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Sample records for calcium oxalate stone

  1. Simulation of calcium oxalate stone in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳健明; 姚秀琼; 苏泽轩; 崔福斋

    2003-01-01

    Crystallization of calcium oxalate is studied mainly in the diluted healthy urine using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and is compared with the crystallization in the diluted pathological urine. It suggests that the average sizes of calcium oxalate crystals are not in direct proportion to the concentrations of Ca2+ and Ox2- ions. Only in the concentration range of 0.60-0.90 mmol/L can larger size of CaOx crystals appear. When the concentrations of Ca2+ and Ox2- ions are 1.20, 0.80, 0.60, 0.30 and 0.15 mmol/L in the healthy urine, the average sizes of calcium oxalate crystallites are 9.5 × 6.5, 20.0 × 13.5 and 15.0 μm × 10.0 μm, respectively, for the former three samples after 6 d crystallization. No crystal appears even after 30 d crystallization for the samples of concentrations of 0.30 and 0.15 mmol/L due to their low supersaturations. The results theoretically explain why the probability of stone forming is clinically not in direct proportion to the concentrations of Ca 2+ and Ox2- ions. Laser scattering technology also confirms this point. The reason why healthy human has no risk of urinary stone but stone-formers have is that there are more urinary macromolecules in healthy human urines than that in stone-forming urines. These macromolecules may control the transformation in CaOx crystal structure from monohydrate calcium oxalate (COM) to dihydrate calcium oxalate (COD). COD has a weaker affinity for renal tubule cell membranes than COM. No remarkable effect of the crystallization time is observed on the crystal morphology of CaOx. All the crystals are obtuse hexagon. However, the sizes and the number of CaOx crystals can be affected by the crystallization time. In the early stage of crystallization (1-6 d), the sizes of CaOx crystals increase and the number of crystal particles changes little as increasing the crystallization time due to growth control. In the middle and late stages (6-30 d), the number of crystals increases markedly while the

  2. Effect of dietary oxalate and calcium on urinary oxalate and risk of formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, L K; Roman-Smith, H; Sutton, R A

    1993-08-01

    Dietary restriction of oxalate intake has been used as therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Although urinary oxalate is derived predominantly from endogenous synthesis, it may also be affected by dietary intake of oxalate and calcium. The risk of increasing urinary oxalate excretion by excessive consumption of dietary oxalate is greatest in individuals with a high rate of oxalate absorption, both with and without overt intestinal disease. Although oxalate-rich foods enhanced excretion of urinary oxalate in normal volunteers, the increase was not proportional to the oxalate content of the food. Only eight foods--spinach, rhubarb, beets, nuts, chocolate, tea, wheat bran, and strawberries--caused a significant increase in urinary oxalate excretion. Restriction of dietary calcium enhances oxalate absorption and excretion, whereas an increase in calcium intake may reduce urinary oxalate excretion by binding more oxalate in the gut. This review of the literature indicates that initial dietary therapy for stone-forming individuals can be limited to the restriction of foods definitely shown to increase urinary oxalate. The effects of oxalate-restricted diets on urinary oxalate should be evaluated by means of laboratory analyses of urine composition. Subsequent long-term therapy can be recommended if beneficial results are obtained from oxalate restriction at an appropriate calcium intake. PMID:8335871

  3. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease.

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    David W Killilea

    Full Text Available One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease.

  4. Aggregation of Calcium Phosphate and Oxalate Phases in the Formation of Renal Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Baoquan; Halter, Timothy J.; Borah, Ballav M.; Nancollas, George H.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of human kidney stones are comprised of multiple calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals encasing a calcium phosphate nucleus. The physiochemical mechanism of nephrolithiasis has not been well determined on the molecular level; this is crucial to the control and prevention of renal stone formation. This work investigates the role of phosphate ions on the formation of calcium oxalate stones; recent work has identified amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) as a rapidly forming initi...

  5. Renal histopathology and crystal deposits in patients with small bowel resection and calcium oxalate stone disease.

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    Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Worcester, Elaine M; Bledsoe, Sharon B; Sommer, Andre J; Williams, James C; Krambeck, Amy E; Philips, Carrie L; Coe, Fredric L

    2010-08-01

    We present here the anatomy and histopathology of kidneys from 11 patients with renal stones following small bowel resection, including 10 with Crohn's disease and 1 resection in infancy for unknown cause. They presented predominantly with calcium oxalate stones. Risks of formation included hyperoxaluria (urine oxalate excretion greater than 45 mg per day) in half of the cases, and acidic urine of reduced volume. As was found with ileostomy and obesity bypass, inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs) contained crystal deposits associated with cell injury, interstitial inflammation, and papillary deformity. Cortical changes included modest glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Randall's plaque (interstitial papillary apatite) was abundant, with calcium oxalate stone overgrowth similar to that seen in ileostomy, idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, and primary hyperparathyroidism. Abundant plaque was compatible with the low urine volume and pH. The IMCD deposits all contained apatite, with calcium oxalate present in three cases, similar to findings in patients with obesity bypass but not an ileostomy. The mechanisms for calcium oxalate stone formation in IMCDs include elevated urine and presumably tubule fluid calcium oxalate supersaturation, but a low calcium to oxalate ratio. However, the mechanisms for the presence of IMCD apatite remain unknown.

  6. A Comparative Study on Several Models of Experimental Renal Calcium Oxalate Stones Formation in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jihong; CAO Zhenggno; ZHANG Zhaohui; ZHOU Siwei; YE Zhangqun

    2007-01-01

    In order to compare the effects of several experimental renal calcium oxalate stones formation models in rats and to find a simple and convenient model with significant effect of calcium oxalate crystals deposition in the kidney, several rat models of renal calcium oxalate stones formation were induced by some crystal-inducing drugs (CID) including ethylene glycol (EG), ammonium chloride (AC), vitamin D3 [1α(OH)VitD3, alfacalcidol], calcium gluconate, ammonium oxalate, gentamicin sulfate, L-hydroxyproline. The rats were fed with drugs given singly or unitedly. At the end of experiment, 24-h urines were collected and the serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), the extents of calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the renal tissue, urinary calcium and oxalate excretion were measured. The serum Cr levels in the stone-forming groups were significantly higher than those in the control group except for the group EG+L-hydroxyproline, group calcium gluconate and group oxalate. Blood BUN concentration was significantly higher in rats fed with CID than that in control group except for group EG+L-hydroxyproline and group ammonium oxalate plus calcium gluconate. In the group of rats administered with EG plus Vitamin D3, the deposition of calcium oxalate crystal in the renal tissue and urinary calcium excretion were significantly greater than other model groups. The effect of the model induced by EG plus AC was similar to that in the group induced by EG plus Vitamin D3. EG plus Vitamin D3 or EG plus AC could stably and significantly induced the rat model of renal calcium oxalate stones formation.

