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Sample records for calcium phosphate-based biomaterials

  1. Preservation and promotion of bone formation in the mandible as a response to a novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial in mineral deficiency induced low bone mass male versus female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Kritika; Naula, Diana P; Mijares, Dindo Q; Janal, Malvin N; LeGeros, Racquel Z; Zhang, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Calcium and other trace mineral supplements have previously demonstrated to safely improve bone quality. We hypothesize that our novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial (SBM) preserves and promotes mandibular bone formation in male and female rats on mineral deficient diet (MD). Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive one of three diets (n = 10): basic diet (BD), MD or mineral deficient diet with 2% SBM. Rats were sacrificed after 6 months. Micro-computed tomography (µCT) was used to evaluate bone volume and 3D-microarchitecture while microradiography (Faxitron) was used to measure bone mineral density from different sections of the mandible. Results showed that bone quality varied with region, gender and diet. MD reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and volume and increased porosity. SBM preserved BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) in the alveolar bone and condyle in both genders. In the alveolar crest and mandibular body, while preserving more bone in males, SBM also significantly supplemented female bone. Results indicate that mineral deficiency leads to low bone mass in skeletally immature rats, comparatively more in males. Furthermore, SBM administered as a dietary supplement was effective in preventing mandibular bone loss in all subjects. This study suggests that the SBM preparation has potential use in minimizing low peak bone mass induced by mineral deficiency and related bone loss irrespective of gender. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1622-1632, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of calcium phosphate based apatite from hen's eggshell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Stoichiometric hydroxyapatite with Ca/P molar ratio, 1⋅67, was synthesized using hen's eggshell as calcium source and phosphoric acid by precipitation method. Conventional EDTA titration and gravimetric methods were adopted to estimate the amount of calcium and phosphorous, respectively. Fourier-transform.

  3. Bioactivity evaluation of commercial calcium phosphate-based bioceramics for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrós, S.; Mas, A.

    2016-11-01

    Calcium phosphate-based bioceramics constitute a great promise for bone tissue engineering as they chemically resemble to mammalian bone and teeth. Their use is a viable alternative for bone regeneration as it avoids the use of autografts and allografts, which usually involves immunogenic reactions and patient’s discomfort. This work evolves around the study of the bioactivity potential of different commercially available bone substitutes based in calcium phosphate through the characterization of their ionic exchangeability when immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). (Author)

  4. Cell response of calcium phosphate based ceramics, a bone substitute material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize calcium phosphate ceramics with different Ca/P ratios and evaluate cell response of these materials for use as a bone substitute. Bioceramics consisting of mixtures of hydroxyapatite (HAp and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP powders in different proportions were pressed and sintered. The physical and chemical properties of these bioceramics were then characterized. Characterization of the biological properties of these materials was based on analysis of cell response using cultured fibroblasts. The number of cells attached to the samples was counted from SEM images of samples exposed to cell culture solution for different periods. These data were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA complemented by the Tukey's test. The TCP sample had higher surface roughness and lower density. The adherence and growth of FMM1 cells on samples from all groups was studied. Even though the different calcium based ceramics exhibited properties which made them suitable as bone substitutes, those with higher levels of β-TCP revealed improved cell growth on their surfaces. These observations indicated two-phase calcium phosphate based materials with a β-TCP surface layer to be a promising bone substitute.

  5. Computational modelling of local calcium ions release from calcium phosphate-based scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhas, Varun; Guyot, Yann; Kerckhofs, Greet; Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet

    2017-04-01

    A variety of natural or synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP)-based scaffolds are currently produced for dental and orthopaedic applications. These scaffolds have been shown to stimulate bone formation due to their biocompatibility, osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. The release of the [Formula: see text] ions from these scaffolds is of great interest in light of the aforementioned properties. It can depend on a number of biophysicochemical phenomena such as dissolution, diffusion and degradation, which in turn depend on specific scaffold characteristics such as composition and morphology. Achieving an optimal release profile can be challenging when relying on traditional experimental work alone. Mathematical modelling can complement experimentation. In this study, the in vitro dissolution behaviour of four CaP-based scaffold types was investigated experimentally. Subsequently, a mechanistic finite element method model based on biophysicochemical phenomena and specific scaffold characteristics was developed to predict the experimentally observed behaviour. Before the model could be used for local [Formula: see text] ions release predictions, certain parameters such as dissolution constant ([Formula: see text]) and degradation constant ([Formula: see text]) for each type of scaffold were determined by calibrating the model to the in vitro dissolution data. The resulting model showed to yield release characteristics in satisfactory agreement with those observed experimentally. This suggests that the mathematical model can be used to investigate the local [Formula: see text] ions release from CaP-based scaffolds.

  6. Calcium phosphate biomaterials from marine algae. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Felício-Fernandes

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate compounds such as Hydroxyapatite (HAp were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis with phycogenic CaCO3 as starting material. Material obtained was characterised by usual methods (XRD, FTIR, TG, N2-adsorption, SEM and EDX in order to study its physical-chemical characteristics. The prepared HAp showed that it may be suitable for use as a biomaterial.

  7. A Short Overview on the Biomedical Applications of Silica, Alumina and Calcium Phosphate-based Nanostructured Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellahioui, Younes; Prashar, Sanjiv; Gómez-Ruiz, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the use of silica, alumina and calcium phosphate-based nanostructured materials with biomedical applications. A short introduction on the use of the materials in Science, Nanotechnology and Health is included followed by a revision of each of the selected materials. A description of the principal synthetic methods used in the preparation of the materials in nanostructured form is included. The most widely used applications in biomedicine are reviewed including, for example drug-delivery, bone regeneration, imaging, sensoring amongst others. Finally, a short description of the toxicity and cytotoxicity associated with each of the materials of this revision is presented. This short literature revision serves to demonstrate the very promising future ahead of nanosystems based on silica, alumina and calcium phosphate for biological and biomedical applications.

  8. Osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lijia; Shi, Yujun [Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Ye, Feng [Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Bu, Hong, E-mail: hongbu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Although osteoinduction mechanism of calcium phosphate (CP) ceramics is still unclear, several essential properties have been reported, such as chemical composition, pore size and porosity, etc. In this study, calcium phosphate powder (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, CaP, group 1), biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic powder (BCP, group 2), and intact BCP rods (group 3) were implanted into leg muscles of mice and dorsal muscles of rabbits. One month and three months after implantation, samples were harvested for biological and histological analysis. New bone tissues were observed in 10/10 samples in group 1, 3/10 samples in group 2, and 9/10 samples in group 3 at 3rd month in mice, but not in rabbits. In vitro, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured with trace CaP and BCP powder, and osteogenic differentiation was observed at day 7. Our results suggested that chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation. - Highlights: ► Intrinsic osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials was observed implanted in muscles of mice. ► Biomaterials powder also has osteoinduction property. ► Osteogenic genes and protein could be detected by RT-PCR and Western blot in implanted biomaterials. ► Osteogenic phenomenon could be observed by electron microscopy. ► The chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation.

  9. Gallium enhances reconstructive properties of a calcium phosphate bone biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazic Geljic, Ivana; Melis, Nicolas; Boukhechba, Florian; Schaub, Sébastien; Mellier, Charlotte; Janvier, Pascal; Laugier, Jean-Pierre; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Verron, Elise; Scimeca, Jean-Claude

    2018-02-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP)-based biomaterials are commonly used in bone reconstructive surgery to replace the damaged tissue, and can also serve as vectors for local drug delivery. Due to its inhibitory action on osteoclasts, the semi-metallic element gallium (Ga) is used for the systemic treatment of disorders associated with accelerated bone resorption. As it was demonstrated that Ga could be incorporated in the structure of CaP biomaterials, we investigated the biological properties of Ga-loaded CaP biomaterials. Culturing bone cells on Ga-CaP, we observed a decrease in osteoclast number and a downregulation of late osteoclastic markers expression, while Ga-CaP upregulated the expression of osteoblastic marker genes involved in the maturation of bone matrix. We next investigated in vivo bone reconstructive properties of different Ga-loaded biomaterials using a murine bone defect healing model. All implanted biomaterials showed a good osseointegration into the surrounding host tissue, accompanied by a successful bone ingrowth and bone marrow reconstruction, as evidenced by histological analysis. Moreover, quantitative micro-computed tomography analysis of implants revealed that Ga enhanced total defect filling. Lastly, we took advantage for the first time of a particular mode of non-linear microscopy (second harmonic generation) to quantify in vivo bone tissue reconstruction within a CaP bone substitute. By doing so, we showed that Ga exerted a positive impact on mature organized collagen synthesis. As a whole, our data support the hypothesis that Ga represents an attractive additive to CaP biomaterials for bone reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Physicochemical Properties of Calcium Phosphate Based Coating on Gutta-Percha Root Canal Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Al-Haddad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Gutta-percha (GP is a polymer based standard root canal filling material that has been widely used in dentistry. However, it has an inadequate sealing ability and adhesion to root dentin. The aim of this study is to coat GP with a bioactive material to enhance its sealing ability and adhesion to the root sealer and subsequently to the root dentin. The choice of coating method is limited by the nature of GP as it requires a technique that is not governed by high temperatures or uses organic solvents. In this study, biomimetic coating technique using 1.5 Tas-simulated body fluids (SBF was employed to coat the treated GP cones. The coated samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. The presence of hydroxyl, carbonate, and phosphate groups was detected by FTIR while the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA/calcium phosphate was confirmed with XRD. FESEM revealed uniform, thin, and crystalline HA calcium phosphate coating. The adhesion of the coating to the GP substrate was assessed with microscratch technique. It was viable with cohesive failure mode. In conclusion, Tas-SBF is able to coat pretreated GP cones with a crystalline apatitic calcium phosphate layer.

  11. Designing calcium phosphate-based bifunctional nanocapsules with bone-targeting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khung, Yit-Lung; Bastari, Kelsen; Cho, Xing Ling; Yee, Wu Aik; Loo, Say Chye Joachim, E-mail: joachimloo@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (Singapore)

    2012-06-15

    Using sodium dodecyl sulphate micelles as template, hollow-cored calcium phosphate nanocapsules were produced. The surfaces of the nanocapsule were subsequently silanised by a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based silane with an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester end groups which permits for further attachment with bisphosphonates (BP). Characterisations of these nanocapsules were investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering. To further validate the bone-targeting potential, dentine discs were incubated with these functionalised nanocapsules. FESEM analysis showed that these surface-modified nanocapsules would bind strongly to dentine surfaces compared to non-functionalised nanocapsules. We envisage that respective components would give this construct a bifunctional attribute, whereby (1) the shell of the calcium phosphate nanocapsule would serve as biocompatible coating aiding in gradual osteoconduction, while (2) surface BP moieties, acting as targeting ligands, would provide the bone-targeting potential of these calcium phosphate nanocapsules.

  12. A novel injectable calcium phosphate-based nanocomposite for the augmentation of cannulated pedicle-screw fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haolin; Liu, Chun; Liu, Huiling; Bai, Yanjie; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Xuwen; Li, Chunde; Yang, Huilin; Yang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-augmented cannulated pedicle-screw fixation has been routinely performed for the surgical treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases. Despite its satisfactory clinical outcomes and prevalence, problems and complications associated with high-strength, stiff, and nondegradable PMMA have largely hindered the long-term efficacy and safety of pedicle-screw fixation in osteoporotic patients. To meet the unmet need for better bone cement for cannulated pedicle-screw fixation, a new injectable and biodegradable nanocomposite that was the first of its kind was designed and developed in the present study. The calcium phosphate-based nanocomposite (CPN) exhibited better anti-pullout ability and similar fluidity and dispersing ability compared to clinically used PMMA, and outperformed conventional calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in all types of mechanical properties, injectability, and biodegradability. In term of axial pullout strength, the CPN-augmented cannulated screw reached the highest force of ~120 N, which was higher than that of PMMA (~100 N) and CPC (~95 N). The compressive strength of the CPN (50 MPa) was three times that of CPC, and the injectability of the CPN reached 95%. In vivo tests on rat femur revealed explicit biodegradation of the CPN and subsequent bone ingrowth after 8 weeks. The promising results for the CPN clearly suggest its potential for replacing PMMA in the application of cannulated pedicle-screw fixation and its worth of further study and development for clinical uses. PMID:28490878

  13. Calcium sulfate and platelet-rich plasma make a novel osteoinductive biomaterial for bone regeneration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Intini, Giuseppe; Andreana, Sebastiano; Intini, Francesco E; Buhite, Robert J; Bobek, Libuse A

    2007-01-01

    .... Thus, we engineered CS-Platelet, a biomaterial based on the combination of Calcium Sulfate and Platelet-Rich Plasma in which Calcium Sulfate also acts as an activator of the platelets, therefore...

  14. Structure-Composition-Property Relationships in Polymeric Amorphous Calcium Phosphate-Based Dental Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Skrtic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Our studies of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP-based materials over the last decade have yielded bioactive polymeric composites capable of protecting teeth from demineralization or even regenerating lost tooth mineral. The anti-cariogenic/remineralizing potential of these ACP composites originates from their propensity, when exposed to the oral environment, to release in a sustained manner sufficient levels of mineral-forming calcium and phosphate ions to promote formation of stable apatitic tooth mineral. However, the less than optimal ACP filler/resin matrix cohesion, excessive polymerization shrinkage and water sorption of these experimental materials can adversely affect their physicochemical and mechanical properties, and, ultimately, limit their lifespan. This study demonstrates the effects of chemical structure and composition of the methacrylate monomers used to form the matrix phase of composites on degree of vinyl conversion (DVC and water sorption of both copolymers and composites and the release of mineral ions from the composites. Modification of ACP surface via introducing cations and/or polymers ab initio during filler synthesis failed to yield mechanically improved composites. However, moderate improvement in composite’s mechanical stability without compromising its remineralization potential was achieved by silanization and/or milling of ACP filler. Using ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate as base monomers and adding moderate amounts of hydrophilic 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate or its isomer ethyl-α-hydroxymethacrylate appears to be a promising route to maximize the remineralizing ability of the filler while maintaining high DVC. Exploration of the structure/composition/property relationships of ACP fillers and polymer matrices is complex but essential for achieving a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that govern dissolution/re-precipitation of bioactive ACP fillers, and

  15. Calcium Sulfate and Platelet-Rich Plasma make a novel osteoinductive biomaterial for bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Intini Francesco E; Andreana Sebastiano; Intini Giuseppe; Buhite Robert J; Bobek Libuse A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background With the present study we introduce a novel and simple biomaterial able to induce regeneration of bone. We theorized that nourishing a bone defect with calcium and with a large amount of activated platelets may initiate a series of biological processes that culminate in bone regeneration. Thus, we engineered CS-Platelet, a biomaterial based on the combination of Calcium Sulfate and Platelet-Rich Plasma in which Calcium Sulfate also acts as an activator of the platelets, th...

  16. Silicon, iron and titanium doped calcium phosphate-based glass reinforced biodegradable polyester composites as bone analogous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Mohammadi, Maziar

    Bone defects resulting from disease or traumatic injury is a major health care problem worldwide. Tissue engineering offers an alternative approach to repair and regenerate bone through the use of a cell-scaffold construct. The scaffold should be biodegradable, biocompatible, porous with an open pore structure, and should be able to withstand the applied forces. Phosphate-based glasses (PGs) may be used as reinforcing agents in degradable composites since their degradation can be predicted and controlled through their chemistry. This doctoral dissertation describes the development and evaluation of PGs reinforced biodegradable polyesters for intended applications in bone augmentation and regeneration. This research was divided into three main objectives: 1) Investigating the composition dependent properties of novel PG formulations by doping a sodium-free calcium phosphate-based glass with SiO2, Fe2O3, and TiO2. Accordingly, (50P2 O5-40CaO- xSiO2-(10-x)Fe2O3, where x = 10, 5 and 0 mol.%) and (50P2O5-40CaO-xSiO 2-(10-x)TiO2 where x = 10, 7, 5, 3 and 0 mol.%) formulations were developed and characterised. SiO2 incorporation led to increased solubility, ion release, pH reduction, as well as hydrophilicity, surface energy, and surface polarity. In contrast, doping with Fe2O 3 or TiO2 resulted in more durable glasses, and improved cell attachment and viability. It was hypothesised that the presence of SiO 2 in the TiO2-doped formulations could up-regulate the ionic release from the PG leading to higher alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. 2) Incorporating Si, Fe, and Ti doped PGs as fillers, either as particulates (PGPs) or fibres (PGFs), into biodegradable polyesters (polycaprolactone (PCL) and semi-crystalline and amorphous poly(lactic acid) (PLA and PDLLA)) with the aim of developing degradable bone analogous composites. It was found that PG composition and geometry dictated the weight loss, ionic release, and mechanical properties of the composites. It

  17. Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, F. J.; Ginebra, M. P.; Planell, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    It is well know that the Science and Technology of Biomaterials is very recent; so much so that there are still no solid regulations concerning the biocompatibility of biomaterials. This article aims to give an introduction to the concept of the Biomaterial, as well as describing the differing types of biomaterial and their medical and surgical applications. Biomaterials is an interdisciplinary subject which should involve mechanical and material engineering, designers and cellular biologists...

  18. Application of poly(trimethylene carbonate) and calcium phosphate composite biomaterials in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Ni

    2017-01-01

    This thesis has been dedicated to explore the feasibilities of applying composite biomaterials to bone reconstruction in jawbones and skulls. The composite biomaterials used in our studies are composed of a polymer matrix and various calcium phosphate particles. The polymer matrix is made of a

  19. Biomaterial-Derived Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles for Enteric Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Render

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral drug delivery systems provide the most convenient, noninvasive, readily acceptable alternatives to parenteral systems. In the current work, eggshell-derived calcium carbonate (CaCO3 nanoparticles were used to develop enteric drug delivery system in the form of tablets. CaCO3 nanoparticles were manufactured using top-down ball-milling method and characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and loaded with 5-fluorouracil as a model drug. Tablets with varying CaCO3 core and binder compositions were fabricated and coated with Eudragit S100 or Eudragit L100. Suitability for enteric delivery of the tablets was tested by oral administration to rabbits and radiography. Radiograph images showed that the tablet remained in the stomach of the rabbit for up to 3 hours. Further modifications of these biomaterial-derived nanoparticles and the coatings will enable manufacturing of stable formulations for slow or controlled release of pharmaceuticals for enteric delivery.

  20. Biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mourik, P.; Van Dam, J.; Picken, S.J.; Ursem, B.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic pathways of living organisms produce biomaterials. Hence, in principle biomaterials are fully sustainable. This does not mean that their processing and application have no impact on the environment, e.g. the recycling of natural rubber remains a problem. Biomaterials are applied in a

  1. Structural and physico-chemical analysis of calcium/strontium substituted, near-invert phosphate based glasses for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, U; Moss, R M; Hossain, K M Z; Kennedy, A R; Barney, E R; Ahmed, I; Hannon, A C

    2017-09-15

    Neutron diffraction, (23)Na and (31)P NMR, and FTIR spectroscopy have been used to investigate the structural effects of substituting CaO with SrO in a 40P2O5·(16-x)CaO·20Na2O·24MgO·xSrO glass, where x is 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16mol%. The (31)P solid-state NMR results showed similar amounts of Q(1) and Q(2) units for all of the multicomponent glasses investigated, showing that the substitution of Sr for Ca has no effect on the phosphate network. The M-O coordinations (M=Mg, Ca, Sr, Na) were determined for binary alkali and alkaline earth metaphosphates using neutron diffraction and broad asymmetric distributions of bond length were observed, with coordination numbers that were smaller and bond lengths that were shorter than in corresponding crystals. The Mg-O coordination number was determined most reliably as 5.0(2). The neutron diffraction results for the multicomponent glasses are consistent with a structural model in which the coordination of Ca, Sr and Na is the same as in the binary metaphosphate glass, whereas there is a definite shift of Mg-O bonds to longer distance. There is also a small but consistent increase in the Mg-O coordination number and the width of the distribution of Mg-O bond lengths, as Sr substitutes for Ca. Functional properties, including glass transition temperatures, thermal processing windows, dissolution rates and ion release profiles were also investigated. Dissolution studies showed a decrease in dissolution rate with initial addition of 4mol% SrO, but further addition of SrO showed little change. The ion release profiles followed a similar trend to the observed dissolution rates. The limited changes in structure and dissolution rates observed for substitution of Ca with Sr in these fixed 40mol% P2O5 glasses were attributed to their similarities in terms of ionic size and charge. Phosphate based glasses are extremely well suited for the delivery of therapeutic ions in biomedical applications, and in particular strontium plays an

  2. Biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Migonney , Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Discovered in the 20th century, biomaterials have contributed to many of the incredible scientific and technological advancements made in recent decades. This book introduces and details the tenets of biomaterials, their relevance in a various fields, practical applications of their products, and potential advancements of the years to come. A comprehensive resource, the text covers the reasons that certain properties of biomaterials contribute to specific applications, and students and researchers will appreciate this exhaustive textbook.

  3. Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    van Mourik, P; van Dam, J; Picken, S.J.; Ursem, B.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic pathways of living organisms produce biomaterials. Hence, in principle biomaterials are fully sustainable. This does not mean that their processing and application have no impact on the environment, e.g. the recycling of natural rubber remains a problem. Biomaterials are applied in a wide range of consumer products, varying from clothing via temporary packaging materials to car parts. Examples are the paper we print on, the wooden table we sit around and the jeans we wear. This ...

  4. Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, F. J.; Ginebra, M. P.; Planell, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    És ben sabut que la Ciència i Tecnologia dels Biomaterials és una disciplina de creació molt recent. Fins al punt que encara no existeix una normativa sòlida relativa a l'avaluació de la biocomptabilitat dels biomaterials. El treball que presentem pretén introduir el concepte de biomaterial i descriure'n els tipus i les aplicacions mèdiques i quirúrgiques. Els biomaterials conformen una àrea interdisciplinària en què han d'intervenir tant enginyers mecànics i de materials com dissenyadors, bi...

  5. Corrosion Behavior of PEO Coatings Formed on AZ31 Alloy in Phosphate-Based Electrolytes with Calcium Acetate Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaei, E.; Atapour, M.; Edris, H.; Hakimizad, A.

    2017-07-01

    The PEO coating started on magnesium AZ31 using a unipolar DC power source. The coating was generated in the electrolyte based on Na3PO4·12H2O and KOH with calcium acetate as additive. The x-ray diffraction method showed some phases containing calcium and phosphate, which was created in the presence of additive. Also, the EDS tests of the sample's surfaces proved the existence of calcium on the surface. Based on the electrochemical tests results, the most corrosion resistance belongs to the sample with calcium acetate additive. In fact, the results of the EIS tests showed the coating with calcium acetate has the highest resistance but the lowest capacitance. However, this state belongs to the surface morphology, the lower porosity, and surface chemical composition.

  6. Muscle as an osteoinductive niche for local bone formation with the use of a biphasic calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite biomaterial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raina, D. B.; Gupta, A.; Petersen, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We have observed clinical cases where bone is formed in the overlaying muscle covering surgically created bone defects treated with a hydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate biomaterial. Our objective was to investigate the osteoinductive potential of the biomaterial and to determine if growth...... as an osteoinductive niche, and provides the required cells for bone formation....

  7. Osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijia; Shi, Yujun; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2013-04-01

    Although osteoinduction mechanism of calcium phosphate (CP) ceramics is still unclear, several essential properties have been reported, such as chemical composition, pore size and porosity, etc. In this study, calcium phosphate powder (Ca3(PO4)2, CaP, group 1), biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic powder (BCP, group 2), and intact BCP rods (group 3) were implanted into leg muscles of mice and dorsal muscles of rabbits. One month and three months after implantation, samples were harvested for biological and histological analysis. New bone tissues were observed in 10/10 samples in group 1, 3/10 samples in group 2, and 9/10 samples in group 3 at 3rd month in mice, but not in rabbits. In vitro, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured with trace CaP and BCP powder, and osteogenic differentiation was observed at day 7. Our results suggested that chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison and preparation of multilayered polylactic acid fabric strengthen calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Yang, Jia-Kai; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lin, Jia-Horng

    2016-03-01

    An attempt to maintain the three-dimensional space into restorative sites through the conveniently pack porous fillers are general used strategy. Advancement in the manufacturing protective shells in the scaffolds, which would be filled with brittle ceramic grafts for the development of highly connective pores provides the approach to solve crack problem for generating the tissues. Therefore, multilayered braided and alkalized poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) were synthesized and compared. The PLA/CPC composites were divided into various groups according to a series of heat-treatment temperatures (100-190 °C) and periods (1-3 h) and then characterized. The effects of 24-h immersion on the strength decay resistance of the samples were compared. Results showed that the residual oil capped on the surfaces of alkalized PLA braid was removed, and the structure was unaltered. However, the reduced tensile stress of alkalized PLA braids was due to ester-group formation by hydrolysis. Mechanical test results of PLA/CPC composites showed that the strength significantly increased after heat treatment, except when the heating temperature was higher than the PLA melting point at approximately 160-170 °C. The degree of PLA after recrystallization became higher than that of unheated composites, thereby leading to reduced strength and toughness of the specimen. Braiding fibers of biodegradable PLA reinforced and toughened the structure particularly of the extra-brittle material of thin-sheet CPC after implantation.

  9. In vivo biocompatibility of new nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid complex biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenyu; Li, Yue; Lu, Weizhong; Jiang, Dianming; Li, Hong; Yan, Yonggang; Lv, Guoyu; Yang, Aiping

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the compatibility of novel nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid (n-CDHA/PAA) complex biomaterials with muscle and bone tissue in an in vivo model. Thirty-two New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. Biomaterials were surgically implanted into each rabbit in the back erector spinae and in tibia with induced defect. Polyethylene was implanted into rabbits in the control group and n-CDHA/PAA into those of the experimental group. Animals were examined at four different points in time: 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after surgery. They were euthanized after embolization. Back erector spinae muscles with the surgical implants were examined after hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining at these points in time. Tibia bones with the surgical implants were examined by X-ray and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at these points in time to evaluate the interface of the bone with the implanted biomaterials. Bone tissues were sectioned and subjected to HE, Masson, and toluidine blue staining. HE staining of back erector spinae muscles at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after implantation of either n-CDHA/PAA or polyethylene showed disappearance of inflammation and normal arrangement in the peripheral tissue of implant biomaterials; no abnormal staining was observed. At 2 weeks after implantation, X-ray imaging of bone tissue samples in both experimental and control groups showed that the peripheral tissues of the implanted biomaterials were continuous and lacked bone osteolysis, absorption, necrosis, or osteomyelitis. The connection between implanted biomaterials and bone tissue was tight. The results of HE, Masson, toluidine blue staining and SEM confirmed that the implanted biomaterials were closely connected to the bone defect and that no rejection had taken place. The n-CDHA/PAA biomaterials induced differentiation of a large number of chondrocytes. New bone trabecula began to form at 4 weeks after implanting n

  10. Evaluation and comparison of the efficacy of low fluoridated and calcium phosphate-based dentifrice formulations when used with powered and manual toothbrush in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Prateek; Peshwani, Bharti; Tiwari, Shilpi; Thakur, Ruchi; Shashikiran, N D; Singla, Shilpy

    2015-09-01

    Autism is a neurobiological disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, communication difficulties, and lacking manual dexterity. These limitations make the oral hygiene maintenance very difficult. The aim of this present study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of low fluoridated and calcium phosphate-based dentifrice formulations when used with powered and manual toothbrush in children with autism. Sample comprised 22 children with autism who daily visited a day care and education center named ARUSHI - a center for children with special health care needs in Bhopal. Children were divided into two groups (Group A and B) according to toothbrush used and further divided into subgroups (A1 and B1 [low fluoridated - Pediflor toothpaste] and A2 and B2 [calcium sucrose phosphate - Enafix toothpaste]). Oral hygiene instructions and brushing technique demonstration were given every day for a period of 1-month. Oral health status was evaluated before and after the study using simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) and its Miglani's modification for primary dentition, plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)/deft index. The perception of parents regarding oral hygiene practices for their kids was also evaluated by an awareness and attitude questionnaire. OHI-S, GI, PI, and DMFT/deft were statistically evaluated using Mann-Whitney U- test. Mean value of OHI-S decreased significantly with powered toothbrush (0.035 [P < 0.05]) in both groups. However, PI decreased significantly for Enafix when used with powered toothbrush (0.042 [P < 0.05]). Perception of parents was seen to improve significantly after 1-month study (0.000 [P < 0.05]).

  11. Evaluation and comparison of the efficacy of low fluoridated and calcium phosphate-based dentifrice formulations when used with powered and manual toothbrush in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Awasthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a neurobiological disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, communication difficulties, and lacking manual dexterity. These limitations make the oral hygiene maintenance very difficult. Aim: The aim of this present study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of low fluoridated and calcium phosphate-based dentifrice formulations when used with powered and manual toothbrush in children with autism. Setting and Design: Sample comprised 22 children with autism who daily visited a day care and education center named ARUSHI - a center for children with special health care needs in Bhopal. Methods: Children were divided into two groups (Group A and B according to toothbrush used and further divided into subgroups (A1 and B1 [low fluoridated − Pediflor toothpaste] and A2 and B2 [calcium sucrose phosphate − Enafix toothpaste]. Oral hygiene instructions and brushing technique demonstration were given every day for a period of 1-month. Oral health status was evaluated before and after the study using simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S and its Miglani's modification for primary dentition, plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT/deft index. The perception of parents regarding oral hygiene practices for their kids was also evaluated by an awareness and attitude questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: OHI-S, GI, PI, and DMFT/deft were statistically evaluated using Mann–Whitney U- test. Results and Conclusion: Mean value of OHI-S decreased significantly with powered toothbrush (0.035 [P < 0.05] in both groups. However, PI decreased significantly for Enafix when used with powered toothbrush (0.042 [P < 0.05]. Perception of parents was seen to improve significantly after 1-month study (0.000 [P < 0.05].

  12. Remineralizing amorphous calcium phosphate based composite resins: the influence of inert fillers on monomer conversion, polymerization shrinkage, and microhardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marović, Danijela; Šariri, Kristina; Demoli, Nazif; Ristić, Mira; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Škrtić, Drago; Rosentritt, Martin; Schmalz, Gottfried; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine if the addition of inert fillers to a bioactive dental restorative composite material affects its degree of conversion (DC), polymerization shrinkage (PS), and microhardness (HV). Methods Three amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based composite resins: without added fillers (0-ACP), with 10% of barium-glass fillers (Ba-ACP), and with 10% of silica fillers (Si-ACP), as well as commercial control (Ceram•X, Dentsply DeTrey) were tested in laboratory conditions. The amount of ACP (40%) and the composition of the resin mixture (based on ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate) was the same for all ACP materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the DC (n = 40), 20 min and 72 h after polymerization. Linear PS and Vickers microhardness (n = 40) were also evaluated. The results were analyzed by paired samples t test, ANOVA, and one-way repeated measures ANOVA with Student-Newman-Keuls or Tukey’s post-hoc test (P = 0.05). Results The addition of barium fillers significantly increased the DC (20 min) (75.84 ± 0.62%) in comparison to 0-ACP (73.92 ± 3.08%), but the addition of silica fillers lowered the DC (71.00 ± 0.57%). Ceram•X had the lowest DC (54.93 ± 1.00%) and linear PS (1.01 ± 0.24%) but the highest HV (20.73 ± 2.09). PS was significantly reduced (P < 0.010) in both Ba-ACP (1.13 ± 0.25%) and Si-ACP (1.17 ± 0.19%) compared to 0-ACP (1.43 ± 0.21%). HV was significantly higher in Si-ACP (12.82 ± 1.30) than in 0-ACP (10.54 ± 0.86) and Ba-ACP (10.75 ± 0.62) (P < 0.010). Conclusion Incorporation of inert fillers to bioactive remineralizing composites enhanced their physical-mechanical performance in laboratory conditions. Both added fillers reduced the PS while maintaining high levels of the DC. Silica fillers additionally moderately improved the HV of ACP composites. PMID:27815937

  13. Do Ca2+-adsorbing ceramics reduce the release of calcium ions from gypsum-based biomaterials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcarz, Anna; Zalewska, Justyna; Pałka, Krzysztof; Hajnos, Mieczysław; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Bone implantable materials based on calcium sulfate dihydrate dissolve quickly in tissue liquids and release calcium ions at very high levels. This phenomenon induces temporary toxicity for osteoblasts, may cause local inflammation and delay the healing process. Reduction in the calcium ion release rate by gypsum could be therefore beneficial for the healing of gypsum-filled bone defects. The aim of this study concerned the potential use of calcium phosphate ceramics of various porosities for the reduction of high Ca(2+) ion release from gypsum-based materials. Highly porous ceramics failed to reduce the level of Ca(2+) ions released to the medium in a continuous flow system. However, it succeeded to shorten the period of high calcium level. It was not the phase composition but the high porosity of ceramics that was found crucial for both the shortening of the Ca(2+) release-related toxicity period and intensification of apatite deposition on the composite. Nonporous ceramics was completely ineffective for this purpose and did not show any ability to absorb calcium ions at a significant level. Moreover, according to our observations, complex studies imitating in vivo systems, rather than standard tests, are essential for the proper evaluation of implantable biomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium Sulfate and Platelet-Rich Plasma make a novel osteoinductive biomaterial for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intini Francesco E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the present study we introduce a novel and simple biomaterial able to induce regeneration of bone. We theorized that nourishing a bone defect with calcium and with a large amount of activated platelets may initiate a series of biological processes that culminate in bone regeneration. Thus, we engineered CS-Platelet, a biomaterial based on the combination of Calcium Sulfate and Platelet-Rich Plasma in which Calcium Sulfate also acts as an activator of the platelets, therefore avoiding the need to activate the platelets with an agonist. Methods First, we tested CS-Platelet in heterotopic (muscle and orthotopic (bone bone regeneration bioassays. We then utilized CS-Platelet in a variety of dental and craniofacial clinical cases, where regeneration of bone was needed. Results The heterotopic bioassay showed formation of bone within the muscular tissue at the site of the implantation of CS-Platelet. Results of a quantitative orthotopic bioassay based on the rat calvaria critical size defect showed that only CS-Platelet and recombinant human BMP2 were able to induce a significant regeneration of bone. A non-human primate orthotopic bioassay also showed that CS-Platelet is completely resorbable. In all human clinical cases where CS-Platelet was used, a complete bone repair was achieved. Conclusion This study showed that CS-Platelet is a novel biomaterial able to induce formation of bone in heterotopic and orthotopic sites, in orthotopic critical size bone defects, and in various clinical situations. The discovery of CS-Platelet may represent a cost-effective breakthrough in bone regenerative therapy and an alternative or an adjuvant to the current treatments.

  15. Calcium Sulfate and Platelet-Rich Plasma make a novel osteoinductive biomaterial for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, Giuseppe; Andreana, Sebastiano; Intini, Francesco E; Buhite, Robert J; Bobek, Libuse A

    2007-01-01

    Background With the present study we introduce a novel and simple biomaterial able to induce regeneration of bone. We theorized that nourishing a bone defect with calcium and with a large amount of activated platelets may initiate a series of biological processes that culminate in bone regeneration. Thus, we engineered CS-Platelet, a biomaterial based on the combination of Calcium Sulfate and Platelet-Rich Plasma in which Calcium Sulfate also acts as an activator of the platelets, therefore avoiding the need to activate the platelets with an agonist. Methods First, we tested CS-Platelet in heterotopic (muscle) and orthotopic (bone) bone regeneration bioassays. We then utilized CS-Platelet in a variety of dental and craniofacial clinical cases, where regeneration of bone was needed. Results The heterotopic bioassay showed formation of bone within the muscular tissue at the site of the implantation of CS-Platelet. Results of a quantitative orthotopic bioassay based on the rat calvaria critical size defect showed that only CS-Platelet and recombinant human BMP2 were able to induce a significant regeneration of bone. A non-human primate orthotopic bioassay also showed that CS-Platelet is completely resorbable. In all human clinical cases where CS-Platelet was used, a complete bone repair was achieved. Conclusion This study showed that CS-Platelet is a novel biomaterial able to induce formation of bone in heterotopic and orthotopic sites, in orthotopic critical size bone defects, and in various clinical situations. The discovery of CS-Platelet may represent a cost-effective breakthrough in bone regenerative therapy and an alternative or an adjuvant to the current treatments. PMID:17343737

  16. A facile magnesium-containing calcium carbonate biomaterial as potential bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fupo; Zhang, Jing; Tian, Xiumei; Wu, Shanghua; Chen, Xiaoming

    2015-12-01

    The calcium carbonate is the main composition of coral which has been widely used as bone graft in clinic. Herein, we readily prepared novel magnesium-containing calcium carbonate biomaterials (MCCs) under the low-temperature conditions based on the dissolution-recrystallization reaction between unstable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and metastable vaterite-type calcium carbonate with water involved. The content of magnesium in MCCs was tailored by adjusting the proportion of ACC starting material that was prepared using magnesium as stabilizer. The phase composition of MCCs with various amounts of magnesium was composed of one, two or three kinds of calcium carbonates (calcite, aragonite, and/or magnesian calcite). The different MCCs differed in topography. The in vitro degradation of MCCs accelerated with increasing amount of introduced magnesium. The MCCs with a certain amount of magnesium not only acquired higher compressive strength, but also promoted in vitro cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, the facile MCCs shed light on their potential as bone graft. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A preliminary report on histological outcome of pulpotomy with endodontic biomaterials vs calcium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimani, Ali; Asgary, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the study was to evaluate human dental pulp response to pulpotomy with calcium hydroxide (CH), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Materials and Methods A total of nine erupted third molars were randomly assigned to each pulpotomy group. The same clinician performed full pulpotomies and coronal restorations. The patients were followed clinically for six months; the teeth were then extracted and prepared for histological assessments. The samples were blindly assessed by an independent observer for pulp vitality, pulp inflammation, and calcified bridge formation. Results All patients were free of clinical signs/symptoms of pulpal/periradicular diseases during the follow up period. In CH group, one tooth had necrotic radicular pulp; other two teeth in this group had vital uninflamed pulps with complete dentinal bridge formation. In CEM cement and MTA groups all teeth had vital uninflamed radicular pulps. A complete dentinal bridge was formed beneath CEM cement and MTA in all roots. Odontoblast-like cells were present beneath CEM cement and MTA in all samples. Conclusions This study revealed that CEM cement and MTA were reliable endodontic biomaterials in full pulpotomy treatment. In contrast, the human dental pulp response to CH might be unpredictable. PMID:24303358

  18. Development of a new antibacterial biomaterial by tetracycline immobilization on calcium-alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozseker, Emine Erdogan; Akkaya, Alper

    2016-10-20

    In recent years, increasing risk of infection, caused by resistant microorganism to antibiotics, has become the limelight discovery of new and natural antibacterial materials. Heavy metals, such as silver, copper, mercury and titanium, have antibacterial activity. Products, which improved these metals, do not have stable antibacterial property. Therefore, use of these products is restricted. The aim of this study was to immobilize tetracycline to alginate and improve an antibacterial biomaterial. For this purpose, calcium-alginate beads were formed by dropping to calcium-chloride solution and tetracycline was immobilized to beads using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide at optimum conditions. After immobilization, actualization of immobilization was investigated by analyzing ATR-FTIR spectrum and SEM images. Also, antibacterial property of obtained product was tested. Improved product demonstrated antibacterial property. It has potential for open wound, surgical drapes, bed and pillow sheath in hospitals and it may also be used for increasing human comfort in daily life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A preliminary report on histological outcome of pulpotomy with endodontic biomaterials vs calcium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nosrat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of the study was to evaluate human dental pulp response to pulpotomy with calcium hydroxide (CH, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, and calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement. Materials and Methods A total of nine erupted third molars were randomly assigned to each pulpotomy group. The same clinician performed full pulpotomies and coronal restorations. The patients were followed clinically for six months; the teeth were then extracted and prepared for histological assessments. The samples were blindly assessed by an independent observer for pulp vitality, pulp inflammation, and calcified bridge formation. Results All patients were free of clinical signs/symptoms of pulpal/periradicular diseases during the follow up period. In CH group, one tooth had necrotic radicular pulp; other two teeth in this group had vital uninflamed pulps with complete dentinal bridge formation. In CEM cement and MTA groups all teeth had vital uninflamed radicular pulps. A complete dentinal bridge was formed beneath CEM cement and MTA in all roots. Odontoblast-like cells were present beneath CEM cement and MTA in all samples. Conclusions This study revealed that CEM cement and MTA were reliable endodontic biomaterials in full pulpotomy treatment. In contrast, the human dental pulp response to CH might be unpredictable.

  20. Biocalcite, a multifunctional inorganic polymer: Building block for calcareous sponge spicules and bioseed for the synthesis of calcium phosphate-based bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate is the material that builds up the spicules of the calcareous sponges. Recent results revealed that the calcium carbonate/biocalcite-based spicular skeleton of these animals is formed through an enzymatic mechanism, such as the skeleton of the siliceous sponges, evolutionarily the oldest animals that consist of biosilica. The enzyme that mediates the calcium carbonate deposition has been identified as a carbonic anhydrase (CA and has been cloned from the calcareous sponge species Sycon raphanus. Calcium carbonate deposits are also found in vertebrate bones besides the main constituent, calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA. Evidence has been presented that during the initial phase of HA synthesis poorly crystalline carbonated apatite is deposited. Recent data summarized here indicate that during early bone formation calcium carbonate deposits enzymatically formed by CA, act as potential bioseeds for the precipitation of calcium phosphate mineral onto bone-forming osteoblasts. Two different calcium carbonate phases have been found during CA-driven enzymatic calcium carbonate deposition in in vitro assays: calcite crystals and round-shaped vaterite deposits. The CA provides a new target of potential anabolic agents for treatment of bone diseases; a first CA activator stimulating the CA-driven calcium carbonate deposition has been identified. In addition, the CA-driven calcium carbonate crystal formation can be frozen at the vaterite state in the presence of silintaphin-2, an aspartic acid/glutamic acid-rich sponge-specific protein. The discovery that calcium carbonate crystals act as bioseeds in human bone formation may allow the development of novel biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Na-alginate hydrogels, enriched with biosilica, have recently been demonstrated as a suitable matrix to embed bone forming cells for rapid prototyping bioprinting/3D cell printing applications.

  1. The effects of microporosity on osteoinduction of calcium phosphate bone graft substitute biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, O; Coathup, M J; Nesbitt, A; Ho, C-Y; Hing, K A; Buckland, T; Campion, C; Blunn, G W

    2012-07-01

    The effect of increasing strut porosity on the osteoinductive ability of silicate substituted calcium phosphate (SiCaP) biomaterials was investigated in an ectopic ovine model. Implants with strut porosities of 22.5%, 32.0% and 46.0% were inserted into the parapsinalis muscle. At 8, 12 and 24 weeks histological sections were prepared. Sections were examined using backscattered scanning electron microscopy and un-decalcified histology. Bone area, implant area and bone-implant contact were quantified. At 8 weeks there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of bone area and implant area. However at 12 weeks, the amount of bone formation observed was significantly greater in SiCaP-46 (6.17 ± 1.51%) when compared with SiCaP-22.5 (1.33 ± 0.84%) p=0.035. Results also showed significantly increased amounts of bone-implant contact to the SiCaP-46 scaffold (3.30 ± 1.17%) compared with SiCaP-22.5 (0.67 ± 0.52%, p=0.043) at 8 weeks and 12 weeks; (SiCaP-46 (21.82 ± 5.59%) vs SiCaP-22.5 (3.06 ± 1.89%), p=0.012). At 24 weeks, bone formation and graft resorption had significantly increased in all groups so that the level of bone formation in the SiCaP-46 group had increased 75-fold to 30.05 ± 8.38%. Bone formation was observed in pores osteoinductive. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative evaluation of enamel remineralization potential of processed cheese, calcium phosphate-based synthetic agent, and a fluoride-containing toothpaste: An in situ study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Grewal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enamel remineralization potential of variety of products has been established, but there is a lack of evidence of comparison of remineralization potential of natural versus synthetic products. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the enamel remineralization potential of saliva, cheese, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP-based synthetic agent, and fluoride toothpaste. Design: In situ study was carried out on sixty individuals who wore an intraoral appliance containing demineralized enamel slabs for each agent. One out of six slabs was kept as a control so as to record the baseline values (neither subjected to demineralization nor remineralization. Experimental agents were applied on the designated enamel slabs on day 1, 4, 7, and 10 with a crossover wash out period of 7 days. Quantitative values of mineral content of slab were measured using energy dispersive X-ray and qualitative changes in surface topography of slab were seen under scanning electron microscope at ×20K magnification. Results: Highly significant changes from baseline values were seen in calcium and phosphorus content of slabs treated with cheese and CPP-ACP-based agent whereas levels of fluoride were significantly higher in enamel slabs treated with fluoride-containing toothpaste. Conclusion: Cheese is an organic, economical, and user-friendly option over prescribed synthetic agents. A synergistic effect of fluoride-containing toothpaste with intake of cheese could be a good enamel remineralization protocol.

  3. Novel nanocomposite biomaterials with controlled copper/calcium release capability for bone tissue engineering multifunctional scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Cattalini, J. P.; A. Hoppe; Pishbin, F.; Roether, J; Boccaccini, A.R.; Lucangioli, S.; Mouriño, V.

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to develop novel composite biomaterials for bone tissue engineering (BTE) made of bioactive glass nanoparticles (Nbg) and alginate cross-linked with Cu2+ or Ca2+ (AlgNbgCu, AlgNbgCa, respectively). Two-dimensional scaffolds were prepared and the nanocomposite biomaterials were characterized in terms of morphology, mechanical strength, bioactivity, biodegradability, swelling capacity, release profile of the cross-linking cations and angiogenic properties. It was found that both...

  4. Ethanolysis conversion of spent frying oils over aluminium, calcium-phosphate based bi-functional formulated catalysts. Catalytic activity assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Zaini, Essam O.; Chesterfield, Dean; Adesina, Adesoji A. [The Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Reactor Engineering and Technology Group; Olsen, John [The Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2013-06-01

    The current study compares the catalytic performance of two bi-functional solid catalysts for the transesterification of waste cooking vegetable oil in presence of bio-ethanol acyl-acceptor. The two catalysts were aluminum oxide and seashell-derived calcium oxide supported K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The catalytic activity of the produced catalyst samples were assessed and evaluated in terms of their textural and surface chemical properties. Evaluative runs showed that increased amounts of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} have differently controlled the textural and surface chemical property of the finally synthesised catalyst samples. The behaviour revealed a strong correlation between the percentage yield of ethyl esters EEY% and acid-base site density and strength between the two types of catalysts. Possible leaching test of the catalysts was also used as a measure of performance and as a result, the optimum catalyst, on the basis of both ester yield and resistance to leaching was identified as the sample containing between 10 and 15wt% of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} on AlO{sub 3} and CaO respectively. (orig.)

  5. One-step synthesized calcium phosphate-based material for the removal of alizarin S dye from aqueous solutions: isothermal, kinetics, and thermodynamics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Abideen Idowu; Babu, Ramesh Balakrishnan

    2015-07-01

    Calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite (Ca-Hap) synthesized from CaCO3 and H3PO5, it was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray diffraction. The Ca-Hap was used for the removal of Alizarin Red S dye from its aqueous solution. The kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamic of the adsorption of the dye onto the Ca-Hap were investigated. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, pH as well as temperature on adsorption capacity of Ca-Hap were studied. Experimental data were analyzed using six model equations: Langmuir, Freudlinch, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Sips isotherms and it was found that the data fitted well with Sips and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovic, and Avrami kinetic models were used to test the experimental data in order to elucidate the kinetic adsorption process and it was found that pseudo-second-order model best fit the data. The calculated thermodynamics parameters (∆G°, ∆H° and ∆S°) indicated that the process is spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  6. Ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering-X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy studies of incipient structural changes in amorphous calcium phosphate-based dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J; Levine, Lyle E; Espinal, Laura; Antonucci, Joseph M; Skrtic, Drago; O'Donnell, Justin N R; Ilavsky, Jan

    2012-05-01

    The local structural changes in amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based dental composites were studied under isothermal conditions using both static, bulk measurement techniques and a recently developed methodology based on combined ultra-small angle X-ray scattering-X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (USAXS-XPCS), which permits a dynamic approach. While results from conventional bulk measurements do not show clear signs of structural change, USAXS-XPCS results reveal unambiguous evidence for local structural variations on a similar time scale to that of water loss in the ACP fillers. A thermal-expansion-based simulation indicates that thermal behavior alone does not account for the observed dynamics. Together, these results suggest that changes in the water content of ACP affect the composite morphology due to changes in ACP structure that occur without an amorphous-to-crystalline conversion. It is also noted that biomedical materials research could benefit greatly from USAXS-XPCS, a dynamic approach. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Novel nanocomposite biomaterials with controlled copper/calcium release capability for bone tissue engineering multifunctional scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattalini, J P; Hoppe, A; Pishbin, F; Roether, J; Boccaccini, A R; Lucangioli, S; Mouriño, V

    2015-09-06

    This work aimed to develop novel composite biomaterials for bone tissue engineering (BTE) made of bioactive glass nanoparticles (Nbg) and alginate cross-linked with Cu(2+) or Ca(2+) (AlgNbgCu, AlgNbgCa, respectively). Two-dimensional scaffolds were prepared and the nanocomposite biomaterials were characterized in terms of morphology, mechanical strength, bioactivity, biodegradability, swelling capacity, release profile of the cross-linking cations and angiogenic properties. It was found that both Cu(2+) and Ca(2+) are released in a controlled and sustained manner with no burst release observed. Finally, in vitro results indicated that the bioactive ions released from both nanocomposite biomaterials were able to stimulate the differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells towards the osteogenic lineage. In addition, the typical endothelial cell property of forming tubes in Matrigel was observed for human umbilical vein endothelial cells when in contact with the novel biomaterials, particularly AlgNbgCu, which indicates their angiogenic properties. Hence, novel nanocomposite biomaterials made of Nbg and alginate cross-linked with Cu(2+) or Ca(2+) were developed with potential applications for preparation of multifunctional scaffolds for BTE. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. A multinuclear solid state NMR spectroscopic study of the structural evolution of disordered calcium silicate sol-gel biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongjie; Jones, Julian R; Hanna, John V; Smith, Mark E

    2015-01-28

    Disordered sol-gel prepared calcium silicate biomaterials show significant, composition dependent ability to bond with bone. Bone bonding is attributed to rapid hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) formation on the glass surface after immersion in body fluid (or implantation). Atomic scale details of the development of the structure of (CaO)x(SiO2)1-x (x = 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5) under heat treatment and subsequent dissolution in simulated body fluid (SBF) are revealed through a multinuclear solid state NMR approach using one-dimensional (17)O, (29)Si, (31)P and (1)H. Central to this study is the combination of conventional static and magic angle spinning (MAS) and two-dimensional (2D) triple quantum (3Q) (17)O NMR experiments that can readily distinguish and quantify the bridging (BOs) and non-bridging (NBOs) oxygens in the silicate network. Although soluble calcium is present in the sol, the (17)O NMR results reveal that the sol-gel produced network structure is initially dominated by BOs after gelation, aging and drying (e.g. at 120 °C), indicating a nanoscale mixture of the calcium salt and a predominantly silicate network. Only once the calcium salt is decomposed at elevated temperatures do the Ca(2+) ions become available to break BO. Apatite forming ability in SBF depends strongly on the surface OH and calcium content. The presence of calcium aids HCA formation via promotion of surface hydration and the ready availability of Ca(2+) ions. (17)O NMR shows the rapid loss of NBOs charge balanced by calcium as it is leached into the SBF. The formation of nanocrystalline, partially ordered HCA can be detected via(31)P NMR. This data indicates the importance of achieving the right balance of BO/NBO for optimal biochemical response and network properties.

  9. Preparation of calcium carbonate as nanoparticles from inorganic precursors and sucrose as additive with potential application as biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabaita, F.; Mahtout, L.; Perez Villarejo, L.; Carrasco Hurtado, B.; Sanchez Soto, P.J.

    2016-07-01

    In this communication, it is reported the first relevant results on a broad study on the preparation of calcium carbonate as precipitated nanoparticles of the polymorphs vaterite and calcite. The inorganic precursors are calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and sodium hydrogencarbonate, and the organic additive is sucrose in aqueous solution. The crystalline phases are studied by X-Ray powder diffraction, using a quantitative method, and the particle morphologies using scanning electron microscopy. When the organic additive is not used, calcite as the most thermodynamically stable polymorph is precipitated as nanocrystalline predominant phase (83%) mixed with vaterite. Using a high concentration of the organic additive (67%), vaterite is precipitated as the nanocrystalline predominant phase (>98%). Using the additive in variable proportion produces the precipitation of the 2 polymorphs, being vaterite always the predominant phase. The morphology of the precipitated calcium carbonate shows nanospherical uniform particles with irregular contourns of vaterite and characteristic rhomboedral particles of calcite when this phase is present. According to the biocompatibility, this material shows interest in applications as biomaterial in bone implants. (Author)

  10. Development of calcium phosphate based bioceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Ritter 1997; Suchanek and. Yoshimura 1998). Bioglasses are an important ..... Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, National. Institute of Health, NIH Pub. No. 80-275) 2nd ed. p. 32. Engin N Ö and Tas, A C 2000 J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

  11. Development of calcium phosphate based bioceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Histological studies showed that A–W glass ceramic implanted in the tibia of rat formed an intimate contact with newly grown bone and provided enough strength to the bone to bear the animal weight. Implants made of Ca–P–O glass was almost fully resorbed and was replaced by new bone. The implants made of both the ...

  12. Chicken eggshells (Gallus gallus domesticus) as carbonate calcium source for biomaterials production; Casca de ovo de galinha caipira (gallus gallus domesticus), como fonte de carbonato de calcio para producao de biomateriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R.C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M. O.C.; Bradim, A.S., E-mail: angelcassiasasilva@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui (FIPI), PI (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The eggshells present high levels of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate obtained from eggshells has been used in the production of biomaterials with applications in bone regeneration, since it is biocompatible. In this work, calcium carbonate was obtained from eggshells to prepare a composite biomaterial. The presence of calcium carbonate bands was observed through spectrometry in the infrared region. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of calcium carbonate particles with different sizes and shapes. Carbonate predominance in the form of calcite was also observed through the X-ray diffraction.

