully realised. This report therefore sheds lights on poorly investigated and understood interfacial phenomena occurring during the thermal annealing of MnPs and, by doing so, also highlights the benefits of developing new strategies to avoid silicide formation.

  12. Thermal Stability and Growth Behavior of Erbium Silicide Nanowires Self-Assembled on a Vicinal Si(001) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Tao; SONG Jun-Qiang; LI Juan; CAI Qun


    Erbium silicide nanowires are self-assembled on vicinal Si(Ool) substrates after electron beam evaporation and post annealing at 63(fC In-situ scanning tunneling microscopy investigations manifest that the nanowires will successively shrink and transform into a nanoisland with annealing prolonged. Meanwhile, a structural transition from hexagonal AIB2 phase to tetragonal ThSi'2 phase is revealed with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is also found that the nanowires gradually expand to embed into the substrates during the growth process, which has much influence on the shape instability of nanowires. Additionally, a multiple deposition-annealing treatment is given as a novel growth method to strengthen the controlled fabrication of nanowires.%@@ Erbium silicide nanowires are self-assembled on vicinal Si(001) substrates after electron beam evaporation and post annealing at 630℃ In-situ scanning tunneling microscopy investigations manifest that the nanowires will successively shrink and transform into a nanoisland with annealing prolonged.Meanwhile, a structural transition from hexagonal AlB phase to tetragonal ThSi phase is revealed with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.It is also found that the nanowires gradually expand to embed into the substrates during the growth process, which has much influence on the shape instability of nanowires.Additionally, a multiple deposition- annealing treatment is given as a novel growth method to strengthen the controlled fabrication of nanowires.

  13. Effects of nitrogen annealing on surface structure, silicide formation and magnetic properties of ultrathin films of Co on Si(100)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ganesh K Rajan; Shivaraman Ramaswamy; C Gopalakrishnan; D John Thiruvadigal


    Effects of nitrogen annealing on structural and magnetic properties of Co/Si (100) up to 700°C has been studied in this paper. Ultrathin Co films having a constant thickness of 50 Å were grown on Si (100) substrates using electron-beam evaporation under very high vacuum conditions at room temperature. Subsequently, the samples were annealed at temperatures ranging from 100–700°C in a nitrogen environment at atmospheric pressure. Sample quality and surface morphology were examined using atomic force microscopy. Silicide formation and the resultant variation in crystallographic arrangement were studied using X-ray diffractometer. The magnetization measurements done using a vibrating sample magnetometer indicate a decrease in coercivity and retentivity values with increase in annealing temperature. Resistivity of the samples measured using a four-point probe set up shows a decrease in resistivity with increase in annealing temperature. Formation of various silicide phases at different annealing temperatures and the resultant variation in the magnetic susceptibility has been thoroughly studied and quantified in this work.

  14. Calcium and Mitosis (United States)

    Hepler, P.


    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  15. The role of composition and microstructure in Ni-W silicide formation and low temperature epitaxial NiSi2 growth by premixing Si (United States)

    Schrauwen, A.; Van Stiphout, K.; Demeulemeester, J.; De Schutter, B.; Devulder, W.; Comrie, C. M.; Detavernier, C.; Temst, K.; Vantomme, A.


    We report on an extensive and detailed study of the silicide reaction of Ni-W alloys on Si(1 0 0). The solid phase reaction when studied over the full composition range reveals the substantial impact of composition and microstructure on the silicide reaction properties, such as the phase formation sequence and formation temperatures. It was found that the microstructure of the as-deposited film depends crucially on the alloy composition, being polycrystalline below 45 at.% W and amorphous above 45 at.% W. The microstructure affects the elemental mobility substantially, resulting in a drastic increase in the silicide reaction temperature in the case of an amorphous thin film. To further investigate the effect of elemental mobility, Si was premixed in the as-deposited alloy, thereby excluding the need for long-range diffusion. As a result, the silicide reaction temperatures were lowered. However, what was more striking was the observation of a bilayer structure for epitaxial NiSi2 in contact with the Si substrate and a W-rich layer residing at the outermost layer at a temperature of only 300 °C. The results stress the importance of the composition and crystalline nature of the as-deposited film, with these being decisive for the reaction sequence.

  16. Influence of layout parameters on snapback characteristic for a gate-grounded NMOS device in 0.13-μm silicide CMOS technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yuxi; Li Jiao; Ran Feng; Cao Jialin; Yang Dianxiong


    r of the GGNMOS devices under high ESD current stress, and design area-efficient ESD protection circuits to sustain the required ESD level.Optimized layout rules for ESD protection in 0.13-μm silicide CMOS technology are also presented.

  17. Calcium - Function and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Jianfen; He, Yifan; Gao, Qian; Wang, Xuan; Nout, M.J.R.


    Rice is the primary food source for more than half of the world population. Levels of calcium contents and inhibitor - phytic acid are summarized in this chapter. Phytic acid has a very strong chelating ability and it is the main inhibit factor for calcium in rice products. Calcium contents in br

  18. High-temperature thermochemistry of transition metal borides, silicides and related compounds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemppa, Ole J.


    Earlier this year in collaboration with Dr. Susan V. Meschel we prepared a major review paper which gives a comprehensive summary of what our laboratory has accomplished with support from DOE. This paper is No.43 in the List of Publications provided. It was presented to TMS at its National Meeting in Nashville, TN last March. A copy of the manuscript of this paper was recently mailed to DOE. It has been submitted for publication in Journal of Alloys and Compounds. This review paper summarizes our observed trends in the enthalpies of formation of TR-X and RE-X compounds (where X is a IIIB or IVB element) in their dependence of the atomic number of the transition metal (TR) and the lanthanide metal (RE). In this paper our measured enthalpies of formation for each alloy family are compared for the 3d, 4d and 5d transition metal elements. We also compare our experimental results with predicted values based on Miedema's semi-empirical model. Data are presented for the carbides, silicides, germanides and stannides in Group IVB, and for the borides and aluminides in Group IIIB. During the past year (1999-2000) we have extended our work to compounds of the 3d, 4d and 5d elements with gallium (see papers No.40, No.41, and No.45 in the List of Publications). Fig. 1 (taken from No.45) presents a systematic picture of our experimental values for the most exothermic gallide compounds formed with the transition elements. This figure is characteristic of the other systematic pictures which we have found for the two other IIIB elements which we have studied and for the four IVB elements. These figures are all presented in Ref. No.43. This paper also illustrates how the enthalpy of formation of compounds of the IIIB and IVB elements with the lanthanide elements (with the exception of Pm, Eu and Yb) depend on the atomic number of RE. Finally our results for the RE-X compounds are compared with the predictions of Gschneidner (K.A. Gschneidner, Jr., J. Less Common Metals 17, 1

  19. Calcium signaling and epilepsy. (United States)

    Steinlein, Ortrud K


    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  20. Physical, Mechanical, and Structural Properties of Highly Efficient Nanostructured n- and p-Silicides for Practical Thermoelectric Applications (United States)

    Gelbstein, Yaniv; Tunbridge, Jonathan; Dixon, Richard; Reece, Mike J.; Ning, Huanpo; Gilchrist, Robert; Summers, Richard; Agote, Iñigo; Lagos, Miguel A.; Simpson, Kevin; Rouaud, Cedric; Feulner, Peter; Rivera, Sergio; Torrecillas, Ramon; Husband, Mark; Crossley, Julian; Robinson, Ivan


    Cost-effective highly efficient nanostructured n-type Mg2Si1- x Sn x and p-type higher manganese silicide (HMS) compositions were prepared for the development of practical waste heat generators for automotive and marine thermoelectric applications, in the frame of the European Commission (EC)-funded PowerDriver project. The physical, mechanical, and structural properties were fully characterized as part of a database-generation exercise required for the thermoelectric converter design. A combination of high maximal ZT values of ˜0.6 and ˜1.1 for the HMS and Mg2Si1- x Sn x compositions, respectively, and adequate mechanical properties was obtained.

  1. Reaction path and crystallograpy of cobalt silicide formation on silicon(001) by reaction deposition epitaxy (United States)

    Lim, Chong Wee

    CaF2-structure CoSi2 layers were formed on Si(001) by reactive deposition epitaxy (RDE) and compared with CoSi2 layers obtained by conventional solid phase growth (SPG). In the case of RDE, CoSi 2 formation occurred during Co deposition at elevated temperature while for SPG, Co was deposited at 25°C and silicidation took place during subsequent annealing. My results demonstrate that RDE CoSi2 layers are epitaxial with a cube-on-cube relationship, 001CoSi2 ‖001Si and 100CoSi2 ‖100 Si . In contrast, SPG films are polycrystalline with a mixed 111/002/022/112 orientation. I attribute the striking difference to rapid Co diffusion during RDE for which the high Co/Si reactivity gives rise to a flux-limited reaction resulting in the direct formation of the disilicide phase. Initial formation of CoSi2(001) follows the Volmer-Weber mode with two families of island shapes: inverse pyramids and platelets. The rectangular-based pyramidal islands extend along orthogonal directions, bounded by four {111} CoSi2/Si interfaces, and grow with a cube-on-cube orientation with respect to Si(001). Platelet-shaped islands are bounded across their long directions by {111} twin planes and their narrow directions by 511CoSi2 ‖111Si interfaces. The top and bottom surfaces are {22¯1}, with 22¯1 CoSi2‖001 Si , and {1¯1¯1}, with 1¯1¯ 1CoSi2‖ 11¯1Si , respectively. The early stages of film growth (tCo ≤ 13 A) are dominated by the twinned platelets due to a combination of higher nucleation rates and rapid elongation along preferred directions. However, at tCo ≥ 13 A, island coalescence becomes significant as orthogonal platelets intersect and block elongation along fast growth directions. Further island growth becomes dominated by the untwinned islands. I show that high-flux low-energy Ar+ ion irradiation during RDE growth dramatically increases the area fraction of untwinned regions from 0.17 in films grown under standard magnetically balanced conditions in which the ratio

  2. Calcium is important forus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Calcium is important for our health.We must have it in our diet to stay well.A good place to get it is from dairy products like milk, cheese and ice cream.One pound of cheese has fifty times the calcium we should have every day.Other foods have less.For example,a pound of beans also has calcium.But it has only three times the amount we ought to have daily.

  3. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine


    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  4. Vertically grown multiwalled carbon nanotube anode and nickel silicide integrated high performance microsized (1.25 μl) microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an environmentally friendly method for water purification and self-sustained electricity generation using microorganisms. Microsized MFCs can also be a useful power source for lab-on-a-chip and similar integrated devices. We fabricated a 1.25 μL microsized MFC containing an anode of vertically aligned, forest type multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a nickel silicide (NiSi) contact area that produced 197 mA/m 2 of current density and 392 mW/m 3 of power density. The MWCNTs increased the anode surface-to-volume ratio, which improved the ability of the microorganisms to couple and transfer electrons to the anode. The use of nickel silicide also helped to boost the output current by providing a low resistance contact area to more efficiently shuttle electrons from the anode out of the device. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Calcium signaling in neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreses-Werringloer Ute


    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is a key signaling ion involved in many different intracellular and extracellular processes ranging from synaptic activity to cell-cell communication and adhesion. The exact definition at the molecular level of the versatility of this ion has made overwhelming progress in the past several years and has been extensively reviewed. In the brain, calcium is fundamental in the control of synaptic activity and memory formation, a process that leads to the activation of specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and implicates key protein effectors, such as CaMKs, MAPK/ERKs, and CREB. Properly controlled homeostasis of calcium signaling not only supports normal brain physiology but also maintains neuronal integrity and long-term cell survival. Emerging knowledge indicates that calcium homeostasis is not only critical for cell physiology and health, but also, when deregulated, can lead to neurodegeneration via complex and diverse mechanisms involved in selective neuronal impairments and death. The identification of several modulators of calcium homeostasis, such as presenilins and CALHM1, as potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, provides strong support for a role of calcium in neurodegeneration. These observations represent an important step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of calcium signaling disturbances observed in different brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases.

  6. Behavior of silicon in nitric media. Application to uranium silicides fuels reprocessing; Comportement du silicium en milieu nitrique. Application au retraitement des combustibles siliciures d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheroux, L


    Uranium silicides are used in some research reactors. Reprocessing them is a solution for their cycle end. A list of reprocessing scenarios has been set the most realistic being a nitric dissolution close to the classic spent fuel reprocessing. This uranium silicide fuel contains a lot of silicon and few things are known about polymerization of silicic acid in concentrated nitric acid. The study of this polymerization allows to point out the main parameters: acidity, temperature, silicon concentration. The presence of aluminum seems to speed up heavily the polymerization. It has been impossible to find an analytical technique smart and fast enough to characterize the first steps of silicic acid polymerization. However the action of silicic species on emulsions stabilization formed by mixing them with an organic phase containing TBP has been studied, Silicon slows down the phase separation by means of oligomeric species forming complex with TBP. The existence of these intermediate species is short and heating can avoid any stabilization. When non irradiated uranium silicide fuel is attacked by a nitric solution, aluminum and uranium are quickly dissolved whereas silicon mainly stands in solid state. That builds a gangue of hydrated silica around the uranium silicide particulates without preventing uranium dissolution. A small part of silicon passes into the solution and polymerize towards the highly poly-condensed forms, just 2% of initial silicon is still in molecular form at the end of the dissolution. A thermal treatment of the fuel element, by forming inter-metallic phases U-Al-Si, allows the whole silicon to pass into the solution and next to precipitate. The behavior of silicon in spent fuels should be between these two situations. (author)

  7. Characteristics of a nickel thin film and formation of nickel silicide by using remote plasma atomic layer deposition with Ni( i Pr-DAD)2 (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Jang, Woochool; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Heeyoung; Kim, Hyunjung; Yuh, Junhan; Jeon, Hyeongtag


    In this study, the characteristics of nickel thin film deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RPALD) on p-type Si substrate and formation of nickel silicide using rapid thermal annealing were determined. Bis(1,4-di-isopropyl-1,3-diazabutadienyl)nickel, Ni(iPr-DAD)2, was used as a Ni precursor and ammonia plasma was used as a reactant. This was the first attempt to deposit Ni thin film using Ni(iPr-DAD)2 as a precursor for the ALD process. The RPALD Ni film was deposited with a growth rate of around 2.2{\\AA}/cycle at 250 {\\deg}C and showed significant low resistivity of 33 {\\mu}{\\Omega}cm with a total impurity concentration of around 10 at. %.The impurities of the thin film, carbon and nitrogen, were existent by the forms of C-C and C-N in a bonding state. The impurities removal tendency was investigated by comparing of experimental conditions, namely process temperature and pressure. Nitrogen impurity was removed by thermal desorption during each ALD cycle and carbon impurity was reduced by the optimizing of the process pressure which is directly related with a mean free path of NH3 plasma. After Ni deposition, nickel silicide was formed by RTA in a vacuum ambient for 1 minute. A nickel silicide layer from ALD Ni and PVD Ni was compared at the annealing temperature from 500 to 900 {\\deg}C. NiSi from ALD Ni showed better thermal stability due to the contribution of small amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the asdeposited Ni thin film. Degradation of the silicide layer was effectively suppressed with a use of ALD Ni.

  8. Simultaneous aluminizing and chromizing of steels to form (Fe,Cr){sub 3}Al coatings and Ge-doped silicide coatings of Cr-Zr base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M.; He, Y.R.; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    A halide-activated cementation pack involving elemental Al and Cr powders has been used to achieve surface compositions of approximately Fe{sub 3}Al plus several percent Cr for low alloy steels (T11, T2 and T22) and medium carbon steel (1045 steel). A two-step treatment at 925 C and 1150 C yields the codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium to form dense and uniform ferrite coatings of about 400 {micro}m thickness, while preventing the formation of a blocking chromium carbide at the substrate surfaces. Upon cyclic oxidation in air at 700 C, the coated steel exhibits a negligible 0.085 mg/cm{sup 2} weight gain for 1900 one-hour cycles. Virtually no attack was observed on coated steels tested at ABB in simulated boiler atmospheres at 500 C for 500 hours. But coatings with a surface composition of only 8 wt% Al and 6 wt% Cr suffered some sulfidation attack in simulated boiler atmospheres at temperatures higher than 500 C for 1000 hours. Two developmental Cr-Zr based Laves phase alloys (CN129-2 and CN117(Z)) were silicide/germanide coated. The cross-sections of the Ge-doped silicide coatings closely mimicked the microstructure of the substrate alloys. Cyclic oxidation in air at 1100 C showed that the Ge-doped silicide coating greatly improved the oxidation resistance of the Cr-Zr based alloys.

  9. Atomically precise self-organization of perfectly ordered gadolinium–silicide nanomeshes controlled by anisotropic electromigration-induced growth on Si(1 1 0)-16 × 2 surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Ie-Hong, E-mail: [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan (China); Institute of Optoelectronics and Solid State Electronics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan (China); Chen, Tsung-Ming; Tsai, Yung-Feng [Institute of Optoelectronics and Solid State Electronics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan (China)


    Highlights: • This work provides a clear understanding of the template-directed self-organization mechanism of a perfectly ordered Gd-silicide nanomesh on a double-domain Si(1 1 0)-16 × 2 and identifies that the anisotropic electromigration is the driving force governing the two-dimensional self-ordering of the atomically precise silicide nanomesh. • The ability to self-organize a variety of the perfectly ordered silicide nanomeshes on Si(1 1 0) with atomic precision represents a promising route for the optimal bottom-up fabrication of well-defined crossbar nanocircuits, which opens the possibility for their utilizations in crossbar nanoarchitectures and Si-based magnetoelectronic nanodevices. - Abstract: Detailed scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS) studies for the effects of thermal migration and electromigration on the growth of gadolinium–silicide nanomeshes on double-domain Si(1 1 0)-16 × 2 surfaces are presented to identify the driving force for the self-organization of a perfectly ordered silicide nanomesh on Si(1 1 0). STM results clearly show that the anisotropic electromigration effect is crucial for the control of the spatial uniformity of a self-ordered silicide nanomesh on Si(1 1 0). This two-dimensional self-ordering driven by the anisotropic-electromigration-induced growth allows the sizes and positions of crossed nanowires to be precisely controlled within a variation of ±0.2 nm over a mesoscopic area, and it can be straightforwardly applied to other metals (e.g., Au and Ce) to grow a variety of highly regular silicide nanomeshes for the applications as nanoscale interconnects. Moreover, the STS results show that the anisotropic electromigration-induced growth causes the metallic horizontal nanowires to cross over the semiconducting oblique nanowires, which opens the possibility for the atomically precise bottom-up fabrication of well-defined crossbar nanoarchitectures.

  10. Electrophoretic deposition of magnesium silicates on titanium implants: Ion migration and silicide interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshar-Mohajer, M. [Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yaghoubi, A., E-mail: [Center for High Impact Research, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Ramesh, S., E-mail: [Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Bushroa, A.R.; Chin, K.M.C.; Tin, C.C. [Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Chiu, W.S. [Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)


    Magnesium silicates (Mg{sub x}SiO{sub y}) and in particular forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) owing to their low thermal expansion mismatch with metals are promising materials for bioactive coating of implants. Here, we report the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of forsterite onto titanium substrates using different precursors. Unlike bulk samples which achieve full stoichiometry only beyond 1400 °C, non-stoichiometric magnesium silicate rapidly decomposes into magnesium oxide nanowires during sintering. Elemental mapping and X-ray diffraction suggest that oxygen diffusion followed by ion exchange near the substrate leads to formation of an interfacial Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} layer. Pre-annealed forsterite powder on the other hand shows a comparatively lower diffusion rate. Overall, magnesium silicate coatings do not exhibit thermally induced microcracks upon sintering as opposed to calcium phosphate bioceramics which are currently in use.

  11. Calcium and Your Child (United States)

    ... for dinner. Create mini-pizzas by topping whole-wheat English muffins or bagels with pizza sauce, low- ... Minerals Do I Need to Drink Milk? Lactose Intolerance Becoming a Vegetarian Soy Foods and Health Calcium ...

  12. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel


    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  13. Calcium and Calcium-Base Alloys (United States)


    should be satisfactory, because the electrolytic process for •(!>: A. H. Everts and G. D. Baglev’, " Physical «nrt m<„.+„4 i «_ of Calcium«, Electrochem...Rev. Metalurgie , 3j2, (1), 129 (1935). 10 ^sm^mssss^ma^^ extension between two known loads, is preferable to the value of 3,700,000 p.B.i. obtained

  14. Crystal Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Lightly Vanadium-Substituted Higher Manganese Silicides (Mn1-x V x )Si γ ) (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuzuru; Hamada, Haruki; Hayashi, Kei; Yubuta, Kunio


    To further enhance the thermoelectric (TE) properties of higher manganese silicides (HMSs), dissipation of layered precipitates of MnSi phase as well as optimization of hole carrier concentration are critical. We have prepared a lightly vanadium-substituted solid solution of HMS, (Mn1-x V x )Si γ , by a melt growth method. A 2% substitution of manganese with vanadium is found to dissipate MnSi precipitates effectively, resulting in a substantial increase in the electrical conductivity from 280 S/cm to 706 S/cm at 800 K. The resulting TE power factor reaches 2.4 mW/K2-m at 800 K, more than twice that of the V-free sample. The total thermal conductivity did not change significantly with increasing x owing to a reduction of the lattice contribution. As a consequence, the dimensionless figure of merit zT of the melt-grown samples increased from 0.26 ± 0.01 for x = 0 to 0.59 ± 0.01 for x = 0.02 at around 800 K.

  15. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.


    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  16. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau


    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  17. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia


    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian


    Background Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. Scope A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent...

  18. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle]. (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A


    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  19. Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling (United States)

    Berridge, Michael J.


    Inositol trisphosphate is a second messenger that controls many cellular processes by generating internal calcium signals. It operates through receptors whose molecular and physiological properties closely resemble the calcium-mobilizing ryanodine receptors of muscle. This family of intracellular calcium channels displays the regenerative process of calcium-induced calcium release responsible for the complex spatiotemporal patterns of calcium waves and oscillations. Such a dynamic signalling pathway controls many cellular processes, including fertilization, cell growth, transformation, secretion, smooth muscle contraction, sensory perception and neuronal signalling.

  20. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate. (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.


    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  1. Calcium and Calcium Supplements: Achieving the Right Balance (United States)

    ... bone mass, which is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Many Americans don't get enough calcium in their diets. Children and adolescent girls are at particular risk, but so are adults age 50 and older. How much calcium you ...

  2. Structural, elastic, electronic properties and stability trends of 1111-like silicide arsenides and germanide arsenides MCuXAs (M = Ti, Zr, Hf; X = Si, Ge) from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikov, V.V.; Shein, I.R. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ivanovskii, A.L., E-mail: [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silicide arsenides and germanide arsenides of Ti, Zr, Hf are probed from first principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural, elastic, electronic properties and stability trends are evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bulk moduli of HfCuSiAs and HfCuGeAs are the largest among all 1111-like phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical bonding is analyzed. - Abstract: The tetragonal (s.g. I4/nmm; no. 129) silicide arsenide ZrCuSiAs is well known as a structural type of the broad family of so-called 1111-like quaternary phases which includes now more than 150 representatives. These materials demonstrate a rich variety of outstanding physical properties (from p-type transparent semiconductors to high-temperature Fe-based superconductors) and attracted a great interest as promising candidates for a broad range of applications. At the same time, the data about the electronic and elastic properties of the ZrCuSiAs phase itself, as well as of related silicide arsenides and germanide arsenides are still very limited. Here for a series of six isostructural and isoelectronic 1111-like phases which includes both synthesized (ZrCuSiAs, HfCuSiAs, ZrCuGeAs, and HfCuGeAs) and hypothetical (TiCuSiAs and TiCuGeAs) materials, systematical studies of their structural, elastic, electronic properties and stability trends are performed by means of first-principles calculations.

  3. Calcium, vitamin D and bone


    Borg, Andrew A.


    Calcium, protein and vitamin D are the main nutrients relevant to bone health. This short article discusses the importance of vitamin D and its relation to calcium homeostasis. The various causes, clinical manifestations and treatment are outlined.

  4. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma


    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  5. Calcium carbonate overdose (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is not very poisonous. Recovery is quite likely. But, long-term overuse is more serious than a single overdose, because it can cause kidney damage. Few people die from an antacid overdose. Keep all medicines in child-proof bottles and out ...

  6. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia) (United States)

    ... as well as kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone ...

  7. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  8. Calcium aluminate in alumina (United States)

    Altay, Arzu

    The properties of ceramic materials are determined not only by the composition and structure of the phases present, but also by the distribution of impurities, intergranular films and second phases. The phase distribution and microstructure both depend on the fabrication techniques, the raw materials used, the phase-equilibrium relations, grain growth and sintering processes. In this dissertation research, various approaches have been employed to understand fundamental phenomena such as grain growth, impurity segregation, second-phase formation and crystallization. The materials system chosen was alumina intentionally doped with calcium. Atomic-scale structural analyses of grain boundaries in alumina were carried on the processed samples. It was found that above certain calcium concentrations, CA6 precipitated as a second phase at all sintering temperatures. The results also showed that abnormal grain growth can occur after precipitation and it is not only related to the calcium level, but it is also temperature dependent. In order to understand the formation mechanism of CA6 precipitates in calcium doped alumina samples, several studies have been carried out using either bulk materials or thin films The crystallization of CA2 and CA6 powders has been studied. Chemical processing techniques were used to synthesize the powders. It was observed that CA2 powders crystallized directly, however CA6 powders crystallized through gamma-Al 2O3 solid solution. The results of energy-loss near-edge spectrometry confirmed that gamma-Al2O3 can dissolve calcium. Calcium aluminate/alumina reaction couples have also been investigated. All reaction couples were heat treated following deposition. It was found that gamma-Al2O3 was formed at the interface as a result of the interfacial reaction between the film and the substrate. gamma-Al 2O3 at the interface was stable at much higher temperatures compared to the bulk gamma-Al2O3 formed prior to the CA6 crystallization. In order to

  9. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk


    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  10. Bioceramics of calcium orthophosphates. (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V


    A strong interest in use of ceramics for biomedical applications appeared in the late 1960's. Used initially as alternatives to metals in order to increase a biocompatibility of implants, bioceramics have become a diverse class of biomaterials, presently including three basic types: relatively bioinert ceramics, bioactive (or surface reactive) and bioresorbable ones. Furthermore, any type of bioceramics could be porous to provide tissue ingrowth. This review is devoted to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates, which belong to the categories of bioresorbable and bioactive compounds. During the past 30-40 years, there have been a number of major advances in this field. Namely, after the initial work on development of bioceramics that was tolerated in the physiological environment, emphasis was shifted towards the use of bioceramics that interacted with bones by forming a direct chemical bond. By the structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether the bioceramics of calcium orthophosphates was biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether it was resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics, which is able to regenerate bone tissues, has been developed. Current biomedical applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics include replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Potential future applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics will include drug-delivery systems, as well as they will become effective carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes.

  11. Self-organised silicide nanodot patterning by medium-energy ion beam sputtering of Si(100): local correlation between the morphology and metal content. (United States)

    Redondo-Cubero, A; Galiana, B; Lorenz, K; Palomares, F J; Bahena, D; Ballesteros, C; Hernandez-Calderón, I; Vázquez, L


    We have produced self-organised silicide nanodot patterns by medium-energy ion beam sputtering (IBS) of silicon targets with a simultaneous and isotropic molybdenum supply. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies show that these patterns are qualitatively similar to those produced thus far at low ion energies. We have determined the relevance of the ion species on the pattern ordering and properties. For the higher ordered patterns produced by Xe(+) ions, the pattern wavelength depends linearly on the ion energy. The dot nanostructures are silicide-rich as assessed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and emerge in height due to their lower sputtering yield, as observed by electron microscopy. Remarkably, a long wavelength corrugation is observed on the surface which is correlated with both the Mo content and the dot pattern properties. Thus, as assessed by electron microscopy, the protrusions are Mo-rich with higher and more spaced dots on their surface whereas the valleys are Mo-poor with smaller dots that are closer to each other. These findings indicate that there is a correlation between the local metal content of the surface and the nanodot pattern properties both at the nanodot and the large corrugation scales. These results contribute to advancing the understanding of this interesting nanofabrication method and aid in developing a comprehensive theory of nanodot pattern formation and evolution.

  12. Self-organised silicide nanodot patterning by medium-energy ion beam sputtering of Si(100): local correlation between the morphology and metal content (United States)

    Redondo-Cubero, A.; Galiana, B.; Lorenz, K.; Palomares, FJ; Bahena, D.; Ballesteros, C.; Hernandez-Calderón, I.; Vázquez, L.


    We have produced self-organised silicide nanodot patterns by medium-energy ion beam sputtering (IBS) of silicon targets with a simultaneous and isotropic molybdenum supply. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies show that these patterns are qualitatively similar to those produced thus far at low ion energies. We have determined the relevance of the ion species on the pattern ordering and properties. For the higher ordered patterns produced by Xe+ ions, the pattern wavelength depends linearly on the ion energy. The dot nanostructures are silicide-rich as assessed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and emerge in height due to their lower sputtering yield, as observed by electron microscopy. Remarkably, a long wavelength corrugation is observed on the surface which is correlated with both the Mo content and the dot pattern properties. Thus, as assessed by electron microscopy, the protrusions are Mo-rich with higher and more spaced dots on their surface whereas the valleys are Mo-poor with smaller dots that are closer to each other. These findings indicate that there is a correlation between the local metal content of the surface and the nanodot pattern properties both at the nanodot and the large corrugation scales. These results contribute to advancing the understanding of this interesting nanofabrication method and aid in developing a comprehensive theory of nanodot pattern formation and evolution.

  13. Carrier-transport mechanism of Er-silicide Schottky contacts to strained-silicon-on-insulator and silicon-on-insulator. (United States)

    Jyothi, I; Janardhanam, V; Kang, Min-Sung; Yun, Hyung-Joong; Lee, Jouhahn; Choi, Chel-Jong


    The current-voltage characteristics and the carrier-transport mechanism of the Er-silicide (ErSi1.7) Schottky contacts to strained-silicon-on-insulator (sSOI) and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) were investigated. Barrier heights of 0.74 eV and 0.82 eV were obtained for the sSOI and SOI structures, respectively. The barrier height of the sSOI structure was observed to be lower than that of the SoI structure despite the formation of a Schottky contact using the same metal silicide. The sSOI structure exhibited better rectification and higher current level than the SOI structure, which could be associated with a reduction in the band gap of Si caused by strain. The generation-recombination mechanism was found to be dominant in the forward bias for both structures. Carrier generation along with the Poole-Frenkel mechanism dominated the reverse-biased current in the SOI structure. The saturation tendency of the reverse leakage current in the sSOI structure could be attributed to strain-induced defects at the interface in non-lattice-matched structures.

  14. Calcium signaling in taste cells. (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F


    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  15. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking


    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved


    Barton, J.


    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  17. Synthesis of calcium superoxide (United States)

    Rewick, R. T.; Blucher, W. G.; Estacio, P. L.


    Efforts to prepare Ca(O2) sub 2 from reactions of calcium compounds with 100% O3 and with O(D-1) atoms generated by photolysis of O3 at 2537 A are described. Samples of Ca(OH) sub 2, CaO, CaO2, Ca metal, and mixtures containing suspected impurities to promote reaction have been treated with excess O3 under static and flow conditions in the presence and absence of UV irradiation. Studies with KO2 suggest that the superoxide anion is stable to radiation at 2537 A but reacts with oxygen atoms generated by the photolysis of O3 to form KO3. Calcium superoxide is expected to behave in an analogous.

  18. Characterization of complex carbide–silicide precipitates in a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy modified by welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, D., E-mail:; Davis, J.; Drew, M.; Harrison, R.P.; Edwards, L.


    Nickel based alloys of the type Hastelloy-N™ are ideal candidate materials for molten salt reactors, as well as for applications such as pressure vessels, due to their excellent resistance to creep, oxidation and corrosion. In this work, the authors have attempted to understand the effects of welding on the morphology, chemistry and crystal structure of the precipitates in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the weld zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy similar to Hastelloy-N™ in composition, by using characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Two plates of a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy GH-3535 were welded together using a TiG welding process without filler material to achieve a joint with a curved molten zone with dendritic structure. It is evident that the primary precipitates have melted in the HAZ and re-solidified in a eutectic-like morphology, with a chemistry and crystal structure only slightly different from the pre-existing precipitates, while the surrounding matrix grains remained unmelted, except for the zones immediately adjacent to the precipitates. In the molten zone, the primary precipitates were fully melted and dissolved in the matrix, and there was enrichment of Mo and Si in the dendrite boundaries after solidification, and re-precipitation of the complex carbides/silicides at some grain boundaries and triple points. The nature of the precipitates in the molten zone varied according to the local chemical composition. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Ni-based alloy with Cr, Mo, Si, Fe and C was welded, examined with SEM, EBSD, and TEM. • Original Ni{sub 2}(Mo,Cr){sub 4}(Si,C) carbides changed from equiaxed to lamellar shape in HAZ. • Composition and crystal structure remained almost unchanged in HAZ. • Original carbides changed to lamellar Ni{sub 3}(Mo,Cr){sub 3}(Si,C) in some cases in weld metal. • Precipitates were mostly incoherent, but semi-coherent in some cases in weld

  19. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James


    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  20. Calcium signalling and calcium channels: evolution and general principles. (United States)

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir


    Calcium as a divalent cation was selected early in evolution as a signaling molecule to be used by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Its low cytosolic concentration likely reflects the initial concentration of this ion in the primordial soup/ocean as unicellular organisms were formed. As the concentration of calcium in the ocean subsequently increased, so did the diversity of homeostatic molecules handling calcium. This includes the plasma membrane channels that allowed the calcium entry, as well as extrusion mechanisms, i.e., exchangers and pumps. Further diversification occurred with the evolution of intracellular organelles, in particular the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which also contain channels, exchanger(s) and pumps to handle the homeostasis of calcium ions. Calcium signalling system, based around coordinated interactions of the above molecular entities, can be activated by the opening of voltage-gated channels, neurotransmitters, second messengers and/or mechanical stimulation, and as such is all-pervading pathway in physiology and pathophysiology of organisms.