  7. Is there a role for pentosan polysulfate in the prevention of calcium oxalate stones?

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    Jones, Marklyn; Monga, Manoj

    2003-12-01

    The clinical role for pentosan polysulfate (PPS) in the prevention of calcium oxalate urolithiasis is not known. Crystallization and aggregation are important steps in calcium oxalate stone formation, and PPS has been shown to inhibit these steps, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, PPS has a role in repairing injured urothelium and inhibiting adhesion to epithelial defects. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study appears warranted to assess the utility of PPS in the prevention of recurrent calcium oxalate stones.

  8. The variability and dietary dependence of urinary oxalate excretion in recurrent calcium stone formers.

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    Brown, J M; Stratmann, G; Cowley, D M; Mottram, B M; Chalmers, A H

    1987-07-01

    Twenty-two recurrent calcium stone formers had 24-h urinary oxalate excretions on their home diets which were significantly greater than those of 30 normal subjects (0.48 +/- 0.23 mmol/d; mean +/- SD compared with 0.31 +/- 0.11; P less than 0.01). The stone formers also demonstrated marked day to day variability in oxalate excretion indicating that a single normal urinary oxalate measurement did not exclude significant hyperoxaluria at other times. On a hospital diet containing 1000 mg calcium per day, urinary oxalate excretion fell significantly from 0.48 +/- 0.23 mmol/d to 0.32 +/- 0.12; P less than 0.01. As the urinary calcium excretion in and out of hospital was similar, it seems unlikely that low calcium intake at home was responsible for the hyperoxaluria. All patients had recurrent symptomatic stone disease and had been advised to avoid foods rich in oxalate. Whilst poor compliance is a possible explanation for the variability in oxalate excretion, we believe it is more likely that there is an inadvertent intake of oxalogenic precursors in their diet. As normal subjects do not demonstrate hyperoxaluria on similar home diets, stone formers may have a metabolic defect in the handling of these precursors. PMID:3662388

  9. Antilithic effects of extracts from Urtica dentata hand on calcium oxalate urinary stones in rats.

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    Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Shasha; Lu, Jingli; Li, Lulu; Hou, Wenrui; Xie, Mingxing; Zeng, Ying

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the potential antilithic effects of a traditional Chinese medicine Urtica dentata Hand (UDH) in experimental rats and screened the optimal extract of UDH as a possible therapeutic agent for kidney stones. The rat model of urinary calcium oxalate stones was induced by intragastric (i.g.) administration of 2 mL of 1.25% ethylene glycol (EG) and 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for 28 days and was confirmed by Color Doppler ultrasound imaging. The rats in different experimental groups were then intragastrically given petroleum ether extract (PEE), N-butanol extract (NBE), aqueous extract (AqE) of UDH, Jieshitong (positive control drug), and saline, respectively. Treatment with NBE significantly reduced the elevated levels of urinary calcium, uric acid, phosphate, as well as increased urinary output. Accordingly, the increased calcium, oxalate levels and the number of calcium oxalate crystals deposits were remarkably reverted in the renal tissue of NBE-treated rats. In addition, NBE also prevented the impairment of renal function to decrease the contents of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. Taken together, these data suggest that NBE of UDH has a beneficial effect on calcium oxalate urinary stones in rats by flushing the stones out and protecting renal function. PMID:22038359

  10. Contrasting histopathology and crystal deposits in kidneys of idiopathic stone formers who produce hydroxy apatite, brushite, or calcium oxalate stones.

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    Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Worcester, Elaine M; Sommer, Andre J; Phillips, Carrie L; Williams, James C; Coe, Fredric L

    2014-04-01

    Our previous work has shown that stone formers who form calcium phosphate (CaP) stones that contain any brushite (BRSF) have a distinctive renal histopathology and surgical anatomy when compared with idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF). Here we report on another group of idiopathic CaP stone formers, those forming stone containing primarily hydroxyapatite, in order to clarify in what ways their pathology differs from BRSF and ICSF. Eleven hydroxyapatite stone formers (HASF) (2 males, 9 females) were studied using intra-operative digital photography and biopsy of papillary and cortical regions to measure tissue changes associated with stone formation. Our main finding is that HASF and BRSF differ significantly from each other and that both differ greatly from ICSF. Both BRSF and ICSF patients have significant levels of Randall's plaque compared with HASF. Intra-tubular deposit number is greater in HASF than BRSF and nonexistent in ICSF while deposit size is smaller in HASF than BRSF. Cortical pathology is distinctly greater in BRSF than HASF. Four attached stones were observed in HASF, three in 25 BRSF and 5-10 per ICSF patient. HASF and BRSF differ clinically in that both have higher average urine pH, supersaturation of CaP, and calcium excretion than ICSF. Our work suggests that HASF and BRSF are two distinct and separate diseases and both differ greatly from ICSF.

  11. Chronic stress and calcium oxalate stone disease: is it a potential recurrence risk factor?

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    Arzoz-Fabregas, Montserrat; Ibarz-Servio, Luis; Edo-Izquierdo, Sílvia; Doladé-Botías, María; Fernandez-Castro, Jordi; Roca-Antonio, Josep

    2013-04-01

    Chronic emotional stress is associated with increased cortisol release and metabolism disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the influence of chronic stress on calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease and its recurrence. A total of 128 patients were enrolled in this case-control study over a period of 20 months. All patients were CaOx stone formers with a recent stone episode (stone formers (FS) and 33 recurrent stone formers (RS). Dimensions of chronic stress were evaluated with self-reported validated questionnaires measuring stressful life events, perceived stress, anxiety, depression, burnout and satisfaction with life. An ad hoc self-reporting questionnaire was designed to evaluate stress-related specifically to stone episodes. Blood and urine samples were collected to determine cortisol levels and urinary composition. In addition, epidemiological data, socioeconomic information, diet and incidences of metabolic syndrome (MS) were reported. Overall, no significant differences were observed in the scores of cases and controls on any of the questionnaires dealing with stress. The number (p incidences of MS (p = 0.07) than FS. Although no differences were observed in cases and controls among any dimension of chronic stress, the number and intensity of stressful life events were higher in RS than in FS. These differences correlate with variations in blood and urinary levels and with metabolic disorders, indicating an association between chronic stress and risk of recurrent CaOx stone formation.