  13. Editorial on the original article entitled "3D printing of composite calcium phosphate and collagen scaffolds for bone regeneration" published in the Biomaterials on February 14, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Jiang, Qing

    2015-05-01

    The paper entitled "3D printing of composite calcium phosphate and collagen scaffolds for bone regeneration" published in the Biomaterials recently illuminated the way to make particular scaffolds with calcium phosphate (CaP) powder, phosphoric acid, type I collagen and Tween 80 in low temperature. After the optimal concentration of each component was determined, the scaffolds were evaluated in a critically sized murine femoral defect model and exhibited good material properties. We made some related introduction of materials applied in 3D printing for bone tissue engineering based on this article to demonstrate the current progress in this field of study.

  14. Push-Out Bond Strength and Surface Microhardness of Calcium Silicate-Based Biomaterials: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Abdul; AlShwaimi, Emad

    2017-01-01

    This was an in vitro evaluation of push-out bond strength and surface microhardness of calcium silicate-based biomaterials in coronal and apical root dentin. Ninety sections (2 mm thick) of coronal and apical root dentin were obtained from roots of 60 extracted teeth; the canals were enlarged to a standardized cavity diameter of 1.3 mm. Sections were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 15 per group), and cavities were filled with Biodentine™, BioAggregate, or ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), according to the manufacturers' instructions. Push-out bond strength values were measured using a universal testing machine under a compressive load at a speed of 1 mm/min. Samples were analyzed under a light microscope to determine the nature of bond failure. Ten samples (2 mm thick) were prepared for all the materials, and Vickers microhardness was determined using a digital hardness tester. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests at a significance level of p microhardness and BioAggregate (68.79 HV) showed the lowest hardness. Biodentine and ProRoot MTA showed higher bond strength and microhardness compared to BioAggregate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Development and characterization of a novel bioresorbable and bioactive biomaterial based on polyvinyl acetate, calcium carbonate and coralline hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aragón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Coralina® HAP-200 (coralline hydroxyapatite obtained by hydrothermal treatment of marine corals and POVIAC® (polymeric matrix based on PVAc, commercial trade marks were mixed with a natural product from the Cuban sea costs, i.e. calcium carbonate from Porites Porites coral, to obtain a novel bioactive composite with potential use as bone restoration material. The samples were characterized by physical-chemical (FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDS and mechanical studies. It was shown that there is no chemical interaction between the inorganic filler and the polymer matrix, each conserving the original properties of the raw materials. The studied formulation had a compressive strength similar to that reported for trabecular bone. Scanning electron microscopy examination revealed that the addition of CaCO3 induces a change on the morphologic structure of the composite obtained after 30 days of SBF immersion. These composites generate novel biomaterials capable of promoting the deposition of a new phase, a Ca-P layer due to the bioactivity of a Ca2+ precursors.

  16. Effect of increased strut porosity of calcium phosphate bone graft substitute biomaterials on osteoinduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coathup, Melanie J; Hing, Karin A; Samizadeh, Sorousheh; Chan, Oliver; Fang, Yvette S; Campion, Charlie; Buckland, Thomas; Blunn, Gordon W

    2012-06-01

    The effect of increasing strut porosity on the osteoinductivity of porous calcium phosphate (CaP) and silicate-substituted calcium phosphate (SiCaP) bone substitute materials was investigated in an ovine ectopic model. One to two millimeter-sized granules or block implants with strut porosities of 10, 20, or 30% were inserted into the left and right paraspinalis muscle. At 12 weeks, histological sections were prepared through the center of each implant and bone contact, bone area and implant area quantified. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy (bSEM) was used to visualize bone within small pores in the struts of the scaffolds. Increased bone formation was measured in the SiCaP with 30% strut porosity (5.482% ± 1.546%) when compared with the nonsilicate CaP with the same morphology (1.160% ± 0.502%, p = 0.02), indicating that silicate substitution may increase osteoinduction. Greater bone formation was seen in scaffolds with increased strut porosity. No bone growth was found in any of the SiCaP scaffold with 10% porosity. There was no significant difference between block and granule specimens. Scanning electron microscopy and EDX in combination with histology demonstrated bone formation within pores <5 μm in size. The use of silicate-substituted CaP material with increased strut porosity may further augment repair and regeneration in bony sites. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Push-Out Bond Strength and Surface Microhardness of Calcium Silicate-Based Biomaterials: An in vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Abdul; AlShwaimi, Emad

    2017-01-01

    Objective This was an in vitro evaluation of push-out bond strength and surface microhardness of calcium silicate-based biomaterials in coronal and apical root dentin. Materials and Methods Ninety sections (2 mm thick) of coronal and apical root dentin were obtained from roots of 60 extracted teeth; the canals were enlarged to a standardized cavity diameter of 1.3 mm. Sections were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 15 per group), and cavities were filled with Biodentine™, BioAggregate, or ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), according to the manufacturers' instructions. Push-out bond strength values were measured using a universal testing machine under a compressive load at a speed of 1 mm/min. Samples were analyzed under a light microscope to determine the nature of bond failure. Ten samples (2 mm thick) were prepared for all the materials, and Vickers microhardness was determined using a digital hardness tester. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests at a significance level of p Biodentine (42.02; 39.35 MPa) and ProRoot MTA (21.86; 34.13 MPa) showed significantly higher bond strengths than BioAggregate (6.63; 10.09 MPa) in coronal and apical root dentin, respectively (p Biodentine also differed significantly from ProRoot MTA in coronal dentin. Bond failure was predominantly adhesive in Biodentine and ProRoot MTA, while BioAggregate showed predominantly mixed failure. ProRoot MTA (158.52 HV) showed significantly higher microhardness and BioAggregate (68.79 HV) showed the lowest hardness. Conclusion Biodentine and ProRoot MTA showed higher bond strength and microhardness compared to BioAggregate. PMID:27852076

  18. Degradation of zinc containing phosphate-based glass as a material for orthopedic tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaysi, Mustafa Al; Petrie, Aviva; Shah, Rishma; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2016-10-01

    Phosphate-based glasses have been examined in many studies as a potential biomaterial for bone repair because of its degradation properties, which can be controlled and allow the release of various elements to promote osteogenic tissue growth. However most of these experiments studied either tertiary or quaternary glass systems. This study investigated a qinternary system that included titanium dioxide for degradation rate control and zinc that is considered to have a role in bone formation. Zinc and titanium phosphate glass discs of different compositions were melt synthesized and samples of each composition was tested for different physical, chemical and biological characteristics via density measurement, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, mass loss, ion release, scanning electron microscopy, biocompatibility studies via live/dead assays at three time points (day 1, 4, and 7). The results showed that the glass was amorphous and that the all thermal variables decreased as zinc oxide amount raised, mass loss as well as ion release increased as zinc oxide increased, and the maximum rise was with ZnO15. The cellular studies showed that all the formulation showed similar cytocompatibility properties with MG63 except ZnO15, which displayed cytotoxic properties and this was confirmed also by the scanning electron microscope images. In conclusion, replacing calcium oxide with zinc oxide in proportion less than 10 % can have a positive effect on bone forming cells.

  19. Biphasic calcium phosphates bioceramics (HA/TCP): Concept, physicochemical properties and the impact of standardization of study protocols in biomaterials research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Botelho, Michael G; Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2017-02-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP) bioceramics have become the materials of choice in various orthopedic and maxillofacial bone repair procedures. One of their main advantages is their biodegradation rate that can be modified by changing the proportional ratio of the composition phases. For enhanced bone tissue regeneration, the bioactivity of BCP should be increased by optimizing their physicochemical properties. To date, the ideal physicochemical properties of BCP for bone applications have not been defined. This is mostly related to lack of standard study protocols in biomaterial science especially with regards to their characterizations and clinical applications. In this paper we provided a review on BCP and their physicochemical properties relevant to clinical applications. In addition, we summarized the available literature on their use in animal models and evaluated the influences of different composition ratios on bone healing. Controversies in literature with regards to ideal composition ratio of BCP have also been discussed in detail. We illustrated the discrepancies in study protocols among researchers in animal studies and emphasized the need to develop and follow a set of generally accepted standardized guidelines. Finally; we provided general recommendations for future pre-clinical studies that allow better standardization of study protocols. This will allow better comparison and contrast of newly developed bone substitute biomaterials that help further progress in the field of biomaterial science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) and measurement of x-ray energy spectra using based calcium phosphate biomaterials: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Z, M. A.; Da Silva, T. A.; Nogueira, M. S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Goncalves Z, E., E-mail: madelon@cdtn.br [Pontifice Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Av. Dom Jose Gaspar 500, Belo Horizonte 30535-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    In dentistry, alveolar bone regeneration procedures using based calcium phosphate biomaterials have been shown effective. However,there are not reports in the literature of studies the interaction of low energy radiation in these biomaterials used as attenuator and not being then allowed a comparison between the theoretical values and experimental.The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of radiation parameters of four dental biomaterials - BioOss, Cerasorb M Dental, Straumann Boneceramic and Osteogen for diagnostic radiology qualities. As a material and methods, the composition of the biomaterials was determined by the analytical techniques. The samples with 0.181 cm to 0,297 cm thickness were experimentally used as attenuators for the measurement of the transmitted X-rays spectra in X-ray equipment with 50 to 90 kV range by spectrometric system comprising the Cd Te detector. After this procedure, the mass attenuation coefficient, the effective atomic number were determined and compared between all the specimens analyzed, using the program WinXCOM in the range of 10 to 200 keV. In all strains examined observed that the energy spectrum of x-rays transmitted through the BioOss has the mean energy slightly smaller than the others biomaterials for close thickness. The μ/ρ and Z{sub eff} of the biomaterials showed its dependence on photon energy and atomic number of the elements of the material analyzed. It is concluded according to the methodology employed in this study that the measurements of x-ray spectrum, μ/ρ and Z{sub eff} using biomaterials as attenuators confirmed that the thickness, density, composition of the samples, the incident photon energy are factors that determine the characteristics of radiation in a tissue or equivalent material. (Author)

  1. Bioinformatics-based selection of a model cell type for in vitro biomaterial testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Nathalie; van de Peppel, Jeroen; Yuan, Huipin; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Boer, Jan

    2013-07-01

    Biomaterial properties can be tailored for specific applications via systematic and high-throughput screening of biomaterial-cell interactions. However, progress in material development is often hampered by the lack of adequate in vitro testing methods, frequently due to incomplete understanding of involved in vivo mechanisms. In line with drug discovery in pharmacology, a crucial step in assay development for biomaterial screening is the identification of a target to direct the screen against. Herein, the cell type to be used for screening is of essential importance and has to be carefully chosen. So far, few attention has been put on selecting a cell type specifically suitable for in vitro testing of materials for predefined applications. In this manuscript, we describe an approach to define a suitable cell type for screening assays, for which biomaterials for bone regeneration served as example. Using a bioinformatics methodology, different cell lines are compared on three well-characterized model materials. The transcriptional profiles of MG63, iMSC, SV-HFO, hPPCT, hBPCT and SW480 cells are assessed on 3 calcium phosphate-based materials to evaluate their potential application in a screening assay. We show that MG63 is the most suitable cell line to evaluate biomaterials for bone regeneration applications, evidenced by their robust gene expression differences between the 3 model materials. The gene expression differences between the cell lines were assessed based on the overall gene expression profiles and specific subsets of genes and pathways related to osteogenesis and bone homeostasis in response to the 3 materials tested. In the next phase, this cell line will be used to identify a target correlating with in vivo biomaterial performance and henceforth to develop an in vitro screening system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP of hydroxyapatite (HA and tricalcium phosphate (TCP as bone substitutes: Importance of physicochemical characterizations in biomaterials studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ebrahimi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Biphasic calcium phosphates bioceramics (HA/TCP: Concept, physicochemical properties and the impact of standardization of study protocols in biomaterials research” [1]. This article provides in depth study of BCP bone substitutes as valuable option in the field of tissue engineering. However, there are discrepancies in the literature regarding the ideal physicochemical properties of BCP and the ideal balance between different phase compositions for enhanced bone tissue engineering (M. Ebrahimi, M.G. Botelho, S.V. Dorozhkin, 2016; M. Ebrahimi, P. Pripatnanont, S. Suttapreyasri, N. Monmaturapoj, 2014 [1,2]. This is found to be mainly because of improper characterization of BCP bioceramics in basic studies and lack of standard study protocols in in vitro and in vivo research. This data article along with original article provide the basic data required for ideal characterization of BCP and other bioceramics in an attempt to provide basic standardized protocols for future studies.

  3. 3D printing of hybrid biomaterials for bone tissue engineering: Calcium-polyphosphate microparticles encapsulated by polycaprolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufurth, Meik; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Shunfeng; Steffen, Renate; Ackermann, Maximilian; Haep, Natalie D; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2017-12-01

    Here we describe the formulation of a morphogenetically active bio-ink consisting of amorphous microparticles (MP) prepared from Ca2+ and the physiological inorganic polymer, polyphosphate (polyP). Those MP had been fortified by mixing with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) to allow 3D-bioprinting. The resulting granular PCL/Ca-polyP-MP hybrid material, liquefied by short-time heating to 100 °C, was used for the 3D-printing of tissue-like scaffolds formed by strands with a thickness of 400 µm and a stacked architecture leaving ≈0.5 mm2-sized open holes enabling cell migration. The printed composite scaffold turned out to combine suitable biomechanical properties (Young's modulus of 1.60 ± 0.1 GPa; Martens hardness of 153 ± 28 MPa), matching those of cortical and trabecular bone, with morphogenetic activity. This scaffold was capable of attracting and promoting the growth of human bone-related SaOS-2 cells as demonstrated by staining for cell viability (Calcein AM), cell density (DRAQ5) and SEM studies. Furthermore, the hybrid material was demonstrated to upregulate the steady-state-expression of the cell migration-inducing chemokine SDF-1α. EDX analysis and FTIR measurements revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the mineral deposits formed on the scaffold surface. Based on the results we conclude that granular PCL/Ca-polyP-MP hybrid material is suitable for the fabrication of bioprintable scaffold which comprises not only biomechanical stability but also morphogenetic potential. In present-day regenerative engineering efforts, biomaterial- and cell-based strategies are proposed that meet the required functional and spatial characteristics and variations, especially in the transition regions between soft (cartilage, tendon or ligament) and hard (bone) tissues. In a biomimetic approach we succeeded to fabricate amorphous Ca-polyP nanoparticles/microparticles which are highly biocompatible. Together with polycaprolactone (PCL), polyP can be bio

  4. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turn to calcium-fortified (or "calcium-set") tofu, soy milk, tempeh, soy yogurt, and cooked soybeans (edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. You can get decent ...

  5. Smart biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Narain, Ravin; Idota, Naokazu; Kim, Young-Jin; Hoffman, John M; Uto, Koichiro; Aoyagi, Takao

    2014-01-01

    This book surveys smart biomaterials, exploring the properties, mechanics and characterization of hydrogels, particles, assemblies, surfaces, fibers and conjugates. Reviews applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, bioseparation and more.

  6. Supramolecular biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Matthew J.; Appel, Eric A.; Meijer, E. W.; Langer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Polymers, ceramics and metals have historically dominated the application of materials in medicine. Yet rationally designed materials that exploit specific, directional, tunable and reversible non-covalent interactions offer unprecedented advantages: they enable modular and generalizable platforms with tunable mechanical, chemical and biological properties. Indeed, the reversible nature of supramolecular interactions gives rise to biomaterials that can sense and respond to physiological cues, or that mimic the structural and functional aspects of biological signalling. In this Review, we discuss the properties of several supramolecular biomaterials, as well as their applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and immunology. We envision that supramolecular biomaterials will contribute to the development of new therapies that combine highly functional materials with unmatched patient- and application-specific tailoring of both material and biological properties.

  7. Biomaterials entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J R

    1988-01-01

    Entrepreneurial companies in biomaterials serve a valuable function in lowering the risk of developing new products and devices. In many cases liability considerations and a pragmatic conservatism make it difficult for established health-care products suppliers to develop new products directly. Biomaterials entrepreneurs encounter more difficulties in achieving commercial success than do entrepreneurs in other fields. For any reasonable profit to be made, the entrepreneur must be able to convert the biomaterial into a useful device. Safety and toxicity test data collection take a minimum of three years to collect, and it is often five or more years before a positive cash flow can be obtained. Start-up funding can be obtained from government agencies, charitable foundations, and private investment capital. A major health-care company can often be attracted once initial successes have been achieved. Biomaterials usage and device design is specific for each function or need. Specific devices that are currently needed are small (c. 4 mm) diameter artificial blood vessels, synthetic skin, and internal prosthetic devices which have better tissue compatibility, abrasion, corrosion, and wear resistance especially for flexing devices such as artificial joints, ligaments and tendons.

  8. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  9. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  10. Engineering of biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    dos Santos, Venina; Savaris, Michele

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on biomaterials of different forms used for medical implants. The authors introduce the characteristics and properties of biomaterials and then dedicate special chapters to metallic, ceramic, polymeric and composite biomaterials. Case studies on sterilization methods by biomaterials are also presented. Finally, the authors describe the degradation and effects of biomaterials in living tissue.

  11. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have ...

  12. Progress in biomaterials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    "Progress in Biomaterials is a multidisciplinary, English-language publication of original contributions and reviews concerning studies of the preparation, performance and evaluation of biomaterial...

  13. Synthesis of calcium aluminate with silicon addition for application in biomaterials; Sintese de aluminato de calcio com adicao de prata para aplicacao em biomateriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, P.J.; Almeida, L.H.S.; Pappen, F.G.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Cava, S.S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil); Veiga, F.C.T.; Jurado, J., E-mail: ati_jg@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic materials have biocompatibility have been studied, researched and applied in various treatments such as endodontics and orthopedics. This study aims to carry out the synthesis by the polymeric precursor method for post calcium trialuminato (C3A) and with addition of 1% and 5% silver, them the powders were calcined in de temperature 1000°C, carried out a comparative study between them. The ceramic powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, having a phase composition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) associated with EDS observed grain morphology and quantity of the chemical elements. The analysis flow, pH, release of calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) and silver ions (Ag{sup +}) were evaluated with the sealer MTA Fillapex result that calcium aluminate addition of silver improved the MTA Fillapex stream with the release of ions Ca{sup +2}, being a material that allows applications in the field of endodontics. (author)

  14. Biomaterial-based regional chemotherapy: Local anticancer drug delivery to enhance chemotherapy and minimize its side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Zak, Jerzy K

    2016-05-01

    Since the majority of anticancer pharmacological agents affect not only cancer tissue but also normal cells, chemotherapy is usually accompanied with severe side effects. Regional chemotherapy, as the alternative version of conventional treatment, leads to the enhancement of the therapeutic efficiency of anticancer drugs and, simultaneously, reduction of toxic effects to healthy tissues. This paper provides an insight into different approaches of local delivery of chemotherapeutics, such as the injection of anticancer agents directly into tumor tissue, the use of injectable in situ forming drug carriers or injectable platforms in a form of implants. The wide range of biomaterials used as reservoirs of anticancer drugs is described, i.e. poly(ethylene glycol) and its copolymers, polyurethanes, poly(lactic acid) and its copolymers, poly(ɛ-caprolactone), polyanhydrides, chitosan, cellulose, cyclodextrins, silk, conducting polymers, modified titanium surfaces, calcium phosphate based biomaterials, silicone and silica implants, as well as carbon nanotubes and graphene. To emphasize the applicability of regional chemotherapy in cancer treatment, the commercially available products approved by the relevant health agencies are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metallic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinomi, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Ti alloys composed of nontoxic and allergy-free elements and Ni-free stainless steels and Co-Cr alloys are currently being developed. Ni-free Ti alloys exhibiting superelastic behavior, or the shape memory effect, are also being developed. beta-type Ti alloy with a low elastic modulus has proved to be effective for inhibiting bone absorption and enhancing bone remodeling. Simple bioactive surface modifications such as alkali-treatment processes and the calcium phosphate glass-ceramic dip-coating method are applicable to newly developed beta-type Ti alloys such as lowmodulus Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr. Blood-compatible polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) have been successfully fixed on the surface of Ti via chemical bonding by an electrodeposition method. Ti alloys for dental applications have also been recently developed.

  16. [Orthopedic biomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedel, L; Nizard, R; Meunier, A

    1995-03-01

    It is very challenging to insure long term security and effectiveness for joint arthroplasties, artificial ligaments, extensive bone replacement and some other orthopaedic biomaterials. How can we predict the long term security and efficacy of such an implant? Only an interdisciplinary approach can provide a satisfactory answer. The surgeon must define the needs, he must find the appropriate surgical techniques and conduct the clinical trial. The material scientist must elaborate safe and secure materials with regards to their biotolerance and mechanical resistance. This has to be performed in close connection with the biomechanics lab. Biomechanic Science must predict the expected stresses. It has to design special simulator to quantify in vitro material toughness, wear characteristics, lubrication, behaviour and surface deformation. Biological and mechanical standardized tests have to be carried on. Then it is possible to conduct a clinical trial, prospectively in comparison to another already developed material. Clinical studies could serve to measure efficacy and radiological modification. After failure, it is possible to analyse retrieved specimen, to measure the material degradation in real environment, to perform biological studies on retrieved tissues i.e. : macrophagic activities, tissue response, bone ingrowth, inflammatory or immunological reaction. For more than twenty years we worked on alumina against alumina total hips. The idea was to develop a low debris system to enhance long term longevity of the prosthesis. The Charnley design has proven its effectiveness for more than fifteen years, but polyethylene wear is responsible for late failures. This is specially crucial for young patients, male sex and high activity level patients. At the beginning, biological studies and mechanical tests were performed, it appeared that the biological tolerance of alumina ceramic was excellent, the fracture toughness was adequate, but there were some problems related

  17. Combined delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and insulin-like growth factor-1 from nano-poly (γ-glutamic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate-based calcium phosphate cement and its effect on bone regeneration in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiulin; Feng, Jin; Feng, Jing; Huang, Xiaomo; Li, Liangqiu; Shi, Qingshan

    2017-11-01

    In this study, nano-doped calcium phosphate cement delivery systems (poly (γ-glutamic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate/calcium phosphate ceramics and nano (γ-glutamic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate/calcium phosphate ceramic) were fabricated, and low doses (10 µg/g) of two growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2, were encapsulated then sequentially released. We characterized the delivery systems using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction and measured washout resistance and compressive strength, and thus optimized the most appropriate proportioning of delivery systems for the two growth factors. One of the growth factors was absorbed by the nano-poly (γ-glutamic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate, which was then mixed into the calcium phosphate ceramic solid phase to create a new solid phase calcium phosphate ceramic. Nano-poly (γ-glutamic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate/calcium phosphate ceramic carriers were then prepared by blending the new calcium phosphate ceramic solid phase powder with a solution of the remaining growth factor. The effects of different release patterns (studying sequential behavior) of insulin-like growth factor-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 on osteogenic proliferation and differentiation of the MC3t3-E1 mouse osteoblast cell were investigated. This combinational delivery system provided a controlled release of the two growth factors, in which nano-doping significantly affected their release kinetics. The incorporation of dual growth factors could potentially stimulate bone healing and promoting bone ingrowth processes at a low dose.

  18. Matricellular proteins and biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron H; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2014-07-01

    Biomaterials are essential to modern medicine as components of reconstructive implants, implantable sensors, and vehicles for localized drug delivery. Advances in biomaterials have led to progression from simply making implants that are nontoxic to making implants that are specifically designed to elicit particular functions within the host. The interaction of implants and the extracellular matrix during the foreign body response is a growing area of concern for the field of biomaterials, because it can lead to implant failure. Expression of matricellular proteins is modulated during the foreign body response and these proteins interact with biomaterials. The design of biomaterials to specifically alter the levels of matricellular proteins surrounding implants provides a new avenue for the design and fabrication of biomimetic biomaterials. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  20. Biofilm and dental biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Øilo, Marit; Bakken, Vidar

    2015-01-01

    All treatment involving the use of biomaterials in the body can affect the host in positive or negative ways. The microbiological environment in the oral cavity is affected by the composition and shape of the biomaterials used for oral restorations. This may impair the patients’ oral health and sometimes their general health as well. Many factors determine the composition of the microbiota and the formation of biofilm in relation to biomaterials such as, surface roughness, surface energy and ...

  1. Biomaterials and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reza Rezaie, Hamid; Öchsner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This short book presents an overview of different types of biomaterial such as bio ceramics, bio polymers, metals and bio composites, while especially focusing on nano biomaterials and their applications in different tissues. It provides a compact introduction to nano materials for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering and implants, while also reviewing essential trends in the biomaterial field over the last few decades and the latest developments.

  2. An introduction to biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Hollinger, Jeffrey O

    2011-01-01

    Consensus Definitions, Fundamental Concepts, and a Standardized Approach to Applied Biomaterials Sciences, J.O. HollingerBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Wound Healing BiologyCutaneous Wound Pathobiology: Raison d'etre for Tissue Engineering, L.K. Macri and R.A.F. ClarkOsseous Wound Healing, A. Nawab, M. Wong, D. Kwak, L. Schutte, A. Sharma, and J.O. HollingerBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Cellular MechanicsCell and Tissue Mechanobiology, W. Guo, P. Alvarez, and Y. WangBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Materials-Host InteractionsCell-Material In

  3. Biomaterials for MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chiao, Mu

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a guide for practicing engineers, researchers, and students interested in MEMS devices that use biomaterials and biomedical applications. It is also suitable for engineers and researchers interested in MEMS and its applications but who do not have the necessary background in biomaterials.Biomaterials for MEMS highlights important features and issues of biomaterials that have been used in MEMS and biomedical areas. Hence this book is an essential guide for MEMS engineers or researchers who are trained in engineering institutes that do not provide the background or knowledge

  4. Smart Radiation Therapy Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Boateng, Francis; Kumar, Rajiv; Irvine, Darrell J; Formenti, Silvia; Ngoma, Twalib; Herskind, Carsten; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Hildenbrand, Georg Lars; Hausmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik; Hesser, Juergen

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. More broadly, smart RT biomaterials may include functionalized nanoparticles that can be activated to boost RT efficacy. This work reviews the rationale for smart RT biomaterials, the state of the art in this emerging cross-disciplinary research area, challenges and opportunities for further research and development, and a purview of potential clinical applications. Applications covered include using smart RT biomaterials for boosting cancer therapy with minimal side effects, combining RT with immunotherapy or chemotherapy, reducing treatment time or health care costs, and other incipient applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Researching in biomaterials optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María. M.; Ionescu, Ana; Yebra, Ana; Cardona, Juan C.; Herrera, Luis J.; Rivas, María. José; Pecho, Óscar E.; Ghinea, Razvan

    2017-08-01

    The optical properties of a tissue or a biomaterial can be described in terms of the absorption coefficient (μa), the scattering coefficient (μs), the scattering function p(θ,ψ) and the real refractive index of the biomaterial. The Inverse Adding-Doubling, IAD, Method and relationship between the Kubelka- Munk parameters and the transport coefficients are used to describe optical properties at different wavelengths for a large variety of tissues and tissue like biomaterials, such as native cornea, tissue engineered cornea, tissue engineered oral mucosa, natural dentin and dental resin nanocomposites, among others

  6. Emerging Biomaterials in Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhary, Kirollos E; Thakker, Jayini S

    2017-02-01

    Emerging technologies and research into the science of biomaterials have developed exponentially and provide facial reconstructive surgeons with a plethora of options for a multitude of varying presentations. This article presents a comprehensive discussion in the ever-evolving field of material science and emerging biomaterials. A complete understanding of the current status of such materials is necessary for the appropriate incorporation and applicability to adequate clinical situations. The rapid progress seen in biomaterials is evidenced through the forward direction of bioengineered tissues, the incorporation of growth factors in varying scenarios, and the unique characteristics of 3-D printing of patient specific scaffolds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biofilm and Dental Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Øilo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All treatment involving the use of biomaterials in the body can affect the host in positive or negative ways. The microbiological environment in the oral cavity is affected by the composition and shape of the biomaterials used for oral restorations. This may impair the patients’ oral health and sometimes their general health as well. Many factors determine the composition of the microbiota and the formation of biofilm in relation to biomaterials such as, surface roughness, surface energy and chemical composition, This paper aims to give an overview of the scientific literature regarding the association between the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of dental biomaterials and oral biofilm formation, with emphasis on current research and future perspectives.

  8. Biomaterials in Artificial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambic, Helen E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Biomaterials are substances or combinations of substances that can be used in a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or body function. The nature and role of these substances, particularly in the cadiovascular system, are discussed. (JN)

  9. Biomaterials a basic introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Qizhi

    2014-01-01

    Part IBiomaterials ScienceBiomaterials Science and EngineeringLearning ObjectivesMaterials Science and EngineeringMultilevels of Structure and Categorization of MaterialsFour Categories of MaterialsDefinitions of Biomaterials, Biomedical Materials, and Biological MaterialsBiocompatibilityChapter HighlightsActivitiesSimple Questions in ClassProblems and ExercisesBibliographyToxicity and CorrosionLearning ObjectivesElements in the BodyBiological Roles and Toxicities of Trace ElementsSelection of Metallic Elements in Medical-Grade AlloysCorrosion of MetalsEnvironment inside the BodyMinimization of Toxicity of Metal ImplantsChapter HighlightsLaboratory Practice 1Simple Questions in ClassProblems and ExercisesAdvanced Topic: Biological Roles of Alloying ElementsBibliographyMechanical Properties of BiomaterialsLearning ObjectivesRole of Implant BiomaterialsMechanical Properties of General ImportanceHardnessElasticity: Resilience and StrechabilityMechanical Properties Terms Used in the Medical CommunityFailureEssent...

  10. Biomaterials in Rhinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Conner J; Suh, Jeffrey D; Tessema, Belachew; Gray, Stacey T; Singh, Ameet

    2016-04-01

    Many different kinds of rhinologic biomaterials, both nonabsorbable and absorbable, have been developed over the years to improve outcomes following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. In particular, these products have been designed to prevent postoperative bleeding, optimize the wound healing process, and reduce inflammation. This review evaluates the most recent evidence on biomaterials used in rhinology, focusing on these outcomes after ESS. MEDLINE, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Clinicaltrials.gov. A primary literature search based on the listed databases was performed with combinatorial search terms. Studies were considered for review if they met a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Some products have performed better than others in clinical trials, although significant heterogeneity among studies does not allow for selection of a clearly superior biomaterial. While nonabsorbable biomaterials are still effective in achieving certain outcomes, newer, absorbable substances may be just as effective and avoid the morbidity associated with nasal packing removal. Steroid-eluting biomaterials have shown promising early results in reducing inflammation and promoting wound healing. Certain absorbable biomaterials, such as chitosan gel and fibrin glue, have performed well with respect to postoperative hemostasis and wound healing, although they do not address mucosal inflammation. Steroid delivery systems may play an increasingly important role in reducing disease recurrence after ESS, although more studies are needed to assess long-term outcomes. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  11. Extraction and characterisation of apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials from cod fish bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccirillo, C.; Silva, M.F. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Pullar, R.C. [Dept. Engenharia de Materiais e Ceramica/CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Braga da Cruz, I. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); WeDoTech, CiDEB/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Jorge, R. [WeDoTech, CiDEB/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Pintado, M.M.E. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Castro, P.M.L., E-mail: plcastro@porto.ucp.pt [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-01-01

    Apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials were produced from codfish bones, thus converting a waste by-product from the food industry into high added-valued compounds. The bones were annealed at temperatures between 900 and 1200 Degree-Sign C, giving a biphasic material of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and {beta}-Ca(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}) with a molar proportion of 75:25, a material widely used in biomedical implants. The treatment of the bones in solution prior to their annealing changed the composition of the material. Single phase hydroxyapatite, chlorapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}Cl{sub 2}) and fluorapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2}) were obtained using CaCl{sub 2} and NaF solutions, respectively. The samples were analysed by several techniques (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal/thermogravimetric analysis) and by elemental analyses, to have a more complete understanding of the conversion process. Such compositional modifications have never been performed before for these materials of natural origin to tailor the relative concentrations of elements. This paper shows the great potential for the conversion of this by-product into highly valuable compounds for biomedical applications, using a simple and effective valorisation process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apatite and calcium phosphate compounds extraction from cod fish bones Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bone calcination: biphasic material hydroxyapatite-calcium phosphate production Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bone pre-treatments in solution change the material composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single phase materials (hydroxy-, chloro- or fluoroapatite) are obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentration of other elements (Na, F, Cl) suitable for biomedical applications.

  12. Calcium phosphate phase transformation produced by the interaction of the portland cement component of white mineral trioxide aggregate with a phosphate-containing fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Loushine, Robert J; Weller, R Norman

    2007-11-01

    The bioactivity of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been attributed to its ability to produce hydroxyapatite in the presence of phosphate-containing fluids. It is known that stoichiometric hydroxyapatites do not exist in biological systems and do not contribute to the osteogenic potential of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials. Because Portland cement is the active ingredient in white MTA, we have characterized the calcium phosphate phases produced when set white Portland cement was immersed in phosphate-buffered saline using pH and turbidity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. An amorphous calcium phosphate phase was initially formed that transformed to an apatite phase, with the latter consisting of calcium-deficient, poorly crystalline, B-type carbonated apatite crystallites. Amorphous calcium phosphate is a key intermediate that precedes biological apatite formation in skeletal calcification. Thus, the clinical manifestations of bioactivity with the use of MTA may at least be partially attributed to the mineralization induction capacity of its Portland cement component.

  13. Antibacterial effect of gallium and silver on Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with gallium-silver-phosphate-based glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valappil, Sabeel P; Higham, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses were evaluated for antibacterial effect on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is a leading cause of opportunistic infections. The glasses were produced by conventional melt quenching methods at 1100°C for 1 h. Glass degradation studies were conducted by weight loss method. Disc diffusion assay and cell viability assay displayed statistically significant (p ≤ 0.0005) effect on P. aeruginosa growth which increased with decreasing calcium content in the glasses. The gallium ion release rates (1.83, 0.69 and 0.48 ppm·h(-1)) and silver ion release rates (2.97, 2.84 and 2.47 ppm·h(-1)) were found to account for this variation. Constant depth film fermentor was used to evaluate the anti-biofilm properties of the glasses. Both gallium and silver in the glass contributed to biofilm growth inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa (up to 2.68 reduction in log 10 values of the viable counts compared with controls). The glasses were found to deliver gallium and silver in a controlled way and exerted cumulative antibacterial action on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. The antibacterial, especially anti-biofilm, properties of the gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses make them a potential candidate to combat infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  14. Study on MCP-1 related to inflammation induced by biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Tingting [Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University/Shanghai Biomaterials Research and Testing Center, Shanghai 200023 (China); Sun Jiao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai 200023 (China); Zhang Ping, E-mail: jiaosun59@yahoo.co [School of Life Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The study of inflammation is important for understanding the reaction between biomaterials and the human body, in particular, the interaction between biomaterials and immune system. In the current study, rat macrophages were induced by multiple biomaterials with different biocompatibilities, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containing 8% of organic tin, a positive control material with cellular toxicity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV-304), cultured with PRMI-1640, were detached from cells cultured with the supernatant of macrophages containing TNF-alpha and IL-1beta because of stimulation by biomaterials. The cells were then treated with different biomaterials. Then both TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in macrophages were detected by ELISA. Levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured by RT-PCR. The results suggested that the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta was elevated by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and American NPG alloy (p < 0.001). The level of MCP-1 cultured in supernatant of macrophages was higher than in PRMI-1640 with the same biomaterials. And the exposure to PTFE, PLGA and NPG resulted in the high expression of MCP-1 (p < 0.001) following cytokine stimulation. MCP-1 was also significantly expressed in beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and calcium phosphate cement samples (CPC) (p < 0.01). Thus, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and MCP-1 had played an important role in the immune reaction induced by biomaterials and there was a close relationship between the expression of cytokines and biomcompatibility of biomaterials. Furthermore, these data suggested that MCP-1 was regulated by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, and activated by both cytokines and biomaterials. The data further suggested that the expression of MCP-1 could be used as a marker to indicate the degree of immune reaction induced by biomaterials.

  15. Zinc-containing phosphate-based glasses for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salih, V; Patel, A; Knowles, J C [Division of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, 256 Gray' s Inn Road, London, WC1X 8LD (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-01

    It has been shown that the addition of zinc to hydroxyapatite promotes osteoblast cell adhesion (Ishaug et al 1994 J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 28 1445-53). Therefore, this study presents a series of phosphate-based glass compositions that contain varying amounts of zinc in order to promote osteoblast cell adhesion. The compositions investigated were P{sub 50}Ca{sub (40-x)}Na{sub 10} where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mol%. The dissolution rate and effect on pH of glass discs were investigated and ion release from the glass discs was examined in distilled water at 37 deg. C after 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 days. The attachment of osteoblast-like cells (HOB) was observed by SEM on the glass discs. A linear decrease in the %mass of the glass discs was observed for all compositions for the duration of the study. The dissolution rates were similar for all the compositions. After 7 days, a mass loss of 3-6% was observed for all the compositions. The pH of distilled water decreased to a range of pH 4.5-5.5 from pH 7 after 1 day, and remained in this range for the duration of the study. The composition containing 0 mol% Zn reduced the pH to a lesser extent than the composition containing the highest amount of Zn. Furthermore, Zn{sup 2+} ion release was observed from all the Zn-containing compositions. These glass compositions may therefore be suitable for tissue engineering applications.

  16. Advanced biomaterials and biodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials are the fastest-growing emerging field of  biodevices. Design and development of biomaterials play a significant role in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. Recently, a variety of scaffolds/carriers have been evaluated for tissue regeneration, drug delivery, sensing and imaging.  Liposomes and microspheres have been developed for sustained delivery. Several anti-cancer drugs have been successfully formulated using biomaterial. The targeting of drugs to certain physiological sites has emerged as a promising tool in the treatment with improved drug bioavailability and reduction of dosing frequency. Biodevices-based targeting of drugs may improve the therapeutic success by limiting the adverse drug effects and resulting in more patient compliance and attaining a higher adherence level. Advanced biodevices hold merit as a drug carrier with high carrier capacity, feasibility of incorporation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, high stability, as well as the feasibility...

  17. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  18. 3D microenvironment as essential element for osteoinduction by biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela; Yuan, Huipin; van der Valk, Chantal M.; Meijer, Gert; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel the mechanism of osteoinduction by biomaterials, in this study we investigated the influence of the specific surface area on osteoinductive properties of two types of calcium phosphate ceramics. Different surface areas of the ceramics were obtained by varying their sintering

  19. Influence of octacalcium phosphate coating on osteoinductive properties of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela; van der Valk, C.M.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) coating on osteoinductive behaviour of the biomaterials. Porous titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and polyethylene glyco terephtalate/polybuthylene terephtalate (PEGT–PBT)

  20. Biomaterials and therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    A number of organic and inorganic, synthetic or natural derived materials have been classified as not harmful for the human body and are appropriate for medical applications. These materials are usually named biomaterials since they are suitable for introduction into living human tissues of prosthesis, as well as for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapies, tissue regeneration and many other clinical applications. Recently, nanomaterials and bioabsorbable polymers have greatly enlarged the fields of application of biomaterials attracting much more the attention of the biomedical community. In this review paper I am going to discuss the most recent advances in the use of magnetic nanoparticles and biodegradable materials as new biomedical tools.

  1. Biomaterial Selection for Tooth Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y.; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Lili(Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China); MAO, JEREMY J.

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or s...

  2. Biomaterials for tissue engineering: summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, L.; Mikos, A. G.; Gibbons, D. F.; Picciolo, G. L.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes presentations and discussion at the workshop "Enabling Biomaterial Technology for Tissue Engineering," which was held during the Fifth World Biomaterials Congress in May 1996. Presentations covered the areas of material substrate architecture, barrier effects, and cellular response, including analysis of biomaterials challenges involved in producing specific tissue-engineered products.

  3. A thermoreversible poly(choline phosphate) based universal biomembrane adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xifei; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Horte, Sonja; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Brooks, Donald E

    2014-03-01

    A new monomer, 2-(2-(2-(2-azidoethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl methacrylate (AEO4 MA), and its direct atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) into poly(AEO4 MA), then "clicked" with prop-2-ynyle choline phosphate (CP) to produce a poly(choline phosphate) are described. This polymer exhibits a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at ≈ 32 °C, and provides a universal thermally reversible biomembrane adhesive, which can rapidly both bind to any mammalian cell membrane and internalize into the cytoplasm of nucleated cells below the LCST. Moving above the LCST reverses cell surface binding. The use of ATRP implies that such polymers can be applied to modify the surfaces of a wide range of biomaterials. The capacity to bind and immobilize cells at room temperature and release them above the LCST should be particularly useful for in vitro cell manipulation and tissue engineering applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  5. Hot topics in biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Alton, Eric W; Griesenbach, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The expert coverage of the eight chapters in this book reflects the diverse nature of the field of biomaterials science and encompasses contributions from a wide range of fields, highlighting key classes of novel materials and exploring the underlying science and potential applications.

  6. Biomaterials and magnetism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetism in health care; magnetic biomaterials; magnetic intracellular hyperthermia. Abstract. Magnetism plays an important role in different applications of health care. Magnetite (Fe34) is ... Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology – Bombay, Mumbai 400 076, India ...

  7. Optical approach in characterizing dental biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Vučić, Zlatko; Milat, Ognjen; Gladić, Jadranko; Lovrić, Davorin; Pandurić, Vlatko; Marović, Danijela; Moguš-Milanković, Andrea; Ristić, Mira; Čalogović, Marina; Tarle, Zrinka

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the current activities of a research collaborative program between three institutions from Zagreb (School of Dental Medicine, Institute of Physics, and Institute Ruđer Bo\\vsković). Within the scope of this program, it is planned to investigate and find guidelines for the refinement of the properties of dental biomaterials (DBs) and of procedures in restorative dental medicine. It is also planned to identify and model the dominant mechanisms which control polymerization of DBs. The materials to be investigated include methacrylate based composite resins, new composite materials with amorphous calcium phosphate, silorane based composite resins, glass-ionomer cements, and giomer.

  8. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  9. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  10. Biomaterials surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Taubert, Andreas; Rodriguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an overview of the highly interdisciplinary field of surface science in the context of biological and biomedical applications. The covered topics range from micro- and nanostructuring for imparting functionality in a top-down manner to the bottom-up fabrication of gradient surfaces by self-assembly, from interfaces between biomaterials and living matter to smart, stimuli-responsive surfaces, and from cell and surface mechanics to the elucidation of cell-chip interactions in biomedical devices.

  11. POLYMERIC BIOMATERIALS AND NANOMEDICINES

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2015-01-01

    This overview intends to demonstrate the close relationship between the design of smart biomaterials and water-soluble polymer-drug conjugates. First, the discovery and systematic studies of hydrogels based on crosslinked poly(meth)acrylic acid esters and substituted amides is described. Then, the lessons learned for the design of water-soluble polymers as drug carriers are highlighted. The current state-of-the-art in water-soluble, mainly poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacylamide (HPMA), polymer...

  12. Nanomanufacturing of biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Yoni; Schiffman, Jessica D.; Goddard, Julie M.; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we present a few of the many important objectives in the area of biomedical engineering that could open new pathways for next-generation biomaterials. We also provide examples of how materials for these goals can be created in an economically viable means through recent advances in high throughput production. These strategies highlight the potential for nanomanufacturing in a variety of areas of importance for human health and safety.

  13. Biomaterials in light amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Cyprych, Konrad; Sznitko, Lech; Miniewicz, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Biologically produced or inspired materials can serve as optical gain media, i.e. they can exhibit the phenomenon of light amplification. Some of these materials, under suitable dye-doping and optical pumping conditions, show lasing phenomena. The emerging branch of research focused on obtaining lasing action in highly disordered and highly light scattering materials, i.e. research on random lasing, is perfectly suited for biological materials. The use of biomaterials in light amplification has been extensively reported in the literature. In this review we attempt to report on progress in the development of biologically derived systems able to show the phenomena of light amplification and random lasing together with the contribution of our group to this field. The rich world of biopolymers modified with molecular aggregates and nanocrystals, and self-organized at the nanoscale, offers a multitude of possibilities for tailoring luminescent and light scattering properties that are not easily replicated in conventional organic or inorganic materials. Of particular importance and interest are light amplification and lasing, or random lasing studies in biological cells and tissues. In this review we will describe nucleic acids and their complexes employed as gain media due to their favorable optical properties and ease of manipulation. We will report on research conducted on various biomaterials showing structural analogy to nucleic acids such as fluorescent proteins, gelatins in which the first distributed feedback laser was realized, and also amyloids or silks, which, due to their dye-doped fiber-like structure, allow for light amplification. Other materials that were investigated in that respect include polysaccharides, like starch exhibiting favorable photostability in comparison to other biomaterials, and chitosan, which forms photonic crystals or cellulose. Light amplification and random lasing was not only observed in processed biomaterials but also in living

  14. Biomaterials in cell microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Edorta; Zarate, Jon; Orive, Gorka; Hernández, Rosa M; Pedraz, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    The field of cell encapsulation is advancing rapidly. This cell-based technology permits the local and long-term delivery ofa desired therapeutic product reducing or even avoiding the need ofimmunosuppressant drugs. The choice of a suitable material preserving the viability and functionality of enclosed cells becomes fundamental if a therapeutic aim is intended. Alginate, which is by far the most frequently used biomaterial in the field of cell microencapsulation, has been demonstrated to be probably the best polymer for this purpose due to its biocompatibility, easy manipulation, gel forming capacity and in vivo performance.

  15. Biomaterials: An Introduction for Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Renee B.

    1996-01-01

    Contains an overview of biomaterials, an interdisciplinary field in which research combines medicine, biological sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. Biomaterials are substances which improve quality of life by augmenting or replacing bodily tissues or functions. Highlights problems associated with collection development and literature…

  16. Characterization of calcium phosphate powders originating from Phyllacanthus imperialis and Trochidae Infundibulum concavus marine shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tămăşan, M., E-mail: monica.tamasan@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ozyegin, L.S. [Marmara University, Istanbul (Turkey); Oktar, F.N. [Marmara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Göztepe Campus, Kadıköy 34722, Istanbul (Turkey); Marmara University, School of Health Related Professions, Department of Medical Imaging Technics, Haydarpaşa Campus, Tıbbiye Street, 49, Üsküdar 34668, Istanbul (Turkey); Marmara University, Nanotechnology and Biomaterials Application and Research Centre, Göztepe Campus, Kadıköy 34722, Istanbul (Turkey); Simon, V. [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-07-01

    The study reports the preparation and characterization of powders consisting of the different phases of calcium phosphates that were obtained from the naturally derived raw materials of sea-shell origins reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Species of sea origin, such as corals and nacres, attracted a special interest in bone tissue engineering area. Nacre shells are built up of calcium carbonate in aragonite form crystallized in an organic matrix. In this work two natural marine origin materials (shells of echinoderm Sputnik sea urchin — Phyllacanthus imperialis and Trochidae Infundibulum concavus mollusk) were involved in the developing powders of calcium phosphate based biomaterials (as raw materials for bone-scaffolds) by hotplate and ultrasound methods. Thermal analyses of the as-prepared materials were made for an assessment of the thermal behavior and heat treatment temperatures. Samples from both sea shells each of them prepared by the above mentioned methods were subjected to thermal treatments at 450 °C and 850 °C in order to evaluate the crystalline transformations of the calcium phosphate structures in the heating process. By X-ray diffraction analyses various calcium phosphate phases were identified. In Sputnik sea urchins originated samples were found predominantly brushite and calcite as a small secondary phase, while in Trochidae I. concavus samples mainly monetite and HA phases were identified. Thermal treatment at 850 °C resulted flat-plate whitlockite crystals — β-MgTCP [(Ca, Mg){sub 3} (PO{sub 4}){sub 2}] for both samples regardless the preparation method (ultrasound or hotplate) or the targeted Ca/P molar ratio according with XRD patterns. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were involved more in the characterization of these materials and the good correlations of the results of these methods were made. - Highlights: ► Calcium phosphate powders are obtained from the crushed shells of 2

  17. Biomaterials in orthopaedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, M; Michiardi, A; Castaño, O; Planell, J.A

    2008-01-01

    At present, strong requirements in orthopaedics are still to be met, both in bone and joint substitution and in the repair and regeneration of bone defects. In this framework, tremendous advances in the biomaterials field have been made in the last 50 years where materials intended for biomedical purposes have evolved through three different generations, namely first generation (bioinert materials), second generation (bioactive and biodegradable materials) and third generation (materials designed to stimulate specific responses at the molecular level). In this review, the evolution of different metals, ceramics and polymers most commonly used in orthopaedic applications is discussed, as well as the different approaches used to fulfil the challenges faced by this medical field. PMID:18667387

  18. Biomaterials. The Behavior of Stainless Steel as a Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda VISAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The biomaterials belong to the broad range of biocompatible chemical substances (sometimes even an element, which can be used for a period of time to treat or replace a tissue, organ or function of the human body. These materials bring many advantages in the diagnosis, prevention and medical therapy, reducing downtime for patients, restoring their biological functions, improving hospital management. The market in Romania sells a wide range of biomaterials for dental, cardiovascular medicine, renal, etc. Scientific research contributes to the discovery of new biomaterials or testing known biomaterials, for finding new applications. The paper exemplifies this contribution by presenting the testing of passive stainless steel behaviour in albumin solution using technique of cyclic voltammetry. It was shown that passivation contribute to increased stability of stainless steel implants to corrosive body fluids.

  19. Hydrogel Biomaterials: A Smart Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeček, Jindřich

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogels were the first biomaterials developed for human use. The state-of-the-art and potential for the future are discussed. Recently, new designs have produced mechanically strong synthetic hydrogels. Protein based hydrogels and hybrid hydrogels containing protein domains present a novel advance; such biomaterials may self-assemble from block or graft copolymers containing biorecognition domains. One of the domains, the coiled-coil, ubiquitously found in nature, has been used as an example to demonstrate the developments in the design of smart hydrogels. The application potential of synthetic, protein-based, DNA-based, and hybrid hydrogels bodes well for the future of this class of biomaterials. PMID:17697712

  20. Biomaterials for Bone Regenerative Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohua; Tang, Xiaoyan; Gohil, Shalini V; Laurencin, Cato T

    2015-06-24

    Strategies for bone tissue regeneration have been continuously evolving for the last 25 years since the introduction of the "tissue engineering" concept. The convergence of the life, physical, and engineering sciences has brought in several advanced technologies available to tissue engineers and scientists. This resulted in the creation of a new multidisciplinary field termed as "regenerative engineering". In this article, the role of biomaterials in bone regenerative engineering is systematically reviewed to elucidate the new design criteria for the next generation of biomaterials for bone regenerative engineering. The exemplary design of biomaterials harnessing various materials characteristics towards successful bone defect repair and regeneration is highlighted. Particular attention is given to the attempts of incorporating advanced materials science, stem cell technologies, and developmental biology into biomaterials design to engineer and develop the next generation bone grafts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Zirconia as a Dental Biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Della Bona; Pecho, Oscar E.; Rodrigo Alessandretti

    2015-01-01

    Ceramics are very important in the science of dental biomaterials. Among all dental ceramics, zirconia is in evidence as a dental biomaterial and it is the material of choice in contemporary restorative dentistry. Zirconia has been applied as structural material for dental bridges, crowns, inserts, and implants, mostly because of its biocompatibility, high fracture toughness, and radiopacity. However, the clinical success of restorative dentistry has to consider the adhesion to different subs...

  2. Minireport on biomaterials; Minirapportage biomaterialen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muizer, A. [Panteia/Consult, Zoetermeer (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Insight is given into the awareness companies have with respect to sustainable materials (biomaterials) and the use of such materials. In addition, an outline is given of the questions companies have about the use of biomaterials and sustainable packaging [Dutch] Inzicht wordt gegeven in de bekendheid van bedrijven met duurzame materialen (biomaterialen) en het gebruik daarvan. Daarnaast wordt duidelijk gemaakt welk type vragen bedrijven hebben rond het gebruik van biomaterialen en het verduurzamen van verpakkingen.

  3. Potential use of gallium-doped phosphate-based glass material for periodontitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahdev, Rohan; Ansari, Tahera I; Higham, Susan M; Valappil, Sabeel P

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the potential effect of gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses towards periodontitis-associated bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and matrix metalloproteinase-13. Periodontitis describes a group of inflammatory diseases of the gingiva and supporting structures of the periodontium. They are initiated by the accumulation of plaque bacteria, such as the putative periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, but the host immune response such as elevated matrix metalloproteinases are the major contributing factor for destruction of periodontal tissues. Antibacterial assays of gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses were conducted on Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 using disc diffusion assay on fastidious anaerobe agar and liquid broth assay in a modified tryptic soy broth. In vitro study investigated the effect of gallium on purified recombinant human matrix metalloproteinase-13 activity using matrix metalloproteinase assay kit. In vivo biocompatibility of gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glass was evaluated in rats as subcutaneous implants. Antibacterial assay of gallium displayed activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis (inhibition zone of 22 ± 0.5 mm compared with 0 mm for control glass, c-PBG). Gallium in the glass contributed to growth inhibitory effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis (up to 1.30 reductions in log 10 values of the viable counts compared with control) in a modified tryptic soy broth. In vitro study showed gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses inhibited matrix metalloproteinase activity significantly (p ≤ 0.01) compared with c-PBG. Evaluation of in vivo biocompatibility of gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses in rats showed a non-toxic and foreign body response after 2 weeks of implantation. The results indicate that gallium ions might act on multiple targets of biological mechanisms underlying periodontal disease. Moreover, gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses

  4. Host response to biomaterials the impact of host response on biomaterial selection

    CERN Document Server

    Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    Host Response to Biomaterials: The Impact of Host Response on Biomaterial Selection explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications, focusing on the host response to each biomaterial. It is one of the first books to connect immunology and biomaterials with regard to host response. The text also explores the role of the immune system in host response, and covers the regulatory environment for biomaterials, along with the benefits of synthetic versus natural biomaterials, and the transition from simple to complex biomaterial solutions. Fiel

  5. Design strategies and applications of nacre-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Ethan Michael; Wang, Wei; Li, Caiyan; Guo, Jinshan; Ozbolat, Ibrahim Tarik; Rahn, Kevin Michael; Armstrong, April Dawn; Xia, Jingfen; Qian, Guoying; Yang, Jian

    2017-05-01

    The field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine relies heavily on materials capable of implantation without significant foreign body reactions and with the ability to promote tissue differentiation and regeneration. The field of bone tissue engineering in particular requires materials capable of providing enhanced mechanical properties and promoting osteogenic cell lineage commitment. While bone repair has long relied almost exclusively on inorganic, calcium phosphate ceramics such as hydroxyapatite and their composites or on non-degradable metals, the organically derived shell and pearl nacre generated by mollusks has emerged as a promising alternative. Nacre is a naturally occurring composite material composed of inorganic, calcium carbonate plates connected by a framework of organic molecules. Similar to mammalian bone, the highly organized microstructure of nacre endows the composite with superior mechanical properties while the organic phase contributes to significant bioactivity. Studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have demonstrated nacre's biocompatibility, biodegradability, and osteogenic potential, which are superior to pure inorganic minerals such as hydroxyapatite or non-degradable metals. Nacre can be used directly as a bulk implant or as part of a composite material when combined with polymers or other ceramics. While nacre has demonstrated its effectiveness in multiple cell culture and animal models, it remains a relatively underexplored biomaterial. This review introduces the formation, structure, and characteristics of nacre, and discusses the present and future uses of this biologically-derived material as a novel biomaterial for orthopedic and other tissue engineering applications. Mussel derived nacre, a biological composite composed of mineralized calcium carbonate platelets and interplatelet protein components, has recently gained interest as a potential alternative ceramic material in orthopedic biomaterials, combining the

  6. Tuna cornea as biomaterial for cardiac applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Roberto; Cocconcelli, Flavio; Verona, Alessandro; Parravicini, Valeriano; Giuliani, Enrico; Barbieri, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Among available biomaterials, cornea is almost completely devoid of cells and is composed only of collagen fibers oriented in an orderly pattern, which contributes to low antigenicity. Thunnus thynnus, the Atlantic bluefin tuna, is a fish with large eyes that can withstand pressures of approximately 10 MPa. We evaluated the potential of this tuna cornea in cardiac bioimplantation. Eyes from freshly caught Atlantic bluefin tuna were harvested and preserved in a fixative solution. Sterilized samples of corneal stroma were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the histologic features were studied. Physical and mechanical resistance tests were performed in comparison with bovine pericardial strips and porcine mitral valves. Corneal material was implanted subcutaneously in 7 rats, to evaluate in vivo calcification rates. Mitral valves made from tuna corneal leaflets were implanted in 9 sheep. We found that the corneal tissue consisted only of parallel collagen fibers without evidence of vascular or neural structures. In tensile strength, the tuna corneal specimens were substantially similar to bovine pericardium. After 23 days, the rat-implanted samples showed no calcium or calcium salt deposition. Hydrodynamic and fatigue testing of valve prototypes yielded acceptable functional and long-term behavioral results. In the sheep, valvular performance was stable during the 180-day follow-up period, with no instrumental sign of calcification at the end of observation. We conclude that low antigenicity and favorable physical properties qualify tuna cornea as a potential material for durable bioimplantation. Further study is warranted.