  1. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia (United States)

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian


    Background Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. Scope A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Findings Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Conclusion Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance. PMID:28182142

  2. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Jaiswal


    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears that during the origin and early evolution of life the Ca2+ ion was given a unique opportunity to be used in several biological processes because of its unusual physical and chemical properties.

  3. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  4. Calcium measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi


    Full Text Available Rightly stressed by prof. Wolfgang Walz in the Preface to the series Neuromethods series, the “careful application of methods is probably the most important step in the process of scientific inquiry”. Thus, I strongly suggest to all those interested in calcium signaling and especially to the new-comers in the hot topic of neuroscience (which has so much space even in science-society debate for its implications in legal issues and in the judge-decision process to take profit from this so well edited book. I am saying this since prof. Verkhratsky and prof. Petersen......

  5. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling (United States)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)


    , localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  6. Study of the phase composition of silicide coatings, based on layered Nb-Mo structures, obtained by vacuum-arc deposition (United States)

    Lozovan, A. A.; Betsofen, S. Ya; Lenkovets, A. S.


    A multilayer composite ∼1000 μm in thickness, formed by niobium and molybdenum layers (number of layers n = 230), is obtained by vacuum-arc deposition with subsequent siliconization of the surface layers at a temperature of 1200 °C. Layer-by-layer phase analysis is performed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that in the surface layers ∼130 μm in thickness, single-phase silicides (Nb x Mo1- x )Si2 are formed with the hexagonal C40 structure (Strukturbericht designations). Alternating layers of solid solutions based on niobium and molybdenum with a body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice are observed within the composite. The formation of solid solutions caused by heating of the coating leads to convergence of the values of the linear thermal expansion coefficient and Young's modulus at the interface between the layers.

  7. Si-rich W silicide films composed of W-atom-encapsulated Si clusters deposited using gas-phase reactions of WF6 with SiH4. (United States)

    Okada, Naoya; Uchida, Noriyuki; Kanayama, Toshihiko


    We formed Si-rich W silicide films composed of Sin clusters, each of which encapsulates a W atom (WSi(n) clusters with 8 composed of WSi(n) clusters with a uniform n, which was determined by the gas temperature. The formed films were amorphous semiconductors with an optical gap of ∼0.8-1.5 eV and an electrical mobility gap of ∼0.05-0.12 eV, both of which increased as n increased from 8 to 12. We attribute this dependence to the reduction of randomness in the Si network as n increased, which decreased the densities of band tail states and localized states.

  8. Structural, elastic, and electronic properties of recently discovered ternary silicide superconductor Li2IrSi3:An ab-initio study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. A. Hadi; M. A. Alam; M. Roknuzzaman; M. T. Nasir; A. K. M. A. Islam; S. H. Naqib


    The structural, elastic, and electronic properties of the very recently discovered ternary silicide superconductor, Li2IrSi3, are calculated using an ab-initio technique. We adopt the plane-wave pseudopotential approach within the frame-work of the first-principles density functional theory (DFT) implemented by the CASTEP code. The calculated structural parameters show reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The elastic moduli of this interesting material are calculated for the first time. The electronic band structure and electronic energy density of states indicate the strong cova-lent Ir–Si and Si–Si bonding, which leads to the formation of the rigid structure of Li2IrSi3. Strong covalency gives rise to a high Debye temperature in this system. We discuss the theoretical results in detail in this paper.

  9. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health (United States)

    ... in Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  10. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones (United States)

    ... page: // Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  11. Silicides for VLSI applications

    CERN Document Server

    Murarka, Shyam P


    Most of the subject matter of this book has previously been available only in the form of research papers and review articles. I have not attempted to refer to all the published papers. The reader may find it advantageous to refer to the references listed.

  12. Vitamin D and Intestinal Calcium Absorption


    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J.; Seth, Tanya


    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium throu...

  13. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual


    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward; Wysolmerski, John


    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate ...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate. (United States)


    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the...

  15. Evolution of the Calcium Paradigm: The Relation between Vitamin D, Serum Calcium and Calcium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borje E. Christopher Nordin


    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the index disease for calcium deficiency, just as rickets/osteomalacia is the index disease for vitamin D deficiency, but there is considerable overlap between them. The common explanation for this overlap is that hypovitaminosis D causes malabsorption of calcium which then causes secondary hyperparathyroidism and is effectively the same thing as calcium deficiency. This paradigm is incorrect. Hypovitaminosis D causes secondary hyperparathyroidism at serum calcidiol levels lower than 60 nmol/L long before it causes malabsorption of calcium because serum calcitriol (which controls calcium absorption is maintained until serum calcidiol falls below 20 nmol/L. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, probably due to loss of a “calcaemic” action of vitamin D on bone first described in 1957, destroys bone and explains why vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin D thus plays a central role in the maintenance of the serum (ionised calcium, which is more important to the organism than the preservation of the skeleton. Bone is sacrificed when absorbed dietary calcium does not match excretion through the skin, kidneys and bowel which is why calcium deficiency causes osteoporosis in experimental animals and, by implication, in humans.

  16. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzozero, Julien, E-mail:; Scrivener, Karen L.


    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. Increasing the ratio between sulfate and aluminate decreases the extent of limestone reaction.

  17. Calcium binding protein-mediated regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels linked to human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasrin NFJATBAKHSH; Zhong-ping FENG


    Calcium ion entry through voltage-gated calcium channels is essential for cellular signalling in a wide variety of cells and multiple physiological processes. Perturbations of voltage-gated calcium channel function can lead to pathophysiological consequences. Calcium binding proteins serve as calcium sensors and regulate the calcium channel properties via feedback mechanisms. This review highlights the current evidences of calcium binding protein-mediated channel regulation in human diseases.

  18. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons. (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H


    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1187 Calcium alginate. (a) Calcium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005.... Calcium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH...

  20. Calcium Orthophosphate Cements and Concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin


    Full Text Available In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are a bioactive and biodegradable grafting material in the form of a powder and a liquid. Both phases form after mixing a viscous paste that after being implanted, sets and hardens within the body as either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA or brushite, sometimes blended with unreacted particles and other phases. As both CDHA and brushite are remarkably biocompartible and bioresorbable (therefore, in vivo they can be replaced with newly forming bone, calcium orthophosphate cements represent a good correction technique for non-weight-bearing bone fractures or defects and appear to be very promising materials for bone grafting applications. Besides, these cements possess an excellent osteoconductivity, molding capabilities and easy manipulation. Furthermore, reinforced cement formulations are available, which in a certain sense might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The concepts established by calcium orthophosphate cement pioneers in the early 1980s were used as a platform to initiate a new generation of bone substitute materials for commercialization. Since then, advances have been made in the composition, performance and manufacturing; several beneficial formulations have already been introduced as a result. Many other compositions are in experimental stages. In this review, an insight into calcium orthophosphate cements and concretes, as excellent biomaterials suitable for both dental and bone grafting application, has been provided.

  1. Factors affecting calcium balance in Chinese adolescents. (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ailing; Du, Weijing; Wang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng


    Chinese dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for calcium were developed mainly from studies conducted amongst Caucasians, yet a recent review showed that reference calcium intakes for Asians are likely to be different from those of Caucasians (Lee and Jiang, 2008). In order to develop calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents, it is necessary to explore the characteristics and potential influencing factors of calcium metabolic balance in Chinese adolescents. A total of 80 students (15.1+/-0.8 years) were recruited stratified by gender from a 1-year calcium supplementation study. Subjects were randomly designed to four groups and supplemented with calcium carbonate tablets providing elemental calcium at 63, 354, 660, and 966 mg/day, respectively. Subjects consumed food from a 3-day cycle menu prepared by staff for 10 days. Elemental calcium in samples of foods, feces, and urine was determined in duplicates by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The total calcium intake ranged from 352 to 1323 mg/day. The calcium apparent absorption efficiency and retention in boys were significantly higher than that in girls (68.7% vs. 46.4%, 480 mg/day vs. 204 mg/day, PCalcium retention increased with calcium intakes, but did not reach a plateau. Calcium absorption efficiency in boys increased with calcium intake up to 665 mg/day, and decreased after that. In girls, calcium absorption efficiency decreased with calcium intake. Calcium absorption efficiency increased within 1 year after first spermatorrhea in boys, but decreased with pubertal development in girls. Sex, calcium intake, age, and pubertal development were the most important determinants of calcium absorption (R(2)=0.508, Pcalcium intake, age, and pubertal development are important factors for calcium retention and absorption during growth, which should be considered for the development of calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents.

  2. Mitochondrial calcium uptake. (United States)

    Williams, George S B; Boyman, Liron; Chikando, Aristide C; Khairallah, Ramzi J; Lederer, W J


    Calcium (Ca(2+)) uptake into the mitochondrial matrix is critically important to cellular function. As a regulator of matrix Ca(2+) levels, this flux influences energy production and can initiate cell death. If large, this flux could potentially alter intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) signals. Despite years of study, fundamental disagreements on the extent and speed of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake still exist. Here, we review and quantitatively analyze mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake fluxes from different tissues and interpret the results with respect to the recently proposed mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) candidate. This quantitative analysis yields four clear results: (i) under physiological conditions, Ca(2+) influx into the mitochondria via the MCU is small relative to other cytosolic Ca(2+) extrusion pathways; (ii) single MCU conductance is ∼6-7 pS (105 mM [Ca(2+)]), and MCU flux appears to be modulated by [Ca(2+)]i, suggesting Ca(2+) regulation of MCU open probability (P(O)); (iii) in the heart, two features are clear: the number of MCU channels per mitochondrion can be calculated, and MCU probability is low under normal conditions; and (iv) in skeletal muscle and liver cells, uptake per mitochondrion varies in magnitude but total uptake per cell still appears to be modest. Based on our analysis of available quantitative data, we conclude that although Ca(2+) critically regulates mitochondrial function, the mitochondria do not act as a significant dynamic buffer of cytosolic Ca(2+) under physiological conditions. Nevertheless, with prolonged (superphysiological) elevations of [Ca(2+)]i, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake can increase 10- to 1,000-fold and begin to shape [Ca(2+)]i dynamics.

  3. Dopaminergic regulation of dendritic calcium: fast multisite calcium imaging. (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Liang; Oikonomou, Katerina D; Short, Shaina M; Antic, Srdjan D


    Optimal dopamine tone is required for the normal cortical function; however it is still unclear how cortical-dopamine-release affects information processing in individual cortical neurons. Thousands of glutamatergic inputs impinge onto elaborate dendritic trees of neocortical pyramidal neurons. In the process of ensuing synaptic integration (information processing), a variety of calcium transients are generated in remote dendritic compartments. In order to understand the cellular mechanisms of dopaminergic modulation it is important to know whether and how dopaminergic signals affect dendritic calcium transients. In this chapter, we describe a relatively inexpensive method for monitoring dendritic calcium fluctuations at multiple loci across the pyramidal dendritic tree, at the same moment of time (simultaneously). The experiments have been designed to measure the amplitude, time course and spatial extent of action potential-associated dendritic calcium transients before and after application of dopaminergic drugs. In the examples provided here the dendritic calcium transients were evoked by triggering the somatic action potentials (backpropagation-evoked), and puffs of exogenous dopamine were applied locally onto selected dendritic branches.

  4. Formation of calcium complexes by borogluconate in vitro and during calcium borogluconate infusion in sheep. (United States)

    Farningham, D A


    The effect of borogluconate on plasma calcium fractions was studied in vitro and in vivo in sheep. In vitro calcium chloride was more effective in raising ionised plasma calcium than calcium borogluconate. Sodium borate or gluconate added to blood caused only small decreases in blood ionised calcium. However, together, a synergistic reduction in ionised calcium was observed. Following calcium borogluconate infusions into sheep, total plasma calcium rose primarily because of an increase in the unionised ultrafiltrable fraction. Other changes observed following the infusion were hypercalciuria, decreased glomerular filtration rate and acidosis. Sodium borogluconate administered subcutaneously lowered total plasma calcium. This probably resulted from enhanced calcium excretion. It is suggested that since the anionic component of calcium solutions alters the availability and retention of calcium, it is likely to affect clinical efficacy significantly.

  5. [Calcium metabolism characteristics in microgravity]. (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A I; Larina, I M; Morukov, B V


    The results of research of calcium exchange parameters at cosmonauts taken part in long space flights (SF) onboard of orbital stations "SALUT" and "MIR" within 1978-1998 were generalized. The analysis of data received during observation of 44 cosmonauts (18 of them have taken part in long SF twice) was done. The observation was carried out before and after SF by duration 30-438 days. The content of a total calcium in blood serum was increased basically by the increase of its ionized fraction after flights of moderate (3-6 months) and large duration (6-14 months) along with the significant increase of PTH and decrease of calcitonin levels. The content of osteocalcin after SF was increased. Three cosmonauts participated in research of calcium kinetics using stable isotopes before, in time and after a 115-day SF. Reduction of intestinal absorption, excretion through a gastrointestinal tract, and increase of calcium excretion with urine were marked in time of SF. In early postflight period a level of intestinal absorption, on the average, was much lower than in SF, and the calcium removal through intestine was increased. Both renal and intestinal excretion of calcium were not normalized in 3.5-4.5 months after end of SF. Increase of resorbtive processes in bone tissues which induced negative bone balance during flight was observed in all test subjects, proceeding from estimations of speed of the basic calcium flows made on the basis of mathematical modeling. The conclusion about decrease in speed of bone tissue remodeling and strengthening of its resorption proves to be true by data of research of biochemical and endocrine markers.

  6. Calcium wave of tubuloglomerular feedback. (United States)

    Peti-Peterdi, János


    ATP release from macula densa (MD) cells into the interstitium of the juxtaglomerular (JG) apparatus (JGA) is an integral component of the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism that controls the glomerular filtration rate. Because the cells of the JGA express a number of calcium-coupled purinergic receptors, these studies tested the hypothesis that TGF activation triggers a calcium wave that spreads from the MD toward distant cells of the JGA and glomerulus. Ratiometric calcium imaging of in vitro microperfused isolated JGA-glomerulus complex dissected from rabbits was performed with fluo-4/fura red and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Activation of TGF by increasing tubular flow rate at the MD rapidly produced a significant elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in extraglomerular mesangial cells (by 187.6 +/- 45.1 nM) and JG renin granular cells (by 281.4 +/- 66.6 nM). Subsequently, cell-to-cell propagation of the calcium signal at a rate of 12.6 +/- 1.1 microm/s was observed upstream toward proximal segments of the afferent arteriole and adjacent glomeruli, as well as toward intraglomerular elements including the most distant podocytes (5.9 +/- 0.4 microm/s). The same calcium wave was observed in nonperfusing glomeruli, causing vasoconstriction and contractions of the glomerular tuft. Gap junction uncoupling, an ATP scavenger enzyme cocktail, and pharmacological inhibition of P(2) purinergic receptors, but not adenosine A(1) receptor blockade, abolished the changes in [Ca(2+)](i) and propagation of the calcium wave. These studies provided evidence that both gap junctional communication and extracellular ATP are integral components of the TGF calcium wave.

  7. Calcium supplement: humanity's double-edged sword. (United States)

    Bunyaratavej, Narong; Buranasinsup, Shutipen


    The principle aim of the present study is to investigate the dark side of calcium, pollutions in calcium preparation especially lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd). The collected samples were the different calcium salts in the market and 18 preparations which were classified into 3 groups: Calcium carbonate salts, Chelated calcium and natural-raw calcium. All samples were analyzed for lead, cadmium and mercury by inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique, in house method based on AOAC (2005) 999.10 by ICP-MS. The calcium carbonate and the natural-raw calcium in every sample contained lead at 0.023-0.407 mg/kg of calcium powder. Meanwhile, the natural-raw calcium such as oyster, coral and animal bone showed amount of lead at 0.106-0.384 mg/kg with small amounts of mercury and cadmium. The chelated calcium such as calcium gluconate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate are free of lead.

  8. Progress of p-channel bottom-gate poly-Si thin-film transistor by nickel silicide seed-induced lateral crystallization (United States)

    Lee, Sol Kyu; Seok, Ki Hwan; Park, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Chae, Hee Jae; Jang, Gil Su; Lee, Yong Hee; Han, Ji Su; Joo, Seung Ki


    Excimer laser annealing (ELA) is known to be the most common crystallization technology for the fabrication of low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) in the mass production industry. This technology, however, cannot be applied to bottom-gate (BG) TFTs, which are well developed for the liquid-crystal display (LCD) back-planes, because strong laser energy of ELA can seriously damage the other layers. Here, we propose a novel high-performance BG poly-Si TFT using Ni silicide seed-induced lateral crystallization (SILC). The SILC technology renders it possible to ensure low damage in the layers, smooth surface, and longitudinal large grains in the channel. It was observed that the electrical properties exhibited a steep subthreshold slope of 110 mV/dec, high field-effect mobility of 304 cm2/Vsec, high I on/ I off ratio of 5.9 × 107, and a low threshold voltage of -3.9 V.

  9. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report (United States)

    Chu, J.


    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  10. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption. (United States)

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J; Seth, Tanya


    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium through the interior of the enterocyte and basolateral extrusion of calcium by the intestinal plasma membrane pump. This article reviews recent studies that have challenged the traditional model of vitamin D mediated transcellular calcium absorption and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins in intestinal calcium absorption. There is also increasing evidence that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can enhance paracellular calcium diffusion. The influence of estrogen, prolactin, glucocorticoids and aging on intestinal calcium absorption and the role of the distal intestine in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption are also discussed.

  11. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille;


    electroporation and electrochemotherapy. METHODS: The effects of calcium electroporation and bleomycin electroporation (alone or in combination) were compared in three different cell lines (DC-3F, transformed Chinese hamster lung fibroblast; K-562, human leukemia; and murine Lewis Lung Carcinoma). Furthermore...... survival at similar applied voltage parameters. The effect of calcium electroporation is independent of calcium compound. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study strongly supports the use of calcium electroporation as a potential cancer therapy and the results may aid in future clinical trials....

  12. The effect of calcium gluconate and other calcium supplements as a dietary calcium source on magnesium absorption in rats. (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M


    The effects of commercially available calcium supplements (calcium carbonate, calcium gluconate, oyster shell preparation and bovine bone preparation) and gluconic acid on the absorption of calcium and magnesium were evaluated for 30 days in male Wistar rats. There were no differences in the apparent absorption ratio of calcium among rats fed each calcium supplement; however, the rats fed the calcium gluconate diet had a higher apparent absorption ratio of magnesium than the rats fed the other calcium supplements. Dietary gluconic acid also more markedly stimulated magnesium absorption than the calcium carbonate diet, and the bone (femur and tibia) magnesium contents of rats fed the gluconic acid diet were significantly higher than those of the rats fed the calcium carbonate diet. Furthermore, the weight of cecal tissue and the concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid in cecal digesta of rats fed the calcium gluconate diet or the gluconic acid diet were significantly increased. We speculate that the stimulation of magnesium absorption in rats fed the calcium gluconate diet is a result of the gluconic acid component and the effect of gluconic acid on magnesium absorption probably results from cecal hypertrophy, magnesium solubility in the large intestine and the effects of volatile fatty acids on magnesium absorption.

  13. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry eSamigullin


    Full Text Available At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers—which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal—has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca2+ currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 рА and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 µM and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity.

  14. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Devkanya Dutta


    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the store-operated calcium entry or capacitative calcium entry. Capacitative calcium current plays a key role in replenishing calcium stores and activating various physiological processes. Despite considerable efforts, very little is known about the molecular nature of the capacitative channel and the signalling pathway that activates it. This review summarizes our current knowledge about store operated calcium entry and suggests possible hypotheses for its mode of activation.

  15. The ins and outs of mitochondrial calcium. (United States)

    Finkel, Toren; Menazza, Sara; Holmström, Kira M; Parks, Randi J; Liu, Julia; Sun, Junhui; Liu, Jie; Pan, Xin; Murphy, Elizabeth


    Calcium is thought to play an important role in regulating mitochondrial function. Evidence suggests that an increase in mitochondrial calcium can augment ATP production by altering the activity of calcium-sensitive mitochondrial matrix enzymes. In contrast, the entry of large amounts of mitochondrial calcium in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion injury is thought to be a critical event in triggering cellular necrosis. For many decades, the details of how calcium entered the mitochondria remained a biological mystery. In the past few years, significant progress has been made in identifying the molecular components of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex. Here, we review how calcium enters and leaves the mitochondria, the growing insight into the topology, stoichiometry and function of the uniporter complex, and the early lessons learned from some initial mouse models that genetically perturb mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

  16. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim


    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...

  17. Decalcification of calcium polycarbophil in rats. (United States)

    Yamada, T; Saito, T; Takahara, E; Nagata, O; Tamai, I; Tsuji, A


    The in vivo decalcification of calcium polycarbophil was examined. The decalcification ratio of [45Ca]calcium polycarbophil in the stomach after oral dosing to rats was more than 70% at each designated time and quite closely followed in the in vitro decalcification curve, indicating that the greater part of the calcium ion is released from calcium polycarbophil under normal gastric acidic conditions. The residual radioactivity in rat gastrointestine was nearly equal to that after oral administration of either [45Ca]calcium chloride + polycarbophil. The serum level of radioactivity was nearly equal to that after oral dosing of [45Ca]calcium lactate. These results indicate that the greater part of orally administered calcium polycarbophil released calcium ions to produce polycarbophil in vivo.

  18. Calcium channel blockers and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Tan; Yulin Deng; Hong Qing


    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by two pathological hallmarks: amyloid plaques and neurofi-brillary tangles. In addition, calcium homeostasis is disrupted in the course of human aging. Recent research shows that dense plaques can cause functional alteration of calcium signals in mice with Alzheimer's disease. Calcium channel blockers are effective therapeutics for treating Alzheimer's disease. This review provides an overview of the current research of calcium channel blockers in-volved in Alzheimer's disease therapy.

  19. Variable efficacy of calcium carbonate tablets. (United States)

    Kobrin, S M; Goldstein, S J; Shangraw, R F; Raja, R M


    Orally administered calcium carbonate tablets are commonly prescribed as a calcium supplement and for their phosphate-binding effects in renal failure patients. Two cases are reported in which a commercially available brand of calcium carbonate tablets appeared to be ineffective. Formal investigation of the bioavailability of this product revealed it to have impaired disintegration and dissolution and a lack of clinical efficacy. Recommendations that will enable physicians to avoid prescribing and pharmacists to avoid dispensing ineffective calcium carbonate tablets are proposed.

  20. Calcium regulation in endosymbiotic organelles of plants


    Bussemer, Johanna; Vothknecht, Ute C.; Chigri, Fatima


    In plant cells calcium-dependent signaling pathways are involved in a large array of biological processes in response to hormones, biotic/abiotic stress signals and a variety of developmental cues. This is generally achieved through binding of calcium to diverse calcium-sensing proteins, which subsequently control downstream events by activating or inhibiting biochemical reactions. Regulation by calcium is considered as a eukaryotic trait and has not been described for prokaryotes. Neverthele...

  1. Teaching Calcium-Induced Calcium Release in Cardiomyocytes Using a Classic Paper by Fabiato (United States)

    Liang, Willmann


    This teaching paper utilizes the materials presented by Dr. Fabiato in his review article entitled "Calcium-induced release of calcium from the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum." In the review, supporting evidence of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is presented. Data concerning potential objections to the CICR theory are discussed as well. In…

  2. Development of new ORIGEN2 data library sets for research reactors with light water cooled oxide and silicide LEU (20 w/o) fuels based on JENDL-3.3 nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liem, Peng Hong, E-mail: [Nippon Advanced Information Service (NAIS Co., Inc.), 416 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1112 (Japan); Sembiring, Tagor Malem [Center for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Puspiptek Complex, Building No. 80, Serpong, Tangerang 15310 (Indonesia)


    Highlights: • We developed new ORIGEN2 data library sets for research reactors based on JENDL-3.3. • The sets cover oxide and silicide LEU fuels with meat density up to 4.74 g U/cm{sup 3}. • Two kinds of data library sets are available: fuel region and non-fuel regions. • We verified the new data library sets with other codes. • We validated the new data library against a non-destructive test. -- Abstract: New sets of ORIGEN2 data library dedicated to research/testing reactors with light water cooled oxide and silicide LEU fuel plates based on JENDL-3.3 nuclear data were developed, verified and validated. The new sets are considered to be an extension of the most recent release of ORIGEN2.2UPJ code, i.e. the ORLIBJ33 library sets. The newly generated ORIGEN2 data library sets cover both oxide and silicide LEU fuels with fuel meat density range from 2.96 to 4.74 g U/cm{sup 3} used in the present and future operation of the Indonesian 30 MWth RSG GAS research reactor. The new sets are expected applicable also for other research/testing reactors which utilize similar fuels or have similar neutron spectral indices. In addition to the traditional ORIGEN2 library sets for fuel depletion analyses in fuel regions, in the new data library sets, new ORIGEN2 library sets for irradiation/activation analyses were also prepared which cover all representative non-fuel regions of RSG GAS such as reflector elements, irradiation facilities, etc. whose neutron spectra are significantly softer than fuel regions. Verification with other codes as well as validation with a non-destructive test result showed promising results where a good agreement was confirmed.

  3. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  4. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  5. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  6. Abnormalities of serum calcium and magnesium (United States)

    Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...

  7. Acute calcium homeostasis in MHS swine. (United States)

    Harrison, G G; Morrell, D F; Brain, V; Jaros, G G


    To elucidate a pathogenesis for the reduction in bone calcium content observed in MHS individuals, we studied the acute calcium homeostasis of MHS swine. This was achieved by the serial measurement, with a calcium selective electrode, of calcium transients in Landrace MHS (five) and control Landrace/large white cross MH negative (five) swine following IV bolus injection of calcium gluconate 0.1 mmol X kg-1--a dose which induced an acute 45 per cent increase in plasma ionised calcium. Experimental animals were anaesthetised with ketamine 10 mg X kg-1 IM, thiopentone (intermittent divided doses) 15-25 mg X kg-1 (total) IV and N2O/O2 (FIO2 0.3) by IPPV to maintain a normal blood gas, acid/base state. The plasma ionised calcium decay curve observed in MHS swine did not differ from that of control normal swine. Further it was noted that the induced acute rise in plasma ionised calcium failed to trigger the MH syndrome in any MHS swine. It is concluded that the mechanisms of acute calcium homeostasis in MHS swine are normal. An explanation for the reduction in bone calcium content observed in MHS individuals must be sought, therefore, through study of the slow long-term component of the calcium regulatory process. In addition, the conventional strictures placed on the use, in MHS patients, of calcium gluconate are called in question.

  8. Multifaceted Role of Calcium in Cancer. (United States)

    Sarode, Gargi S; Sarode, Sachin C; Patil, Shankargouda


    Role of calcium in bone remodeling and tooth remineral-ization is well known. However, calcium also plays a very imperative role in many biochemical reactions, which are essential for normal functioning of cells. The calcium associated tissue homeostasis encompasses activities like proliferation, cell death, cell motility, oxygen, and nutrient supply.

  9. 21 CFR 582.6219 - Calcium phytate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phytate. 582.6219 Section 582.6219 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium phytate. (a) Product. Calcium phytate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3189 - Calcium ascorbate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium ascorbate. 582.3189 Section 582.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 182.3189 - Calcium ascorbate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium ascorbate. 182.3189 Section 182.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.7187 - Calcium alginate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium alginate. 582.7187 Section 582.7187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium alginate. (a) Product. Calcium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. Calcium Orthophosphate-Based Bioceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin


    Full Text Available Various types of grafts have been traditionally used to restore damaged bones. In the late 1960s, a strong interest was raised in studying ceramics as potential bone grafts due to their biomechanical properties. A bit later, such synthetic biomaterials were called bioceramics. In principle, bioceramics can be prepared from diverse materials but this review is limited to calcium orthophosphate-based formulations only, which possess the specific advantages due to the chemical similarity to mammalian bones and teeth. During the past 40 years, there have been a number of important achievements in this field. Namely, after the initial development of bioceramics that was just tolerated in the physiological environment, an emphasis was shifted towards the formulations able to form direct chemical bonds with the adjacent bones. Afterwards, by the structural and compositional controls, it became possible to choose whether the calcium orthophosphate-based implants remain biologically stable once incorporated into the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of regenerative bioceramics was developed and such formulations became an integrated part of the tissue engineering approach. Now calcium orthophosphate scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous and harbor different biomolecules and/or cells. Therefore, current biomedical applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics include bone augmentations, artificial bone grafts, maxillofacial reconstruction, spinal fusion, periodontal disease repairs and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Perspective future applications comprise drug delivery and tissue engineering purposes because calcium orthophosphates appear to be promising carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and various types of cells.

  14. M5Si3(M=Ti, Nb, Mo) Based Transition-Metal Silicides for High Temperature Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhihong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Transition metal silicides are being considered for future engine turbine components at temperatures up to 1600 C. Although significant improvement in high temperature strength, room temperature fracture toughness has been realized in the past decade, further improvement in oxidation resistance is needed. Oxidation mechanism of Ti5Si3-based alloys was investigated. Oxidation behavior of Ti5Si3-based alloy strongly depends on the atmosphere. Presence of Nitrogen alters the oxidation behavior of Ti5Si3 by nucleation and growth of nitride subscale. Ti5Si3.2and Ti5Si3C0.5 alloys exhibited an excellent oxidation resistance in nitrogen bearing atmosphere due to limited dissolution of nitrogen and increased Si/Ti activity ratio. MoSi2 coating developed by pack cementation to protect Mo-based Mo-Si-B composites was found to be effective up to 1500 C. Shifting coating composition to T1+T2+Mo3Si region showed the possibility to extend the coating lifetime above 1500 C by more than ten times via formation of slow growing Mo3Si or T2 interlayer without sacrificing the oxidation resistance of the coating. The phase equilibria in the Nb-rich portion of Nb-B system has been evaluated experimentally using metallographic analysis and differential thermal analyzer (DTA). It was shown that Nbss (solid solution) and NbB are the only two primary phases in the 0-40 at.% B composition range, and the eutectic reaction L {leftrightarrow} NbSS + NbB was determined to occur at 2104 ± 5 C by DTA.

  15. Apatite Formation from Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Mixed Amorphous Calcium Phosphate/Amorphous Calcium Carbonate. (United States)

    Ibsen, Casper J S; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Birkedal, Henrik


    Crystallization from amorphous phases is an emerging pathway for making advanced materials. Biology has made use of amorphous precursor phases for eons and used them to produce structures with remarkable properties. Herein, we show how the design of the amorphous phase greatly influences the nanocrystals formed therefrom. We investigate the transformation of mixed amorphous calcium phosphate/amorphous calcium carbonate phases into bone-like nanocrystalline apatite using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The speciation of phosphate was controlled by pH to favor HPO4 (2-) . In a carbonate free system, the reaction produces anisotropic apatite crystallites with large aspect ratios. The first formed crystallites are highly calcium deficient and hydrogen phosphate rich, consistent with thin octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-like needles. During growth, the crystallites become increasingly stoichiometric, which indicates that the crystallites grow through addition of near-stoichiometric apatite to the OCP-like initial crystals through a process that involves either crystallite fusion/aggregation or Ostwald ripening. The mixed amorphous phases were found to be more stable against phase transformations, hence, the crystallization was inhibited. The resulting crystallites were smaller and less anisotropic. This is rationalized by the idea that a local phosphate-depletion zone formed around the growing crystal until it was surrounded by amorphous calcium carbonate, which stopped the crystallization.

  16. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Jörntell, Henrik; Midtgaard, Jens


    Whole-cell recordings were obtained from mossy fibre terminals in adult turtles in order to characterize the basic membrane properties. Calcium imaging of presynaptic calcium signals was carried out in order to analyse calcium dynamics and presynaptic GABA B inhibition. A tetrodotoxin (TTX....... Calcium imaging using Calcium-Green dextran revealed a stimulus-evoked all-or-none TTX-sensitive calcium signal in simple and complex rosettes. All compartments of a complex rosette were activated during electrical activation of the mossy fibre, while individual simple and complex rosettes along an axon......)-sensitive fast Na(+) spike faithfully followed repetitive depolarizing pulses with little change in spike duration or amplitude, while a strong outward rectification dominated responses to long-lasting depolarizations. High-threshold calcium spikes were uncovered following addition of potassium channel blockers...

  17. Calcium regulation in endosymbiotic organelles of plants. (United States)

    Bussemer, Johanna; Vothknecht, Ute C; Chigri, Fatima


    In plant cells calcium-dependent signaling pathways are involved in a large array of biological processes in response to hormones, biotic/abiotic stress signals and a variety of developmental cues. This is generally achieved through binding of calcium to diverse calcium-sensing proteins, which subsequently control downstream events by activating or inhibiting biochemical reactions. Regulation by calcium is considered as a eukaryotic trait and has not been described for prokaryotes. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence indicating that organelles of prokaryotic origin, such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, are integrated into the calcium-signaling network of the cell. An important transducer of calcium in these organelles appears to be calmodulin. In this review we want to give an overview over present data showing that endosymbiotic organelles harbour calcium-dependent biological processes with a focus on calmodulin-regulation.

  18. Store-operated calcium signaling in neutrophils. (United States)

    Clemens, Regina A; Lowell, Clifford A


    Calcium signals in neutrophils are initiated by a variety of cell-surface receptors, including formyl peptide and other GPCRs, FcRs, and integrins. The predominant pathway by which calcium enters immune cells is termed SOCE, whereby plasma membrane CRAC channels allow influx of extracellular calcium into the cytoplasm when intracellular ER stores are depleted. The identification of 2 key families of SOCE regulators, STIM calcium "sensors" and ORAI calcium channels, has allowed for genetic manipulation of SOCE pathways and provided valuable insight into the molecular mechanism of calcium signaling in immune cells, including neutrophils. This review focuses on our current knowledge of the molecules involved in neutrophil SOCE and how study of these molecules has further informed our understanding of the role of calcium signaling in neutrophil activation.