  12. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

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    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  13. Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites

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    S. Vaitheeswari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model.Materials and Methods:The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4 on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques.Results:The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4.Conclusion:Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O32-and SO42- moiety produced by the test compounds.

  14. Evidence for net renal tubule oxalate secretion in patients with calcium kidney stones

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsland, Kristin J.; Zisman, Anna L.; Asplin, John R.; Worcester, Elaine M.; Coe, Fredric L.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the renal handling of oxalate in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH). To explore the role of tubular oxalate handling in IH and to evaluate whether differences exist between IH and normal controls, we studied 19 IH subjects, 8 normal subjects, and 2 bariatric stone formers (BSF) during a 1-day General Clinical Research Center protocol utilizing a low-oxalate diet. Urine and blood samples were collected at 30- to 60-min intervals while subjects were fasting and a...

  15. Peeping into human renal calcium oxalate stone matrix: characterization of novel proteins involved in the intricate mechanism of urolithiasis.

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    Kanu Priya Aggarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients suffering from urolithiasis represents one of the major challenges which nephrologists face worldwide today. For enhancing therapeutic outcomes of this disease, the pathogenic basis for the formation of renal stones is the need of hour. Proteins are found as major component in human renal stone matrix and are considered to have a potential role in crystal-membrane interaction, crystal growth and stone formation but their role in urolithiasis still remains obscure. METHODS: Proteins were isolated from the matrix of human CaOx containing kidney stones. Proteins having MW>3 kDa were subjected to anion exchange chromatography followed by molecular-sieve chromatography. The effect of these purified proteins was tested against CaOx nucleation and growth and on oxalate injured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK renal epithelial cells for their activity. Proteins were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server. In silico molecular interaction studies with CaOx crystals were also investigated. RESULTS: Five proteins were identified from the matrix of calcium oxalate kidney stones by MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server with the competence to control the stone formation process. Out of which two proteins were promoters, two were inhibitors and one protein had a dual activity of both inhibition and promotion towards CaOx nucleation and growth. Further molecular modelling calculations revealed the mode of interaction of these proteins with CaOx at the molecular level. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and characterized Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein, UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 2, RIMS-binding protein 3A, Macrophage-capping protein as novel proteins from the matrix of human calcium oxalate stone which play a critical role in kidney stone

  16. Herbal preparations affect the kinetic factors of calcium oxalate crystallization in synthetic urine: implications for kidney stone therapy.

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    Rodgers, Allen L; Webber, Dawn; Ramsout, Ronica; Gohel, Mayur Danny I

    2014-06-01

    Herbal remedies are increasingly being considered as suitable long-term treatments for renal dysfunction. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of some herbal extracts, all previously identified in published studies as influencing kidney stone formation, on the crystallization characteristics of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in synthetic urine (SU). Five herbal extracts were selected for the study: Folium pyrrosiae, Desmodium styracifolium, Phyllanthus niruri, Orthosiphon stamineus and Cystone(®). Concentrated stock solutions of each herbal extract were prepared and were tested at their recommended dosages in in vitro crystallization studies in SU. CaOx crystallization experiments were performed in which the metastable limit (MSL), average particle size, and nucleation and growth rates were determined. The CaOx MSL of SU was unaltered by the five herbal extracts. Three of the herbs (Desmodium styracifolium, Orthosiphon stamineus and Cystone(®)) significantly reduced the average particle size of precipitated crystals relative to undosed SU. All of the extracts increased the rate of nucleation and decreased the rate of growth significantly in SU. Cystone(®) showed the greatest effect on the measured risk factors. It is concluded that all of the herbs have the potential to serve as inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone formation and warrant investigation in clinical trials. PMID:24648109

  17. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Kargar; Rouhi Afkari; Sadegh Ghorbani-Dalini

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a tota...

  18. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

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    Mohammad Kargar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a total of 200 subjects divided in two equal groups. They were selected from the patients with urinary tract stones, visiting urologist, and also normal people. The level of calcium, oxalate, and citrate in the urinary samples, parathyroid and calcium in the serum samples, and degrading activity of fecal lactobacillus strains of all the subjects were evaluated. Then, data analysis was carried out using SPSS-11.5, χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that the patients had higher urinary level of oxalate and calcium, as well as higher serum level of parathyroid hormone than normal people. In contrast, urinary level of citrate was higher in normal people. In addition, there was a significant difference between the oxalate-degrading capacities of lactobacillus isolated from the patients and their normal peers.Conclusion: Reduction of digestive lactobacillus-related oxalate-degrading capacity and increased serum level of parathyroid hormone can cause elevated urinary level of oxalate and calcium in people with kidney stone.

  19. The osteopontin-controlled switching of calcium oxalate monohydrate morphologies in artificial urine provides insights into the formation of papillary kidney stones.