  7. Biomaterial selection for tooth regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Lili; Mao, Jeremy J

    2011-10-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or synthetic polymers, three-dimensional scaffold fabrication, stem cell transplantation, and stem cell homing. A tooth is a complex biological organ. Tooth loss represents the most common organ failure. Tooth regeneration encompasses not only regrowth of an entire tooth as an organ, but also biological restoration of individual components of the tooth including enamel, dentin, cementum, or dental pulp. Regeneration of tooth root represents perhaps more near-term opportunities than the regeneration of the whole tooth. In the adult, a tooth owes its biological vitality, arguably more, to the root than the crown. Biomaterials are indispensible for the regeneration of tooth root, tooth crown, dental pulp, or an entire tooth. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  8. Biomaterial Selection for Tooth Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y.; Zhou, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or synthetic polymers, three-dimensional scaffold fabrication, stem cell transplantation, and stem cell homing. A tooth is a complex biological organ. Tooth loss represents the most common organ failure. Tooth regeneration encompasses not only regrowth of an entire tooth as an organ, but also biological restoration of individual components of the tooth including enamel, dentin, cementum, or dental pulp. Regeneration of tooth root represents perhaps more near-term opportunities than the regeneration of the whole tooth. In the adult, a tooth owes its biological vitality, arguably more, to the root than the crown. Biomaterials are indispensible for the regeneration of tooth root, tooth crown, dental pulp, or an entire tooth. PMID:21699433

  9. HA/TCP compounding of a porous CaP biomaterial improves bone formation and scaffold degradation--a long-term histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopper, Christian; Ziya-Ghazvini, Farzad; Goriwoda, Walter; Moser, Doris; Wanschitz, Felix; Spassova, Else; Lagogiannis, Georgios; Auterith, Alexandra; Ewers, Rolf

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, two biphasic calcium phosphate biomaterials (BCP) with HA/TCP ratios of 50/50 and 30/70 were obtained from a pure HA biomaterial. The biomaterials which showed the same three-dimensional geometry were implanted into corticocancellous costal defects of sheep. In the specimens of all three biomaterials, abundant bone formation, mineral dissolution from the biomaterial scaffolds, and active cellular resorption of the scaffolds was present after 6 and 12 months. Backscattered electron microscopy showed bone invasion into the pores of the scaffolds and micromechanical interlocking at the bone/biomaterial interface without intervening soft tissue. The pattern of bone formation and scaffold resorption was different for cortical and cancellous bone. No time-based effect, however, was observed. Overall, the BCP biomaterials had formed significantly more bone than the HA biomaterial. Also, scaffold resorption, which was followed by a replacement with newly formed bone, was significantly higher in the BCP biomaterials. Although no significant differences were observed between both BCP biomaterials, the present study had confirmed the assumption that HA/TCP compounding was suitable to improve bone formation and scaffold resorption in the investigated biomaterials and at the same time maintain the osteoconductive properties of the scaffolds. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Chitin fulfilling a biomaterials promise

    CERN Document Server

    Khor, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of Chitin underscores the important factors for standardizing chitin processing and characterization. It captures the essential interplay between chitin's assets and limitations as a biomaterial, placing the past promises of chitin in perspective, addressing its present realities and offering insight into what is required to realize chitin's destiny (including its derivative, chitosan) as a biomaterial of the twenty-first century. This book is an ideal guide for both industrialists and researchers with a vested interest in commercializing chitin.An upd

  11. LCA of Biofuels and Biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Susanne Vedel; Hansen, Sune Balle

    2017-01-01

    Biofuels and biomaterials can today substitute many commodities produced from fossil resources, and the bio-based production is increasing worldwide. As fossil resources are limited, and the use of such resources is a major contributor to global warming and other environmental impacts, the potent......Biofuels and biomaterials can today substitute many commodities produced from fossil resources, and the bio-based production is increasing worldwide. As fossil resources are limited, and the use of such resources is a major contributor to global warming and other environmental impacts...

  12. LCA of Biofuels and Biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Susanne Vedel; Hansen, Sune Balle

    2017-01-01

    Biofuels and biomaterials can today substitute many commodities produced from fossil resources, and the bio-based production is increasing worldwide. As fossil resources are limited, and the use of such resources is a major contributor to global warming and other environmental impacts, the potent...

  13. Integrated Biomaterials for Biomedical Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi

    2012-01-01

    This cutting edge book provides all the important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in materials in biomedical technology, especially structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, as well as the applications. The volume consists of 12 chapters written by acknowledged experts of the biomaterials field and covers a wide range of topics and applications.

  14. Incorporation of heparin into biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E

    2014-04-01

    This review provides an overview of the incorporation of heparin into biomaterials with a focus on drug delivery and the use of heparin-based biomaterials for self-assembly of polymer networks. Heparin conjugation to biomaterials was originally explored to reduce the thrombogenicity of materials in contact with blood. Many of the conjugation strategies that were developed for these applications are still popular today for other applications. More recently heparin has been conjugated to biomaterials for drug delivery applications. Many of the delivery approaches have taken advantage of the ability of heparin to bind to a wide variety of growth factors, protecting them from degradation and potentiating interactions with cell surface receptors. More recently, the use of heparin as a base polymer for scaffold fabrication has also been explored, often utilizing non-covalent binding of heparin with peptides or proteins to promote self-assembly of hydrogel networks. This review will highlight recent advances in each of these areas. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomaterials in myocardial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Lewis A; Chiu, Loraine L Y; Feric, Nicole; Fu, Lara; Radisic, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world, and as such there is a pressing need for treatment options. Cardiac tissue engineering emerged from the need to develop alternative sources and methods of replacing tissue damaged by cardiovascular diseases, as the ultimate treatment option for many who suffer from end-stage heart failure is a heart transplant. In this review we focus on biomaterial approaches to augmenting injured or impaired myocardium, with specific emphasis on: the design criteria for these biomaterials; the types of scaffolds - composed of natural or synthetic biomaterials or decellularized extracellular matrix - that have been used to develop cardiac patches and tissue models; methods to vascularize scaffolds and engineered tissue; and finally, injectable biomaterials (hydrogels) designed for endogenous repair, exogenous repair or as bulking agents to maintain ventricular geometry post-infarct. The challenges facing the field and obstacles that must be overcome to develop truly clinically viable cardiac therapies are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Predoctoral Curriculum Guidelines for Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' predoctoral guidelines for biomaterials curricula includes notes on interrelationships between this and other fields, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives for each content area, and information on sequencing, faculty and…

  17. Biomaterials in myocardial tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Lewis A.; Chiu, Loraine L. Y.; Feric, Nicole; Fu, Lara; Radisic, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world, and as such there is a pressing need for treatment options. Cardiac tissue engineering emerged from the need to develop alternate sources and methods of replacing tissue damaged by cardiovascular diseases, as the ultimate treatment option for many who suffer from end-stage heart failure is a heart transplant. In this review we focus on biomaterial approaches to augment injured or impaired myocardium with specific emphasis on: the design criteria for these biomaterials; the types of scaffolds—composed of natural or synthetic biomaterials, or decellularized extracellular matrix—that have been used to develop cardiac patches and tissue models; methods to vascularize scaffolds and engineered tissue, and finally injectable biomaterials (hydrogels)designed for endogenous repair, exogenous repair or as bulking agents to maintain ventricular geometry post-infarct. The challenges facing the field and obstacles that must be overcome to develop truly clinically viable cardiac therapies are also discussed. PMID:25066525

  18. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  19. Mechanical, structural and dissolution properties of heat treated thin-film phosphate based glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Bryan W.; Gimeno-Fabra, Miquel; Segal, Joel; Ahmed, Ifty; Grant, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Here we show the deposition of 2.7 μm thick phosphate based glass films produced by magnetron sputtering, followed by post heat treatments at 500 °C. Variations in degradation properties pre and post heat treatment were attributed to the formation of Hematite crystals within a glass matrix, iron oxidation and the depletion of hydrophilic P-O-P bonds within the surface layer. As deposited and heat treated coatings showed interfacial tensile adhesion in excess of 73.6 MPa; which surpassed ISO a...

  20. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  1. Calcium orthophosphates in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2013-06-01

    Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, remains a major public health problem in the most communities even though the prevalence of disease has decreased since the introduction of fluorides for dental care. Therefore, biomaterials to fill dental defects appear to be necessary to fulfill customers' needs regarding the properties and the processing of the products. Bioceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used for these purposes, as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Calcium orthophosphates belong to bioceramics but they have some specific advantages over other types of bioceramics due to a chemical similarity to the inorganic part of both human and mammalian bones and teeth. Therefore, calcium orthophosphates (both alone and as components of various formulations) are used in dentistry as both dental fillers and implantable scaffolds. This review provides brief information on calcium orthophosphates and describes in details current state-of-the-art on their applications in dentistry and dentistry-related fields. Among the recognized dental specialties, calcium orthophosphates are most frequently used in periodontics; however, the majority of the publications on calcium orthophosphates in dentistry are devoted to unspecified "dental" fields.

  2. Biomaterials Made from Coiled-Coil Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conticello, Vincent; Hughes, Spencer; Modlin, Charles

    The development of biomaterials designed for specific applications is an important objective in personalized medicine. While the breadth and prominence of biomaterials have increased exponentially over the past decades, critical challenges remain to be addressed, particularly in the development of biomaterials that exhibit highly specific functions. These functional properties are often encoded within the molecular structure of the component molecules. Proteins, as a consequence of their structural specificity, represent useful substrates for the construction of functional biomaterials through rational design. This chapter provides an in-depth survey of biomaterials constructed from coiled-coils, one of the best-understood protein structural motifs. We discuss the utility of this structurally diverse and functionally tunable class of proteins for the creation of novel biomaterials. This discussion illustrates the progress that has been made in the development of coiled-coil biomaterials by showcasing studies that bridge the gap between the academic science and potential technological impact.

  3. Influence of octacalcium phosphate coating on osteoinductive properties of biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibovic, P; van der Valk, C M; van Blitterswijk, C A; De Groot, K; Meijer, G

    2004-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) coating on osteoinductive behaviour of the biomaterials. Porous titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and polyethylene glyco terephtalate/polybuthylene terephtalate (PEGT-PBT) copolymer, all uncoated and coated with biomimetically produced OCP, were implanted in back muscles of 10 goats for 6 and 12 weeks. Uncoated Ti6Al4Vand HA did not show any bone formation after intramuscular implantation. All OCP coated implants, except PEGT-PBT, did induce bone in the soft tissue. The reason for the non-inductive behaviour of the copolymer is probably its softness, that makes it impossible to maintain its porous shape after implantation. Both uncoated and OCP coated BCP induced bone. However, the amount of animals in which the bone was induced was higher in the coated BCP implants in comparison to the uncoated ones. Osteoinductive potential of biomaterials is influenced by various material characteristics, such as chemical composition, crystallinity, macro- and microstructure. OCP coating has a positive effect on osteoinductivity of the biomaterials. The combination of the advantages of biomimetic coating method above traditional methods, and a good osteoinductivity of OCP coating that is produced by using this method, opens new possibilities for designing more advanced orthopaedic implants.

  4. New biomaterials for orthopedic implants

    OpenAIRE

    Ong KL; Yun BM; White JB

    2015-01-01

    Kevin L Ong, Brian Min Yun, Joshua B WhiteExponent, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: With the increasing use of orthopedic implants worldwide, there continues to be great interest in the development of novel technologies to further improve the effective clinical performance of contemporary treatment modalities and devices. Continuing research interest also exists in developing novel bulk biomaterials (eg, polycarbonate urethanes, silicon) or novel formulations of existing but less widely ...

  5. Modulating macrophage response to biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Toral

    Macrophages recruited to the site of biomaterial implantation are the primary mediators of the chronic foreign body response to implanted materials. Since foreign body response limits performance and functional life of numerous implanted biomaterials/medical devices, various approaches have been investigated to modulate macrophage interactions with biomaterial surfaces to mitigate this response. In this work we have explored two independent approaches to modulate the macrophage inflammatory response to biomaterials. The first approach targets surface integrins, cell surface receptors that mediate cell adhesion to biomaterials through adhesive proteins spontaneously adsorbed on biomaterial surfaces. The second approach involves surface modification of biomaterials using nanotopographic features since nanotopography has been reported to modulate cell adhesion and viability in a cell type-dependent manner. More specifically, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod surface was investigated for its role in modulating macrophage adhesion and survival in vitro and foreign body response in vivo. For the first approach, we have investigated the role of integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins in the in-vivo osteolysis response and macrophage inflammatory processes of phagocytosis as well as inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to particulate biomaterials. We have also investigated the in vivo foreign body response (FBR) to subcutaneously implanted biomaterials by evaluating the thickness of fibrous capsule formed around the implants after 2 weeks of implantation. The role of Mac-1 integrin was isolated using a Mac-1 KO mouse and comparing it to a WT control. The role of RGD binding integrins in FBR was investigated by coating the implanted biomaterial with ELVAX(TM) polymer loaded with Echistatin which contains the RGD sequence. For the in-vivo osteolysis study and to study the in-vitro macrophage response to particulate biomaterials, we used the RGD peptide encapsulated in ELVAX

  6. The effect of phosphate based glasses on the formation and viability of oral bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, April Miranda

    This study considered the antibacterial activity of a series of soluble phosphate-based glasses (based on the Na2O-CaO-P2O5 glass system) doped with increasing amounts of copper or silver against oral bacterial biofilms. Initially, a variety of phosphate-based glass compositions were produced. The dissolution rate of these glasses was determined, and the information obtained was used to decide which glass compositions would be investigated in future experiments for their antibacterial properties. Selected glass compositions were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus sanguis biofilms and oral microcosm biofilms. These biofilms were produced on phosphate-based glass discs using a Constant Depth Film Fermenter (CDFF), which allows the conditions found in the oral cavity to be closely mimicked. Following disc removal from the CDFF, various analytical procedures were carried out. Under conditions designed to mimic the supragingival environment of the oral cavity, fewer viable cells of Streptococcus sanguis were detected on both copper and silver-containing glass discs than on control discs, during the initial stages of the experiments, the greatest reduction occurring on the silver-containing glasses. An increase in viable cell number was observed as the experiments continued. Under the same conditions, copper-containing glasses failed to reduce the viability of microcosm biofilms. Viable cell number was initially reduced on the silver-containing glasses, but by the end of the experiments the viability of microcosm biofilms was significantly similar to those observed on the controls. Attempts to determine the efficacy of silver-containing glasses at reducing the viability of microcosm biofilms, under conditions designed to mimic the subgingival environment of the oral cavity, were subsequently made. Viable cells were not detected on any type of disc, including the control discs. Various reasons for this were postulated. In conclusion, the

  7. FOREIGN BODY REACTION TO BIOMATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James M.; Rodriguez, Analiz; Chang, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The foreign body reaction composed of macrophages and foreign body giant cells is the end-stage response of the inflammatory and wound healing responses following implantation of a medical device, prosthesis, or biomaterial. A brief, focused overview of events leading to the foreign body reaction is presented. The major focus of this review is on factors that modulate the interaction of macrophages and foreign body giant cells on synthetic surfaces where the chemical, physical, and morphological characteristics of the synthetic surface are considered to play a role in modulating cellular events. These events in the foreign body reaction include protein adsorption, monocyte/macrophage adhesion, macrophage fusion to form foreign body giant cells, consequences of the foreign body response on biomaterials, and cross-talk between macrophages/foreign body giant cells and inflammatory/wound healing cells. Biomaterial surface properties play an important role in modulating the foreign body reaction in the first two to four weeks following implantation of a medical device, even though the foreign body reaction at the tissue/material interface is present for the in vivo lifetime of the medical device. An understanding of the foreign body reaction is important as the foreign body reaction may impact the biocompatibility (safety) of the medical device, prosthesis, or implanted biomaterial and may significantly impact short- and long-term tissue responses with tissue-engineered constructs containing proteins, cells, and other biological components for use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Our perspective has been on the inflammatory and wound healing response to implanted materials, devices, and tissue-engineered constructs. The incorporation of biological components of allogeneic or xenogeneic origin as well as stem cells into tissue-engineered or regenerative approaches opens up a myriad of other challenges. An in depth understanding of how the immune system

  8. Phosphate-based glass fiber vs. bulk glass: Change in fiber optical response to probe in vitro glass reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massera, J; Ahmed, I; Petit, L; Aallos, V; Hupa, L

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of fiber drawing on the thermal and structural properties as well as on the glass reactivity of a phosphate glass in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-buffered (TRIS) solution and simulated body fluid (SBF). The changes induced in the thermal properties suggest that the fiber drawing process leads to a weakening and probable re-orientation of the POP bonds. Whereas the fiber drawing did not significantly impact the release of P and Ca, an increase in the release of Na into the solution was noticed. This was probably due to small structural reorientations occurring during the fiber drawing process and to a slight diffusion of Na to the fiber surface. Both the powders from the bulk and the glass fibers formed a Ca-P surface layer when immersed in SBF and TRIS. The layer thickness was higher in the calcium and phosphate supersaturated SBF than in TRIS. This paper for the first time presents the in vitro reactivity and optical response of a phosphate-based bioactive glass (PBG) fiber when immersed in SBF. The light intensity remained constant for the first 48h after which a decrease with three distinct slopes was observed: the first decrease between 48 and 200h of immersion could be correlated to the formation of the Ca-P layer at the fiber surface. After this a faster decrease in light transmission was observed from 200 to ~425h in SBF. SEM analysis suggested that after 200h, the surface of the fiber was fully covered by a thin Ca-P layer which is likely to scatter light. For immersion times longer than ~425h, the thickness of the Ca-P layer increased and thus acted as a barrier to the dissolution process limiting further reduction in light transmission. The tracking of light transmission through the PBG fiber allowed monitoring of the fiber dissolution in vitro. These results are essential in developing new bioactive fiber sensors that can be used to monitor bioresponse in situ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of phosphate-based glass fibre surface properties on thermally produced poly(lactic acid) matrix composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Maziar Shah; Ahmed, Ifty; Muja, Naser; Rudd, Christopher D; Bureau, Martin N; Nazhat, Showan N

    2011-12-01

    Incorporation of soluble bioactive glass fibres into biodegradable polymers is an interesting approach for bone repair and regeneration. However, the glass composition and its surface properties significantly affect the nature of the fibre-matrix interface and composite properties. Herein, the effect of Si and Fe on the surface properties of calcium containing phosphate based glasses (PGs) in the system (50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-(10-x)SiO(2)-xFe(2)O(3), where x = 0, 5 and 10 mol.%) were investigated. Contact angle measurements revealed a higher surface energy, and surface polarity as well as increased hydrophilicity for Si doped PG which may account for the presence of surface hydroxyl groups. Two PG formulations, 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-10Fe(2)O(3) (Fe10) and 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-5Fe(2)O(3)-5SiO(2) (Fe5Si5), were melt drawn into fibres and randomly incorporated into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) produced by melt processing. The ageing in deionised water (DW), mechanical property changes in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and cytocompatibility properties of these composites were investigated. In contrast to Fe10 and as a consequence of the higher surface energy and polarity of Fe5Si5, its incorporation into PLA led to increased inorganic/organic interaction indicated by a reduction in the carbonyl group of the matrix. PLA chain scission was confirmed by a greater reduction in its molecular weight in PLA-Fe5Si5 composites. In DW, the dissolution rate of PLA-Fe5Si5 was significantly higher than that of PLA-Fe10. Dissolution of the glass fibres resulted in the formation of channels within the matrix. Initial flexural strength was significantly increased through PGF incorporation. After PBS ageing, the reduction in mechanical properties was greater for PLA-Fe5Si5 compared to PLA-Fe10. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts seeded onto PG discs, PLA and PLA-PGF composites were evaluated for up to 7 days indicating that the materials were generally cytocompatible. In addition, cell alignment along the PGF

  10. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  11. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  12. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...... cell differentiation into tissue-specifi c lineages. The use of 3D biomaterial microarrays can, if optimized correctly, result in a more than 1000-fold reduction in biomaterials and cells consumption when engineering optimal materials combinations, which makes these miniaturized systems very attractive...

  13. Biomaterials in Relation to Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sanjukta; Chana, Simran

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains a challenge in the improvement of oral health. It is the most common and widespread biofilm-dependent oral disease, resulting in the destruction of tooth structure by the acidic attack from cariogenic bacteria. The tooth is a heavily mineralised tissue, and both enamel and dentine can undergo demineralisation due to trauma or dietary conditions. The adult population worldwide affected by dental caries is enormous and despite significant advances in caries prevention and tooth restoration, treatments continue to pose a substantial burden to healthcare. Biomaterials play a vital role in the restoration of the diseased or damaged tooth structure and, despite providing reasonable outcomes, there are some concerns with clinical performance. Amalgam, the silver grey biomaterial that has been widely used as a restorative material in dentistry, is currently in throes of being phased out, especially with the Minimata convention and treaty being signed by a number of countries (January 2013; http://mercuryconvention.org/Convention/) that aims to control the anthropogenic release of mercury in the environment, which naturally impacts the use of amalgam, where mercury is a component. Thus, the development of alternative restoratives and restoration methods that are inexpensive, can be used under different climatic conditions, withstand storage and allow easy handling, the main prerequisites of dental biomaterials, is important. The potential for using biologically engineered tissue and consequent research to replace damaged tissues has also seen a quantum leap in the last decade. Ongoing research in regenerative treatments in dentistry includes alveolar ridge augmentation, bone tissue engineering and periodontal ligament replacement, and a future aim is bioengineering of the whole tooth. Research towards developing bioengineered teeth is well underway and identification of adult stem cell sources to make this a viable treatment is advancing; however, this

  14. Nanotechnology in medicine: nanofilm biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tassel, Paul R

    2013-12-13

    By interrogating nature at the length scale of important biological molecules (proteins, DNA), nanotechnology offers great promise to biomedicine. We review here our recent work on nanofilm biomaterials: "nanoscopically" thin, functional, polymer-based films serving as biocompatible interfaces. In one thrust, films containing carbon nanotubes are shown to be highly antimicrobial and, thus, to be promising as biomedical device materials inherently resistive to microbial infection. In another thrust, strategies are developed toward films of independently controllable bioactivity and mechanical rigidity - two key variables governing typical biological responses.

  15. Development of Elastomeric Polypeptide Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-25

    lysyl oxidase could result in biomaterials with physical properties similar to elastin. Here we report the synthesis of the two polymers [XL-I-(VPGVG... lysyl oxidase treatment; study the various intermediate oxidation products and also the formation of final desmosine and isodesmosine structures; and...cm 5 420 ’ 1 3.37 0 4 a 12 1- 0 - 2.56 2.29 / .2. 02 "l.O 0 1 2 3 A lenglh (mm) Fig. 12- Effect ofa xanthine oxidase superoxide generating system on

  16. Linking the Transcriptional Landscape of Bone Induction to Biomaterial Design Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Nathalie; Yuan, Huipin; Hebels, Dennie G A J; Koçer, Gülistan; Mbuyi, Faustin; LaPointe, Vanessa; Truckenmüller, Roman; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Habibović, Pamela; de Boer, Jan

    2017-03-01

    New engineering possibilities allow biomaterials to serve as active orchestrators of the molecular and cellular events of tissue regeneration. Here, the molecular control of tissue regeneration for calcium phosphate (CaP)-based materials is established by defining the parameters critical for tissue induction and those are linked to the molecular circuitry controlling cell physiology. The material properties (microporosity, ion composition, protein adsorption) of a set of synthesized osteoinductive and noninductive CaP ceramics are parameterized and these properties are correlated to a transcriptomics profile of osteogenic cells grown on the materials in vitro. Using these data, a genetic network controlling biomaterial-induced bone formation is built. By isolating the complex material properties into single-parameter test conditions, it is verified that a subset of these genes is indeed controlled by surface topography and ions released from the ceramics, respectively. The gene network points to a decisive role for extracellular matrix deposition in osteoinduction by genes such as tenascin C and hyaluronic acid synthase 2, which are controlled by calcium and phosphate ions as well as surface topography. This work provides insight into the biomaterial composition and material engineering aspects of bone void filling and can be used as a strategy to explore the interface between biomaterials and tissue regeneration. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Keratoconus: Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Karamichos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus (KC is a bilateral, asymmetric, corneal disorder that is characterized by progressive thinning, steepening, and potential scarring. The prevalence of KC is stated to be 1 in 2000 persons worldwide; however, numbers vary depending on size of the study and regions. KC appears more often in South Asian, Eastern Mediterranean, and North African populations. The cause remains unknown, although a variety of factors have been considered. Genetics, cellular, and mechanical changes have all been reported; however, most of these studies have proven inconclusive. Clearly, the major problem here, like with any other ocular disease, is quality of life and the threat of vision loss. While most KC cases progress until the third or fourth decade, it varies between individuals. Patients may experience periods of several months with significant changes followed by months or years of no change, followed by another period of rapid changes. Despite the major advancements, it is still uncertain how to treat KC at early stages and prevent vision impairment. There are currently limited tissue engineering techniques and/or “smart” biomaterials that can help arrest the progression of KC. This review will focus on current treatments and how biomaterials may hold promise for the future.

  18. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B [NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at University Tuebingen, Markwiesenstr. 55, D-72770 Reutlingen (Germany); Ahlers, M [GELITA AG, Gammelsbacher Str. 2, D-69412 Eberbach (Germany)], E-mail: schlosshauer@nmi.de

    2008-09-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation.

  19. Silk Biomaterials with Vascularization Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongyan; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Shanshan; Lu, Qiang; Fan, Zhihai; Lu, Haijun; Lu, Guozhong; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-20

    Functional vascularization is critical for the clinical regeneration of complex tissues such as kidney, liver or bone. The immobilization or delivery of growth factors has been explored to improve vascularization capacity of tissue engineered constructs, however, the use of growth factors has inherent problems such as the loss of signaling capability and the risk of complications such as immunological responses and cancer. Here, a new method of preparing water-insoluble silk protein scaffolds with vascularization capacity using an all aqueous process is reported. Acid was added temporally to tune the self-assembly of silk in lyophilization process, resulting in water insoluble scaffold formation directly. These biomaterials are mainly noncrystalline, offering improved cell proliferation than previously reported silk materials. These systems also have appropriate softer mechanical property that could provide physical cues to promote cell differentiation into endothelial cells, and enhance neovascularization and tissue ingrowth in vivo without the addition of growth factors. Therefore, silk-based degradable scaffolds represent an exciting biomaterial option, with vascularization capacity for soft tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  20. Glucocorticoid induced osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep: validation of large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, Liming; Bollen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Glucocorticoid with low calcium and phosphorus intake induces osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep. OBJECTIVE: To validate a large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A variety of ovariectomized animals has been used to study...

  1. Design Strategies for Fluorescent Biodegradable Polymeric Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi; Yang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The marriage of biodegradable polymer and fluorescent imaging has resulted in an important area of polymeric biomaterials: biodegradable fluorescent polymers. Researchers have put significant efforts on developing versatile fluorescent biomaterials due to their promising in biological/biomedical labeling, tracking, monitoring, imaging, and diagnostic applications, especially in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and cancer imaging applications. Biodegradable fluorescent polymers can function ...

  2. Properties and clinical relevance of osteoinductive biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    This thesis had two main goals: (¿) to investigate parameters influencing osteoinductive potential of biomaterials in order to unravel the mechanism underlying osteoinduction and (¿¿) to investigate performance of osteoinductive biomaterials orthotopically in order to get insight into their clinical

  3. Effect of increasing silver content in phosphate-based glasses on biofilms of Streptococcus sanguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, A M; Wilson, M; Knowles, J C

    2003-11-01

    Silver is a powerful antibacterial ion that may be useful for dealing with localized infections, such as periodontitis. However, the use of silver in this role could be significantly improved by the development of an effective means of delivery. Phosphate-based glasses may provide a means of delivering the ions in a controlled manner. In our study, we have examined the effect of increasing silver content in phosphate-based glasses on biofilms of Streptococcus sanguis. Glasses of nominally the same dissolution rate were doped with silver at 1, 5,10, and 15 mol % and the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) determined after 6 and 24 h in a constant depth film fermenter (CDFF). The 1 mol % silver showed little change between 6 and 24 h. However, only 0.5 log CFUs were present on the glass containing 5 mol % at 6 h, and this reduced to virtually zero at 24 h. Few viable bacteria were found on the 10 mol % glass at both 6 and 24 h. The 15 mol % glass was investigated in this experiment, but no viable counts were detected. In a second set of experiments, glasses with 10 and 15 mol % silver were tested in the CDFF for up to 192 h. For the 10 mol % silver glass, there was approximately 0.8 log CFUs on this glass, which dropped to almost zero at 50 h. This was approximately 1.5-2.0 log reduction in CFUs compared to controls, and this difference was maintained for the first 50 h. After 50 h, there was a slow increase in the CFUs on all samples. However, CFUs on the 10 mol % silver glass were still suppressed up to 192 h compared to the controls. However, both controls also exhibited a decrease in viable counts at 50 h; this may have been due to carryover of silver into the control sample holders. However, this was minimized by the specimen layout in the CDFF and by having gaps between specimen sets. For the 15 mol % silver glass, counts for both this glass and the controls decreased to virtually zero between 24 and 48 h, but the numbers slowly increased up to 170 h, but the

  4. The effect of increasing copper content in phosphate-based glasses on biofilms of Streptococcus sanguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, A M; Wilson, M; Knowles, J C

    2003-05-01

    This paper reports the effect of a series of phosphate-based glasses based on the Na(2)O-CaO-P(2)O(5) system doped with increasing amounts of copper and the effect of this increasing copper content on the viability of an in vitro biofilm of Streptococcus sanguis over an 8 day period in a constant depth film fermenter. The addition of copper to the glass caused the solubility to change, so the glasses were adjusted in order that their solubility in artificial saliva was nominally the same (0.3062 +/- 0.07 mg cm(-2) h(-1)). Initial experiments on glasses with 1.5% and 10% copper showed that after 6 h there was no statistical difference between the copper containing glasses and the non-copper containing glass and HA in terms of the viability of the biofilms. However, at 24 h there was an approximately 0.8-0.9 log reduction in viability of the biofilms grown on the 5% copper glass and an approximately 1.0-1.3 log reduction for the 10% copper containing glass. Further experiments on the glass with 10% copper and another glass with 15% copper were carried out in a time dependent study. For both glasses a clear decrease in viable counts at 24 h was found but for both glasses these returned to levels similar to those of controls. The initial decrease in viability during the first 24 h is likely to be due to the antibacterial effect of the copper and this could be correlated with copper content. The recovery after 24 h is probably due to the dead cells forming a barrier, making diffusion of the antibacterial ions, increasingly difficult. This study has shown that phosphate-based glasses could potentially be used to deliver antibacterial ions to help combat oral infections. Copper, which has been shown to have antibacterial properties, could be incorporated but some development of the glasses used in this investigation may be required. Further work is needed to determine the effectiveness of copper containing glasses on oral bacterial communities. Copyright 2003 Elsevier

  5. Gelatin as Biomaterial for Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echave, Mari C; Burgo, Laura S; Pedraz, Jose L; Orive, Gorka

    2017-01-01

    Tissue engineering is considered one of the most important therapeutic strategies of regenerative medicine. The main objective of these new technologies is the development of substitutes made with biomaterials that are able to heal, repair or regenerate injured or diseased tissues and organs. These constructs seek to unlock the limited ability of human tissues and organs to regenerate. In this review, we highlight the convenient intrinsic properties of gelatin for the design and development of advanced systems for tissue engineering. Gelatin is a natural origin protein derived from collagen hydrolysis. We outline herein a state of the art of gelatin-based composites in order to overcome limitations of this polymeric material and modulate the properties of the formulations. Control release of bioactive molecules, formulations with conductive properties or systems with improved mechanical properties can be obtained using gelatin composites. Many studies have found that the use of calcium phosphate ceramics and diverse synthetic polymers in combination with gelatin improve the mechanical properties of the structures. On the other hand, polyaniline and carbon-based nanosubstrates are interesting molecules to provide gelatin-based systems with conductive properties, especially for cardiac and nerve tissue engineering. Finally, this review provides an overview of the different types of gelatin-based structures including nanoparticles, microparticles, 3D scaffolds, electrospun nanofibers and in situ gelling formulations. Thanks to the significant progress that has already been made, along with others that will be achieved in a near future, the safe and effective clinical implementation of gelatin-based products is expected to accelerate and expand shortly. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Leveraging advances in biology to design biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Max; Mooney, David J.

    2017-12-01

    Biomaterials have dramatically increased in functionality and complexity, allowing unprecedented control over the cells that interact with them. From these engineering advances arises the prospect of improved biomaterial-based therapies, yet practical constraints favour simplicity. Tools from the biology community are enabling high-resolution and high-throughput bioassays that, if incorporated into a biomaterial design framework, could help achieve unprecedented functionality while minimizing the complexity of designs by identifying the most important material parameters and biological outputs. However, to avoid data explosions and to effectively match the information content of an assay with the goal of the experiment, material screens and bioassays must be arranged in specific ways. By borrowing methods to design experiments and workflows from the bioprocess engineering community, we outline a framework for the incorporation of next-generation bioassays into biomaterials design to effectively optimize function while minimizing complexity. This framework can inspire biomaterials designs that maximize functionality and translatability.

  7. Biomaterial systems for orthopedic tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerke, Erik David

    2003-06-01

    The World Health Organization has estimated that one out of seven Americans suffers from a musculoskeletal impairment, annually incurring 28.6 million musculoskeletal injuries---more than half of all injuries. Bone tissue engineering has evolved rapidly to address this continued health concern. In the last decade, the focus of orthopedic biomaterials design has shifted from the use of common engineering metals and plastics to smart materials designed to mimic nature and elicit favorable bioresponse. Working within this new paradigm, this thesis explores unique chemical and materials systems for orthopedic tissue engineering. Improving on current titanium implant technologies, porous titanium scaffolds were utilized to better approximate the mechanical and structural properties of natural bone. These foam scaffolds were enhanced with bioactive coatings, designed to enhance osteoblastic implant colonization. The biopolymer poly(L-lysine) was incorporated into both hydroxypatite and octacalcium phosphate mineral phases to create modified organoapatite and pLys-CP coatings respectively. These coatings were synthesized and characterized on titanium surfaces, including porous structures such as titanium mesh and titanium foam. In addition, in vitro osteoblastic cell culture experiments probed the biological influences of these coatings. Organoapatite (OA) accelerated preosteoblastic colonization of titanium mesh and improved cellular ingrowth into titanium foam. Alternatively, the thin, uniform pLys-CP coating demonstrated significant potential as a substrate for chemically binding biological molecules and supramolecular assemblies. Biologically, pLys-CP demonstrated enhanced cellular attachment over titanium and inorganic calcium phosphate controls. Supramolecular self-assembled nanofiber assemblies were also explored both as stand-alone tissue engineering gels and as titanium coatings. Self-supporting nanofiber gels induced accelerated, biomimetic mineralization

  8. Mechanical, structural and dissolution properties of heat treated thin-film phosphate based glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Bryan W.; Gimeno-Fabra, Miquel; Segal, Joel; Ahmed, Ifty; Grant, David M.

    2017-09-01

    Here we show the deposition of 2.7 μm thick phosphate based glass films produced by magnetron sputtering, followed by post heat treatments at 500 °C. Variations in degradation properties pre and post heat treatment were attributed to the formation of Hematite crystals within a glass matrix, iron oxidation and the depletion of hydrophilic P-O-P bonds within the surface layer. As deposited and heat treated coatings showed interfacial tensile adhesion in excess of 73.6 MPa; which surpassed ISO and FDA requirements for HA coatings. Scratch testing of coatings on polished substrates revealed brittle failure mechanisms, amplified due to heat treatment and interfacial failure occurring from 2.3 to 5.0 N. Coatings that were deposited onto sandblasted substrates to mimic commercial implant surfaces, did not suffer from tensile cracking or trackside delamination showing substantial interfacial improvements to between 8.6 and 11.3 N. An exponential dissolution rate was observed from 0 to 2 h for as deposited coatings, which was eliminated via heat treatment. From 2 to 24 h ion release rates ordered P > Na > Mg > Ca > Fe whilst all coatings exhibited linear degradation rates, which reduced by factors of 2.4-3.0 following heat treatments.

  9. Properties of concretes and wood composites using a phosphate-based binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Luong Thanh

    Magnesium potassium phosphate ceramics are from the family of phosphate-based cements which can be used as alternatives to Portland cements. In this study, concretes and wood composites were produced using magnesium potassium phosphate ceramic binders and supplementary materials including fly ash, sand, silica fume and sawdust. Bentonite, Delvo Stabilizer and baking soda were used as additives to increase the workability and the setting time of the fresh mixutres and decrease the density of the hardened products. The materials were then reinforced with chopped glass-fibers or textile glass-fabrics to increase their hardened properties. At 50% fly ash by total mass of the binder, the concretes had compressive strength and density of 33 MPa and 2170 kg/m3, respectively, after 90 days of simple curing. At 20% fly ash by total mass of the binder, the wood composites had compressive strength and density of 13 MPa and 1320 kg/m3, respectively, after 90 days. The flexural strengths were about 10% to 47% of the corresponding cylinder compressive strengths for these mixes. Increases in both compressive and flexural strengths for these mixes were observed with the addition of chopped glass-fibers or textile glass-fabrics.

  10. Extraction and characterisation of apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials from cod fish bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, C; Silva, M F; Pullar, R C; Braga da Cruz, I; Jorge, R; Pintado, M M E; Castro, P M L

    2013-01-01

    Apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials were produced from codfish bones, thus converting a waste by-product from the food industry into high added-valued compounds. The bones were annealed at temperatures between 900 and 1200 °C, giving a biphasic material of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and β-Ca(PO4)3) with a molar proportion of 75:25, a material widely used in biomedical implants. The treatment of the bones in solution prior to their annealing changed the composition of the material. Single phase hydroxyapatite, chlorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6Cl2) and fluorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2) were obtained using CaCl2 and NaF solutions, respectively. The samples were analysed by several techniques (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal/thermogravimetric analysis) and by elemental analyses, to have a more complete understanding of the conversion process. Such compositional modifications have never been performed before for these materials of natural origin to tailor the relative concentrations of elements. This paper shows the great potential for the conversion of this by-product into highly valuable compounds for biomedical applications, using a simple and effective valorisation process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Phosphate-Based Glasses for Hydrophilic Enamel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae-Sung; Ryu, Bong-ki [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, quaternary phosphate-based sol-gel derived glasses were synthesized from a P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-Na{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2} system with a high TiO{sub 2} content of up to 50 mol%. The sol-gel method was chosen because incorporating a high percentage of titanium into a phosphate network via traditional melt-quench methods is non-trivial. The structure and thermal properties of the obtained stabilized sol-gel glasses were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The XRD results confirmed the amorphous nature of all of the stabilized sol–gel derived glasses. The FTIR results revealed that added TiO{sub 2} enters the network as (TiO{sub 6}), which likely acts as a modifier oxide. Consequently, the number of terminal oxygen atoms increases, leading to an increase in the number of P-OH bonds. In addition, DSC results confirmed a decrease in glass transition and crystallization temperatures with increasing TiO{sub 2} content. This is the first report of a sol-gel synthesis strategy combined with enameling to prepare glass at low processing temperatures and the first use of such a system for both hydrophilic and chemical resistance purposes.

  12. PIXE study of the kinetics of biomaterials ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Braye, F.; Oudadesse, H.; Irigaray, J. L.

    1994-05-01

    Biomaterials are frequently implanted in bones. This implantation is followed by a phenomenon of ossification. The purpose of this work was to study the time evolution of the gradient of characteristic atomic element's concentrations in the bone, the implant and the bone-implant interface. We have studied two types of neutral biomaterials: pure synthetic hydroxyapatite and porite's asteroid coral. The animal implantations have been made on sheep of the same age and sex having received the same basic diet. The implantations have been made in the cortical femur. On both sides of the implant, at the same distance, two screws were placed to allow further determination of the position of the implant. The PIXE method is particularly suitable here because of the possibility to analyze directly the samples without any preparation and to choose easily the dimensions of beam used for the gradient study. The X-rays have been detected with an ultra LEGe instead of the usual Si(Li) device to avoid the Si escape peak associated with the K α X-ray of calcium, the major constituent of bone. This peak is particularly disturbing here because its energy corresponds to the K α line of phosphorus, an important constituent of bone. The results of these determinations are presented and discussed.

  13. Creating biomaterials with spatially organized functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lesley W; Fischer, Jacob F

    2016-05-01

    Biomaterials for tissue engineering provide scaffolds to support cells and guide tissue regeneration. Despite significant advances in biomaterials design and fabrication techniques, engineered tissue constructs remain functionally inferior to native tissues. This is largely due to the inability to recreate the complex and dynamic hierarchical organization of the extracellular matrix components, which is intimately linked to a tissue's biological function. This review discusses current state-of-the-art strategies to control the spatial presentation of physical and biochemical cues within a biomaterial to recapitulate native tissue organization and function. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  14. Metallic Biomaterials: Current Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthika Prasad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials are engineered systems designed to provide internal support to biological tissues and they are being used largely in joint replacements, dental implants, orthopaedic fixations and stents. Higher biomaterial usage is associated with an increased incidence of implant-related complications due to poor implant integration, inflammation, mechanical instability, necrosis and infections, and associated prolonged patient care, pain and loss of function. In this review, we will briefly explore major representatives of metallic biomaterials along with the key existing and emerging strategies for surface and bulk modification used to improve biointegration, mechanical strength and flexibility of biometals, and discuss their compatibility with the concept of 3D printing.

  15. Biomaterial stiffness determines stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongwei; Wang, Heping; Zhang, Zhijun; Yang, Wang; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Yulin; Li, Lisha

    2017-06-01

    Stem cells have potential to develop into numerous cell types, thus they are good cell source for tissue engineering. As an external physical signal, material stiffness is capable of regulating stem cell fate. Biomaterial stiffness is an important parameter in tissue engineering. We summarize main measurements of material stiffness under different condition, then list and compare three main methods of controlling stiffness (material amount, crosslinking density and photopolymeriztion time) which interplay with one another and correlate with stiffness positively, and current advances in effects of biomaterial stiffness on stem cell fate. We discuss the unsolved problems and future directions of biomaterial stiffness in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Polymeric biomaterials structure and function, v.1

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitriu, Severian

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials have had a major impact on the practice of contemporary medicine and patient care. Growing into a major interdisciplinary effort involving chemists, biologists, engineers, and physicians, biomaterials development has enabled the creation of high-quality devices, implants, and drug carriers with greater biocompatibility and biofunctionality. The fast-paced research and increasing interest in finding new and improved biocompatible or biodegradable polymers has provided a wealth of new information, transforming this edition of Polymeric Biomaterials into a two-volume set. This volume

  17. Ultrasound technologies for biomaterials fabrication and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Diane; Hocking, Denise C

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound is emerging as a powerful tool for developing biomaterials for regenerative medicine. Ultrasound technologies are finding wide-ranging, innovative applications for controlling the fabrication of bioengineered scaffolds, as well as for imaging and quantitatively monitoring the properties of engineered constructs both during fabrication processes and post-implantation. This review provides an overview of the biomedical applications of ultrasound for imaging and therapy, a tutorial of the physical mechanisms through which ultrasound can interact with biomaterials, and examples of how ultrasound technologies are being developed and applied for biomaterials fabrication processes, non-invasive imaging, and quantitative characterization of bioengineered scaffolds in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Metallic Biomaterials: Current Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Karthika; Bazaka, Olha; Chua, Ming; Rochford, Madison; Fedrick, Liam; Spoor, Jordan; Symes, Richard; Tieppo, Marcus; Collins, Cameron; Cao, Alex; Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken); Bazaka, Kateryna

    2017-01-01

    Metallic biomaterials are engineered systems designed to provide internal support to biological tissues and they are being used largely in joint replacements, dental implants, orthopaedic fixations and stents. Higher biomaterial usage is associated with an increased incidence of implant-related complications due to poor implant integration, inflammation, mechanical instability, necrosis and infections, and associated prolonged patient care, pain and loss of function. In this review, we will briefly explore major representatives of metallic biomaterials along with the key existing and emerging strategies for surface and bulk modification used to improve biointegration, mechanical strength and flexibility of biometals, and discuss their compatibility with the concept of 3D printing. PMID:28773240

  19. Stabilizing lead bullets in shooting range soil by phosphate-based surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hua

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil lead (Pb is well known as a threat to human health and ecosystem. Although relatively insoluble, lead bullets in shooting range soil can be readily released into soluble forms through natural weathering processes and thus pose significant human and environmental risks. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate if the Pb bullets in shooting range soil can be stabilized through surface coating of phosphate-based materials. Results indicated that FePO4 or AlPO4 coatings, insoluble metal phosphates, have been successfully formed on the surface of the Pb bullets. The EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP test showed that FePO4 or AlPO4 surface coating would effectively reduce the Pb solubility or leachability of the bullets. The surface coating under pH of <5.5 for 7 days could achieve 92–100% reduction, with 85–98% by FePO4 coating and 77–98% by AlPO4 coating as compared with the non-coating. Leachable Pb concentration in the contaminated shooting range soil was reduced by 85–98% or 77–98% as a result of the FePO4 or AlPO4 solution treatment. This study demonstrated that the FePO4 or AlPO4–based surface coating on lead bullets can effectively inhibit the Pb weathering and significantly reduce the Pb release from soil through in situ chemical stabilization, which could be potentially applicable as a cost-effective and environmental-sound technology for the remediation of Pb-contaminated shooting range soil.

  20. Biomaterials in the repair of sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducheyne, Paul; Mauck, Robert L.; Smith, Douglas H.

    2012-08-01

    The optimal stimulation of tissue regeneration in bone, cartilage and spinal cord injuries involves a judicious selection of biomaterials with tailored chemical compositions, micro- and nanostructures, porosities and kinetic release properties for the delivery of relevant biologically active molecules.

  1. The recent progress of tribological biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. E

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tribological phenomena abundantly exist in living beings, especially in human beings, such as in teeth, eyes, bones, skins, heart valves and so on, and it is meaningful to reveal the mechanism of tribology in human body and fabricate artificial biomaterials to replace the damaged tissues to release the pain of patients. Alloys, ceramics and polymers are three uppermost materials used in engineering and some of them play a crucial role in biomedicine. In the paper, we provide an overview of the tribological behaviors of artificial biomaterials including alloys, ceramics and polymers. We aim to provide fundamental mechanistic and applications of tribological biomaterials, while emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages of various kinds of tribological biomaterials. Finally, some challenges and the potential promising breakthroughs are also succinctly highlighted in this field.

  2. Ceramics as biomaterials for dental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Watzke, Ronny; Peschke, Arnd; Kappert, Heinrich

    2008-11-01

    Sintered ceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used as biomaterials for dental restoration, especially as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Biomaterials were developed either to veneer metal frameworks or to produce metal-free dental restorations. Different types of glass-ceramics and ceramics are available and necessary today to fulfill customers' needs (patients, dentists and dental technicians) regarding the properties of the biomaterials and the processing of the products. All of these different types of biomaterials already cover the entire range of indications of dental restorations. Today, patients are increasingly interested in metal-free restoration. Glass-ceramics are particularly suitable for fabricating inlays, crowns and small bridges, as these materials achieve very strong, esthetic results. High-strength ceramics are preferred in situations where the material is exposed to high masticatory forces.

  3. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  4. Biomaterials innovation bundling technologies and life

    CERN Document Server

    Styhre, A

    2014-01-01

    Rapid advances in the life sciences means that there is now a far more detailed understanding of biological systems on the cellular, molecular and genetic levels. Sited at the intersection between the life sciences, the engineering sciences and the design sciences, innovations in the biomaterials industry are expected to garner increasing attention and play a key role in future development. This book examines the biomaterials innovations taking place in corporations and in academic research settings today.

  5. Special Issue “Biomaterials and Bioprinting”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Kai Chua

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of bioprinting in recent years represents a marvellous advancement in 3D printing technology. It expands the range of 3D printable materials from the world of non-living materials into the world of living materials. Biomaterials play an important role in this paradigm shift. This Special Issue focuses on biomaterials and bioprinting and contains eight articles covering a number of recent topics in this emerging area.

  6. Current Strategies in Cardiovascular Biomaterial Functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lehle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of the coagulation cascade and platelet activation is the foremost demand for biomaterials in contact with blood. In this review we describe the underlying mechanisms of these processes and offer the current state of antithrombotic strategies. We give an overview of methods to prevent protein and platelet adhesion, as well as techniques to immobilize biochemically active molecules on biomaterial surfaces. Finally, recent strategies in biofunctionalization by endothelial cell seeding as well as their possible clinical applications are discussed.

  7. Going beyond compromises in multifunctionality of biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffe, Axel T; Lendlein, Andreas

    2015-04-02

    Prioritizing one function in biomaterial and biomedical device design goes hand in hand with compromises with respect to other functions. Strategies to overcome the limitations of such an approach for realizing novel fields of biomaterial application are critically evaluated to promote interdisciplinary and integrative research. © 2014 Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Smart Self-Assembled Hybrid Hydrogel Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Kopeček, Jindřich; Yang, Jiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid biomaterials are systems created from components of at least two distinct classes of molecules, for example, synthetic macromolecules and proteins or peptide domains. The synergistic combination of two types of structures may produce new materials that possess unprecedented levels of structural organization and novel properties. This Review focuses on biorecognition-driven self-assembly of hybrid macromolecules into functional hydrogel biomaterials. First, basic rules that govern the s...

  9. Medical applications for biomaterials in Bolivia

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the potential medical benefits natural biomaterials can offer in developing countries by analyzing the case of Bolivia. The book explores the medical and health related applications of Bolivian commodities: quinoa, barley, sugarcane, corn, sorghum and sunflower seeds. This book helps readers better understand some of the key health concerns facing countries like Bolivia and how naturally derived biomaterials and therapeutics could help substantially alleviate many of their problems.

  10. Physicochemical characterization: Comparative evaluation of three allograft biomaterials and autogenous bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Berberi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bone substitutes (BSs used in oral surgery include allografts, xenografts, and synthetic materials that are frequently used to compensate bone loss or to reinforce repaired bone by encouraging new bone in growth into the defect site. The aim of this study was to evaluate a number of physical and chemical properties in a variety of allografts biomaterials used in oral surgery and to compare them with those of autogenous bone. Materials and Methods: Autogenous bone and three different allograft biomaterials were studied by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry (XRD, atomic absorption spectrometry, laser diffraction, and checked for their chemical composition, calcium release concentration, crystallinity, and granulation size. Results: The highest calcium release concentration was 24.94 mg/g for Puros ® and the lowest one was 4.05 mg/g for OsteoSponge ® compared to 20.15 mg/g to natural bone. The range of particles size, in term of median size D 50 , varied between 630.47 μm for Puros ® and 902.41μm for OsteoSponge, ® compared to 282.1μm for natural bone. Bone and Puros ® displayed a hexagonal shape as bone except and OsteoSponge ® which showed a triclinic shape. Conclusion: A BS of choice depends largely on its clinical application that is associated to its biological and mechanical performance. These morphological differences between biomaterials greatly influence their in vivo behavior of biomaterials. Significant differences were detected in terms of calcium concentration, particles size, and crystallinity.

  11. 2010 Panel on the biomaterials grand challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, William Monty; Ratner, Buddy D; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S; Laurencin, Cato T; Tirrell, David

    2011-02-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies-Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell-were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 2010 Panel on the Biomaterials Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, William “Monty”; Ratner, Buddy D.; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Tirrell, David

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies—Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell—were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities. PMID:21171147

  13. Use of biomaterials in periradicular surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favieri, Amauri; Campos, Luís Claudio; Burity, Viviane Holmes; Santa Cecília, Maurício; Abad, Ernani Da Costa

    2008-04-01

    This article reports a case of periradicular surgery in which biomaterials, such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), human lyophilized bone, and calcium sulfate, were used. A 21-year-old female patient was referred to our endodontic clinic as a result of recurrent episodes of acute exacerbation of a chronic process involving the maxillary left lateral incisor. There was complete destruction of the buccal bone plate at the apical third, leaving this portion of the root exposed to the oral cavity. After conventional root canal therapy carried out under special tooth isolation conditions, apicoectomy was performed, and a root-end cavity was prepared and restored with MTA as a retrofilling material. Because of the exposure of the root-end resection to the mouth, osteoinductive and osteoconductive materials (human lyophilized bone and calcium sulfate, and calcium sulfate alone, respectively) were used, with the goals of modeling the lost bone structure, preventing invasion of the oral epithelium, and avoiding the occurrence of secondary infection. Two years after the periradicular surgery, there were no clinical or radiographic signs suggestive of treatment failure, but instead the patient's follow-up has shown that the case management has been successful as indicated by lesion regression and periodontal repair. On the basis of the review of literature and the clinical-radiographic outcomes hereby presented, it might be concluded that (1) large bone destructions caused by periradicular lesions might and should be filled with recognizably effective bone-replacing materials during regenerative tissue process. MTA, human lyophilized bone, and calcium sulfate seemed to have an important role in alveolar bone induction, remodeling, and repair. (2) Because of its characteristics of promoting excellent marginal sealing and stimulating osteoblastic adherence to the retrofilling surface, MTA has been considered as the retrofilling material of choice.