  19. Drosophila mushroom body Kenyon cells generate spontaneous calcium transients mediated by PLTX-sensitive calcium channels. (United States)

    Jiang, Shaojuan Amy; Campusano, Jorge M; Su, Hailing; O'Dowd, Diane K


    Spontaneous calcium oscillations in mushroom bodies of late stage pupal and adult Drosophila brains have been implicated in memory consolidation during olfactory associative learning. This study explores the cellular mechanisms regulating calcium dynamics in Kenyon cells, principal neurons in mushroom bodies. Fura-2 imaging shows that Kenyon cells cultured from late stage Drosophila pupae generate spontaneous calcium transients in a cell autonomous fashion, at a frequency similar to calcium oscillations in vivo (10-20/h). The expression of calcium transients is up regulated during pupal development. Although the ability to generate transients is a property intrinsic to Kenyon cells, transients can be modulated by bath application of nicotine and GABA. Calcium transients are blocked, and baseline calcium levels reduced, by removal of external calcium, addition of cobalt, or addition of Plectreurys toxin (PLTX), an insect-specific calcium channel antagonist. Transients do not require calcium release from intracellular stores. Whole cell recordings reveal that the majority of voltage-gated calcium channels in Kenyon cells are PLTX-sensitive. Together these data show that influx of calcium through PLTX-sensitive voltage-gated calcium channels mediates spontaneous calcium transients and regulates basal calcium levels in cultured Kenyon cells. The data also suggest that these calcium transients represent cellular events underlying calcium oscillations in the intact mushroom bodies. However, spontaneous calcium transients are not unique to Kenyon cells as they are present in approximately 60% of all cultured central brain neurons. This suggests the calcium transients play a more general role in maturation or function of adult brain neurons.

  20. Calcium channel antagonists in hypertension. (United States)

    Ambrosioni, E; Borghi, C


    The clinical usefulness of calcium entry-blockers for the treatment of high blood pressure is related to their capacity to act upon the primary hemodynamic derangement in hypertension: the increased peripheral vascular resistance. They can be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents for the treatment of various forms of hypertensive disease. The calcium entry-blockers appear to be the most useful agents for the treatment of hypertension in the elderly and for the treatment of hypertension associated with ischemic heart disease, pulmonary obstructive disease, peripheral vascular disease, and supraventricular arrhythmias. They are effective in reducing blood pressure in pregnancy-associated hypertension and must be considered as first-line therapy for the treatment of hypertensive crisis.

  1. The calcium-alkali syndrome


    Arroyo, Mariangeli; Fenves, Andrew Z.; Emmett, Michael


    The milk-alkali syndrome was a common cause of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal failure in the early 20th century. It was caused by the ingestion of large quantities of milk and absorbable alkali to treat peptic ulcer disease. The syndrome virtually vanished after introduction of histamine-2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors. More recently, a similar condition called the calcium-alkali syndrome has emerged as a common cause of hypercalcemia and alkalosis. It is usually caused b...

  2. Calcium phosphate polymer hybrid materials



    Calcium phosphate (CaP) is of strong interest to the medical field because of its potential for bone repair, gene transfection, etc.1-3 Nowadays, the majority of the commercially available materials are fabricated via “classical” materials science approaches, i.e. via high temperature or high pressure approaches, from rather poorly defined slurries, or from organic solvents.3,4 Precipitation of inorganics with (polymeric) additives from aqueous solution on the other hand enables the synthesis...

  3. CCN3 and calcium signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chang Long


    Full Text Available Abstract The CCN family of genes consists presently of six members in human (CCN1-6 also known as Cyr61 (Cystein rich 61, CTGF (Connective Tissue Growth Factor, NOV (Nephroblastoma Overexpressed gene, WISP-1, 2 and 3 (Wnt-1 Induced Secreted Proteins. Results obtained over the past decade have indicated that CCN proteins are matricellular proteins, which are involved in the regulation of various cellular functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, adhesion and migration. The CCN proteins have recently emerged as regulatory factors involved in both internal and external cell signaling. CCN3 was reported to physically interact with fibulin-1C, integrins, Notch and S100A4. Considering that, the conformation and biological activity of these proteins are dependent upon calcium binding, we hypothesized that CCN3 might be involved in signaling pathways mediated by calcium ions. In this article, we review the data showing that CCN3 regulates the levels of intracellular calcium and discuss potential models that may account for the biological effects of CCN3.

  4. Store-Operated Calcium Channels. (United States)

    Prakriya, Murali; Lewis, Richard S


    Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) are a major pathway for calcium signaling in virtually all metozoan cells and serve a wide variety of functions ranging from gene expression, motility, and secretion to tissue and organ development and the immune response. SOCs are activated by the depletion of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggered physiologically through stimulation of a diverse set of surface receptors. Over 15 years after the first characterization of SOCs through electrophysiology, the identification of the STIM proteins as ER Ca(2+) sensors and the Orai proteins as store-operated channels has enabled rapid progress in understanding the unique mechanism of store-operate calcium entry (SOCE). Depletion of Ca(2+) from the ER causes STIM to accumulate at ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions where it traps and activates Orai channels diffusing in the closely apposed PM. Mutagenesis studies combined with recent structural insights about STIM and Orai proteins are now beginning to reveal the molecular underpinnings of these choreographic events. This review describes the major experimental advances underlying our current understanding of how ER Ca(2+) depletion is coupled to the activation of SOCs. Particular emphasis is placed on the molecular mechanisms of STIM and Orai activation, Orai channel properties, modulation of STIM and Orai function, pharmacological inhibitors of SOCE, and the functions of STIM and Orai in physiology and disease.

  5. Kinetics of calcium sulfoaluminate formation from tricalcium aluminate, calcium sulfate and calcium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuerun, E-mail:; Zhang, Yu; Shen, Xiaodong, E-mail:; Wang, Qianqian; Pan, Zhigang


    The formation kinetics of tricalcium aluminate (C{sub 3}A) and calcium sulfate yielding calcium sulfoaluminate (C{sub 4}A{sub 3}$) and the decomposition kinetics of calcium sulfoaluminate were investigated by sintering a mixture of synthetic C{sub 3}A and gypsum. The quantitative analysis of the phase composition was performed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis using the Rietveld method. The results showed that the formation reaction 3Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} + CaSO{sub 4} → Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 6}O{sub 12}(SO{sub 4}) + 6CaO was the primary reaction < 1350 °C with and activation energy of 231 ± 42 kJ/mol; while the decomposition reaction 2Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 6}O{sub 12}(SO{sub 4}) + 10CaO → 6Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} + 2SO{sub 2} ↑ + O{sub 2} ↑ primarily occurred beyond 1350 °C with an activation energy of 792 ± 64 kJ/mol. The optimal formation region for C{sub 4}A{sub 3}$ was from 1150 °C to 1350 °C and from 6 h to 1 h, which could provide useful information on the formation of C{sub 4}A{sub 3}$ containing clinkers. The Jander diffusion model was feasible for the formation and decomposition of calcium sulfoaluminate. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were the diffusive species in both the formation and decomposition reactions. -- Highlights: •Formation and decomposition of calcium sulphoaluminate were studied. •Decomposition of calcium sulphoaluminate combined CaO and yielded C{sub 3}A. •Activation energy for formation was 231 ± 42 kJ/mol. •Activation energy for decomposition was 792 ± 64 kJ/mol. •Both the formation and decomposition were controlled by diffusion.

  6. Accelerations of {epsilon}+{alpha}{yields}{beta} transformation and sintering of iron silicide by addition of Pd; Pd tenka ni yoru keikatetsu no {epsilon}+{alpha}{yields}{beta} hentai to shoketsu no sokushin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Yamamoto, N.; Takeda, T. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Hayashi, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science


    FeSi2 ({beta} phase) semiconducting iron silicide, which is expected to be widely used as a thermoelectric material in high temperature environment, is formed below 1259K by the peritectoid reaction of FeSi ({epsilon}) and Fe2Si5 ({alpha}) two metallic phases. Because the transformation of {epsilon} + {alpha} {yields} {beta} caused by this peritectoid reaction occurs considerably slowly, the iron silicide material which is produced by sintering of the powder at temperatures above 1259K has to be isothermally heat-treated for at least 180ks at about 1120K after the sintering so that the transformation occurs completely. We have found that the transformation was drastically accelerated by the addition of a small amount of Pd in the same way as Cu; the isothermal heat-treatment time necessary for the completion of the transformation was reduced to about 1/60. The sintering time needed for the almost full densification of the powder by pressure DCL sintering (DCL; direct current loading) was also reduced. A hypothesis for the mechanisms was proposed. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. —Part I. Interaction of Calcium and Copper-Calcium Alloy with Electrolyte (United States)

    Zaikov, Yurii P.; Batukhtin, Victor P.; Shurov, Nikolay I.; Ivanovskii, Leonid E.; Suzdaltsev, Andrey V.


    This paper describes the interaction between calcium and molten CaCl2 and the solubility of calcium in this melt, depending on the calcium content in the copper-calcium alloy that comes in contact with the molten CaCl2. The negative influence of the dissolved calcium on the current efficiency was verified. The negative effects of moisture and CaO impurities on the calcium current efficiency were demonstrated. The dependence of the current efficiency and the purity of the metal obtained by the electrolysis conditions were studied in a laboratory electrolyzer (20 to 80 A).

  8. Autogenous vein graft thrombosis following exposure to calcium-free solutions (calcium paradox). (United States)

    Nozick, J H; Farnsworth, P; Montefusco, C M; Parsonnet, V; Ruigrok, T J; Zimmerman, A N


    The morphological and functional effects of calcium-free and calcium-containing solutions on canine jugular vein intima were examined under conditions which closely resemble those techniques currently employed in peripheral vascular and aortocoronary bypass surgery. Veins that had been exposed only to calcium-containing solutions remained patent for the duration of the experimental period. Vein perfusion with a calcium-free solution, however, resulted in disruption of the jugular vein intima once calcium ions were reintroduced. Autogenous as a femoral arterial graft became thrombosed within 60 minutes. It is therefore suggested that vein grafts of autogenous origin be irrigated with calcium-containing solutions to prevent intimal damage and thrombosis.

  9. Vitamin D-enhanced duodenal calcium transport. (United States)

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol


    For humans and rodents, duodenum is a very important site of calcium absorption since it is exposed to ionized calcium released from dietary complexes by gastric acid. Calcium traverses the duodenal epithelium via both transcellular and paracellular pathways in a vitamin D-dependent manner. After binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] upregulates the expression of several calcium transporter genes, e.g., TRPV5/6, calbindin-D9k, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase1b, and NCX1, thereby enhancing the transcellular calcium transport. This action has been reported to be under the regulation of parathyroid-kidney-intestinal and bone-kidney-intestinal axes, in which the plasma calcium and fibroblast growth factor-23 act as negative feedback regulators, respectively. 1,25(OH)2D3 also modulates the expression of tight junction-related genes and convective water flow, presumably to increase the paracellular calcium permeability and solvent drag-induced calcium transport. However, vitamin D-independent calcium absorption does exist and plays an important role in calcium homeostasis under certain conditions, particularly in neonatal period, pregnancy, and lactation as well as in naturally vitamin D-impoverished subterranean mammals.

  10. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis (United States)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.


    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  11. Calcium channel as a potential anticancer agent. (United States)

    Kriazhev, L


    Anticancer treatment in modern clinical practices includes chemotherapy and radiation therapy with or without surgical interventions. Efficiency of both methods varies greatly depending on cancer types and stages. Besides, chemo- and radiotherapy are toxic and damaging that causes serious side effects. This fact prompts the search for alternative methods of antitumor therapy. It is well known that prolonged or high increase of intracellular calcium concentration inevitably leads to the cell death via apoptosis or necrosis. However, stimulation of cell calcium level by chemical agents is hardly achievable because cells have very sophisticated machinery for maintaining intracellular calcium in physiological ranges. This obstacle can be overridden, nevertheless. It was found that calcium channels in so called calcium cells in land snails are directly regulated by extracellular calcium concentration. The higher the concentration the higher the calcium intake is through the channels. Bearing in mind that extracellular/intracellular calcium concentration ratio in human beings is 10,000-12,000 fold the insertion of the channel into cancer cells would lead to fast and uncontrollable by the cells calcium intake and cell death. Proteins composing the channel may be extracted from plasma membrane of calcium cells and sequenced by mass-spectrometry or N-terminal sequencing. Either proteins or corresponding genes could be used for targeted delivery into cancer cells.

  12. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  13. Fortification of all-purpose wheat-flour tortillas with calcium lactate, calcium carbonate, or calcium citrate is acceptable. (United States)

    Romanchik-Cerpovicz, Joelle E; McKemie, Rebecca J


    Fortification helps provide adequate nutrients for individuals not meeting daily needs. Foods may be fortified with calcium to assist individuals with lactose intolerance and others preferring not to consume traditional forms of dairy. This study examined the quality of all-purpose wheat-flour tortillas fortified with calcium lactate, calcium carbonate, or calcium citrate. These tortillas were compared to similarly prepared nonfortified flour tortillas (control) and commercial nonfortified flour tortillas. Calcium-fortified tortillas contained 114 mg elemental calcium per standard serving (48 g tortilla), an 8.6-fold increase compared to nonfortified tortillas. Moisture contents and rollabilities of all tortillas were similar. Consumers (N=87) evaluated each tortilla in duplicate using a hedonic scale and reported liking the appearance, texture, flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability of all tortillas. However, the appearance of control tortillas was preferred over commercial tortillas (P<0.01), whereas the aftertaste of commercial tortillas or those fortified with calcium carbonate was preferred over the control (P<0.05). Despite these differences, consumers were equally willing to purchase both fortified and nonfortified tortillas, suggesting that appearance and aftertaste may not influence willingness to purchase. Overall, this study shows that fortification of flour tortillas with various forms of calcium is a feasible alternative calcium source.

  14. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    and dense gel structure and with little seperation of whey due to participation of calcium to the final gel structure. On the other hand, the combination of heat treatment and calcium addition to milk with pH values lower than 5.6 will still produce gel structures which are dominated by the decrease of p......Calcium is one of the several elements that can be found in milk distributed between the micellar and the serum milk phase. Calcium is important from a nutritional point of view, but its contribution to the functional and structural properties of dairy products has only recently been...... acknowledgement. The presence of calcium in a dynamic equilibrium between the serum and the micellar milk phase make the distribution susceptible to certain physicochemical conditions and to technological treatments of milk resulting in fluctuations in pH and temperature and also sensitive to addition of calcium...

  15. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells. (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R


    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  16. Overbased Calcium sulfonate Detergent Technology Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qing-gao; MUIR Ronald J.


    Overbased calcium sulfonate is used widely as detergent in automotive and marine lubricants, as well as various industrial oil applications. In this paper, the process to produce overbased calcium sulfonate is overviewed. The sulfonate structure and molecular weight and its molecular weight distribution, the enclosed calcium carbonate nanoparticle size and crystalline structure, properties of the carrier oil, all influence its properties, such as stability, viscosity, and detergency of the system.

  17. [Calcium carbide of different crystal formation synthesized by calcium carbide residue]. (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-yuan; Kang, Ming; Jiang, Cai-rong; Tu, Ming-jing


    To recycle calcium carbide residue effectively, calcium carbide of different crystal form, including global aragonite, calcite and acicular calcium carbide was synthesized. Both the influence of pretreatment in the purity of calcium carbide, and the influence of temperatures of carbonization reaction, release velocity of carbon dioxide in the apparition of calcium carbide of different crystal form were studied with DTA-TG and SEM. The result shows that calcium carbide residue can take place chemistry reaction with ammonia chlorinate straight. Under the condition that pH was above 7, the purity of calcium carbide was above 97%, and the whiteness was above 98. Once provided the different temperatures of carbonization reaction and the proper release velocity of carbon dioxide, global aragonite, calcite and acicular calcium carbide were obtained.

  18. Osteoblasts detect pericellular calcium concentration increase via neomycin-sensitive voltage gated calcium channels. (United States)

    Sun, Xuanhao; Kishore, Vipuil; Fites, Kateri; Akkus, Ozan


    The mechanisms underlying the detection of critically loaded or micro-damaged regions of bone by bone cells are still a matter of debate. Our previous studies showed that calcium efflux originates from pre-failure regions of bone matrix and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts respond to such efflux by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. The mechanisms by which the intracellular calcium concentration increases in response to an increase in the pericellular calcium concentration are unknown. Elevation of the intracellular calcium may occur via release from the internal calcium stores of the cell and/or via the membrane bound channels. The current study applied a wide range of pharmaceutical inhibitors to identify the calcium entry pathways involved in the process: internal calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER, inhibited by thapsigargin and TMB-8), calcium receptor (CaSR, inhibited by calhex), stretch-activated calcium channel (SACC, inhibited by gadolinium), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC, inhibited by nifedipine, verapamil, neomycin, and ω-conotoxin), and calcium-induced-calcium-release channel (CICRC, inhibited by ryanodine and dantrolene). These inhibitors were screened for their effectiveness to block intracellular calcium increase by using a concentration gradient induced calcium efflux model which mimics calcium diffusion from the basal aspect of cells. The inhibitor(s) which reduced the intracellular calcium response was further tested on osteoblasts seeded on mechanically loaded notched cortical bone wafers undergoing damage. The results showed that only neomycin reduced the intracellular calcium response in osteoblasts, by 27%, upon extracellular calcium stimulus induced by concentration gradient. The inhibitory effect of neomycin was more pronounced (75% reduction in maximum fluorescence) for osteoblasts seeded on notched cortical bone wafers loaded mechanically to damaging load levels. These results imply that the increase in

  19. Calcium binding proteins and calcium signaling in prokaryotes. (United States)

    Domínguez, Delfina C; Guragain, Manita; Patrauchan, Marianna


    With the continued increase of genomic information and computational analyses during the recent years, the number of newly discovered calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in prokaryotic organisms has increased dramatically. These proteins contain sequences that closely resemble a variety of eukaryotic calcium (Ca(2+)) binding motifs including the canonical and pseudo EF-hand motifs, Ca(2+)-binding β-roll, Greek key motif and a novel putative Ca(2+)-binding domain, called the Big domain. Prokaryotic CaBPs have been implicated in diverse cellular activities such as division, development, motility, homeostasis, stress response, secretion, transport, signaling and host-pathogen interactions. However, the majority of these proteins are hypothetical, and only few of them have been studied functionally. The finding of many diverse CaBPs in prokaryotic genomes opens an exciting area of research to explore and define the role of Ca(2+) in organisms other than eukaryotes. This review presents the most recent developments in the field of CaBPs and novel advancements in the role of Ca(2+) in prokaryotes.

  20. Disease causing mutations of calcium channels. (United States)

    Lorenzon, Nancy M; Beam, Kurt G


    Calcium ions play an important role in the electrical excitability of nerve and muscle, as well as serving as a critical second messenger for diverse cellular functions. As a result, mutations of genes encoding calcium channels may have subtle affects on channel function yet strongly perturb cellular behavior. This review discusses the effects of calcium channel mutations on channel function, the pathological consequences for cellular physiology, and possible links between altered channel function and disease. Many cellular functions are directly or indirectly regulated by the free cytosolic calcium concentration. Thus, calcium levels must be very tightly regulated in time and space. Intracellular calcium ions are essential second messengers and play a role in many functions including, action potential generation, neurotransmitter and hormone release, muscle contraction, neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, calcium-dependent gene expression, synaptic plasticity and cell death. Calcium ions that control cell activity can be supplied to the cell cytosol from two major sources: the extracellular space or intracellular stores. Voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels are the primary way in which Ca(2+) ions enter from the extracellular space. The sarcoplasm reticulum (SR) in muscle and the endoplasmic reticulum in non-muscle cells are the main intracellular Ca(2+) stores: the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and inositol-triphosphate receptor channels are the major contributors of calcium release from internal stores.

  1. Regulation of cardiomyocyte autophagy by calcium. (United States)

    Shaikh, Soni; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Criollo, Alfredo; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; García, Lorena; Morselli, Eugenia; Cifuentes, Mariana; Quest, Andrew F G; Hill, Joseph A; Lavandero, Sergio


    Calcium signaling plays a crucial role in a multitude of events within the cardiomyocyte, including cell cycle control, growth, apoptosis, and autophagy. With respect to calcium-dependent regulation of autophagy, ion channels and exchangers, receptors, and intracellular mediators play fundamental roles. In this review, we discuss calcium-dependent regulation of cardiomyocyte autophagy, a lysosomal mechanism that is often cytoprotective, serving to defend against disease-related stress and nutrient insufficiency. We also highlight the importance of the subcellular distribution of calcium and related proteins, interorganelle communication, and other key signaling events that govern cardiomyocyte autophagy.

  2. Altered calcium signaling following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Thomas Weber


    Full Text Available Cell death and dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI is caused by a primary phase, related to direct mechanical disruption of the brain, and a secondary phase which consists of delayed events initiated at the time of the physical insult. Arguably, the calcium ion contributes greatly to the delayed cell damage and death after TBI. A large, sustained influx of calcium into cells can initiate cell death signaling cascades, through activation of several degradative enzymes, such as proteases and endonucleases. However, a sustained level of intracellular free calcium is not necessarily lethal, but the specific route of calcium entry may couple calcium directly to cell death pathways. Other sources of calcium, such as intracellular calcium stores, can also contribute to cell damage. In addition, calcium-mediated signal transduction pathways in neurons may be perturbed following injury. These latter types of alterations may contribute to abnormal physiology in neurons that do not necessarily die after a traumatic episode. This review provides an overview of experimental evidence that has led to our current understanding of the role of calcium signaling in death and dysfunction following TBI.

  3. Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics. (United States)

    Champion, E


    Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful.

  4. Heart failure drug digitoxin induces calcium uptake into cells by forming transmembrane calcium channels



    Digitoxin and other cardiac glycosides are important, centuries-old drugs for treating congestive heart failure. However, the mechanism of action of these compounds is still being elucidated. Calcium is known to potentiate the toxicity of these drugs, and we have hypothesized that digitoxin might mediate calcium entry into cells. We report here that digitoxin molecules mediate calcium entry into intact cells. Multimers of digitoxin molecules also are able to form calcium channels in pure plan...

  5. The Role of Calcium in Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P.


    Osteoporosis results from several factors. Calcium deficiency is only one, and high calcium intake will prevent only those cases in which calcium is the limiting factor. Calcium cannot reverse, but only arrest, bone loss. A high calcium intake for every member of the population is advocated. (Author/MT)

  6. Calcium imaging perspectives in plants. (United States)

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Occhipinti, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E


    The calcium ion (Ca2+) is a versatile intracellular messenger. It provides dynamic regulation of a vast array of gene transcriptions, protein kinases, transcription factors and other complex downstream signaling cascades. For the past six decades, intracellular Ca2+ concentration has been significantly studied and still many studies are under way. Our understanding of Ca2+ signaling and the corresponding physiological phenomenon is growing exponentially. Here we focus on the improvements made in the development of probes used for Ca2+ imaging and expanding the application of Ca2+ imaging in plant science research.

  7. The Electronic Structure of Calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J.-P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt


    The electronic structure of calcium under pressure is re-examined by means of self-consistent energy band calculations based on the local density approximation and using the linear muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) method with corrections to the atomic sphere approximation included. At zero pressure.......149 Ryd, respectively, relative to the s band, give the best possible agreement. Under increasing pressure the s and p electrons are found to transfer into the d band, and Ca undergoes metal-semimetal-metal electronic transitions. Calculations of the bandstructure and the electronic pressure, including...

  8. Calcium (United States)

    ... don't have enough of the intestinal enzyme lactase that helps digest the sugar (lactose) in dairy ... free dairy products are readily available, as are lactase drops that can be added to dairy products ...

  9. Calcium (United States)

    ... tingling in the fingers, convulsions, and abnormal heart rhythms that can lead to death if not corrected. ... that includes weight-bearing physical activity (such as walking and running). Osteoporosis is a disease of the ...

  10. Calcium (United States)

    ... for dinner. Create mini-pizzas by topping whole-wheat English muffins or bagels with pizza sauce and ... Fitness Center Vitamin D Smart Supermarket Shopping Lactose Intolerance Vitamins and Minerals Vitamin Chart Mineral Chart Food ...

  11. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Y.J.; Dimke, H.; Schoeber, J.P.H.; Hsu, S.C.; Lin, S.H.; Chu, P.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.


    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had hig

  12. 76 FR 51991 - Determination That PENTETATE CALCIUM TRISODIUM (Trisodium Calcium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate... (United States)


    ... new drug applications (ANDAs) for PENTETATE CALCIUM TRISODIUM (Ca-DTPA) solution for intravenous or... ANDA that does not refer to a listed drug. PENTETATE CALCIUM TRISODIUM (Ca-DTPA) solution for... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That PENTETATE CALCIUM TRISODIUM...

  13. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.


    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested /sup 47/Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003), and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation.

  14. Protein intake and calcium absorption – Potential role of the calcium sensor receptor (United States)

    Dietary protein induces calcium excretion but the source of this calcium is unclear. Evidence from short-term studies indicates that protein promotes bone resorption, but many epidemiologic studies do not corroborate this. Evidence is also mixed on weather protein promotes calcium absorption. Stud...

  15. Calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells. (United States)

    Apáti, Ágota; Pászty, Katalin; Erdei, Zsuzsa; Szebényi, Kornélia; Homolya, László; Sarkadi, Balázs


    Pluripotent stem cells represent a new source of biological material allowing the exploration of signaling phenomena during normal cell development and differentiation. Still, the calcium signaling pathways and intracellular calcium responses to various ligands or stress conditions have not been sufficiently explored as yet in embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells and in their differentiated offspring. This is partly due to the special culturing conditions of these cell types, the rapid morphological and functional changes in heterogeneous cell populations during early differentiation, and methodological problems in cellular calcium measurements. In this paper, we review the currently available data in the literature on calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells and discuss the potential shortcomings of these studies. Various assay methods are surveyed for obtaining reliable data both in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and in specific, stem cell-derived human tissues. In this paper, we present the modulation of calcium signaling in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in their derivates; mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells and cardiac tissues using the fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-4 and confocal microscopy. LPA, trypsin and angiotensin II were effective in inducing calcium signals both in HUES9 and MSCl cells. Histamine and thrombin induced calcium signal exclusively in the MSCl cells, while ATP was effective only in HUES9 cells. There was no calcium signal evoked by GABA, even at relatively high concentrations. In stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes a rapid increase in the beating rate and an increase of the calcium signal peaks could be observed after the addition of adrenaline, while verapamil led to a strong decrease in cellular calcium and stopped spontaneous contractions in a relaxed state.

  16. Construction of a four tip scanning tunneling microscope/scanning electron microscope combination and conductivity measurements of silicide nanowires; Aufbau einer Vierspitzen-Rastertunnelmikroskop/Rasterelektronenmikroskop-Kombination und Leitfaehigkeitsmessungen an Silizid Nanodraehten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubkov, Evgeniy


    In this work the combination of a four-tip scanning tunneling microscope with a scanning electron microscope is presented. By means of this apparatus it is possible to perform the conductivity measurements on the in-situ prepared nanostructures in ultra-high vacuum. With the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), it becomes possible to position the tunneling tips of the four-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM), so that an arrangement for a four-point probe measurement on nanostructures can be obtained. The STM head was built according to the novel coaxial Beetle concept. This concept allows on the one hand, a very compact arrangement of the components of the STM and on the other hand, the new-built STM head has a good mechanical stability, in order to achieve atomic resolution with all four STM units. The atomic resolution of the STM units was confirmed by scanning a Si(111)-7 x 7 surface. The thermal drift during the STM operation, as well as the resonant frequencies of the mechanical structure of the STM head, were determined. The scanning electron microscope allows the precise and safe navigation of the tunneling tips on the sample surface. Multi tip spectroscopy with up to four STM units can be performed synchronously. To demonstrate the capabilities of the new-built apparatus the conductivity measurements were carried out on metallic yttrium silicide nanowires. The nanowires were prepared by the in-situ deposition of yttrium on a heated Si(110) sample surface. Current-voltage curves were recorded on the nanowires and on the wetting layer in-between. The curves indicate an existence of the Schottky barrier between the yttrium silicide nanowires and the silicon bulk. By means of the two-tip measurements with a gate, the insulating property of the Schottky barrier has been confirmed. Using this Schottky barrier, it is possible to limit the current to the nanowire and to prevent it from flowing through the silicon bulk. A four-tip resistance measurement

  17. An Intracellular Calcium Oscillations Model Including Mitochondrial Calcium Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Min; LIU Zeng-Rong


    @@ Calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger. Mitochondria contributes significantly to intracellular Ca2+ dynamics.The experiment of Kaftan et al. [J. Biol. Chem. 275(2000) 25465] demonstrated that inhibiting mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake can reduce the frequency of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration oscillations of gonadotropes. By considering the mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling we develop a three-variable model of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations based on the models of Atri et al. [Biophys. J. 65 (1993) 1727] and Falcke et al. [Biophys. J. 77 (1999) 37]. The model reproduces the fact that mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling increases the frequency of cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations, which accords with Kaftan's results. Moreover the model predicts that when the mitochondria overload with Ca2+, the cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations vanish, which may trigger apoptosis.

  18. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. Bespuiten met calcium kan neusrot voorkomen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, G.B.; Marcelis, L.F.M.


    Oorzaak van neusrot bij paprika is een calciumtekort in de vrucht. Een bespuiting met calcium vlak na de bloei heeft een zeer gunstig effect. In bijgaande tabel gegevens over het effect van spuiten met calcium op het optreden van neusrot bij paprika

  20. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rüdiger, Sten, E-mail:


    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels–one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms–feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction–diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker–Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed.

  1. Oligofructose stimulates calcium absorption in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muys, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.


    Background: In rats, nondigestible oligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption. Recently, this effect was also found in human subjects. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether consumption of 15 g oligofructose/d stimulates calcium absorption in male adolescents. Design: Tw

  2. ALG-2, a multifunctional calcium binding protein?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarabykina, Svetlana; Mollerup, Jens; Winding Gojkovic, P.;


    ALG-2 was originally discovered as a pro-apoptotic protein in a genetic screen. Due to its ability to bind calcium with high affinity it was postulated to provide a link between the known effect of calcium in programmed cell death and the molecular death execution machinery. This review article...

  3. Simulating complex calcium-calcineurin signaling network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, J.; Kaandorp, J.A.


    Understanding of processes in which calcium signaling is involved is of fundamental importance in systems biology and has many applications in medicine. In this paper we have studied the particular case of the complex calcium-calcineurin-MCIP-NFAT signaling network in cardiac myocytes, the understan

  4. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald


    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  5. Adding calcium improves lithium ferrite core (United States)

    Lessoff, H.


    Adding calcium increases uniformity of grain growth over a wide range of sintering temperatures and reduces porosity within the grain. Ferrite cores containing calcium have square hysteresis loops and high curie temperatures, making them useful in coincident current memories of digital electronic computers.

  6. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd


    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  7. Calcium Orthophosphates in Nature, Biology and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin


    Full Text Available The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. These materials are of the special significance because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and dear antlers and pathological (i.e. those appearing due to various diseases calcified tissues of mammals. Due to a great chemical similarity with the biological calcified tissues, many calcium orthophosphates possess remarkable biocompatibility and bioactivity. Materials scientists use this property extensively to construct artificial bone grafts that are either entirely made of or only surface-coated with the biologically relevant calcium orthophosphates. For example, self-setting hydraulic cements made of calcium orthophosphates are helpful in bone repair, while titanium substitutes covered by a surface layer of calcium orthophosphates are used for hip joint endoprostheses and as tooth substitutes. Porous scaffolds made of calcium orthophosphates are very promising tools for tissue engineering applications. In addition, technical grade calcium orthophosphates are very popular mineral fertilizers. Thus ere calcium orthophosphates are of great significance for humankind and, in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided.

  8. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40 were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day. The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages at a temperature of 24°±2ºC, light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours, and deionized water available ad libitum. On the 8th week of the experiment, food consumption was measured and 24-hour urine and 4-day feces were collected to determine calcium balance [Balance=Ca intake-(Urinary Ca+Fecal Ca]. RESULTS: Animals with adequate calcium intake presented higher balances and rates of calcium absorption and retention (p<0.05 than those with inadequate calcium intake, regardless of caffeine intake (p<0.05. Caffeine intake did not affect urinary calcium excretion but increased balance (p<0.05 in the groups with adequate calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Adequate calcium intake attenuated the negative effects of estrogen deficiency and improved calcium balance even in the presence of caffeine.

  9. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei


    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  10. Calcium-sensing receptor: a key target for extracellular calcium signaling in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Jones


    Full Text Available Though both clinicians and scientists have long recognized the influence of extracellular calcium on the function of muscle and nervous tissue, recent insights reveal that the mechanisms allowing changes in extracellular calcium to alter cellular excitability have been incompletely understood. For many years the effects of calcium on neuronal signaling were explained only in terms of calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels and biophysical charge screening. More recently however, it has been recognized that the calcium-sensing receptor is prevalent in the nervous system and regulates synaptic transmission and neuronal activity via multiple signaling pathways. Here we review the multiplicity of mechanisms by which changes in extracellular calcium alter neuronal signaling and propose that multiple mechanisms are required to describe the full range of experimental observations.

  11. [Calcium and vitamin D in osteology]. (United States)

    Amling, M; Barvencik, F


    Calcium homeostasis is of paramount physiological and pathophysiological importance in health and disease. This article focuses on the skeletal relevance of calcium and vitamin D in daily clinical practice. Against the background of an endemic vitamin D deficiency in Germany and the increasing number of patients with drug-induced (proton pump inhibitor) enteral calcium uptake problems, it is of critical importance to understand that a vitamin D level of > 30 µg/l (> 75 nmol/l) is required for intact skeletal mineralization and that furthermore, a physiological gastric acid production is essential for a normal enteral uptake of calcium from foodstuffs. Therefore, a guideline-conform handling of vitamin D and calcium substitution is required not only for patients with rheumatoid diseases but also for any osteological therapy.

  12. Calcium ion currents mediating oocyte maturation events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosti Elisabetta


    Full Text Available Abstract During maturation, the last phase of oogenesis, the oocyte undergoes several changes which prepare it to be ovulated and fertilized. Immature oocytes are arrested in the first meiotic process prophase, that is morphologically identified by a germinal vesicle. The removal of the first meiotic block marks the initiation of maturation. Although a large number of molecules are involved in complex sequences of events, there is evidence that a calcium increase plays a pivotal role in meiosis re-initiation. It is well established that, during this process, calcium is released from the intracellular stores, whereas less is known on the role of external calcium entering the cell through the plasma membrane ion channels. This review is focused on the functional role of calcium currents during oocyte maturation in all the species, from invertebrates to mammals. The emerging role of specific L-type calcium channels will be discussed.