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    Langdon, Aaron; Grohe, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    The protein osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) kidney stones. To gain insight into these mechanisms, crystallization was induced by addition of human kidney OPN to artificial urine (ionic strength comparable to urine; without citrate), and the OPN-COM interaction studied using a combination of scanning electron (SEM) and confocal microscopy. By SEM, we found that increasing OPN concentrations formed large monoclinic penetration twins (no protein added) and, at higher concentrations (1-, 2μg/ml OPN), super and hyper twins with crystal habits not found in previous studies. For instance, the hyper twins indicate well-facetted gearwheel-like habits with "teeth" developed in all crystallographic directions. At OPN concentrations ≥2μg/ml, a switching to small dumbbell-shaped COM habits with fine-textured surfaces occurred. Confocal microscopy of these dumbbells indicates protein incorporation in almost the entire crystal structure (in contrast to facetted COM), proposing a threshold concentration of ∼2μg/ml OPN for the facetted to the non-facetted habit transformation. Both the gearwheel-like and the dumbbell-shaped habit are again found side-by-side (presumably triggered by OPN concentration gradients within the sample) in in-vitro formed conglomerates, which resemble cross-sections of papillary kidney stones. The abrupt transformation from facetted to non-facetted habits and the unique compliance of the two in-vitro formed habits with the two main morphologies found in papillary kidney stones propose that OPN is a main effector in direct stone-forming processes. Moreover, stone structures which exhibit these two morphologies side-by-side might serve as a novel indicator for OPN concentrations surrounding those structures. PMID:27362921

  20. Oxalate: from the environment to kidney stones.

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    Brzica, Hrvoje; Breljak, Davorka; Burckhardt, Birgitta C; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Sabolić, Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Oxalate urolithiasis (nephrolithiasis) is the most frequent type of kidney stone disease. Epidemiological research has shown that urolithiasis is approximately twice as common in men as in women, but the underlying mechanism of this sex-related prevalence is unclear. Oxalate in the organism partially originate from food (exogenous oxalate) and largely as a metabolic end-product from numerous precursors generated mainly in the liver (endogenous oxalate). Oxalate concentrations in plasma and urine can be modified by various foodstuffs, which can interact in positively or negatively by affecting oxalate absorption, excretion, and/or its metabolic pathways. Oxalate is mostly removed from blood by kidneys and partially via bile and intestinal excretion. In the kidneys, after reaching certain conditions, such as high tubular concentration and damaged integrity of the tubule epithelium, oxalate can precipitate and initiate the formation of stones. Recent studies have indicated the importance of the SoLute Carrier 26 (SLC26) family of membrane transporters for handling oxalate. Two members of this family [Sulfate Anion Transporter 1 (SAT-1; SLC26A1) and Chloride/Formate EXchanger (CFEX; SLC26A6)] may contribute to oxalate transport in the intestine, liver, and kidneys. Malfunction or absence of SAT-1 or CFEX has been associated with hyperoxaluria and urolithiasis. However, numerous questions regarding their roles in oxalate transport in the respective organs and male-prevalent urolithiasis, as well as the role of sex hormones in the expression of these transporters at the level of mRNA and protein, still remain to be answered. PMID:24384768

  1. The paradoxical role of urinary macromolecules in the aggregation of calcium oxalate: a further plea to increase diuresis in stone metaphylaxis.

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    Baumann, J M; Affolter, B

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to get information on aggregation (AGN) of urinary calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) which seems to occur in stone formation despite a protecting coat of urinary macromolecules (UMs). CaOx crystallization was directly produced in urine, control and albumin solution by Ox titration and was spectrophotometrically followed. A rapid decrease of optical density indicating AGN was absent in 14 of 15 freshly voided urines of 5 healthy controls. However, in the presence of UM-coated hydroxyapatite all urines with relative high sodium concentration, being an indicator of concentrated urine, showed a pronounced AGN which was abolished when these urines were diluted. Albumin relatively found to be an inhibitor of AGN showed after temporary adsorption on Ca Phosphate (CaP) massive self-AGN and changed to a promoter of CaOx AGN. Self-AGN after adsorption on surfaces especially of CaP, being an important compound of Randall's plaques, can thus explain this paradoxical behavior of UMs. Aggregated UMs probably bridge zones of electrostatic repulsion between UM-coated crystals with identical electrical surface charge. These zones extend by urine dilution which decreases ionic strength. Diminution of urinary concentration by increasing diuresis seems, therefore, to be important in stone metaphylaxis.

  2. Influence of nutrition on feline calcium oxalate urolithiasis with emphasis on endogenous oxalate synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Plantinga, E.A.; Baal, van J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths detected in cats with lower urinary tract disease has shown a sharp increase over the last decades with a concomitant reciprocal decrease in the occurrence of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) uroliths. CaOx stone-preventative diets are availab

  3. Experimental determination of multiple thermodynamic and kinetic risk factors for nephrolithiasis in the urine of healthy controls and calcium oxalate stone formers: does a universal discriminator exist?

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    Rodgers, A L; Webber, D; Hibberd, B

    2015-11-01

    Nephrolithiasis is thought to be governed by urinary thermodynamic and kinetic risk factors. However, identification of one or more of these factors which consistently and unambiguously differentiates between healthy subjects (N) and calcium oxalate (CaOx) renal stone patients (SF) remains elusive. The present study addresses this challenge. 24 h urines were collected from 15 N and 10 SF. Urine compositions were used to compute thermodynamic risk indices including urinary ratios, quotients and supersaturation (SS) values, while CaOx metastable limits (MSL) were determined experimentally. Crystallisation kinetics was determined by measuring rates of particle formation (number, volume, size) using a Coulter counter multisizer (CC) and a Coulter flow cytometer (FC). Particle shapes were qualitatively differentiated by FC and were viewed directly by scanning electron microscopy. Several urinary composition ratios and risk quotients were significantly different between the groups. However, there were no significant differences between CaOx MSL or SS values. Using transformed FC data, the rate of CaOx crystallisation in SF was significantly greater than in N. This was not supported by CC measurements. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to particle size or CaOx crystal growth rates. Single and aggregated CaOx dihydrate crystals were observed in both groups with equal frequency and there were no differences in the kinetic properties of these deposits. A few CaOx monohydrate crystals were observed in SF. Although several risk factors were found to be significantly different between the groups, none of them were consistently robust when compared to other cognate factors. Arguments were readily invoked which demonstrated inter-factor inconsistencies and conflicts. We suspect that a unique discriminatory factor, such as any of those which we investigated in the present study, may not exist. PMID:26198547

  4. Reactive oxygen species, inflammation and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis

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    Khan, Saeed R.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones are formed attached to Randall’s plaques (RPs) or Randall’s plugs. Mechanisms involved in the formation and growth are poorly understood. It is our hypothesis that stone formation is a form of pathological biomineralization or ectopic calcification. Pathological calcification and plaque formation in the body is triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the development of oxidative stress (OS). This review explores clinical and experimental data in sup...