  14. Biomaterials for craniofacial bone engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevlin, R; McArdle, A; Atashroo, D; Walmsley, G G; Senarath-Yapa, K; Zielins, E R; Paik, K J; Longaker, M T; Wan, D C

    2014-12-01

    Conditions such as congenital anomalies, cancers, and trauma can all result in devastating deficits of bone in the craniofacial skeleton. This can lead to significant alteration in function and appearance that may have significant implications for patients. In addition, large bone defects in this area can pose serious clinical dilemmas, which prove difficult to remedy, even with current gold standard surgical treatments. The craniofacial skeleton is complex and serves important functional demands. The necessity to develop new approaches for craniofacial reconstruction arises from the fact that traditional therapeutic modalities, such as autologous bone grafting, present myriad limitations and carry with them the potential for significant complications. While the optimal bone construct for tissue regeneration remains to be elucidated, much progress has been made in the past decade. Advances in tissue engineering have led to innovative scaffold design, complemented by progress in the understanding of stem cell-based therapy and growth factor enhancement of the healing cascade. This review focuses on the role of biomaterials for craniofacial bone engineering, highlighting key advances in scaffold design and development. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  15. Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of substituting strontium for calcium in fluoroaluminosilicate glass on the mechanical and ion-releasing properties of high-viscosity glass ionomer cements. Design: An exploratory, laboratory-based study. Setting: Dental biomaterials research laboratory, Dental Physical Sciences Unit, ...

  16. Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: An exploratory, laboratory-based study. Setting: Dental biomaterials research laboratory, Dental Physical Sciences Unit, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London. Subjects: A series of five glasses in which strontium substitutes for calcium and based on the general ...

  17. Biomaterials and medical devices a perspective from an emerging country

    CERN Document Server

    Hermawan, Hendra

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to biomaterials with the focus on the current development and future direction of biomaterials and medical devices research and development in Indonesia. It is the first biomaterials book written by selected academic and clinical experts experts on biomaterials and medical devices from various institutions and industries in Indonesia. It serves as a reference source for researchers starting new projects, for companies developing and marketing products and for governments setting new policies. Chapter one covers the fundamentals of biomaterials, types of biomaterials, their structures and properties and the relationship between them. Chapter two discusses unconventional processing of biomaterials including nano-hybrid organic-inorganic biomaterials. Chapter three addresses biocompatibility issues including in vitro cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, in vitro cell models, biocompatibility data and its related failure. Chapter four describes degradable biomaterial for medical implants...

  18. Role of gallium and silver from phosphate-based glasses on in vitro dual species oral biofilm models of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus gordonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valappil, Sabeel P; Coombes, Marc; Wright, Lucy; Owens, Gareth J; Lynch, Richard J M; Hope, Christopher K; Higham, Susan M

    2012-05-01

    Phosphate-based glasses (PBGs) are excellent controlled delivery agents for antibacterial ions such as silver and gallium. The aim of this study was to assess the potential utility of novel PBGs combining both gallium and silver for use in periodontal therapy. To this end, an in vitro biofilm model with the putative periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and an initial colonizer, Streptococcus gordonii, was established. The effect of increasing calcium content in gallium-silver-doped PBG on the susceptibility of P. gingivalis was examined. A decrease in degradation rates (30.34, 25.19, 21.40 μg mm(-2) h(-1)) with increasing PBG calciumcontent (10, 11, 12 mol.% respectively) was observed, correlating well with gallium and silver ion release and antimicrobial activity against planktonic P. gingivalis (approximately 5.4log(10) colony-forming units (CFU) reduction after 24h by the C10 glass compared with controls) and S. gordonii (total growth inhibition after 32h by C10, C11 and C12 glasses compared with controls). The most potent PBG (C10) was evaluated for its ability to inhibit the biofilm growth of P. gingivalis in a newly established constant-depth film fermentor model. The simultaneous release of silver and gallium from the glass reduced P. gingivalis biofilm growth with a maximum effect (1.92log(10) CFU reduction) after 168 h. Given the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and dearth of new antibiotics in development, the glasses, especially C10, would offer effective alternatives to antibiotics or may complement current therapies through controlled, localized delivery of gallium and silver ions at infected sites in the oral cavity. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Marine Structural Biomaterials in Medical Biomimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Marine biomaterials display properties, behaviors, and functions that have not been artificially matched in relation to their hierarchical construction, crack-stopping properties, growth adaptation, and energy efficiency. The discovery and understanding of such features that are characteristic of natural biomaterials can be used to manufacture more energy-efficient and lightweight materials. However, a more detailed understanding of the design of natural biomaterials with good performance and the mechanism of their design is required. Far-reaching biomolecular characterization of biomaterials and biostructures from the ocean world is possible with sophisticated analytical methods, such as whole-genome RNA-seq, and de novo transcriptome sequencing and mass spectrophotometry-based sequencing. In combination with detailed material characterization, the elements in newly discovered biomaterials and their properties can be reconstituted into biomimetic or bio-inspired materials. A major aim of harnessing marine biomaterials is their translation into biomimetic counterparts. To achieve full translation, the genome, proteome, and hierarchical material characteristics, and their profiles in space and time, have to be associated to allow for smooth biomimetic translation. In this article, we highlight the novel science of marine biomimicry from a materials perspective. We focus on areas of material design and fabrication that have excelled in marine biological models, such as embedded interfaces, chiral organization, and the use of specialized composite material-on-material designs. Our emphasis is primarily on key materials with high value in healthcare in which we evaluate their future prospects. Marine biomaterials are among the most exquisite and powerful aspects in materials science today.

  20. Biomaterial and antibiotic strategies for peri-implantitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norowski, P Andrew; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2009-02-01

    Dental implants have 89% plus survival rates at 10-15 years, but peri-implantitis or dental implant infections may be as high as 14%. Peri-implantitis can limit clinical success and impose health and financial burdens to patients and health providers. The pathogenic species associated with periodontitis (e.g., Fusobacterium ssp, A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis) are also associated with peri-implantitis. Incidence of peri-implantitis is highest within the first 12 months after implantation, and is higher in patients who smoke or have poor oral health as well as with calcium-phosphate-coated or surface-roughened implants. Biomaterial therapies using fibers, gels, and beads to deliver antibiotics have been used in the treatment of Peri-implantitis though clinical efficacy is not well documented. Guided tissue regeneration membranes (e.g., collagen, poly-lactic/glycolic acid, chitosan, ePTFE) loaded with antimicrobials have shown success in reosseointegrating infected implants in animal models but have not been proven in humans. Experimental approaches include the development of anti-bioadhesion coatings, coating surfaces with antimicrobial agents (e.g., vancomycin, Ag, Zn) or antimicrobial releasing coatings (e.g., calcium phosphate, polylactic acid, chitosan). Future strategies include the development of surfaces that become antibacterial in response to infection, and improvements in the permucosal seal. Research is still needed to identify strategies to prevent bacterial attachment and enhance normal cell/tissue attachment to implant surfaces. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Design Strategies for Fluorescent Biodegradable Polymeric Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Yang, Jian

    2013-01-14

    The marriage of biodegradable polymer and fluorescent imaging has resulted in an important area of polymeric biomaterials: biodegradable fluorescent polymers. Researchers have put significant efforts on developing versatile fluorescent biomaterials due to their promising in biological/biomedical labeling, tracking, monitoring, imaging, and diagnostic applications, especially in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and cancer imaging applications. Biodegradable fluorescent polymers can function not only as implant biomaterials but also as imaging probes. Currently, there are two major classes of biodegradable polymers used as fluorescent materials. The first class is the combination of non-fluorescent biodegradable polymers and fluorescent agents such as organic dyes and quantum dots. Another class of polymers shows intrinsic photoluminescence as polymers by themselves carrying integral fluorescent chemical structures in or pendent to their polymer backbone, such as Green Fluorescent protein (GFP), and the recently developed biodegradable photoluminescent polymer (BPLP). Thus there is no need to conjugate or encapsulate additional fluorescent materials for the latter. In the present review, we will review the fluorescent biodegradable polymers with emphases on material fluorescence mechanism, design criteria for fluorescence, and their cutting-edge applications in biomedical engineering. We expect that this review will provide insightful discussion on the fluorescent biomaterial design and lead to innovations for the development of the next generation of fluorescent biomaterials and fluorescence-based biomedical technology.

  2. Design Strategies for Fluorescent Biodegradable Polymeric Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Yang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    The marriage of biodegradable polymer and fluorescent imaging has resulted in an important area of polymeric biomaterials: biodegradable fluorescent polymers. Researchers have put significant efforts on developing versatile fluorescent biomaterials due to their promising in biological/biomedical labeling, tracking, monitoring, imaging, and diagnostic applications, especially in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and cancer imaging applications. Biodegradable fluorescent polymers can function not only as implant biomaterials but also as imaging probes. Currently, there are two major classes of biodegradable polymers used as fluorescent materials. The first class is the combination of non-fluorescent biodegradable polymers and fluorescent agents such as organic dyes and quantum dots. Another class of polymers shows intrinsic photoluminescence as polymers by themselves carrying integral fluorescent chemical structures in or pendent to their polymer backbone, such as Green Fluorescent protein (GFP), and the recently developed biodegradable photoluminescent polymer (BPLP). Thus there is no need to conjugate or encapsulate additional fluorescent materials for the latter. In the present review, we will review the fluorescent biodegradable polymers with emphases on material fluorescence mechanism, design criteria for fluorescence, and their cutting-edge applications in biomedical engineering. We expect that this review will provide insightful discussion on the fluorescent biomaterial design and lead to innovations for the development of the next generation of fluorescent biomaterials and fluorescence-based biomedical technology. PMID:23710326

  3. Wear Characteristics of Metallic Biomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hussein

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metals are extensively used in a variety of applications in the medical field for internal support and biological tissue replacements, such as joint replacements, dental roots, orthopedic fixation, and stents. The metals and alloys that are primarily used in biomedical applications are stainless steels, Co alloys, and Ti alloys. The service period of a metallic biomaterial is determined by its abrasion and wear resistance. A reduction in the wear resistance of the implant results in the release of incompatible metal ions into the body that loosen the implant. In addition, several reactions may occur because of the deposition of wear debris in tissue. Therefore, developing biomaterials with high wear resistance is critical to ensuring a long life for the biomaterial. The aim of this work is to review the current state of knowledge of the wear of metallic biomaterials and how wear is affected by the material properties and conditions in terms of the type of alloys developed and fabrication processes. We also present a brief evaluation of various experimental test techniques and wear characterization techniques that are used to determine the tribological performance of metallic biomaterials.

  4. Heterogeneity of Scaffold Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Edgar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering (TE offers a potential solution for the shortage of transplantable organs and the need for novel methods of tissue repair. Methods of TE have advanced significantly in recent years, but there are challenges to using engineered tissues and organs including but not limited to: biocompatibility, immunogenicity, biodegradation, and toxicity. Analysis of biomaterials used as scaffolds may, however, elucidate how TE can be enhanced. Ideally, biomaterials should closely mimic the characteristics of desired organ, their function and their in vivo environments. A review of biomaterials used in TE highlighted natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and decellularized organs as sources of scaffolding. Studies of discarded organs supported that decellularization offers a remedy to reducing waste of donor organs, but does not yet provide an effective solution to organ demand because it has shown varied success in vivo depending on organ complexity and physiological requirements. Review of polymer-based scaffolds revealed that a composite scaffold formed by copolymerization is more effective than single polymer scaffolds because it allows copolymers to offset disadvantages a single polymer may possess. Selection of biomaterials for use in TE is essential for transplant success. There is not, however, a singular biomaterial that is universally optimal.

  5. Thromboelastometric and platelet responses to silk biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Banani; Schlimp, Christoph J.; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Redl, Heinz; Kundu, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Silkworm's silk is natural biopolymer with unique properties including mechanical robustness, all aqueous base processing and ease in fabrication into different multifunctional templates. Additionally, the nonmulberry silks have cell adhesion promoting tri-peptide (RGD) sequences, which make it an immensely potential platform for regenerative medicine. The compatibility of nonmulberry silk with human blood is still elusive; thereby, restricts its further application as implants. The present study, therefore, evaluate the haematocompatibility of silk biomaterials in terms of platelet interaction after exposure to nonmulberry silk of Antheraea mylitta using thromboelastometry (ROTEM). The mulberry silk of Bombyx mori and clinically used Uni-Graft W biomaterial serve as references. Shortened clotting time, clot formation times as well as enhanced clot strength indicate the platelet mediated activation of blood coagulation cascade by tested biomaterials; which is comparable to controls. PMID:24824624

  6. Human Endothelial Cell Models in Biomaterial Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Sandra; Jung, Friedrich; Pietzsch, Jens

    2017-03-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) models have evolved as important tools in biomaterial research due to ubiquitously occurring interactions between implanted materials and the endothelium. However, screening the available literature has revealed a gap between material scientists and physiologists in terms of their understanding of these biomaterial-endothelium interactions and their relative importance. Consequently, EC models are often applied in nonphysiological experimental setups, or too extensive conclusions are drawn from their results. The question arises whether this might be one reason why, among the many potential biomaterials, only a few have found their way into the clinic. In this review, we provide an overview of established EC models and possible selection criteria to enable researchers to determine the most reliable and relevant EC model to use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Applications of biomaterials in corneal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, I-Lun; Hsu, Chih-Chien; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Chang, Chi-Wen; Cheng, Yung-Hsin

    2015-04-01

    Disease affecting the cornea is a common cause of blindness worldwide. To date, the amniotic membrane (AM) is the most widely used clinical method for cornea regeneration. However, donor-dependent differences in the AM may result in variable clinical outcomes. To overcome this issue, biomaterials are currently under investigation for corneal regeneration in vitro and in vivo. In this article, we highlight the recent advances in hydrogels, bioengineered prosthetic devices, contact lenses, and drug delivery systems for corneal regeneration. In clinical studies, the therapeutic effects of biomaterials, including fibrin and collagen-based hydrogels and silicone contact lenses, have been demonstrated in damaged cornea. The combination of cells and biomaterials may provide potential treatment in corneal wound healing in the future. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  8. Scaffold biomaterials for nano-pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Rafii, Shahin; Rabbany, Sina Y

    2014-07-01

    This review is intended to provide an overview of tissue engineering strategies using scaffold biomaterials to develop a vascularized tissue engineered construct for nano-pathophysiology. Two primary topics are discussed. The first is the biological or synthetic microenvironments that regulate cell behaviors in pathological conditions and tissue regeneration. Second is the use of scaffold biomaterials with angiogenic factors and/or cells to realize vascularized tissue engineered constructs for nano-pathophysiology. These topics are significantly overlapped in terms of three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of cells and blood vessels. Therefore, this review focuses on neovascularization of 3-D scaffold biomaterials induced by angiogenic factors and/or cells. The novel strategy of this approach in nano-pathophysiology is to utilize the vascularized tissue engineered construct as a tissue model to predict the distribution and subsequent therapeutic efficacy of a drug delivery system with different physicochemical and biological properties. © 2013.

  9. Applications of biomaterials in corneal wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Lun Tsai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disease affecting the cornea is a common cause of blindness worldwide. To date, the amniotic membrane (AM is the most widely used clinical method for cornea regeneration. However, donor-dependent differences in the AM may result in variable clinical outcomes. To overcome this issue, biomaterials are currently under investigation for corneal regeneration in vitro and in vivo. In this article, we highlight the recent advances in hydrogels, bioengineered prosthetic devices, contact lenses, and drug delivery systems for corneal regeneration. In clinical studies, the therapeutic effects of biomaterials, including fibrin and collagen-based hydrogels and silicone contact lenses, have been demonstrated in damaged cornea. The combination of cells and biomaterials may provide potential treatment in corneal wound healing in the future.

  10. Smart self-assembled hybrid hydrogel biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeček, Jindřich; Yang, Jiyuan

    2012-07-23

    Hybrid biomaterials are systems created from components of at least two distinct classes of molecules, for example, synthetic macromolecules and proteins or peptide domains. The synergistic combination of two types of structures may produce new materials that possess unprecedented levels of structural organization and novel properties. This Review focuses on biorecognition-driven self-assembly of hybrid macromolecules into functional hydrogel biomaterials. First, basic rules that govern the secondary structure of peptides are discussed, and then approaches to the specific design of hybrid systems with tailor-made properties are evaluated, followed by a discussion on the similarity of design principles of biomaterials and macromolecular therapeutics. Finally, the future of the field is briefly outlined. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Conversion of biowastes to biomaterial: An innovative waste management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, M Bobby; Ronan, Karly

    2017-09-01

    The study suggests that biowastes (eggshells and urine) can be potentially used as precursors to produce hydroxyapatite (HAp) biomaterial in a simple chemical process. A batch reactor was used in this work to produce HAp powder from eggshells and synthetic urine (SU). Fine powder of calcined eggshells was dissolved in water to produce aqueous calcium hydroxide. The solution was then mixed with concentrated SU in stoichiometric amounts corresponding to HAp (Ca/P molar ratio∼1.67). The initial pH of the solution was alkaline (pH∼8.5) and particles formed rapidly with slight mixing. Stirring the turbid solution for a longer period (72h) did not show any visual change, but the particle size decreased slightly. When the pH of the solution was adjusted to 5, the solution was initially clear, but particle formation was apparent after 48h stirring. It was noticed that at a slow stirring speed (100rpm), film formation occurred on the solution, whereas at a higher stirring speed (500rpm) no such film formation was observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that the particles (formed at 500rpm) were an amorphous calcium phosphate (CaP). Alkaline treatment at 80°C for 2h converted the amorphous CaP into HAp. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of the particles (formed at 500rpm) suggested that they are calcium-deficient HAp (Ca/P molar ratio 1.58). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  13. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Gupta, Girish; De, Sudipta; Franco, Ana; Balu, Alina Mariana; Luque, Rafael

    2015-12-30

    Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  14. Facile design of biomaterials by 'click' chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    chemistry is elaborated. The present state of creating functional and biologically active surfaces by click chemistry is presented. Finally, conducting surfaces based on an azide‐functionalized polymer with prospective biological sensor potential are introduced. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry......The advent of the so‐called ‘click chemistry’ a decade ago has significantly improved the chemical toolbox for producing novel biomaterials. This review focuses primarily on the application of Cu(I)‐catalysed azide–alkyne 1,3‐cycloadditon in the preparation of numerous, diverse biomaterials...

  15. Engineering precision biomaterials for personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Brian A; Grim, Joseph C; Rosales, Adrianne M; Watson-Capps, Jana J; Anseth, Kristi S

    2018-01-17

    As the demand for precision medicine continues to rise, the "one-size-fits-all" approach to designing medical devices and therapies is becoming increasingly outdated. Biomaterials have considerable potential for transforming precision medicine, but individual patient complexity often necessitates integrating multiple functions into a single device to successfully tailor personalized therapies. Here, we introduce an engineering strategy based on unit operations to provide a unified vocabulary and contextual framework to aid the design of biomaterial-based devices and accelerate their translation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. Regulatory affairs for biomaterials and medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Amato, Stephen F; Amato, B

    2015-01-01

    All biomaterials and medical devices are subject to a long list of regulatory practises and policies which must be adhered to in order to receive clearance. This book provides readers with information on the systems in place in the USA and the rest of the world. Chapters focus on a series of procedures and policies including topics such as commercialization, clinical development, general good practise manufacturing and post market surveillance.Addresses global regulations and regulatory issues surrounding biomaterials and medical devicesEspecially useful for smaller co

  17. Materiomics - High-Throughput Screening of Biomaterial Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    This complete, yet concise, guide introduces you to the rapidly developing field of high throughput screening of biomaterials: materiomics. Bringing together the key concepts and methodologies used to determine biomaterial properties, you will understand the adaptation and application of materomics

  18. Comparison of the bony remodelling of two synthetic biomaterials: aragonite 55% and aragonite 55% with active substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudadesse, H [Universite de Rennes1, UMR-CNRS 6226, campus de beaulieu, 263 av. General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes (France); Derrien, A C [Universite de Rennes1, UMR-CNRS 6226, campus de beaulieu, 263 av. General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes (France); Martin, S [Universite de Rennes1, UMR-CNRS 6226, UFR Odontologie, 2 ave. du Pr. Leon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Lucas-Girot, A [Universite de Rennes1, UMR-CNRS 6226, campus de beaulieu, 263 av. General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes (France); Cathelineau, G [Universite de Rennes1, UMR-CNRS 6226, UFR Odontologie, 2 ave. du Pr. Leon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

    2007-03-01

    In this work, the in vivo behaviour of pure aragonite and vectabone, which is an association of aragonite and an active substance such as gentamicin, was studied to highlight the kinetic resorption of these two biomaterials with 55% of porosity destined for the filling or replacement of bony defects. The synthesis conditions and parameters we used permit us to obtain a biomaterial without a sintering stage. These conditions allow introducing of active substances at the first stage of the elaboration. In this work, the gentamycin antibiotic was associated with calcium carbonate (aragonite 55% with gentamycin) to deliver this active substance on the surgical site for local treatment. The tricalcium phosphate biomaterial was used as the control because of its high biocompatibility. The bony remodelling of these three biomaterials was studied by in vivo experiments. This study was ensured with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The resorption kinetic was elaborated and comparisons of the remodelling biomaterials CaCO{sub 3} 55% and CaCO{sub 3} 55% with gentamicin (vectabone) and tricalcium phosphate were carried out. The obtained results show that, 6 months after implantation, the mineral composition of vectabone and tricalcium phosphate becomes close to that of young bone. Twelve months after implantation, it becomes similar to that of mature bone.

  19. Synthesis of three-dimensional calcium carbonate nanofibrous structure from eggshell using femtosecond laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishnan Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural biomaterials from bone-like minerals derived from avian eggshells have been considered as promising bone substitutes owing to their biodegradability, abundance, and lower price in comparison with synthetic biomaterials. However, cell adhesion to bulk biomaterials is poor and surface modifications are required to improve biomaterial-cell interaction. Three-dimensional (3D nanostructures are preferred to act as growth support platforms for bone and stem cells. Although there have been several studies on generating nanoparticles from eggshells, no research has been reported on synthesizing 3D nanofibrous structures. Results In this study, we propose a novel technique to synthesize 3D calcium carbonate interwoven nanofibrous platforms from eggshells using high repetition femtosecond laser irradiation. The eggshell waste is value engineered to calcium carbonate nanofibrous layer in a single step under ambient conditions. Our striking results demonstrate that by controlling the laser pulse repetition, nanostructures with different nanofiber density can be achieved. This approach presents an important step towards synthesizing 3D interwoven nanofibrous platforms from natural biomaterials. Conclusion The synthesized 3D nanofibrous structures can promote biomaterial interfacial properties to improve cell-platform surface interaction and develop new functional biomaterials for a variety of biomedical applications.

  20. Osteoinduction by biomaterials - Physicochemical and structural influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela; Sees, Tara M.; van den Doel, Mirella; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.

    2006-01-01

    Osteoinduction by biomaterials has been shown to be a real phenomenon by many investigators in the last decade. The exact mechanism of this phenomenon is, however, still largely unknown. This in vivo study in goats was performed to get insight into processes governing the phenomenon of

  1. BIOTECHNOLOGIES AND BIOMATERIALS IN SPINE SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadala', G; Russo, F; Ambrosio, L; Di Martino, A; Papalia, R; Denaro, V

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, spine disorders have become a major health concern and the number of spinal surgical procedures has been rising significantly. Several biotechnologies and biomaterials are often used in spine surgery to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. In the degenerative spine, when conservative treatment is ineffective the most recommended surgical procedure is decompression followed by spinal fusion. Success rates of spine fusion extensively rely on bone grafts peculiar properties. Autograft has been considered the gold standard to achieve a solid fusion but current research is focused on the development of new biomaterials. Osteoporosis is the main cause of vertebral compression fractures that are significantly associated with pain and disability, especially in the aging population. Vertebral augmentation is a minimally invasive approach in which cement is injected into the vertebral body to stabilize the fracture. New cements are being developed in the clinical scenario with reabsorbable properties and biomechanical features more similar to the native bone. The development of disc regeneration strategies such as nucleus pulposus restoration and annulus fibrosus repair may represent a minimally invasive procedure towards regeneration rather than fusion. Therefore, biomaterials and tissue engineering are fields of growing interest among both surgeons and manufacturing companies, with a major involvement in spine surgery. This review discusses current and novel biotechnologies and biomaterial used in spine surgery employing fusion, augmentation and regeneration.

  2. Hydroxyapatite, a biomaterial: Its chemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydroxyapatite, a biomaterial: Its chemical synthesis, characterization and study of biocompatibility prepared from shell of garden snail,. Helix aspersa. ANJUVAN SINGH. Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144 411, India. MS received 10 February 2010; revised 20 July ...

  3. Biomaterials supported CdS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, Alina M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry ' Ilie Murgulescu' , Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Departamento de Quimica Organica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, Universidad de Cordoba, E-14014 Cordoba (Spain); Campelo, Juan M. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, Universidad de Cordoba, E-14014 Cordoba (Spain); Luque, Rafael, E-mail: q62alsor@uco.es [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, Universidad de Cordoba, E-14014 Cordoba (Spain); Rajabi, Fatemeh [Department of Science, Payame Noor University, PO Box 878, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Romero, Antonio A. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, Universidad de Cordoba, E-14014 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    CdS quantum dot materials were prepared through a simple room temperature deposition of CdS nanocrystals on biomaterials including starch and chitosan. Materials obtained were found to contain differently distributed CdS nanocrystals on the surface of the biopolymers, making them potentially interesting for biomedical applications as contrast agents and/or in photocatalysis.

  4. Biomaterials for reconstruction of cranial defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2015-12-01

    Reconstruction of cranial defect is commonly performed in neurosurgical operations. Many materials have been employed for repairing cranial defects. In this paper, materials used for cranioplasty, including autografts, allografts, and synthetic biomaterials are comprehensively reviewed. This paper also gives future perspective of the materials and development trend of manufacturing process for cranioplasty implants.

  5. Molecular mechanics of tropocollagen-hydroxyapatite biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    Hard biomaterials such as bone, dentin, and nacre show remarkable mechanical performance and serve as inspiration for development of next generation of composite materials with high strength and toughness. Such materials have primarily an organic phase (e.g. tropocollagen (TC) or chitin) and a mineral phase (e.g. hydroxyapatite (HAP) or aragonite) arranged in a staggered arrangement at nanoscopic length scales. Interfacial interactions between the organic phases and the mineral phases and structural effects arising due to the staggered and hierarchical arrangements are identified to be the two most important determinants for high mechanical performance of such biomaterials. Effects of these determinants in such biomaterials are further intertwined with factors such as loading configuration, chemical environment, mineral crystal shape, and residue sequences in polymer chains. Atomistic modeling is a desired approach to investigate such sub nanoscale issues as experimental techniques for investigations at such small scale are still in nascent stage. For this purpose, explicit three dimensional (3D) molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio MD simulations of quasi-static mechanical deformations of idealized Tropocollagen-Hydroxyapatite (TC-HAP) biomaterials with distinct interfacial arrangements and different loading configurations are performed. Focus is on developing insights into the molecular level mechanics of TC-HAP biomaterials at fundamental lengthscale with emphasis on interface phenomenon. Idealized TC-HAP atomistic models are analyzed for their mechanical strength and fracture failure behavior from the viewpoint of interfacial interactions between TC and HAP and associated molecular mechanisms. In particular, study focuses on developing an understanding of factors such as role of interfacial structural arrangement, hierarchical structure design, influence of water, effect of changes in HAP crystal shape, and mutations in TC molecule on the mechanical strength

  6. Some properties of keratin biomaterials: kerateines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paulina; Brantley, Helen; Van Dyke, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Keratins are a family of structural proteins that can be isolated from a variety of tissues. "Soft" keratins are cytoskeletal elements found in epithelial tissues while protective tissues such as nails, hooves, and hair are composed of "hard" keratins. Hard keratins have been the subject of biomaterials investigations for more than three decades. Numerous methods exist for denaturing these proteins which are characterized by a high sulfur content and extensive disulfide bonding, under either oxidative or reductive conditions, extracting them from tissue and processing them into various physical states such as gels, films, coatings, and fibers. Kerateines or keratoses (oxidatively or reductively derived, respectively), alone or in combination with other biomaterials, have been tested in a small number of systems to demonstrate feasibility for medical applications such as wound healing, bone regeneration, hemostasis, and peripheral nerve repair. These investigations have shown generally good compatibility with cells and tissues, but the focus of prior investigations has been fairly narrow, and as a result there is relatively little published data on the general behavior of keratin biomaterials in biological systems beyond cell culture assays. The goal of this study was to produce a reduced form of keratin biomaterial, kerateine, using a typical and well-published technique, and characterize several aspects of its behavior that may have implications to its general use as a biomaterial. Kerateines were extracted from human hair, fabricated into gels and porous scaffolds, characterized, and placed into biological systems to determine their interactions with cells and tissue. Initially, the proteins were analyzed for molecular weight and amino acid content, as well as their ability to facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Crosslinked hydrogels were investigated for their hydrolytic stability in vitro; the micro-architecture and in vivo tissue response of

  7. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  8. Mechanistic investigation of a hemostatic keratin biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmany, Maria Bahawdory

    Traumatic injury leads to more productive years lost than heart disease, cancer and stroke combined. Trauma is often accompanied and complicated by uncontrolled bleeding. Human hair keratin biomaterials have demonstrated efficacy in controlling hemorrhage in both small and large animal models; however little is known about the mechanism by which these proteins aid in blood clotting. Inspection of the amino acid sequence of known keratins shows the presence of several cellular binding motifs, suggesting a possible mechanism and potentially eliminating the need to functionalize the material's surface for cellular interaction. In addition to small animal studies, the hemostatic activity of keratin hydrogels was explored through porcine hemorrhage models representing both a high flow and low flow bleed. In both studies, keratin hydrogels appeared to lead to a significant reduction in blood loss. The promising results from these in vivo studies provided the motivation for this project. The objective of this dissertation work was to assess the mechanism of action of a hemostatic keratin biomaterial, and more broadly assess the biomaterial-cellular interaction(s). It is our hypothesis that keratin biomaterials have the capacity to specifically interact with cells and lead to propagation of intracellular signaling pathway, specifically contributing to hemostasis. Through application of biochemical and molecular tools, we demonstrate here that keratin biomaterials contribute to hemostasis through two probable mechanisms; integrin mediated platelet adhesion and increased fibrin polymerization. Platelets are the major cell type involved in coagulation both by acting as a catalytic surface for the clotting cascade and adhering to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins providing a soft platelet plug. Because keratin biomaterials have structural and biochemical characteristics similar to ECM proteins, we utilized several adhesion assays to investigate platelet adhesion to keratin

  9. Calcium Orthophosphate-Based Bioceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Various types of grafts have been traditionally used to restore damaged bones. In the late 1960s, a strong interest was raised in studying ceramics as potential bone grafts due to their biomechanical properties. A bit later, such synthetic biomaterials were called bioceramics. In principle, bioceramics can be prepared from diverse materials but this review is limited to calcium orthophosphate-based formulations only, which possess the specific advantages due to the chemical similarity to mammalian bones and teeth. During the past 40 years, there have been a number of important achievements in this field. Namely, after the initial development of bioceramics that was just tolerated in the physiological environment, an emphasis was shifted towards the formulations able to form direct chemical bonds with the adjacent bones. Afterwards, by the structural and compositional controls, it became possible to choose whether the calcium orthophosphate-based implants remain biologically stable once incorporated into the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of regenerative bioceramics was developed and such formulations became an integrated part of the tissue engineering approach. Now calcium orthophosphate scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous and harbor different biomolecules and/or cells. Therefore, current biomedical applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics include bone augmentations, artificial bone grafts, maxillofacial reconstruction, spinal fusion, periodontal disease repairs and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Perspective future applications comprise drug delivery and tissue engineering purposes because calcium orthophosphates appear to be promising carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and various types of cells.

  10. Obtaining new composite biomaterials by means of mineralization of methacrylate hydrogels using the reaction–diffusion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, Yousof [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); González-Sánchez, M. Isabel [Department of Physical Chemistry, School of Industrial Engineering, Castilla-La Mancha University, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Hawkins, Karl [Centre of Nanohealth, Institute of Life Sciences, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Rubio-Retama, Jorge [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valero, Edelmira [Department of Physical Chemistry, School of Industrial Engineering, Castilla-La Mancha University, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Perni, Stefano [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF103NB (United Kingdom); Department of Biological Engineering, MA Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Prokopovich, Polina [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF103NB (United Kingdom); Institute of Medical Engineering and Medical Physics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Department of Biological Engineering, MA Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); López-Cabarcos, Enrique, E-mail: cabarcos@farm.ucm.es [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a new polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction–diffusion method. The scaffold of this biomaterial was a hydrogel constituted by biocompatible polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEM) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEM), which were cross-linked with N-N’-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS). The cross-linking content of the hydrogels was varied from 0.25% to 15% (w/w). The gels were used as matrix where two reactants (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} and CaCl{sub 2}) diffused from both ends of the gel and upon encountering produced calcium phosphate crystals that precipitated within the polymer matrix forming bands. The shape of the crystals was tuned by modifying the matrix porosity in such a way that when the polymer matrix was slightly reticulated the diffusion reaction produced round calcium phosphate microcrystals, whilst when the polymer matrix was highly reticulated the reaction yielded flat calcium phosphate crystals. Selected area electron diffraction performed on the nanocrystals that constitute the microcrystals showed that they were formed by Brushite (CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O). This new composite material could be useful in medical and dentistry applications such as bone regeneration, bone repair or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • New polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction-diffusion method.-Growing of brushite nanocrystals within a polymeric matrix. • Mineralization by reaction diffusion method controls the crystal growth within gels.

  11. Physicochemical properties of marine collagen-alginate biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, K. S.; Hii, S. L.; Wong, C. L.; Leong, L. K.; Woo, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Collagen base biomaterials are widely applied in the field of tissue engineering. However, these fibrous proteins in animal connective tissues are insufficient to fulfill the mechanical properties for such applications. Therefore, alginate as a natural polysaccharide was incorporated. In this study, Smooth wolf herring skins was collected from the local fish ball processing industry for collagen extraction using acid solubilisation method. On the other hand, alginate from brown seaweed (Sargassum polycystum) was extracted with calcium carbonate at 50 °C. The composite films of different collagen and alginate ratio were prepared by lyophilisation with pure collagen film as control. The effects of alginate on swelling behaviour, porosity, collagenase degradation and tensile strength of the composite films were investigated. Swelling behaviour increased with alginate content, 50 % alginate film achieved 1254.75 % swelling after 24 h. All composite films achieved more than 80 % porosity except the film with 80 % collagen (65.41 %). Porosity was highest in 100 % alginate (94.30 %). Highest tensile strength (1585.87 kPa) and young modulus (27.05 MPa) was found in 50 % alginate film. In addition, resistance to collagenase degradation was improved with alginate content, lowest degradation rate was determined in 80 % alginate film. Results indicated alginate is efficient in improving some mechanical properties of the composite film.

  12. Preparation of hybrid biomaterials for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Conceição Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering has evolved from the use of biomaterials for bone substitution that fulfill the clinical demands of biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-immunogeneity, structural strength and porosity. Porous scaffolds have been developed in many forms and materials, but few reached the need of adequate physical, biological and mechanical properties. In the present paper we report the preparation of hybrid porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/bioactive glass through the sol-gel route, using partially and fully hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol, and perform structural characterization. Hybrids containing PVA and bioactive glass with composition 58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5 were synthesized by foaming a mixture of polymer solution and bioactive glass sol-gel precursor solution. Sol-gel solution was prepared from mixing tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, triethylphosphate (TEP, and calcium chloride as chemical precursors. The hybrid composites obtained after aging and drying at low temperature were chemically and morphologically characterized through infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The degree of hydrolysis of PVA, concentration of PVA solution and different PVA-bioglass composition ratios affect the synthesis procedure. Synthesis parameters must be very well combined in order to allow foaming and gelation. The hybrid scaffolds obtained exhibited macroporous structure with pore size varying from 50 to 600 µm.

  13. Effects of different biomaterials on augmented bone volume resorptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezirganli, Seref; Kazancioglu, Hakki O; Mihmanli, Ahmet; Sharifov, Rasul; Aydin, Mehmet S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), deproteinized bovine bone graft (DBBG), and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) biomaterials on total volume resorption levels and bone augmentation. Nine New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups (PRF, DBBG, and BCP). Two titanium barriers were fixed bilaterally to each rabbit's calvarium; a total of 18 titanium barriers were used. All barriers were removed on the 90th day. Computed tomography (CT) images of the animals were taken on the 90th, 120th, 150th, and 180th days. When the resorption level of the total volume in all groups on the 120th, 150th, and 180th days was compared with that of the 90th day, no significant differences among all groups were found in all intervals. According to the total volume on the 90th and 180th days, statistically significant differences between groups DBBG and BCP were not found; however, statistically significant differences were found between group PRF and the others groups (P < 0.001). On the other hand, there were statistically significant differences in regenerated bone area between group PRF and BCP. According to the results of this study, grafts such as DBBG or BCP must be used to augment bone volume sufficiently in guided bone regeneration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Novel wound sealants: biomaterials and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Henry T; Shek, Pang N

    2010-09-01

    Wound sealants provide an excellent alternative for closing surgical and non-surgical wounds, as well as stopping external bleeding for prehospital trauma injuries. Numerous biomaterials have been investigated to address specific requirements for their use as suitable wound sealants. This article focuses on the development of new wound sealant biomaterials and recent advances in the surgical applications of wound sealants. In the past 5 years, many new sealant materials had been reported, including keratin, mussel-adhesive proteins, dendrimers and in situ-forming hydrogels. Fibrin sealants remain the most clinically studied for a variety of surgical procedures, while clinical experience with wound sealants for orthopedic surgery is limited. Both liquid and solid wound sealants have been developed and found effective by possessing strong adhesive properties. Biocompatible and biodegradable wound sealants hold much promise in eventually replacing sutures in most surgical procedures.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELECTRIC DRYER FOR BIOMATERIAl ~

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    To maintain the quaht) of a number of farm prodm.e dunng storage they must be dned before or/and during storage TI1i:- paper presents the de\\elopmem of an electric batch automatic dryer for biomaterials 1fhigh moisture content 1'1e dryer b s,mple in construction, made of wood coated from inside with aluminum foil.

  16. Biomaterial strategies for alleviation of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Dan, Kai; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization estimated that heart failure initiated by coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction (MI) leads to 29 per cent of deaths worldwide. Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in industrialized countries and is expected to become a global epidemic within the twenty-first century. MI, the main cause of heart failure, leads to a loss of cardiac tissue impairment of left ventricular function. The damaged left ventricle undergoes progressive ‘remodelling’ and chamber dilation, with myocyte slippage and fibroblast proliferation. Repair of diseased myocardium with in vitro-engineered cardiac muscle patch/injectable biopolymers with cells may become a viable option for heart failure patients. These events reflect an apparent lack of effective intrinsic mechanism for myocardial repair and regeneration. Motivated by the desire to develop minimally invasive procedures, the last 10 years observed growing efforts to develop injectable biomaterials with and without cells to treat cardiac failure. Biomaterials evaluated include alginate, fibrin, collagen, chitosan, self-assembling peptides, biopolymers and a range of synthetic hydrogels. The ultimate goal in therapeutic cardiac tissue engineering is to generate biocompatible, non-immunogenic heart muscle with morphological and functional properties similar to natural myocardium to repair MI. This review summarizes the properties of biomaterial substrates having sufficient mechanical stability, which stimulates the native collagen fibril structure for differentiating pluripotent stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocytes for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:21900319

  17. Imaging challenges in biomaterials and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Alyssa A; Anastasio, Mark A; Larson, Jeffery C; Brey, Eric M

    2013-09-01

    Biomaterials are employed in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) in order to enhance the regeneration or replacement of tissue function and/or structure. The unique environments resulting from the presence of biomaterials, cells, and tissues result in distinct challenges in regards to monitoring and assessing the results of these interventions. Imaging technologies for three-dimensional (3D) analysis have been identified as a strategic priority in TERM research. Traditionally, histological and immunohistochemical techniques have been used to evaluate engineered tissues. However, these methods do not allow for an accurate volume assessment, are invasive, and do not provide information on functional status. Imaging techniques are needed that enable non-destructive, longitudinal, quantitative, and three-dimensional analysis of TERM strategies. This review focuses on evaluating the application of available imaging modalities for assessment of biomaterials and tissue in TERM applications. Included is a discussion of limitations of these techniques and identification of areas for further development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Biomaterial surface proteomic signature determines interaction with epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Tran, Simon D; Abughanam, Ghada; Laurenti, Marco; Zuanazzi, David; Mezour, Mohamed A; Xiao, Yizhi; Cerruti, Marta; Siqueira, Walter L; Tamimi, Faleh

    2017-05-01

    Cells interact with biomaterials indirectly through extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins adsorbed onto their surface. Accordingly, it could be hypothesized that the surface proteomic signature of a biomaterial might determine its interaction with cells. Here, we present a surface proteomic approach to test this hypothesis in the specific case of biomaterial-epithelial cell interactions. In particular, we determined the surface proteomic signature of different biomaterials exposed to the ECM of epithelial cells (basal lamina). We revealed that the biomaterial surface chemistry determines the surface proteomic profile, and subsequently the interaction with epithelial cells. In addition, we found that biomaterials with surface chemistries closer to that of percutaneous tissues, such as aminated PMMA and aminated PDLLA, promoted higher selective adsorption of key basal lamina proteins (laminins, nidogen-1) and subsequently improved their interactions with epithelial cells. These findings suggest that mimicking the surface chemistry of natural percutaneous tissues can improve biomaterial-epithelial integration, and thus provide a rationale for the design of improved biomaterial surfaces for skin regeneration and percutaneous medical devices. Failure of most biomaterials originates from the inability to predict and control the influence of their surface properties on biological phenomena, particularly protein adsorption, and cellular behaviour, which subsequently results in unfavourable host response. Here, we introduce a surface-proteomic screening approach using a label-free mass spectrometry technique to decipher the adsorption profile of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on different biomaterials, and correlate it with cellular behaviour. We demonstrated that the way a biomaterial selectively interacts with specific ECM proteins of a given tissue seems to determine the interactions between the cells of that tissue and biomaterials. Accordingly, this approach can

  19. Microfluidic 3D bone tissue model for high-throughput evaluation of wound-healing and infection-preventing biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joung-Hyun; Gu, Yexin; Wang, Hongjun; Lee, Woo Y

    2012-02-01

    We report the use of a microfluidic 3D bone tissue model, as a high-throughput means of evaluating the efficacy of biomaterials aimed at accelerating orthopaedic implant-related wound-healing while preventing bacterial infection. As an example of such biomaterials, inkjet-printed micropatterns were prepared to contain antibiotic and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) nanoparticles dispersed in a poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid matrix. The micropatterns were integrated with a microfluidic device consisting of eight culture chambers. The micropatterns immediately and completely killed Staphylococcus epidermidis upon inoculation, and enhanced the calcified extracellular matrix production of osteoblasts. Without antibiotic elution, bacteria rapidly proliferated to result in an acidic microenvironment which was detrimental to osteoblasts. These results were used to demonstrate the tissue model's potential in: (i) significantly reducing the number of biomaterial samples and culture experiments required to assess in vitro efficacy for wound-healing and infection prevention and (ii) in situ monitoring of dynamic interactions of biomaterials with bacteria as wells as with tissue cells simultaneously. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards high throughput tissue engineering: development of chitosan-calcium phosphate scaffolds for engineering bone tissue from embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Junghyuk; Kolehmainen, Kathleen; Ahmed, Farid; Jun, Martin BG; Willerth, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering strategies have shown promise for the repair of damaged organs, including bone. One of the major challenges associated with tissue engineering is how to scale up such processes for high throughput manufacturing of biomaterial scaffolds used to support stem cell culture. Generation of certain types of 3D biomaterial scaffolds, including chitosan-calcium phosphate blends, involves a slow fabrication process followed by a lengthy required freeze drying step. This work investig...

  1. Current concepts of regenerative biomaterials in implant dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna Ahuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of any implant system is to achieve firm fixation to the bone and this could be influenced by biomechanical as well as biomaterial selection. An array of materials is used in the replacement of missing teeth through implantation. The appropriate selection of biomaterials directly influences the clinical success and longevity of implants. Thus the clinician needs to have adequate knowledge of the various biomaterials and their properties for their judicious selection and application in his/her clinical practice. The recent materials such as bioceramics and composite biomaterials that are under consideration and investigation have a promising future. For optimal performance, implant biomaterials should have suitable mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and structural biostability in the physiological environment. This article reviews the various implant biomaterials and their ease of use in implant dentistry.

  2. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobbert, F. S. L.; Lietaert, K.; Eftekhari, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different...... types of triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) that mimic the properties of bone to an unprecedented level of multi-physics detail. Sixteen different types of porous biomaterials were rationally designed and fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) from a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The topology......, quasi-static mechanical properties, fatigue resistance, and permeability of the developed biomaterials were then characterized. In terms of topology, the biomaterials resembled the morphological properties of trabecular bone including mean surface curvatures close to zero. The biomaterials showed...

  3. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  4. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  5. Sorbsan calcium alginate fibre dressings in footcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, R; Gilchrist, T

    1983-07-01

    This report outlines the successful application of Sorbsan-calcium alginate fibre dressings in footcare. This biomaterial has been found in clinical trials to have quite outstanding merit and can be used for sinus drainage and in the treatment of fissures, hypergranulation tissue, interdigital maceration, heloma molle and other lesions. Sorbsan bonds with and aids natural healing scabs and effects drainage of moist sites thus assisting in creating an environment conducive to the healing process. Similar promise has been demonstrated for this material in ongoing trials in hospitals in Sunderland where Sorbsan has been used effectively in the treatment of diabetic and trophic ulcers.

  6. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on human mesenchymal stem cell-induced bone regeneration of canine alveolar defects with calcium phosphate-based scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Shafieian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Autologous bone transplantation known as the “gold standard” to reconstruction of osseous defects has known disadvantages. This study was designed to explore the effects of hydroxy-apatite/tricalcium-phosphate (HA/TCP and platelet-rich plasma (PRP on the osteogenesis ability of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: hAdMSCs were incubated with HA/TCP granules and/or PRP in vitro and then, cell proliferation and differentiation was assessed by MTT assay, AZR S staining and SEM examination. In vivo, four cylindrical defects were drilled in the mandibular bones of 5 mongrel dogs and divided randomly into the following groups: I-autologous crushed bone, II- no filling material, III- HA/TCP and PRP, IV- PRP-enriched hAdMSCs seeded on HA/TCP granules. Inserted hAdMSCs were labeled to trace their contribution to bone tissue regeneration. Finally, cell tracing and tissue regeneration were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry methods, respectively.    Results: In vitro, co-incubation with HA/TCP granules significantly reduced proliferation and osteogenic differentiation ability of hAdMSCs; while PRP application promoted these capacities (P

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Polymeric Coatings for Implantable Biomaterials and Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridges, Amanda W; García, Andrés J

    2008-01-01

    .... Biomaterial-mediated inflammation is a complex reaction involving protein adsorption, leukocyte recruitment and activation, secretion of inflammatory mediators, and fibrous encapsulation of the implant...

  8. Thermal transformations of the mineral component of composite biomaterials based on chitosan and apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinkevich, O.V.; Kuznetsov, V.N.; Kalinkevich, A.N.; Kalinichenko, T.G.; Poddubny, I.N.; Sukhodub, L.F. [Institute for Applied Physics, Sumy (Ukraine); Starikov, V.V. [National Technical University ' ' Kharkov Polytechnic Institute' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Sklyar, A.M. [Sumy State Pedagogical University, Sumy (Ukraine); Danilchenko, S.N.

    2010-07-15

    Composite biomaterials based on chitosan and calcium apatite with different chitosan/apatite ratio were prepared by chemical synthesis of apatite in chitosan solution using one-step co-precipitation method. Initial and annealed samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive electron X-ray spectroscopy. The data obtained suggest that the formation of the calcium-phosphate mineral in chitosan solution is substantially modulated by the chemical interaction of the components; apparently, a part of calcium is captured by chitosan and does not participate in the formation of the main mineral phase. The apatite in the composite is calcium-deficient, carbonate-substituted and is composed of dispersed nano-sized crystallites, i.e. has properties that closely resemble those of bone mineral. Varying synthesis, drying and lyophilization conditions, the composite materials can be produced with the desirable chitosan/apatite ratio, both in the dense and porous form. The structural analysis of composite samples after annealing at certain temperatures is examined as an approach to elucidate the mechanism of co-precipitation by one-step method. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Biomaterials and bioengineering tomorrow’s healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sumrita; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials are being used for the healthcare applications from ancient times. But subsequent evolution has made them more versatile and has increased their utility. Biomaterials have revolutionized the areas like bioengineering and tissue engineering for the development of novel strategies to combat life threatening diseases. Together with biomaterials, stem cell technology is also being used to improve the existing healthcare facilities. These concepts and technologies are being used for the treatment of different diseases like cardiac failure, fractures, deep skin injuries, etc. Introduction of nanomaterials on the other hand is becoming a big hope for a better and an affordable healthcare. Technological advancements are underway for the development of continuous monitoring and regulating glucose levels by the implantation of sensor chips. Lab-on-a-chip technology is expected to modernize the diagnostics and make it more easy and regulated. Other area which can improve the tomorrow’s healthcare is drug delivery. Micro-needles have the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional needles and are being studied for the delivery of drugs at different location in human body. There is a huge advancement in the area of scaffold fabrication which has improved the potentiality of tissue engineering. Most emerging scaffolds for tissue engineering are hydrogels and cryogels. Dynamic hydrogels have huge application in tissue engineering and drug delivery. Furthermore, cryogels being supermacroporous allow the attachment and proliferation of most of the mammalian cell types and have shown application in tissue engineering and bioseparation. With further developments we expect these technologies to hit the market in near future which can immensely improve the healthcare facilities. PMID:23628868

  10. Property, Control and Separated Human Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Neil

    2017-03-01

    This article examines the relationship between the existence of control rights and property in separated human biomaterials. Much of the theory as to what constitutes property is examined and it is contended that Article 22 of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine does not presuppose property in such materials. An analysis is undertaken of the case-law relating to control and property in sperm and embryos from the UK, Australia and the US and the shortcomings of utilising the property paradigm in these disputes are highlighted.

  11. Haemocompatibility testing of biomaterials using human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, F; Braune, S; Lendlein, A

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular implants are increasingly important in regenerative medicine. To improve the safety and function of blood-contacting implants a major need exists for new polymer-based biomaterials that avoid adverse reactions, particularly thrombotic events. This review is aimed to summarize the multi-stepped and interlinked processes leading to a thrombus growth on body foreign surfaces: protein adsorption, platelet adhesion accompanied by activation and spreading and the release of substances of various organelles activating other neighboured platelets (and the plasmatic coagulation) leading to the formation of a plug of platelets and, finally, to a thrombus.

  12. Biomaterials and scaffolds in reparative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikof, Elliot L.; Matthew, Howard; Kohn, Joachim; Mikos, Antonios G.; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Yip, Christopher M.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Most approaches currently pursued or contemplated within the framework of reparative medicine, including cell-based therapies, artificial organs, and engineered living tissues, are dependent on our ability to synthesize or otherwise generate novel materials, fabricate or assemble materials into appropriate 2-D and 3-D forms, and precisely tailor material-related physical and biological properties so as to achieve a desired clinical response. This paper summarizes the scientific and technological opportunities within the fields of biomaterials science and molecular engineering that will likely establish new enabling technologies for cellular and molecular therapies directed at the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of diseased or damaged organs and tissues.

  13. The case study of biomaterials and biominerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The teaching of biomaterials as case study by on-line platform , susceptible to develop both individually and in groups, got different objectives proposed by the European Higher Education System, among which include: participate actively in the teaching-learning process by students, interpreting situations, adapt processes and solutions. It also improves oral and written communication, analytical skills and synthesis and also the ability to think critically. Biomaterials have their origin in biominerals. These are solid inorganic compounds of defined structure, consisting of molecular control mechanisms that operate in biological systems. Its main functions are: structural support, a reservoir of essential elements, sensors, mechanical protection and storage of toxic elements. Following the demand of materials compatible with certain functional systems of our body, developed biomaterials. Always meet the condition of biocompatibility. Should be tolerated by the body and do not provoke rejection. This involves a comprehensive study of physiological conditions and the anatomy of the body where a biomaterial has to be implemented. The possibility of generating new materials from biominerals has a major impact in medicine and other fields could reach as geology, construction, crystallography, etc. While the study of these issues is in its infancy today, can be viewed as an impact on the art and future technology. Planning case study that students would prepare its report for discussion in subgroups. Occurs then the pooling of individual analysis, joint case discussion and adoption by the subgroup of a consensual solution to the problem. The teacher as facilitator and coordinator of the final case analysis, sharing leads to group-wide class and said the unanimous decision reached by the students and gives his opinion on the resolution of the case. REFERENCES D.P. Ausubel. Psicología Educativa. Un punto de vista cognoscitivo. Trillas. Ed. 1983. E.W. Eisner. Procesos

  14. Atomic force microscopy in biomaterials surface science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variola, Fabio

    2015-02-07

    Recent progress in surface science, nanotechnology and biophysics has cast new light on the correlation between the physicochemical properties of biomaterials and the resulting biological response. One experimental tool that promises to generate an increasingly more sophisticated knowledge of how proteins, cells and bacteria interact with nanostructured surfaces is the atomic force microscope (AFM). This unique instrument permits to close in on interfacial events at the scale at which they occur, the nanoscale. This perspective covers recent developments in the exploitation of the AFM, and suggests insights on future opportunities that can arise from the exploitation of this powerful technique.