  13. Process for the preparation of calcium superoxide (United States)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wood, P. C.; Wydeven, T. J.; Spitze, L. A. (Inventor)


    Calcium superoxide is prepared in high yields by spreading a quantity of calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate on the surface of a container, positioning said container in a vacuum chamber on a support structure through which a coolant fluid can be circulated, partially evacuating said vacuum chamber, allowing the temperature of the diperoxyhydrate to reach the range of about 0 to about 40 C; maintaining the temperature selected for a period of time sufficient to complete the disproproriation of the diperoxyhydrate to calcium superoxide, calcium hydroxide, oxygen, and water; constantly and systematically removing the water as it is formed by sweeping the reacting material with a current of dry inert gas and/or by condensation of said water on a cold surface; backfilling the chamber with a dry inert gas; and finally, recovering the calcium superoxide produced.

  14. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani


    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  15. Calcium-imaging with Fura-2 in isolated cerebral microvessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Jörg; Jensen, Claus V.; Diemer, Nils Henrik


    Neuropathology, cytoplasmic free calcium, Fura-2 fluorescence, image analysis, blood-brain barrier......Neuropathology, cytoplasmic free calcium, Fura-2 fluorescence, image analysis, blood-brain barrier...

  16. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41 (United States)

    Hillegonds, Darren J [Oakland, CA; Vogel, John S [San Jose, CA; Fitzgerald, Robert L [Encinitas, CA; Deftos, Leonard J [Del Mar, CA; Herold, David [Del Mar, CA; Burton, Douglas W [San Diego, CA


    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  17. Calcium-sensitive immunoaffinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maiken L; Lindhardt Madsen, Kirstine; Skjoedt, Karsten


    Immunoaffinity chromatography is a powerful fractionation technique that has become indispensable for protein purification and characterization. However, it is difficult to retrieve bound proteins without using harsh or denaturing elution conditions, and the purification of scarce antigens...... to homogeneity may be impossible due to contamination with abundant antigens. In this study, we purified the scarce, complement-associated plasma protein complex, collectin LK (CL-LK, complex of collectin liver 1 and kidney 1), by immunoaffinity chromatography using a calcium-sensitive anti-collectin-kidney-1 m...... chromatography was superior to the traditional immunoaffinity chromatographies and resulted in a nine-fold improvement of the purification factor. The technique is applicable for the purification of proteins in complex mixtures by single-step fractionation without the denaturation of eluted antigens...

  18. Oxidation behaviours of Nb–22Ti–15Si–2Al–2Hf–2V–(2, 14Cr alloys with Al and Y modified silicide coatings prepared by pack cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songming Zhang


    Full Text Available Al and Y modified silicide coatings on the Nb–15Si–22Ti–(2,14Cr–2Al–2Hf–2V alloys (where the alloy with 2 at% Cr or 14 at% Cr is hereafter referred to as 2Cr and 14Cr alloy, respectively was prepared by pack cementation. The microstructural evolution and the oxidation behaviours of the coating 2Cr and 14Cr samples at 1250 °C were studied. The 2Cr alloy consists of Nb solid solution (NbSS and α-Nb5Si3 silicide, while the Laves C15–Cr2Nb phase arised in the 14Cr alloy. The coating structure of the coating 2Cr sample contained the outer (Nb, XSi2+(Nb, X5Si3 layer, the middle (Nb, X5Si3 layer and the inner undeveloped intermetallic (Nb,Ti3(Al,X layer; the structure of the coating 14Cr sample consisted of the outer single (Nb, XSi2 layer, the middle (Nb, X5Si3 layer, the transition (Nb,Ti (Cr,Al layer and the inner (Cr, Al2(Nb,Ti layer. The coating 14Cr sample exhibited better oxidation resistance than the coating 2Cr sample. With an outer single (Nb, XSi2 layer, a compact oxide scale consisting of SiO2 and TiO2 formed on the coating 14Cr sample, which can efficiently prevent the substrate from oxidising. For the coating 2Cr sample with an outer (Nb, XSi2+(Nb, X5Si3 layer, the oxide scale of the SiO2, TiO2, Nb2O5 and CrNbO4 mixture generated, and the scale spalled out from the surface of the sample, resulting in disastrous failure.

  19. Studies of valence of selected rare earth silicides determined using Si K and Pd/Rh L{sub 2,3} XANES and LAPW numerical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajdel, P., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Kisiel, A., E-mail: [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Lojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Szytuła, A., E-mail: [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Lojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Goraus, J., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Balerna, A., E-mail: [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Lab DAPHINE-Light, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Banaś, A., E-mail: [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore); Starowicz, P., E-mail: [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Lojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Konior, J., E-mail: [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Lojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Cinque, G., E-mail: [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, OX11 0DE Chilton-Didcot (United Kingdom); Grilli, A., E-mail: [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Lab DAPHINE-Light, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy)


    Highlights: • The Si K and Pd L{sub 3} edges of R{sub 2}PdSi{sub 3} (R = Ce, Nd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) and HoRh{sub 2−x}Pd{sub x}Si{sub 2} are reported. • The R–Si bonds possess polar and 4d5s bands of Pd and Rh metallic characters. • There is no indication of Ce having a different valence than the other rare earths. • The positions and features of the calculated edges exhibit a fair agreement up to ≈10 eV. • The supercell used for Ho{sub 2}PdSi{sub 3} is good enough to reproduce the Si K edge. - Abstract: We report on the investigation of Si and Pd/Rh chemical environments using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy in two different families of rare earth silicides R{sub 2}PdSi{sub 3} (R = Ce, Nd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) and HoRh{sub 2−x}Pd{sub x}Si{sub 2} (x = 0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 1.8, 2.0). The Si K, Pd L{sub 3} and Rh L{sub 3} absorption edges were recorded in order to follow their changes upon the variation of 4f and 4d5s electron numbers. In both cases it was found that the Si K edge was shifted ≈0.5 eV toward lower energies, relative to pure silicon. In the first family, the shift decreases with increasing number of f-electrons, while the Si K edge remains constant upon rhodium–palladium substitution. In all cases the Pd L{sub 3} edge was shifted to higher energies relative to metallic Pd. No visible change in the Pd L{sub 3} position was observed either with a varying 4f electron count or upon Pd/Rh substitution. Also, the Rh L{sub 3} edge did not change. For two selected members, Ho{sub 2}PdSi{sub 3} and HoPd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, the Wien2K’09 (LDA + U) package was used to calculate the electronic structure and the absorption edges. Si K edges were reproduced well for both compounds, while Pd L{sub 3} only exhibited a fair agreement for the second compound. This discrepancy between the Pd L{sub 3} theory and experiment for the Ho{sub 2}PdSi{sub 3} sample can be attributed to the specific ordered superstructure used in the numerical calculations

  20. Fast kinetics of calcium signaling and sensor design. (United States)

    Tang, Shen; Reddish, Florence; Zhuo, You; Yang, Jenny J


    Fast calcium signaling is regulated by numerous calcium channels exhibiting high spatiotemporal profiles which are currently measured by fluorescent calcium sensors. There is still a strong need to improve the kinetics of genetically encoded calcium indicators (sensors) to capture calcium dynamics in the millisecond time frame. In this review, we summarize several major fast calcium signaling pathways and discuss the recent developments and application of genetically encoded calcium indicators to detect these pathways. A new class of genetically encoded calcium indicators designed with site-directed mutagenesis on the surface of beta-barrel fluorescent proteins to form a pentagonal bipyramidal-like calcium binding domain dramatically accelerates calcium binding kinetics. Furthermore, novel genetically encoded calcium indicators with significantly increased fluorescent lifetime change are advantageous in deep-field imaging with high light-scattering and notable morphology change.

  1. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets. (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A


    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption.

  2. Elasticity of calcium and calcium-sodium amphiboles (United States)

    Brown, J. Michael; Abramson, Evan H.


    Measurements of single-crystal elastic moduli under ambient conditions are reported for nine calcium to calcium-sodium amphiboles that lie in the composition range of common crustal constituents. Velocities of body and surface acoustic waves measured by Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering (ISLS) were inverted to determine the 13 moduli characterizing these monoclinic samples. Moduli show a consistent pattern: C33 > C22 > C11 and C23 > C12 > C13 and C44 > C55 ∼ C66 and for the uniquely monoclinic moduli, |C35| ≫ C46 ∼ |C25| > |C15| ∼ 0. Most of the compositionally-induced variance of moduli is associated with aluminum and iron content. Seven moduli (C11C12C13C22C44C55C66) increase with increasing aluminum while all diagonal moduli decrease with increasing iron. Three moduli (C11, C13 and C44) increase with increasing sodium and potassium occupancy in A-sites. The uniquely monoclinic moduli (C15C25 and C35) have no significant compositional dependence. Moduli associated with the a∗ direction (C11C12C13C55 and C66) are substantially smaller than values associated with structurally and chemically related clinopyroxenes. Other moduli are more similar for both inosilicates. The isotropically averaged adiabatic bulk modulus does not vary with iron content but increases with aluminum content from 85 GPa for tremolite to 99 GPa for pargasite. Increasing iron reduces while increasing aluminum increases the isotropic shear modulus which ranges from 47 GPa for ferro-actinolite to 64 GPa for pargasite. These results exhibit far greater anisotropy and higher velocities than apparent in earlier work. Quasi-longitudinal velocities are as fast as ∼9 km/s and (intermediate between the a∗- and c-axes) are as slow as ∼6 km/s. Voigt-Reuss-Hill averaging based on prior single crystal moduli resulted in calculated rock velocities lower than laboratory measurements, leading to adoption of the (higher velocity) Voigt bound. Thus, former uses of the upper Voigt bound can

  3. Calcium intake and calcium deficiency in toddlers in a slum population of Bhubaneswar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Kar


    Full Text Available Introduction: When considering their children's nutrition, parents often think more about fat grams, carbs, and calories, and forget about calcium, a mineral that is important to help build strong and healthy bones and collagen structures like teeth. The RDI recommendation for 1-3 years is minimum 400mg/day. Calcium is selectively present in milk and milk products besides vegetables like spinach and fruits like orange. The current study was undertaken in the urban field practice area of KIMS that caters to a slum population of nearly 20,000. Aims & Objectives: To assess the knowledge of mothers regarding calcium rich foods and its deficiency and their sociodemographic conditions; to assess the average intake of Calcium using the 7 day recall method; to find the prevalence of possible calcium deficiency in the study population ie 1-3 years of age. Methods: All the mothers with children in the age group 1-3 years were recruited in the study after due informed consent, the final sample being nearly 284. The male female child ratio was 56:44. Mostly women i.e. 83% had some formal education and out of the total nearly 65% had heard never heard of calcium and of those who had heard only 30% could say that milk was the best source of calcium. Result: Average daily Calcium intake was poor i.e. 288mg/d which was worse for the female child 233mg/d. Teeth eruption defects or infections and bone deformities were taken as a proxy for calcium deficiency and were detected in 69.2% and 32% respectively. Diarrhea and skin infections were more in those whose calcium intake was less than 220mg/d which was mildly significant. Conclusion: The study suggests more emphasis on dietary calcium intake and probably recommend calcium supplements for the socioeconomically compromised class who probably cannot afford dietary sources of calcium

  4. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.


    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  5. Vitamin D, calcium homeostasis and aging (United States)

    Veldurthy, Vaishali; Wei, Ran; Oz, Leyla; Dhawan, Puneet; Jeon, Yong Heui; Christakos, Sylvia


    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitecture deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and consequent increase in fracture risk. Evidence is accumulating for an important role of calcium deficiency as the process of aging is associated with disturbed calcium balance. Vitamin D is the principal factor that maintains calcium homeostasis. Increasing evidence indicates that the reason for disturbed calcium balance with age is inadequate vitamin D levels in the elderly. In this article, an overview of our current understanding of vitamin D, its metabolism, and mechanisms involved in vitamin D-mediated maintenance of calcium homeostasis is presented. In addition, mechanisms involved in age-related dysregulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 action, recommended daily doses of vitamin D and calcium, and the use of vitamin D analogs for the treatment of osteoporosis (which remains controversial) are reviewed. Elucidation of the molecular pathways of vitamin D action and modifications that occur with aging will be an active area of future research that has the potential to reveal new therapeutic strategies to maintain calcium balance. PMID:27790378

  6. Lead removal in rats using calcium alginate. (United States)

    Savchenko, Olga V; Sgrebneva, Marina N; Kiselev, Vladimir I; Khotimchenko, Yuri S


    Lead (Pb) exposure, even at low levels, causes a variety of health problems. The aims of this study were to investigate the tissue distribution of lead in the bodies of rats, to evaluate lead removal from the internal organs and bones using calcium alginate in doses of 500, 200 and 100 mg/kg per day for 28 days and to assess the impact of calcium alginate on the level of essential elements. Lead (Pb), calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) levels in the blood, hearts, kidneys, livers and femurs of the experimental animals were measured using mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The results revealed that lead acetate exposure increased the levels of Pb in the blood and organs of the animals and significantly reduced contents of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Treatment with calcium alginate in dose 500 mg/kg contributed to significant decreases in the amount of lead in the kidney, heart and bones of animals and a slight increase in the content of essential elements in the liver, kidneys and heart, although these changes were not significant. Decreasing of lead was not significant in the internal organs, bones and blood of animals treated with calcium alginate 200 and 100 mg/kg. Consequently, calcium alginate dose of 500 mg/kg more efficiently removes lead accumulated in the body. Calcium alginate does not have negative effect on level of essential elements quite the contrary; reducing the levels of lead, calcium alginate helps normalize imbalances of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. The results of this study suggest that calcium alginate may potentially be useful for the treatment and prevention of heavy metal intoxications.

  7. Dysbalance of astrocyte calcium under hyperammonemic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Haack

    Full Text Available Increased brain ammonium (NH4(+/NH3 plays a central role in the manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE, a complex syndrome associated with neurological and psychiatric alterations, which is primarily a disorder of astrocytes. Here, we analysed the influence of NH4(+/NH3 on the calcium concentration of astrocytes in situ and studied the underlying mechanisms of NH4(+/NH3-evoked calcium changes, employing fluorescence imaging with Fura-2 in acute tissue slices derived from different regions of the mouse brain. In the hippocampal stratum radiatum, perfusion with 5 mM NH4(+/NH3 for 30 minutes caused a transient calcium increase in about 40% of astrocytes lasting about 10 minutes. Furthermore, the vast majority of astrocytes (∼ 90% experienced a persistent calcium increase by ∼ 50 nM. This persistent increase was already evoked at concentrations of 1-2 mM NH4(+/NH3, developed within 10-20 minutes and was maintained as long as the NH4(+/NH3 was present. Qualitatively similar changes were observed in astrocytes of different neocortical regions as well as in cerebellar Bergmann glia. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase resulted in significantly larger calcium increases in response to NH4(+/NH3, indicating that glutamine accumulation was not a primary cause. Calcium increases were not mimicked by changes in intracellular pH. Pharmacological inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels, sodium-potassium-chloride-cotransporters (NKCC, the reverse mode of sodium/calcium exchange (NCX, AMPA- or mGluR5-receptors did not dampen NH4(+/NH3-induced calcium increases. They were, however, significantly reduced by inhibition of NMDA receptors and depletion of intracellular calcium stores. Taken together, our measurements show that sustained exposure to NH4(+/NH3 causes a sustained increase in intracellular calcium in astrocytes in situ, which is partly dependent on NMDA receptor activation and on release of calcium from intracellular stores. Our study

  8. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation. (United States)

    Wölwer, Christina B; Pase, Luke B; Russell, Sarah M; Humbert, Patrick O


    Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM) pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation.

  9. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B Wölwer

    Full Text Available Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation.

  10. Calcium signaling in physiology and pathophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He-ping CHENG; Sheng WEI; Li-ping WEI; Alexei VERKHRATSKY


    Calcium ions are the most ubiquitous and pluripotent cellular signaling molecules that control a wide variety of cellular processes.The calcium signaling system is represented by a relatively limited number of highly conserved transporters and channels,which execute Ca2+ movements across biological membranes and by many thousands of Ca2+-sensitive effectors.Molecular cascades,responsible for the generation of calcium signals,are tightly controlled by Ca2+ ions themselves and by genetic factors,which tune the expression of different Ca2+-handling molecules according to adaptational requirements.Ca2+ ions determine normal physiological reactions and the development of many pathological processes.

  11. Thermochemistry of calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide in fluoride slags (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Mitchell, A.


    Calcium oxide activity in binary CaF2-CaO and ternary CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 and CaF2-CaO-SiO2 slags has been determined by CO2-slag equilibrium experiments at 1400 °C. The carbonate ca-pacity of these slags has also been computed and compared with sulfide capacity data available in the literature. The similarity in trends suggests the possibility of characterizing carbonate capacity as an alternative basicity index for fluoride-base slags. Slag-D2O equilibrium experi-ments are performed at 1400°C with different fluoride-base slags to determine water solubility at two different partial pressures of D2O, employing a new slag sampling technique. A novel isotope tracer detection technique is employed to analyze water in the slags. The water solubility data found show higher values than the previous literature data by an order of magnitude but show a linear relationship with the square root of water vapor partial pressure. The activity of hydroxide computed from the data is shown to be helpful in estimating water solubility in in-dustrial electroslag remelting (ESR) slags.

  12. Hydrolytic conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate into apatite accompanied by sustained calcium and orthophosphate ions release. (United States)

    Niu, Xufeng; Chen, Siqian; Tian, Feng; Wang, Lizhen; Feng, Qingling; Fan, Yubo


    The aim of this study is to investigate the calcium and orthophosphate ions release during the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to hydroxyapatite (HA) in aqueous solution. The ACP is prepared by a wet chemical method and further immersed in the distilled water for various time points till 14d. The release of calcium and orthophosphate ions is measured with calcium and phosphate colorimetric assay kits, respectively. The transition of ACP towards HA is detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that the morphological conversion of ACP to HA occurs within the first 9h, whereas the calcium and orthophosphate ions releases last for over 7d. Such sustained calcium and orthophosphate ions release is very useful for ACP as a candidate material for hard tissue regeneration.

  13. Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as phosphorus binders in patients on chronic haemodialysis: a controlled study. (United States)

    Ring, T; Nielsen, C; Andersen, S P; Behrens, J K; Sodemann, B; Kornerup, H J


    The first reported double-blind cross-over comparison between the phosphorus binders calcium carbonate and calcium acetate was undertaken in 15 stable patients on chronic maintenance haemodialysis. Detailed registration of diet and analysis of the protein catabolic rate suggested an unchanged phosphorus intake during the study. It was found that predialytic serum phosphate concentration was significantly decreased by 0.11 mmol/l (0.34 mg/dl) (P = 0.021, 95% confidence limits 0.02-0.21 mmol/l; 0.06-0.65 mg/dl) during calcium acetate treatment. The calcium phosphate product was insignificantly decreased during treatment with calcium acetate whereas we could not exclude the possibility that calcium concentration had increased.

  14. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond (Toronto); (WU-MED)


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  15. Astrocyte calcium signaling: the third wave. (United States)

    Bazargani, Narges; Attwell, David


    The discovery that transient elevations of calcium concentration occur in astrocytes, and release 'gliotransmitters' which act on neurons and vascular smooth muscle, led to the idea that astrocytes are powerful regulators of neuronal spiking, synaptic plasticity and brain blood flow. These findings were challenged by a second wave of reports that astrocyte calcium transients did not mediate functions attributed to gliotransmitters and were too slow to generate blood flow increases. Remarkably, the tide has now turned again: the most important calcium transients occur in fine astrocyte processes not resolved in earlier studies, and new mechanisms have been discovered by which astrocyte [Ca(2+)]i is raised and exerts its effects. Here we review how this third wave of discoveries has changed our understanding of astrocyte calcium signaling and its consequences for neuronal function.

  16. Synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite from calcium carbonate and different orthophosphate sources: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Minh, Doan, E-mail: [Universite de Toulouse, Mines Albi, CNRS, Centre RAPSODEE, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi cedex 09 (France); Lyczko, Nathalie; Sebei, Haroun; Nzihou, Ange [Universite de Toulouse, Mines Albi, CNRS, Centre RAPSODEE, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi cedex 09 (France); Sharrock, Patrick [Universite de Toulouse, SIMAD, IUT Paul Sabatier, Avenue Georges Pompidou, 81104 Castres (France)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcium hydroxyapatite was synthesized from CaCO{sub 3} and four orthophosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} led to the complete precipitation of orthophosphate species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was also the most efficient for calcium dissolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reaction pathway was dissolution-precipitation accompanied by agglomeration step. - Abstract: The synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) starting from calcium carbonate and different orthophosphate sources, including orthophosphoric acid, potassium, sodium and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphates, was investigated under ambient conditions. The reaction started with calcium carbonate dissolution in an acid medium, followed by rapid precipitation of calcium cations with orthophosphate species to form calcium phosphate based particles which were in the size range of 0.4-1 {mu}m. These particles then agglomerated into much larger ones, up to 350 {mu}m in diameter (aggregates). These aggregates possessed an unstable porous structure which was responsible for the porosity of the final products. The highest specific surface area and pore volume were obtained with potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate. On the other hand, orthophosphoric acid led to the highest dissolution of calcium carbonate and the complete precipitation of orthophosphate species. Under ambient conditions, calcium phosphate based solid products of low crystallinity were formed. Different intermediates were identified and a reaction pathway proposed.

  17. Morphological Investigation of Calcium Carbonate during Ammonification-Carbonization Process of Low Concentration Calcium Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaigang Cheng


    Full Text Available Ultrafine calcium carbonate is a widely used cheap additive. The research is conducted in low degree supersaturation solution in order to study the polymorphic phases’ change and its factors of the calcium carbonate precipitate in the ammonification-carbonization process of the solution with calcium. Fine particles of calcium carbonate are made in the solution containing 0.015 mol/L of Ca2+. Over 98% of the calcium carbonate precipitate without ammonification resembles the morphology of calcite, while the introduction of ammonia can benefit the formation of vaterite. It was inferred that the main cause should be serious partial oversaturation or steric effects. Ammonia also helps to form the twin spherical calcium carbonate. However, particles formed in the process of ammonification-carbonization in solution with low concentration degree of calcium are not even with a scale of the particle diameter from 5 to 12 μm. Inorganic salts, alcohol, or organic acid salts have significant controlling effect on the particle diameter of calcium carbonate and can help to decrease the particle diameter to about 3 μm. Anionic surfactants can prevent the conglobation of calcium carbonate particles and shrink its diameter to 500 nm–1 μm.

  18. Diagnosis and clinical manifestations of calcium pyrophosphate and basic calcium phosphate crystal deposition diseases. (United States)

    Ea, Hang-Korng; Lioté, Frédéric


    Basic calcium phosphate and pyrophosphate calcium crystals are the 2 main calcium-containing crystals that can deposit in all skeletal tissues. These calcium crystals give rise to numerous manifestations, including acute inflammatory attacks that can mimic alarming and threatening differential diagnoses, osteoarthritis-like lesions, destructive arthropathies, and calcific tendinitis. Awareness of uncommon localizations and manifestations such as intraspinal deposition (eg, crowned dens syndrome, tendinitis of longus colli muscle, massive cervical myelopathy compression) prevents inappropriate procedures and cares. Coupling plain radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and synovial fluid analysis allow accurate diagnosis by directly or indirectly identifying the GRAAL of microcrystal-related symptoms.

  19. Transport of calcium in seedlings and cuttings of mung bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, W.


    At germination, a very small proportion of stored calcium is mobilized to the axis in the absence of exogenous supplies of calcium. There is no evidence for transport in phloem since exported calcium does not enter the seedling root. /sup 45/Calcium is not redistributed when applied to cotyledons at germination of leaves of seedlings. A subsequent large addition of unlabelled calcium promotes a small redistribution from leaves. Triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), applied to leaves, leads to a small reduction in calcium accumulation but does not effect redistribution. Auxin is without effect and auxin plus TIBA promotes accumulation. These results are discussed in relation to possible extracellular binding sites for calcium.

  20. ERp57 modulates mitochondrial calcium uptake through the MCU. (United States)

    He, Jingquan; Shi, Weikang; Guo, Yu; Chai, Zhen


    ERp57 participates in the regulation of calcium homeostasis. Although ERp57 modulates calcium flux across the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, its functions on mitochondria are largely unknown. Here, we found that ERp57 can regulate the expression of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and modulate mitochondrial calcium uptake. In ERp57-silenced HeLa cells, MCU was downregulated, and the mitochondrial calcium uptake was inhibited, consistent with the effect of MCU knockdown. When MCU was re-expressed in the ERp57 knockdown cells, mitochondrial calcium uptake was restored. Thus, ERp57 is a potent regulator of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

  1. Calcium signaling in neocortical development. (United States)

    Uhlén, Per; Fritz, Nicolas; Smedler, Erik; Malmersjö, Seth; Kanatani, Shigeaki


    The calcium ion (Ca(2+) ) is an essential second messenger that plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis. In the ventricular zone (VZ) of the neocortex, neural stem cells linger to produce progenitor cells and subsequently neurons and glial cells, which together build up the entire adult brain. The radial glial cells, with their characteristic radial fibers that stretch from the inner ventricular wall to the outer cortex, are known to be the neural stem cells of the neocortex. Migrating neurons use these radial fibers to climb from the proliferative VZ in the inner part of the brain to the outer layers of the cortex, where differentiation processes continue. To establish the complex structures that constitute the adult cerebral cortex, proliferation, migration, and differentiation must be tightly controlled by various signaling events, including cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling. During development, cells regularly exhibit spontaneous Ca(2+) activity that stimulates downstream effectors, which can elicit these fundamental cell processes. Spontaneous Ca(2+) activity during early neocortical development depends heavily on gap junctions and voltage dependent Ca(2+) channels, whereas later in development neurotransmitters and synapses exert an influence. Here, we provide an overview of the literature on Ca(2+) signaling and its impact on cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in the neocortex. We point out important historical studies and review recent progress in determining the role of Ca(2+) signaling in neocortical development.

  2. Rickets induced by calcium or phosphate depletion.


    Abugassa, S.; Svensson, O.


    We studied the effects of calciopenia and phosphopenia on longitudinal growth, skeletal mineralization, and development of rickets in young Sprague-Dawley rats. At an age of 21 days, two experimental groups were given diets containing 0.02% calcium or 0.02% phosphorus; otherwise the diets were nutritionally adequate. After 7, 14, and 21 days, five animals from each group were randomly chosen. The animals were anaesthetized and blood samples were drawn for analysis of calcium, phosphorus, and ...

  3. Fractal aspects of calcium binding protein structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isvoran, Adriana [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania)], E-mail:; Pitulice, Laura [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania); Craescu, Constantin T. [INSERM U759/Institute Curie-Recherche, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Batiment 112, 91405 Orsay (France); Chiriac, Adrian [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania)


    The structures of EF-hand calcium binding proteins may be classified into two distinct groups: extended and compact structures. In this paper we studied 20 different structures of calcium binding proteins using the fractal analysis. Nine structures show extended shapes, one is semi-compact and the other 10 have compact shapes. Our study reveals different fractal characteristics for protein backbones belonging to different structural classes and these observations may be correlated to the physicochemical forces governing the protein folding.

  4. Physical Properties of Acidic Calcium Phosphate Cements



    The gold standard for bone replacement today, autologous bone, suffers from several disadvantages, such as the increased risk of infection due to the need for two surgeries. Degradable synthetic materials with properties similar to bone, such as calcium phosphate cements, are a promising alternative. Calcium phosphate cements are suited for a limited amount of applications and improving their physical properties could extend their use into areas previously not considered possible. For example...

  5. Evaluation of quick disintegrating calcium carbonate tablets


    Fausett, Hector; Gayser, Charles; Dash, Alekha K.


    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a rapidly disintegrating calcium carbonate (CC) tablet by direct compression and compare it with commercially available calcium tablets. CC tablets were formulated on a Carver press using 3 different forms of CC direct compressed granules (Cal-Carb 4450®, Cal-Carb 4457®, and Cal-Carb 4462®). The breaking strength was measured using a Stokes-Monsanto hardness tester. The disintegration and dissolution properties of the tablets were studied using...

  6. Calcium Imaging of Sonoporation of Mammalian Cells (United States)

    Sabens, David; Aehle, Matthew; Steyer, Grant; Kourennyi, Dmitri; Deng, Cheri X.


    Ultrasound mediated delivery of compounds is a relatively recent development in drug delivery and gene transfection techniques. Due to the lack of methods for real-time monitoring of sonoporation at the cellular level, the efficiency of drug/gene delivery and sonoporation associated side effects, such as the loss of cell viability and enhanced apoptosis, have been studied only through post US exposure analyses, requiring days for cell incubation. Furthermore, because microporation appears to be transient in nature, it was not possible to correlate transfection with microporation on an individual cellular basis. By studying the role of calcium in the cell and using fluorescent calcium imaging to study sonoporation it is possible to quantify both cell porosity and sonoporation side effects. Since both post sonoporation cell survival and delivery efficiency are related to the dynamic process of the cell membrane poration, calcium imaging of sonoporation will provide important knowledge to obtain improved understanding of sonoporation mechanism. Our experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of calcium imaging of sonoporation in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. We have measured the changes in the intracellular calcium concentration using Fura-2, a fluorescent probe, which indicate influx or flow of Calcium across the cell membrane. Analysis of data identified key aspects in the dynamic sonoporation process including the formation of pores in the cell membrane, and the relative temporal duration of the pores and their resealing. These observations are obtained through the analysis of the rate the calcium concentration changes within the cells, making it possible to visualize membrane opening and repair in real-time through such changes in the intracellular calcium concentration.

  7. Is Excess Calcium Harmful to Health?


    Daly, Robin M.; Ebeling, Peter R.


    Most current guidelines recommend that older adults and the elderly strive for a total calcium intake (diet and supplements) of 1,000 to 1,300 mg/day to prevent osteoporosis and fractures. Traditionally, calcium supplements have been considered safe, effective and well tolerated, but their safety has recently been questioned due to potential adverse effects on vascular disease which may increase mortality. For example, the findings from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (current...

  8. Understanding calcium dynamics experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Malchow, Dieter


    Intracellular Calcium is an important messenger in living cells. Calcium dynamics display complex temporal and spatial structures created by the concentration patterns which are characteristic for a nonlinear system operating far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Written as a set of tutorial reviews on both experimental facts and theoretical modelling, this volume is intended as an introduction and modern reference in the field for graduate students and researchers in biophysics, biochemistry and applied mathematics.

  9. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  10. [Bone and Nutrition. Vitamin D independent calcium absorption]. (United States)

    Masuyama, Ritsuko


    Vitamin D endocrine system is required for normal calcium and bone homeostasis. Trans-epithelial calcium absorption is initiated with calcium entry into the intestinal epithelial cells from luminal fluid through calcium permeable channels, and those expressions are strongly supported by vitamin D action. On the other hands, dietary treatment, mineral supplementation or restriction, successfully improves intestinal calcium absorption in global vitamin D receptor knock-out (VDR KO) mice, though vitamin D dependent active transport pathway is lacking. Dietary rescue of intestinal calcium absorption provided a positive calcium balance in this mouse model, and suggested that the major role of vitamin D function on calcium homeostasis was considered to be intestinal active absorption. To elucidate the entire process of intestinal calcium absorption, vitamin D independent calcium transport system was characterized into either trans-cellular or para-cellular process.

  11. Analytical models of calcium binding in a calcium channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinn-Liang [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Eisenberg, Bob [Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)


    The anomalous mole fraction effect of L-type calcium channels is analyzed using a Fermi like distribution with the experimental data of Almers and McCleskey [J. Physiol. 353, 585 (1984)] and the atomic resolution model of Lipkind and Fozzard [Biochemistry 40, 6786 (2001)] of the selectivity filter of the channel. Much of the analysis is algebraic, independent of differential equations. The Fermi distribution is derived from the configuration entropy of ions and water molecules with different sizes, different valences, and interstitial voids between particles. It allows us to calculate potentials and distances (between the binding ion and the oxygen ions of the glutamate side chains) directly from the experimental data using algebraic formulas. The spatial resolution of these results is comparable with those of molecular models, but of course the accuracy is no better than that implied by the experimental data. The glutamate side chains in our model are flexible enough to accommodate different types of binding ions in different bath conditions. The binding curves of Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} for [CaCl{sub 2}] ranging from 10{sup −8} to 10{sup −2} M with a fixed 32 mM background [NaCl] are shown to agree with published Monte Carlo simulations. The Poisson-Fermi differential equation—that includes both steric and correlation effects—is then used to obtain the spatial profiles of energy, concentration, and dielectric coefficient from the solvent region to the filter. The energy profiles of ions are shown to depend sensitively on the steric energy that is not taken into account in the classical rate theory. We improve the rate theory by introducing a steric energy that lumps the effects of excluded volumes of all ions and water molecules and empty spaces between particles created by Lennard-Jones type and electrostatic forces. We show that the energy landscape varies significantly with bath concentrations. The energy landscape is not constant.

  12. Oyster shell calcium induced parotid swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Palaniappan


    Full Text Available A 59 year old female consumer was started on therapy with oyster shell calcium in combination with vitamin D3 and she presented with swelling below the ear, after two doses. She stopped the drug by herself and the swelling disappeared in one day. She started the drug one day after recovery and again she developed the swelling. She was advised to stop the drug with a suggestion to take lemon to enhance parotid secretion and the swelling subsided. Calcium plays major role in salivary secretion and studies have shown reduced parotid secretion in rats, deficient of vitamin D. But in humans involvement of calcium and vitamin D3 in parotid secretion is unknown. However, the patient had no history of reaction though she had previously taken vitamin D3 with calcium carbonate which was not from oyster shell. Hence, we ruled out vitamin D3 in this reaction and suspecting oyster shell calcium as a culprit. This adverse drug reaction (ADR was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO causality assessment, Naranjo′s and Hartwig severity scales. As per WHO causality assessment scale, the ADR was classified as "certain". This reaction was analyzed as per Naranjo′s algorithm and was classified as probable. According to Hartwig′s severity scale the reaction was rated as mild. Our case is an example of a mild but rare adverse effect of oyster shell calcium carbonate which is widely used.