  5. Influence of nutrition on feline calcium oxalate urolithiasis with emphasis on endogenous oxalate synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Dijcker, J.C.; Plantinga, E.A.; Baal, van, G.C.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths detected in cats with lower urinary tract disease has shown a sharp increase over the last decades with a concomitant reciprocal decrease in the occurrence of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) uroliths. CaOx stone-preventative diets are available nowadays, but seem to be marginally effective, as CaOx urolith recurrence occurs in patients fed these diets. In order to improve the preventative measures against CaOx urolithiasis, it is impor...

  6. Influence of nutrition on feline calcium oxalate urolithiasis with emphasis on endogenous oxalate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijcker, J C; Plantinga, E A; van Baal, J; Hendriks, W H

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths detected in cats with lower urinary tract disease has shown a sharp increase over the last decades with a concomitant reciprocal decrease in the occurrence of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) uroliths. CaOx stone-preventative diets are available nowadays, but seem to be marginally effective, as CaOx urolith recurrence occurs in patients fed these diets. In order to improve the preventative measures against CaOx urolithiasis, it is important to understand its aetiopathogenesis. The main research focus in CaOx formation in cats has been on the role of Ca, whereas little research effort has been directed towards the role and origin of urinary oxalates. As in man, the exogenous origin of urinary oxalates in cats is thought to be of minor importance, although the precise contribution of dietary oxalates remains unclear. The generally accepted dietary risk factors for CaOx urolithiasis in cats are discussed and a model for the biosynthetic pathways of oxalate in feline liver is provided. Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) in endogenous oxalate metabolism is a liver-specific enzyme targeted in the mitochondria in cats, and allows for efficient conversion of glyoxylate to glycine when fed a carnivorous diet. The low peroxisomal activity of AGT1 in cat liver is compatible with the view that felids utilised a low-carbohydrate diet throughout evolution. Future research should focus on understanding de novo biosynthesis of oxalate in cats and their adaptation(s) in oxalate metabolism, and on dietary oxalate intake and absorption by cats. PMID:21338551

  7. The changes of CaSR activity on the formation of calcium oxalate stones%钙敏感受体活性改变对大鼠泌尿系草酸钙结石形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笑然; 岳中瑾; 马俊海; 裴薇; 辛文虎; 明星; 杨雄

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of CaSR activity on the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Methods A-dult male Sprague Dawley rats were given ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride to induce urolithiasis. Meanwhile, different doses of CaSR inhibitors (NPS-2390) were administered. The values of serum urea, creatinine,P,Ca2+ and Mg2+ ,PTH,24 h urine volume,urine pH,Ca2+ , Mg2+and oxalate were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Kidney sections were examined under a light microscope to study the calcium oxalate crystal deposition, pathological changes and the expression of CaSR. Results The urolithiasis induced by ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride caused not only significant increase of serum ure-a,creatinine, urine oxalate and Ca2+ ,but also great amount of calcium oxalate crystal deposition in kidney. PTH secretion of CaSR inhibitor group increased and blood Ca2+ urine Ca2+ raised. Renal histopathologic examination showed significant increase of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney tissue of the CaSR inhibitor group,and kidney tissue damage was obvious.Conclusions In the kidney and parathyroid gland the low expression of CaSR can increase the formation of calcium oxalate crystal.%目的 探讨钙敏感受体(CaSR)活性改变对草酸钙结石形成的影响.方法 在实验期间给予乙二醇和氯化铵诱导雄性SD大鼠产生泌尿系草酸钙结石.在造模期间给予不同剂量的CaSR抑制剂(NPS-2390).实验结束时检测各组大鼠血尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Cr)、血磷、血钙、血镁、PTH的含量、24 h尿量、尿pH值、尿钙、镁、尿草酸的分泌量,显微镜下观察肾组织切片中草酸钙结晶沉积及病理变化情况及肾脏中CaSR表达情况.从而评价CaSR活性的改变对泌尿系结石形成的影响.结果 成石对照组大鼠血BUN、Cr、尿草酸、尿钙较空白组明显升高并且有大量结晶形成,表明建模成功.CaSR抑制剂组较成石对照组甲状旁腺激素(PTH

  8. Inhibition of the Crystal Growth and Aggregation of Calcium Oxalate by Algae Sulfated Polysaccharide In-vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Mei WU; Jian Ming OUYANG; Sui Ping DENG; Ying Zhou CEN

    2006-01-01

    The influence of sulfated polysaccharide (SPS) isolated from marine algae Sargassum fusiforme on the morphology and phase compositions of urinary crystal calcium oxalate was investigated in vitro by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. SPS maybe is a potential inhibitor to CaOxa urinary stones by inhibiting the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), preventing the aggregation of COM, and inducing the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals.

  9. Reactive oxygen species, inflammation and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed R

    2014-09-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones are formed attached to Randall's plaques (RPs) or Randall's plugs. Mechanisms involved in the formation and growth are poorly understood. It is our hypothesis that stone formation is a form of pathological biomineralization or ectopic calcification. Pathological calcification and plaque formation in the body is triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the development of oxidative stress (OS). This review explores clinical and experimental data in support of ROS involvement in the formation of CaOx kidney stones. Under normal conditions the production of ROS is tightly controlled, increasing when and where needed. Results of clinical and experimental studies show that renal epithelial exposure to high oxalate and crystals of CaOx/calcium phosphate (CaP) generates excess ROS, causing injury and inflammation. Major markers of OS and inflammation are detectable in urine of stone patients as well as rats with experimentally induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. Antioxidant treatments reduce crystal and oxalate induced injury in tissue culture and animal models. Significantly lower serum levels of antioxidants, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthine have been found in individuals with a history of kidney stones. A diet rich in antioxidants has been shown to reduce stone episodes. ROS regulate crystal formation, growth and retention through the timely production of crystallization modulators. In the presence of abnormal calcium, citrate, oxalate, and/or phosphate, however, there is an overproduction of ROS and a decrease in the antioxidant capacity resulting in OS, renal injury and inflammation. Cellular degradation products in the urine promote crystallization in the tubular lumen at a faster rate thus blocking the tubule and plugging the tubular openings at the papillary tips forming Randall's plugs. Renal epithelial cells lining the loops of Henle/collecting ducts may become osteogenic, producing membrane vesicles at