  15. Minimizing Skin Scarring through Biomaterial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra L. Moore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing continues to be a major burden to patients, though research in the field has expanded significantly. Due to an aging population and increasing comorbid conditions, the cost of chronic wounds is expected to increase for patients and the U.S. healthcare system alike. With this knowledge, the number of engineered products to facilitate wound healing has also increased dramatically, with some already in clinical use. In this review, the major biomaterials used to facilitate skin wound healing will be examined, with particular attention allocated to the science behind their development. Experimental therapies will also be evaluated.

  16. Effect of ternary phosphate-based glass compositions on osteoblast and osteoblast-like proliferation, differentiation and death in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, K L; Glenn, J V; Clarke, S A; Georgiou, G; Valappil, S P; Knowles, J C; Nazhat, S N; Jordan, G R

    2007-07-01

    There is currently a need to expand the range of graft materials available to orthopaedic surgeons. This study investigated the effect of ternary phosphate-based glass (PBG) compositions on the behaviour of osteoblast and osteoblast-like cells. PBGs of the formula (in mol.%) P(2)O(5)(50)-CaO(50-X)-Na(2)O(X), where X is either 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10, were produced and their influence on the proliferation, differentiation and death in vitro of adult human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and human fetal osteoblast 1.19 (HFOB 1.19) cells were assessed. Tissue culture plastic (TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were used as controls. Exposure to PBGs in culture inhibited cell adhesion and proliferation and increased cell death in both cell types studied. There was no significant difference in percentage cell death between the PBGs, which was significantly greater than the controls. However, compared with other PBGs, a greater number of cells were found on the 48mol.% CaO which may have been due to either increased adherence or proliferation, or both. This composition was capable of supporting osteogenic proliferation and early differentiation, and supports the notion that chemical modification of the glass could lead to a more biologically compatible substrate with the potential to support osteogenic grafting. Realisation of this potential should lead to the development of novel grafting strategies for the treatment of problematic bone defects.

  17. Biomaterial-Associated Infection: Locating the Finish Line in the Race for the Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Subbiahdoss, Guruprakash; Jutte, Paul C.; van den Dungen, Jan J. A. M.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Grainger, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Biomaterial-associated infections occur on both permanent implants and temporary devices for restoration or support of human functions. Despite increasing use of biomaterials in an aging society, comparatively few biomaterials have been designed that effectively reduce the incidence of

  18. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  19. Long-term cell-mediated protein release from calcium phosphate ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernike, E.; Hofstetter, W.; Liu, Y.; Wu, G.; Sebald, H.J.; Wismeijer, D.; Hunziker, E.B.; Siebenrock, K.A.; Klenke, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient delivery of growth factors from carrier biomaterials depends critically on the release kinetics of the proteins that constitute the carrier. Immobilizing growth factors to calcium phosphate ceramics has been attempted by direct adsorption and usually resulted in a rapid and passive release

  20. Behavior of plaster of Paris-calcium carbonate composite as bone substitute. A study in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, A.H.; Ana, I.D.; Wolke, J.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium sulfate, also known as plaster of Paris (POP), is probably the oldest biomaterial used for bone grafting and considered to be a fast degradable material that allows complete resorption before the bone defect area is completely filled by new bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the

  1. Use of radiation in biomaterials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roberto S.

    2002-05-01

    Radiation is widely used in the biomaterials science for surface modification, sterilization and to improve bulk properties. Radiation is also used to design of biochips, and in situ photopolymerizable of bioadhesives. The energy sources most commonly used in the irradiation of biomaterials are high-energy electrons, gamma radiation, ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. Surface modification involves placement of selective chemical moieties on the surface of a material by chemical reactions to improve biointeraction for cell adhesion and proliferation, hemocompatibility and water absorption. The exposure of a polymer to radiation, especially ionizing radiation, can lead to chain scission or crosslinking with changes in bulk and surface properties. Sterilization by irradiation is designed to inactivate most pathogens from the surface of biomedical devices. An overview of the use of gamma and UV radiation to improve surface tissue compatibility, bulk properties and surface properties for wear resistance, formation of hydrogels and curing dental sealants and bone adhesives is presented. Gamma and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiated ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) exhibit improvement in surface modulus and hardness. The surface modulus and hardness of UHMWPE showed a dependence on type of radiation, dosage and processing. VUV surface modified e-PTFE vascular grafts exhibit increases in hydrophilicity and improvement towards adhesion of fibrin glue.

  2. Biomaterials for integration with 3-D bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Aleksander; Atala, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Bioprinting has emerged in recent years as an attractive method for creating 3-D tissues and organs in the laboratory, and therefore is a promising technology in a number of regenerative medicine applications. It has the potential to (i) create fully functional replacements for damaged tissues in patients, and (ii) rapidly fabricate small-sized human-based tissue models, or organoids, for diagnostics, pathology modeling, and drug development. A number of bioprinting modalities have been explored, including cellular inkjet printing, extrusion-based technologies, soft lithography, and laser-induced forward transfer. Despite the innovation of each of these technologies, successful implementation of bioprinting relies heavily on integration with compatible biomaterials that are responsible for supporting the cellular components during and after biofabrication, and that are compatible with the bioprinting device requirements. In this review, we will evaluate a variety of biomaterials, such as curable synthetic polymers, synthetic gels, and naturally derived hydrogels. Specifically we will describe how they are integrated with the bioprinting technologies above to generate bioprinted constructs with practical application in medicine.

  3. Graphite Oxide to Graphene. Biomaterials to Bionics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brianna C; Murray, Eoin; Wallace, Gordon G

    2015-12-09

    The advent of implantable biomaterials has revolutionized medical treatment, allowing the development of the fields of tissue engineering and medical bionic devices (e.g., cochlea implants to restore hearing, vagus nerve stimulators to control Parkinson's disease, and cardiac pace makers). Similarly, future materials developments are likely to continue to drive development in treatment of disease and disability, or even enhancing human potential. The material requirements for implantable devices are stringent. In all cases they must be nontoxic and provide appropriate mechanical integrity for the application at hand. In the case of scaffolds for tissue regeneration, biodegradability in an appropriate time frame may be required, and for medical bionics electronic conductivity is essential. The emergence of graphene and graphene-family composites has resulted in materials and structures highly relevant to the expansion of the biomaterials inventory available for implantable medical devices. The rich chemistries available are able to ensure properties uncovered in the nanodomain are conveyed into the world of macroscopic devices. Here, the inherent properties of graphene, along with how graphene or structures containing it interface with living cells and the effect of electrical stimulation on nerves and cells, are reviewed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Biomaterials and Magnetic fields for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Mazuruk, Konstanty

    2003-01-01

    The field of biomaterials has emerged as an important topic in the purview of NASA s new vision of research activities in the Microgravity Research Division. Although this area has an extensive track record in the medical field as borne out by the routine use of polymeric sutures, implant devices, and prosthetics, novel applications such as tissue engineering, artificial heart valves and controlled drug delivery are beginning to be developed. Besides the medical field, biomaterials and bio-inspired technologies are finding use in a host of emerging interdisciplinary fields such as self-healing and self-assembling structures, biosensors, fuel systems etc. The field of magnetic fluid technology has several potential applications in medicine. One of the emerging fields is the area of controlled drug delivery, which has seen its evolution from the basic oral delivery system to pulmonary to transdermal to direct inoculations. In cancer treatment by chemotherapy for example, targeted and controlled drug delivery has received vast scrutiny and substantial research and development effort, due to the high potency of the drugs involved and the resulting requirement to keep the exposure of the drugs to surrounding healthy tissue to a minimum. The use of magnetic particles in conjunction with a static magnetic field allows smart targeting and retention of the particles at a desired site within the body with the material transport provided by blood perfusion. Once so located, the therapeutical aspect (radiation, chemotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) of the treatment, now highly localized, can be implemented.

  5. Grand challenge in Biomaterials-wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Joseph C.; Salamone, Ann Beal; Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn; Leung, Kelly Xiaoyu-Chen; McMahon, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Providing improved health care for wound, burn and surgical patients is a major goal for enhancing patient well-being, in addition to reducing the high cost of current health care treatment. The introduction of new and novel biomaterials and biomedical devices is anticipated to have a profound effect on the future improvement of many deleterious health issues. This publication will discuss the development of novel non-stinging liquid adhesive bandages in healthcare applications developed by Rochal Industries. The scientists/engineers at Rochal have participated in commercializing products in the field of ophthalmology, including rigid gas permeable contact lenses, soft hydrogel contact lenses, silicone hydrogel contact lenses, contact lens care solutions and cleaners, intraocular lens materials, intraocular controlled drug delivery, topical/intraocular anesthesia, and in the field of wound care, as non-stinging, spray-on liquid bandages to protect skin from moisture and body fluids and medical adhesive-related skin injuries. Current areas of entrepreneurial activity at Rochal Industries pertain to the development of new classes of biomaterials for wound healing, primarily in regard to microbial infection, chronic wound care, burn injuries and surgical procedures, with emphasis on innovation in product creation, which include cell-compatible substrates/scaffolds for wound healing, antimicrobial materials for opportunistic pathogens and biofilm reduction, necrotic wound debridement, scar remediation, treatment of diabetic ulcers, amelioration of pressure ulcers, amelioration of neuropathic pain and adjuvants for skin tissue substitutes. PMID:27047680

  6. Biomaterials and implants for orbital floor repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baino, Francesco

    2011-09-01

    Treatment of orbital floor fractures and defects is often a complex issue. Repair of these injuries essentially aims to restore the continuity of the orbital floor and to provide an adequate support to the orbital content. Several materials and implants have been proposed over the years for orbital floor reconstruction, in the hope of achieving the best clinical outcome for the patient. Autografts have been traditionally considered as the "gold standard" choice due to the absence of an adverse immunological response, but they are available in limited amounts and carry the need for extra surgery. In order to overcome the drawbacks related to autografts, researchers' and surgeons' attention has been progressively attracted by alloplastic materials, which can be commercially produced and easily tailored to fit a wide range of specific clinical needs. In this review the advantages and limitations of the various biomaterials proposed and tested for orbital floor repair are critically examined and discussed. Criteria and guidelines for optimal material/implant choice, as well as future research directions, are also presented, in an attempt to understand whether an ideal biomaterial already exists or a truly functional implant will eventually materialise in the next few years. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polylactide based nanostructured biomaterials and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surya; Ray, Suprakas Sinha

    2007-08-01

    Polylactide (PLA) is one of the most innovative materials being actively investigated for a wide range of industrial applications. The polymer is a linear aliphatic thermoplastic polyester which is biodegradable as well as biocompatible, which makes it highly versatile and attractive to various commodities and medical applications. A large variety of nanoparticles of different nature and size can be blended with PLA, therefore, generating a new class of nanostructured biomaterials or nanocomposites with interesting physical properties and applications. PLA based nanostructured biomaterials are the focus of this review article, throwing light on their preparation techniques, physical properties, and industrial applications. Structural characteristics and morphological features of PLA based nanocomposites have been explained on the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Depending upon the nature and characteristics of the nanoparticles, the ultimate properties of the resulting nanocomposite materials can be tailored. Biocompatible materials such as carbon nanotubes, cellulose nanowhiskers, hydroxyapitite, etc. could be incorporated into the PLA matrix, which increase the potential of PLA for biomedical applications. Applications of PLA based nanostructured materials in different areas have been summarized.

  8. Plasma assisted surface treatments of biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, L; Migliaresi, C; Lunelli, L; Viero, G; Dalla Serra, M; Speranza, G

    2017-10-01

    The biocompatibility of an implant depends upon the material it is composed of, in addition to the prosthetic device's morphology, mechanical and surface properties. Properties as porosity and pore size should allow, when required, cells penetration and proliferation. Stiffness and strength, that depend on the bulk characteristics of the material, should match the mechanical requirements of the prosthetic applications. Surface properties should allow integration in the surrounding tissues by activating proper communication pathways with the surrounding cells. Bulk and surface properties are not interconnected, and for instance a bone prosthesis could possess the necessary stiffness and strength for the application omitting out prerequisite surface properties essential for the osteointegration. In this case, surface treatment is mandatory and can be accomplished using various techniques such as applying coatings to the prosthesis, ion beams, chemical grafting or modification, low temperature plasma, or a combination of the aforementioned. Low temperature plasma-based techniques have gained increasing consensus for the surface modification of biomaterials for being effective and competitive compared to other ways to introduce surface functionalities. In this paper we review plasma processing techniques and describe potentialities and applications of plasma to tailor the interface of biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Innate Immunity and Biomaterials at the Nexus: Friends or Foes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan N. Christo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterial implants are an established part of medical practice, encompassing a broad range of devices that widely differ in function and structural composition. However, one common property amongst biomaterials is the induction of the foreign body response: an acute sterile inflammatory reaction which overlaps with tissue vascularisation and remodelling and ultimately fibrotic encapsulation of the biomaterial to prevent further interaction with host tissue. Severity and clinical manifestation of the biomaterial-induced foreign body response are different for each biomaterial, with cases of incompatibility often associated with loss of function. However, unravelling the mechanisms that progress to the formation of the fibrotic capsule highlights the tightly intertwined nature of immunological responses to a seemingly noncanonical “antigen.” In this review, we detail the pathways associated with the foreign body response and describe possible mechanisms of immune involvement that can be targeted. We also discuss methods of modulating the immune response by altering the physiochemical surface properties of the biomaterial prior to implantation. Developments in these areas are reliant on reproducible and effective animal models and may allow a “combined” immunomodulatory approach of adapting surface properties of biomaterials, as well as treating key immune pathways to ultimately reduce the negative consequences of biomaterial implantation.

  10. Repairing Femoral Fractures: A Model Lesson in Biomaterial Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakeeny, Jarred

    2006-01-01

    Biomaterial science is a rapidly growing field that has scientists and doctors searching for new ways to repair the body. A merger between medicine and engineering, biomaterials can be complex subject matter, and it can certainly capture the minds of middle school students. In the lesson described in this article, seventh graders generally learn…

  11. Innate Immunity and Biomaterials at the Nexus: Friends or Foes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, Susan N.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir; Hayball, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial implants are an established part of medical practice, encompassing a broad range of devices that widely differ in function and structural composition. However, one common property amongst biomaterials is the induction of the foreign body response: an acute sterile inflammatory reaction which overlaps with tissue vascularisation and remodelling and ultimately fibrotic encapsulation of the biomaterial to prevent further interaction with host tissue. Severity and clinical manifestation of the biomaterial-induced foreign body response are different for each biomaterial, with cases of incompatibility often associated with loss of function. However, unravelling the mechanisms that progress to the formation of the fibrotic capsule highlights the tightly intertwined nature of immunological responses to a seemingly noncanonical “antigen.” In this review, we detail the pathways associated with the foreign body response and describe possible mechanisms of immune involvement that can be targeted. We also discuss methods of modulating the immune response by altering the physiochemical surface properties of the biomaterial prior to implantation. Developments in these areas are reliant on reproducible and effective animal models and may allow a “combined” immunomodulatory approach of adapting surface properties of biomaterials, as well as treating key immune pathways to ultimately reduce the negative consequences of biomaterial implantation. PMID:26247017

  12. Biomaterials in urinary incontinence and treatment of their complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Sangster

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials integrate with the anatomy and provide support to the weakened area. They are generally synthetic, but natural substances are also used. These substances are being increasingly used in stress urinary incontinence. This article discusses the various biomaterials, minimally invasive techniques, and recent advances for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. In addition, their complications and subsequent management are explored.

  13. Enzymatic, urease-mediated mineralization of gellan gum hydrogel with calcium carbonate, magnesium-enriched calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate for bone regeneration applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Łapa, Agata; Samal, Sangram Keshari

    2017-01-01

    Mineralization of hydrogel biomaterials is considered desirable to improve their suitability as materials for bone regeneration. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) has been successfully applied as a bone regeneration material, but hydrogel-CaCO3 composites have received less attention. Magnesium (Mg) has...... enzymatically with CaCO3 , Mg-enriched CaCO3 and magnesium carbonate to generate composite biomaterials for bone regeneration. Hydrogels loaded with the enzyme urease were mineralized by incubation in mineralization media containing urea and different ratios of calcium and magnesium ions. Increasing...... the magnesium concentration decreased mineral crystallinity. At low magnesium concentrations calcite was formed, while at higher concentrations magnesian calcite was formed. Hydromagnesite (Mg5 (CO3 )4 (OH)2 .4H2 O) formed at high magnesium concentration in the absence of calcium. The amount of mineral formed...

  14. Polymeric Biomaterials: Diverse Functions Enabled by Advances in Macromolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingkai; Li, Linqing; Scott, Rebecca A; Kiick, Kristi L

    2017-01-24

    Biomaterials have been extensively used to leverage beneficial outcomes in various therapeutic applications, such as providing spatial and temporal control over the release of therapeutic agents in drug delivery as well as engineering functional tissues and promoting the healing process in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This perspective presents important milestones in the development of polymeric biomaterials with defined structures and properties. Contemporary studies of biomaterial design have been reviewed with focus on constructing materials with controlled structure, dynamic functionality, and biological complexity. Examples of these polymeric biomaterials enabled by advanced synthetic methodologies, dynamic chemistry/assembly strategies, and modulated cell-material interactions have been highlighted. As the field of polymeric biomaterials continues to evolve with increased sophistication, current challenges and future directions for the design and translation of these materials are also summarized.

  15. Bioactive calcium phosphate coatings on metallic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedelnikova, M. B.; Komarova, E. G.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Tolkacheva, T. V.; Khlusov, I. A.; Sheikin, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    Biocomposites based on bioinert metals or alloys and bioactive calcium phosphate coatings are a promising tendency of the new-generation implants development. In recent years, the approach of regenerative medicine based on the use of biodegradable biomaterials has been priority direction. Such materials are capable of initiating the bone tissue regeneration and replaced by the newly formed bone. The microarc oxidation (MAO) method allows obtaining the bioactive coatings with a porous structure, special functional properties, and modified by the essential elements. During the last decade, the investigations in the field of the nanostructured biocomposites based on bioinert Ti, Zr, Nb and their alloys with a calcium phosphate coatings deposited by the MAO method have been studied in the Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk. In this article the possibility to produce the bioactive coatings with high antibacterial and osseoconductive properties due to the introduction in the coatings of Zn, Cu, Ag, La, Si elements and wollastonite CaSiO3 was shown. The high hydrophilic and bioresorbed coatings stimulate the processes of osseointegration of the implant into the bone tissue. A promising direction in the field of the medical material science is a development of the metallic implants with good biomechanical compatibility to the bone, such as Ti-Nb alloys with a low elastic modulus that can be classified as biomaterials of the second generation. Zr and its alloys are promising materials for the dentistry and orthopedic surgery due to their high strength and corrosion resistance. Biodegradable Mg alloys are biomaterials of third generation. Such materials can dissolve with a certain speed in human body and excreted from the body thereby excluding the need for reoperation. This article presents the analysis of the study results of bioactive MAO coatings on Ti, Ti-Nb, Zr-Nb and Mg alloys and their promising medical application.

  16. Wildlife biomaterial banking in Africa for now and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Paul; Kotze, Antoinette

    2006-08-01

    The Wildlife Biological Resource Centre (wBRC) together with its partners in BioBank SA, have created a Biological Resource Bank (BRB) that is dedicated to the acquisition, processing, banking, using and provision of biomaterials to the scientific and conservation industry that are viable, diverse and representative of southern Africa's wildlife populations. Banked biomaterials include tissue such as muscle, kidney, fat, liver, embryos, fibroblast cultures, blood, sperm, hair, egg shells and other tissue, fluids and cells. Biomaterials are made available for research, biodiversity conservation and biotechnology development. Biomaterials are used in many disciplines, including genetics, reproduction, nutrition, and disease studies. Biomaterials from selected species are also useful for the detection and monitoring of Persistent Organic Pollutants and other potentially harmful substances found in the environment. Biomaterials are made available to third parties with prior consent from the biomaterials "owner" and only after the signing of a customised Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) or Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The training of staff from National and Provincial Game Reserves, Zoological Gardens, Animal Breeders and laboratories is carried out on a regular basis with the aim of securing good quality biomaterials. Sampling kits are made available to persons tasked with the collection of wildlife biomaterials. The Biobank SA consortium acts as an integrated resource centre linking partner collections. The consortium's operational arm, namely wBRC, is active in the development of relevant policy, regulations and legislation pertaining to biomaterials, including Access and Benefit Sharing systems. The main sponsor of the project is the Department of Science and Technology, National Government of South Africa.

  17. Effect of boron oxide addition on the viscosity-temperature behaviour and structure of phosphate-based glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmin, Nusrat; Hasan, Muhammad S; Rudd, Chris D; Boyd, Daniel; Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    In this study, nine phosphate-based glass formulations from the system P2 O5 -CaO-Na2 O-MgO-B2 O3 were prepared with P2 O5 content fixed as 40, 45 and 50 mol%, where Na2 O was replaced by 5 and 10 mol% B2 O3 and MgO and CaO were fixed to 24 and 16 mol%, respectively. The effect of B2 O3 addition on the viscosity-temperature behaviour, fragility index and structure of the glasses was investigated. The composition of the glasses was confirmed by ICP-AES. The viscosity-temperature behaviour of the glasses were measured using beam-bending and parallel -plate viscometers. The viscosity of the glasses investigated was found to shift to higher temperature with increasing B2 O3 content. The kinetic fragility parameter, m and F1/2 , estimated from the viscosity curve were found to decease with increasing B2 O3 content. The structural analysis was achieved by a combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance. 31 P solid-state magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) showed that the local structure of the glasses changes with increasing B2 O3 content. As B2 O3 was added to the glass systems, the phosphate connectivity increases as the as the Q1 units transforms into Q2 units. The 11 B NMR results confirmed the presence of tetrahedral boron (BO4 ) units for all the compositions investigated. Structural analysis indicates an increasing level of cross-linking with increasing B2 O3 content. Evidence of the presence of P-O-B bonds was also observed from the FTIR and 31 P NMR analysis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 764-777, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...

  19. Biomaterials and Bioactive Agents in Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rui M; Varanda, Pedro; Reis, Rui L; Duarte, Ana Rita C; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    Management of degenerative spine pathologies frequently leads to the need for spinal fusion (SF), where bone growth is induced toward stabilization of the interventioned spine. Autologous bone graft (ABG) remains the gold-standard inducer, whereas new bone graft substitutes attempt to achieve effective de novo bone formation and solid fusion. Limited fusion outcomes have driven motivation for more sophisticated and multidisciplinary solutions, involving new biomaterials and/or biologics, through innovative delivery platforms. The present review will analyze the most recent body of literature that is focused on new approaches for consistent bone fusion of spinal vertebrae, including the development of new biomaterials that pursue physical and chemical aptitudes; the delivery of growth factors (GF) to accelerate new bone formation; and the use of cells to improve functional bone development. Bone graft substitutes currently in clinical practice, such as demineralized bone matrix and ceramics, are still used as a starting point for the study of new bioactive agents. Polyesters such as polycaprolactone and polylactic acid arise as platforms for the development of composites, where a mineral element and cell/GF constitute the delivery system. Exciting fusion outcomes were obtained in several small and large animal models with these. On what regards bioactive agents, mesenchymal stem cells, preferentially derived from the bone marrow or adipose tissue, were studied in this context. Autologous and allogeneic approaches, as well as osteogenically differentiated cells, have been tested. These cell sources have further been genetically engineered for specific GF expression. Nevertheless, results on fusion efficacy with cells have been inconsistent. On the other hand, the delivery of GF (most commonly bone morphogenetic protein-2 [BMP-2]) has provided favorable outcomes. Complications related to burst release and dosing are still the target of research through the development

  20. Analysis of brominated and phosphate-based flame retardants in polymer samples by HPLC-UV/MS and online-GPC-HPLC-UV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlummer, M.; Brandl, F. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung (IVV), Freising (Germany); Maeurer, A.

    2004-09-15

    Here we present two analytical approaches for the identification and quantification of brominated and phosphate-based flame retardants. The first is an HPLC-UV/MS approach, which allows the separation and unequivocal identification and quantification of at least 15 different technical flame retardants. The second approach was set-up as a screening tool, consisting of a GPC separation coupled to an HPLC-UV device.

  1. Hybrid Materials and Nanocomposites as Multifunctional Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, Heveline D M; Naves, Alliny F; Araujo, Rafael A; Dubovoy, Viktor; Huang, Xiaoxi; Asefa, Tewodros; Silva, Rafael; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2017-01-01

    This review article provides an overview of hybrid and nanocomposite materials used as biomaterials in nanomedicine, focusing on applications in controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering, biosensors and theranostic systems. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of tuning the properties of nanocomposites, which can be achieved by choosing appropriate synthetic methods and seeking synergy among different types of materials, particularly exploiting their nanoscale nature. The challenges in fabrication for the nanocomposites are highlighted by classifying them as those comprising solely inorganic phases (inorganic/inorganic hybrids), organic phases (organic/organic hybrids) and both types of phases (organic/inorganic hybrids). A variety of examples are given for applications from the recent literature, from which one may infer that significant developments for effective use of hybrid materials require a delicate balance among structure, biocompatibility, and stability. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Chitosan dan Aplikasi Klinisnya Sebagai Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Irawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of new materials with both organic and inorganic structures is of great interest to obtain special material properties. Chitosan [2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucan] can be obtained by N-deacetylation of chitin. Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature and the supporting material of crustaceans, insects, fungi etc. Chitosan is unique polysaccharide and has been widely used in various biomedical application due to its biocompatibility, low toxicity, biodegradability, non-immunogenic and non-carcinogenic character. In the past few years, chitosan and some of its modifications have been reported for use in biomedical applications such as artificial skin, wound dressing, anticoagulant, suture, drug delivery, vaccine carrier and dietary fibers. Recently, the use of chitosan and its derivatives has received much attention as temporary scaffolding to promotie mineralization or stimulate endochodral ossification. This article aims to give a broad overview of chitosan and its clinical applications as biomaterial.

  3. Toward biomaterial-based implantable photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humar, Matjaž; Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; Choi, Myunghwan; Yetisen, Ali K.; Cho, Sangyeon; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Optical technologies are essential for the rapid and efficient delivery of health care to patients. Efforts have begun to implement these technologies in miniature devices that are implantable in patients for continuous or chronic uses. In this review, we discuss guidelines for biomaterials suitable for use in vivo. Basic optical functions such as focusing, reflection, and diffraction have been realized with biopolymers. Biocompatible optical fibers can deliver sensing or therapeutic-inducing light into tissues and enable optical communications with implanted photonic devices. Wirelessly powered, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and miniature lasers made of biocompatible materials may offer new approaches in optical sensing and therapy. Advances in biotechnologies, such as optogenetics, enable more sophisticated photonic devices with a high level of integration with neurological or physiological circuits. With further innovations and translational development, implantable photonic devices offer a pathway to improve health monitoring, diagnostics, and light-activated therapies.

  4. Biomaterials in search of a meniscus substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, Jan J; van Tienen, Tony G; van Bochove, Bas; Grijpma, Dirk W; Buma, Pieter

    2014-04-01

    The menisci fulfill key biomechanical functions in the tibiofemoral (knee) joint. Unfortunately meniscal injuries are quite common and most often treated by (partial) meniscectomy. However, some patients experience enduring symptoms, and, more importantly, it leads to an increased risk for symptomatic osteoarthritis. Over the past decades, researchers have put effort in developing a meniscal substitute able to prevent osteoarthritis and treat enduring clinical symptoms. Grossly, two categories of substitutes are observed: First, a resorbable scaffold mimicking biomechanical function which slowly degrades while tissue regeneration and organization is promoted. Second, a non resorbable, permanent implant which mimics the biomechanical function of the native meniscus. Numerous biomaterials with different (material) properties have been used in order to provide such a substitute. Nevertheless, a clinically applicable cartilage protecting material is not yet emerged. In the current review we provide an overview, and discuss, these different materials and extract recommendations regarding material properties for future developmental research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Supporting Biomaterials for Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Drescher, Wolf; Rath, Björn; Tingart, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons and researchers worldwide are continuously faced with the challenge of regenerating articular cartilage defects. However, until now, it has not been possible to completely mimic the biological and biochemical properties of articular cartilage using current research and development approaches. In this review, biomaterials previously used for articular cartilage repair research are addressed. Furthermore, a brief discussion of the state of the art of current cell printing procedures mimicking native cartilage is offered in light of their use as future alternatives for cartilage tissue engineering. Inkjet cell printing, controlled deposition cell printing tools, and laser cell printing are cutting-edge techniques in this context. The development of mimetic hydrogels with specific biological properties relevant to articular cartilage native tissue will support the development of improved, functional, and novel engineered tissue for clinical application. PMID:26069634

  6. Adsorption of tranexamic acid on hydroxyapatite: Toward the development of biomaterials with local hemostatic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarda, Stéphanie, E-mail: stephanie.sarda@iut-tlse3.fr [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Errassifi, Farid [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Marsan, Olivier [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, ENSIACET, Toulouse (France); Geffre, Anne; Trumel, Catherine [Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, UMS006, Laboratoire Central de Biologie Médicale, Toulouse (France); INSERM-UPS, UMS 006, Laboratoire Central de Biologie Médicale, Toulouse (France); Drouet, Christophe [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, ENSIACET, Toulouse (France)

    2016-09-01

    This work proposes to combine tranexamic acid (TAX), a clinically used antifibrinolytic agent, and hydroxyapatite (HA), widely used in bone replacement, to produce a novel bioactive apatitic biomaterial with intrinsic hemostatic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate adsorptive behavior of the TAX molecule onto HA and to point out its release in near physiological conditions. No other phase was observed by X-ray diffraction or transmission electron microscopy, and no apparent change in crystal size was detected. The presence of TAX on the powders was lightly detected on Raman spectra after adsorption. The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir–Freundlich equation, suggesting a strong interaction between adsorbed molecules and the formation of multilayers. The concentration of calcium and phosphate ions in solution remained low and stable during the adsorption process, thus ion exchange during the adsorption process could be ruled out. The release of TAX was fast during the first hours and was governed by a complex process that likely involved both diffusion and dissolution of HA. Preliminary aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) hemostasis tests offered promising results for the development of osteoconductive apatitic biomaterials with intrinsic hemostatic properties, whether for dental or orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • Interaction of tranexamic acid (TAX)/hydroxyapatite was studied. • The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir–Freundlich equation. • The release of TAX, fast during the first hours, was governed by a complex process. • Preliminary aPTT hemostasis tests show promising results. • The aim is to develop biomaterials with local hemostatic activity.

  7. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  8. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  9. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  10. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  11. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  12. Extracellular matrix-based biomaterial scaffolds and the host response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, Joseph M; Grainger, David W

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) collectively represents a class of naturally derived proteinaceous biomaterials purified from harvested organs and tissues with increasing scientific focus and utility in tissue engineering and repair. This interest stems predominantly from the largely unproven concept that processed ECM biomaterials as natural tissue-derived matrices better integrate with host tissue than purely synthetic biomaterials. Nearly every tissue type has been decellularized and processed for re-use as tissue-derived ECM protein implants and scaffolds. To date, however, little consensus exists for defining ECM compositions or sources that best constitute decellularized biomaterials that might better heal, integrate with host tissues and avoid the foreign body response (FBR). Metrics used to assess ECM performance in biomaterial implants are arbitrary and contextually specific by convention. Few comparisons for in vivo host responses to ECM implants from different sources are published. This review discusses current ECM-derived biomaterials characterization methods including relationships between ECM material compositions from different sources, properties and host tissue response as implants. Relevant preclinical in vivo models are compared along with their associated advantages and limitations, and the current state of various metrics used to define material integration and biocompatibility are discussed. Commonly applied applications of these ECM-derived biomaterials as stand-alone implanted matrices and devices are compared with respect to host tissue responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Collagen tissue engineering: development of novel biomaterials and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Lian; Liu, Wei; Cui, Lei; Zhang, Wenjie; Cao, Yilin

    2008-05-01

    Scientific investigations involving collagen have inspired tissue engineering and design of biomaterials since collagen fibrils and their networks primarily regulate and define most tissues. The collagen networks form a highly organized, three-dimensional architecture to entrap other ingredients. Biomaterials are expected to function as cell scaffolds to replace native collagen-based extracellular matrix. The composition and properties of biomaterials used as scaffold for tissue engineering significantly affect the regeneration of neo-tissues and influence the conditions of collagen engineering. The complex scenario of collagen characteristics, types, fibril arrangement, and collagen structure-related functions (in a variety of connective tissues including bone, cartilage, tendon, skin and cornea) are addressed in this review. Discussion will focus on nanofibrillar assemblies and artificial synthetic peptides that mimic either the fibrillar structure or the elemental components of type I collagen as illustrated by their preliminary applications in tissue engineering. Conventional biomaterials used as scaffolds in engineering collagen-containing tissues are also discussed. The design of novel biomaterials and application of conventional biomaterials will facilitate development of additional novel tissue engineering bioproducts by refining the currently available techniques. The field of tissue engineering will ultimately be advanced by increasing control of collagen in native tissue and by continual manipulation of biomaterials.

  14. A new approach to the rationale discovery of polymeric biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Joachim; Welsh, William J.; Knight, Doyle

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to illustrate both the need for new approaches to biomaterials discovery as well as the significant promise inherent in the use of combinatorial and computational design strategies. The key observation of this Leading Opinion Paper is that the biomaterials community has been slow to embrace advanced biomaterials discovery tools such as combinatorial methods, high throughput experimentation, and computational modeling in spite of the significant promise shown by these discovery tools in materials science, medicinal chemistry and the pharmaceutical industry. It seems that the complexity of living cells and their interactions with biomaterials has been a conceptual as well as a practical barrier to the use of advanced discovery tools in biomaterials science. However, with the continued increase in computer power, the goal of predicting the biological response of cells in contact with biomaterials surfaces is within reach. Once combinatorial synthesis, high throughput experimentation, and computational modeling are integrated into the biomaterials discovery process, a significant acceleration is possible in the pace of development of improved medical implants, tissue regeneration scaffolds, and gene/drug delivery systems. PMID:17644176

  15. OsteoMacs: Key players around bone biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Richard J; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2016-03-01

    Osteal macrophages (OsteoMacs) are a special subtype of macrophage residing in bony tissues. Interesting findings from basic research have pointed to their vast and substantial roles in bone biology by demonstrating their key function in bone formation and remodeling. Despite these essential findings, much less information is available concerning their response to a variety of biomaterials used for bone regeneration with the majority of investigation primarily focused on their role during the foreign body reaction. With respect to biomaterials, it is well known that cells derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage are one of the first cell types in contact with implanted biomaterials. Here they demonstrate extremely plastic phenotypes with the ability to differentiate towards classical M1 or M2 macrophages, or subsequently fuse into osteoclasts or multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs). These MNGCs have previously been characterized as foreign body giant cells and associated with biomaterial rejection, however more recently their phenotypes have been implicated with wound healing and tissue regeneration by studies demonstrating their expression of key M2 markers around biomaterials. With such contrasting hypotheses, it becomes essential to better understand their roles to improve the development of osteo-compatible and osteo-promotive biomaterials. This review article expresses the necessity to further study OsteoMacs and MNGCs to understand their function in bone biomaterial tissue integration including dental/orthopedic implants and bone grafting materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of the biomaterials 3wt%-nanostrontium-hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (nanoSr-CPC) and nanoSr-CPC-incorporated simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) microspheres in osteogenesis improvement: An explorative multi-phase experimental in vitro/vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaeli, Reza; Jafarzadeh Kashi, Tahereh Sadat; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Rakhshan, Vahid; Shahoon, Hossein; Hooshmand, Behzad; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Raz, Majid; Rajabnejad, Alireza; Eslami, Hossein; Khoshroo, Kimia; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this multi-phase explorative in vivo animal/surgical and in vitro multi-test experimental study was to (1) create a 3wt%-nanostrontium hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (Sr-HA/CPC) for increasing bone formation and (2) creating a simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (SIM-loaded PLGA) microspheres plus CPC composite (SIM-loaded PLGA+nanostrontium-CPC). The third goal was the extensive assessment of multiple in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the above experimental explorative products in vitro and in vivo (animal and surgical studies). Physical and chemical properties of the prepared Sr-HA/CPC were evaluated. MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase activities, and radiological and histological examinations of Sr-HA/CPC, CPC and negative control were compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that crystallinity of the prepared cement increased by increasing the powder-to-liquid ratio. Incorporation of Sr-HA into CPC increased MTT assay (biocompatibility) and ALP activity (P<0.05). Histomorphometry showed greater bone formation after 4weeks, after implantation of Sr-HA/CPC in 10 rats compared to implantations of CPC or empty defects in the same rats (n=30, ANOVA P<0.05). METHODS AND RESULTS PERTAINING TO SIM-LOADED PLGA MICROSPHERES+NANOSTRONTIUM-CPC COMPOSITE: After SEM assessment, the produced composite of microspheres and enhanced CPC were implanted for 8weeks in 10 rabbits, along with positive and negative controls, enhanced CPC, and enhanced CPC plus SIM (n=50). In the control group, only a small amount of bone had been regenerated (localized at the boundary of the defect); whereas, other groups showed new bone formation within and around the materials. A significant difference was found in the osteogenesis induced by the groups sham control (16.96±1.01), bone materials (32.28±4.03), nanostrontium-CPC (24.84±2.6), nanostrontium-CPC-simvastatin (40.12±3.29), and SIM-loaded PLGA+nanostrontium-CPC (44.8±6.45) (ANOVA P

  17. Effect of pH on physical properties of two endodontic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Pooneh; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    To compare the surface microhardness, setting time, and elemental and topographic changes of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) in contact with acidic, neutral, and alkaline solutions. For evaluating 24-h and 28-day surface microhardness using Vickers test and initial setting time using Gillmore apparatus, glass molds were filled manually or ultrasonically, either with CEM or MTA and randomly immersed in solutions with acidic, neutral, and alkaline pH (5.4, 7.4, and 9.4, respectively). Topographic changes of the samples as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectra were examined using the scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon, one- and two-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc, and t-tests. After 28 days, there was an increase in the microhardness for all samples (without statistical significance [P > 0.05]), except for the samples of CEM in acidic environment (P > 0.05). The setting time of MTA samples was statistically higher than CEM samples (P ≤ 0.001). The setting time of both biomaterials was significantly higher in acidic pH than other groups (P ≤ 0.005). Surface topography and elemental constituents of biomaterials were altered in different solutions. The surface microhardness, setting time, and elemental and topographic properties of MTA and CEM were affected by different solutions. CEM exhibited quicker setting time than MTA; however, acidic solution negatively influenced both of them.

  18. Zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite: a biomaterial with enhanced bioactivity and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thian, E S; Konishi, T; Kawanobe, Y; Lim, P N; Choong, C; Ho, B; Aizawa, M

    2013-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a synthetic biomaterial and has been found to promote new bone formation when implanted in a bone defect site. However, its use is often limited due to its slow osteointegration rate and low antibacterial activity, particularly where HA has to be used for long term biomedical applications. This work will describe the synthesis and detailed characterization of zinc-substituted HA (ZnHA) as an alternative biomaterial to HA. ZnHA containing 1.6 wt% Zn was synthesized via a co-precipitation reaction between calcium hydroxide, orthophosphoric acid and zinc nitrate hexahydrate. Single-phase ZnHA particles with a rod-like morphology measuring ~50 nm in length and ~15 nm in width, were obtained and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The substitution of Zn into HA resulted in a decrease in both the a- and c-axes of the unit cell parameters, thereby causing the HA crystal structure to alter. In vitro cell culture work showed that ZnHA possessed enhanced bioactivity since an increase in the growth of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells along with the bone cell differentiation markers, were observed. In addition, antibacterial work demonstrated that ZnHA exhibited antimicrobial capability since there was a significant decrease in the number of viable Staphylococcus aureus bacteria after in contact with ZnHA.

  19. KrF excimer laser precision machining of hard and brittle ceramic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Lu, Jian-Yi; Huang, Jin-Xia

    2014-06-01

    KrF excimer laser precision machining of porous hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials was studied to find a suitable way of machining the materials into various desired shapes and sizes without distorting their intrinsic structure and porosity. Calcium phosphate glass ceramics (CPGs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were chosen for the study. It was found that KrF excimer laser can cut both CPGs and HA with high efficiency and precision. The ablation rates of CPGs and HA are respectively 0.081 µm/(pulse J cm(-2)) and 0.048 µm/(pulse  J cm(-2)), while their threshold fluences are individually 0.72 and 1.5 J cm(-2). The cutting quality (smoothness of the cut surface) is a function of laser repetition rate and cutting speed. The higher the repetition rate and lower the cutting speed, the better the cutting quality. A comparison between the cross sections of CPGs and HA cut using the excimer laser and using a conventional diamond cutting blade indicates that those cut by the excimer laser could retain their intrinsic porosity and geometry without distortion. In contrast, those cut by conventional machining had distorted geometry and most of their surface porosities were lost. Therefore, when cutting hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials to prepare scaffold and implant or when sectioning them for porosity evaluation, it is better to choose KrF excimer laser machining.

  20. Engineering Biomaterials to Integrate and Heal: The Biocompatibility Paradigm Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryers, James D.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.; Ratner, Buddy D.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on one of the major failure routes of implanted medical devices, the foreign body reaction (FBR)—that is, the phagocytic attack and encapsulation by the body of the so-called “biocompatible” biomaterials comprising the devices. We then review strategies currently under development that might lead to biomaterial constructs that will harmoniously heal and integrate into the body. We discuss in detail emerging strategies to inhibit the FBR by engineering biomaterials that elicit more biologically pertinent responses. PMID:22592568

  1. Calcium orthophosphate coatings on magnesium and its biodegradable alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2014-07-01

    Biodegradable metals have been suggested as revolutionary biomaterials for bone-grafting therapies. Of these metals, magnesium (Mg) and its biodegradable alloys appear to be particularly attractive candidates due to their non-toxicity and as their mechanical properties match those of bones better than other metals do. Being light, biocompatible and biodegradable, Mg-based metallic implants have several advantages over other implantable metals currently in use, such as eliminating both the effects of stress shielding and the requirement of a second surgery for implant removal. Unfortunately, the fast degradation rates of Mg and its biodegradable alloys in the aggressive physiological environment impose limitations on their clinical applications. This necessitates development of implants with controlled degradation rates to match the kinetics of bone healing. Application of protective but biocompatible and biodegradable coatings able to delay the onset of Mg corrosion appears to be a reasonable solution. Since calcium orthophosphates are well tolerated by living organisms, they appear to be the excellent candidates for such coatings. Nevertheless, both the high chemical reactivity and the low melting point of Mg require specific parameters for successful deposition of calcium orthophosphate coatings. This review provides an overview of current coating techniques used for deposition of calcium orthophosphates on Mg and its biodegradable alloys. The literature analysis revealed that in all cases the calcium orthophosphate protective coatings both increased the corrosion resistance of Mg-based metallic biomaterials and improved their surface biocompatibility. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Liang; Habibovic, Pamela; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens A [Department of Tissue Regeneration, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Hedhammar, My; Johansson, Jan [Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, the Biomedical Centre, Box 575, 751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Blom, Tobias; Leifer, Klaus [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramic coatings, applied on surfaces of metallic and polymeric biomaterials, can improve their performance in bone repair and regeneration. Spider silk is biocompatible, strong and elastic, and hence an attractive biomaterial for applications in connective tissue repair. Recently, artificial spider silk, with mechanical and structural characteristics similar to those of native spider silk, has been produced from recombinant minispidroins. In the present study, supersaturated simulated body fluid was used to deposit calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres. The mineralization process was followed in time using scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) detector and Raman spectroscope. Focused ion beam technology was used to produce a cross section of a coated fibre, which was further analysed by EDX. Preliminary in vitro experiments using a culture of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on coated fibres were also performed. This study showed that recombinant spider silk fibres were successfully coated with a homogeneous and thick crystalline calcium phosphate layer. In the course of the mineralization process from modified simulated body fluid, sodium chloride crystals were first deposited on the silk surface, followed by the deposition of a calcium phosphate layer. The coated silk fibres supported the attachment and growth of hMSCs.

  3. Study of characteristics of a two phase biomaterial hydroxyapatite / β -tricalcium phosphate 60/40 the composition in volume; Estudo de caracterizacao de um biomaterial bifasico hidroxiapatita/fosfato tricalcio - β na composicao 60/40 em volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmonico, G.M.L.; Passoni, L.; Prandi, R.G.; Camargo, N.H.A.; Gemelli, E., E-mail: gidalmonico@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (CCT/UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    This work has developed on the preparation and characterization of the composition of biphasic hydroxyapatite /β-calcium phosphate = 60/40%. The mixture composition was performed using the mechanical fragmentation process in an attrition mill for 1 hour. The powder recovered from the biphasic attrition mill after drying, was subjected to compression, to obtain the specimens, the dimensions of 10mm height and 5mm in diameter. The specimens obtained from compaction were sintered at temperature of 1100 ° C/2h. The recovered material was subjected to sintering studies of characterization: compression, hardness and porosity. The results showed a breakdown voltage greater than 76.27 ± 13.56, higher than the microhardness 572.80 ± 13.31 MPa and the porosity of around 40% by volume. The results of the composition biphasic hydroxyapatite /β-calcium phosphate are encouraging, since the biomaterial presented favorable conditions for biomedical applications in the reconstitution of the bone structure. (author)

  4. The effect of different implant biomaterials on the behavior of canine bone marrow stromal cells during their differentiation into osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal-Kurt, F; Tuğlu, I; Vatansever, H S; Tong, S; Şen, B H; Deliloğlu-Gürhan, S I

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of different implant biomaterials on cultured canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) undergoing differentiation into osteoblasts (dBMSC). BMSC were isolated from canine humerus by marrow aspiration, cultured and differentiated on calcium phosphate scaffold (CPS), hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite in gel form and titanium mesh. We used the MTT method to determine the effects of osteogenic media on proliferation. The characteristics of dBMSC were assessed using alizarin red (AR), immunocytochemistry and osteoblastic markers including alkaline phosphatase/von Kossa (ALP/VK), osteocalcin (OC) and osteonectin (ON), and ELISA. The morphology of dBMSC on the biomaterials was investigated using inverted phase contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We detected expression of ALP/VK, AR, OC and ON by day 7 of culture; expression increased from day 14 until day 21. CPS supported the best adhesion, cell spreading, proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs. The effects of the biomaterials depended on their surface properties. Expression of osteoblastic markers showed that canine dBMSCs became functional osteoblasts. Tissue engineered stem cells can be useful clinically for autologous implants for treating bone wounds.

  5. Bioactive and Biodegradable Nanocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibret Mequanint

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix and act as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function. Of particular interest are nanocomposites and organic-inorganic (O/I hybrid biomaterials based on selective combinations of biodegradable polymers and bioactive inorganic materials. In this paper, we review the current state of bioactive and biodegradable nanocomposite and O/I hybrid biomaterials and their applications in bone regeneration. We focus specifically on nanocomposites based on nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA and bioactive glass (BG fillers in combination with biodegradable polyesters and their hybrid counterparts. Topics include 3D scaffold design, materials that are widely used in bone regeneration, and recent trends in next generation biomaterials. We conclude with a perspective on the future application of nanocomposites and O/I hybrid biomaterials for regeneration of bone.

  6. Evolving the use of peptides as biomaterials components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Joel H.; Segura, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript is part of a debate on the statement that “the use of short synthetic adhesion peptides, like RGD, is the best approach in the design of biomaterials that guide cell behavior for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering”. We take the position that although there are some acknowledged disadvantages of using short peptide ligands within biomaterials, it is not necessary to discard the notion of using peptides within biomaterials entirely, but rather to reinvent and evolve their use. Peptides possess advantageous chemical definition, access to non-native chemistries, amenability to de novo design, and applicability within parallel approaches. Biomaterials development programs that require such aspects may benefit from a peptide-based strategy. PMID:21515167

  7. The Science behind Biomaterials in Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaytan V. Amrute

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Female stress urinary incontinence, while not life threatening, can present with various social and economic implications. Biomaterials, primarily synthetic, are often utilized to augment surgical correction. Repair with biomaterials involves midurethral support to function against weakened connective tissue caused by injury, abnormal collagen metabolism, or genetic predisposition. Even though efficacy rates are high, the potential for complications, such as erosion, are great without comprehension of inherent characteristics of each graft material. Low-weight, macroporous, monofilament synthetic grafts and noncross-linked biologic grafts are examples of biomaterials that implant reasonably well with host tissue. This paper reviews the justification for biomaterial use, host reaction, and the various parameters of natural and synthetic grafts.

  8. Simplified process for preparation of schizophyllan solutions for biomaterial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizophyllan is a biopolymer commercially produced for pharmaceutical and cosmetics uses. However, schizophyllan also has potential biomaterial applications. Schizophyllan is conventionally produced from glucose and recovered by diafiltration and ultrafiltration to produce a highly purified product...

  9. Surface-MALDI mass spectrometry in biomaterials research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griesser, H.J.; Kingshott, P.; McArthur, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    surface analysis method with unique capabilities that complement established biomaterial surface analysis methods such as XPS and ToF-SSIMS. These new MALDI variant methods, which we shall collectively summarize as Surface-MALDI-MS, are capable of desorbing adsorbed macromolecules from biomaterial...... surfaces and detecting their molecular ions with high mass resolution and at levels much below monolayer coverage. Thus, Surface-MALDI-MS offers unique means of addressing biomaterial surface analysis needs, such as identification of the proteins and lipids that adsorb from multicomponent biological...... solutions in vitro and in vivo, the study of interactions between biomaterial surfaces and biomolecules, and identification of surface-enriched additives and contaminants. Surface-MALDI-MS is rapid, experimentally convenient, overcomes limitations in mass resolution and sensitivity of established...

  10. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials: Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Zadpoor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the development of novel biomaterials for new fields of application, along with the emergence of advanced computational techniques. The current Special Issue is a collection of studies that address various topics within the general theme of “mechanics of biomaterials”. This editorial aims to present the context within which the studies of this Special Issue could be better understood. I, therefore, try to identify some of the most important research trends in the study of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials.

  11. Design and development of reactive injectable and settable polymeric biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jonathan M; Harmata, Andrew J; Guelcher, Scott A

    2013-12-01

    Injectable and settable biomaterials are a growing class of therapeutic technologies within the field of regenerative medicine. These materials offer advantages compared to prefabricated implants because of their ability to be utilized as part of noninvasive surgical procedures, fill complex defect shapes, cure in situ, and incorporate cells and other active biologics. However, there are significant technical barriers to clinical translation of injectable and settable biomaterials, such as achieving clinically relevant handling properties and benign reaction conditions. This review focuses on the engineering challenges associated with the design and development of injectable and chemically settable polymeric biomaterials. Additionally, specific examples of the diverse chemistries utilized to overcome these challenges are covered. The future translation of injectable and settable biomaterials is anticipated to improve patient outcomes for a number of clinical conditions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  12. POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIOMATERIALS USED IN HERNIOPLASTY

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mihailescu; D. Mihailescu; M.R. Diaconescu

    2012-01-01

    Meshes of synthetic material are now being widely used to repairhernias (hernioplasty) but biomaterial-associated infections constitute a major clinical problem.The success of surgical repair of abdominal wall defects depends on the physico-chemicalproperties of biomaterials, their biocompatibility and design, preoperative handling andconditioning of implant, surgical technique and not least, the health status of the patient. The mostcommon complications due to building materials are postoper...

  13. Non-cell-adhesive substrates for printing of arrayed biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Eric A; Larson, Benjamin L; Luly, Kathryn M; Kim, Jinseong D; Langer, Robert

    2015-03-11

    Cellular microarrays have become extremely useful in expediting the investigation of large libraries of (bio)materials for both in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications. An exceedingly simple strategy is developed for the fabrication of non-cell-adhesive substrates supporting the immobilization of diverse (bio)material features, including both monomeric and polymeric adhesion molecules (e.g., RGD and polylysine), hydrogels, and polymers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Preparation and mechanical property of polymer-based biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P; Chen, G; Zheng, X F, E-mail: pzhang@yeah.ne [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2010-07-01

    The porous polymer-based biomaterial has been synthesized from PLGA, dioxane and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) by low-temperature deposition process. The deformation behaviours and fracture mechanism of polymer-based biomaterials were investigated using the compression test and the finite element (FE) simulation. The results show that the stress-strain curve of compression process includes linear elastic stage I, platform stage II and densification stage III, and the fracture mechanism can be considered as brittle fracture.

  15. Polyelectrolyte Biomaterial Interactions Provide Nanoparticulate Carrier for Oral Insulin Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Catarina Pinto; Ribeiro, António J.; Veiga, Francisco; Neufeld, Ronald J.; Damgé, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Nanospheres are being developed for the oral delivery of peptide-based drugs such as insulin. Mucoadhesive, biodegradable, biocompatible, and acid-protective biomaterials are described using a combination of natural polyelectrolytes, with particles formulated through nanoemulsion dispersion followed by triggered in situgel complexation. Biomaterials meeting these criteria include alginate, dextran, chitosan, and albumin in which alginate/dextran forms the core matrix complexed with chitosan a...

  16. Osteogenic Differentiation of MSC through Calcium Signaling Activation: Transcriptomics and Functional Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Viti

    Full Text Available The culture of progenitor mesenchymal stem cells (MSC onto osteoconductive materials to induce a proper osteogenic differentiation and mineralized matrix regeneration represents a promising and widely diffused experimental approach for tissue-engineering (TE applications in orthopaedics. Among modern biomaterials, calcium phosphates represent the best bone substitutes, due to their chemical features emulating the mineral phase of bone tissue. Although many studies on stem cells differentiation mechanisms have been performed involving calcium-based scaffolds, results often focus on highlighting production of in vitro bone matrix markers and in vivo tissue ingrowth, while information related to the biomolecular mechanisms involved in the early cellular calcium-mediated differentiation is not well elucidated yet. Genetic programs for osteogenesis have been just partially deciphered, and the description of the different molecules and pathways operative in these differentiations is far from complete, as well as the activity of calcium in this process. The present work aims to shed light on the involvement of extracellular calcium in MSC differentiation: a better understanding of the early stage osteogenic differentiation program of MSC seeded on calcium-based biomaterials is required in order to develop optimal strategies to promote osteogenesis through the use of new generation osteoconductive scaffolds. A wide spectrum of analysis has been performed on time-dependent series: gene expression profiles are obtained from samples (MSC seeded on calcium-based scaffolds, together with related microRNAs expression and in vivo functional validation. On this basis, and relying on literature knowledge, hypotheses are made on the biomolecular players activated by the biomaterial calcium-phosphate component. Interestingly, a key role of miR-138 was highlighted, whose inhibition markedly increases osteogenic differentiation in vitro and enhance ectopic bone

  17. The Advancement of Biomaterials in Regulating Stem Cell Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Vun Vun; Simat, Siti Fatimah Binti; Teoh, Peik Lin

    2017-09-07

    Stem cells are well-known to have prominent roles in tissue engineering applications. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into every cell type in the body while adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from various sources. Nevertheless, an utmost limitation in harnessing stem cells for tissue engineering is the supply of cells. The advances in biomaterial technology allows the establishment of ex vivo expansion systems to overcome this bottleneck. The progress of various scaffold fabrication could direct stem cell fate decisions including cell proliferation and differentiation into specific lineages in vitro. Stem cell biology and biomaterial technology promote synergistic effect on stem cell-based regenerative therapies. Therefore, understanding the interaction of stem cell and biomaterials would allow the designation of new biomaterials for future clinical therapeutic applications for tissue regeneration. This review focuses mainly on the advances of natural and synthetic biomaterials in regulating stem cell fate decisions. We have also briefly discussed how biological and biophysical properties of biomaterials including wettability, chemical functionality, biodegradability and stiffness play their roles.