  13. Self-Setting Calcium Orthophosphate Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin


    Full Text Available In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are bioactive and biodegradable grafting bioceramics in the form of a powder and a liquid. After mixing, both phases form pastes, which set and harden forming either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite or brushite. Since both of them are remarkably biocompartible, bioresorbable and osteoconductive, self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations appear to be promising bioceramics for bone grafting. Furthermore, such formulations possess excellent molding capabilities, easy manipulation and nearly perfect adaptation to the complex shapes of bone defects, followed by gradual bioresorption and new bone formation. In addition, reinforced formulations have been introduced, which might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The discovery of self-setting properties opened up a new era in the medical application of calcium orthophosphates and many commercial trademarks have been introduced as a result. Currently such formulations are widely used as synthetic bone grafts, with several advantages, such as pourability and injectability. Moreover, their low-temperature setting reactions and intrinsic porosity allow loading by drugs, biomolecules and even cells for tissue engineering purposes. In this review, an insight into the self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations, as excellent bioceramics suitable for both dental and bone grafting applications, has been provided.

  14. Is Excess Calcium Harmful to Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M. Daly


    Full Text Available Most current guidelines recommend that older adults and the elderly strive for a total calcium intake (diet and supplements of 1,000 to 1,300 mg/day to prevent osteoporosis and fractures. Traditionally, calcium supplements have been considered safe, effective and well tolerated, but their safety has recently been questioned due to potential adverse effects on vascular disease which may increase mortality. For example, the findings from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (currently published in abstract form only revealed that the use of calcium supplements was associated with an ~30% increased risk of myocardial infarction. If high levels of calcium are harmful to health, this may alter current public health recommendations with regard to the use of calcium supplements for preventing osteoporosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the latest information from human observational and prospective studies, randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses related to the effects of calcium supplementation on vascular disease and related risk factors, including blood pressure, lipid and lipoprotein levels and vascular calcification.

  15. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M; Martin, Berdine R; Wastney, Meryl E; McCabe, George P; Moe, Sharon M; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro


    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus, reduce phosphorus retention, and prevent negative calcium balance; however, data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance during CKD to support this. Here, we studied eight patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36 ml/min) who received a controlled diet with or without a calcium carbonate supplement (1500 mg/day calcium) during two 3-week balance periods in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design. All feces and urine were collected during weeks 2 and 3 of each balance period and fasting blood, and urine was collected at baseline and at the end of each week. Calcium kinetics were determined using oral and intravenous (45)calcium. Patients were found to be in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on the placebo. Calcium carbonate supplementation produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance, suggesting soft-tissue deposition. Fasting blood and urine biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. Thus, the positive calcium balance produced by calcium carbonate treatment within 3 weeks cautions against its use as a phosphate binder in patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, if these findings can be extrapolated to long-term therapy.

  16. The use of size-defined DNA-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles to minimise intracellular calcium disturbance during transfection. (United States)

    Neumann, Sebastian; Kovtun, Anna; Dietzel, Irmgard D; Epple, Matthias; Heumann, Rolf


    Calcium phosphate-based transfection methods are frequently used to transfer DNA into living cells. However, it has so far not been studied in detail to what extend the different transfection methods lead to a net calcium uptake. Upon subsequent resolution of the calcium phosphate, intracellular free ionic calcium-surges could result, inducing as side effect various physiological responses that may finally result in cell death. Here we investigated the overall calcium uptake by the human bladder carcinoma cell line T24 during the standard calcium phosphate transfection method and also during transfection with custom-made calcium phosphate/DNA nanoparticles by isotope labelling with (45)calcium. (45)Calcium uptake was strongly increased after 7h of standard calcium phosphate transfection but not if the transfection was performed with calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Time lapse imaging microscopy using the calcium-sensitive dye Fura-2 revealed large transient increases of the intracellular free calcium level during the standard calcium phosphate transfection but not if calcium phosphate nanoparticles were used. Consistently, the viability of cells transfected by calcium phosphate/DNA nanoparticles was not changed, in remarkable contrast to the standard method where considerable cell death occurred.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of crystallization impacting calcium phosphate cements



    The biomineral calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O), known as brushite, is a malleable material that both grows and dissolves faster than most other calcium minerals, including other calcium phosphate phases, calcium carbonates and calcium oxalates. Within the body, this ready formation and dissolution can play a role in certain diseases, such as kidney stone and plaque formation. However, these same properties, along with brushite’s excellent biocompatibility, can be used to gr...

  18. Factors to consider in the selection of a calcium supplement.


    Shangraw, R F


    Calcium supplements are widely used, yet many questions remain as to the absorption of various calcium salts. Because the solubility of many calcium salts is dependent upon pH, the type of salt used, the condition of the patient, and the time of administration should be considered. Studies show that many calcium supplements on the market today do not meet standards of quality established in the "U.S. Pharmacopeia" (USP). Consumers must be discerning about the products they purchase. Calcium s...

  19. Ternary silicides ScIr{sub 4}Si{sub 2} and RERh{sub 4}Si{sub 2} (RE = Sc, Y, Tb-Lu) and quaternary derivatives RERh{sub 4}Si{sub 2-x}Sn{sub x} (RE = Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu) - structure, chemical bonding, and solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosswinkel, Daniel; Benndorf, Christopher; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Eckert, Hellmut [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. of Physics; Matar, Samir F. [Bordeaux Univ., CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, Pessac (France)


    The silicides ScIr{sub 4}Si{sub 2} and RERh{sub 4}Si{sub 2} (RE = Sc, Y, Tb-Lu) and silicide stannides RERh{sub 4}Si{sub 2-x}Sn{sub x}(RE = Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu) were synthesized from the elements by arc-melting and subsequent annealing. The new compounds crystallize with the orthorhombic YRh{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} type structure, space group Pnma. They were characterized by X-ray powder patterns and several structures were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data. The main structural motifs of this series of silicides are tricapped trigonal prisms formed by the transition metal and rare earth atoms. One of the two crystallographically independent silicon sites allows for formation of solid solutions with tin, exemplarily studied for ErRh{sub 4}Si{sub 2-x}Sn{sub x}. Electronic structure calculations reveal strong covalent Rh-Si bonding as the main stability factor. Multinuclear ({sup 29}Si, {sup 45}Sc, and {sup 89}Y) magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra of the structure representatives with diamagnetic rare-earth elements (Sc, Y, Lu) are found to be consistent with the crystallographic data and specifically confirm the selective substitution of Sn in the Si2 sites in the quaternary compounds YRh{sub 4}SiSn and LuRh{sub 4}SiSn.

  20. Expanding the neuron's calcium signaling repertoire: intracellular calcium release via voltage-induced PLC and IP3R activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Ryglewski


    Full Text Available Neuronal calcium acts as a charge carrier during information processing and as a ubiquitous intracellular messenger. Calcium signals are fundamental to numerous aspects of neuronal development and plasticity. Specific and independent regulation of these vital cellular processes is achieved by a rich bouquet of different calcium signaling mechanisms within the neuron, which either can operate independently or may act in concert. This study demonstrates the existence of a novel calcium signaling mechanism by simultaneous patch clamping and calcium imaging from acutely isolated central neurons. These neurons possess a membrane voltage sensor that, independent of calcium influx, causes G-protein activation, which subsequently leads to calcium release from intracellular stores via phospholipase C and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activation. This allows neurons to monitor activity by intracellular calcium release without relying on calcium as the input signal and opens up new insights into intracellular signaling, developmental regulation, and information processing in neuronal compartments lacking calcium channels.

  1. Effect of combining different calcium concentration dialysate on calcium balance in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui-ping; WU Bei; LU Li-xia; QIAO Jie; WU Xiang-lan; WANG Mei


    Background Calcium and phosphorus metabolic disturbance are common in dialysis patients and associated with increased morbidity and mortality.Therefore,maintaining the balance of calcium and phosphate metabolism and suitable intact parathyroid hormone(iPTH)level has become the focus of attention.We investigated the effects of different peritoneal dialysate calcium concentrations on calcium phosphate metabolism and iPTH in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD)patients.Methods Forty stable CAPD patients with normal serum calcium were followed for six months of treatment with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate(DCa1.25,PD4,22 patients)or a combination of 1.75 mmol/L calcium dialysate(DCa1.75,PD2)and PD4(18 patients)twice a day respectively.Total serum calcium(after albumin correction),serum phosphorus,iPTH,alkaline phosphatase(ALP)and blood pressure were recorded before and 1,3 and 6 months after treatment commenced.Results No significant difference was found in baseline serum calcium,phosphorus between the two patient groups,but the levels of iPTH were significantly different.No significant changes were found in the dosage of calcium carbonate and active vitamin D during 6 months.In the PD4 group,serum calcium level at the 1st,3rd,6th months were significantly lower than the baseline(P<0.05).There was no significant difference in serum phosphorus after 6 months treatment.iPTH was significantly higher(P<0.001)at the 1st,3rd,and 6th months compared with the baseline.No differences were seen in ALP and blood pressure.In the PD4+PD2 group,no significant changes in serum calcium,phosphorus,iPTH,ALP and BP during the 6-month follow-up period.Conclusions Treatment with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate for six months can decrease serum calcium,increase iPTH,without change in serum phosphorus,ALP,and BP.The combining of PD4 and PD2 can stabilize the serum calcium and avoid fluctuations in iPTH levels.

  2. Increased calcium absorption from synthetic stable amorphous calcium carbonate: Double-blind randomized crossover clinical trial in post-menopausal women (United States)

    Calcium supplementation is a widely recognized strategy for achieving adequate calcium intake. We designed this blinded, randomized, crossover interventional trial to compare the bioavailability of a new stable synthetic amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) with that of crystalline calcium carbonate (C...

  3. Calcium sensing receptors and calcium oscillations: calcium as a first messenger. (United States)

    Breitwieser, Gerda E


    Calcium sensing receptors (CaR) are unique among G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) since both the first (extracellular) and second (intracellular) messengers are Ca(2+). CaR serves to translate small fluctuations in extracellular Ca(2+) into intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations. In many cells and tissues, CaR also acts as a coincidence detector, sensing both changes in extracellular Ca(2+) plus the presence of various allosteric activators including amino acids, polyamines, and/or peptides. CaR oscillations are uniquely shaped by the activating agonist, that is, Ca(2+) triggers sinusoidal oscillations while Ca(2+) plus phenylalanine trigger transient oscillations of lower frequency. The distinct oscillation patterns generated by Ca(2+)versus Ca(2+) plus phenylalanine are the results of activation of distinct signal transduction pathways. CaR is a member of Family C GPCRs, having a large extracellular agonist binding domain, and functioning as a disulfide-linked dimer. The CaR dimer likely can be driven to distinct active conformations by various Ca(2+) plus modulator combinations, which can drive preferential coupling to divergent signaling pathways. Such plasticity with respect to both agonist and signaling outcomes allows CaR to uniquely contribute to the physiology of organs and tissues where it is expressed. This chapter will examine the structural features of CaR, which contribute to its unique properties, the nature of CaR-induced intracellular Ca(2+) signals and the potential role(s) for CaR in development and differentiation.

  4. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.


    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  5. The calcium-sensing receptor regulates mammary gland parathyroid hormone–related protein production and calcium transport


    VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; McGeoch, Grace; Brown, Edward M.; Krapcho, Karen; Neville, Margaret; Wysolmerski, John J


    The transfer of calcium from mother to milk during lactation is poorly understood. In this report, we demonstrate that parathyroid hormone–related protein (PTHrP) production and calcium transport in mammary epithelial cells are regulated by extracellular calcium acting through the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR). The CaR becomes expressed on mammary epithelial cells at the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Increasing concentrations of calcium, neomycin, and a calcimimetic compound suppre...

  6. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Randhawa; Kamaljeet Sweety


    For preparing calcium ferrite, calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III) precursor was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of iron(III) maleate, calcium maleate and maleic acid. Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to 900°C and ferrite formation. Three consecutive decomposition steps leading to the formation of -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate have been observed at various stages of thermolysis. In the final stage the ferrite, Ca2Fe2O5, is obtained as a result of solid state reaction between -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate at 788°C, a temperature much lower than for ceramic method. The results have been compared with those of the oxalate precursor.

  7. The physiological role of mitochondrial calcium revealed by mice lacking the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. (United States)

    Pan, Xin; Liu, Jie; Nguyen, Tiffany; Liu, Chengyu; Sun, Junhui; Teng, Yanjie; Fergusson, Maria M; Rovira, Ilsa I; Allen, Michele; Springer, Danielle A; Aponte, Angel M; Gucek, Marjan; Balaban, Robert S; Murphy, Elizabeth; Finkel, Toren


    Mitochondrial calcium has been postulated to regulate a wide range of processes from bioenergetics to cell death. Here, we characterize a mouse model that lacks expression of the recently discovered mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Mitochondria derived from MCU(-/-) mice have no apparent capacity to rapidly uptake calcium. Whereas basal metabolism seems unaffected, the skeletal muscle of MCU(-/-) mice exhibited alterations in the phosphorylation and activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, MCU(-/-) mice exhibited marked impairment in their ability to perform strenuous work. We further show that mitochondria from MCU(-/-) mice lacked evidence for calcium-induced permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The lack of PTP opening does not seem to protect MCU(-/-) cells and tissues from cell death, although MCU(-/-) hearts fail to respond to the PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A. Taken together, these results clarify how acute alterations in mitochondrial matrix calcium can regulate mammalian physiology.


    BARETTA, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso; CAMBI, Maria Paula Carlini; RODRIGUES, Arieli Luz; MENDES, Silvana Aparecida


    Background : Bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, can cause serious nutritional complications arising from poor absorption of essential nutrients. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is one such complications that leads to increased parathyroid hormone levels due to a decrease in calcium and vitamin D, which may compromise bone health. Aim : To compare calcium carbonate and calcium citrate in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Method : Patients were selected on the basis of their abnormal biochemical test and treatment was randomly done with citrate or calcium carbonate. Results : After 60 days of supplementation, biochemical tests were repeated, showing improvement in both groups. Conclusion : Supplementation with calcium (citrate or carbonate) and vitamin D is recommended after surgery for prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26537273

  9. Role of mitochondria and network connectivity in intercellular calcium oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Dokukina, I V; Grachev, E A; Gunton, J D; Dokukina, Irina V.; Gracheva, Maria E.; Grachev, Eugene A.; Gunton, James D.


    Mitochondria are large-scale regulators of cytosolic calcium under normal cellular conditions. In this paper we model the complex behavior of mitochondrial calcium during the action of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate on a single cell and find results that are in good agreement with recent experimental studies. We also study the influence of the cellular network connectivity on intercellular signalling via gap junction diffusion. We include in our model the dependence of the junctional conductivity on the cytosolic calcium concentrations in adjacent cells. We consider three different mechanisms of calcium wave propagation through gap junctions: via calcium diffusion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion, and both calcium and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion. We show that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate diffusion is the mechanism of calcium wave propagation and that calcium diffusion is the mechanism of synchronization of cytosolic calcium oscillations in adjacent cells. We also study the role of different to...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-shan Kong; Bing-bing Wang; Quan Ji; Yan-zhi Xia; Zhao-xia Guo; Jian Yu


    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride. The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimeter (CONE). The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34, and the heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), CO and CO_2 concentrations during combustion are much lower compared with those of viscose fibers. Calcium carbonate and calcium oxide were formed during thermal degradation of calcium alginate fibers at different temperatures. The shape of calcium alginate fibers is well kept after LOI test. The rigid combustion residue char acts as an effective barrier to the outward diffusion of flame and heat. The combustion process and flame retardant mechanism of calcium alginate fibers are also discussed.

  11. Role of calcium in gravity perception of plant roots (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.


    Calcium ions may play a key role in linking graviperception by the root cap to the asymmetric growth which occurs in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Application of calcium-chelating agents to the root cap inhibits gravitropic curvature without affecting growth. Asymmetric application of calcium to one side of the root cap induces curvature toward the calcium source, and gravistimulation induces polar movement of applied (Ca-45)(2+) across the root cap toward the lower side. The action of calcium may be linked to auxin movement in roots since: (1) auxin transport inhibitors interfere both with gravitropic curvature and graviinduced polar calcium movement and (2) asymmetric application of calcium enhances auxin movement across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Indirect evidence indicates that the calcium-modulated regulator protein, calmodulin, may be involved in either the transport or action of calcium in the gravitropic response mechanism of roots.

  12. Effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and the nephrocalcinosis in rats fed excess dietary phosphorus and calcium. (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Kado, S; Nagata, Y; Kimura, H; Uchida, K; Watanuki, M


    The effects of calcium gluconate on the utilization of magnesium and nephrocalcinosis in male Wistar rats made magnesium-deficient by adding excess dietary phosphorus (1.195 g of phosphorus/100 g of diet) and calcium (1.04 g of calcium/100 g of diet) were compared with the effects of calcium carbonate. The effects of dietary magnesium concentration on the magnesium status and nephrocalcinosis were also examined. Adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium decreased the apparent magnesium absorption ratios and the concentrations of magnesium in the serum and femur and increased the deposition of calcium in the kidney, and the low magnesium condition (0.024 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) aggravated the deposition of calcium and the low magnesium status. The apparent magnesium absorption ratios and femur magnesium concentration in the rats fed a calcium gluconate diet (an equimolar mixture of calcium gluconate and calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium) were significantly higher than in the rats fed a calcium carbonate diet (only calcium carbonate was used as a source of calcium), irrespective of dietary magnesium concentration. Dietary calcium gluconate lessened the accumulation of calcium in the kidney and increased the serum magnesium concentration compared with dietary calcium carbonate, when the rats were fed the normal magnesium diet (0.049 g of magnesium/100 g of diet) but not the low magnesium diet. We speculate that the increased utilization of magnesium by feeding the calcium gluconate diet to a limited extent prevented the low magnesium status and the severity of nephrocalcinosis caused by adding excess dietary phosphorus and calcium.

  13. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Nociception (United States)

    Yasuda, Takahiro; Adams, David J.

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are a large and functionally diverse group of membrane ion channels ubiquitously expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. VGCCs contribute to various physiological processes and transduce electrical activity into other cellular functions. This chapter provides an overview of biophysical properties of VGCCs, including regulation by auxiliary subunits, and their physiological role in neuronal functions. Subsequently, then we focus on N-type calcium (Cav2.2) channels, in particular their diversity and specific antagonists. We also discuss the role of N-type calcium channels in nociception and pain transmission through primary sensory dorsal root ganglion neurons (nociceptors). It has been shown that these channels are expressed predominantly in nerve terminals of the nociceptors and that they control neurotransmitter release. To date, important roles of N-type calcium channels in pain sensation have been elucidated genetically and pharmacologically, indicating that specific N-type calcium channel antagonists or modulators are particularly useful as therapeutic drugs targeting chronic and neuropathic pain.

  14. Portable fluorescence photometer for monitoring free calcium (United States)

    Struckmeier, Jens; Klopp, Erk; Born, Matthias; Hofmann, Martin; Tenbosch, Jochen; Jones, David B.


    We introduce a compact and portable photometric system for measurements of the calcium dynamics in cells. The photometer is designed for applications in centrifuges or in zero gravity environment and thus extremely compact and reliable. It operates with the calcium-sensitive dye Indo-1. The excitation wavelength of 345 nm is generated by frequency doubling of a laser diode. Two compact photomultiplier tubes detect the fluorescent emission. The electronics provide the sensitivity of photon counting combined with simultaneous measurement of the temperature, of air pressure, and of gravitational force. Internal data storage during the experiment is possible. A newly developed cell chamber stabilizes the cell temperature to 37.0±0.1 °C and includes a perfusion system to supply the cells with medium. The system has a modular setup providing the possibility of changing the light source and detectors for investigation of ions other than calcium. Measurements of the intracellular calcium concentration are based on a comprehensive calibration of our system. First experiments show that the calcium dynamics of osteosarcoma cells stimulated by parathyroid hormone is observable.

  15. Primary osteoporosis prophylaxis with different calcium preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Toroptsova


    Full Text Available Objective. To assess efficacy of different modes of management in women with osteopenia. Material and methods. 190 women with osteopenia of spine and/or femoral neck aged 50 to 70 years (mean 60,6±5 years were followed up during a year. Different modes of prophylaxis were applied. 59 pts of group 1 received Calcium D3 Nicomed 2 tablets a day, 25 pts of group 2 - Vitrum Osteomag 2 tablets a day, 46 pts of group 3 - calcium carbonate 2500 mg/day, 60 pts of control group received recommendations about diet and physical activity. Results. 3,5% from 114 pts examined had normal 25(OHD blood level while 23% showed deficiency of vitamin D. Mean calcium consumption with milk products was 350 mg/day. Bone mineral density (BMD significantly increased on 1,6-1% in pts older than 60 years receiving Vitrum Osteomag and Calcium D3 Nicomed respectively while younger pts did not show such changes. BMD in pts olderthan 60 years receiving calcium carbonate increased on 0,5% but this difference was not significant. Tolerability of all 3 drugs was comparable.

  16. Evaluation of quick disintegrating calcium carbonate tablets. (United States)

    Fausett, H; Gayser, C; Dash, A K


    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a rapidly disintegrating calcium carbonate (CC) tablet by direct compression and compare it with commercially available calcium tablets. CC tablets were formulated on a Carver press using 3 different forms of CC direct compressed granules (Cal-Carb 4450, Cal-Carb 4457, and Cal-Carb 4462). The breaking strength was measured using a Stokes-Monsanto hardness tester. The disintegration and dissolution properties of the tablets were studied using USP methodology. The calcium concentration was determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the surface topography of the granules and tablets. Breaking strength of Cal-Carb 4450, Cal-Carb 4457, and Cal-Carb 4462 tablets was in the range of 7.2 to 7.7 kg, as compared with a hardness of 6.2 kg and 10 kg for the commercially available calcium tablets Citracal and Tums, respectively. The disintegration time for the tablets presented in the order earlier was 4.1, 2.1, 1.9, 2.9, and 9.7 minutes, respectively. The dissolution studies showed that all formulations released 100% of the elemental calcium in simulated gastric fluid in less than 20 minutes. In summary, this study clearly demonstrated that quick disintegrating CC tablets can be formulated without expensive effervescence technology.

  17. Calcium sulphate in ammonium sulphate solution (United States)

    Sullivan, E.C.


    Calcium sulphate, at 25?? C., is two-thirds as soluble in dilute (o.i mol per liter) and twice as soluble in concentrated (3 mois per liter) ammonium sulphate solution as in water. The specific electric conductivity of concentrated ammonium sulphate solutions is lessened by saturating with calcium sulphate. Assuming that dissociation of ammonium sulphate takes place into 2NH4?? and SO4" and of calcium sulphate into Ca and SO4" only, and that the conductivity is a measure of such dissociation, the solubility of calcium sulphate in dilute ammonium sulphate solutions is greater than required by the mass-law. The conductivity of the dilute mixtures may be accurately calculated by means of Arrhenius' principle of isohydric solutions. In the data obtained in these calculations, the concentration of non-dissociated calcium sulphate decreases with increasing ammonium sulphate. The work as a whole is additional evidence of the fact that we are not yet in possession of all the factors necessary for reconciling the mass-law to the behavior of electrolytes. The measurements above described were made in the chemical laboratory of the University of Michigan.

  18. Information flow through calcium binding proteins (United States)

    Bak, Ji Hyun; Bialek, William


    Calcium signaling is a ubiquitous mode of biological communication, which regulates a great variety of vital processes in living systems. Such a signal typically begins with an elementary event, in which calcium ions bind to a protein, inducing a change in the protein's structure. Information can only be lost, from what was conveyed through this initial event, as the signal is further transduced through the downstream networks. In the present work we analyze and optimize the information flow in the calcium binding process. We explicitly calculate the mutual information between the calcium concentration and the states of the protein, using a simple model for allosteric regulation in a dimeric protein. The optimal solution depends on the dynamic range of the input as well as on the timescale of signal integration. According to our result, the optimizing strategy involves allowing the calcium-binding protein to be ``activated'' by a partial occupation of its sites, and tuning independently the strengths of cooperative interactions in the binding and unbinding processes.

  19. Calcium And Zinc Deficiency In Preeclamptic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Ferdousi


    Full Text Available Background: Pre-eclampsia is the most common medical complication of pregnancy associated withincreased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Reduced serum calcium and zinc levels arefound associated with elevated blood pressure in preeclampsia. Objective: To observe serum calciumand zinc levels in preeclamptic women. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in theDepartment of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka betweenJuly 2009 to June 2010. In this study, 60 pregnant women of preeclampsia, aged 18-39 years withgestational period more than 20th weeks were included as the study (group B. For comparison ageand gestational period matched 30 normotensive pregnant women control (group A were also studied.All the subjects were selected from Obstetric and Gynae In and Out patient Department of BSMMUand Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Serum calcium was measured by Colorimetric method and serumzinc was measured by Spectrophotometric method. Data were analysed by independent sample t testand Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Results: Mean serum calcium and zinc levels weresignificantly (p<0.001 lower in study group than those of control group. Again, serum calcium andzinc showed significant negative correlation with SBP and DBP in preeclamptic women. Conclusion:This study concludes that serum calcium and zinc deficiency may be one of the risk factor ofpreeclampsia. Therefore, early detection and supplementation to treat this deficiency may reduce theincidence of preeclampsia.

  20. Calcium's Role in Mechanotransduction during Muscle Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Benavides Damm


    Full Text Available Mechanotransduction is a process where cells sense their surroundings and convert the physical forces in their environment into an appropriate response. Calcium plays a crucial role in the translation of such forces to biochemical signals that control various biological processes fundamental in muscle development. The mechanical stimulation of muscle cells may for example result from stretch, electric and magnetic stimulation, shear stress, and altered gravity exposure. The response, mainly involving changes in intracellular calcium concentration then leads to a cascade of events by the activation of downstream signaling pathways. The key calcium-dependent pathways described here include the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation. The subsequent effects in cellular homeostasis consist of cytoskeletal remodeling, cell cycle progression, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, all necessary for healthy muscle development, repair, and regeneration. A deregulation from the normal process due to disuse, trauma, or disease can result in a clinical condition such as muscle atrophy, which entails a significant loss of muscle mass. In order to develop therapies against such diseased states, we need to better understand the relevance of calcium signaling and the downstream responses to mechanical forces in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review is to discuss in detail how diverse mechanical stimuli cause changes in calcium homeostasis by affecting membrane channels and the intracellular stores, which in turn regulate multiple pathways that impart these effects and control the fate of muscle tissue.

  1. Effects of Adding Chymosin to Milk on Calcium Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif


    Calcium intake and absorption is important for bone health. In a randomized double-blind cross-over trial, we investigated effects of adding chymosin to milk on the intestinal calcium absorption as measured by renal calcium excretion and indices of calcium homeostasis. The primary outcome...... of the study was 24-h renal calcium excretion that is considered a proxy measure of the amount of calcium absorbed from the intestine. We studied 125 healthy men and women, aged 34 (25-45) years on two separate days. On each day, a light breakfast was served together with 500 ml of semi-skimmed milk to which...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Vladimirov


    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of osteoporosis (OP in patients with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPCDD. Subjects and methods. Eighty patients with CPCDD were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD of the forearm, lumbar spine, and femoral neck was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Laboratory diagnosis involved determination of the blood levels of C-reactive protein, parathyroid hormone, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus and the daily urinary excretion of calcium and phosphates. Results. The patients with OP were significantly older than those with normal BMD and osteopenia. Forearm bones were the most common isolated location of OP and osteopenia. Injuries in the history, traumatic fractures, and the intake of diuretics were somewhat more common in the patients diagnosed with OP. The incidence of hyperparathyroidism did not differ significantly in the groups.

  3. Glial calcium signaling in physiology and pathophysioilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Neuronal-glial circuits underlie integrative processes in the nervous system.Function of glial syncytium is,to a very large extent,regulated by the intracellular calcium signaling system.Glial calcium signals are triggered by activation of multiple receptors,expressed in glial membrane,which regulate both Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum.The endoplasmic reticulum also endows glial cells with intracellular excitable media,which is able to produce and maintain long-ranging signaling in a form of propagating Ca2+ waves.In pathological conditions,calcium signals regulate glial response to injury,which might have both protective and detrimental effects on the nervous tissue.

  4. Preparation and characterization of calcium phosphate biomaterials. (United States)

    Calafiori, A R; Di Marco, G; Martino, G; Marotta, M


    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) samples have been prepared with a mixture of monocalciumphosphate monohydrate (MCPM) and calcium carbonate (CC) powders, in stechiometric moles ratio 1:2.5 to obtain a Ca/P ratio of about 1.67 typical of hydroxyapatite (HAp), with or without addition of HAp. All specimens are incubated at 30 degrees C in a steam saturated air environment for 3, 6 and 15 days respectively, afterwards dried and stored under nitrogen. The calcium phosphate samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vickers hardness test (HV), diametral compression (d.c.), strength compression, and porosity evaluation. MCPM/CC mixture has a 30% HAp final concentration and is characterized by higher porosity (amount 78%) and mechanical properties useful as filler in bone segments without high mechanical stress.

  5. Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Avenell, Alison; Masud, Tahir


    Introduction:Vitamin D may affect multiple health outcomes. If so, an effect on mortality is to be expected. Using pooled data from randomized controlled trials, we performed individual patient data (IPD) and trial level meta-analyses to assess mortality among participants randomized to either...... vitamin D alone or vitamin D with calcium.Subjects and Methods:Through a systematic literature search, we identified 24 randomized controlled trials reporting data on mortality in which vitamin D was given either alone or with calcium. From a total of 13 trials with more than 1000 participants each, eight......,528 randomized participants (86.8% females) with a median age of 70 (interquartile range, 62-77) yr. Vitamin D with or without calcium reduced mortality by 7% [hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88-0.99]. However, vitamin D alone did not affect mortality, but risk of death was reduced if vitamin...

  6. Calcium carbide poisoning via food in childhood. (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Yağmur, Fatih; Gümüş, Hakan; Kumandaş, Sefer; Poyrazoğlu, M Hakan


    The fast ripening of fruits means they may contain various harmful properties. A commonly used agent in the ripening process is calcium carbide, a material most commonly used for welding purposes. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorous. Once dissolved in water, the carbide produces acetylene gas. Acetylene gas may affect the neurological system by inducing prolonged hypoxia. The findings are headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral edema and seizures. We report the case of a previously healthy 5 year-old girl with no chronic disease history who was transferred to our Emergency Department with an 8-h history of coma and delirium. A careful history from her father revealed that the patient ate unripe dates treated with calcium carbide.

  7. Thermal structural properties of calcium tungstate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Hoelzel, Markus [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. for Materials Science; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz FRM-II; Hansen, Thomas [Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Vasylechko, Leonid [Lviv Polytechnic National Univ. (Ukraine). Semiconductor Electronics Dept.; Mikhailik, Vitaliy [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot (United Kingdom); Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Kraus, Hans [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Ehrenberg, Helmut [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. for Materials Science; IFW Dresden (Germany)


    The results of in-situ temperature-resolved powder diffraction studies of CaWO{sub 4} scheelite using both synchrotron radiation and neutron scattering are reported. The studies performed over a broad temperature range of 5-1773 K confirm the scheelite type of structure for calcium tungstate over the whole temperature range. The anisotropy of thermal expansion in calcium tungstate as well as the rigidity of WO{sub 4} complexes have been analysed in terms of bond distances, interatomic angles and anisotropic displacement parameters. The WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} complex anions showed a remarkable robustness in the whole studied temperature range, thus pointing out that the layered structure formed by two-dimensional CsCl-type arrangements of Ca cations and WO{sub 4} complexes is the primary reason for the anisotropy of thermal expansion in calcium tungstate. (orig.)

  8. Calcium dependent magnesium uptake in myocardium. (United States)

    Bianchi, C P; Liu, D


    The frog myocardium maintains magnesium content at a steady state level when stimulated at 0.4Hz while being perfused with Ringer's solution containing 1 x 10(-3) M Ca2+ and 5 x 10(-7) M magnesium. When calcium is removed 43% of tissue magnesium is lost within 30 seconds or 12 beats. Restoration of calcium to the perfusion solution causes reaccumulation of magnesium from a solution containing 5 x 10(-7) M magnesium. The reaccumulation of magnesium indicates a highly selective transport system for magnesium which is dependent upon the presence of calcium. Calcium appears to reduce the leak of magnesium from the myocardium and enhances the transport of magnesium into the myocardial cell. Intracellular magnesium is a necessary cofactor for hundreds of enzymes, and is essential for protein synthesis and as an extracellular divalent cation helps to stabilize excitable membranes in conjunction with calcium. The concentration of ionized magnesium in the sarcoplasm of myocardial muscle has an average value of 1.45 mM +/- 1.37 (standard deviation), N = 19) with a range of 0.5 to 3.6 mM (1). The heart with its numerous mitochondria and high enzymatic activity is vulnerable to myocardial damage due to magnesium loss. The isolated frog ventricle conserves intracellular magnesium when perfused with Ringer's solution containing no added magnesium and maintains function for hours. The ability to conserve magnesium suggests a low permeability of the sarcolemma to magnesium and an extremely efficient inward transport system. Removal of calcium as well as magnesium from the perfusion solution causes a rapid loss of tension in the electrically driven frog ventricle (0.4) Hz.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Calcium pathway machinery at fertilization in echinoderms. (United States)

    Ramos, Isabela; Wessel, Gary M


    Calcium signaling in cells directs diverse physiological processes. The calcium waves triggered by fertilization is a highly conserved calcium signaling event essential for egg activation, and has been documented in every egg tested. This activity is one of the few highly conserved events of egg activation through the course of evolution. Echinoderm eggs, as well as many other cell types, have three main intracellular Ca(2+) mobilizing messengers - IP3, cADPR and NAADP. Both cADPR and NAADP were identified as Ca(2+) mobilizing messengers using the sea urchin egg homogenate, and this experimental system, along with the intact urchin and starfish oocyte/egg, continues to be a vital tool for investigating the mechanism of action of calcium signals. While many of the major regulatory steps of the IP3 pathway are well resolved, both cADPR and NAADP remain understudied in terms of our understanding of the fundamental process of egg activation at fertilization. Recently, NAADP has been shown to trigger Ca(2+) release from acidic vesicles, separately from the ER, and a new class of calcium channels, the two-pore channels (TPCs), was identified as the likely targets for this messenger. Moreover, it was found that both cADPR and NAADP can be synthesized by the same family of enzymes, the ADP-rybosyl cyclases (ARCs). In this context of increasing amount of information, the potential coupling and functional roles of different messengers, intracellular stores and channels in the formation of the fertilization calcium wave in echinoderms will be critically evaluated.