  10. Experimental Study on Prevention of Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones of Total Flavonoids of Herba Lysimachiae%金钱草总黄酮预防草酸钙肾结石的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋强; 吴希庆; 萨音白刚

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究金钱草总黄酮对大鼠肾草酸钙结石形成的影响。方法:采用1%乙二醇和2%氯化铵造成大鼠草酸钙结石模型,应用金钱草总黄酮不同剂量作为干预因素。统计实验组大鼠不同时间的尿量,采用生化全自动分析仪检测各组大鼠不同时间的尿生化大鼠尿草酸的含量,造模28d结束后生化仪检测血生化。取大鼠肾脏通过大鼠丙二醛试剂盒,硫代巴比妥酸法检测丙二醛(MDA);以及通过大鼠超氧化物歧化酶试剂盒,黄嘌呤氧化酶法检测超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)。结果:与结石结石组比较,金钱草总黄酮组大鼠的24小时尿中肌酐、草酸、尿Ca2+含量,血 BUN、Cr含量,有显著差异(P<0.05);尿量各组间差异无统计学意义;氧化损伤测定得出高、中、低剂量组相比肾脏SOD水平有递减趋势,肾脏MDA水平有递增趋势。结论:–金钱草总黄酮可抑制肾脏草酸钙结石的形成,并有一定的量效关系;其作用机制是通过抗氧化反应,减少自由基对肾组织的损伤,从而减少高草酸尿对肾小管上皮细胞的凋亡。%Objective:To investigate the influence of total flavonoid extracted from Desmodium Styracifolium on oxalic acid calcium oxalate stones in rats. Method:The rat model of renal calcium oxalate stones formation was induced by administering 1%ethylene glycol and 2%ammonium chloride with the intervention factor of using different dose of flavonoid extracted from Desmodium Styracifolium.When forming stones, Statistics urine of rats in the experimental group at different times, the biochemistry and volume of urine in different groups and time was determined on automatic biochemical analyzer,and the content of oxalic acid in urine was determined by paired ion high performance liquid chromatography.28 days later,the biochemistry of blood was tested by biochemical analyzer.The MDA content was detected through Lipid

  11. 排石冲剂对大鼠草酸钙结石生成的干预效果及其机制研究%Effects and Mechanism of Paishi Granule on Renal Calcium Oxalate Stone Formation in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秋实; 巴元明; 罗俊华; 王洁钰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects and possible mechanism of Paishi granule on renal calcium oxalate stone formation in rats,and provide the basis for the clinical therapy for urinary calculi. Methods A total of 48 SPF level healthy male Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups by random number table method,including normal group,model group,Potassium citrate - treated group,and Paishi granule - treated group(n = 12 for each). The rat model of renal calcium oxalate stone was induced by intragastrically administrated 2% ammonium chloride( AC),together with 1% ethylene glycol( EG)for free drink. At the same time,each group was treated with corresponding drug. Individual weight and urine volume were recorded;24 h urine was collected for the evaluations of urinary oxalate( Ox),calcium( Ca2 + ),phosphate( P3 + )and magnesium (Mg2 + ) levels. The serum urea nitrogen( BUN),creatinine( Cr),Ca2 + ,P3 + ,Mg2 + levels were determined in each animal. The paraffin sections of kidney were prepared for observing the calcium oxalate deposit and pathological changes under the microscope. Results The 24 h urine volumes in Potassium citrate - treated group and Paishi granule - treated group were significantly higher than those in normal group and model group( P 0. 05). The levels of 24 h urinary oxalate,Ca2 + and P3 + showed significant differences between any two groups from the four groups(P 0. 05). The serum BUN and Ca2 + levels in the two treated groups were significantly higher than those in normal group,but lower than in model group(P 0. 05). The serum Cr level demonstrated significant difference between any two groups(P < 0. 05). The scores of calcium oxalate crystallization in the two treated groups were significantly higher than in normal group,conversely,lower than model group( P < 0. 05). Furthermore,the score in Paishi granule - treated group was lower than in Potassium citrate - treated group(P < 0. 05). Conclusion The Paishi granule can significantly decrease the

  12. Increased calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal binding to injured renal tubular epithelial cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F. Verkoelen; B.G. van der Boom (Burt); A.B. Houtsmuller (Adriaan); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); J.C. Romijn (Johannes)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe retention of crystals in the kidney is considered to be a crucial step in the development of a renal stone. This study demonstrates the time-dependent alterations in the extent of calcium oxalate (CaOx) monohydrate (COM) crystal binding to Madin-Darby ca

  13. INHIBITION OF CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALLIZATION IN-VITRO BY VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS (L.) POIT.

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal Kumkum; Varma Ranjana

    2012-01-01

    Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit. commonly known as Vilayati tulsi, belongs to the Mint family Lamiaceae. The inhibition of in-vitro calcium-oxalate crystal (a major component of most urinary stones) formation by various extracts of Hyptis was investigated by titrimetric method. The inhibitor potency of alcohol extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit was found to be comparable to that of cystone (a proprietary drug for dissolving kidney stones). Thus alcohol extract could be further analyzed in viv...

  14. Sensitivity to calcium intake in calcium stone forming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1996-01-01

    The absorptive or renal origin of hypercalciuria can be discriminated using an acute oral calcium load test (ACLT). Of 86 patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones, 28 (23%) were found to be hypercalciuric (HCa) and 58 (67%) normocalciuric (NCa) on their customary free diet, containing 542 +/- 29 mg/day (mean +/- SE) of calcium. Since the apparently normal 24-hour calcium excretion of many calcium stone formers (CSF) may be due to a combination of high calcium absorption with moderately low calcium intake, all patients were investigated by ACLT. Of 28 HCa patients, 13 (46%) were classified as absorptive (AH) and 15 (54%) as renal hypercalciuria (RH). Of the 58 NCa patients, 38 (65%) presented features of intestinal hyperabsorption and were therefore designated as AH-like, and 20 (35%) as RH-like. To further elucidate the role of dietary calcium in these CSF, a chronic calcium load test (CCLT), consisting of 1 g/day of oral Ca for 7 days, was designed. A positive response to the CCLT was considered to occur when urinary calcium (uCa) was > or = 4 mg/ kg/24 h on the 7th day. Among NCa patients, 29% of AH-like subjects responded to the CCLT and 71% did not; 50% of RH-like subjects also responded and 50% did not. In HCa patients, 85% of AH and 67% of RH subjects maintained uCa > or = 4 mg/kg/24 h after the CCLT and 15% of AH and 23% of RH subjects did not. However, a significant additional increase in mean uCa was not observed among HCa patients. All patients were submitted to a second evaluation of fasting calciuria (Ca/Cr). A modification of this parameter was noticed in 89% of RH-like and 78% of RH patients. In conclusion, these data suggest the presence of subpopulations of patients sensitive or not to calcium intake, regardless of whether the acute response to a calcium overload test suggested AH or RH. The CCLT disclosed dietary hypercalciuria in 21/58 (36%) of previously NCa patients. In these NCa patients, the ACLT may be replaced by the CCLT. The distinction