  18. Applications of Biomaterials in Corneal Endothelial Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsung-Jen; Wang, I-Jong; Hu, Fung-Rong; Young, Tai-Horng

    2016-11-01

    When corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are diseased or injured, corneal endothelium can be surgically removed and tissue from a deceased donor can replace the original endothelium. Recent major innovations in corneal endothelial transplantation include replacement of diseased corneal endothelium with a thin lamellar posterior donor comprising a tissue-engineered endothelium carried or cultured on a thin substratum with an organized monolayer of cells. Repairing CECs is challenging because they have restricted proliferative ability in vivo. CECs can be cultivated in vitro and seeded successfully onto natural tissue materials or synthetic polymeric materials as grafts for transplantation. The optimal biomaterials for substrata of CEC growth are being investigated. Establishing a CEC culture system by tissue engineering might require multiple biomaterials to create a new scaffold that overcomes the disadvantages of single biomaterials. Chitosan and polycaprolactone are biodegradable biomaterials approved by the Food and Drug Administration that have superior biological, degradable, and mechanical properties for culturing substratum. We successfully hybridized chitosan and polycaprolactone into blended membranes, and demonstrated that CECs proliferated, developed normal morphology, and maintained their physiological phenotypes. The interaction between cells and biomaterials is important in tissue engineering of CECs. We are still optimizing culture methods for the maintenance and differentiation of CECs on biomaterials.

  19. Advancing the field of 3D biomaterial printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakus, Adam E; Rutz, Alexandra L; Shah, Ramille N

    2016-01-11

    3D biomaterial printing has emerged as a potentially revolutionary technology, promising to transform both research and medical therapeutics. Although there has been recent progress in the field, on-demand fabrication of functional and transplantable tissues and organs is still a distant reality. To advance to this point, there are two major technical challenges that must be overcome. The first is expanding upon the limited variety of available 3D printable biomaterials (biomaterial inks), which currently do not adequately represent the physical, chemical, and biological complexity and diversity of tissues and organs within the human body. Newly developed biomaterial inks and the resulting 3D printed constructs must meet numerous interdependent requirements, including those that lead to optimal printing, structural, and biological outcomes. The second challenge is developing and implementing comprehensive biomaterial ink and printed structure characterization combined with in vitro and in vivo tissue- and organ-specific evaluation. This perspective outlines considerations for addressing these technical hurdles that, once overcome, will facilitate rapid advancement of 3D biomaterial printing as an indispensable tool for both investigating complex tissue and organ morphogenesis and for developing functional devices for a variety of diagnostic and regenerative medicine applications.

  20. Analysis of the Osteogenic Effects of Biomaterials Using Numerical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Hui-Lin; Luo, Zong-Ping

    2017-01-01

    We describe the development of an optimization algorithm for determining the effects of different properties of implanted biomaterials on bone growth, based on the finite element method and bone self-optimization theory. The rate of osteogenesis and the bone density distribution of the implanted biomaterials were quantitatively analyzed. Using the proposed algorithm, a femur with implanted biodegradable biomaterials was simulated, and the osteogenic effects of different materials were measured. Simulation experiments mainly considered variations in the elastic modulus (20-3000 MPa) and degradation period (10, 20, and 30 days) for the implanted biodegradable biomaterials. Based on our algorithm, the osteogenic effects of the materials were optimal when the elastic modulus was 1000 MPa and the degradation period was 20 days. The simulation results for the metaphyseal bone of the left femur were compared with micro-CT images from rats with defective femurs, which demonstrated the effectiveness of the algorithm. The proposed method was effective for optimization of the bone structure and is expected to have applications in matching appropriate bones and biomaterials. These results provide important insights into the development of implanted biomaterials for both clinical medicine and materials science.

  1. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, R. J.; Adiga, S. P.; Pellin, M. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.; Brigmon, R. L.; Elam, J. W.; Univ. of North Carolina; North Carolina State Univ.; Eastman Kodak Co.; North Dakota State Univ.; SRL

    2010-03-01

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials. Nanoporous alumina, also known as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), is a nanomaterial that exhibits several unusual properties, including high pore densities, straight pores, small pore sizes, and uniform pore sizes. In 1953, Keller et al. showed that anodizing aluminum in acid electrolytes results in a thick layer of nearly cylindrical pores, which are arranged in a close-packed hexagonal cell structure. More recently, Matsuda & Fukuda demonstrated preparation of highly ordered platinum and gold nanohole arrays using a replication process. In this study, a negative structure of nanoporous alumina was initially fabricated and a positive structure of a nanoporous metal was subsequently fabricated. Over the past fifteen years, nanoporous alumina membranes have been used as templates for growth of a variety of nanostructured materials, including nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, and nanoporous membranes.

  2. Useful surface parameters for biomaterial discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Marina; Escuin, Tomas; Vinas, Miquel; Ascaso, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Topographical features of biomaterials' surfaces are determinant when addressing their application site. Unfortunately up to date there has not been an agreement regarding which surface parameters are more representative in discriminating between materials. Discs (n = 16) of different currently used materials for implant prostheses fabrication, such as cast cobalt-chrome, direct laser metal soldered (DLMS) cobalt-chrome, titanium grade V, zirconia (Y-TZP), E-glass fiber-reinforced composite and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) were manufactured. Nanoscale topographical surface roughness parameters generated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), microscale surface roughness parameters obtained by white light interferometry (WLI) and water angle values obtained by the sessile-water-drop method were analyzed in order to assess which parameter provides the best optimum surface characterization method. Correlations between nanoroughness, microroughness, and hydrophobicity data were performed to achieve the best parameters giving the highest discriminatory power. A subset of six parameters for surface characterization were proposed. AFM and WLI techniques gave complementary information. Wettability did not correlate with any of the nanoroughness parameters while it however showed a weak correlation with microroughness parameters. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Novel polyisobutylene (PIB)-based biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J.P. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    High molecular weight PIB (polyisobutylene) exhibits an outstanding combination of chemical-physical-mechanical properties for very little cost and consequently is extensively used in various large volume engineering applications, e.g., inner tubes. This presentation concerns novel PIB-based biomaterials whose synthesis became possible by the recent discovery of living carbocationic polymerizations: (1) Cyanoacrylate-capped PIB macromonomers and telechelics that polymerize upon exposure to biological fluids and thus lead to highly viscous liquids or networks. These materials may be of use as a replacement of diseased intervertebra discs (nucleus pulposa). (2) Three-arm star methacrylate-telechelic PIBs ((MA){sub 3}-PIB) that copolymerize with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and thus lead to impact- and fatigue-resistant PMMA or superior bone cements for prosthesis fixation. (3) {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} amphiphilic networks that change their conformation (morphology) and surface with the medium they are in contact with. These networks are synthesized by the copolymethacrylate (e.g., hydroxyethyl methacrylate).

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further development of patient-specific healthcare solutions. Customization of many healthcare products and services, such as implants, drug delivery devices, medical instruments, prosthetics, and in vitro models, would have been extremely challenging-if not impossible-without AM technologies. The current special issue of the Annals of Biomedical Engineering presents the latest trends in application of AM techniques to healthcare-related areas of research. As a prelude to this special issue, we review here the most important areas of biomedical research and clinical practice that have benefited from recent developments in additive manufacturing techniques. This editorial, therefore, aims to sketch the research landscape within which the other contributions of the special issue can be better understood and positioned. In what follows, we briefly review the application of additive manufacturing techniques in studies addressing biomaterials, (re)generation of tissues and organs, disease models, drug delivery systems, implants, medical instruments, prosthetics, orthotics, and AM objects used for medical visualization and communication.

  5. Modifying plants for biofuel and biomaterial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Lupoi, Jason S; Hoang, Nam V; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of plants as biofuel or biomaterial crops is established by both the yield of plant biomass per unit area of land and the efficiency of conversion of the biomass to biofuel. Higher yielding biofuel crops with increased conversion efficiencies allow production on a smaller land footprint minimizing competition with agriculture for food production and biodiversity conservation. Plants have traditionally been domesticated for food, fibre and feed applications. However, utilization for biofuels may require the breeding of novel phenotypes, or new species entirely. Genomics approaches support genetic selection strategies to deliver significant genetic improvement of plants as sources of biomass for biofuel manufacture. Genetic modification of plants provides a further range of options for improving the composition of biomass and for plant modifications to assist the fabrication of biofuels. The relative carbohydrate and lignin content influences the deconstruction of plant cell walls to biofuels. Key options for facilitating the deconstruction leading to higher monomeric sugar release from plants include increasing cellulose content, reducing cellulose crystallinity, and/or altering the amount or composition of noncellulosic polysaccharides or lignin. Modification of chemical linkages within and between these biomass components may improve the ease of deconstruction. Expression of enzymes in the plant may provide a cost-effective option for biochemical conversion to biofuel. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Immune responses to coiled coil supramolecular biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Jai S; Tripathi, Pulak K; Hildeman, David A; Jung, Jangwook P; Collier, Joel H

    2010-11-01

    Self-assembly has been increasingly utilized in recent years to create peptide-based biomaterials for 3D cell culture, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine, but the molecular determinants of these materials' immunogenicity have remained largely unexplored. In this study, a set of molecules that self-assembled through coiled coil oligomerization was designed and synthesized, and immune responses against them were investigated in mice. Experimental groups spanned a range of oligomerization behaviors and included a peptide from the coiled coil region of mouse fibrin that did not form supramolecular structures, an engineered version of this peptide that formed coiled coil bundles, and a peptide-PEG-peptide triblock bioconjugate that formed coiled coil multimers and supramolecular aggregates. In mice, the native peptide and engineered peptide did not produce any detectable antibody response, and none of the materials elicited detectable peptide-specific T cell responses, as evidenced by the absence of IL-2 and interferon-gamma in cultures of peptide-challenged splenocytes or draining lymph node cells. However, specific antibody responses were elevated in mice injected with the multimerizing peptide-PEG-peptide. Minimal changes in secondary structure were observed between the engineered peptide and the triblock peptide-PEG-peptide, making it possible that the triblock's multimerization was responsible for this antibody response. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein engineering of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 with higher interaction with Ca phosphate based scaffold used for osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Mohammad; Shojaei, Sahar; Bahrami, Naghmeh; Mohamadnia, Abdolreza; Shojaei, Pegah; Bahrami, Naeim

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the recombinant bonemorphogenetic protein 2 (RHBMP-2) with higher substantively and solubility for use in calcium phosphate scaffolds for better release in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblast cells. Using bioinformatics tools, two mutations (p. L10D and p. S12E) were chosen and applied in BMP2 CDS sequence to increase interaction with calcium derived composite. The new recombinant mutated sequence (BMP2mut ) was synthesized and then subcloned to expression vector pBV220. Experimental data regarded functional protein expression in E. coli. Since no modification was made in the active sites of proteins namely β-sheets and α-helixes, not only was there any change in the specific activity occurred in the specific activity of the enzyme in comparison to its commercial counterpart, but also mesenchymal osteogenesis occurred more efficient on biphasic CaP scaffold model. As we hypothesized, use of negatively charged amino acids such as aspartate and glutamate in protein loops increased the interactions of BMP2-Ca2+ and resulted in its slower and more sustained released from CaP scaffolds compare to commercial RHBMP2. Our data suggested that new BMP2mut have greater osteoinductive capacity than RHBMP2 in the same time and dose than RHBMP2. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2799-2805, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials have played an increasingly prominent role in the success of biomedical devices and in the development of tissue engineering, which seeks to unlock the regenerative potential innate to human tissues/organs in a state of deterioration and to restore or reestablish normal bodily function. Advances in our understanding of regenerative biomaterials and their roles in new tissue formation can potentially open a new frontier in the fast-growing field of regenerative medicine. Taking inspiration from the role and multi-component construction of native extracellular matrices (ECMs) for cell accommodation, the synthetic biomaterials produced today routinely incorporate biologically active components to define an artificial in vivo milieu with complex and dynamic interactions that foster and regulate stem cells, similar to the events occurring in a natural cellular microenvironment. The range and degree of biomaterial sophistication have also dramatically increased as more knowledge has accumulated through materials science, matrix biology and tissue engineering. However, achieving clinical translation and commercial success requires regenerative biomaterials to be not only efficacious and safe but also cost-effective and convenient for use and production. Utilizing biomaterials of human origin as building blocks for therapeutic purposes has provided a facilitated approach that closely mimics the critical aspects of natural tissue with regard to its physical and chemical properties for the orchestration of wound healing and tissue regeneration. In addition to directly using tissue transfers and transplants for repair, new applications of human-derived biomaterials are now focusing on the use of naturally occurring biomacromolecules, decellularized ECM scaffolds and autologous preparations rich in growth factors/non-expanded stem cells to either target acceleration/magnification of the body's own repair capacity or use nature's paradigms to create new tissues for

  9. Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Liu, Xiaohua

    2016-02-01

    Biomaterials have played an increasingly prominent role in the success of biomedical devices and in the development of tissue engineering, which seeks to unlock the regenerative potential innate to human tissues/organs in a state of deterioration and to restore or reestablish normal bodily function. Advances in our understanding of regenerative biomaterials and their roles in new tissue formation can potentially open a new frontier in the fast-growing field of regenerative medicine. Taking inspiration from the role and multi-component construction of native extracellular matrices (ECMs) for cell accommodation, the synthetic biomaterials produced today routinely incorporate biologically active components to define an artificial in vivo milieu with complex and dynamic interactions that foster and regulate stem cells, similar to the events occurring in a natural cellular microenvironment. The range and degree of biomaterial sophistication have also dramatically increased as more knowledge has accumulated through materials science, matrix biology and tissue engineering. However, achieving clinical translation and commercial success requires regenerative biomaterials to be not only efficacious and safe but also cost-effective and convenient for use and production. Utilizing biomaterials of human origin as building blocks for therapeutic purposes has provided a facilitated approach that closely mimics the critical aspects of natural tissue with regard to its physical and chemical properties for the orchestration of wound healing and tissue regeneration. In addition to directly using tissue transfers and transplants for repair, new applications of human-derived biomaterials are now focusing on the use of naturally occurring biomacromolecules, decellularized ECM scaffolds and autologous preparations rich in growth factors/non-expanded stem cells to either target acceleration/magnification of the body's own repair capacity or use nature's paradigms to create new tissues for

  10. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Swaminathan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves.

  11. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves. PMID:19939265

  12. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Anuradha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2009-11-25

    Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves.

  13. Preparing polymeric biomaterials using "click" chemistry techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fei

    Significant efforts have been focused on preparing degradable polymeric biomaterials with controllable properties, which have the potential to stimulate specific cellular responses at the molecular level. Click reactions provide a universal tool box to achieve that goal through molecular level design and modification. This dissertation demonstrates multiple methodologies and techniques to develop advanced biomaterials through combining degradable polymers and click chemistry. In my initial work, a novel class of amino acid-based poly(ester urea)s (PEU) materials was designed and prepared for potential applications in bone defect treatment. PEUs were synthesized via interfacial polycondensation, and showed degradability in vivo and possessed mechanical strength superior to conventionally used polyesters. Further mechanical enhancement was achieved after covalent crosslinking with a short peptide crosslinker derived from osteogenic growth peptide (OGP). The in vitro and in an in vivo subcutaneous rat model demonstrated that the OGP-based crosslinkers promoted proliferative activity of cells and accelerated degradation properties of PEUs. As a continuous study, extra efforts were focused on the development of PEUs with functional pendant groups, including alkyne, azide, alkene, tyrosine phenol, and ketone groups. PEUs with Mw exceeding to 100K Da were obtained via interfacial polycondensation, and the concentration of pendent groups was varied using a copolymerization strategy. Electrospinning was used to fabricate PEU nanofiber matrices with mechanical strengths suitable for tissue engineering. A series of biomolecules were conjugated to nanofiber surface following electrospinning using click reactions in aqueous media. The ability to derivatize PEUs with biological motifs using high efficient chemical reactions will significantly expand their use in vitro and in vivo. Based on similar principles, a series of mono- and multifunctionalized polycaprolactone (PCL

  14. An in vivo study on bone formation behavior of microporous granular calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmônico, G M L; Franczak, P F; Levandowski, N; Camargo, N H A; Dallabrida, A L; da Costa, B D; Gil, O García; Cambra-Moo, O; Rodríguez, M A; Canillas, M

    2017-06-27

    This study was developed based on in vivo investigation of microporous granular biomaterials based on calcium phosphates, involving matrices of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic compositions of both phases and a control group. The physicochemical characterization of materials was carried out by X-Ray diffraction (DRX) and mercury porosimetry. Biodegradability, bioactivity and neoformation processes were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and polarized light conducted on biopsies obtained from in vivo tests for periods of 90 and 180 days. These were performed to evaluate the behavior of granular microporous compositions in relation to bone neoformation. Through the performance obtained from in vivo assays, excellent osseointegration and bone tissue neoformation were observed. The results are encouraging and show that the microporous granular biomaterials of HA, β-TCP and biphasic compositions show similar results with perfect osseointegration. Architectures simulating a bone structure can make the difference between biomaterials for bone tissue replacement and repair.

  15. Substitutions in Calcium Aluminates and Calcium Aluminoferrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, *CEMENTS, * CALCIUM COMPOUNDS, * FERRITES , *SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, SUBSTITUTES, CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS.

  16. Methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, M. Richard

    Biomaterials play central roles in modern strategies of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Attempts to find tissue-engineered solutions to cure various injuries or diseases have led to an enormous increase in the number of polymeric biomaterials over the past decade. The breadth of new materials arises from the multiplicity of anatomical locations, cell types, and mode of application, which all place application-specific requirements on the biomaterial. Unfortunately, many of the currently available biodegradable polymers are limited in their versatility to meet the wide range of requirements for tissue engineering. Therefore, a methodology of biomaterial development, which is able to address a broad spectrum of requirements, would be beneficial to the biomaterial field. This work presents a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial design and application to meet the multifaceted needs of tissue engineering. We hypothesize that (1) citric acid, a non-toxic metabolic product of the body (Krebs Cycle), can be exploited as a universal multifunctional monomer and reacted with various diols to produce a new class of soft biodegradable elastomers with the flexibility to tune the material properties of the resulting material to meet a wide range of requirements; (2) the newly developed citrate-based polymers can be used as platform biomaterials for the design of novel tissue engineering scaffolding; and (3) microengineering approaches in the form thin scaffold sheets, microchannels, and a new porogen design can be used to generate complex cell-cell and cell-microenvironment interactions to mimic tissue complexity and architecture. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development through the synthesis and characterization of a family of in situ crosslinkable and urethane-doped elastomers, which are synthesized using simple, cost-effective strategies and offer a variety methods to tailor the material properties to

  17. Novel Biomaterials Used in Medical 3D Printing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappa, Karthik; Jammalamadaka, Udayabhanu

    2018-02-07

    The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has made 3D printing technology revolutionary in medical and pharmaceutical fields. A vast variety of biomaterials are currently being used in medical 3D printing, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. With continuous research and progress in biomaterials used in 3D printing, there has been a rapid growth in applications of 3D printing in manufacturing customized implants, prostheses, drug delivery devices, and 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The current review focuses on the novel biomaterials used in variety of 3D printing technologies for clinical applications. Most common types of medical 3D printing technologies, including fused deposition modeling, extrusion based bioprinting, inkjet, and polyjet printing techniques, their clinical applications, different types of biomaterials currently used by researchers, and key limitations are discussed in detail.

  18. The influence of biomaterials on endothelial cell thrombogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Alison P.; Sefton, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, endothelial cells are being used in combination with biomaterials in a number of applications for the purpose of improving blood compatibility and host integration. Endothelialized vascular grafts are beginning to be used clinically with some success in some centers, while endothelial seeding is being explored as a means of creating a vasculature within engineered tissues. The underlying assumption of this strategy is that when cultured on artificial biomaterials, a confluent layer of endothelial cells maintain their non-thrombogenic phenotype. In this review the existing knowledge base of endothelial cell thrombogenicity cultured on a number of different biomaterials is summarized. The importance of selecting appropriate endpoint measures that are most reflective of overall surface thrombogenicity is the focus of this review. Endothelial cells inhibit thrombosis through three interconnected regulatory systems (1) the coagulation cascade (2) the cellular components of the blood such as leukocytes and platelets and (3) the complement cascade, and also through effects on fibrinolysis and vascular tone, the latter which influences blood flow. Thus, in order to demonstrate the thromobgenic benefit of seeding a biomaterial with EC, the conditions under which EC surfaces are more likely to exhibit lower thrombogenicity than unseeded biomaterial surfaces need to be consistent with the experimental context. The endpoints selected should be appropriate for the dominant thrombotic process that occurs under the given experimental conditions. PMID:17316788

  19. Integrating Biomaterials and Stem Cells for Neural Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Francesca L; Rodriguez, Alexandra L; Parish, Clare L; Williams, Richard J; Nisbet, David R

    2016-02-01

    The central nervous system has a limited capacity to regenerate, and thus, traumatic injuries or diseases often have devastating consequences. Therefore, there is a distinct need to develop alternative treatments that can achieve functional recovery without side effects currently observed with some pharmacological treatments. Combining biomaterials with pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), either embryonic or induced, has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic injuries. Biomaterials can mimic the extracellular matrix and present a myriad of relevant biochemical cues through rational design or further functionalization. Biomaterials such as nanofibers and hydrogels, including self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogels can provide a superior cell culture environment. When these materials are then combined with PSCs, more accurate drug screening and disease modeling could be developed, and the generation of large number of cells with the appropriate phenotype can be achieved, for subsequent use in vitro. Biomaterials have also been shown to support endogenous cell growth after implantation, and, in particular, hydrogels and SAPs have effectively acted as cell delivery vehicles, increasing cell survival after transplantation. Few studies are yet to fully exploit the combination of PSCs and innovative biomaterials; however, initial studies with neural stem cells, for example, are promising, and, hence, such a combination for use in vitro and in vivo is an exciting new direction for the field of neural regeneration.

  20. Endotoxins-the invisible companion in biomaterials research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Ramona; Petersen, Pétur Henry; Sigurjónsson, Ólafur Eysteinn

    2013-10-01

    Metal implants and polymeric devices for the application in the clinical treatment of orthopedic tissue injuries are increasingly coated with bioactive biomaterials derived from natural substances to induce desirable biological effects. Many metals and polymers used in biomaterials research show high affinity for endotoxins, which are abundant in the environment. Endotoxin contamination is indicated in the pathology of periodontitis and aseptic implant loosening, but may also affect the evaluation of a biomaterial's bioactivity by inducing strong inflammatory reactions. In this review, we discuss the high affinity of three commonly used implant biomaterials for endotoxins and how the contamination can affect the outcome of the orthopedic fixation. The chemical nature of bacterial endotoxins and some of the clinical health implications are described, as this knowledge is critically important to tackle the issues associated with the measurement and removal of endotoxins from medical devices. Commonly used methods for endotoxin testing and removal from natural substances are examined and the lack of standard guidelines for the in vitro evaluation of biomaterials is discussed.

  1. Surface modification of biomaterials and biomedical devices using additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Susmita; Robertson, Samuel Ford; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2018-01-15

    The demand for synthetic biomaterials in medical devices, pharmaceutical products and, tissue replacement applications are growing steadily due to aging population worldwide. The use for patient matched devices is also increasing due to availability and integration of new technologies. Applications of additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing (3DP) in biomaterials have also increased significantly over the past decade towards traditional as well as innovative next generation Class I, II and III devices. In this review, we have focused our attention towards the use of AM in surface modified biomaterials to enhance their in vitro and in vivo performances. Specifically, we have discussed the use of AM to deliberately modify the surfaces of different classes of biomaterials with spatial specificity in a single manufacturing process as well as commented on the future outlook towards surface modification using AM. It is widely understood that the success of implanted medical devices depends largely on favorable material-tissue interactions. Additive manufacturing has gained traction as a viable and unique approach to engineered biomaterials, for both bulk and surface properties that improve implant outcomes. This review explores how additive manufacturing techniques have been and can be used to augment the surfaces of biomedical devices for direct clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel Biomaterials Used in Medical 3D Printing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Tappa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has made 3D printing technology revolutionary in medical and pharmaceutical fields. A vast variety of biomaterials are currently being used in medical 3D printing, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. With continuous research and progress in biomaterials used in 3D printing, there has been a rapid growth in applications of 3D printing in manufacturing customized implants, prostheses, drug delivery devices, and 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The current review focuses on the novel biomaterials used in variety of 3D printing technologies for clinical applications. Most common types of medical 3D printing technologies, including fused deposition modeling, extrusion based bioprinting, inkjet, and polyjet printing techniques, their clinical applications, different types of biomaterials currently used by researchers, and key limitations are discussed in detail.

  3. Biomaterial-Based Implantable Devices for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Sue Anne; Danti, Serena

    2017-01-01

    This review article focuses on the current local therapies mediated by implanted macroscaled biomaterials available or proposed for fighting cancer and also highlights the upcoming research in this field. Several authoritative review articles have collected and discussed the state-of-the-art as well as the advancements in using biomaterial-based micro- and nano-particle systems for drug delivery in cancer therapy. On the other hand, implantable biomaterial devices are emerging as highly versatile therapeutic platforms, which deserve an increased attention by the healthcare scientific community, as they are able to offer innovative, more effective and creative strategies against tumors. This review summarizes the current approaches which exploit biomaterial-based devices as implantable tools for locally administrating drugs and describes their specific medical applications, which mainly target resected brain tumors or brain metastases for the inaccessibility of conventional chemotherapies. Moreover, a special focus in this review is given to innovative approaches, such as combined delivery therapies, as well as to alternative approaches, such as scaffolds for gene therapy, cancer immunotherapy and metastatic cell capture, the later as promising future trends in implantable biomaterials for cancer applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A novel animal model for skin flap prelamination with biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianyu; Luo, Xusong; Liu, Fei; Gu, Chuan; Wang, Xi; Yang, Qun; Qian, Yunliang; Yang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Several animal models of skin flap construction were reported using biomaterials in a way similar to prefabrication. However, there are few animal model using biomaterials similar to prelamination, another main way of clinical skin flap construction that has been proved to be reliable. Can biomaterials be added in skin flap prelamination to reduce the use of autogenous tissues? Beside individual clinical attempts, animal model is needed for randomized controlled trial to objectively evaluate the feasibility and further investigation. Combining human Acellular Dermal Matrix (hADM) and autologous skin graft, we prelaminated flaps based on inguinal fascia. One, two, three and four weeks later, hADM exhibited a sound revascularization and host cell infiltration. Prelaminated skin flaps were then raised and microsurgically transplanted back to groin region. Except for flaps after one week of prelamination, flaps from other subgroups successfully reconstructed defects. After six to sixteen weeks of transplantation, hADM was proved to being able to maintain its original structure, having a wealth of host tissue cells and achieving full revascularization.To our knowledge, this is the first animal model of prelaminating skin flap with biomaterials. Success of this animal model indicates that novel flap prelamination with biomaterials is feasible.

  5. Engineering biomaterials surfaces to modulate the host response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Mei, Yan; Hadjesfandiari, Narges; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2014-12-01

    Undesirable host response is responsible for the surface induced thrombus generation, activation of the complement system and the inflammatory reactions by the blood-contacting biomaterials. The surface interaction of biomaterials with different blood components is thought to be the critical factor that dictates the host response to biomaterials. Surface engineering can be utilized as a method to enhance the biocompatibility and tailor the biological response to biomaterials. This review provides a brief account of various polymer brush based approaches used for biomaterials surface modification, both passive and bioactive, to make the material surfaces biocompatible and antibacterial. Initially we discuss the utilization of polymer brushes with different structure and chemistry as a novel strategy to design the surface non-fouling that passively prevent the subsequent biological responses. Further we explore the utility of different bioactive agents including peptides, carbohydrates and proteins which can be conjugated the polymer brush to make the surface actively interact with the body and modulate the host response. A number of such avenues have also been explored in this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. DMPD: The interrelated role of fibronectin and interleukin-1 in biomaterial-modulatedmacrophage function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available latedmacrophage function. Schmidt DR, Kao WJ. Biomaterials. 2007 Jan;28(3):371-82. Epub 2006 Sep 15. (.png) ...and interleukin-1 in biomaterial-modulatedmacrophage function. Authors Schmidt DR, Kao WJ. Publication Biomaterial

  7. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to ...

  8. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  9. Biomaterials: where we have been and where we are going.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Buddy D; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2004-01-01

    Since its inception just over a half century ago, the field of biomaterials has seen a consistent growth with a steady introduction of new ideas and productive branches. This review describes where we have been, the state of the art today, and where we might be in 10 or 20 years. Herein, we highlight some of the latest advancements in biomaterials that aim to control biological responses and ultimately heal. This new generation of biomaterials includes surface modification of materials to overcome nonspecific protein adsorption in vivo, precision immobilization of signaling groups on surfaces, development of synthetic materials with controlled properties for drug and cell carriers, biologically inspired materials that mimic natural processes, and design of sophisticated three-dimensional (3-D) architectures to produce well-defined patterns for diagnostics, e.g., biological microelectromechanical systems (bioMEMs), and tissue engineering.

  10. Optical assessment of tissue heterogeneity in biomaterials and implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Steven L.

    2000-06-01

    Optical techniques can assess the heterogeneity and structural layers of biomaterial and implants. Such assessment can assist engineering of tissue patches and implants by assessing implant structure, monitoring the implant fabrication process, controlling the machining of the implant, and monitoring in vivo the body's host response to the implant. Optical scattering can quantify the granularity of a biomaterial on the scale of 0.1 - 10 micrometer. Optical coherence tomography can map heterogeneity on the scale of 2 - 20 micrometer. Optoacoustic imaging can image absorbing heterogeneities on the scale of 20 micrometer - 10 mm (or more). Diffusion optical tomography can image absorbing and scattering heterogeneities on the scale of 5 mm - 5 cm (or more). The opportunities for optical techniques in preparing biomaterials and implants are discussed.

  11. Evaluating polymeric biomaterial-environment interfaces by Langmuir monolayer techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, Anne-Christin; Roch, Toralf; Schulz, Burkhard; Lendlein, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Polymeric biomaterials are of specific relevance in medical and pharmaceutical applications due to their wide range of tailorable properties and functionalities. The knowledge about interactions of biomaterials with their biological environment is of crucial importance for developing highly sophisticated medical devices. To achieve optimal in vivo performance, a description at the molecular level is required to gain better understanding about the surface of synthetic materials for tailoring their properties. This is still challenging and requires the comprehensive characterization of morphological structures, polymer chain arrangements and degradation behaviour. The review discusses selected aspects for evaluating polymeric biomaterial-environment interfaces by Langmuir monolayer methods as powerful techniques for studying interfacial properties, such as morphological and degradation processes. The combination of spectroscopic, microscopic and scattering methods with the Langmuir techniques adapted to polymers can substantially improve the understanding of their in vivo behaviour. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Validation of the Osteopenia Sheep Model for Orthopaedic Biomaterial Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, C.C.; Cheng, L.

    2009-01-01

    Validation of the Osteopenia Sheep Model for Orthopaedic Biomaterial Research +1Ding, M; 2Danielsen, CC; 1Cheng, L; 3Bollen, P; 4Schwarz, P; 1Overgaard, S +1Dept of Orthopaedics O, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, 2Dept of Connective Tissue Biology, University of Aarhus, Denmark, 3Biomedicine...... Lab, University of Southern Denmark, 4Dept of Geriatrics, Glostrup University Hospital, Denmark ming.ding@ouh.regionsyddanmark.dk   Introduction:  Currently, majority orthopaedic prosthesis and biomaterial researches have been based on investigation in normal animals. In most clinical situations, most...... resemble osteoporosis in humans. This study aimed to validate glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia sheep model for orthopaedic implant and biomaterial research. We hypothesized that a 7-month GC treatment together with restricted diet but without OVX would induce osteopenia. Materials and Methods: Eighteen...

  13. Biomaterial Design Strategies for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straley, Karin S.; Po Foo, Cheryl Wong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The highly debilitating nature of spinal cord injuries has provided much inspiration for the design of novel biomaterials that can stimulate cellular regeneration and functional recovery. Many experts agree that the greatest hope for treatment of spinal cord injuries will involve a combinatorial approach that integrates biomaterial scaffolds, cell transplantation, and molecule delivery. This manuscript presents a comprehensive review of biomaterial-scaffold design strategies currently being applied to the development of nerve guidance channels and hydrogels that more effectively stimulate spinal cord tissue regeneration. To enhance the regenerative capacity of these two scaffold types, researchers are focusing on optimizing the mechanical properties, cell-adhesivity, biodegradability, electrical activity, and topography of synthetic and natural materials, and are developing mechanisms to use these scaffolds to deliver cells and biomolecules. Developing scaffolds that address several of these key design parameters will lead to more successful therapies for the regeneration of spinal cord tissue. PMID:19698073

  14. Biomaterial based cardiac tissue engineering and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyer, Locke Davenport; Montgomery, Miles; Zhao, Yimu; Xiao, Yun; Conant, Genevieve; Korolj, Anastasia; Radisic, Milica

    2015-05-20

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide, necessitating the development of effective treatment strategies. A myocardial infarction involves the blockage of a coronary artery leading to depletion of nutrient and oxygen supply to cardiomyocytes and massive cell death in a region of the myocardium. Cardiac tissue engineering is the growth of functional cardiac tissue in vitro on biomaterial scaffolds for regenerative medicine application. This strategy relies on the optimization of the complex relationship between cell networks and biomaterial properties. In this review, we discuss important biomaterial properties for cardiac tissue engineering applications, such as elasticity, degradation, and induced host response, and their relationship to engineered cardiac cell environments. With these properties in mind, we also emphasize in vitro use of cardiac tissues for high-throughput drug screening and disease modelling.

  15. Biomaterials mediated microRNA delivery for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, M; Sainitya, R; Kalyanaraman, V; Dhivya, S; Selvamurugan, N

    2015-03-01

    Bone tissue engineering is an alternative strategy to overcome the problems associated with traditional treatments for bone defects. A number of bioactive materials along with new techniques like porous scaffold implantation, gene delivery, 3D organ printing are now-a-days emerging for traditional bone grafts and metal implants. Studying the molecular mechanisms through which these biomaterials induce osteogenesis is an equally hot field. Biomaterials could determine the fate of a cell via microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and play an essential role for regulation of cell specific lineages including osteogenesis. Thus, this review focuses the recent trends on establishing a link of biomaterials with miRNAs and their delivery for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 3D Imaging of Tissue Integration with Porous Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldberg, Robert E.; Duvall, Craig L.; Peister, Alexandra; Oest, Megan E.; Lin, Angela S.P.; Palmer, Ashley W.; Levenston, Marc E.

    2008-01-01

    Porous biomaterials designed to support cellular infiltration and tissue formation play a critical role in implant fixation and engineered tissue repair. The purpose of this Leading Opinion Paper is to advocate the use of high resolution 3D imaging techniques as a tool to quantify extracellular matrix formation and vascular ingrowth within porous biomaterials and objectively compare different strategies for functional tissue regeneration. An initial over-reliance on qualitative evaluation methods may have contributed to the false perception that developing effective tissue engineering technologies would be relatively straightforward. Moreover, the lack of comparative studies with quantitative metrics in challenging pre-clinical models has made it difficult to determine which of the many available strategies to invest in or use clinically for companies and clinicians, respectively. This paper will specifically illustrate the use of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging with and without contrast agents to nondestructively quantify the formation of bone, cartilage, and vasculature within porous biomaterials. PMID:18635260

  17. Regeneration of damaged osteoporotic bone tissue with synthetic biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nenad D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In some cases in oral and maxillofacial surgery, bone regeneration is required in large quantities. One of these cases is osteoporosis. This paper aims to show the new approach to solving this problem of impaired healing of bone defects in the jaw, as well as in other bones, with the use of synthetic biomaterials whose properties resemble the natural bone. Latest development in this area present an effort to create local drug-delivery systems for BMPs and growth factors, direct delivery of MSCs, as well as scaffolds for osteoconduction and also to utilize nanotechnology to synthesize composite biomaterials, predominantly based on HAp and polymers, that would mimic the natural bone nanocomposite architecture. There is also a tendency to create injectable biomaterials for simplified application.

  18. Effects of the method of apatite seed crystals addition on setting reaction of α-tricalcium phosphate based apatite cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Kanji; Ruslin; Maruta, Michito; Matsuya, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2015-10-01

    Appropriate setting time is an important parameter that determines the effectiveness of apatite cement (AC) for clinical application, given the issues of crystalline inflammatory response phenomena if AC fails to set. To this end, the present study analyzes the effects of the method of apatite seed crystals addition on the setting reaction of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) based AC. Two ACs, both consisting of α-TCP and calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (cdHAp), were analyzed in this study. In one AC, cdHAp was added externally to α-TCP and this AC was abbreviated as AC(EA). In the other AC, α-TCP was partially hydrolyzed to form cdHAp on the surface of α-TCP. This AC was referred to as AC(PH). Results indicate a decrease in the setting time of both ACs with the addition of cdHAp. Among them, for the given amount of added cdHAp, AC(PH) showed relatively shorter setting time than AC(EA). Besides, the mechanical strength of the set AC(PH) was also higher than that of set AC(EA). These properties of AC(PH) were attributed to the predominant crystal growth of cdHAp in the vicinity of the α-TCP particle surface. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the partial hydrolysis of α-TCP may be a better approach to add low crystalline cdHAp onto α-TCP based AC.

  19. Resolution of surgically created three-wall intrabony defects in implants using three different biomaterials: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Yoo; Jung, Ui-Won; Lee, In-Seop; Kim, Chang-Sung; Lee, Yong-Keun; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2011-03-01

    To histomorphometrically analyze bone formation on amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), micro-macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (MBCP), and freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) in three-wall defects adjacent to structured surface with calcium phosphate nanocoating implants in dogs. Five male mixed-breed dogs were used in this study. The premolars and molars were extracted on both sides of the mandible. Eight weeks after extraction, four implants were submerged on each side of the mandible. Three-wall intrabony defects (5 × 3 × 3 mm) were surgically created adjacent to the implants before installation. No grafts were placed in the control group. At the experimental sites, each intrabony defect was grafted with either ACP, MBCP, or FDBA. The dogs were sacrificed after 12 weeks, and histological and histomorphometrical analyses of the implant sites were performed. All of the three experimental groups exhibited defect resolution and osseointegration that showed a statistically significant difference compared with the control group in terms of remaining defect depth and bone-to-implant contact (BIC). However, there were no statistical significances among the three experimental groups. MBCP had the highest BIC (63.57 ± 21.57%), followed by ACP and FDBA. The control group showed the least bone area and the greatest remaining defect depth. Grafts with the synthetic biomaterials ACP and MBCP showed bone regeneration that was similar to FDBA in surgically created three-wall intrabony defects adjacent to implants. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that ACP and MBCP synthetic biomaterials are as effective as FDBA at osteoconduction. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  1. Integrin-directed modulation of macrophage responses to biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Toral D; Lewis, Jamal S; Dolgova, Natalia V; Clare-Salzler, Michael J; Keselowsky, Benjamin G

    2014-04-01

    Macrophages are the primary mediator of chronic inflammatory responses to implanted biomaterials, in cases when the material is either in particulate or bulk form. Chronic inflammation limits the performance and functional life of numerous implanted medical devices, and modulating macrophage interactions with biomaterials to mitigate this response would be beneficial. The integrin family of cell surface receptors mediates cell adhesion through binding to adhesive proteins nonspecifically adsorbed onto biomaterial surfaces. In this work, the roles of integrin Mac-1 (αMβ2) and RGD-binding integrins were investigated using model systems for both particulate and bulk biomaterials. Specifically, the macrophage functions of phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to a model particulate material, polystyrene microparticles were investigated. Opsonizing proteins modulated microparticle uptake, and integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins were found to control microparticle uptake in an opsonin-dependent manner. The presence of adsorbed endotoxin did not affect microparticle uptake levels, but was required for the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to microparticles. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins influence the in vivo foreign body response to a bulk biomaterial, subcutaneously implanted polyethylene terephthalate. A thinner foreign body capsule was formed when integrin Mac-1 was absent (~30% thinner) or when RGD-binding integrins were blocked by controlled release of a blocking peptide (~45% thinner). These findings indicate integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins are involved and may serve as therapeutic targets to mitigate macrophage inflammatory responses to both particulate and bulk biomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomaterials approaches to treating implant-associated osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzana, Jason A; Schwarz, Edward M; Kates, Stephen L; Awad, Hani A

    2016-03-01

    Orthopaedic devices are the most common surgical devices associated with implant-related infections and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most common causative pathogen in chronic bone infections (osteomyelitis). Treatment of these chronic bone infections often involves combinations of antibiotics given systemically and locally to the affected site via a biomaterial spacer. The gold standard biomaterial for local antibiotic delivery against osteomyelitis, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement, bears many limitations. Such shortcomings include limited antibiotic release, incompatibility with many antimicrobial agents, and the need for follow-up surgeries to remove the non-biodegradable cement before surgical reconstruction of the lost bone. Therefore, extensive research pursuits are targeting alternative, biodegradable materials to replace PMMA in osteomyelitis applications. Herein, we provide an overview of the primary clinical treatment strategies and emerging biodegradable materials that may be employed for management of implant-related osteomyelitis. We performed a systematic review of experimental biomaterials systems that have been evaluated for treating established S. aureus osteomyelitis in an animal model. Many experimental biomaterials were not decisively more efficacious for infection management than PMMA when delivering the same antibiotic. However, alternative biomaterials have reduced the number of follow-up surgeries, enhanced the antimicrobial efficacy by delivering agents that are incompatible with PMMA, and regenerated bone in an infected defect. Understanding the advantages, limitations, and potential for clinical translation of each biomaterial, along with the conditions under which it was evaluated (e.g. animal model), is critical for surgeons and researchers to navigate the plethora of options for local antibiotic delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. DIFFERENTIAL FUNCTIONAL EFFECTS OF BIOMATERIALS ON DENDRITIC CELL MATURATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyung; Babensee, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    The immunological outcome of dendritic cell (DC) treatment with different biomaterials was assessed to demonstrate the range of DC phenotypes induced by biomaterials commonly used in combination products. Immature DCs (iDCs) were derived from human peripheral blood monocytes, and treated with different biomaterial films of alginate, agarose, chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA), or 75:25 poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and a comprehensive cadre of phenotypic functional outcomes were assessed. Differential levels of functional changes of DC phenotype were observed depending on the type of biomaterial films used to treat DCs. Treatment of DCs with PLGA or chitosan films supported DC maturation with higher levels of DC allostimulatory capacity, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, HLA-DQ and CD44 expression as compared to iDCs, and endocytic ability at a level lower compared to iDCs. Alginate film induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release from DCs at levels higher than iDCs,. Dendritic cells treated with HA film expressed lower levels of CD40, CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR as compared to iDCs. They also exhibited endocytic ability and CD44 expression at levels lower than iDCs, possibly due to an insolublized (cross-linked) form with high molecular weight HA. Interestingly, treatment of DCs with agarose film maintained a DC functional phenotype at levels similar to iDCs except for CD44 expression which was lower than expression levels for iDCs. Taken together, these results can provide selection criteria for biomaterials to be used in immunomodulating applications and can inform potential outcomes of biomaterials within combination products on associated immune responses as desired by the application. PMID:22705044

  4. Lithotripter shock wave interaction with a bubble near various biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, S. W.; Klaseboer, E.; Szeri, A. J.; Khoo, B. C.

    2016-10-01

    Following previous work on the dynamics of an oscillating bubble near a bio-material (Ohl et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6313-36) and the interaction of a bubble with a shockwave (Klaseboer et al 2007 J. Fluid Mech. 593 33-56), the present work concerns the interaction of a gas bubble with a traveling shock wave (such as from a lithotripter) in the vicinity of bio-materials such as fat, skin, muscle, cornea, cartilage, and bone. The bubble is situated in water (to represent a water-like biofluid). The bubble collapses are not spherically symmetric, but tend to feature a high speed jet. A few simulations are performed and compared with available experimental observations from Sankin and Zhong (2006 Phys. Rev. E 74 046304). The collapses of cavitation bubbles (created by laser in the experiment) near an elastic membrane when hit by a lithotripter shock wave are correctly captured by the simulation. This is followed by a more systematic study of the effects involved concerning shockwave bubble biomaterial interactions. If a subsequent rarefaction wave hits the collapsed bubble, it will re-expand to a very large size straining the bio-materials nearby before collapsing once again. It is noted that, for hard bio-material like bone, reflection of the shock wave at the bone—water interface can affect the bubble dynamics. Also the initial size of the bubble has a significant effect. Large bubbles (˜1 mm) will split into smaller bubbles, while small bubbles collapse with a high speed jet in the travel direction of the shock wave. The numerical model offers a computationally efficient way of understanding the complex phenomena involving the interplay of a bubble, a shock wave, and a nearby bio-material.

  5. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of

  6. [The developement of a new torque experiment device for biomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Zhen, Z; Wang, G; Wu, Y

    1997-09-01

    This paper introduces a biomaterial torque experiment apparatus which consists of AST486 computer, photodiode array, code device interface circuit, and magnetoelectric motional coil structure. According to experimental conditions, the computer sends out signal to the coil which under the magnetic field is activated to produce a series of desired torque and bring the sample to deflect. Angular displacement is measured by photodiode array and code device system. The whole system has good dynamics and high precision and could finish a series of torque experiment for biomaterials, and AST486 computer can automatically conduct signals analyzing and data processing.

  7. An Overview of Biomaterials in Periodontology and Implant Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Dan Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material is a crucial factor for the restoration of the tooth or periodontal structure in dentistry. Various biomaterials have been developed and clinically applied for improved periodontal tissue regeneration and osseointegration, especially in periodontology and dental implantology. Furthermore, the biomimetic approach has been the subject of active research in recent years. In this review, the most widely studied biomaterials (bone graft material, barrier membrane, and growth or differentiation factors and biomimetic approaches to obtain optimal tissue regeneration by making the environment almost similar to that of the extracellular matrix are discussed and specifically highlighted.

  8. Biomaterials and host versus graft response: A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velnar, Tomaz; Bunc, Gorazd; Klobucar, Robert; Gradisnik, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials and biotechnology are increasing becoming an important area in modern medicine. The main aim in this area is the development of materials, which are biocompatible to normal tissue. Tissue-implant interactions with molecular, biological and cellular characteristics at the implant-tissue interface are important for the use and development of implants. Implantation may cause an inflammatory and immune response in tissue, foreign body reaction, systemic toxicity and imminent infection. Tissue-implant interactions determine the implant life-period. The aims of the study are to consider the biological response to implants. Biomaterials and host reactions to implants and their mechanisms are also briefly discussed. PMID:26894284

  9. Adhesion molecule-modified biomaterials for neural tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyas S Rao

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion molecules (AMs represent one class of biomolecules that promote central nervous system regeneration. These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment. Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering. This review discusses common AMs used in neural biomaterials and the mechanism of cell attachment to these AMs. Methods to modify materials with AMs are discussed and compared. Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

  10. Immune responses to implants - a review of the implications for the design of immunomodulatory biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sandra; Rammelt, Stefan; Scharnweber, Dieter; Simon, Jan C

    2011-10-01

    A key for long-term survival and function of biomaterials is that they do not elicit a detrimental immune response. As biomaterials can have profound impacts on the host immune response the concept emerged to design biomaterials that are able to trigger desired immunological outcomes and thus support the healing process. However, engineering such biomaterials requires an in-depth understanding of the host inflammatory and wound healing response to implanted materials. One focus of this review is to outline the up-to-date knowledge on immune responses to biomaterials. Understanding the complex interactions of host response and material implants reveals the need for and also the potential of "immunomodulating" biomaterials. Based on this knowledge, we discuss strategies of triggering appropriate immune responses by functional biomaterials and highlight recent approaches of biomaterials that mimic the physiological extracellular matrix and modify cellular immune responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sustainable polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from waste aerobic granular sludge as a surface coating material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y. M.; Nierop, K.G.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182329895; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; van Loosdrecht, M. C M

    To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion

  12. Sustainable polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from waste aerobic granular sludge as a surface coating material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.M.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion

  13. Effect of pH on physical properties of two endodontic biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Pooneh; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To compare the surface microhardness, setting time, and elemental and topographic changes of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) in contact with acidic, neutral, and alkaline solutions. Subjects and Methods: For evaluating 24-h and 28-day surface microhardness using Vickers test and initial setting time using Gillmore apparatus, glass molds were filled manually or ultrasonically, either with CEM or MTA and randomly immersed in solutions with acidic, neutral, and alkaline pH (5.4, 7.4, and 9.4, respectively). Topographic changes of the samples as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectra were examined using the scanning electron microscopy. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon, one- and two-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc, and t-tests. Results: After 28 days, there was an increase in the microhardness for all samples (without statistical significance [P > 0.05]), except for the samples of CEM in acidic environment (P > 0.05). The setting time of MTA samples was statistically higher than CEM samples (P ≤ 0.001). The setting time of both biomaterials was significantly higher in acidic pH than other groups (P ≤ 0.005). Surface topography and elemental constituents of biomaterials were altered in different solutions. Conclusion: The surface microhardness, setting time, and elemental and topographic properties of MTA and CEM were affected by different solutions. CEM exhibited quicker setting time than MTA; however, acidic solution negatively influenced both of them. PMID:27217632

  14. Surface modification of biomaterials using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Tao; Qiao, Yuqin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2012-01-01

    Although remarkable progress has been made on biomaterial research, the ideal biomaterial that satisfies all the technical requirements and biological functions is not available up to now. Surface modification seems to be a more economic and efficient way to adjust existing conventional biomaterials to meet the current and ever-evolving clinical needs. From an industrial perspective, plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) is an attractive method for biomaterials owing to it...

  15. Osteoinductive biomaterials: current knowledge of properties, experimental models and biological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas, A.M.C.; Yuan, Huipin; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    In the past thirty years, a number of biomaterials have shown the ability to induce bone formation when implanted at heterotopic sites, an ability known as osteoinduction. Such biomaterials – osteoinductive biomaterials – hold great potential for the development of new therapies in bone

  16. A comparison of seven methods to analyze heparin in biomaterials: quantification, location, and anticoagulant activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, G.; Westerlo, E.M.A. van de; Versteeg, E.M.M.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Daamen, W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans, like heparin, are frequently incorporated in biomaterials because of their capacity to bind and store growth factors and because of their hydrating properties. Heparin is also often used in biomaterials for its anticoagulant activity. Analysis of biomaterial-bound heparin is

  17. PRESERVATION OF THE CELL-BIOMATERIAL INTERFACE AT THE ULTRASTRUCTURAL LEVEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHAKENRAAD, JM; OOSTERBAAN, JA; BLAAUW, EH

    1991-01-01

    Studying the tissue-biomaterial interface at the ultrastructural level is not without problems. Dissolution of the biomaterial in one of the dehydration or embedding media causes holes and shatter during sectioning or dislodgement of the biomaterial. The fine tuning of the hardness of both

  18. Fabrications of zinc-releasing biocement combining zinc calcium phosphate to calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shinya; Hiasa, Masahiro; Yasue, Akihiro; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Hamada, Kenichi; Asaoka, Kenzo; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Recently, zinc-releasing bioceramics have been the focus of much attention owing to their bone-forming ability. Thus, some types of zinc-containing calcium phosphate (e.g., zinc-doped tricalcium phosphate and zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite) are examined and their osteoblastic cell responses determined. In this investigation, we studied the effects of zinc calcium phosphate (ZCP) derived from zinc phosphate incorporated into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in terms of its setting reaction and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell responses. Compositional analysis by powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that HAP crystals were precipitated in the CPC containing 10 or 30wt% ZCP after successfully hardening. However, the crystal growth observed by scanning electron microscopy was delayed in the presence of additional ZCP. These findings indicate that the additional zinc inhibits crystal growth and the conversion of CPC to the HAP crystals. The proliferation of the cells and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were enhanced when 10wt% ZCP was added to CPC. Taken together, ZCP added CPC at an appropriate fraction has a potent promotional effect on bone substitute biomaterials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Learning from nature - novel synthetic biology approaches for biomaterial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryksin, Anton V; Brown, Ashley C; Baksh, Michael M; Finn, M G; Barker, Thomas H

    2014-04-01

    Many biomaterials constructed today are complex chemical structures that incorporate biologically active components derived from nature, but the field can still be said to be in its infancy. The need for materials that bring sophisticated properties of structure, dynamics and function to medical and non-medical applications will only grow. Increasing appreciation of the functionality of biological systems has caused biomaterials researchers to consider nature for design inspiration, and many examples exist of the use of biomolecular motifs. Yet evolution, nature's only engine for the creation of new designs, has been largely ignored by the biomaterials community. Molecular evolution is an emerging tool that enables one to apply nature's engineering principles to non-natural situations using variation and selection. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most recent advances in the use of molecular evolution in synthetic biology applications for biomaterial engineering, and to discuss some of the areas in which this approach may be successfully applied in the future. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of biomaterial-associated infections in orthopaedic joint implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neut, D; van Horn, [No Value; van Kooten, TG; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    Biomaterial-associated infection of orthopaedic joint replacements is the second most common cause of implant failure. Yet, the microbiologic detection rate of infection is relatively low, probably because routine hospital cultures are made only of swabs or small pieces of excised tissue and not of

  1. Quantitative Ultrasound for Nondestructive Characterization of Engineered Tissues and Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Dalecki, Diane; Mercado, Karla P.; Hocking, Denise C.