  10. Impairment of ciprofloxacin absorption by calcium polycarbophil. (United States)

    Kato, Ryuji; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Imano, Hideki; Kawai, Masayuki; Kuwahara, Shiro; Tsuchishita, Yoshimasa; Yonezawa, Emi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko


    The effect of calcium polycarbophil on the absorption of ciprofloxacin, a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, was evaluated in an in vitro and in vivo study. In the in vitro study, the release of ciprofloxacin from the cellulose membrane in the presence or absence of metal cations was measured using the dissolution test procedure. In the in vivo study, male ST Wistar rats and male volunteers were employed. First, 20 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin alone (Rat Study 1) or 20 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin in combination with 64 mg/kg of calcium chloride (Rat Study 2) was administered orally to 3 rats. Second, a volunteer study was employed and a randomized crossover design with twophases was used. In onephase, volunteers received 400 mg of ciprofloxacin alone (Study 1); in the other phase, they received 400 mg of ciprofloxacin and 1200 mg of fine calcium polycarbophil granules concomitantly (Study 2). The plasma and serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The release of ciprofloxacin from the cellulose membrane in the presence of aluminum, calcium, or iron ions was slower than that in the absence of these metal ions. The AUC0-4 and Cmax in Rat Study 2 were lower than those respective values in Rat Study 1. AUC0-4 was approximately 60% lower in Rat Study 2 than Rat Study 1. In the volunteer study, the AUC0-12 and Cmax in Study 2 were lower than those respective values in Study 1. In particular, AUC0-12 was approximately 50% lowerin Study 2 than in Study 1. These findings suggest that when ciprofloxacin and calcium polycarbophil were coadministered concomitantly, a decrease of ciprofloxacin absorption was observed, and this action was caused by the formation of chelate complexes. Therefore, it seems clear that we should avoid the concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin and calcium polycarbophil.

  11. Calcium and calcium isotope changes during carbon cycle perturbations at the end-Permian (United States)

    Komar, Nemanja; Zeebe, Richard


    Negative carbon and calcium isotope excursions, as well as climate shifts, took place during the most severe mass extinction event in Earth's history, the end-Permian (˜252 Ma). Investigating the connection between carbon and calcium cycles during transient carbon cycle perturbation events, such as the end-Permian, may help resolve the intricacies between the coupled calcium-carbon cycles, as well as provide a tool for constraining the causes of mass extinction. Here, we identify the deficiencies of a simplified calcium model employed in several previous studies and we demonstrate the importance of a fully coupled carbon-cycle model when investigating the dynamics of carbon and calcium cycling. Simulations with a modified version of the LOSCAR model, which includes a fully coupled carbon-calcium cycle, indicate that increased weathering rates and ocean acidification (potentially caused by Siberian Trap volcanism) are not capable of producing trends observed in the record, as previously claimed. Our model results suggest that combined effects of carbon input via Siberian Trap volcanism (12,000 Pg C), the cessation of biological carbon export, and variable calcium isotope fractionation (due to a change in the seawater carbonate ion concentration) represents a more plausible scenario. This scenario successfully reconciles δ13C and δ44Ca trends observed in the sediment record, as well as the proposed warming of >6oC.

  12. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina


    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  13. Biotic Nitrogen Enrichment Regulates Calcium Sources to Forests (United States)

    Pett-Ridge, J. C.; Perakis, S. S.; Hynicka, J. D.


    Calcium is an essential nutrient in forest ecosystems that is susceptible to leaching loss and depletion. Calcium depletion can affect plant and animal productivity, soil acid buffering capacity, and fluxes of carbon and water. Excess nitrogen supply and associated soil acidification are often implicated in short-term calcium loss from soils, but the long-term role of nitrogen enrichment on calcium sources and resupply is unknown. Here we use strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) as a proxy for calcium to investigate how soil nitrogen enrichment from biological nitrogen fixation interacts with bedrock calcium to regulate both short-term available supplies and the long-term sources of calcium in montane conifer forests. Our study examines 22 sites in western Oregon, spanning a 20-fold range of bedrock calcium on sedimentary and basaltic lithologies. In contrast to previous studies emphasizing abiotic control of weathering as a determinant of long-term ecosystem calcium dynamics and sources (via bedrock fertility, climate, or topographic/tectonic controls) we find instead that that biotic nitrogen enrichment of soil can strongly regulate calcium sources and supplies in forest ecosystems. For forests on calcium-rich basaltic bedrock, increasing nitrogen enrichment causes calcium sources to shift from rock-weathering to atmospheric dominance, with minimal influence from other major soil forming factors, despite regionally high rates of tectonic uplift and erosion that can rejuvenate weathering supply of soil minerals. For forests on calcium-poor sedimentary bedrock, we find that atmospheric inputs dominate regardless of degree of nitrogen enrichment. Short-term measures of soil and ecosystem calcium fertility are decoupled from calcium source sustainability, with fundamental implications for understanding nitrogen impacts, both in natural ecosystems and in the context of global change. Our finding that long-term nitrogen enrichment increases forest reliance on atmospheric

  14. Ground-Based Detection of Exoatmospheric Calcium (United States)

    Rojo, Patricio M.; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola


    Data acquired with HDS@Subaru for HD209458b is re-analyzed. A new pipeline performs an automated search for the exoatmospheric presence of several elements without any a-priori assumptions on its existence or strength. We analyzed thousands of lines in the full spectral range of this optical echelle spectrograph using a robust method to correct for the telluric contamination. We recover previous detections of Sodium and Halpha, and present the first strong detection of Calcium in an Extrasolar Atmosphere as well as the tentative detection of other elements. The Calcium detection is in disagreement with theoretical thermal-equilibrium models.

  15. Calcium and weight control-Publications summaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Çelebi


    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem. And it is known that both energy balance and nutritional factors are effective on it. The effects of dietary calcium on bone health are known however with recent studies, it has become a food item that focused on the effect on body weight control. Most epidemiyolojik studies claim that there is a relationship between long-term consumption of diary milk and milk products and the decrease of body weight and fat mass. In this article, there are different studies that support or do not support this idea. However the effect mechanism of calcium on weight control is tried to be explained.

  16. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: Importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.


    Most passerines depend on the intake of calcium-rich material in addition to their normal food for proper eggshell formation and skeletal growth. A large proportion of Great Tits (Pants major) in forests on nutrient-poor soils in the Netherlands produce eggs with defective shells as a result of calc

  17. Calcium supplementation does not augment bone gain in young women consuming diets moderately low in calcium. (United States)

    Barger-Lux, M Janet; Davies, K Michael; Heaney, Robert P


    In earlier observational work, the dietary calcium:protein ratio was directly related to bone accrual in healthy postadolescent women. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that augmented calcium intake would increase postadolescent skeletal consolidation, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design. We recruited 152 healthy young women (age 23.1 +/- 2.7 y, BMI 22.5 +/- 3.0 kg/m2); their usual diets, as assessed by 7-d food diaries, were low in calcium (605 +/- 181 mg/d; 15.1 +/- 4.5 mmol/d) and in the calcium:protein ratio (10.1 +/- 2.0 mg/g). The subjects were randomly assigned to supplemental calcium [500 mg calcium (12.5 mmol) as the carbonate, 3 times/d, with meals] or placebo capsules identical in appearance; all participants also took a daily multivitamin, and they were followed for up to 36 mo with bone densitometry (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; DXA) at 6-mo intervals. A total of 121 subjects remained in the study for at least 12 mo (median time in the study, 35 mo), with a mean compliance level (observed/expected tablet consumption) of 87.7%. DXA data for these 121 subjects indicated modest but significant mean rates of increase (i.e., 0.24 to 1.10%/y) in bone mineral content (BMC; total body, total hip, and lumbar spine) and in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) but no change in total hip BMD. None of these rates of change differed by group, i.e., calcium supplementation did not have any measurable effect on bone mass accrual. By midstudy, the calcium content of the subjects' usual diets for both groups had risen by approximately 15%. The combined effect of improved intakes of dietary calcium and the small amount of calcium added by the multivitamin tablets resulted in a mean calcium intake for the control group > 800 mg (20 mmol)/d, possibly at or near the threshold beyond which additional calcium has no further effect on bone accrual.

  18. Calcium Supplements Might Raise Older Women's Dementia Risk (United States)

    ... nutrient," she said. "For example, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium all are typically looked at for their effects ... which was not originally designed to assess calcium intake," MacKay noted. "Further, the new analysis included only ...

  19. Hemodynamic effects of calcium gluconate administered to conscious horses. (United States)

    Grubb, T L; Foreman, J H; Benson, G J; Thurmon, J C; Tranquilli, W J; Constable, P D; Olson, W O; Davis, L E


    Calcium gluconate was administered to conscious horses at 3 different rates (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg/min for 15 minutes each). Serum calcium concentrations and parameters of cardiovascular function were evaluated. All 3 calcium administration rates caused marked increases in both ionized and total calcium concentrations, cardiac index, stroke index, and cardiac contractility (dP/dtmax). Mean arterial pressure and right atrial pressure were unchanged; heart rate decreased markedly during calcium administration. Ionized calcium concentration remained between 54% and 57% of total calcium concentration throughout the study. We conclude that calcium gluconate can safely be administered to conscious horses at 0.1 to 0.4 mg/kg/min and that administration will result in improved cardiac function.

  20. Intolerance to oral and intravenous calcium supplements in atopic eczema.


    Devlin, J; David, T J


    Children treated with dietary restriction for food intolerance may require calcium supplementation, particularly if cows' milk and milk substitutes are not tolerated. We report two children with atopic eczema who reacted adversely to a number of calcium supplement formulations.

  1. Calcium Supplements: A Risk Factor for Heart Attack? (United States)

    ... Waldman T, et al. Calcium supplements and cardiovascular disease: A review. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2015;9:298. Reid IR. Cardiovascular effects of calcium supplements. Nutrients. 2013;5:2522. Xiao ...

  2. Inulin and fructooligosaccharide affect in vitro calcium uptake and absorption from calcium-enriched gluten-free bread. (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, U; Swiątecka, D; Bączek, N; Brzóska, M M


    Compromised intestinal calcium absorption affecting a deterioration of bone state is a sign of coeliac disease. Experimental calcium-fortified gluten-free bread (GFB) of improved calcium bioavailability could increase calcium content in the diets of coeliac disease patients, allowing them to obtain the amount of calcium they need for therapeutic use. Prebiotics, including inulin-type fructans (IFs) have a beneficial effect on calcium bioavailability. In the present study, the in vitro model composed of the intestinal-like Caco-2 cells and the human intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae) were used to analyse the effect of inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) of different chain lengths, on calcium uptake and absorption from experimental GFB. Analysed IFs, especially short-chain FOS, significantly (p < 0.05) increased cellular calcium uptake from GFB digest and stimulated the intestinal bacteria applied in the cultures to the intensive synthesis of organic acids. In particular, the concentration of butyric, valeric and lactic acids increased significantly. Similarly, in the calcium absorption experiment, IFs increased the cellular calcium retention but concomitantly reduced its content in basolateral filtrates. The results obtained suggest that the applied IFs affected differentially calcium uptake and absorption from the experimental calcium-enriched GFB, therefore a further study is needed to assess whether these observations made in vitro contribute to IF effects on calcium absorption from experimental GFB in vivo.

  3. Use of genetically-encoded calcium indicators for live cell calcium imaging and localization in virus-infected cells. (United States)

    Perry, Jacob L; Ramachandran, Nina K; Utama, Budi; Hyser, Joseph M


    Calcium signaling is a ubiquitous and versatile process involved in nearly every cellular process, and exploitation of host calcium signals is a common strategy used by viruses to facilitate replication and cause disease. Small molecule fluorescent calcium dyes have been used by many to examine changes in host cell calcium signaling and calcium channel activation during virus infections, but disadvantages of these dyes, including poor loading and poor long-term retention, complicate analysis of calcium imaging in virus-infected cells due to changes in cell physiology and membrane integrity. The recent expansion of genetically-encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), including blue and red-shifted color variants and variants with calcium affinities appropriate for calcium storage organelles like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), make the use of GECIs an attractive alternative for calcium imaging in the context of virus infections. Here we describe the development and testing of cell lines stably expressing both green cytoplasmic (GCaMP5G and GCaMP6s) and red ER-targeted (RCEPIAer) GECIs. Using three viruses (rotavirus, poliovirus and respiratory syncytial virus) previously shown to disrupt host calcium homeostasis, we show the GECI cell lines can be used to detect simultaneous cytoplasmic and ER calcium signals. Further, we demonstrate the GECI expression has sufficient stability to enable long-term confocal imaging of both cytoplasmic and ER calcium during the course of virus infections.

  4. Beyond-root calcium fertilization of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Słowik


    Full Text Available Investigations were performed in the period 1977-1979 on the apple tree cultivar 'Fantazja', on rootstock A 2, M 7 and MM 106 on the effect of spraying with solution containing calcium on the incidence of bitter pit, breakdown, calcium content in the fruit flesh and other features of the fruits. Threefold spraying with calcium nitrate, calcium chloride or Anti-Stipp significantly limited the appearance of bitter pit and breakdown.

  5. Calcium-sensing receptor in breast physiology and cancer


    Wonnam Kim; Wysolmerski, John J.


    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in normal breast epithelial cells and in breast cancer cells. During lactation, activation of the CaSR in mammary epithelial cells increases calcium transport into milk and inhibits parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) secretion into milk and into the circulation. The ability to sense changes in extracellular calcium allows the lactating breast to actively participate in the regulation of systemic calcium and bone metabolism, and to coor...

  6. Immunohistochemical and calcium imaging methods in wholemount rat retina. (United States)

    Sargoy, Allison; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C; Pérez De Sevilla Müller, Luis


    In this paper we describe the tools, reagents, and the practical steps that are needed for: 1) successful preparation of wholemount retinas for immunohistochemistry and, 2) calcium imaging for the study of voltage gated calcium channel (VGCC) mediated calcium signaling in retinal ganglion cells. The calcium imaging method we describe circumvents issues concerning non-specific loading of displaced amacrine cells in the ganglion cell layer.

  7. Immunohistochemical and Calcium Imaging Methods in Wholemount Rat Retina


    SARGOY, ALLISON; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C.; De Sevilla Müller, Luis Pérez


    In this paper we describe the tools, reagents, and the practical steps that are needed for: 1) successful preparation of wholemount retinas for immunohistochemistry and, 2) calcium imaging for the study of voltage gated calcium channel (VGCC) mediated calcium signaling in retinal ganglion cells. The calcium imaging method we describe circumvents issues concerning non-specific loading of displaced amacrine cells in the ganglion cell layer.

  8. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin W. Binns


    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  9. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate. (United States)


    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking... agent in food in an amount not in excess of that reasonably required to produce its intended effect. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...

  10. Calcium, magnesium, and potassium in food (United States)

    The biochemical and physiological functions and consequences of deficient intakes, which show the nutritional importance of calcium, magnesium and potassium for humans, are reviewed. The dietary recommendations and food sources for these essential mineral elements for humans are presented. Factors t...

  11. Effect of Ultrasound on Calcium Carbonate Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagterveld, R.M.


    Scaling comprises the formation of hard mineral deposits on process or membrane equipment and calcium carbonate is the most common scaling salt. Especially in reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems, scale formation has always been a serious limitation, causing flux decline, membrane degradation, loss

  12. The Thermal Decomposition of Calcium Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The thermogravimetry(TG) and derivative thermogravimetry(DTG) curves of the thermal decomposition reaction of calcium carbonate have been measured at five different heating rates. The kinetic parameters and the reaction mechanism of the reaction were evaluated from analysis of the TG and DTG curves by using the Ozawa method, the combined integral and differential methods and the reduced equations derived by us.

  13. How calcium makes endocytic receptors attractive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian B F; Moestrup, Søren K


    'lynchpin' that stabilizes favorable positioning of ligand-attractive receptor residues. In addition to explaining how calcium depletion can cause ligand-receptor dissociation, the new data add further insight into how acidification contributes to dissociation through structural changes that affect...

  14. Three-dimensionally Perforated Calcium Phosphate Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics were produced by compression molding using a special mold followed by sintering. The porous calcium phosphate ceramics have three-dimensional and penetrated open pores380-400μm in diameter spaced at intervals of 200μm. The layers of the linear penetration pores alternately lay perpendicular to pore direction. The porosity was 59%-65% . The Ca/P molar ratios of the porous calcium phosphate ceramics range from 1.5 to 1.85. A binder containing methyl cellulose was most effective for preparing the powder compact among vinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, stearic acid, methyl cellulose and their mixtures. Stainless steel, polystyrene, nylon and bamboo were used as the long columnar male dies for the penetrated open pores. When polystyrene, nylon and bamboo were used as the long columnar male dies, the dies were burned out during the sintering process. Using stainless steel as the male dies with the removal of the dies before heat treatment resulted in a higher level of densification of the calcium phosphate ceramic.

  15. Calcium intake and cows' milk free diets.


    Devlin, J; Stanton, R H; David, T J


    In children with atopic eczema on elimination diets, the calcium intake was below the estimated requirement in 15 out of 20 who avoided cows' milk and received no milk substitute, and in three out of 26 who avoided cows' milk but were provided with a soya or casein hydrolysate formula.

  16. [Intra-cystic renal calcium milk]. (United States)

    Meunier, B; Médart, L; Massart, J P; Collignon, L


    Intra-cystic renal calcium milk is a rare entity. The authors report a clinical case, and describe the radiographic and tomodensitometric appearances. This 50 year old patient has been followed up for more than ten years for urinary lithiasis with recurrent pain.

  17. Phosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane liberates calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, V.P.S.; Brockerhoff, H.


    Phosphorylation of permeabilized erythrocyte ghost membranes with ATP results in an increase free calcium level as measured with the help of Ca/sup 2 +/ electrode and /sup 45/Ca. This effect could not be observed in the presence of p/sup -/ chloromercuric benzoate, an inhibitor of kinases. The rise in the free calcium due to phosphorylation of the membrane was accompanied by a decrease in the level of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and an increase in phosphatidylinositolmonophosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositolbisphosphate (PIP/sub 2/). These results support the proposal that an inositol shuttle, PI in equilibrium PIP in equilibrium PIP/sub 2/, operates to maintain the intracellular calcium concentration. The cation is believed to be sequestered in a cage formed by the head groups of two acidic phospholipid molecules, e.g., phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol, with the participation of both PO and fatty acid ester CO groups. When the inositol group of such a cage is phosphorylated, inter-headgroup hydrogen bonding between the lipids is broken. As a result the cage opens and calcium is released.

  18. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate. (United States)


    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... additive is the calcium salt of lactobionic acid (4-(β,D-galactosido)-D-gluconic acid) produced by the... not greater than that required to accomplish the intended effect....

  19. 21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate. (United States)


    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... of sulfonated lignin, primarily as calcium and sodium salts. (b) It is used in an amount not to exceed that reasonably required to accomplish the intended physical or technical effect when added as...

  20. Drying and Rehydration of Calcium Alginate Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeker, R.; Li, L.; Fang, Y.; Appelqvist, I.; Mendes, E.


    In this paper, we study the rehydration properties of air-dried calcium alginate gel beads. Rehydration is shown to depend on alginate source (i.e. mannuronic to guluronic acid ratio) and the salt concentration in the rehydration medium. Rehydration curves are described adequately by the empirical W

  1. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling. (United States)


    ... diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c), 201.71(c), and 201.72(c) may be combined, if applicable, provided the ingredients are listed in alphabetical order, e.g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1...

  2. Electrosprayed calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, Sander Cornelis Gerardus


    In this thesis, the suitability of the Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD) technique was studied for biomedical purposes, i.e., deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates. Using ESD, which is a simple and cheap deposition method for inorganic and organic coatings, it wa

  3. 21 CFR 582.3225 - Calcium sorbate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sorbate. 582.3225 Section 582.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  4. 21 CFR 182.3225 - Calcium sorbate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium sorbate. 182.3225 Section 182.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3225...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3221 - Calcium propionate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium propionate. 582.3221 Section 582.3221 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  6. Stability of calcium silicate in basic solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 李小斌; 彭志宏; 周秋生


    Mixture of CaO and SiO2 was sintered at 1 200 or 1 400 ℃ according to the mole ratio of CaO/SiO2 of 1 or 2, and then calcium silicate was leached in pure caustic or soda solution. The results indicated that calcium silicate exists much more stably in caustic solution than that in soda solution, and CaO*SiO2 is more stable than β-2CaO*SiO2 whether in caustic solution or in soda solution. The increase of sintering temperature favored the stability of calcium silicate in the leaching process. When β-2CaO*SiO2 was leached in soda solution, the increase of leaching temperature and time resulted in decomposing of more calcium silicate. And when β-2CaO*SiO2 was leached in caustic solution at high temperature, much 2CaO*SiO2*H2O but little CaO*SiO2*H2O appeared in slag.

  7. Effects of calcium ion, calpains, and calcium channel blockers on retinitis pigmentosa. (United States)

    Nakazawa, Mitsuru


    Recent advances in molecular genetic studies have revealed many of the causative genes of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). These achievements have provided clues to the mechanisms of photoreceptor degeneration in RP. Apoptosis is known to be a final common pathway in RP and, therefore, a possible therapeutic target for photoreceptor rescue. However, apoptosis is not a single molecular cascade, but consists of many different reactions such as caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways commonly leading to DNA fractionation and cell death. The intracellular concentration of calcium ions is also known to increase in apoptosis. These findings suggest that calpains, one of the calcium-dependent proteinases, play some roles in the process of photoreceptor apoptosis and that calcium channel antagonists may potentially inhibit photoreceptor apoptosis. Herein, the effects of calpains and calcium channel antagonists on photoreceptor degeneration are reviewed.

  8. Effects of Calcium Ion, Calpains, and Calcium Channel Blockers on Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Nakazawa


    Full Text Available Recent advances in molecular genetic studies have revealed many of the causative genes of retinitis pigmentosa (RP. These achievements have provided clues to the mechanisms of photoreceptor degeneration in RP. Apoptosis is known to be a final common pathway in RP and, therefore, a possible therapeutic target for photoreceptor rescue. However, apoptosis is not a single molecular cascade, but consists of many different reactions such as caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways commonly leading to DNA fractionation and cell death. The intracellular concentration of calcium ions is also known to increase in apoptosis. These findings suggest that calpains, one of the calcium-dependent proteinases, play some roles in the process of photoreceptor apoptosis and that calcium channel antagonists may potentially inhibit photoreceptor apoptosis. Herein, the effects of calpains and calcium channel antagonists on photoreceptor degeneration are reviewed.

  9. Free-calcium distribution and calcium pulses in rat peripheral macrophages (United States)

    Yu, Yanhua; Xing, Da; Tang, Yonghong; Jin, Ying


    With Laser Confocal Scanning Microscope (LCSM) system, three aspects of characteristics of free cytoplasmic calcium in rat peripheral macrophages are studied. One is the Ca2+ concentration in different area in the same cell. Second is the Ca2+ concentration in the same area in different dividing stage. Third is the feature of calcium pulses evoked by Kcl or pH changing. The results show that even in one cell, the evolution of the Ca2+ concentration is not the same in a different area. In the same area, the nucleolus Ca2+ concentration in division breaking stage is much higher than that in division stage. From the experiment phenomena, we conclude that Kcl itself can not evoke calcium pulses in the unexcitable macrophage, but the change of pH can trig calcium pulses in the same cells.

  10. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. (United States)


    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate... (racemic) form. (b) To assure safe use of the additive, the label and labeling of the food...

  11. Photodissociation studies of calcium-coronene and calcium-pyrene cation clusters (United States)

    Scott, A. C.; Buchanan, J. W.; Flynn, N. D.; Duncan, M. A.


    Gas-phase cluster cations combining calcium atoms and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) coronene (C24H12) and pyrene (C16H10) are produced in a molecular beam using laser vaporization in a pulsed nozzle cluster source. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry reveals the formation of clusters of the form Cax(coronene)y+ for up to x = 4 and y = 3 and Cax(pyrene)y+ for up to x = 2 and y = 3. Mass-selected photodissociation studies show that the calcium cation is the most prominent fragment for each system. Photoinduced calcium carbide formation is prominent when two or more calcium atoms are present. Additionally, there is evidence that these clusters can form sandwich structures.

  12. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. Transfected parvalbumin alters calcium homeostasis in teratocarcinoma PCC7 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, B K; Kabos, P; Belhage, B;


    Indirect evidence supports a protective role of some EF-hand calcium-binding proteins against calcium-induced neurotoxicity. Little is known about how these proteins influence cytosolic calcium levels. After cloning the parvalbumin cDNA into an expression vector, teratocarcinoma cells (PCC7) were...

  15. Osteoclastic resorption of biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Layrolle, P.; Barrere, F.; Bruijn, J.G.M. de; Schoonman, J.; Blitterswijk, C.A. van; Groot, K. de


    A new biomimetic method for coating metal implants enables the fast formation of dense and homogeneous calcium phosphate coatings. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) disks were coated with a thin, carbonated, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) by immersion in a saturated solution of calcium, phosphate, magnesi

  16. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.


    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The association of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) with amorphous calcium phosphate was studied in vitro. To this end UCB, solubilized in different micellar bile salt solutions, was incubated with freshly prepared calcium phosphate precipitate. It was demonstrated that amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)

  18. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyuan Wang


    Full Text Available Background: Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design: A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg calcium versus a single serving of calcium carbonate powder (one packet of powder=1,000 mg calcium was performed in healthy women aged between 25 and 45. All subjects were on a calcium-restricted diet 7 days prior to testing and fasted for 12 h before being evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of the test agents. Blood measurements for total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone were performed and adverse events were monitored. Results: Twenty-three women were evaluable with a mean age of 33.2±8.71. Results showed that administration of a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder resulted in greater absorption in total and ionized calcium versus a single serving of calcium citrate tablets at 4 h (4.25±0.21 vs. 4.16±0.16, p=0.001. There were minimal side effects and no reported serious adverse events. Conclusions: This study shows that a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder is more bioavailable than a single serving of calcium citrate tablets. This may be beneficial for long-term compliance.

  19. Calcium channel blockers in cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. (United States)

    Godfraind, Theophile


    This paper summarizes the pharmacological properties of calcium channel blockers (CCBs), their established therapeutic uses for cardiovascular disorders and the current improvement of their clinical effects through drug combinations. Their identification resulted from study of small molecules including coronary dilators, which were named calcium antagonists. Further experiments showed that they reduced contraction of arteries by inhibiting calcium entry and by interacting with binding sites identified on voltage-dependent calcium channels. This led to the denomination calcium channel blockers. In short-term studies, by decreasing total peripheral resistance, CCBs lower arterial pressure. By unloading the heart and increasing coronary blood flow, CCBs improve myocardial oxygenation. In long-term treatment, the decrease in blood pressure is more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive patients. A controversy on the safety of CCBs ended after a large antihypertensive trial (ALLHAT) sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. There are two main types of CCBs: dihydopyridine and non-dihydropyridine; the first type is vascular selective. Dihydropyrines are indicated for hypertension, chronic, stable and vasospastic angina. Non-dihydropyridines have the same indications plus antiarrythmic effects in atrial fibrillation or flutter and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. In addition, CCBs reduced newly formed coronary lesions in atherosclerosis. In order to reach recommended blood pressure goals, there is a recent therapeutic move by combination of CCBs with other antihypertensive agents particularly with inhibitors acting at the level of the renin-angiotensin system. They are also combined with statins. Prevention of dementia has been reported in hypertensive patients treated with nitrendipine, opening a way for further studies on CCBs' beneficial effect in cognitive deterioration associated with aging.

  20. Syntheses and Structure Determinations of Calcium Thiolates. (United States)

    Chadwick, Scott; Englich, Ulrich; Noll, Bruce; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin


    The exploration of synthetic methodologies toward heavy alkaline-earth chalcogenolates resulted in the preparation and structural characterization of a family of calcium thiolates, including [Ca(SC(6)F(5))(2)(py)(4)], 1 (py = pyridine), the separated ion-triple [Ca(18-crown-6)(NH(3))(3))][SMes](2).2THF, 2 (Mes = 2,4,6-tBu(3)C(6)H(2)), and the contact triple [Ca(18-crown-6)(SMes)(2)].THF, 3. Compound 1 was prepared by treating [Ca(N(SiMe(3))(2))(2)](2) with 4 equiv of HSC(6)F(5) under addition of pyridine. The thiolates 2 and 3 were synthesized by treatment of calcium metal dissolved in dry, liquid NH(3) under addition of 2 equiv of HSMes and crown ether or, alternatively, by the reduction of MesSSMes with calcium metal in dry, liquid ammonia. We also report two reaction products isolated during attempted calcium thiolate syntheses: [CaBr(4)(THF)(2)(&mgr;(2)-Li)(2)(THF)(4)], 4, isolated as the product of a salt elimination reaction between CaBr(2) and 2 equiv of [Li(THF)(n)()S-2,4,6-(i)()Pr(3)C(6)H(2)](m)(). [(NH(4))(py)(SC(6)F(5))], 5, was obtained as the sole product in the reaction of metallic calcium with HSC(6)F(5) in liquid ammonia under addition of pyridine. All compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography in addition to IR and NMR spectroscopy.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles (United States)

    Hassim, Aqilah; Rachmawati, Heni


    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In this study, we prepared and characterized calcium carbonate nanoparticle to improve the solubility by using bottom-up method. The experiment was done by titrating calcium chloride with sodium carbonate with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as stabilizer, using ultra-turrax. Various concentrations of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate as well as various speed of stirring were used to prepare the calcium carbonate nanoparticles. Evaluations studied were including particle size, polydispersity index (PI) and zeta potential with particle analyzer, surface morphology with scanning electron microscope, and saturated solubility. In addition, to test the ability of PVP to prevent particles growth, short stability study was performed by storing nano CaCO3 suspension at room temperature for 2 weeks. Results show that using 8000 rpm speed of stirring, the particle size tends to be bigger with the range of 500-600 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4) whereas with stirring speed of 4000 rpm, the particle size tends to be smaller with 300-400 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). Stirring speed of 6000 rpm produced particle size within the range of 400-500 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). SEM photograph shows that particles are monodisperse confirming that particles were physically stable without any agglomeration within 2 weeks storage. Taken together, nano CaCO3 is successfully prepared by bottom-up method and PVP is a good stabilizer to prevent the particle growth.

  2. The Association Between Calcium, Magnesium, and Ratio of Calcium/Magnesium in Seminal Plasma and Sperm Quality. (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Miao, Maohua; Chen, Jianping; Chen, Kanglian; Wu, Bin; Dai, Qi; Wang, Jian; Sun, Fei; Shi, Huijuan; Yuan, Wei


    The study aimed to examine the relationships between calcium, magnesium, and calcium/magnesium ratio in semen plasma and sperm quality. It was a cross-sectional study based on a program aiming at promoting the reproductive health in less-developed areas. A total of 515 men aged between 18 and 55 years provided semen specimens at family planning clinics in Sandu County, Guizhou Province, China. Total calcium and magnesium concentrations in semen plasma were measured with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Sperm quality, including sperm motility and concentration, was evaluated by using a computer-assisted sperm analysis method. The medians of seminal plasma calcium, magnesium, and zinc concentrations were 9.61, 4.41, and 2.23 mmol/l, respectively. Calcium concentration and calcium/magnesium ratio were negatively associated with sperm concentrations (β = -0.47, P = 0.0123 for calcium; β = -0.25, P = 0.0393 for calcium/magnesium ratio) after adjusting for zinc and other covariates. In stratified analyses, the association between calcium and sperm concentrations only persisted among subjects with a calcium/magnesium ratio of ≤2.5 (β = -0.71, P = 0.0268). In the same stratum, magnesium was associated with increased sperm concentration (β = 0.73, P = 0.0386). Among subjects with a calcium/magnesium ratio of >2.5, neither calcium nor magnesium was associated with sperm concentration. In conclusion, total calcium and magnesium concentrations were associated with sperm concentration among subjects with a lower calcium/magnesium ratio. The calcium and magnesium ratio had a modifying effect on the associations of calcium and magnesium with sperm concentration.

  3. Heart failure drug digitoxin induces calcium uptake into cells by forming transmembrane calcium channels. (United States)

    Arispe, Nelson; Diaz, Juan Carlos; Simakova, Olga; Pollard, Harvey B


    Digitoxin and other cardiac glycosides are important, centuries-old drugs for treating congestive heart failure. However, the mechanism of action of these compounds is still being elucidated. Calcium is known to potentiate the toxicity of these drugs, and we have hypothesized that digitoxin might mediate calcium entry into cells. We report here that digitoxin molecules mediate calcium entry into intact cells. Multimers of digitoxin molecules also are able to form calcium channels in pure planar phospholipid bilayers. These digitoxin channels are blocked by Al(3+) and La(3+) but not by Mg(2+) or the classical l-type calcium channel blocker, nitrendipine. In bilayers, we find that the chemistry of the lipid affects the kinetics of the digitoxin channel activity, but not the cation selectivity. Antibodies against digitoxin promptly neutralize digitoxin channels in both cells and bilayers. We propose that these digitoxin calcium channels may be part of the mechanism by which digitoxin and other active cardiac glycosides, such as digoxin, exert system-wide actions at and above the therapeutic concentration range.