  15. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  16. The effect of glycosaminoglycans on the crystallisation of calcium oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, K; Garside, J; Blacklock, N J

    1989-06-01

    The effect of glycosaminoglycans on urinary stone formation was evaluated using a mixed suspension, mixed product removal (MSMPR) crystallisation system together with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the resulting crystals. Chondroitin sulphate was found to decrease the nucleation rate and to promote both the growth rate and suspension density. Results obtained with hyaluronic acid, although inconclusive, are similar to those given by chondroitin sulphate. Heparin sodium salt had a powerful inhibitory effect on both the nucleation rate and the suspension density, the effect increasing in proportion to the heparin concentration. SEM examination showed that the octahedral habit of calcium oxalate dihydrate was modified by the addition of heparin sodium salt and confirmed that the average crystal size in the presence of chondroitin sulphate and hyaluronic acid was significantly greater than the control or that found in the presence of heparin sodium salt. PMID:2502299

  17. Nanoscale observations of the effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.

    2016-04-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4ṡxH2O) minerals are naturally occurring minerals found in fossils, plants, kidney stones and is a by-product in some processes such as paper, food and beverage production [1,2]. In particular, calcium oxalate monohydrate phase (COM) also known as whewellite (CaC2O4ṡH2O), is the most frequently reported mineral phase found in urinary and kidney stones together with phosphates. Organic additives are well known to play a key role in the formation of minerals in both biotic and abiotic systems, either facilitating their precipitation or hindering it. In this regard, recent studies have provided direct evidence demonstrating that citrate species could enhance dissolution of COM and inhibit their precipitation. [3,4] The present work aims at evauate the influence of pH, citrate and oxalic acid concentrations in calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces (Island Spar, Chihuahua, Mexico) through in-situ nanoscale observation using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, Multimode, Bruker) in flow-through experiments. Changes in calcium oxalate morphologies and precipitated phases were observed, as well as the inhibitory effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation, which also lead to stabilization an the amorphous calcium oxalate phase. [1] K.D. Demadis, M. Öner, Inhibitory effects of "green"additives on the crystal growth of sparingly soluble salts, in: J.T. Pearlman (Ed.), Green Chemistry Research Trends, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 265-287. [2] M. Masár, M. Zuborová, D. Kaniansky, B. Stanislawski, Determination of oxalate in beer by zone electrophoresis on a chip with conductivity detection, J. Sep. Sci. 26 (2003) 647-652. [3] Chutipongtanate S, Chaiyarit S, Thongboonkerd V. Citrate, not phosphate, can dissolve calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and detach these crystals from renal tubular cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;689:219-25. [4] Weaver ML, Qiu SR, Hoyer JR, Casey WH, Nancollas GH, De Yoreo JJ

  18. Trace element studies in urolithiasis; preliminary investigation on mixed calcium oxalate-struvite urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the levels of the trace elements copper , zinc, lead, iron, aluminum, nickel, chromium along with magnesium, sodium and potassium were estimated in fifteen mixed calcium oxalate-struvite (CaOx/STR) urinary stones. The mean values of the combined results were, copper 4.24, zinc 1302, zinc 1302.10, lead 23.25, iron 36.83,nickel 0.69, chromium 1.93, magnesium 4530441, sodium 54.13 and potassium 5.93 ng mg/sup -1/. It was observed that zinc, aluminum and potassium levels were higher than in calcium oxalate(CaOx) calculi 0.05>P>0.02 and potassium levels were higher than in mixed calcium oxalate-hydroxy appetite (CaOx/APA) calculi, P<0.01. A combination of all the results was also compared with similar data from South Africa, Turkey, Austria, India, U.S.A and Japan. (author)

  19. Treatment of renal calcium stone disease with the synthetic glycosaminoglycan pentosan polysulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellström, B; Backman, U; Danielson, B; Wikström, B

    1994-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are potent inhibitors of calcium oxalate growth and aggregation. The synthetic GAG pentosan polysulphate (PPS) was used in the treatment of patients with renal calcium stone disease. Altogether, 121 patients were included in an open trial over a 3-year-period. The average stone episode rate and the stone operation rate were no different during treatment and in the pretreatment period. Altogether 48% of the patients were entirely stone-free during follow-up, whereas 29/56 patients who continued to form stones reported smaller stones that were more easily passed. It is concluded that there may be a role for PPS in the treatment of recurrent renal calcium stone disease, but a controlled study may be needed. PMID:7516780

  20. Experimental models of renal calcium stones in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbault, Héloïse; Haymann, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    In human nephrolithiasis, most stones are containing calcium and are located within urinary cavities; they may contain monohydrate calcium oxalate, dihydrate calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphates in various proportion. Nephrolithiasis may also be associated with nephrocalcinosis, i.e., crystal depositions in tubular lumen and/or interstitium, an entity which suggests specific pathological processes. Several rodents models have been developed in order to study the pathophysiology of intrarenal crystal formation. We review here calcium rodent models classified upon the presence of nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. As rodents are not prone to nephrolithiasis, models require the induction of a long standing hypercalciuria or hyperoxaluria (thus explaining the very few studies reported), conversely to nephrocalcinosis which may occur within hours or days. Whereas a nephrotoxicity leading to tubular injury and regeneration appears as a critical event for crystal retention in nephrocalcinosis models, surprisingly very little is known about the physiopathology of crystal attachment to urothelium in nephrolithiasis. Creating new models of nephrolithiasis especially in different genetic mice strains appears an important challenge in order to unravel the early mechanisms of urinary stone formation in papilla and fornices. PMID:26981444