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive, non-destructive technologies for imaging and quantitatively monitoring the development of artificial tissues are critical for the advancement of tissue engineering. Current standard techniques for evaluating engineered tissues, including histology, biochemical assays and mechanical testing, are destructive approaches. Ultrasound is emerging as a valuable tool for imaging and quantitatively monitoring the properties of engineered tissues and biomaterials longitudinally during fab...

  2. Clay-Enriched Silk Biomaterials for Bone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Llamas, Jabier Gallego; Vaiana, Christopher A.; Kadakia, Madhavi P.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of silk protein/clay composite biomaterials for bone tissue formation is described. Silk fibroin serves as an organic scaffolding material offering mechanical stability suitable for bone specific uses. Clay montmorillonite (Cloisite ® Na+) and sodium silicate are sources of osteoinductive silica-rich inorganic species, analogous to bioactive bioglass-like bone repair biomaterial systems. Different clay particle-silk composite biomaterial films were compared to silk films doped with sodium silicate as controls for support of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in osteogenic culture. The cells adhered and proliferated on the silk/clay composites over two weeks. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed increased transcript levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col I) osteogenic markers in the cells cultured on the silk/clay films in comparison to the controls. Early evidence for bone formation based on collagen deposition at the cell-biomaterial interface was also found, with more collagen observed for the silk films with higher contents of clay particles. The data suggest that the silk/clay composite systems may be useful for further study toward bone regenerative needs. PMID:21549864

  3. Role of biomaterials in neurorestoration after spinal cord injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Stanescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in knowledge and technology SCI remains one of the most severe and disabling disorders affecting young people. Spinal cord lesions result in permanent loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions, causing an enormous impact on patient’s personal, social, familial and professional life. There is currently no effective treatment available to improve severe neurologic deficits and to decrease disability. Tissue-engineering techniques have developed a variety of scaffolds, made by biomaterials, used alone, incapsulated with cells or embedded with molecules, which are delivered to lesion site to achieve neural regeneration. Biomaterials may provide structural support and/or serve as a delivery vehicle for factors to arrest growth inhibition and promote axonal growth. Biomaterials acts like cell-carriers for the injury site, but also as reservoirs for growth factors or biomolecules. Hydrogels are a promising therapeutical strategy in spinal cord repair. Nano-fibers provide a three-dimensional network, which mimic closely the native extracellular matrix, thus offering a better support for cell attachment and proliferation than traditional micro-structure. New strategies like pharmacologic treatments, cell therapies, gene therapies and biomaterial tissue engineering should combine to increase their synergistic effect and to obtain the expected functional recovery in spinal cord injured patients

  4. Effect of hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials on human osteoblast phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombelli, L; Penolazzi, L; Torreggiani, E; Farina, R; Lambertini, E; Vecchiatini, R; Piva, R

    2010-03-01

    The present study evaluated human primary osteoblasts and two different osteoblast-like cell lines behaviour when cultured in presence of different hydroxyapatite-based (HA) biomaterials (SINTlife-FIN-CERAMICA S.p.a., Faenza, Italy; Bio-Oss, Geistlich Biomaterials, Woulhusen, Switzerland; Biostite-GABA Vebas, San Giuliano Milanese, MI, Italy), focusing attention on the effect of HA/Biostite in terms of modulation of osteoblastic differentiation. Analysis were about adhesion, proliferation and mineralization activity. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalfa) expression and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) were measured as osteoblastic differentiation markers. Determination of viable cells was done with MTT colorimetric assay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed on biomaterial-treated cells. All hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials didn't affect cells morphology and viability, whereas only presence of HA/Biostite improved cells adhesion, growth and differentiation. Adhesion and spreading of the primary cells on HA/Biostite were the same showed by two different osteoblast-like cell lines. These results have important implications for both tissue-engineered bone grafts and enhancement of HA implants performance, to develop new teeth's supporting structure therapies and replacement.

  5. Surface Engineered Polymeric Biomaterials with Improved Biocontact Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorka G. Vladkova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present many examples of surface engineered polymeric biomaterials with nanosize modified layers, controlled protein adsorption, and cellular interactions potentially applicable for tissue and/or blood contacting devices, scaffolds for cell culture and tissue engineering, biosensors, biological microchips as well as approaches to their preparation.

  6. PEEK Biomaterials in Trauma, Orthopedic, and Spinal Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S. M.; Devine, J. N.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s, polyaryletherketones (PAEKs) have been increasingly employed as biomaterials for trauma, orthopedic, and spinal implants. We have synthesized the extensive polymer science literature as it relates to structure, mechanical properties, and chemical resistance of PAEK biomaterials. With this foundation, one can more readily appreciate why this family of polymers will be inherently strong, inert, and biocompatible. Due to its relative inertness, PEEK biomaterials are an attractive platform upon which to develop novel bioactive materials, and some steps have already been taken in that direction, with the blending of HA and TCP into sintered PEEK. However, to date, blended HA-PEEK composites have involved a trade-off in mechanical properties in exchange for their increased bioactivity. PEEK has had the greatest clinical impact in the field of spine implant design, and PEEK is now broadly accepted as a radiolucent alternative to metallic biomaterials in the spine community. For mature fields, such as total joint replacements and fracture fixation implants, radiolucency is an attractive but not necessarily critical material feature. PMID:17686513

  7. PEEK biomaterials in trauma, orthopedic, and spinal implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven M; Devine, John N

    2007-11-01

    Since the 1980s, polyaryletherketones (PAEKs) have been increasingly employed as biomaterials for trauma, orthopedic, and spinal implants. We have synthesized the extensive polymer science literature as it relates to structure, mechanical properties, and chemical resistance of PAEK biomaterials. With this foundation, one can more readily appreciate why this family of polymers will be inherently strong, inert, and biocompatible. Due to its relative inertness, PEEK biomaterials are an attractive platform upon which to develop novel bioactive materials, and some steps have already been taken in that direction, with the blending of HA and TCP into sintered PEEK. However, to date, blended HA-PEEK composites have involved a trade-off in mechanical properties in exchange for their increased bioactivity. PEEK has had the greatest clinical impact in the field of spine implant design, and PEEK is now broadly accepted as a radiolucent alternative to metallic biomaterials in the spine community. For mature fields, such as total joint replacements and fracture fixation implants, radiolucency is an attractive but not necessarily critical material feature.

  8. A Multidisciplined Teaching Reform of Biomaterials Course for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Feng; Pu, Fang; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Zhou, Gang; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo; Feng, Qingling; Cui, Fu-zhai; Watari, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The biomaterials science has advanced in a high speed with global science and technology development during the recent decades, which experts predict to be more obvious in the near future with a more significant position for medicine and health care. Although the three traditional subjects, such as medical science, materials science and biology…

  9. Physico-chemical properties of a modified biomaterial from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A modified biomaterial developed from Tympanotonus fuscata shell was characterized, for possible use as a pharmaceutical excipient. A 100 g quantity of pulverized periwinkle shell was digested in 166 ml of 2 M HCl, filtered and neutralized with 5 M NaOH. The precipitate obtained was washed severally with deionized ...

  10. Standardization of incubation conditions for hemolysis testing of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Blanton, John; van Oeveren, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Hemolysis testing is the most common method to determine the hemocompatibility properties of biomaterials. There is however no consensus on the procedures of hemolysis testing due to insufficient comparative studies on the quality of the red blood cells used and the experimental conditions of

  11. Custom Design of the Cardiac Microenvironment With Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael E.; Hsieh, Patrick C.H.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Lee, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    Many strategies for repairing injured myocardium are under active investigation, with some early encouraging results. These strategies include cell therapies, despite little evidence of long-term survival of exogenous cells, and gene or protein therapies, often with incomplete control of locally-delivered dose of the factor. We propose that, ultimately, successful repair and regeneration strategies will require quantitative control of the myocardial microenvironment. This precision control can be engineered through designed biomaterials that provide quantitative adhesion, growth, or migration signals. Quantitative timed release of factors can be regulated by chemical design to direct cellular differentiation pathways such as angiogenesis and vascular maturation. Smart biomaterials respond to the local environment, such as protease activity or mechanical forces, with controlled release or activation. Most of these new biomaterials provide much greater flexibility for regenerating tissues ex vivo, but emerging technologies like self-assembling nanofibers can now establish intramyocardial cellular microenvironments by injection. This may allow percutaneous cardiac regeneration and repair approaches, or injectable-tissue engineering. Finally, materials can be made to multifunction by providing sequential signals with custom design of differential release kinetics for individual factors. Thus, new rationally-designed biomaterials no longer simply coexist with tissues, but can provide precision bioactive control of the microenvironment that may be required for cardiac regeneration and repair. PMID:16002755

  12. Nano clay-enhanced calcium phosphate cements and hydrogels for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadaka, Udayabhanu

    Biomaterials are used as templates for drug delivery, scaffolds in tissue engineering, grafts in surgeries, and support for tissue regeneration. Novel biomaterial composites are needed to meet multifaceted requirements of compatibility, ease of fabrication and controlled drug delivery. Currently used biomaterials in orthopedics surgeries suffer limitations in toxicity and preventing infections. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) used as bone cement suffers from limitations of thermal necrosis and monomer toxicity calls for development of better cementing biomaterials. A biodegradable/bioresorbable cement with good mechanical properties is needed to address this short coming. Metal implants used in fixing fractures or total joint replacement needs improvements in preventing biofilm formation and better tissue integration. This research addressed the above mentioned research gaps by formulating novel biomaterial composites. Calcium phosphate cements are the alternative bone cements that are bioresorbable and promote tissue integration. These cements lack sufficient mechanical strengths to be used in load bearing sites. The addition of nanoparticles is hypothesized to improve the mechanical properties without inducing toxicity to the tissue. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating compression and flexural strengths in addition to cytocompatibility tests. Results indicate that addition of nano-clay particles (halloysites nanotubes) improved the compressive strength and osteoinductive properties of calcium phosphate cements. To address the research need of preventing implant failure due to infection and aseptic loosening, novel coatings are needed. Hydrogels are well establish for their ability to mimic in vivo environment, promote cell viability and as drug delivery vehicles. Use of composites of hydrogels and drug-loaded nanoparticles to prevent infection was evaluated. Cytocompatibility results indicate good cell viability. Antibacterial results show sustained release

  13. Surface physical chemistry properties in coated bacterial cellulose membranes with calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Olyveira, Gabriel Molina; Basmaji, Pierre; Costa, Ligia Maria Manzine; Dos Santos, Márcio Luiz; Dos Santos Riccardi, Carla; Guastaldi, Fernando Pozzi Semeghini; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel Mantuaneli; de Oliveira Capote, Ticiana Sidorenko; Pizoni, Elisabeth; Guastaldi, Antônio Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial cellulose has become established as a new biomaterial, and it can be used for medical applications. In addition, it has called attention due to the increasing interest in tissue engineering materials for wound care. In this work, the bacterial cellulose fermentation process was modified by the addition of chondroitin sulfate to the culture medium before the inoculation of the bacteria. The biomimetic process with heterogeneous calcium phosphate precipitation of biological interest was studied for the guided regeneration purposes on bacterial cellulose. FTIR results showed the incorporation of the chondroitin sulfate in the bacterial cellulose, SEM images confirmed the deposition of the calcium phosphate on the bacterial cellulose surface, XPS analysis showed a selective chemical group influences which change calcium phosphate deposition, besides, the calcium phosphate phase with different Ca/P ratios on bacterial cellulose surface influences wettability. XTT results concluded that these materials did not affect significantly in the cell viability, being non-cytotoxic. Thus, it was produced one biomaterial with the surface charge changes for calcium phosphate deposition, besides different wettability which builds new membranes for Guided Tissue Regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Osteogenic Properties of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Cultures on TiO2 Sol-Gel-Derived Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatibility of the bone implants is a crucial factor determining the successful tissue regeneration. The aim of this work was to compare cellular behavior and osteogenic properties of rat adipose-derived multipotent stromal cells (ASCs and bone marrow multipotent stromal cells (BMSCs cultured on metallic substrate covered with TiO2 sol-gel-derived nanolayer. The morphology, proliferation rate, and osteogenic differentiation potential of both ASCs and BMSCs propagated on the biomaterials were examined. The potential for osteogenic differentiation of ASCs and BMSCs was determined based on the presence of specific markers of osteogenesis, that is, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, osteopontin (OPN, and osteocalcin (OCL. Additionally, the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in extracellular matrix was determined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. Obtained results showed that TiO2 layer influenced proliferation activity of ASCs, which manifested by shortening of population doubling time and increase of OPN secretion. However, characteristic features of cells morphology and growth pattern of cultures prompted us to conclude that ultrathin TiO2 layer might also enhance osteodifferentiation of BMSCs. Therefore in our opinion, both populations of MSCs should be used for biological evaluation of biomaterials compatibility, such results may enhance the area of investigations related to regenerative medicine.

  15. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  16. Preparation of novel functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials and their corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Zhongxian; Tan, Cui; Xu, Lan; Yang, Na; Li, Qing, E-mail: liqingdswu@163.com

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Novel functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials were prepared. • The biomaterials were prepared by anodization treatment and dip-coating technique. • The composite biomaterials were smooth and with low porosity. • The prepared biomaterials have good corrosion resistance in SBF. • The composite biomaterials can release zinc ion to promote bone formation. - Abstract: In this study, novel and functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO (magnesium/anodic film/poly(ε-caprolactone)/zinc oxide) composite biomaterials for enhancing the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the implant was prepared by using anodization treatment and dip-coating technique. The surface morphology, microstructure, adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of the composite biomaterials were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), adhesion measurements, electrochemical tests and immersion tests respectively. In addition, the biocompatible properties of Mg (magnesium), Mg/PCL (magnesium/poly(ε-caprolactone)) and Mg/O/PCL (magnesium/anodic film/poly(ε-caprolactone)) samples were also investigated. The results show that the Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials were with low porosity and with the ZnO powders dispersed in PCL uniformly. The adhesion tests suggested that Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials had better adhesion strength than that of Mg/PCL composite biomaterials obviously. Besides, an in vitro test for corrosion demonstrated that the Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials had good corrosion resistance and zinc ion was released obviously in SBF.

  17. Contributions of human paleohistology to the study of biomaterials; Aportaciones de la paleohistologia humana al estudio de biomateriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacarino Meneses, C.; Cambra-Moo, O.; Rodriguez Barbero, M. A.; Gonzalez Martin, A.

    2012-07-01

    The deep study of archaeological human bone could provide relevant information to biomaterials science, as it could tell how the implant process of bio glasses and bioresorbable ceramics is. In this paper, we propose to study, by means of different microscopic, spectroscopic, and X-ray diffraction techniques, the histological and mineral bone variability throughout ontogeny. Extrapolating this data, we could have a better knowledge of biodegradable materials implant. In different ages, we could notice different tissues in cortical bone: fibrolamellar bone is characteristic of early stages of life while secondary or harvesian bone is in adult individuals. Raman and infrared spectroscopy suggest an increase of critallinity in the inorganic matrix during live. Finally, the X-ray diffraction study of bone tissue shows {beta}-calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite as the main mineral bone components. (Author) 31 refs.

  18. Blood compatibility of zinc-calcium phosphate conversion coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Wang, Qing-Zhao; Liu, Li-Jun; Xu, Qian-Qian; Wang, Chuang; Liu, Zhi-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium alloys as a new class of biomaterials possess biodegradability and biocompatibility in comparison with currently used metal implants. However, their rapid corrosion rates are necessary to be manipulated by appropriate coatings. In this paper, a new attempt was used to develop a zinc-calcium phosphate (Zn-Ca-P) conversion coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloys to increase the biocompatibility and improve the corrosion resistance. In vitro blood biocompatibility of the alloy with and without the Zn-Ca-P coating was investigated to determine its suitability as a degradable medical biomaterial. Blood biocompatibility was assessed from the hemolysis test, the dynamic cruor time test, blood cell count and SEM observation of the platelet adhesion to membrane surface. The results showed that the Zn-Ca-P coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloys had good blood compatibility, which is in accordance with the requirements for medical biomaterials.

  19. Comparative study on in vivo response of porous calcium carbonate composite ceramic and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fupo, E-mail: fphebm@126.com [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ren, Weiwei [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tian, Xiumei [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China); Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmchenw@126.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China)

    2016-07-01

    In a previous study, robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) were prepared by using phosphate-based glass (PG) as an additive, which showed good cell response. In the present study the in vivo response of porous CC/PG was compared to that of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP), using a rabbit femoral critical-size grafting model. The materials degradation and bone formation processes were evaluated by general observation, X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histological examination. The results demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and progressive degradation of CC/PG and BCP. Although the in vitro degradation rate of CC/PG was distinctly faster than that of BCP, at 4 week post-implantation, the bone generation and material degradation of CC/PG were less than those of BCP. Nevertheless, at postoperative week 8, the increment of bone formation and material degradation of CC/PG was pronouncedly larger than that of BCP. These results show that CC/PG is a potential resorbable bone graft aside from the traditional synthetic ones. - Highlights: • A calcium carbonate composite ceramic (CC/PG) was acquired. • The in vivo response of CC/PG and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) was compared. • CC/PG showed faster in vitro degradation rate compared to BCP. • CC/PG showed less in vivo degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 4. • CC/PG had larger increment of degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 8.

  20. Current trends and future perspectives of bone substitute materials - from space holders to innovative biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Andreas; Handschel, Jörg; Drescher, Wolf; Rothamel, Daniel; Kloss, Frank; Blessmann, Marco; Heiland, Max; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Smeets, Ralf

    2012-12-01

    An autologous bone graft is still the ideal material for the repair of craniofacial defects, but its availability is limited and harvesting can be associated with complications. Bone replacement materials as an alternative have a long history of success. With increasing technological advances the spectrum of grafting materials has broadened to allografts, xenografts, and synthetic materials, providing material specific advantages. A large number of bone-graft substitutes are available including allograft bone preparations such as demineralized bone matrix and calcium-based materials. More and more replacement materials consist of one or more components: an osteoconductive matrix, which supports the ingrowth of new bone; and osteoinductive proteins, which sustain mitogenesis of undifferentiated cells; and osteogenic cells (osteoblasts or osteoblast precursors), which are capable of forming bone in the proper environment. All substitutes can either replace autologous bone or expand an existing amount of autologous bone graft. Because an understanding of the properties of each material enables individual treatment concepts this review presents an overview of the principles of bone replacement, the types of graft materials available, and considers future perspectives. Bone substitutes are undergoing a change from a simple replacement material to an individually created composite biomaterial with osteoinductive properties to enable enhanced defect bridging. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fabrication of a two-level tumor bone repair biomaterial based on a rapid prototyping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai He; Yan Yongnian; Zhang Renji; Wang Xiaohong [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education and Center of Organ Manufacturing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Xinluan; Madhukar, Kumta Shekhar; Qin Ling [Department of Orthoapedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)], E-mail: wangxiaohong@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: kumta@cuhk.edu.hk, E-mail: qin@ort.cuhk.edu.hk

    2009-06-01

    After the removal of the giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone, it is necessary to fill the defects with adequate biomaterials. A new functional bone repair material with both stimulating osteoblast growth and inhibiting osteoclast activity has been developed with phosphorylated chitosan (P-chitosan) and disodium (1 {yields} 4)-2-deoxy-2-sulfoamino-{beta}-D-glucopyranuronan (S-chitosan) as the additives of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/calcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds based on a double-nozzle low-temperature deposition manufacturing technique. A computer-assisted design model was used and the optimal fabrication parameters were determined through the manipulation of a pure PLGA/TCP system. The microscopic structures, water absorbability and mechanical properties of the samples with different P-chitosan and S-chitosan concentrations were characterized correspondingly. The results suggested that this unique composite porous scaffold material is a potential candidate for the repair of large bone defects after a surgical removal of GCT.

  2. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.

    2016-08-01

    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  3. Global gene expression analysis for evaluation and design of biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Hanagata, Taro Takemura and Takashi Minowa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive gene expression analysis using DNA microarrays has become a widespread technique in molecular biological research. In the biomaterials field, it is used to evaluate the biocompatibility or cellular toxicity of metals, polymers and ceramics. Studies in this field have extracted differentially expressed genes in the context of differences in cellular responses among multiple materials. Based on these genes, the effects of materials on cells at the molecular level have been examined. Expression data ranging from several to tens of thousands of genes can be obtained from DNA microarrays. For this reason, several tens or hundreds of differentially expressed genes are often present in different materials. In this review, we outline the principles of DNA microarrays, and provide an introduction to methods of extracting information which is useful for evaluating and designing biomaterials from comprehensive gene expression data.

  4. Vegetable-oil-based polymers as future polymeric biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Wang, Ping; Su, Zhiguo; Zhang, Songping

    2014-04-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important classes of bio-resources for producing polymeric materials. The main components of vegetable oils are triglycerides - esters of glycerol with three fatty acids. Several highly reactive sites including double bonds, allylic positions and the ester groups are present in triglycerides from which a great variety of polymers with different structures and functionalities can be prepared. Vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin are the four most important classes of polymers, many of which have excellent biocompatibilities and unique properties including shape memory. In view of these characteristics, vegetable-oil-based polymers play an important role in biomaterials and have attracted increasing attention from the polymer community. Here we comprehensively review recent developments in the preparation of vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin, all of which have potential applications as biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diversification and enrichment of clinical biomaterials inspired by Darwinian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D W; Watson, G S; Watson, J A; Lee, D-J; Lee, J-M; Jung, H-S

    2016-09-15

    Regenerative medicine and biomaterials design are driven by biomimicry. There is the essential requirement to emulate human cell, tissue, organ and physiological complexity to ensure long-lasting clinical success. Biomimicry projects for biomaterials innovation can be re-invigorated with evolutionary insights and perspectives, since Darwinian evolution is the original dynamic process for biological organisation and complexity. Many existing human inspired regenerative biomaterials (defined as a nature generated, nature derived and nature mimicking structure, produced within a biological system, which can deputise for, or replace human tissues for which it closely matches) are without important elements of biological complexity such as, hierarchy and autonomous actions. It is possible to engineer these essential elements into clinical biomaterials via bioinspired implementation of concepts, processes and mechanisms played out during Darwinian evolution; mechanisms such as, directed, computational, accelerated evolutions and artificial selection contrived in the laboratory. These dynamos for innovation can be used during biomaterials fabrication, but also to choose optimal designs in the regeneration process. Further evolutionary information can help at the design stage; gleaned from the historical evolution of material adaptations compared across phylogenies to changes in their environment and habitats. Taken together, harnessing evolutionary mechanisms and evolutionary pathways, leading to ideal adaptations, will eventually provide a new class of Darwinian and evolutionary biomaterials. This will provide bioengineers with a more diversified and more efficient innovation tool for biomaterial design, synthesis and function than currently achieved with synthetic materials chemistry programmes and rational based materials design approach, which require reasoned logic. It will also inject further creativity, diversity and richness into the biomedical technologies that

  6. Regenerative Therapies for Central Nervous System Diseases: a Biomaterials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Roger Y; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Mitrousis, Nikolaos; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited capacity to spontaneously regenerate following traumatic injury or disease, requiring innovative strategies to promote tissue and functional repair. Tissue regeneration strategies, such as cell and/or drug delivery, have demonstrated promising results in experimental animal models, but have been difficult to translate clinically. The efficacy of cell therapy, which involves stem cell transplantation into the CNS to replace damaged tissue, has been limited due to low cell survival and integration upon transplantation, while delivery of therapeutic molecules to the CNS using conventional methods, such as oral and intravenous administration, have been limited by diffusion across the blood–brain/spinal cord-barrier. The use of biomaterials to promote graft survival and integration as well as localized and sustained delivery of biologics to CNS injury sites is actively being pursued. This review will highlight recent advances using biomaterials as cell- and drug-delivery vehicles for CNS repair. PMID:24002187

  7. APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMATERIALS: NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOFILMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.; Berry, T.; Narayan, R.

    2010-11-29

    Biotechnology is the application of biological techniques to develop new tools and products for medicine and industry. Due to various properties including chemical stability, biocompatibility, and specific activity, e.g. antimicrobial properties, many new and novel materials are being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. Many of these materials are less than 100 nanometers in size. Nanotechnology is the engineering discipline encompassing designing, producing, testing, and using structures and devices less than 100 nanometers. One of the challenges associated with biomaterials is microbial contamination that can lead to infections. In recent work we have examined the functionalization of nanoporous biomaterials and antimicrobial activities of nanocrystalline diamond materials. In vitro testing has revealed little antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria and associated biofilm formation that enhances recalcitrance to antimicrobial agents including disinfectants and antibiotics. Laser scanning confocal microscopy studies further demonstrated properties and characteristics of the material with regard to biofilm formation.

  8. Biopolymers and supramolecular polymers as biomaterials for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ronit; Boekhoven, Job; Dickerson, Matthew B.; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2015-01-01

    Protein- and peptide-based structural biopolymers are abundant building blocks of biological systems. Either in their natural forms, such as collagen, silk or fibronectin, or as related synthetic materials they can be used in various technologies. An emerging area is that of biomimetic materials inspired by protein-based biopolymers, which are made up of small molecules rather than macromolecules and can therefore be described as supramolecular polymers. These materials are very useful in biomedical applications because of their ability to imitate the extracellular matrix both in architecture and their capacity to signal cells. This article describes important features of the natural extracellular matrix and highlight how these features are being incorporated into biomaterials composed of biopolymers and supramolecular polymers. We particularly focus on the structures, properties, and functions of collagen, fibronectin, silk, and the supramolecular polymers inspired by them as biomaterials for regenerative medicine. PMID:26989295

  9. An introduction to biomaterial-based strategies for curbing autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jamal S; Allen, Riley P

    2016-05-01

    Recently, scientists have made significant progress in the development of immunotherapeutics that correct aberrant, autoimmune responses. Yet, concerns about the safety, efficacy, and wide scale applicability continue to hinder use of contemporary, immunology-based strategies. There is a clear need for therapies that finely control molecular and cellular elements of the immune system. Biomaterial engineers have taken up this challenge to develop therapeutics with selective spatial and temporal control of immune cells. In this review, we introduce the immunology of autoimmune disorders, survey the current therapeutic strategies for autoimmune diseases, and highlight the ongoing research efforts to engineer the immune system using biomaterials, for positive therapeutic outcomes in treatment of autoimmune disorders. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  10. The role of biomaterials in the treatment of meniscal tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal O. Kean

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extensive investigations over the recent decades have established the anatomical, biomechanical and functional importance of the meniscus in the knee joint. As a functioning part of the joint, it serves to prevent the deterioration of articular cartilage and subsequent osteoarthritis. To this end, meniscus repair and regeneration is of particular interest from the biomaterial, bioengineering and orthopaedic research community. Even though meniscal research is previously of a considerable volume, the research community with evolving material science, biology and medical advances are all pushing toward emerging novel solutions and approaches to the successful treatment of meniscal difficulties. This review presents a tactical evaluation of the latest biomaterials, experiments to simulate meniscal tears and the state-of-the-art materials and strategies currently used to treat tears.

  11. Pharmaceutical and biomaterial engineering via electrohydrodynamic atomization technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Prina; Haj-Ahmad, Rita; Rasekh, Manoochehr; Arshad, Muhammad S; Smith, Ashleigh; van der Merwe, Susanna M; Li, Xiang; Chang, Ming-Wei; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2017-01-01

    Complex micro- and nano-structures enable crucial developments in the healthcare remit (e.g., pharmaceutical and biomaterial sciences). In recent times, several technologies have been developed and explored to address key healthcare challenges (e.g., advanced chemotherapy, biomedical diagnostics and tissue regeneration). Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technologies are rapidly emerging as promising candidates to address these issues. The fundamental principle driving EHDA engineering relates to the action of an electric force (field) on flowing conducting medium (formulation) giving rise to a stable Taylor cone. Through careful optimization of process parameters, material properties and selection, nozzle and needle design, and collection substrate method, complex active micro- and nano-structures are engineered. This short review focuses on key selected recent and established advances in the field of pharmaceutical and biomaterial applications. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical simulation studies for optical properties of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnikov, I.; Seteikin, A.

    2016-11-01

    Biophotonics involves understanding how light interacts with biological matter, from molecules and cells, to tissues and even whole organisms. Light can be used to probe biomolecular events, such as gene expression and protein-protein interaction, with impressively high sensitivity and specificity. The spatial and temporal distribution of biochemical constituents can also be visualized with light and, thus, the corresponding physiological dynamics in living cells, tissues, and organisms in real time. Computer-based Monte Carlo (MC) models of light transport in turbid media take a different approach. In this paper, the optical and structural properties of biomaterials discussed. We explain the numerical simulationmethod used for studying the optical properties of biomaterials. Applications of the Monte-Carlo method in photodynamic therapy, skin tissue optics, and bioimaging described.

  13. In Vitro Endothelialization Test of Biomaterials Using Immortalized Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kono

    Full Text Available Functionalizing biomaterials with peptides or polymers that enhance recruitment of endothelial cells (ECs can reduce blood coagulation and thrombosis. To assess endothelialization of materials in vitro, primary ECs are generally used, although the characteristics of these cells vary among the donors and change with time in culture. Recently, primary cell lines immortalized by transduction of simian vacuolating virus 40 large T antigen or human telomerase reverse transcriptase have been developed. To determine whether immortalized ECs can substitute for primary ECs in material testing, we investigated endothelialization on biocompatible polymers using three lots of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC and immortalized microvascular ECs, TIME-GFP. Attachment to and growth on polymer surfaces were comparable between cell types, but results were more consistent with TIME-GFP. Our findings indicate that TIME-GFP is more suitable for in vitro endothelialization testing of biomaterials.

  14. Global gene expression analysis for evaluation and design of biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanagata, Nobutaka; Takemura, Taro; Minowa, Takashi, E-mail: HANAGATA.Nobutaka@nims.go.j [Nanotechnology Innovation Center and Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Comprehensive gene expression analysis using DNA microarrays has become a widespread technique in molecular biological research. In the biomaterials field, it is used to evaluate the biocompatibility or cellular toxicity of metals, polymers and ceramics. Studies in this field have extracted differentially expressed genes in the context of differences in cellular responses among multiple materials. Based on these genes, the effects of materials on cells at the molecular level have been examined. Expression data ranging from several to tens of thousands of genes can be obtained from DNA microarrays. For this reason, several tens or hundreds of differentially expressed genes are often present in different materials. In this review, we outline the principles of DNA microarrays, and provide an introduction to methods of extracting information which is useful for evaluating and designing biomaterials from comprehensive gene expression data. (topical review)

  15. Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ishihara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel polymer biomaterials, which can be used in contact with blood, are prepared with strong inspiration from the surface structure of biomembrane. That is, the polymers with a phospholipid polar group in the side chain, 2-methacrylooyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC polymers were synthesized. The MPC polymers can inhibit surface-induced clot formation effectively, when they are in contact with blood even in the absence of an anticoagulant. This phenomenon was due to the reduction of plasma protein and suppression of denaturation of adsorbed proteins, that is the MPC polymers interact with blood components very mildly. As the molecular structure of the MPC polymer was easily designed by changing the monomer units and their composition, it could be applied to surface modification of artificial organs and biomedical devices for improving blood and tissue compatibility. Thus, the MPC polymers are useful polymer biomaterials for manufacturing high performance artificial organs and biomedical devices to provide safe medical treatments.

  16. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  17. Synthesis of a nanocomposite biomaterial for implant tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Montes, Angélica

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve health and quality of life, the challenge to develop new biomaterials has become extremely relevant. In this project, our main objective is to obtain a nanocomposite biopolymer that serves as a temporal synthetic extracellular matrix for cell growth and tissue regeneration. This matrix consists of a hydrogel lm of chitosan or agarose doped with di erent ceramic nanoparticles: titanium dioxide (TiO2) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Once developed, this composite will be tested...

  18. Advantages of RGD peptides for directing cell association with biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Bellis, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite many years of in vitro research confirming the effectiveness of RGD in promoting cell attachment to a wide variety of biomaterials, animal studies evaluating tissue responses to implanted RGD-functionalized substrates have yielded more variable results The goals of this report are to present some of the reasons why cell culture studies may not always reliably predict in vivo responses, and more importantly, to highlight potential applications that may benefit from the use of RGD pepti...

  19. The effect of RGD peptides on osseointegration of hydroxyapatite biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, KM; Clem, WC; Phipps, MC; Sawyer, AA; Shaikh, FM; Bellis, SL

    2008-01-01

    Given that hydroxyapatite (HA) biomaterials are highly efficient at adsorbing proadhesive proteins, we questioned whether functionalizing HA with RGD peptides would have any benefit. In this study, we implanted uncoated or RGD-coated HA disks into rat tibiae for 30 minutes to allow endogenous protein adsorption, and then evaluated mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) interactions with the retrieved disks. These experiments revealed that RGD, when presented in combination with adsorbed tibial proteins ...

  20. Multicenter Clinical Trial of Keratin Biomaterial for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    dosing, except for the whole brain, brain stem, cerebellum, cerebrum, medulla oblongata, seminal vesicle, whole spinal cord , testes, urinary bladder...Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0894 TITLE: Multicenter Clinical Trial of Keratin Biomaterial for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration PRINCIPAL...Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Peripheral 5b. GRANT NUMBER OR090621 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Li, Zhongyu (John), MD, PhD; Koman, L

  1. Advances in Zirconia Toughened Alumina Biomaterials for Total Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven M.; Kocagöz, Sevi; Arnholt, Christina; Huet, Roland; Ueno, Masaru; Walter, William L.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an up-to-date overview of zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) components used in total hip arthroplasties. The structure, mechanical properties, and available data regarding the clinical performance of ZTA are summarized. The advancements that have been made in understanding the in vivo performance of ZTA are investigated. This article concludes with a discussion of gaps in the literature related to ceramic biomaterials and avenues for future research. PMID:23746930

  2. Study of novel rosin-based biomaterials for pharmaceutical coating

    OpenAIRE

    Fulzele, Suniket V.; Satturwar, Prashant M.; Dorle, Avanash K

    2002-01-01

    The film forming and coating properties of Glycerol ester of maleic rosin (GMR) and Pentaerythritol ester of maleic rosin (PMR) were investigated. The 2 rosin-based biomaterials were initially characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties, molecular weight (Mw), and glass transition temperature (Tg). Films were produced by solvent evaporation technique on a mercury substrate. Dibutyl sebacate plasticized and nonplasticized films were characterized by mechanical (tensile zzzz stre...

  3. In silico design of anti-atherogenic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel R; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Tomasini, Michael D; Abdelhamid, Dalia; Petersen, Latrisha K; Welsh, William J; Uhrich, Kathryn E; Moghe, Prabhas V

    2013-10-01

    Atherogenesis, the uncontrolled deposition of modified lipoproteins in inflamed arteries, serves as a focal trigger of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Polymeric biomaterials have been envisioned to counteract atherogenesis based on their ability to repress scavenger mediated uptake of oxidized lipoprotein (oxLDL) in macrophages. Following the conceptualization in our laboratories of a new library of amphiphilic macromolecules (AMs), assembled from sugar backbones, aliphatic chains and poly(ethylene glycol) tails, a more rational approach is necessary to parse the diverse features such as charge, hydrophobicity, sugar composition and stereochemistry. In this study, we advance a computational biomaterials design approach to screen and elucidate anti-atherogenic biomaterials with high efficacy. AMs were quantified in terms of not only 1D (molecular formula) and 2D (molecular connectivity) descriptors, but also new 3D (molecular geometry) descriptors of AMs modeled by coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) followed by all-atom MD simulations. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for anti-atherogenic activity were then constructed by screening a total of 1164 descriptors against the corresponding, experimentally measured potency of AM inhibition of oxLDL uptake in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Five key descriptors were identified to provide a strong linear correlation between the predicted and observed anti-atherogenic activity values, and were then used to correctly forecast the efficacy of three newly designed AMs. Thus, a new ligand-based drug design framework was successfully adapted to computationally screen and design biomaterials with cardiovascular therapeutic properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plastic Deformation Influence on Intrinsic Magnetic Field of Austenitic Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Milan; Čápová, Klára; Chudáčik, Vladimír; Palček, Peter; Oravcová, Monika

    2016-12-01

    This article deals with non-destructive evaluation of austenitic stainless steels, which are used as the biomaterials in medical practice. Intrinsic magnetic field is investigated using the fluxgate sensor, after the applied plastic deformation. The three austenitic steel types are studied under the same conditions, while several values of the deformation are applied, respectively. The obtained results are presented and discussed in the paper.

  5. Biomaterials from beer manufacture waste for bone growth scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Luengo, María Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural wastes are a source of renewable raw materials (RRM), with structures that can be tailored for the use envisaged. Here, theyhave proved to be good replacement candidates for use as biomaterials for the growth of osteoblasts in bone replacement therapies. Their preparation is more cost effective than that of materials presentlyin use with the added bonus of converting a low-cost waste into a value-added product. Due to their origin these solids are ecomaterials.

  6. Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs

    OpenAIRE

    K Ishihara

    2000-01-01

    Novel polymer biomaterials, which can be used in contact with blood, are prepared with strong inspiration from the surface structure of biomembrane. That is, the polymers with a phospholipid polar group in the side chain, 2-methacrylooyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymers were synthesized. The MPC polymers can inhibit surface-induced clot formation effectively, when they are in contact with blood even in the absence of an anticoagulant. This phenomenon was due to the reduction of plasma...

  7. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. Calcium intake in the diet (milk, cheese, yogurt) is low. Vitamin D levels are ...

  8. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  9. Extracellular Calcium and Magnesium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The cause of preeclampsia remains unknown and calcium and magnesium supplement are being suggested as means of prevention. The objective of this study was to assess magnesium and calcium in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of Nigerian women with preedamp sia and eclampsia. Setting was ...

  10. Polyesterurethane and acellular matrix based hybrid biomaterial for bladder engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Maya; Milleret, Vincent; Noetzli, Sarah; Gobet, Rita; Sulser, Tullio; Eberli, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based biomaterials for soft tissue engineering have inherent disadvantages, such as a relative rigidity and a limited variability in the mechanical properties and degradation rates. In this study, a novel electrospun biomaterial based on degradable polyesterurethane (PEU) (DegraPol® ) was investigated for potential use for bladder engineering in vitro and in vivo. Hybrid microfibrous PEU and PLGA scaffolds were produced by direct electrospinning of the polymer onto a bladder acellular matrix. The scaffold morphology of the scaffold was analyzed, and the biological performance was tested in vitro and in vivo using a rat cystoplasty model. Anatomical and functional outcomes after implantation were analyzed macroscopically, histologically and by cystometry, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that PEU samples had a lower porosity (p reaction in vivo. PEU is a promising biomaterial, particularly with regard to functional tissue engineering of the bladder and other hollow organs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 658-667, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Biomaterials surfaces capable of resisting fungal attachment and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Bryan R; Kidd, Sarah E; Ellis, David H; Griesser, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    Microbial attachment onto biomedical devices and implants leads to biofilm formation and infection; such biofilms can be bacterial, fungal, or mixed. In the past 15 years, there has been an increasing research effort into antimicrobial surfaces but the great majority of these publications present research on bacteria, with some reports also testing resistance to fungi. Very few studies have focused exclusively on antifungal surfaces. However, with increasing recognition of the importance of fungal infections to human health, particularly related to infections at biomaterials, it would seem that the interest in antifungal surfaces is disproportionately low. In studies of both bacteria and fungi, fungi tend to be the minor focus with hypothesized antibacterial mechanisms of action often generalized to also explain the antifungal effect. Yet bacteria and fungi represent two Distinct biological Domains and possess substantially different cellular physiology and structure. Thus it is questionable whether these generalizations are valid. Here we review the scientific literature focusing on surface coatings prepared with antifungal agents covalently attached to the biomaterial surface. We present a critical analysis of generalizations and their evidence. This review should be of interest to researchers of "antimicrobial" surfaces by addressing specific issues that are key to designing and understanding antifungal biomaterials surfaces and their putative mechanisms of action. © 2013.

  12. Biomaterials in Cardiovascular Research: Applications and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Kumar Jaganathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular biomaterials (CB dominate the category of biomaterials based on the demand and investments in this field. This review article classifies the CB into three major classes, namely, metals, polymers, and biological materials and collates the information about the CB. Blood compatibility is one of the major criteria which limit the use of biomaterials for cardiovascular application. Several key players are associated with blood compatibility and they are discussed in this paper. To enhance the compatibility of the CB, several surface modification strategies were in use currently. Some recent applications of surface modification technology on the materials for cardiovascular devices were also discussed for better understanding. Finally, the current trend of the CB, endothelization of the cardiac implants and utilization of induced human pluripotent stem cells (ihPSCs, is also presented in this review. The field of CB is growing constantly and many new investigators and researchers are developing interest in this domain. This review will serve as a one stop arrangement to quickly grasp the basic research in the field of CB.

  13. Supramolecular Hydrogelators and Hydrogels: From Soft Matter to Molecular Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In this review we intend to provide a relatively comprehensive summary of the work of supramolecular hydrogelators after 2004 and to put emphasis particularly on the applications of supramolecular hydrogels/hydrogelators as molecular biomaterials. After a brief introduction of methods for generating supramolecular hydrogels, we discuss supramolecular hydrogelators on the basis of their categories, such as small organic molecules, coordination complexes, peptides, nucleobases, and saccharides. Following molecular design, we focus on various potential applications of supramolecular hydrogels as molecular biomaterials, classified by their applications in cell cultures, tissue engineering, cell behavior, imaging, and unique applications of hydrogelators. Particularly, we discuss the applications of supramolecular hydrogelators after they form supramolecular assemblies but prior to reaching the critical gelation concentration because this subject is less explored but may hold equally great promise for helping address fundamental questions about the mechanisms or the consequences of the self-assembly of molecules, including low molecular weight ones. Finally, we provide a perspective on supramolecular hydrogelators. We hope that this review will serve as an updated introduction and reference for researchers who are interested in exploring supramolecular hydrogelators as molecular biomaterials for addressing the societal needs at various frontiers. PMID:26646318

  14. Bio-functional nano-coatings on metallic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatro, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Metals and their alloys have been widely used in all aspects of science, engineering and medicine. Metals in biomedical devices are used due to their inertness and structural functions. They are generally preferred over polymers or ceramics and are especially desirable in applications where the implants are subjected to static, dynamic or cyclic loads that require a combination of strength and ductility. In biomedicine, the choice of a specific biomaterial is governed by many factors that include biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, controlled degradability, modulus of elasticity, fatigue strength and many other application specific criterions. Nanotechnology is driving newer demands and requirements for better performance of existing materials and presents an opportunity for surface modification of metals in response to demands on the surface of metals for their biomedical applications. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are nanosized coatings that present a flexible method of carrying out surface modification of biomaterials to tailor its surface properties for specific end applications. These nanocoatings can serve primary functions such as surface coverage, etch protection and anti-corrosion along with a host of other secondary chemical functions such as drug delivery and biocompatibility. We present a brief introduction to surface modification of biomaterials and their alloys followed by a detailed description of organic nanocoatings based on self-assembled monolayers and their biomedical applications including patterning techniques and biological applications of patterned SAMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of RGD peptides on osseointegration of hydroxyapatite biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, KM; Clem, WC; Phipps, MC; Sawyer, AA; Shaikh, FM; Bellis, SL

    2008-01-01

    Given that hydroxyapatite (HA) biomaterials are highly efficient at adsorbing proadhesive proteins, we questioned whether functionalizing HA with RGD peptides would have any benefit. In this study, we implanted uncoated or RGD-coated HA disks into rat tibiae for 30 minutes to allow endogenous protein adsorption, and then evaluated mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) interactions with the retrieved disks. These experiments revealed that RGD, when presented in combination with adsorbed tibial proteins (including fibronectin, vitronectin and fibrinogen), has a markedly detrimental effect on MSC adhesion and survival. Moreover, analyses of HA disks implanted for 5 days showed that RGD significantly inhibits total bone formation as well as the amount of new bone directly contacting the implant perimeter. Thus, RGD, which is widely believed to promote cell/biomaterial interactions, has a negative effect on HA implant performance. Collectively these results suggest that, for biomaterials that are highly interactive with the tissue microenvironment, the ultimate effects of RGD will depend upon how signaling from this peptide integrates with endogenous processes such as protein adsorption. PMID:18440064

  16. Silicon: the evolution of its use in biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henstock, J R; Canham, L T; Anderson, S I

    2015-01-01

    In the 1970s, several studies revealed the requirement for silicon in bone development, while bioactive silicate glasses simultaneously pioneered the current era of bioactive materials. Considerable research has subsequently focused on the chemistry and biological function of silicon in bone, demonstrating that the element has at least two separate effects in the extracellular matrix: (i) interacting with glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans during their synthesis, and (ii) forming ionic substitutions in the crystal lattice structure of hydroxyapatite. In addition, the dissolution products of bioactive glass (predominantly silicic acids) have significant effects on the molecular biology of osteoblasts in vitro, regulating the expression of several genes including key osteoblastic markers, cell cycle regulators and extracellular matrix proteins. Researchers have sought to capitalize on these effects and have generated a diverse array of biomaterials, which include bioactive glasses, silicon-substituted hydroxyapatites and pure, porosified silicon, but all these materials share similarities in the mechanisms that result in their bioactivity. This review discusses the current data obtained from original research in biochemistry and biomaterials science supporting the role of silicon in bone, comparing both the biological function of the element and analysing the evolution of silicon-containing biomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regeneration of human bone using different bone substitute biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traini, Tonino; Piattelli, Adriano; Caputi, Sergio; Degidi, Marco; Mangano, Carlo; Scarano, Antonio; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to assess clinical and biological performances of several bone substitute biomaterials (BSBs). The evaluation was conducted at 6 months and after several years on 295 patients undergoing sinus augmentation with 13 different BSBs; the data belonging to previously published studies have been analyzed using innovative mathematical models to evaluate the bone regenerative index (Br) and the structural density index (Ds). After 6 months, compared to the Ds index of native bone, the regenerated bone showed a D3 bone type; while, after several years, the regenerated bone type was D2, with an evident increase in the density of the regenerated bone over time. Moreover, the values of Br were higher for combined biomaterials indicating a fewer amount of residual particles and marrow spaces, while the values of Ds were higher for anorganic bovine bone indicating a greater new bone formation and a lesser amount of marrow spaces. After 20 years, the bone regenerated using hydroxyapatite still had a D4 bone quality. After 6 months of healing, the regenerated bone had a composite structure resembling poor D3 bone type, and covered approximately one-third of the space filled by BSBs. None of the evaluated biomaterials seemed to be ideal. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Atomic force microscopy for university students: applications in biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontomaris, S. V.; Stylianou, A.

    2017-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful tool used in the investigation of the structural and mechanical properties of a wide range of materials including biomaterials. It provides the ability to acquire high resolution images of biomaterials at the nanoscale. It also provides information about the response of specific areas under controlled applied force, which leads to the mechanical characterization of the sample at the nanoscale. The wide range of information provided by AFM has established it as a powerful research tool. In this paper, we present a general overview of the basic operation and functions of AFM applications in biomaterials. The basic operation of AFM is explained in detail with a focus on the real interactions that take place at the nanoscale level during imaging. AFM’s ability to provide the mechanical characterization (force curves) of specific areas at the nanoscale is also explained. The basic models of applied mechanics that are used for processing the data obtained by the force curves are presented. The aim of this paper is to provide university students and young scientists in the fields of biophysics and nanotechnology with a better understanding of AFM.

  19. Designing protein-based biomaterials for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagner, Jennifer E; Kim, Wookhyun; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2014-04-01

    Biomaterials produced by nature have been honed through billions of years, evolving exquisitely precise structure-function relationships that scientists strive to emulate. Advances in genetic engineering have facilitated extensive investigations to determine how changes in even a single peptide within a protein sequence can produce biomaterials with unique thermal, mechanical and biological properties. Elastin, a naturally occurring protein polymer, serves as a model protein to determine the relationship between specific structural elements and desirable material characteristics. The modular, repetitive nature of the protein facilitates the formation of well-defined secondary structures with the ability to self-assemble into complex three-dimensional architectures on a variety of length scales. Furthermore, many opportunities exist to incorporate other protein-based motifs and inorganic materials into recombinant protein-based materials, extending the range and usefulness of these materials in potential biomedical applications. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) can be assembled into 3-D architectures with precise control over payload encapsulation, mechanical and thermal properties, as well as unique functionalization opportunities through both genetic and enzymatic means. An overview of current protein-based materials, their properties and uses in biomedicine will be provided, with a focus on the advantages of ELPs. Applications of these biomaterials as imaging and therapeutic delivery agents will be discussed. Finally, broader implications and future directions of these materials as diagnostic and therapeutic systems will be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanostructured Biomaterials for Tissue Engineered Bone Tissue Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Eriberto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering strategies are emerging as attractive alternatives to autografts and allografts in bone tissue reconstruction, in particular thanks to their association with nanotechnologies. Nanostructured biomaterials, indeed, mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM of the natural bone, creating an artificial microenvironment that promotes cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. At the same time, the possibility to easily isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from different adult tissues together with their multi-lineage differentiation potential makes them an interesting tool in the field of bone tissue engineering. This review gives an overview of the most promising nanostructured biomaterials, used alone or in combination with MSCs, which could in future be employed as bone substitutes. Recent works indicate that composite scaffolds made of ceramics/metals or ceramics/polymers are undoubtedly more effective than the single counterparts in terms of osteoconductivity, osteogenicity and osteoinductivity. A better understanding of the interactions between MSCs and nanostructured biomaterials will surely contribute to the progress of bone tissue engineering.

  1. Application of a Dense Gas Technique for Sterilizing Soft Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karajanagi, Sandeep S.; Yoganathan, Roshan; Mammucari, Raffaella; Park, Hyoungshin; Cox, Julian; Zeitels, Steven M.; Langer, Robert; Foster, Neil R.

    2017-01-01

    Sterilization of soft biomaterials such as hydrogels is challenging because existing methods such as gamma irradiation, steam sterilization, or ethylene oxide sterilization, while effective at achieving high sterility assurance levels (SAL), may compromise their physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. New methods that effectively sterilize soft biomaterials without compromising their properties are therefore required. In this report, a dense-carbon dioxide (CO2)-based technique was used to sterilize soft polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogels while retaining their structure and physicochemical properties. Conventional sterilization methods such as gamma irradiation and steam sterilization severely compromised the structure of the hydrogels. PEG hydrogels with high water content and low elastic shear modulus (a measure of stiffness) were deliberately inoculated with bacteria and spores and then subjected to dense CO2. The dense CO2-based methods effectively sterilized the hydrogels achieving a SAL of 10−7 without compromising the viscoelastic properties, pH, water-content, and structure of the gels. Furthermore, dense CO2-treated gels were biocompatible and non-toxic when implanted subcutaneously in ferrets. The application of novel dense CO2-based methods to sterilize soft biomaterials has implications in developing safe sterilization methods for soft biomedical implants such as dermal fillers and viscosupplements. PMID:21337339

  2. Engineering Biomaterial Properties for Central Nervous System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Christopher John

    Biomaterials offer unique properties that are intrinsic to the chemistry of the material itself or occur as a result of the fabrication process; iron oxide nanoparticles are superparamagnetic, which enables controlled heating in the presence of an alternating magnetic field, and a hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material provides minimally invasive placement of a fibrous, artificial extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. Utilization of these unique properties towards central nervous system disease and dysfunction requires a thorough definition of the properties in concert with full biological assessment. This enables development of material-specific features to elicit unique cellular responses. Iron oxide nanoparticles are first investigated for material-dependent, cortical neuron cytotoxicity in vitro and subsequently evaluated for alternating magnetic field stimulation induced hyperthermia, emulating the clinical application for enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in glioblastoma treatment. A hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material is first applied to a rat brain to evaluate biomaterial interface astrocyte accumulation as a function of hybrid material composition. The hybrid material is then utilized towards increasing functional engraftment of dopaminergic progenitor neural stem cells in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Taken together, these two scenarios display the role of material property characterization in development of biomaterial strategies for central nervous system repair and regeneration.