  4. Calcium signaling and T-type calcium channels in cancer cell cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James T Taylor; Xiang-Bin Zeng; Jonathan E Pottle; Kevin Lee; Alun R Wang; Stephenie G Yi; Jennifer A S Scruggs; Suresh S Sikka; Ming Li


    Regulation of intracellular calcium is an important signaling mechanism for cell proliferation in both normal and cancerous cells. In normal epithelial cells,free calcium concentration is essential for cells to enter and accomplish the S phase and the M phase of the cell cycle. In contrast, cancerous cells can pass these phases of the cell cycle with much lower cytoplasmic free calcium concentrations, indicating an alternative mechanism has developed for fulfilling the intracellular calcium requirement for an increased rate of DNA synthesis and mitosis of fast replicating cancerous cells. The detailed mechanism underlying the altered calcium loading pathway remains unclear;however, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests the T-type Ca2+ channel is abnormally expressed in cancerous cells and that blockade of these channels may reduce cell proliferation in addition to inducing apoptosis. Recent studies also show that the expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in breast cancer cells is proliferation state dependent, i.e. the channels are expressed at higher levels during the fast-replication period, and once the cells are in a non-proliferation state, expression of this channel isminimal. Therefore, selectively blocking calcium entry into cancerous cells may be a valuable approach for preventing tumor growth. Since T-type Ca2+ channels are not expressed in epithelial cells, selective T-type Ca2+ channel blockers may be useful in the treatment of certain types of cancers.

  5. Parents' Calcium Knowledge Is Associated with Parental Practices to Promote Calcium Intake among Parents of Early Adolescent Children (United States)

    Gunther, Carolyn W.; Rose, Angela M.; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Reicks, Marla; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Boushey, Carol J.; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth


    The study reported here aimed to identify the relationship of parents' calcium knowledge with diet-related parental practices and determinants of calcium knowledge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted measuring parental practices, calcium knowledge, and demographics. A convenience sample of 599 racially/ethnically diverse parents of children…

  6. Effects of modulation of calcium levels and calcium fluxes on ABA- induced gene expression in barley aleurone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, R.M. van der; Visser, K.; Wang, M.


    We present data to elucidate the involvement of calcium ions in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced gene expression. Modulation of external calcium concentrations was able to affect ABA-induced specific RAB gene expression. At a constant ABA level with increasing extracellular calcium level, an increasing R

  7. Dependency of calcium alternans on ryanodine receptor refractoriness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Alvarez-Lacalle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid pacing rates induce alternations in the cytosolic calcium concentration caused by fluctuations in calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR. However, the relationship between calcium alternans and refractoriness of the SR calcium release channel (RyR2 remains elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate how ryanodine receptor (RyR2 refractoriness modulates calcium handling on a beat-to-beat basis using a numerical rabbit cardiomyocyte model. We used a mathematical rabbit cardiomyocyte model to study the beat-to-beat calcium response as a function of RyR2 activation and inactivation. Bi-dimensional maps were constructed depicting the beat-to-beat response. When alternans was observed, a novel numerical clamping protocol was used to determine whether alternans was caused by oscillations in SR calcium loading or by RyR2 refractoriness. Using this protocol, we identified regions of RyR2 gating parameters where SR calcium loading or RyR2 refractoriness underlie the induction of calcium alternans, and we found that at the onset of alternans both mechanisms contribute. At low inactivation rates of the RyR2, calcium alternans was caused by alternation in SR calcium loading, while at low activation rates it was caused by alternation in the level of available RyR2s. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have mapped cardiomyocyte beat-to-beat responses as a function of RyR2 activation and inactivation, identifying domains where SR calcium load or RyR2 refractoriness underlie the induction of calcium alternans. A corollary of this work is that RyR2 refractoriness due to slow recovery from inactivation can be the cause of calcium alternans even when alternation in SR calcium load is present.

  8. Continuous Modeling of Calcium Transport Through Biological Membranes (United States)

    Jasielec, J. J.; Filipek, R.; Szyszkiewicz, K.; Sokalski, T.; Lewenstam, A.


    In this work an approach to the modeling of the biological membranes where a membrane is treated as a continuous medium is presented. The Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including Poisson equation for electric potential is used to describe transport of ions in the mitochondrial membrane—the interface which joins mitochondrial matrix with cellular cytosis. The transport of calcium ions is considered. Concentration of calcium inside the mitochondrion is not known accurately because different analytical methods give dramatically different results. We explain mathematically these differences assuming the complexing reaction inside mitochondrion and the existence of the calcium set-point (concentration of calcium in cytosis below which calcium stops entering the mitochondrion).

  9. C2-domain containing calcium sensors in neuroendocrine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro, Paulo S; Houy, Sébastien; Sørensen, Jakob B


    to calcium, trigger the merger of cargo-filled vesicles with the plasma membrane. Low-affinity, fast-kinetics calcium sensors of the synaptotagmin family - especially synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-2 - are the main calcium sensors for fast exocytosis triggering in many cell types. Their functions extend...... the properties and possible interplay of (some of) the major C2-domain containing calcium sensors in calcium-triggered exocytosis. This article is part of a mini review series: "Synaptic Function and Dysfunction in Brain Diseases"....

  10. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women


    Wang, Haiyuan; Bua, Peter; Capodice, Jillian


    Background: Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements.Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women.Design: A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg...

  11. Bioavailability of calcium supplements and the effect of Vitamin D: comparisons between milk, calcium carbonate, and calcium carbonate plus vitamin D. (United States)

    Mortensen, L; Charles, P


    Our aim was to examine a regimen for calcium supplementation because various factors seem to be important for its bioavailability, and to examine the effect of adding vitamin D to the supplement. The participants were 20 healthy women aged 28-59 y (chi: 38 y). During the 3-d periods and 1 d before, the participants were consuming a calcium and energy-balanced diet as similar to their usual daily diet as possible. The study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, partly blinded crossover study divided into four periods of 3 d each: 1) three tablets containing 1000 mg CaCO3/d, 2) three tablets containing 1000 mg CaCO3 plus 5 micrograms (200 IU) vitamin D/d, 3)1 L more milk than in the usual daily diet, and 4) three placebo tablets daily. Bioavailability of the different calcium-supplement regimens were evaluated by changes in 24-h urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium. A significant increase in urinary calcium excretion was found during all periods of supplementation compared with the placebo period (Pcalcium in the calcium carbonate period was not significantly higher that that in the milk period, but calcium carbonate plus vitamin D resulted in significantly higher calcium excretion compared with that in the milk period. We conclude that the examined calcium carbonate regimen is at least as good a calcium supplement as milk, and that addition of 600 IU vitamin D/d promptly resulted in an increase in urinary calcium excretion after an increase in calcium absorption, even in healthy women.

  12. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women


    Haiyuan Wang; Peter Bua; Jillian Capodice


    Background: Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design: A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 ...

  13. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women


    Wang, Haiyuan; Bua, Peter; Capodice, Jillian


    Background Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg ...

  14. Calcium imaging of cortical neurons using Fura-2 AM. (United States)

    Barreto-Chang, Odmara L; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E


    Calcium imaging is a common technique that is useful for measuring calcium signals in cultured cells. Calcium imaging techniques take advantage of calcium indicator dyes, which are BAPTA-based organic molecules that change their spectral properties in response to the binding of Ca2+ ions. Calcium indicator dyes fall into two categories, ratio-metric dyes like Fura-2 and Indo-1 and single-wavelength dyes like Fluo-4. Ratio-metric dyes change either their excitation or their emission spectra in response to calcium, allowing the concentration of intracellular calcium to be determined from the ratio of fluorescence emission or excitation at distinct wavelengths. The main advantage of using ratio-metric dyes over single wavelength probes is that the ratio signal is independent of the dye concentration, illumination intensity, and optical path length allowing the concentration of intracellular calcium to be determined independently of these artifacts. One of the most common calcium indicators is Fura-2, which has an emission peak at 505 nM and changes its excitation peak from 340 nm to 380 nm in response to calcium binding. Here we describe the use of Fura-2 to measure intracellular calcium elevations in neurons and other excitable cells.

  15. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium]. (United States)

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura


    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain.

  16. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is NCT

  17. The Function of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Neurodegenerative Disorders (United States)

    Liao, Yajin; Dong, Yuan; Cheng, Jinbo


    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU)—a calcium uniporter on the inner membrane of mitochondria—controls the mitochondrial calcium uptake in normal and abnormal situations. Mitochondrial calcium is essential for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP); however, excessive calcium will induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Calcium homeostasis disruption and mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in many neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role and regulatory mechanism of the MCU in the development of these diseases are obscure. In this review, we summarize the role of the MCU in controlling oxidative stress-elevated mitochondrial calcium and its function in neurodegenerative disorders. Inhibition of the MCU signaling pathway might be a new target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:28208618

  18. Treatment of calcium nephrolithiasis in the patient with hyperuricosuria. (United States)

    Arowojolu, Omotayo; Goldfarb, David S


    Nearly one-third of patients with calcium stones have hyperuricosuria. In vitro studies and clinical trials have investigated the relationship between uric acid and calcium stones, but the association between hyperuricosuria and calcium stone formation in patients is still being debated. Uric acid appears to cause salting out of calcium oxalate in human urine. However, the importance of this in vitro phenomenon to the proposed association is not supported in cross-sectional observational studies. A small placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial showed that allopurinol decreased the rate of recurrent calcium oxalate calculi in patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria. An assessment of the effect of combination therapy of allopurinol with indapamide showed no additive effect. Allopurinol may have antioxidant effects that are responsible for its reducing calcium stone formation, which are independent of xanthine oxidase inhibition. In addition, a newer xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, febuxostat, may also be effective in the prevention of calcium stones, as it reduces urinary uric acid excretion.

  19. Excitability in a stochastic differential equation model for calcium puffs. (United States)

    Rüdiger, S


    Calcium dynamics are essential to a multitude of cellular processes. For many cell types, localized discharges of calcium through small clusters of intracellular channels are building blocks for all spatially extended calcium signals. Because of the large noise amplitude, the validity of noise-approximating model equations for this system has been questioned. Here we revisit the master equations for local calcium release, examine the multiple scales of calcium concentrations in the cluster domain, and derive adapted stochastic differential equations. We show by comparison of discrete and continuous trajectories that the Langevin equations can be made consistent with the master equations even for very small channel numbers. In its deterministic limit, the model reveals that excitability, a dynamical phenomenon observed in many natural systems, is at the core of calcium puffs. The model also predicts a bifurcation from transient to sustained release which may link local and global calcium signals in cells.

  20. Calcium-dependent and calcium-sensitizing pathways in the mature and immature ductus arteriosus. (United States)

    Clyman, Ronald I; Waleh, Nahid; Kajino, Hiroki; Roman, Christine; Mauray, Francoise


    Studies performed in sheep and baboons have shown that after birth, the normoxic muscle media of ductus arteriosus (DA) becomes profoundly hypoxic as it constricts and undergoes anatomic remodeling. We used isolated fetal lamb DA (pretreated with inhibitors of prostaglandin and nitric oxide production) to determine why the immature DA fails to remain tightly constricted during the hypoxic phase of remodeling. Under normoxic conditions, mature DA constricts to 70% of its maximal active tension (MAT). Half of its normoxic tension is due to Ca(2+) entry through calcium L-channels and store-operated calcium (SOC) channels. The other half is independent of extracellular Ca(2+) and is unaffected by inhibitors of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release (ryanodine) or reuptake [cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)]. The mature DA relaxes slightly during hypoxia (to 60% MAT) due to decreases in calcium L-channel-mediated Ca(2+) entry. Inhibitors of Rho kinase and tyrosine kinase inhibit both Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent DA tension. Although Rho kinase activity may increase during gestation, immature DA develop lower tensions than mature DA, primarily because of differences in the way they process Ca(2+). Calcium L-channel expression increases with advancing gestation. Under normoxic conditions, differences in calcium L-channel-mediated Ca(2+) entry account for differences in tension between immature (60% MAT) and mature (70% MAT) DA. Under hypoxic conditions, differences in both calcium L-channel-dependent and calcium L-channel-independent Ca(2+) entry, account for differences in tension between immature (33% MAT) and mature (60% MAT) DA. Stimulation of Ca(2+) entry through reverse-mode Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange or CPA-induced SOC channel activity constrict the DA and eliminate differences between immature and mature DA during both hypoxia and normoxia.

  1. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

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    Gábor Speer


    Full Text Available Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665±7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P=0.045, whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P=0.041, but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558±6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r=0.024, P=0.049, but not with femur BMD (r=0.021, P=0.107. The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients.

  2. CeO2对铌硅基超高温合金硅化物渗层组织及抗氧化性能的影响%Effect of CeO2 on microstructure and oxidation resistance of silicide coatings prepared on Nb­silicide­based ultrahigh temperature alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艺; 郭喜平


      采用Si­CeO2包埋共渗工艺于1150℃在铌硅基超高温合金表面制备Si­Ce共渗层,分析渗剂中CeO2粉含量对共渗层组织、相组成及高温抗氧化性能的影响。结果表明:Si­Ce 共渗层的组织、结构与单独渗硅层的相似,由(Nb, X)Si2(X表示Ti、Hf和Cr)外层、(Ti, Nb)5Si4过渡层和富Al扩散层组成。EDS分析结果表明,Ce在共渗层中的分布不均匀,而在由原基体合金中的(Nb, X)5Si3块转变而成的富Hf (Nb, X)Si2相中含量较高。渗剂中添加CeO2不仅起到了细化渗层组织的作用,而且起到了明显的催渗作用,当渗剂中CeO2粉含量为3%(质量分数)时催渗效果更显著。Si­Ce共渗层及单独渗硅层经1250℃氧化50 h后的氧化膜均主要由TiO2与SiO2组成。但Si­Ce共渗层试样的氧化膜中TiO2棒更细小,并且在SiO2基体中的分布也更均匀,因而能显著改善氧化膜的粘附性与致密性,进而提高Si­Ce共渗层的高温抗氧化性能。%Si­Ce co­deposition coatings were prepared on an Nb­silicide­based ultrahigh temperature alloy by pack cementation processes at 1 150℃for 8 h. The effects of CeO2 content in pack mixtures on the microstructure, constituent phases and high temperature oxidation resistance of the coatings were studied. The results show that all coatings prepared with different contents of CeO2 in the pack mixtures are mainly composed of a (Nb, X)Si2 (X represents Ti, Hf and Cr) outer layer, a (Ti, Nb)5Si4 transitional layer and an Al­rich diffusion zone, which are similar to that of purely siliconized coatings. EDS analysis reveals that the distribution of Ce in the co­deposition coatings is not uniform. The content of Ce in the Hf­rich (Nb, X)Si2 phase transferred from (Nb, X)5Si3 in the base alloy is higher than that in other phases. The addition of CeO2 in the pack mixtures not only refines the microstructure of the coatings, but also obviously catalyzes the coating growth

  3. Calcium/thionyl chloride battery technology (United States)

    Counts, T.


    This final report documents the development efforts conducted by the Lithium Batteries Group of the Couples Department of Eagle-Picher Industries. The objective of the project was to develop calcium-thionyl chloride cell technology. The original project was divided into two main tasks. Task One was to consist of component optimization and stability studies. Once sufficiently advanced, the ongoing results of Task One were to be integrated with Task Two. Task Two was to consist of demonstration of an optimized primary cell. In July, 1983, the program was redirected. Task Two was split, with effort to be directed toward both the original primary cell and toward a high discharge rate reserve configuration cell. Additional electrolyte salts were to be evaluated as a means of improving the storability of the active calcium-thionyl chloride cell.

  4. Electronic Structure of Gadolinium Calcium Oxoborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A; Adams, J; Schaffers, K


    Gadolinium calcium oxoborate (GdCOB) is a nonlinear optical material that belongs to the calcium--rare-earth (R) oxoborate family, with general composition Ca{sub 4}RO(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (R{sup 3+} = La, Sm, Gd, Lu, Y). X-ray photoemission was applied to study the valence band electronic structure and surface chemistry of this material. High resolution photoemission measurements on the valence band electronic structure and Gd 3d and 4d, Ca 2p, B 1s and O 1s core lines were used to evaluate the surface and near surface chemistry. These results provide measurements of the valence band electronic structure and surface chemistry of this rare-earth oxoborate.

  5. Absence of rebound effect with calcium carbonate. (United States)

    Simoneau, G


    This was an open, randomised balance cross-over study in 12 healthy male volunteers. The antacid activity of calcium carbonate plus magnesium carbonate (Rennie and hydrotalcite (Talcid), given in the recommended dose of 2 tablets 4 times daily, were compared using 24 h intragastric measurement of pH. The volunteers received 2 tablets of calcium carbonate plus magnesium carbonate or hydrotalcite according to a randomised order 1 h after each meal and at bedtime. Results showed that both treatments have similar antacid efficacy and a similar duration of action of about one hour. There was no evidence of acid 'rebound' following either treatment during the second and third hours following the administration of antacid.

  6. Sensory analysis of calcium-biofortified lettuce. (United States)

    Park, Sunghun; Elless, Mark P; Park, Jungeun; Jenkins, Alicia; Lim, Wansang; Chambers, Edgar; Hirschi, Kendal D


    Vegetables represent an attractive means of providing increased calcium nutrition to the public. In this study, it was demonstrated that lettuce expressing the deregulated Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 (cation exchanger 1) contained 25%-32% more calcium than controls. These biofortified lettuce lines were fertile and demonstrated robust growth in glasshouse growth conditions. Using a panel of highly trained descriptive panellists, biofortified lettuce plants were evaluated and no significant differences were detected in flavour, bitterness or crispness when compared with controls. Sensory analysis studies are critical if claims are to be made regarding the efficacy of biofortified foods, and may be an important component in the public acceptance of genetically modified foods.

  7. Ceramics based on calcium pyrophosphate nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Safronova


    Full Text Available Present work is aimed at the fabrication of resorbable bioceramics based on calcium pyrophosphate (CPP from the synthesized powders of amorphous hydrated calcium pyrophosphate (AHCPP. Amorphous hydratedcalcium pyrophosphate in the form of nanopowders was precipitated from Ca(NO3 2 and (NH4 4P2O7 solutions at room temperature in the presence of PO3– ions. Crystalline CPP powder was fabricated from AHCPP by its thermal decomposition at 600 °C and consisted of β- and α- phase. Small particles, with the size less than 200 nm, were formed promoting sintering of the ceramic material. The final sample, sintered at 900 °C, exhibits microstructure with submicron grains, apparent density of 87% of theoretical density (TD and demonstrates tensile strength of 70 MPa.

  8. Kinetics of Leaching Calcium from Dolomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi, A.


    Full Text Available Magnesia is obtained from magnesite ore and the production process applied should remove accompanying minerals that reduce its refractoriness. Given that magnesite reservoirs are more exploited and largely exhausted, there is a growing need for production of magnesia on the basis of other magnesium minerals. Dolomite is a promising source of magnesia because it forms large deposits, is easy to exploit, and generally contains a small quantity of impurities.The kinetics of calcium leaching from dolomite by magnesium-nitrate solution has been studied. The research program included the influence of temperature, mass fraction of magnesium nitrate in solution, dolomite particle size and leaching time. Time dependence of calcium leaching is described by relevant kinetic equations. Rate coefficients, their temperature dependence and Arrhenius activation energy have been determined.

  9. Effects of Exterior Abscisic Acid on Calcium Distribution of Mesophyll Cells and Calcium Concentration of Guard Cells in Maize Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiu-lin; MA Yuan-yuan; LIU Zi-hui; LIU Bin-hui


    In this study, the direct effects of exterior abscisic acid (ABA) on both calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and cytosolic calcium concentration of guard cells were examined. The distribution of Ca2+ localization were observed with calcium antimonate precipitate-electromicroscopic-cyto-chemical methods after treated with ABA and pretreated with ethylene glycol-bis-(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), verapamil (Vp), and trifluoperazine (TFP). The laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to measure the cytosolic calcium concentrations of guard cells under different treatments. The results showed that the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of mesophyll cells was induced to increase by ABA, but to decrease in both outside cell and the vacuoles within 10 min after treatments. The cytosolic calcium concentration of guard cells was increased gradually with the lag in treatment time. However, both EGTA and TFP could inverse those effects, indicating that the increase of cytosolic calcium induced by exterior ABA was mainly caused by calcium influx. The results also showed that calmodulin could influence both the calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and calcium concentration of guard cells. It shows that calmodulin participates in the process of ABA signal transduction, but the mechanism is not known as yet. The changes both calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and calcium concentration of guard cells further proved that the variations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration induced by ABA were involved in the stomatal movements of maize seedlings.

  10. Recording of calcium transient and analysis of calcium removal mechanisms in cardiac myocytes from rats and ground squirrels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世强; 周曾铨; 钱洪


    With confocal microscopy, we recorded calcium transients and analyzed calcium removal rate at different temperatures in cardiac myocytes from the rat, a non-hibernator, and the ground squirrel, a hibernator. The results showed a remarkable increase of the diastolic level of calcium transients in the rat but no detectable change in the ground squirrel. Calcium transient of the ground squirrel, compared with that of the rat at the same temperature, had a shorter duration and showed a faster calcium removal. As indicated by the pharmacological effect of cyclopiazonic acid, calcium uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was the major mechanism of calcium removal, and was faster in the ground squirrel than in the rat. Our results confirmed the essential role of SR in hypothermia-tolerant adaptation, and negated the importance of Na-Ca exchange. We postulated the possibility to improve hypothermia-tolerance of the cardiac tissue of non-hibernating mammals.

  11. Viscosity estimation for slags containing calcium fluoride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifeng Shu; Jiayun Zhang


    Based on recently published experimental data, the Riboud model was modified for viscosity estimation of the slags containing calcium fluoride. The estimated values were in good agreement with measured data. Reasonable estimation can be achieved using the modified Riboud model for mould fluxes and ESR (eletro slag remelting) slags. Especially for ESR slags, the modified Riboud model can provide much more precise values than the original Riboud model.

  12. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies



    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The cent...

  13. Calcium-binding proteins from human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogstad, G.O.; Krutnes, M.B.; Solum, N.O.


    Calcium-binding platelet proteins were examined by crossed immunoelectrophoresis of solubilized platelets against antibodies to whole platelets followed by incubation of the immunoplates with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ and autoradiography. When the immunoplates had been pretreated with EDTA at pH 9.0 in order to remove divalent cations, three immunoprecipitates were markedly labelled with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. These corresponded to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex, glycoprotein Ia and a presently unidentified antigen termed G18. These antigens were membrane-bound and surface-oriented. When an excess of EDTA was introduced in the incubation media the results revealed that the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex and antigen G18, but not glycoprotein Ia, contained sites with a stronger affinity for calcium than has EDTA at pH 7.4. Immunoprecipitates of the separate glycoproteins IIb and IIIa both bound calcium in the same manner as the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex. As another approach, platelet-rich plasma was incubated with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ prior to crossed immunoelectrophoresis of the solubilized platelets. A single immunoprecipitate was weakly labelled. This did not correspond to any of the immunoprecipitates which were visible after staining with Coomassie blue. The labelling of this antigen was markedly increased when the platelet-rich plasma had been preincubated with EDTA and in this case a weak labelling of the glycoprotein IIB-IIIa precipitate also became apparent. No increased incorporation of calcium occured in any of these immunoprecipitates when the platelets were aggregated with ADP in the presence of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/.

  14. Crystallo-chemical analyses of calcium phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakae, Toshiro; Hayakawa, Tohru; Maruyama, Fumiaki; Nemoto, Kimiya; Kozawa, Yukishige [Nihon Univ., Matsudo, Chiba (Japan). School of Dentistry


    Several analytical techniques, methodology and their practical data processing were briefly described to investigate the crystallographic properties of calcium phosphates which are encountered in the field of dental sciences. The applied analytical techniques were X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XFS), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The used materials were tetracalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate, {beta}-tricalcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate, monetite, brushite and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate. (author)

  15. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerizationreaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reactionkinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time ofcalcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and anexample is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  16. T-type calcium channel: a privileged gate for calcium entry and control of adrenal steroidogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Florian Rossier


    Full Text Available Intracellular calcium plays a crucial role in modulating a variety of functions such as muscle contraction, hormone secretion, gene expression or cell growth. Calcium signaling has been however shown to be more complex than initially thought. Indeed, it is confined within cell microdomains and different calcium channels are associated with different functions, as shown by various channelopathies.Sporadic mutations on voltage-operated L-type calcium channels in adrenal glomerulosa cells have been shown recently to be the second most prevalent genetic abnormalities present in human aldosterone-producing adenoma. The observed modification of the threshold of activation of the mutated channels not only provides an explanation for this gain of function but reminds us on the importance of maintaining adequate electrophysiological characteristics to make channels able to exert specific cellular functions. Indeed, the contribution to steroid production of the various calcium channels expressed in adrenocortical cells is not equal and the reason has been investigated for a long time. Given the very negative resting potential of these cells, and the small membrane depolarization induced by their physiological agonists, low threshold T-type calcium channels are particularly well suited for responding under these conditions and conveying calcium into the cell, at the right place for controlling steroidogenesis. In contrast, high threshold L-type channels are normally activated by much stronger cell depolarizations. The fact that dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, specific for L-type channels, are poorly efficient for reducing aldosterone secretion either in vivo or in vitro, strongly supports the view that these two types of channels differently affect steroid biosynthesis.Whether a similar analysis is transposable to fasciculata cells and cortisol secretion is one of the questions addressed in the present review. No similar mutations on L-type or T

  17. The silicides YT{sub 2}Si{sub 2} (T = Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd). A systematic study by {sup 89}Y solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeting, Christoph; Rodewald, Ute C.; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Eckert, Hellmut [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Matar, Samir F. [CNRS Bordeaux Univ., Pessac (France). ICMCB


    The ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type silicides YT{sub 2}Si{sub 2} (T = Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd) were synthesized from the elements by arc-melting. They were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, and the structures were refined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffractometer data. The course of the lattice parameters shows a distinct anomaly for YRu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} which has by far the smallest c/a ratio along with elongated Y-Si distances. Systematic {sup 89}Y solid-state NMR spectra show large Knight shifts arising from unpaired conduction electron spin density near the Fermi edge. The Knight shift decreases with increasing valence electron count (VEC), reflecting the sensitivity of this parameter to electronic properties. The particularly strong structural distortion observed in YRu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} manifests itself in a sizeable magnetic shielding anisotropy. Electronic structure calculations for YRu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and YRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} reveal similar projected density of states (PDOS) shapes with an energy upshift of the Fermi level in YRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} due to the extra electron brought in by Rh. As a consequence, the PDOS at the Fermi energy is twice as large in the Ru compound as in the Rh compound. While both compounds show the major bonding interaction within the T{sub 2}Si{sub 2} layers, YRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} exhibits significantly stronger Y-Si bonding. (orig.)

  18. Mitochondrial calcium uptake capacity modulates neocortical excitability. (United States)

    Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Herman, Peter; Hyder, Fahmeed; Kannurpatti, Sridhar S


    Local calcium (Ca(2+)) changes regulate central nervous system metabolism and communication integrated by subcellular processes including mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Mitochondria take up Ca(2+) through the calcium uniporter (mCU) aided by cytoplasmic microdomains of high Ca(2+). Known only in vitro, the in vivo impact of mCU activity may reveal Ca(2+)-mediated roles of mitochondria in brain signaling and metabolism. From in vitro studies of mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration and cycling in various cell types of the central nervous system, we evaluated ranges of spontaneous and activity-induced Ca(2+) distributions in multiple subcellular compartments in vivo. We hypothesized that inhibiting (or enhancing) mCU activity would attenuate (or augment) cortical neuronal activity as well as activity-induced hemodynamic responses in an overall cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activities were measured by extracellular electrophysiology complemented with dynamic mapping of blood oxygen level dependence and cerebral blood flow. Calcium uniporter activity was inhibited and enhanced pharmacologically, and its impact on the multimodal measures were analyzed in an integrated manner. Ru360, an mCU inhibitor, reduced all stimulus-evoked responses, whereas Kaempferol, an mCU enhancer, augmented all evoked responses. Collectively, the results confirm aforementioned hypotheses and support the Ca(2+) uptake-mediated integrative role of in vivo mitochondria on neocortical activity.

  19. Arterial Stiffness and Dialysis Calcium Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Mac-Way


    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness is the major determinant of isolated systolic hypertension and increased pulse pressure. Aortic stiffness is also associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and general population. Hemodynamically, arterial stiffness results in earlier aortic pulse wave reflection leading to increased cardiac workload and decreased myocardial perfusion. Although the clinical consequence of aortic stiffness has been clearly established, its pathophysiology in various clinical conditions still remains poorly understood. The aim of the present paper is to review the studies that have looked at the impact of dialysis calcium concentration on arterial stiffness. Overall, the results of small short-term studies suggest that higher dialysis calcium is associated with a transient but significant increase in arterial stiffness. This calcium dependant increase in arterial stiffness is potentially explained by increased vascular smooth muscle tone of the conduit arteries and is not solely explained by changes in mean blood pressure. However, the optimal DCa remains to be determined, and long term studies are required to evaluate its impact on the progression of arterial stiffness.

  20. Hydrothermal Formation of Calcium Copper Tetrasilicate. (United States)

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Comer, Sara; Kolis, Joseph W; Salguero, Tina T


    We describe the first hydrothermal synthesis of CaCuSi4 O10 as micron-scale clusters of thin platelets, distinct from morphologies generated under salt-flux or solid-state conditions. The hydrothermal reaction conditions are surprisingly specific: too cold, and instead of CaCuSi4 O10 , a porous calcium copper silicate forms; too hot, and calcium silicate (CaSiO3 ) forms. The precursors also strongly impact the course of the reaction, with the most common side product being sodium copper silicate (Na2 CuSi4 O10 ). Optimized conditions for hydrothermal CaCuSi4 O10 formation from calcium chloride, copper(II) nitrate, sodium silicate, and ammonium hydroxide are 350 °C at 3000 psi for 72 h; at longer reaction times, competitive delamination and exfoliation causes crystal fragmentation. These results illustrate that CaCuSi4 O10 is an even more unique material than previously appreciated.

  1. Collective Calcium Signaling of Defective Multicellular Networks (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo


    A communicating multicellular network processes environmental cues into collective cellular dynamics. We have previously demonstrated that, when excited by extracellular ATP, fibroblast monolayers generate correlated calcium dynamics modulated by both the stimuli and gap junction communication between the cells. However, just as a well-connected neural network may be compromised by abnormal neurons, a tissue monolayer can also be defective with cancer cells, which typically have down regulated gap junctions. To understand the collective cellular dynamics in a defective multicellular network we have studied the calcium signaling of co-cultured breast cancer cells and fibroblast cells in various concentrations of ATP delivered through microfluidic devices. Our results demonstrate that cancer cells respond faster, generate singular spikes, and are more synchronous across all stimuli concentrations. Additionally, fibroblast cells exhibit persistent calcium oscillations that increase in regularity with greater stimuli. To interpret these results we quantitatively analyzed the immunostaining of purigenic receptors and gap junction channels. The results confirm our hypothesis that collective dynamics are mainly determined by the availability of gap junction communications.

  2. Modeling calcium wave based on anomalous subdiffusion of calcium sparks in cardiac myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available Ca(2+ sparks and Ca(2+ waves play important roles in calcium release and calcium propagation during the excitation-contraction (EC coupling process in cardiac myocytes. Although the classical Fick's law is widely used to model Ca(2+ sparks and Ca(2+ waves in cardiac myocytes, it fails to reasonably explain the full-width at half maximum(FWHM paradox. However, the anomalous subdiffusion model successfully reproduces Ca(2+ sparks of experimental results. In this paper, in the light of anomalous subdiffusion of Ca(2+ sparks, we develop a mathematical model of calcium wave in cardiac myocytes by using stochastic Ca(2+ release of Ca(2+ release units (CRUs. Our model successfully reproduces calcium waves with physiological parameters. The results reveal how Ca(2+ concentration waves propagate from an initial firing of one CRU at a corner or in the middle of considered region, answer how large in magnitude of an anomalous Ca(2+ spark can induce a Ca(2+ wave. With physiological Ca(2+ currents (2pA through CRUs, it is shown that an initial firing of four adjacent CRUs can form a Ca(2+ wave. Furthermore, the phenomenon of calcium waves collision is also investigated.

  3. From Milk to Bones, Moving Calcium Through the Body: Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight (United States)

    Smith, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)


    Did you know that when astronauts are in space, their height increases about two inches? This happens because the weightlessness of space allows the spine, usually compressed in Earth's gravity, to expand. While this change is relatively harmless, other more serious things can happen with extended stays in weightlessness, notably bone loss. From previous experiments, scientists have observed that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of about one percent per month during flight. Scientists know that bone is a dynamic tissue - continually being made and repaired by specialized bone cells throughout life. Certain cells produce new bone, while other cells are responsible for removing and replacing old bone. Research on the mechanisms of bone metabolism and the effects of space flight on its formation and repair are part of the exciting studies that will be performed during STS-107. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. Ninety-nine percent of calcium in the body is stored in the skeleton. However, calcium may be released, or resorbed, from bone to provide for other tissues when you are not eating. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts will participate in a study of calcium kinetics - that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  4. Effect of three different calcium hydroxide mixtures (calcium hydroxide with glycerine, normal saline and distilled water on root dentin microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasheminia SM


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: During root canal therapy, it is necessary to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal. The use of medicaments is recommended to reduce the microbial population prior to root filling. Calcium hydroxide pastes have been used because of their antibacterial effects and the ability of tissue dissolving. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide/glycerine mixture, calcium hydroxide/normal saline mixture and calcium hydroxide/distilled water mixture on root dentin microhardness in storage times of 7 and 14 days.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, fifteen extracted maxillary canines and central incisors were selected. The crowns of the teeth were removed and the canals were prepared. Teeth were sectioned transversally to produce a total of 30 dentin discs from the middle third of the roots. Specimens were divided into three groups of 10 discs each. Dentin samples were subjected to calcium hydroxide/glycerine, calcium hydroxide/normal saline and calcium hydroxide/distilled water mixtures for 7 and 14 days. Dentin microhardness was measured by a Vickers indenter with a load of 200 g for 15 seconds. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Paired t-test and LSD with p<0.05 as the level of significance.Results: Statistical analysis showed that all three mixtures decreased dentin microhardness. After 7 days, reduction in dentin microhardness by calcium hydroxide/glycerine combination was significantly higher than calcium hydroxide/normal saline and calcium hydroxide/distilled water combinations. After 14 days, reduction in dentin microhardness by calcium hydroxide/distilled water combination was significantly higher than the other two groups.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the use of calcium hydroxide combinations for intracanal dressing reduces dentin microhardness. After 7 days calcium hydroxide/glycerine combination and after 14 days calcium hydroxide/distilled water

  5. Effect of calcium on moving-bed biofilm reactor biofilms. (United States)

    Goode, C; Allen, D G


    The effect of calcium concentration on the biofilm structure, microbiology, and treatment performance was evaluated in a moving-bed biofilm reactor. Three experiments were conducted in replicate laboratory-scale reactors to determine if wastewater calcium is an important variable for the design and optimization of these reactors. Biofilm structural properties, such as thickness, oxygen microprofiles, and the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were affected by increasing calcium concentrations. Above a threshold concentration of calcium between 1 and 50 mg/L, biofilms became thicker and denser, with a shift toward increasingly proteinaceous EPS at higher calcium concentrations up to 200 mgCa2+/L. At 300 mgCa2+/L, biofilms were found to become primarily composed of inorganic calcium precipitates. Microbiology was assessed through microscopy, denaturing grade gel electrophoresis, and enumeration of higher organisms. Higher calcium concentrations were found to change the bacterial community and promote the abundant growth of filamentous organisms and various protazoa and metazoan populations. The chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency was improved for reactors at calcium concentrations of 50 mg/L and above. Reactor effluents for the lowest calcium concentration (1 mgCa2+/L) were found to be turbid (>50 NTU), as a result of the detachment of small and poorly settling planktonic biomass, whereas higher concentrations promoted settling of the suspended phase. In general, calcium was found to be an important variable causing significant changes in biofilm structure and reactor function.

  6. Alendronate affects calcium dynamics in cardiomyocytes in vitro. (United States)

    Kemeny-Suss, Naomi; Kasneci, Amanda; Rivas, Daniel; Afilalo, Jonathan; Komarova, Svetlana V; Chalifour, Lorraine E; Duque, Gustavo


    Therapy with bisphosphonates, including alendronate (ALN), is considered a safe and effective treatment for osteoporosis. However, recent studies have reported an unexpected increase in serious atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients treated with bisphosphonates. The mechanism that explains this side effect remains unknown. Since AF is associated with an altered sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium load, we studied how ALN affects cardiomyocyte calcium homeostasis and protein isoprenylation in vitro. Acute and long-term (48h) treatment of atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes with ALN (10(-8)-10(-6)M) was performed. Changes in calcium dynamics were determined by both fluorescence measurement of cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration and western blot analysis of calcium-regulating proteins. Finally, effect of ALN on protein farnesylation was also identified. In both atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, ALN treatment delayed and diminished calcium responses to caffeine. Only in atrial cells, long-term exposure to ALN-induced transitory calcium oscillations and led to the development of oscillatory component in calcium responses to caffeine. Changes in calcium dynamics were accompanied by changes in expression of proteins controlling sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium. In contrast, ALN minimally affected protein isoprenylation in these cells. In summary, treatment of atrial cardiomyocytes with ALN-induced abnormalities in calcium dynamics consistent with induction of a self-stimulatory, pacemaker-like behavior, which may contribute to the development of cardiac side effects associated with these drugs.

  7. Simulation of calcium oxalate stone in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳健明; 姚秀琼; 苏泽轩; 崔福斋


    Crystallization of calcium oxalate is studied mainly in the diluted healthy urine using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and is compared with the crystallization in the diluted pathological urine. It suggests that the average sizes of calcium oxalate crystals are not in direct proportion to the concentrations of Ca2+ and Ox2- ions. Only in the concentration range of 0.60-0.90 mmol/L can larger size of CaOx crystals appear. When the concentrations of Ca2+ and Ox2- ions are 1.20, 0.80, 0.60, 0.30 and 0.15 mmol/L in the healthy urine, the average sizes of calcium oxalate crystallites are 9.5 × 6.5, 20.0 × 13.5 and 15.0 μm × 10.0 μm, respectively, for the former three samples after 6 d crystallization. No crystal appears even after 30 d crystallization for the samples of concentrations of 0.30 and 0.15 mmol/L due to their low supersaturations. The results theoretically explain why the probability of stone forming is clinically not in direct proportion to the concentrations of Ca 2+ and Ox2- ions. Laser scattering technology also confirms this point. The reason why healthy human has no risk of urinary stone but stone-formers have is that there are more urinary macromolecules in healthy human urines than that in stone-forming urines. These macromolecules may control the transformation in CaOx crystal structure from monohydrate calcium oxalate (COM) to dihydrate calcium oxalate (COD). COD has a weaker affinity for renal tubule cell membranes than COM. No remarkable effect of the crystallization time is observed on the crystal morphology of CaOx. All the crystals are obtuse hexagon. However, the sizes and the number of CaOx crystals can be affected by the crystallization time. In the early stage of crystallization (1-6 d), the sizes of CaOx crystals increase and the number of crystal particles changes little as increasing the crystallization time due to growth control. In the middle and late stages (6-30 d), the number of crystals increases markedly while the

  8. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants (United States)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.


    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  9. The Relation between Calcium Supplement Consumption and Calcific Shoulder Tendonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rouhani


    Full Text Available Background: Calcific tendonitis is a common cause of non-traumatic shoulder pain. Previous studies have suggested a relation between minerals and endocrine and calcium deposition. Thus, hypercalcemia is probably related to calcific tendonitis. This study aims at evaluating the relation found between calcium supplement consumption and calcific shoulder tendonitis. Methods: This analytical-descriptive study was conducted on 250 patients with shoulder pain referring to clinics and emergency department of Shohada Orthopedics Hospital during one year for considering calcific shoulder tendonitis and calcium supplement consumption. Patients with calcific tendonitis were treated and their functional ability was evaluated using DASH questionnaire, pain severity and range of motion (ROM before and after treatment and their correlation with calcium supplement consumption. Results: Calcific tendonitis and calcium consumption were generally seen in 30 (12% and 73 (29.2% cases, respectively. Calcium consumption frequency in patients with calcific tendonitis was significantly higher than the patients who did not consume calcium supplements (76.7% vs. 22.7%. Patients with calcific tendonitis who did not consume calcium supplements suffered from significantly longer periods of shoulder pain. All patients having consumed calcium supplement were female. The group who consumed calcium supplement had significantly severe pain and higher DASH score before and after treatment, while there was no significant difference in number of impaired ROM before and after treatment. Also, there was a negative correlation between calcium supplement consumption, pain severity and DASH score before and after treatment. Conclusion: Calcium supplement consumption is related to calcific tendonitis and is also accompanied with more pain and lower functional ability in patients with calcific tendonitis.    Keywords: Calcific tendonitis; Shoulder; Calcium supplement; Pain

  10. Homer regulates calcium signalling in growth cone turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Michael JW


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homer proteins are post-synaptic density proteins with known functions in receptor trafficking and calcium homeostasis. While they are key mediators of synaptic plasticity, they are also known to function in axon guidance, albeit by mechanisms that are yet to be elucidated. Homer proteins couple extracellular receptors – such as metabotropic glutamate receptors and the transient receptor potential canonical family of cation channels – to intracellular receptors such as inositol triphosphate and ryanodine receptors on intracellular calcium stores and, therefore, are well placed to regulate calcium dynamics within the neural growth cone. Here we used growth cones from dorsal root ganglia, a well established model in the field of axon guidance, and a growth cone turning assay to examine Homer1 function in axon guidance. Results Homer1 knockdown reversed growth cone turning from attraction to repulsion in response to the calcium-dependent guidance cues brain derived neurotrophic factor and netrin-1. Conversely, Homer1 knockdown had no effect on repulsion to the calcium-independent guidance cue Semaphorin-3A. This reversal of attractive turning suggested a requirement for Homer1 in a molecular switch. Pharmacological experiments confirmed that the operational state of a calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II/calcineurin phosphatase molecular switch was dependent on Homer1 expression. Calcium imaging of motile growth cones revealed that Homer1 is required for guidance-cue-induced rise of cytosolic calcium and the attenuation of spontaneous cytosolic calcium transients. Homer1 knockdown-induced calcium transients and turning were inhibited by antagonists of store-operated channels. In addition, immunocytochemistry revealed the close association of Homer1 with the store-operated proteins TRPC1 and STIM1 within dorsal root ganglia growth cones. Conclusion These experiments provide evidence that Homer1 is an essential

  11. The Formation Process of Silico-Ferrite of Calcium (SFC) from Binary Calcium Ferrite (United States)

    Ding, Xiang; Guo, Xing-Min


    Silico-ferrite of calcium (SFC) is a significant equilibrium crystalline phase in the Fe2O3-CaO-SiO2 (FCS) ternary system and a key bonding phase in the sintering process of fine iron ore. In this work, the formation process of SFC from binary calcium ferrite has been determined by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Experiments were carried out under air at 1473 K (1200 °C) by adding SiO2 and Fe2O3 into CaO·Fe2O3 (CF). It was found that the formation of SFC is dominated by solid-state reactions in the FCS ternary system, in which Fe2O3 reacts with CaO·Fe2O3 to form the binary calcium ferrite phase. The chemical composition of binary calcium ferrite is Ca2.5Fe15.5O25 and approximately Ca2Fe12O20 (CaO·3Fe2O3). Then Si4+ and Ca2+ ions take the place of Fe3+ ion in preference located on the octahedral layers which belongs to (0 0 18) plane of binary calcium ferrite. The crystal structure of binary calcium ferrite gradually transforms from orthorhombic to triclinic, and the grain is refined with the addition of silica due to the smaller radius of Si4+ ion. A solid solution SFC forms completely when the content of SiO2 reaches approximately 3.37 wt pct at 1473 K (1200 °C).

  12. Relation of thoracic aortic and aortic valve calcium to coronary artery calcium and risk assessment. (United States)

    Wong, Nathan D; Sciammarella, Maria; Arad, Yadon; Miranda-Peats, Romalisa; Polk, Donna; Hachamovich, Rory; Friedman, John; Hayes, Sean; Daniell, Anthony; Berman, Daniel S


    Aortic calcium, aortic valve calcium (AVC), and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have been associated with cardiovascular event risk. We examined the prevalence of thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) and AVC in relation to the presence and extent of CAC, cardiovascular risk factors, and estimated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In 2,740 persons without known CHD aged 20 to 79 years, CAC was assessed by electron beam- or multidetector-computed tomography. We determined the prevalence of TAC and AVC in relation to CAC, CHD risk factors, and predicted 10-year risk of CHD. A close correspondence of TAC and AVC was observed with CAC. TAC and AVC increased with age; by the eighth decade of life, the prevalence of TAC was similar to that of CAC (>80%), and 36% of men and 24% of women had AVC. Age, male gender, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were directly related to the likelihood of CAC, TAC, and AVC; higher diastolic blood pressure and cigarette smoking additionally predicted CAC. Body mass index and higher systolic and lower diastolic blood pressures were also related to TAC, and higher body mass index and lower diastolic blood pressure were related to AVC. Calculated risk of CHD increased with the presence of AVC and TAC across levels of CAC. TAC and AVC provided incremental value over CAC in association with the 10-year calculated risk of CHD. If longitudinal studies show an incremental value of aortic and aortic valve calcium over that of CAC for prediction of cardiovascular events, future guidelines for risk assessment incorporating CAC assessment may additionally incorporate the measurement of aortic and/or aortic valve calcium.

  13. Calcium, calcium-sensing receptor and growth control in the colonic mucosa


    Varani, James


    A role for calcium in epithelial growth control is well-established in the colon and other tissues. In the colon, Ca2+ “drives” the differentiation process. This results in sequestration of ß-catenin in the cell surface / cytoskeletal complex, leaving ß-catenin unavailable to serve as a growth-promoting transcription enhancer in the nucleus. The signaling events that lead from Ca2+ stimulation to differentiation are not fully understood. A critical role for the extracellular calcium-sensing r...

  14. Potassium citrate decreases urine calcium excretion in patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. (United States)

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Shoag, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H


    Two previous studies (nephrolithiasis. The hypothesized mechanisms are (1) a decrease in bone turnover due to systemic alkalinization by the medications; (2) binding of calcium by citrate in the gastrointestinal tract; (3) direct effects on TRPV5 activity in the distal tubule. We performed a retrospective review of patients on potassium citrate therapy to evaluate the effects of this medication on urinary calcium excretion. A retrospective review was performed of a metabolic stone database at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients were identified with a history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and hypocitraturia who were on potassium citrate therapy for a minimum of 3 months. 24-h urine composition was assessed prior to the initiation of potassium citrate therapy and after 3 months of therapy. Patients received 30-60 mEq potassium citrate by mouth daily. Inclusion criterion was a change in urine potassium of 20 mEq/day or greater, which suggests compliance with potassium citrate therapy. Paired t test was used to compare therapeutic effect. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. Mean age was 58.8 years (SD 14.0), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m(2) (SD 5.9), and gender prevalence was 36.4% female:63.6% male. Mean pre-treatment 24-h urine values were as follows: citrate 280.0 mg/day, potassium 58.7 mEq/day, calcium 216.0 mg/day, pH 5.87. Potassium citrate therapy was associated with statistically significant changes in each of these parameters-citrate increased to 548.4 mg/day (p < 0.0001), potassium increased to 94.1 mEq/day (p < 0.0001), calcium decreased to 156.5 mg/day (p = 0.04), pH increased to 6.47 (p = 0.001). Urine sodium excretion was not different pre- and post-therapy (175 mEq/day pre-therapy versus 201 mEq/day post-therapy, p = NS). Urinary calcium excretion decreased by a mean of 60 mg/day on potassium citrate therapy-a nearly 30 % decrease in urine calcium excretion. These data lend support to the hypothesis that alkali therapy reduces urine calcium

  15. The influence of dihydropyridines calcium antagonists on 5-HT-induced intracellular calcium signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was applied to detect the intracellular [Ca2+] variety of fluorescent intension, with Fluo-3/AM fluorescence loaded in SFSMC. The results show that 10 μmol/L Lacidipine can reduce the frequence which 10 μmol/L 5-HT induced [Ca2+] spark in SFSMC of calcium over loading to 50%, and amplitude to 50% or so. We can draw a conclusion that dihydropyridines cal-cium antagonists lacidipine can antagonize the release of intracellular [Ca2+] which 5-HT-induced in dose dependent manner.

  16. Conduction calorimetric studies of ternary binders based on Portland cement, calcium aluminate cement and calcium sulphate


    Torrens Martín, David; Fernández Carrasco, Lucía; Blanco Varela, M.Teresa


    Different binders of Portland cement, calcium aluminate cement and calcium sulphate (PC/CAC/CS) have been investigated to determinate the in¿uence the CAC and CS amount in the reactions mechanism. Several mixtures were studied, ratios of 100, 85/15 and 75/25 of PC/CAC with 0, 3 and 5 % of CS. Conduction calorimetric technique was used to follow the hydration during 100 h. The XRD and FTIR techniques were used as support in the analysis of the hydration products. The results have shown tha...

  17. Construction of calcium release sites in cardiac myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eZahradnikova


    Full Text Available Local character of calcium release in cardiac myocytes, as defined by confocal recordings of calcium sparks, implies independent activation of individual calcium release sites based on ryanodine receptor (RyR channel recruitment. We constructed virtual calcium release sites (vCRSs composed of a variable number of RyR channels distributed in clusters in accordance with the experimentally observed cluster size distribution. The vCRSs consisted either of a single virtual calcium release unit, in which all clusters shared a common dyadic space, or of multiple virtual calcium release units containing one cluster each and having separate dyadic spaces. We explored the stochastic behavior of vCRSs to understand the activation and recruitment of RyRs during calcium sparks. RyRs were represented by the published allosteric gating model that included regulation by cytosolic Ca2+ and Mg2+. The interaction of Mg2+ with the RyR Ca2+-binding sites and the refractory period of vCRSs were optimized to accord with the experimentally observed calcium dependence of calcium spark frequency. The Mg2+-binding parameters of RyRs that provided the best description of spark frequency depended on the number of RyRs assembled in the virtual calcium release sites. Adequate inhibitory effect of Mg2+ on the calcium dependence of RyR open probability was achieved if the virtual calcium release sites contained at least three clusters. For the distribution of the number of open RyRs in evoked calcium sparks to correspond to the experimentally observed distribution of spark calcium release fluxes, at least 3 clusters had to share a common virtual calcium release unit, in which ~ 3 RyRs open to form an average spark. These results reconcile the small cluster size and stochastic placement of RyRs in the release sites with the estimates of the amount of RyR protein, volume density of calcium release sites, and the size of calcium release sites in rat cardiac myocytes.

  18. Pulp response to a novel adhesive calcium hydroxide based cement. (United States)

    Watts, A; Paterson, R C; Cohen, B D; Combe, E C


    This study compares pulp responses to 3 formulations of calcium hydroxide, namely: a) An experimental adhesive calcium hydroxide cement containing polyacrylic acid, b) Dycal (L.D> Caulk Co, Milford, Delaware) Batch Nos 176970/176990, c) "Analar" calcium hydroxide mixed with sterile distilled water. After 28 days dentine bridges were present in 77% of teeth capped with the test material, 64% of teeth treated with Dycal and in 62% of teeth capped with calcium hydroxide and water. Inflammatory infiltrates were observed in a number of teeth remote from the bridges. Bacteria were detected in these specimens. Exposed rat molar pulp responses to an experimental adhesive calcium hydroxide cement were similar to to those observed with 2 other calcium hydroxide formulations.

  19. Yeast respond to hypotonic shock with a calcium pulse (United States)

    Batiza, A. F.; Schulz, T.; Masson, P. H.


    We have used the transgenic AEQUORIN calcium reporter system to monitor the cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hypotonic shock. Such a shock generates an almost immediate and transient rise in [Ca2+]cyt which is eliminated by gadolinium, a blocker of stretch-activated channels. In addition, this transient rise in [Ca2+]cyt is initially insensitive to 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), an extracellular calcium chelator. However, BAPTA abruptly attenuates the maintenance of that transient rise. These data show that hypotonic shock generates a stretch-activated channel-dependent calcium pulse in yeast. They also suggest that the immediate calcium influx is primarily generated from intracellular stores, and that a sustained increase in [Ca2+]cyt depends upon extracellular calcium.

  20. Antioxidant effects of calcium antagonists in rat brain homogenates. (United States)

    Yao, K; Ina, Y; Nagashima, K; Ohmori, K; Ohno, T


    We studied the antioxidant activities of calcium antagonists against autoxidation in rat brain homogenates. The homogenates were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C with or without a calcium antagonist and subsequently assayed for lipid peroxide content. Percent inhibition of the lipid peroxidation was used as an index of the antioxidant effect. Dihydropyridine calcium antagonists exhibited concentration-dependent (3-300 micromol/l) inhibitory effects against lipid peroxidation. The relative order of antioxidant potency and associated IC50 values (micromol/l) of the calcium antagonists for inhibition of the lipid peroxidation were as follows: nifedipine (51.5)>barnidipine (58.6)>benidipine (71.2)>nicardipine (129.3)>amlodipine (135.5)>nilvadipine (167.3)>nitrendipine (252.1)> diltiazem (>300)=verapamil (>300). These results suggest that some dihydropyridine calcium antagonists show antioxidant properties. The antioxidant effects of the calcium antagonists may contribute to their pharmacological actions.

  1. Adaptative diversity of calcium metabolism in gammarus fossarum populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyran, J.C. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France)


    Analysis of Gammarus fossarum populations from mountain torrents in the Grenoble region reveals some morphological and eco physiological diversity which appears to be related to the calcium concentration of the water after both field and laboratory experimentation. Animals from waters with a high calcium concentration (located in Chartreuse and Vercors) show larger size and a longer molt cycle than those from low calcium concentrated waters (located in Belledonne); their calcium balance during the molt cycle is different. Translocation experiments confirm these differences: a significant increase of the duration of the molt cycle is observed in animals translocated to lower calcium concentrated waters and vice-versa whereas no significant difference is observed between controls and animals translocated within comparably calcium concentrated waters. The causes of such an adaptative diversity between Gammarus fossarum populations will be researched at the genetic level, namely through mitochondrial DNA investigations. (author). 25 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Milk of calcium renal stone: a case report


    守屋, 賢治; 西尾, 正一; 前川, 正信; 小早川, 等; 安本, 亮二


    A case of milk of calcium renal stone is reported. The patient was a 24-year-old woman who complained of dull flank pain on the right side. A plain film of the abdomen revealed a right renal stone, which showed peculiar radiopacity of a half-moon shape in the upright position. The operation was performed on July 6, 1984. Postoperative chemical analysis of sand granules showed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate.

  3. Calcium renal lithiasis: metabolic diagnosis and medical treatment


    Miguel Angel Arrabal-Polo; Miguel Arrabal-Martin; Juan Garrido-Gomez


    Calcium renal lithiasis is a frequent condition that affects the worldwide population and has a high recurrence rate. Different metabolic changes may trigger the onset of calcium stone disorders, such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia and others. There are also other very prevalent disorders that are associated with calcium calculi, such as arterial hypertension, obesity and loss of bone mineral density. A correct diagnosis needs to be obtained through examinin...

  4. Preparation and characterization of bioceramics produced from calcium phosphate cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriotis, O.; Katsamenis, O.L. [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece); Mouzakis, D.E. [Technological Educational Institute of Larisa, Department of Mechanical Engineering, T.E.I of Larissa, 411 10, Larissa (Greece); Bouropoulos, N. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes, FORTH/ICE-HT, P.O. Box 1414, 26504 Rio Patras (Greece)


    The present work reports a method for preparing calcium phosphate ceramics by calcination of calcium phosphate cements composed mainly of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). It was found that hardened cements calcinied at temperatures from to 600 to 1300 C were transformed to tricalcium phosphates. Moreover the compressive strength was determined and porosity was estimated as a function of the calcination temperature. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍健聪; 邓尚贵; 谢超; 童国忠


    To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1...

  6. Comparative absorption of calcium from carbonate tablets, lactogluconate/carbonate effervescent tablet, and chloride solution. (United States)

    Ekman, M; Reizenstein, P; Teigen, S W; Rønneberg, R


    Intestinal absorption of calcium from three different labelled calcium preparations (all containing 500 mg elemental calcium) was determined using the whole body retention and urinary excretion of 47Ca in 14 normal subjects. Chewable calcium carbonate tablets showed a significantly (p less than 0.05) better mean minimum absorption of calcium (25.6% in exp. I, 22.8% in exp. II) than calcium given in the form of a lactogluconate/carbonate effervescent tablet, (17%), but similar to calcium in a chloride solution (24.7%). The minimum calcium absorption varied from 85 to 128 mg. All the preparations were taken with standardized low calcium test meals.

  7. Diagram of Calcium Movement in the Human Body (United States)


    This diagram shows the normal pathways of calcium movement in the body and indicates changes (green arrows) seen during preliminary space flight experiments. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts have participated in a study of calcium kinetics -- that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  8. Effect of galactooligosaccharides on calcium absorption in rats. (United States)

    Chonan, O; Watanuki, M


    The effect of transgalactosylated oligosaccharides (TOS), which are oligosaccharides that are unhydrolyzed in the small intestine and are fermented by the intestinal bacteria, on calcium absorption was examined in male Wistar rats for 10 days. The apparent calcium absorption ratios and the apparent retention ratios were significantly higher in the rats fed TOS-containing diets (5 or 10 g/100 g of diet). In the second experiment, the cecum was ligated in situ and calcium absorption from the cecum was observed after injecting TOS into the cecal lumen. Four hours after the injection, the calcium concentration in the cecal vein of the rats given TOS was significantly higher than that of the control. The calcium content in the liquid phase of the cecal lumen and the liquid phase weight were also increased by the injection of TOS into the cecum. Although the extent of calcium absorption from the cecum of rats fed TOS is due to overall calcium absorption is not known, under the experimental conditions used in the present study the stimulatory effect of TOS on calcium absorption may be partly associated with increased solubility of calcium and the fluid content in the intestinal lumen.

  9. On the growth of calcium tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X Sahaya Shajan; C Mahadevan


    Calcium tartrate single crystals were grown using silica gel as the growth medium. Calcium formate mixed with formic acid was taken as the supernatant solution. It was observed that the nucleation density was reduced and the size of the crystals was improved to a large extent compared to the conventional way of growing calcium tartrate crystals with calcium chloride. The role played by formate–formic acid on the growth of crystals is discussed. The grown crystals were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), microhardness measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results obtained are compared with the previous work.

  10. Efimov Physics around the neutron rich Calcium-60 isotope

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, G; Hammer, H -W; Platter, L


    We calculate the neutron-Calcium-60 S-wave scattering phase shifts using state of the art coupled-cluster theory combined with modern ab initio interactions derived from chiral effective theory. Effects of three-nucleon forces are included schematically as density dependent nucleon-nucleon interactions. This information is combined with halo effective field theory in order to investigate the Calcium-60-neutron-neutron system. We predict correlations between different three-body observables and the two-neutron separation energy of Calcium-62. This provides evidence of Efimov physics along the Calcium isotope chain. Experimental key observables that facilitate a test of our findings are discussed.

  11. Differences in calcium accumulation between human plantar and palmar aponeuroses. (United States)

    Azuma, Cho; Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Morimoto, Mamoru; Tohno, Setsuko; Minami, Takeshi; Takano, Yasuo; Utsumi, Masako; Moriwake, Yumi; Nishiwaki, Fumio; Yamada, Masa-oki


    To elucidate the characteristics of calcium accumulation of human plantar and palmar aponeuroses, the authors determined the calcium content of human plantar and palmar aponeuroses by atomic absorption flame emission spectrophotometry. The subjects consisted of 9 men and 14 women, ranging in age from 61 to 93 yr. In the plantar aponeurosis, the calcium content was significantly higher in the anterior and posterior parts than in the middle part. It is known that pressure distribution under the sole of a foot is higher in the anterior and posterior parts than in the middle part. The present study suggests that the accumulation of calcium in the plantar aponeurosis is related with the pressure distribution under the sole of a foot. The calcium content increased progressively with aging in the anterior part of the plantar aponeurosis, but not in the middle and posterior parts. Regarding the palmar aponeurosis, the calcium content was significantly higher in the anterior and posterior parts in comparison with the middle part. It was found that the calcium content increased progressively with aging in the posterior part of the palmar aponeurosis, whereas it did not increase significantly with aging in the anterior and middle parts. Regarding the relationship between the calcium content of the aponeuroses and the bone mineral density, a significant correlation was found between the calcium content in the anterior part of the palmar aponeurosis and the bone mineral density of the scaphoid bone.

  12. Octreotide enhances positive calcium balance in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (United States)

    Nutting, D F; Schriock, E A; Palmieri, G M; Bittle, J B; Elmendorf, B J; Horner, L H; Edwards, M C; Griffin, J W; Sacks, H S; Bertorini, T E


    Although receptors for somatostatin are found in bone cells, the effect of somatostatin analogs on calcium metabolism is unknown. The authors studied, in a metabolic ward, the effect of octreotide (a long-acting somatostatin analog) and a placebo in two 6-day calcium balance periods in 8 children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. As expected, octreotide (2 micrograms/kg, subcutaneously, every 8 hours) reduced serum growth hormone and somatomedin (IGF-1) to levels found in growth hormone deficiency. Octreotide enhanced calcium retention by 30% (96 mg daily [P < 0.04]) in 7 boys for whom complete data (diet, urine, and fecal calcium) were available. In 6 children with urinary calcium excretion (Uca) greater than 50 mg daily, octreotide markedly lowered Uca, from 114 +/- 23 mg daily to 61 +/- 9 mg daily (P < 0.03). Calcium retention occurred in patients with or without initial hypercalciuria, but the higher the basal Uca, the greater was the inhibition by octreotide (r = 0.79; P < 0.03). Inactive, nonambulatory patients had a more pronounced response of Uca to octreotide (P < 0.02). Octreotide caused a mild, nonsignificant reduction in fecal calcium, with no major changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, or in creatinine clearance. Based on the current observations and the presence of receptors for somatostatin in bone cells, this hormone may have, at least on a short-term basis, an anabolic effect on calcium, perhaps favoring its deposition in bone.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建; 夏延致


    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride.The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry(TG),X-ray diffraction(XRD),limiting oxygen index(LOI) and cone calorimeter(CONE).The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34,and the heat release rate(HRR),total heat release(THR),CO and CO_2 concentrations during ...

  14. Topotactic exchange and intercalation of calcium phosphate (United States)

    Lima, Cicero B. A.; Airoldi, Claudio


    The precursor (NH 4) 2Ca(H 2PO 4) 2ṡH 2O (CaAP) compound was obtained by combining a calcium chloride solution with dibasic ammonium phosphate. After submitting it to a thermal treatment, crystalline calcium phosphate, Ca(H 2PO 4) 2ṡH 2O (CaP) was isolated. X-ray diffraction patterns for this compound indicated good crystallinity, with a peak at 2θ=12.8°, to give an interlamellar distance of 697 pm, which changed to 1550 pm, when the reaction employed phenylphosphonic acid, and to 1514 pm when intercalated with methylamine. Phosphorus and calcium analysis from colorimetric and gravimetric methods gave for CaP 24.2 and 15.8%, respectively, to yield a P:Ca molar ratio equal to two. The phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance presented a peak centered at -1.23 ppm, in agreement with the existence of phosphate groups in protonated form. CaAP showed a mass loss of 21.2% in the 466 to 541 K interval due to ammonia and water elimination to yield Ca(PO 3) 3, and CaP can be dehydrated at 440 K for 6 h. A topotactical exchange occurred when CaP is intercalated with methylamine or reacted with phenylphosphonic acid to yield the phosphonate compound and the infrared spectrum of the resulting compound clearly showed the presence of PO 4 and PO 3 groups. The topotactic exchange was also demonstrated by X-ray diffractometry in following the stages of decomposition from 527 to 973 K.

  15. Calcium isotope analysis by mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F


    The variations in the isotopic composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore isotopic analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium isotopic abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts for more than three decades. Practically all Ca isotopes suffer from significant isobaric interferences, whereas low-abundant isotopes can be particularly affected by neighboring major isotopes. The extent of natural variations of stable isotopes appears to be relatively limited, and highly precise techniques are required to resolve isotopic effects. Isotope fractionation during sample preparation and measurements and instrumental mass bias can significantly exceed small isotope abundance variations in samples, which have to be investigated. Not surprisingly, a TIMS procedure developed by Russell et al. (Russell et al., 1978. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1075-1090) for Ca isotope measurements was considered as revolutionary for isotopic measurements in general, and that approach is used nowadays (with small modifications) for practically all isotopic systems and with different mass spectrometric techniques. Nevertheless, despite several decades of calcium research and corresponding development of mass spectrometers, the available precision and accuracy is still not always sufficient to achieve the challenging goals. The present article discusses figures of merits of presently used analytical methods and instrumentation, and attempts to critically assess their limitations. In Sections 2 and 3, mass spectrometric methods applied to precise stable isotope analysis and to the determination of (41)Ca are described. Section 4 contains a short summary of selected applications, and includes tracer experiments and the potential use

  16. Denoising two-photon calcium imaging data. (United States)

    Malik, Wasim Q; Schummers, James; Sur, Mriganka; Brown, Emery N


    Two-photon calcium imaging is now an important tool for in vivo imaging of biological systems. By enabling neuronal population imaging with subcellular resolution, this modality offers an approach for gaining a fundamental understanding of brain anatomy and physiology. Proper analysis of calcium imaging data requires denoising, that is separating the signal from complex physiological noise. To analyze two-photon brain imaging data, we present a signal plus colored noise model in which the signal is represented as harmonic regression and the correlated noise is represented as an order autoregressive process. We provide an efficient cyclic descent algorithm to compute approximate maximum likelihood parameter estimates by combing a weighted least-squares procedure with the Burg algorithm. We use Akaike information criterion to guide selection of the harmonic regression and the autoregressive model orders. Our flexible yet parsimonious modeling approach reliably separates stimulus-evoked fluorescence response from background activity and noise, assesses goodness of fit, and estimates confidence intervals and signal-to-noise ratio. This refined separation leads to appreciably enhanced image contrast for individual cells including clear delineation of subcellular details and network activity. The application of our approach to in vivo imaging data recorded in the ferret primary visual cortex demonstrates that our method yields substantially denoised signal estimates. We also provide a general Volterra series framework for deriving this and other signal plus correlated noise models for imaging. This approach to analyzing two-photon calcium imaging data may be readily adapted to other computational biology problems which apply correlated noise models.

  17. 75 FR 39025 - Determination That ACTONEL (Risendronate Sodium) Tablets, 75 Milligrams, and ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM... (United States)


    ... ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM (risendronate sodium and calcium carbonate (copackaged)) Tablets, 35 mg/500 mg, were... and calcium carbonate (copackaged)) Tablets, 35/500 mg, is the subject of NDA 21-823, held by Procter... (risendronate sodium) Tablets, 75 mg, nor ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM (risendronate sodium and calcium......

  18. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.


    Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...... were tested in 18 subjects according to a randomized crossover design. The test meals contained high (HC meal: 172 mg/MJ), medium (MC meal: 84 mg/MJ), or low (LC meal: 15 mg/MJ) amounts of calcium from dairy products or a high amount of calcium given as a calcium carbonate supplement (Suppl meal: 183...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...

  19. Cosmic ray source abundance of calcium

    CERN Document Server

    Perron, C


    Re-examines the results of experiments in which ultra-high purity iron targets were irradiated by protons from the two CERN accelerators (600 MeV and 21 GeV); the spallation products were then chemically separated, and their isotopic composition determined by mass spectrometry. Ratios of cross-sections for calcium production by spallation of iron show that /sup 42/Ca, /sup 43/Ca and /sup 44/Ca have about the same abundance, about 10-15% that of iron, confirming earlier studies. (11 refs).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Viktorovna Siziakova


    Full Text Available The article describes harmful factors from the environmental point of view that accompany almost all stages of production of non-ferrous metals. Due to the fact that this industry requires large volume of water, these factors require special attention when cleaning wastewater. The contamination of wastewater by non-ferrous metallurgy is characterized by metal ions, particulate pollutants, acids, SAS, etc, The common feature of all these substances is harmfulness, however, they are often very aggressive and toxic also. The article focuses on the possible use of hidrocarboaluminates calcium as an active ion exchanger for cleanup wastewater metallurgical production.