  3. An injectable shear-thinning biomaterial for endovascular embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Reginald K; Albadawi, Hassan; Akbari, Mohsen; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Duggan, Michael J; Sahani, Dushyant V; Olsen, Bradley D; Khademhosseini, Ali; Oklu, Rahmi

    2016-11-16

    Improved endovascular embolization of vascular conditions can generate better patient outcomes and minimize the need for repeat procedures. However, many embolic materials, such as metallic coils or liquid embolic agents, are associated with limitations and complications such as breakthrough bleeding, coil migration, coil compaction, recanalization, adhesion of the catheter to the embolic agent, or toxicity. Here, we engineered a shear-thinning biomaterial (STB), a nanocomposite hydrogel containing gelatin and silicate nanoplatelets, to function as an embolic agent for endovascular embolization procedures. STBs are injectable through clinical catheters and needles and have hemostatic activity comparable to metallic coils, the current gold standard. In addition, STBs withstand physiological pressures without fragmentation or displacement in elastomeric channels in vitro and in explant vessels ex vivo. In vitro experiments also indicated that STB embolization did not rely on intrinsic thrombosis as coils did for occlusion, suggesting that the biomaterial may be suitable for use in patients on anticoagulation therapy or those with coagulopathy. Using computed tomography imaging, the biomaterial was shown to fully occlude murine and porcine vasculature in vivo and remain at the site of injection without fragmentation or nontarget embolization. Given the advantages of rapid delivery, in vivo stability, and independent occlusion that does not rely on intrinsic thrombosis, STBs offer an alternative gel-based embolic agent with translational potential for endovascular embolization. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Adhesion force of staphylococcus aureus on various biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fahad; Balani, Kantesh

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus comprises of more than half of all pathogens in orthopedic implant infections and they can cause major bone infection which can result in destruction of joint and bone. In the current study, adhesion force of bacteria on the surface of various biomaterial surfaces is measured using atomic force microscope (AFM). Staphylococcus aureus was immobilized on an AFM tipless cantilever as a force probe to measure the adhesion force between bacteria and biomaterials (viz. ultra-high molecular weight poly ethylene (UHMWPE), stainless steel (SS), Ti-6Al-4V alloy, hydroxyapatite (HA)). At the contact time of 10s, UHMWPE shows weak adhesion force (~4nN) whereas SS showed strong adhesion force (~15nN) due to their surface energy and surface roughness. Bacterial retention and viability experiment (3M™ petrifilm test, agar plate) dictates that hydroxyapatite shows the lowest vaibility of bacteria, whereas lowest bacterial retention is observed on UHMWPE surface. Similar results were obtained from live/dead staining test, where HA shows 65% viability, whereas on UHMWPE, SS and Ti-6Al-4V, the bacterial viability is 78%, 94% and 97%, respectively. Lower adhesion forces, constrained pull-off distance (of bacterial) and high antibacterial resistance of bioactive-HA makes it a potential biomaterial for bone-replacement arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A computational approach to predicting cell growth on polymeric biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Sascha D; Alexe, Gabriela; Hammer, Peter L; Kohn, Joachim

    2005-04-01

    A predictive model that can correlate the chemical composition of a biomaterial with the biological response of cells that are in contact with that biomaterial would represent a major advance and would facilitate the rational design of new biomaterials. As a first step toward this goal, we report here on the use of Logical Analysis of Data (LAD) to model the effect of selected polymer properties on the growth of two different cell types, rat lung fibroblasts (RLF, a transformed cell line), and normal foreskin fibroblasts (NFF, nontransformed human cells), on 112 surfaces obtained from a combinatorially designed library of polymers. LAD is a knowledge extraction methodology, based on using combinatorics, optimization, and Boolean logic. LAD was trained on a subset of 62 polymers and was then used to predict cell growth on 50 previously untested polymers. Experimental validation indicated that LAD correctly predicted the high and low cell growth polymers and found optimal ranges for polymer chemical composition, surface chemistry, and bulk properties. Particularly noteworthy is that LAD correctly identified high-performing polymer surfaces, which surpassed commercial tissue culture polystyrene as growth substratum for normal foreskin fibroblasts. Our results establish the feasibility of using computational modeling of cell growth on flat polymeric surfaces to identify promising "lead" polymers for applications that require either high or low cell growth. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Biomaterials Approach to Expand and Direct Differentiation of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chou; Leong, Kam W

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells play increasingly prominent roles in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells theoretically allow every cell type in the body to be regenerated. Adult stem cells have also been identified and isolated from every major tissue and organ, some possessing apparent pluripotency comparable to that of ES cells. However, a major limitation in the translation of stem cell technologies to clinical applications is the supply of cells. Advances in biomaterials engineering and scaffold fabrication enable the development of ex vivo cell expansion systems to address this limitation. Progress in biomaterial design has also allowed directed differentiation of stem cells into specific lineages. In addition to delivering biochemical cues, various technologies have been developed to introduce micro- and nano-scale features onto culture surfaces to enable the study of stem cell responses to topographical cues. Knowledge gained from these studies portends the alteration of stem cell fate in the absence of biological factors, which would be valuable in the engineering of complex organs comprising multiple cell types. Biomaterials may also play an immunoprotective role by minimizing host immunoreactivity toward transplanted cells or engineered grafts. PMID:17264853

  7. Novel biomaterials: plasma-enabled nanostructures and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Igor; Keidar, Michael; Cvelbar, Uroš; Mariotti, Davide; Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Fang, Jinghua; (Ken Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-07-01

    Material processing techniques utilizing low-temperature plasmas as the main process tool feature many unique capabilities for the fabrication of various nanostructured materials. As compared with the neutral-gas based techniques and methods, the plasma-based approaches offer higher levels of energy and flux controllability, often leading to higher quality of the fabricated nanomaterials and sometimes to the synthesis of the hierarchical materials with interesting properties. Among others, nanoscale biomaterials attract significant attention due to their special properties towards the biological materials (proteins, enzymes), living cells and tissues. This review briefly examines various approaches based on the use of low-temperature plasma environments to fabricate nanoscale biomaterials exhibiting high biological activity, biological inertness for drug delivery system, and other features of the biomaterials make them highly attractive. In particular, we briefly discuss the plasma-assisted fabrication of gold and silicon nanoparticles for bio-applications; carbon nanoparticles for bioimaging and cancer therapy; carbon nanotube-based platforms for enzyme production and bacteria growth control, and other applications of low-temperature plasmas in the production of biologically-active materials.

  8. Cartilage extracellular matrix as a biomaterial for cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyotake, Emi A; Beck, Emily C; Detamore, Michael S

    2016-11-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues possesses the model characteristics that biomaterials for tissue engineering strive to mimic; however, owing to the intricate hierarchical nature of the ECM, it has yet to be fully characterized and synthetically fabricated. Cartilage repair remains a challenge because the intrinsic properties that enable its durability and long-lasting function also impede regeneration. In the last decade, cartilage ECM has emerged as a promising biomaterial for regenerating cartilage, partly because of its potentially chondroinductive nature. As this research area of cartilage matrix-based biomaterials emerged, investigators facing similar challenges consequently developed convergent solutions in constructing robust and bioactive scaffolds. This review discusses the challenges, emerging trends, and future directions of cartilage ECM scaffolds, including a comparison between two different forms of cartilage matrix: decellularized cartilage (DCC) and devitalized cartilage (DVC). To overcome the low permeability of cartilage matrix, physical fragmentation greatly enhances decellularization, although the process itself may reduce the chondroinductivity of fabricated scaffolds. The less complex processing of a scaffold composed of DVC, which has not been decellularized, appears to have translational advantages and potential chondroinductive and mechanical advantages over DCC, without detrimental immunogenicity, to ultimately enhance cartilage repair in a clinically relevant way. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Comparative study on in vivo response of porous calcium carbonate composite ceramic and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fupo; Ren, Weiwei; Tian, Xiumei; Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua; Chen, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    In a previous study, robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) were prepared by using phosphate-based glass (PG) as an additive, which showed good cell response. In the present study the in vivo response of porous CC/PG was compared to that of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP), using a rabbit femoral critical-size grafting model. The materials degradation and bone formation processes were evaluated by general observation, X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histological examination. The results demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and progressive degradation of CC/PG and BCP. Although the in vitro degradation rate of CC/PG was distinctly faster than that of BCP, at 4week post-implantation, the bone generation and material degradation of CC/PG were less than those of BCP. Nevertheless, at postoperative week 8, the increment of bone formation and material degradation of CC/PG was pronouncedly larger than that of BCP. These results show that CC/PG is a potential resorbable bone graft aside from the traditional synthetic ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enzymatic, urease-mediated mineralization of gellan gum hydrogel with calcium carbonate, magnesium-enriched calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate for bone regeneration applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas, Timothy; Lapa, Agata; Samal, Sangram K.

    Introduction: Mineralization of hydrogel biomaterials is considered desirable to improve their suitability as materials for bone regeneration[1],[2]. Hydrogels have been most commonly mineralized with calcium phosphate (CaP), but hydrogel-CaCO3 composites have received less attention. Magnesium (Mg......) has been added to CaP to stimulate cell adhesion and proliferation and bone regeneration in vivo, but its effect as a component of carbonate-based biomaterials remains uninvestigated. In this study, gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were mineralized enzymatically with (CaCO3), Mg-enriched CaCO3 and magnesium...... and subjected to physiochemical, mechanical and cell biological characterization. Results: FTIR, SEM, TGA and XRD analysis revealed that increasing magnesium concentration decreased mineral crystallinity. At low magnesium concentrations calcite was formed, while at higher concentrations magnesian calcite...

  11. Design of a hybrid biomaterial for tissue engineering: Biopolymer-scaffold integrated with an autologous hydrogel carrying mesenchymal stem-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein-Oppenheimer, Caroline R; Brown, Donald I; Coloma, Rodrigo; Morales, Patricio; Reyna-Jeldes, Mauricio; Díaz, María J; Sánchez, Elizabeth; Acevedo, Cristian A

    2017-10-01

    Biologically active biomaterials as biopolymers and hydrogels have been used in medical applications providing favorable results in tissue engineering. In this research, a wound dressing device was designed by integration of an autologous clot hydrogel carrying mesenchymal stem-cells onto a biopolymeric scaffold. This hybrid biomaterial was tested in-vitro and in-vivo, and used in a human clinical case. The biopolymeric scaffold was made with gelatin, chitosan and hyaluronic acid, using a freeze-drying method. The scaffold was a porous material which was designed evaluating both physical properties (glass transition, melting temperature and pore size) and biological properties (cell viability and fibronectin expression). Two types of chitosan (120 and 300kDa) were used to manufacture the scaffold, being the high molecular weight the most biologically active and stable after sterilization with gamma irradiation (25kGy). A clot hydrogel was formulated with autologous plasma and calcium chloride, using an approach based on design of experiments. The optimum hydrogel was used to incorporate cells onto the porous scaffold, forming a wound dressing biomaterial. The wound dressing device was firstly tested in-vitro using human cells, and then, its biosecurity was evaluated in-vivo using a rabbit model. The in-vitro results showed high cell viability after one week (99.5%), high mitotic index (19.8%) and high fibronectin expression. The in-vivo application to rabbits showed adequate biodegradability capacity (between 1 and 2weeks), and the histological evaluation confirmed absence of rejection signs and reepithelization on the wound zone. Finally, the wound dressing biomaterial was used in a single human case to implant autologous cells on a skin surgery. The medical examination indicated high biocompatibility, partial biodegradation at one week, early regeneration capacity at 4weeks and absence of rejection signs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modified mRNA for BMP-2 in Combination with Biomaterials Serves as a Transcript-Activated Matrix for Effectively Inducing Osteogenic Pathways in Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmayor, Elizabeth R; Geiger, Johannes P; Koch, Christian; Aneja, Manish K; van Griensven, Martijn; Rudolph, Carsten; Plank, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Bone regeneration using stem cells and growth factors has disadvantages while needing to use supraphysiological growth factors concentrations. Gene therapy has been proposed as alternative, but also has limitation. Messenger RNA (mRNA)-based transcript therapy is a novel approach that may solve plasmid DNA-based gene therapy limitations. Although much more efficient in delivering genes into the cell, mRNA is unfortunately unstable and immunogenic. However, recent reports indicated that chemical modifications of the mRNA molecule can improve stability and toxicity. In this study, we have combined biomaterials and chemically modified mRNA (cmRNA) encoding Metridia luciferase, eGFP, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 to develop transcript-activated matrices (TAMs) for gene transfer to stem cells. BMP-2 cmRNA was produced to evaluate its feasibility in stimulating osteogenic differentiation. Fibrin gel and micro-macro biphasic calcium phosphate (MBCP) granules were used as biomaterials. A sustained release of hBMP-2 cmRNA from both biomaterials was observed during 7 days. This occurred significantly faster from the MBCP granules compared to fibrin gels (92% from MBCP and 43% from fibrin after 7 days). Stem cells cultured in hBMP-2 cmRNA/fibrin or on hBMP-2 cmRNA/MBCP were transfected and able to secrete significant amounts of hBMP-2. Furthermore, transfected cells expressed osteogenic markers in vitro. Interestingly, although both TAMs promoted gene expression at the same level, hBMP-2 cmRNA/MBCP granules induced significantly higher collagen I and osteocalcin gene expression. This matrix also induced more mineral deposition. Overall, our results demonstrated the feasibility of developing efficient TAMs for bone regeneration by combining biomaterials and cmRNAs. MBCP synergistically enhances the hBMP-2 cmRNA-induced osteogenic pathway.

  13. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free

  14. Interactions between biomaterials and the sclera: Implications on myopia progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, James

    Myopia prevalence has steadily climbed worldwide in recent decades with the most dramatic impact in East Asian countries. Treatments such as eyeglasses, contact lenses, and laser surgery for the refractive error are widely available, but none cures the underlying cause. In progressive high myopia, invasive surgical procedures using a scleral buckle for mechanical support are performed since the patient is at risk of becoming blind. The treatment outcome is highly dependent on the surgeon's skills and the patient's myopia progression rate, with limited choices in buckling materials. This dissertation, in four main studies, represents efforts made to control high myopia progression through the exploration and development of biomaterials that influence scleral growth. First, mRNA expression levels of the chick scleral matrix metalloproteinases, tissue-inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, and transforming growth factor-beta 2 were assessed for temporal and defocus power effects. The first study elucidated the roles that these factors play in scleral growth regulation and suggested potential motifs that can be incorporated in future biomaterials design. Second, poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) as injectable gels and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) as solid strips were implanted in chicks to demonstrate the concept of posterior pole scleral reinforcements. This second study found that placing appropriate biomaterials at the posterior pole of the eye could directly influence scleral remodeling by interacting with the host cells. Both studies advanced the idea that scleral tissue remodeling could be potentially controlled by well-designed biomaterials. These findings led to the exploration of biomimetic hydrogels comprising enzymatically-degradable semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (edsIPNs) to determine their biocompatibility and effects on the chick posterior eye wall. This third study demonstrated the feasibility of stimulating scleral growth by applying biomimetic

  15. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through regulated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles and large dense core vesicles. This complex and highly regulated process is orchestrated by SNAREs and their associated proteins. The triggering signal for regulated exocytosis is usually...... an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...

  16. Biological interface of bone graft substitute materials : experimental studies on interactions between biomaterials and bone cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenovic, Zivko

    2011-01-01

    Bone graft substitute materials are becoming more common as alternative therapy strategies when bone defects in patients need to be treated. The interaction between bone cells and biomaterials occur at the surface of the materials. A great deal is known about the importance of surface topography and physic-chemical properties of biomaterials. It is also known that cells require proteins in order to interact with biomaterials. Less is known about how material properties and proteins interact f...

  17. Frontiers in biomaterials the design, synthetic strategies and biocompatibility of polymer scaffolds for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Frontiers in Biomaterials: The Design, Synthetic Strategies and Biocompatibility of Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application, Volume 1" highlights the importance of biomaterials and their interaction with biological system. The need for the development of biomaterials as scaffold for tissue regeneration is driven by the increasing demands for materials that mimic functions of extracellular matrices of body tissues.This ebook covers the latest challenges on the biocompatibility of scaffold overtime after implantation and discusses the requirement of innovative technologies and strategies f

  18. Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Pulp Capping Biomaterials after Application of Three Different Bonding Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jaberi-Ansari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Bonding of composite resin filling materials to pulp protecting agents produces an adhesive joint which is important for the quality of filling as well as success of restoration. We aimed to assess the bond strength of composite resin to three pulp capping biomaterials: Pro Root mineral trioxide aggregate (PMTA, Root MTA (RMTA and calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement, using three bonding systems [a total-etch (Single Bond and two self-etch systems (Protect bond and SE Bond]. Materials and methods. Ninety acrylic molds, each containing a 6×2-mm hole, were divided into 3 groups and filled with PMTA, RMTA and CEM cements. The samples in each experimental group were then randomly divided into 3 subgroups; Single Bond, Protect Bond and SE Bond bonding systems were applied to the tested materials. Cylindrical forms of composite resin (Z100, 2×2 mm were placed onto the samples and cured. Shear bond strength values were measured for 9 subgroups using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results. The average shear bond strengths of Z100 composite resin after application of Single Bond, Protect Bond and SE Bond systems were as follows; PMTA: 5.1±2.42, 4.56±1.96 and 4.52±1.7; RMTA: 4.71±1.77, 4.31±0.56 and 4.79±1.88; and CEM cement: 4.75±1.1, 4.54±1.59 and 4.64±1.78 MPa, respectively. The type of pulp capping material, bonding system and their interacting effects did not have a significant effect on the bond strengths of composite resin to pulp capping biomaterials. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, bond strength of composite resin to two types of MTA as well as CEM cement were similar following application of the total-etch or self-etch bonding systems.

  19. Polyester fibers can be rendered calcium phosphate-binding by surface functionalization with bisphosphonate groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polini, Alessandro; Petre, Daniela Geta; Iafisco, Michele; de Lacerda Schickert, Sonia; Tampieri, Anna; van den Beucken, Jeroen; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2017-08-01

    Fibers are often used as structural elements to improve the mechanical properties of materials such as brittle ceramic matrices by facilitating the dissipation of energy. However, this energy dissipation is mainly controlled by the interface between the two components, and a poorly designed fiber-matrix interface strongly reduces the efficacy of fiber reinforcement. Here, we present a versatile approach to control the affinity of biocompatible fibers to calcium-containing matrices to maximize the efficacy of reinforcement of calcium phosphates-based bioceramics by means of polymeric fibers. To this end, polyester fibers of tunable length were produced by electrospinning and aminolysis, followed by covalent attachment of alendronate, a bisphosphonate molecule with strong calcium-binding affinity, to the surface of the fibers. The proposed method allowed for selective control over the amount of alendronate conjugation, thereby improving the affinity of polyester fibers toward calcium phosphate bioceramics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2335-2342, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Progressing innovation in biomaterials. From the bench to the bed of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Y; Bohner, M; Eglin, D; Thérin, M; Montali, A; Procter, P; Fisher, J; Richards, R G

    2015-09-01

    A Translational Research Symposium was organized at the 2014 annual meeting of the European society for biomaterials. This brought together leading Tier one companies in clinical biomaterials and medical device markets, small and medium enterprises and entrepreneurial academics who shared their experiences on taking biomaterials technologies to commercial endpoints, in the clinics. The symposium focused on "Progressing Innovation in Biomaterials. From the Bench to the Bed of Patients". The aim of the present document is to illustrate the content of the symposium and to highlight the key lessons from selected lectures.

  1. Laser induced forward transfer technique for the immobilization of biomaterials in biosensors applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, Symeon; Chatzipetrou, Marianeza; Massaouti, Maria; Zergioti, Ioanna

    2017-02-01

    Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is a direct write technique, able to create micropatterns of biomaterials on sensing devices. In this conference we will present a new approach using LIFT for the printing and direct immobilization of biomaterials on a great variety of surfaces, for bio-sensor applications. The basic requirement for the fabrication of a biosensor is to stabilize a biomaterial that brings the physicochemical changes in close proximity to a transducer. In this direction, several immobilization methods such as covalent binding and crosslinking have been implemented. The presence of the additional functionalization steps in the biosensors fabrication, is among the main disadvantages of chemical immobilization methods. Our approach employs the LIFT technique for the direct immobilization of biomaterials, either by physical adsorption or by covalent bonding of the biomaterials. The physical adsorption of the biomaterials, occurs on hydrophobic or super-hydrophobic surfaces, due to the transition of the wetting properties of the surfaces upon the impact of the biomaterials with high velocity. The unique characteristic of LIFT technique to create high speed liquid jets, leads to the penetration of the biomaterial in the micro/nano roughness of the surface, resulting in their direct immobilization, without the need of any chemical functionalization layers. Moreover, we will also present the direct immobilization of biomaterials on Screen Printed Electrodes, for enzymatic biosensors, with a limit of detection (LOD) for catechol at 150 nM, and protein biosensors, used for the detection of herbicides, with an LOD of 8-10 nM.

  2. Fatigue performance of additively manufactured meta-biomaterials: The effects of topology and material type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, S M; Hedayati, R; Li, Y; Lietaert, K; Tümer, N; Fatemi, A; Rans, C D; Pouran, B; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques enable fabrication of bone-mimicking meta-biomaterials with unprecedented combinations of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties. The mechanical performance of AM meta-biomaterials is a direct function of their topological design. It is, however, not clear to what extent the material type is important in determining the fatigue behavior of such biomaterials. We therefore aimed to determine the isolated and modulated effects of topological design and material type on the fatigue response of metallic meta-biomaterials fabricated with selective laser melting. Towards that end, we designed and additively manufactured Co-Cr meta-biomaterials with three types of repeating unit cells and three to four porosities per type of repeating unit cell. The AM meta-biomaterials were then mechanically tested to obtain their normalized S-N curves. The obtained S-N curves of Co-Cr meta-biomaterials were compared to those of meta-biomaterials with same topological designs but made from other materials, i.e. Ti-6Al-4V, tantalum, and pure titanium, available from our previous studies. We found the material type to be far more important than the topological design in determining the normalized fatigue strength of our AM metallic meta-biomaterials. This is the opposite of what we have found for the quasi-static mechanical properties of the same meta-biomaterials. The effects of material type, manufacturing imperfections, and topological design were different in the high and low cycle fatigue regions. That is likely because the cyclic response of meta-biomaterials depends not only on the static and fatigue strengths of the bulk material but also on other factors that may include strut roughness, distribution of the micro-pores created inside the struts during the AM process, and plasticity. Meta-biomaterials are a special class of metamaterials with unusual or unprecedented combinations of mechanical, physical (e.g. mass transport

  3. Bone repair in calcium-deficient rats: comparison of xylitol+calcium carbonate with calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on the repletion of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, M M

    1994-06-01

    The potential value of xylitol in calcium therapy was evaluated by comparing the effect of dietary xylitol (50 g/kg diet) + calcium carbonate with the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on bone repair of young male rats after the rats consumed for 3 wk a calcium-deficient diet (0.2 g Ca/kg diet). After this calcium-depletion period, the rats were fed for 2 wk one of four diets, each containing 5 g Ca/kg diet as one of the four dietary calcium sources. The diet of the control animals was supplemented with CaCO3 (5 g Ca/kg diet) throughout the study. The Ca-deficient rats showed low bone mass, low serum calcium and high serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, parathyroid hormone (1-34 fraction) and osteocalcin concentrations. They also excreted magnesium, phosphate and hydroxyproline in the urine in high concentrations, and had high bone alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activities. Most of these changes were reversed by the administered of the calcium salts. The highest recoveries of femoral dry weight, calcium, magnesium and phosphate were observed in the groups receiving xylitol+CaCO3 and calcium lactate. Calcium lactate and calcium citrate caused low serum phosphate concentration compared with rats receiving CaCO3 and with the age-matched Ca-replete controls. Xylitol-treated rats excreted more calcium and magnesium in urine than did the other rats, probably due to increased absorption of these minerals from the gut. These results suggest that dietary xylitol improves the bioavailability of calcium salts.

  4. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears ...

  5. High Calcium Bioglass Enhances Differentiation and Survival of Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Inducing Early Vascularization in Critical Size Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Ngoc, Christina; Meier, Simon; Nau, Christoph; Schaible, Alexander; Marzi, Ingo; Henrich, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Early vascularization is a prerequisite for successful bone healing and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), seeded on appropriate biomaterials, can improve vascularization. The type of biomaterial influences EPC function with bioglass evoking a vascularizing response. In this study the influence of a composite biomaterial based on polylactic acid (PLA) and either 20 or 40% bioglass, BG20 and BG40, respectively, on the differentiation and survival of EPCs in vitro was investigated. Subsequently, the effect of the composite material on early vascularization in a rat calvarial critical size defect model with or without EPCs was evaluated. Human EPCs were cultured with β-TCP, PLA, BG20 or BG40, and seeding efficacy, cell viability, cell morphology and apoptosis were analysed in vitro. BG40 released the most calcium, and improved endothelial differentiation and vitality best. This effect was mimicked by adding an equivalent amount of calcium to the medium and was diminished in the presence of the calcium chelator, EGTA. To analyze the effect of BG40 and EPCs in vivo, a 6-mm diameter critical size calvarial defect was created in rats (n = 12). Controls (n = 6) received BG40 and the treatment group (n = 6) received BG40 seeded with 5×105 rat EPCs. Vascularization after 1 week was significantly improved when EPCs were seeded onto BG40, compared to implanting BG40 alone. This indicates that Ca2+ release improves EPC differentiation and is useful for enhanced early vascularization in critical size bone defects. PMID:24244419

  6. Calcium and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Milk Allergy Figuring Out Food Labels What's a Vegetarian? Osteoporosis Minerals Your Bones Mineral Chart Vitamin D ... Need to Drink Milk? Lactose Intolerance Becoming a Vegetarian Soy Foods and Health Calcium Bones, Muscles, and ...

  7. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  8. Magnesium, calcium and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anghileri, Leopoldo J

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) control a diverse and important range of cellular processes, such as gene transcription, cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation, immune response and therapeutic treatment...

  9. Covalent immobilization of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) onto biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabíola; Carvalho, Isabel F; Montelaro, Ronald C; Gomes, P; Martins, M Cristina L

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial adhesion to biomaterials remains a major problem in the medical devices field. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are well-known components of the innate immune system that can be applied to overcome biofilm-associated infections. Their relevance has been increasing as a practical alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are declining in effectiveness. The recent interest focused on these peptides can be explained by a group of special features, including a wide spectrum of activity, high efficacy at very low concentrations, target specificity, anti-endotoxin activity, synergistic action with classical antibiotics, and low propensity for developing resistance. Therefore, the development of an antimicrobial coating with such properties would be worthwhile. The immobilization of AMPs onto a biomaterial surface has further advantages as it also helps to circumvent AMPs' potential limitations, such as short half-life and cytotoxicity associated with higher concentrations of soluble peptides. The studies discussed in the current review report on the impact of covalent immobilization of AMPs onto surfaces through different chemical coupling strategies, length of spacers, and peptide orientation and concentration. The overall results suggest that immobilized AMPs may be effective in the prevention of biofilm formation by reduction of microorganism survival post-contact with the coated biomaterial. Minimal cytotoxicity and long-term stability profiles were obtained by optimizing immobilization parameters, indicating a promising potential for the use of immobilized AMPs in clinical applications. On the other hand, the effects of tethering on mechanisms of action of AMPs have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, further studies are recommended to explore the real potential of immobilized AMPs in health applications as antimicrobial coatings of medical devices. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-invasive Optical Characterization of Biomaterial Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sharad; Hunter, Martin; Cebe, Peggy; Levitt, Jonathan M.; Kaplan, David L.; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Current approaches to study biomaterial mineralization are invasive and prevent dynamic characterization of this process within the same sample. Polarized light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) may offer a non-invasive alternative for assessing the levels of mineraliazation as well as some aspects of the organization of the mineral deposits. Specifically, we used LSS to characterize the formation of hydroxyapatite deposits on three types of silk films (water-annealed, methanol-treated and poly aspartic acid (PAA)-mixed) following 1, 3, 5 and 7 cycles of mineralization. We found that the total light scattering intensity provided a quantitative measure of the degree of mineralization as confirmed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The PAA-mixed silk films yielded the highest level of mineral deposition and the water-annealed ones the least, consistent with the β sheet content of the films prior to the onset of mineralization. The wavelength dependence of the singly backscattered light was consistent with a self-affine fractal morphology of the deposited films within scales in the range of 150 to 300 nm; this was confirmed by Fourier analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the corresponding films. The deposits of minerals in the water-annealed films were predominantly flake-like, with positively correlated density fluctuations (Hurst parameter, H>0.5), whereas methanol-treated and PAA-mixed silk films resulted in densely-packed, bulk mineral deposits with negatively correlated density fluctuations (H<0.5). Therefore, LSS could serve as a valuable tool for understanding the role of biomaterial properties in mineral formation, and, ultimately, for optimizing biomaterial designs that yield mineral deposits with the desired organization. PMID:18313137

  11. New chemical approach to obtain dense layer phosphate-based ionic conductor coating on negative electrode material surface: Synthesis way, outgassing and improvement of C-rate capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleutot, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.fleutot@u-picardie.fr [Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, CNRS UMR 7314, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l’Energie (RS2E), CNRS FR3459 (France); Davoisne, Carine; Gachot, Grégory; Cavalaglio, Sébastien; Grugeon, Sylvie; Viallet, Virginie [Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, CNRS UMR 7314, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l’Energie (RS2E), CNRS FR3459 (France)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Dense layer coating of based-phosphate ionic conductor obtained by spray-drying. • Influence of dense ionic conductor at the negative surface material on performances. • Impact of dense ionic conductor coating on outgassing phenomena. - Abstract: Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} (LTO) based batteries have severe gassing behavior during charge/discharge and storage process, due to interfacial reactions between active material and electrolyte solution. In the same time, the electronic and ionic conductivity of pristine LTO is very poor and induces the use of nanoparticles which increase the outgassing phenomena. The coating of LTO particles could be a solution. For this the LTO spinel particles are modified with ionic conductor Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} coating using a spray-drying method. For the first time a homogeneous thin dense layer phosphate based conductor is obtained without nanoparticles, as a thin film material. It is so possible to study the influence of ionic conductor deposited on the negative electrode material on performances by the controlled layer thickness. This coating was characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and TEM. The electrochemical performance of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} coated Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} is improved at high C-rate by the surface modification (improvement of 30 mAh g{sup −1} at 5 C-rate compared to pristine LTO for 5 nm of coating), inducing by a modification of surface energy. An optimum coating thickness was studied. This type of coating allows a significant decrease of outgassing phenomena due the conformal coating and opens the way to a great number of studies and new technologies.

  12. USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

    2010-02-08

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  13. Advantages of RGD peptides for directing cell association with biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Susan L

    2011-06-01

    Despite many years of in vitro research confirming the effectiveness of RGD in promoting cell attachment to a wide variety of biomaterials, animal studies evaluating tissue responses to implanted RGD-functionalized substrates have yielded more variable results. The goals of this report are to present some of the reasons why cell culture studies may not always reliably predict in vivo responses, and more importantly, to highlight potential applications that may benefit from the use of RGD peptides. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NASA's Needs for Biomaterials within the HEDS Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    The part to be played by materials scientists to further NASA's exploration missions cannot be underestimated. To quote Jerome Groopman (New Yorker, February 14, 2000), "The rocket science will be the easy part". The four main risks on the Critical Path Road Map during a three-year sojourn to Mars are osteoporosis, psychological problems, radiation induced cancer and acute medical trauma. NASA's microgravity materials science program has investigations in membrane fabrication, bone growth and materials for radiation protection. These programs will be reviewed in the context of the four main risks, as will other potential uses of biomaterials and applications of biomimetic processing.

  15. Multifunctional biomaterial coatings: synthetic challenges and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Mareen; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2017-01-01

    A controlled interaction of materials with their surrounding biological environment is of great interest in many fields. Multifunctional coatings aim to provide simultaneous modulation of several biological signals. They can consist of various combinations of bioactive, and bioinert components as well as of reporter molecules to improve cell-material contacts, prevent infections or to analyze biochemical events on the surface. However, specific immobilization and particular assembly of various active molecules are challenging. Herein, an overview of multifunctional coatings for biomaterials is given, focusing on synthetic strategies and the biological benefits by displaying several motifs.

  16. Novel biomaterials. Decontamination of toxic metals from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Shalini [Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Goyal, Pritee [G.L. Bajaj Institute of Technology and Management, Greater Noida (India). Dept. of Applied Science and Humanities

    2010-07-01

    Current research revolves around trends to bring technology into harmony with the natural environment and in order to protect the ecosystem. Bioremediation involves processes which reduce the overall treatment costs by using agricultural residues. Regeneration of the biosorbent further increases the cost effectiveness of the process, thus warranting its future success in solving water quality problems. Special emphasis is paid to chemical modifications resulting in tailored novel biomaterials which improve its sorption efficiency and environmental stability. In this way it can be used commercially as a simple, fast, economical, ecofriendly green technology, for the removal of toxic metals from waste water particularly in rural and remote areas of the country. (orig.)

  17. Biomaterials from beer manufacture waste for bone growth scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Luengo, M.A.; Yates, M.; Ramos Gomez, Milagros; Saez Rojo, E.; Martinez Serrano, Alberto; Gonzalez Gil, L.; Ruiz Hitzky, E.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural wastes are a source of renewable raw materials (RRM), with structures that can be tailored for the use envisaged. Here, they have proved to be good replacement candidates for use as biomaterials for the growth of osteoblasts in bone replacement therapies. Their preparation is more cost effective than that of materials presently in use with the added bonus of converting a low-cost waste into a value-added product. Due to their origin these solids are ecomaterials. In this study, s...

  18. Osteoinduction of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds in a nude mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramond, T; Corre, P; Borget, P; Moreau, F; Guicheux, J; Daculsi, G; Weiss, P

    2014-10-01

    Bioceramics combined with isolated stem cells, or with total bone marrow, constitute the main strategies under consideration in the field of bone tissue engineering. In the present preclinical study, two biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds currently on the market, MBCP® and MBCP+®, with different hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate ratio, were implanted ectopically in a nude mouse model. These scaffolds were supplemented either with human mesenchymal stromal cells, or with human total bone marrow, or rat total bone marrow. Biomaterials alone were found to have potentially low, but non-zero, osteoinductive properties, while biomaterials associated with total bone marrow consistently improved osteoinduction in comparison with high concentrations of isolated human stromal cells. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  20. Injectable silk-based biomaterials for cervical tissue augmentation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joseph E; Partlow, Benjamin P; Berman, Alison M; House, Michael D; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-01

    Cerclage therapy is an important treatment option for preterm birth prevention. Several patient populations benefit from cerclage therapy including patients with a classic history of cervical insufficiency; patients who present with advanced cervical dilation prior to viability; and patients with a history of preterm birth and cervical shortening. Although cerclage is an effective treatment option in some patients, it can be associated with limited efficacy and procedure complications. Development of an alternative to cerclage therapy would be an important clinical development. Here we report on an injectable, silk protein-based biomaterial for cervical tissue augmentation. The rationale for the development of an injectable biomaterial is to restore the native properties of cervical tissue. While cerclage provides support to the tissue, it does not address excessive tissue softening, which is a central feature of the pathogenesis of cervical insufficiency. Silk protein-based hydrogels, which are biocompatible and naturally degrade in vivo, are suggested as a platform for restoring the native properties of cervical tissue and improving cervical function. We sought to study the properties of an injectable, silk-based biomaterial for potential use as an alternative treatment for cervical insufficiency. These biomaterials were evaluated for mechanical tunability, biocompatibility, facile injection, and in vitro degradation. Silk protein solutions were cross-linked by an enzyme catalyzed reaction to form elastic biomaterials. Biomaterials were formulated to match the native physical properties of cervical tissue during pregnancy. The cell compatibility of the materials was assessed in vitro using cervical fibroblasts, and biodegradation was evaluated using concentrated protease solution. Tissue augmentation or bulking was demonstrated using human cervical tissue from nonpregnant hysterectomy specimens. Mechanical compression tests measured the tissue stiffness as a

  1. Titanium biomaterials with complex surfaces induced aberrant peripheral circadian rhythms in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nathaniel; McCarville, Kirstin; Morinaga, Kenzo; Mengatto, Cristiane M; Langfelder, Peter; Hokugo, Akishige; Tahara, Yu; Colwell, Christopher S; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms maintain a high level of homeostasis through internal feed-forward and -backward regulation by core molecules. In this study, we report the highly unusual peripheral circadian rhythm of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) induced by titanium-based biomaterials with complex surface modifications (Ti biomaterial) commonly used for dental and orthopedic implants. When cultured on Ti biomaterials, human BMSCs suppressed circadian PER1 expression patterns, while NPAS2 was uniquely upregulated. The Ti biomaterials, which reduced Per1 expression and upregulated Npas2, were further examined with BMSCs harvested from Per1::luc transgenic rats. Next, we addressed the regulatory relationship between Per1 and Npas2 using BMSCs from Npas2 knockout mice. The Npas2 knockout mutation did not rescue the Ti biomaterial-induced Per1 suppression and did not affect Per2, Per3, Bmal1 and Clock expression, suggesting that the Ti biomaterial-induced Npas2 overexpression was likely an independent phenomenon. Previously, vitamin D deficiency was reported to interfere with Ti biomaterial osseointegration. The present study demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation significantly increased Per1::luc expression in BMSCs, though the presence of Ti biomaterials only moderately affected the suppressed Per1::luc expression. Available in vivo microarray data from femurs exposed to Ti biomaterials in vitamin D-deficient rats were evaluated by weighted gene co-expression network analysis. A large co-expression network containing Npas2, Bmal1, and Vdr was observed to form with the Ti biomaterials, which was disintegrated by vitamin D deficiency. Thus, the aberrant BMSC peripheral circadian rhythm may be essential for the integration of Ti biomaterials into bone.

  2. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  3. In situ hydroxyapatite nanofiber growth on calcium borate silicate ceramics in SBF and its structural characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Yinfu; Huang, Yanlin; Qi, Shuyun [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Chen, Cuili [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyo Jin, E-mail: hjseo@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    A novel calcium silicate borate Ca{sub 11}Si{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 22} ceramic was firstly prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction. In vitro hydroxyapatite mineralization was investigated by soaking the ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions at body temperature (37 °C) for various time periods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) measurements were applied to investigate the samples before and after the immersion of ceramics in SBF solution. The elemental compositions of a hydroxyapatite layer on the ceramics during the mineralization were confirmed by X-ray energy-dispersive spectra (EDS). Meanwhile, the bending strength and elastic modulus of Ca{sub 11}Si{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 22} ceramics were also measured, which indicate that the biomaterials based on Ca{sub 11}Si{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 22} ceramics possess bioactivity and might be a potential candidate as biomaterials for hard tissue repair. The bioactive mineralization ability was evaluated on the base of its crystal structural characteristics, i.e., silanol (Si–OH) and B–OH groups can be easily induced on the surface of Ca{sub 11}Si{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 22} ceramics soaked in SBF solutions. - Highlights: • Calcium silicate borate Ca{sub 11}Si{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 22} ceramics were developed as a new biomaterial. • Ca{sub 11}Si{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 22} shows a superior in vitro bioactivity by inducing bone-like apatite. • Ca{sub 11}Si{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 22} has good mechanical properties as potential candidate biomaterials. • The structure with SiO{sub 4} and BO{sub 3} groups is favorable for hydroxyapatite formation.

  4. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A

    2002-01-01

    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  5. Calcium Deficient Hydroxyapatite for Medical Application Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioku, Koji; Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Ikeda, Tohru

    2010-11-01

    Hydrothermal processing plays a key role in the synthesis of biomaterials with excellent biocompatibility in the physiological environment. Especially, calcium phosphates are paid to much attention for the regenerative medicine. Two kinds of porous materials of hydroxyapatite with 70% porosity were prepared. One of them is a newly developed calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite composed of rod-shaped particles of about 20 μm in length synthesized hydrothermally (HHA) and the other one is the stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (SHA) prepared by the conventional sintering method. These materials were used for animal implantation tests to compare these biological responses. In the rabbit femur, implanted HHA was slowly resorbed and then most of the implanted HHA was resorbed after 72 weeks. The implanted SHA was unresorbed throughout the experimental period. The volume of newly formed bone and the number of osteoclasts in the implanted region were significantly larger in HHA than in SHA after 24 weeks. Results in the present research suggested that the activity of osteoclasts correlated to the bone forming activity of osteoblasts. The method to synthesize biodegradable pure calcium-deficient HA is expected to provide adequate biodegradability and bone replaceability.

  6. Teaching technological innovation and entrepreneurship in polymeric biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Newell R

    2011-01-01

    A model for incorporating an entrepreneurship module has been developed in an upper-division and graduate-level engineering elective on Polymeric Biomaterials (27-311/42-311/27-711/42-711) at Carnegie Mellon University. A combination of lectures, assignments, and a team-based project were used to provide students with a framework for applying their technical skills in the development of new technologies and a basic understanding of the issues related to translational research and technology commercialization. The specific approach to the project established in the course, which represented 20% of the students' grades, and the grading rubric for each of the milestones are described along with suggestions for generalizing this approach to different applications of biomaterials or other engineering electives. Incorporating this model of entrepreneurship into electives teaches students course content within the framework of technological innovation and many of the concepts and tools need to practice it. For students with situational or individual interest in the project, it would also serve to deepen their understanding of the traditional course components as well as provide a foundation for integrating technological innovation and lifelong learning. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Biofunctionalized Plants as Diverse Biomaterials for Human Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Gianluca; Gershlak, Joshua; Adamski, Michal; Lee, Jae-Sung; Matsumoto, Shion; Le, Hau D; Binder, Bernard; Wirth, John; Gaudette, Glenn; Murphy, William L

    2017-04-01

    The commercial success of tissue engineering products requires efficacy, cost effectiveness, and the possibility of scaleup. Advances in tissue engineering require increased sophistication in the design of biomaterials, often challenging the current manufacturing techniques. Interestingly, several of the properties that are desirable for biomaterial design are embodied in the structure and function of plants. This study demonstrates that decellularized plant tissues can be used as adaptable scaffolds for culture of human cells. With simple biofunctionalization technique, it is possible to enable adhesion of human cells on a diverse set of plant tissues. The elevated hydrophilicity and excellent water transport abilities of plant tissues allow cell expansion over prolonged periods of culture. Moreover, cells are able to conform to the microstructure of the plant frameworks, resulting in cell alignment and pattern registration. In conclusion, the current study shows that it is feasible to use plant tissues as an alternative feedstock of scaffolds for mammalian cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Teaching Technological Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Polymeric Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Newell R.

    2010-01-01

    A model for incorporating an entrepreneurship module has been developed in an upper-division and graduate-level engineering elective on Polymeric Biomaterials (27-311/42-311/27-711/42-711) at Carnegie Mellon University. A combination of lectures, assignments, and a team-based project were used to provide students with a framework for applying their technical skills in the development of new technologies and a basic understanding of the issues related to translational research and technology commercialization. The specific approach to the project established in the course, which represented 20% of the students’ grades, and the grading rubric for each of the milestones are described along with suggestions for generalizing this approach to different applications of biomaterials or other engineering electives. Incorporating this model of entrepreneurship into electives teaches students course content within the framework of technological innovation and many of the concepts and tools need to practice it. For students with situational or individual interest in the project, it would also serve to deepen their understanding of the traditional course components as well as provide a foundation for integrating technological innovation and lifelong learning. PMID:20949575

  9. Using biomaterials to study stem cell mechanotransduction, growth and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Rebecca J; Dalby, Matthew J; Tsimbouri, P Monica

    2015-05-01

    Self-renewal and differentiation are two fundamental characteristics of stem cells. Stem cell self-renewal is critical for replenishing the stem cell population, while differentiation is necessary for maintaining tissue homeostasis. Over the last two decades a great deal of effort has been applied to discovering the processes that control these opposing stem cell fates. One way of examining the role of the physical environment is the use of biomaterial strategies that have the ability to manipulate cells without any requirement for chemical factors. The mechanism whereby cells have been found to respond to a mechanical stimulus is termed mechanotransduction, the process by which a mechanical cue (or alteration in cell spreading changing internal cellular mechanics, i.e. intracellular tension) is transduced into a chemical signal inside the cell, eliciting changes in gene expression. This can occur either directly, as a result of changes in the cell cytoskeleton, or indirectly through a series of biochemical signalling cascades. The main focus of this review is to examine the role of mechanotransduction in the differentiation and self-renewal of stem cells. In particular, we will focus on the use of biomaterials as a tool for examining mechanotrandsuctive effects on self-renewal and differentiation. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Nanomechanics of Cells and Biomaterials Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Jason I; Revenko, Irène; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2015-11-18

    The behavior and mechanical properties of cells are strongly dependent on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of their microenvironment. Thus, understanding the mechanical properties of cells, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials is key to understanding cell function and to develop new materials with tailored mechanical properties for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as an indispensable technique for measuring the mechanical properties of biomaterials and cells with high spatial resolution and force sensitivity within physiologically relevant environments and timescales in the kPa to GPa elastic modulus range. The growing interest in this field of bionanomechanics has been accompanied by an expanding array of models to describe the complexity of indentation of hierarchical biological samples. Furthermore, the integration of AFM with optical microscopy techniques has further opened the door to a wide range of mechanotransduction studies. In recent years, new multidimensional and multiharmonic AFM approaches for mapping mechanical properties have been developed, which allow the rapid determination of, for example, cell elasticity. This Progress Report provides an introduction and practical guide to making AFM-based nanomechanical measurements of cells and surfaces for tissue engineering applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Study of novel rosin-based biomaterials for pharmaceutical coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulzele, Suniket V; Satturwar, Prashant M; Dorle, Avinash K

    2002-01-01

    The film forming and coating properties of Glycerol ester of maleic rosin (GMR) and Pentaerythritol ester of maleic rosin (PMR) were investigated. The 2 rosin-based biomaterials were initially characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties, molecular weight (Mw), and glass transition temperature (Tg). Films were produced by solvent evaporation technique on a mercury substrate. Dibutyl sebacate plasticized and nonplasticized films were characterized by mechanical (tensile zzzz strength, percentage elongation, and Young's modulus), water vapor transmission (WVT), and moisture absorption parameters. Plasticization was found to increase film elongation and decrease the Young's modulus, making the films more flexible and thereby reducing the brittleness. Poor rates of WVT and percentage moisture absorption were demonstrated by various film formulations. Diclofenac sodium-layered pellets coated with GMR and PMR film formulations showed sustained drug release for up to 10 hours. The release rate was influenced by the extent of plasticization and coating level. The results obtained in the study demonstrate the utility of novel rosin-based biomaterials for pharmaceutical coating and sustained-release drug delivery systems.

  12. Biomaterial Implants Mediate Autologous Stem Cell Recruitment In Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ashwin; Shen, Jinhui; Lotfi, Parisa; Ko, Cheng-Yu; Zhang, Cheng Cheng; Tang, Liping

    2011-01-01

    Autologous stem cells, recognized as the best cells for stem cell therapy, are associated with difficult extraction procedures that often lead to more traumas for the patients and time consuming laboratory work that delays their subsequent application. To combat such challenges, we have recently uncovered that shortly after biomaterial implantation, following the recruitment of inflammatory cells, substantial numbers of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) were recruited to the implantation sites. These multipotent MSCs could be differentiated into various lineages in vitro. Inflammatory signals may be responsible for the gathering of stem cells, since there is a good relationship between biomaterial-mediated inflammatory responses and stem cell accumulation in vivo. In addition, the treatment with anti-inflammatory drug – dexamethasone – substantially reduced the recruitment of both MSC and HSC. The results from this work support that such strategies could be further developed towards localized recruitment and differentiation of progenitor cells. This may permit the future development of autologous stem cell therapies without the need for tedious cell isolation, culture and transplantation. PMID:21784181

  13. Complement inhibition in biomaterial- and biosurface-induced thromboinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Kristina N; Huang, Shan; Nilsson, Bo; Teramura, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    Therapeutic medicine today includes a vast number of procedures involving the use of biomaterials, transplantation of therapeutic cells or cell clusters, as well as of solid organs. These treatment modalities are obviously of great benefit to the patient, but also present a great challenge to the innate immune system, since they involve direct exposure of non-biological materials, cells of non-hematological origin as well as endothelial cells, damaged by ischemia-perfusion in solid organs to proteins and cells in the blood. The result of such an exposure may be an inappropriate activation of the complement and contact/kallikrein systems, which produce mediators capable of triggering the platelets and PMNs and monocytes, which can ultimately result in thrombotic and inflammatory (i.e., a thrombo-inflammatory) response to the treatment modality. In this concept review, we give an overview of the mechanisms of recognition within the innate immunity system, with the aim to identify suitable points for intervention. Finally, we discuss emerging and promising techniques for surface modification of biomaterials and cells with specific inhibitors in order to diminish thromboinflammation and improve clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomaterials for revascularization and immunomodulation after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Agnes E; Maldonado-Lasuncion, Ines; Oudega, Martin

    2018-01-23

    Spinal cord injury causes immediate damage to the nervous tissue accompanied by loss of motor and sensory function. The limited self-repair competence of injured nervous tissue underscores the need for reparative interventions to recover function after spinal cord injury. The vasculature of the spinal cord plays a crucial role in spinal cord injury and repair. Ruptured and sheared blood vessels in the injury epicenter and blood vessels with a breached blood-spinal cord barrier in the surrounding tissue cause bleeding and inflammation, which contribute to the overall tissue damage. The insufficient formation of new functional vasculature in and near the injury impedes endogenous tissue repair and limits the prospect of repair approaches. Limiting the loss of blood vessels, stabilizing the blood-spinal cord barrier, and promoting the formation of new blood vessels are therapeutic targets for spinal cord repair. Inflammation is an integral part of injury-mediated vascular damage, with deleterious and reparative consequences. Inflammation and the formation of new blood vessels are intricately interwoven. Biomaterials can be effectively used for promoting and guiding blood vessel formation or modulating the inflammatory response after spinal cord injury, thereby governing the extent of damage and the success of reparative interventions. This review deals with the vasculature after spinal cord injury, the reciprocal interactions between inflammation and blood vessel formation, and the potential of biomaterials to support revascularization and immunomodulation in damaged spinal cord nervous tissue. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. In vitro selection technologies to enhance biomaterial functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, Jonah C; Hollmann, Emma K; Lippmann, Ethan S

    2016-05-01

    Cells make decisions and fate choices based in part on cues they receive from their external environment. Factors that affect the interpretation of these cues include the soluble proteins that are present at any given time, the cell surface receptors that are available to bind these proteins, and the relative affinities of the soluble proteins for their cognate receptors. Researchers have identified many of the biological motifs responsible for the high-affinity interactions between proteins and their receptors, and subsequently incorporated these motifs into biomaterials to elicit control over cell behavior. Common modes of control include localized sequestration of proteins to improve bioavailability and direct inhibition or activation of a receptor by an immobilized peptide or protein. However, naturally occurring biological motifs often possess promiscuous affinity for multiple proteins and receptors or lack programmable actuation in response to dynamic stimuli, thereby limiting the amount of control they can exert over cellular decisions. These natural motifs only represent a small fraction of the biological diversity that can be assayed by in vitro selection strategies, and the discovery of "artificial" motifs with varying affinity, specificity, and functionality could greatly expand the repertoire of engineered biomaterial properties. This minireview provides a brief summary of classical and emerging techniques in peptide phage display and nucleic acid aptamer selections and discusses prospective applications in the areas of cell adhesion, angiogenesis, neural regeneration, and immune modulation. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  16. Biodegradable Polyphosphazene Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Delivery of Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Baillargeon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradable biomaterials continue to play a major role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as well as for delivering therapeutic agents. Although the chemistry of polyphosphazenes has been studied extensively, a systematic review of their applications for a wide range of biomedical applications is lacking. Polyphosphazenes are synthesized through a relatively well-known two-step reaction scheme which involves the substitution of the initial linear precursor with a wide range of nucleophiles. The ease of substitution has led to the development of a broad class of materials that have been studied for numerous biomedical applications including as scaffold materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The objective of this review is to discuss the suitability of poly(amino acid esterphosphazene biomaterials in regard to their unique stimuli responsive properties, tunable degradation rates and mechanical properties, as well as in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. The application of these materials in areas such as tissue engineering and drug delivery is discussed systematically. Lastly, the utility of polyphosphazenes is further extended as they are being employed in blend materials for new applications and as another method of tailoring material properties.

  17. Geometric characterization and simulation of planar layered elastomeric fibrous biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, James B; D'Amore, Antonio; Feaver, Kristen R; Rodin, Gregory J; Sacks, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Many important biomaterials are composed of multiple layers of networked fibers. While there is a growing interest in modeling and simulation of the mechanical response of these biomaterials, a theoretical foundation for such simulations has yet to be firmly established. Moreover, correctly identifying and matching key geometric features is a critically important first step for performing reliable mechanical simulations. The present work addresses these issues in two ways. First, using methods of geometric probability, we develop theoretical estimates for the mean linear and areal fiber intersection densities for 2-D fibrous networks. These densities are expressed in terms of the fiber density and the orientation distribution function, both of which are relatively easy-to-measure properties. Secondly, we develop a random walk algorithm for geometric simulation of 2-D fibrous networks which can accurately reproduce the prescribed fiber density and orientation distribution function. Furthermore, the linear and areal fiber intersection densities obtained with the algorithm are in agreement with the theoretical estimates. Both theoretical and computational results are compared with those obtained by post-processing of scanning electron microscope images of actual scaffolds. These comparisons reveal difficulties inherent to resolving fine details of multilayered fibrous networks. The methods provided herein can provide a rational means to define and generate key geometric features from experimentally measured or prescribed scaffold structural data. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Photosynthetic biomaterials: a pathway towards autotrophic tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Thilo Ludwig; Hopfner, Ursula; Chávez, Myra Noemi; Machens, Hans-Günther; Somlai-Schweiger, Ian; Giunta, Riccardo Enzo; Bohne, Alexandra Viola; Nickelsen, Jörg; Allende, Miguel L; Egaña, José Tomás

    2015-03-01

    Engineered tissues are highly limited by poor vascularization in vivo, leading to hypoxia. In order to overcome this challenge, we propose the use of photosynthetic biomaterials to provide oxygen. Since photosynthesis is the original source of oxygen for living organisms, we suggest that this could be a novel approach to provide a constant source of oxygen supply independently of blood perfusion. In this study we demonstrate that bioartificial scaffolds can be loaded with a solution containing the photosynthetic microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, showing high biocompatibility and photosynthetic activity in vitro. Furthermore, when photosynthetic biomaterials were engrafted in a mouse full skin defect, we observed that the presence of the microalgae did not trigger a native immune response in the host. Moreover, the analyses showed that the algae survived for at least 5 days in vivo, generating chimeric tissues comprised of algae and murine cells. The results of this study represent a crucial step towards the establishment of autotrophic tissue engineering approaches and suggest the use of photosynthetic cells to treat a broad spectrum of hypoxic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polyelectrolyte biomaterial interactions provide nanoparticulate carrier for oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Catarina Pinto; Ribeiro, António J; Veiga, Francisco; Neufeld, Ronald J; Damgé, Christiane

    2008-02-01

    Nanospheres are being developed for the oral delivery of peptide-based drugs such as insulin. Mucoadhesive, biodegradable, biocompatible, and acid-protective biomaterials are described using a combination of natural polyelectrolytes, with particles formulated through nanoemulsion dispersion followed by triggered in situ gel complexation. Biomaterials meeting these criteria include alginate, dextran, chitosan, and albumin in which alginate/dextran forms the core matrix complexed with chitosan and albumin coat. Smaller size and higher albumin-based acid-protective formulation was orally administered to diabetic rats and glucose reduction and physiological response analyzed. Insulin encapsulation efficiency was 90, 82, and 66% for uncoated, chitosan-coated, and albumin-chitosan-coated alginate nanospheres, respectively. The choice of coating polymer seems to influence insulin release profile and to be crucial to prevent peptic digestion. Physiological response following oral delivery showed that insulin albumin-chitosan-coated alginate nanospheres reduced glycemia approximately 72% of basal values. Albumin serves as an important enteric coating providing acid- and protease protection enabling uptake of active drug following oral dosage.

  20. Cell-Biomaterial Mechanical Interaction in the Framework of Tissue Engineering: Insights, Computational Modeling and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Herrera, Jose A.; Reina-Romo, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an emerging field of research which combines the use of cell-seeded biomaterials both in vitro and/or in vivo with the aim of promoting new tissue formation or regeneration. In this context, how cells colonize and interact with the biomaterial is critical in order to get a functional tissue engineering product. Cell-biomaterial interaction is referred to here as the phenomenon involved in adherent cells attachment to the biomaterial surface, and their related cell functions such as growth, differentiation, migration or apoptosis. This process is inherently complex in nature involving many physico-chemical events which take place at different scales ranging from molecular to cell body (organelle) levels. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the mechanical environment at the cell-biomaterial location may play an important role in the subsequent cell function, which remains to be elucidated. In this paper, the state-of-the-art research in the physics and mechanics of cell-biomaterial interaction is reviewed with an emphasis on focal adhesions. The paper is focused on the different models developed at different scales available to simulate certain features of cell-biomaterial interaction. A proper understanding of cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the development of predictive models in this sense, may add some light in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields. PMID:22174660