  1. Heterogeneous nucleation of calcium oxalate on native oxide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aqueous deposition of calcium oxalate onto colloidal oxides has been studied as a model system for understanding heterogeneous nucleation processes of importance in biomimetic synthesis of ceramic thin films. Calcium oxalate nucleation has been monitored by measuring induction times for nucleation using Constant Composition techniques and by measuring nucleation densities on extended oxide surfaces using an atomic force microscope. Results show that the dependence of calcium oxalate nucleation on solution supersaturation fits the functional form predicted by classical nucleation theories. Anionic surfaces appear to promote nucleation better than cationic surfaces, lowering the effective energy barrier to heterogeneous nucleation

  2. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsland, Kristin J; Coe, Fredric L; White, Mark D; Erhard, Michael J; DeFoor, William R; Mahan, John D; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Asplin, John R

    2012-06-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence, treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone-forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-h urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone-forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones, all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH, and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones. PMID:22358148

  3. Changes in calcium oxalate crystal morphology as a function of supersaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the changes in calcium oxalate crystal morphology induced by different levels of supersaturation (SS in human urine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four hours urine samples from 5 normal men were collected. Each specimen was centrifuged and filtered. About 200 mL of each sample was dialyzed overnight. Aliquots of 2 mL of urine was then added to a 24-wells tissue culture plate and checked for crystal absence. Calcium oxalate crystals were precipitated from each sample by adding sodium oxalate and calcium chloride in sufficient quantities to induce spontaneous crystallization. Finally, each plate hole was examined with an inverted polarized microscope (X500 magnification. Initial SS of each sample relative to calcium oxalate was calculated using an iterative computer program. RESULTS: Crystal formation was connecte to relative calcium oxalate (CaOx SS. At SS of 10, small crystals of similar shape were formed, mainly CaOx dihydrate morphology. At SS of 30, there was an enormous increase in the number of crystals, that kept the same size. SS greater than 50 produced larger crystals with different shapes and multiple crystalline aggregates. Urine was able to tolerate, i.e., to avoid crystal formation, until SS ratios of approximately 10. CONCLUSIONS: Relative CaOx SS and the concentration ratio of calcium to oxalate are important determinanting factors of crystal morphology. Non-dialyzable urinary proteins can act as inhibitors and influence the structure of formed crystals. Additional studies from patients with kidney stones are needed in order to establish whether crystal size and habit distribution are different from crystals in normal urine.

  4. INHIBITION OF CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALLIZATION IN-VITRO BY VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS (L. POIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Kumkum

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis suaveolens (L Poit. commonly known as Vilayati tulsi, belongs to the Mint family Lamiaceae. The inhibition of in-vitro calcium-oxalate crystal (a major component of most urinary stones formation by various extracts of Hyptis was investigated by titrimetric method. The inhibitor potency of alcohol extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit was found to be comparable to that of cystone (a proprietary drug for dissolving kidney stones. Thus alcohol extract could be further analyzed in vivo and further characterization of its active compound could lead to the discovery of a new candidate drug for the patients with urolithiasis.

  5. Effects of temperature and sodium carboxylate additives on mineralization of calcium oxalate in silica gel systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Jianming; DENG; Suiping; LI; Xiangping; TAN; Yanh

    2004-01-01

    [1]Ouyang, J. M., Yao, X. Q., Su, Z. X. et al., Simulation of calcium oxalate stone in Vitro, Science in China, Ser. B, 2003, 46(3):234-242.[2]Xu, S. H., Chen, J. Q., Zhou, H., Nepidemiological study of renal calculus in Shenshen region, Chin. J. Urol. (in Chinese), 1999,20(11): 655-657.[3]Bretherton, T., Rodgers, A., Crystallization of calcium oxalate in minimally diluted urine, J. Crystal Growth, 1998, 192: 448-455.[4]Grover, P. K., Ryall, R. L., Effect of seed crystals of uric acid and monosodium urate on the crystallization of CaOxa in undiluted human urine in vitro, Clin. Sci., 1997, 92: 205-213.[5]Laube, N., Mohr, B., Hesse, A., Laser-probe-based investigation of the evolution of particle size distributions of calcium oxalate particles formed in artificial urines, J. Crystal Growth, 2001, 233:367-374.[6]Tunik, L., Fueredi-Milhofer, H., Garti, N., Adsorption of sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate onto calcium oxalate crystals, Langmuir,1998, 14: 3351-3355.[7]Cody, A. M., Cody, R. D., Calcium oxalate trihydrate phase control by structurally-specific carboxylic acids, J. Cryst. Growth,1994, 135: 234-245.[8]Ouyang, J. M., Duan, L., Tieke, B., Effects of carboxylic acids on the crystal growth of calcium oxalate nanoparticles in lecithin-water liposome systems, Langmuir, 2003, 19: 8980-8985.[9]Guo, S., Ward, M. D., Wesson, J. A., Direct visualization of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization and dissolution with atomic force microscopy and the role of polymeric additives,Langmuir, 2002, 18:4284-4291.[10]Yasui, T., Sato, M., Fujita, K., Effects of citrate on renal stone formation and osteopontin expression in a rat urolithiasis model,Urol. Res., 2001,29: 50-56.[11]Ouyang, J. M., Deng, S. P., Controlled and uncontrolled crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of citric acid, Dalton Transactions, 2003, (14): 2846-2851.[12]Khan, S. R., Whalen, P. O., Glenton, P. A., Heterogeneous nucleation of

  6. Mediation of calcium oxalate crystal growth on human kidney epithelial cells with different degrees of injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study examined the role of injured human kidney tubular epithelial cell (HKC) in the mediation of formation of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals by means of scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. HKC was injured using different concentrations of H2O2. Cell injury resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration and an increase in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and expression of osteopontin (OPN). Injured cells not only promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals, but also induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals that strongly adhere to cells. These results imply that injured HKCs promote stone formation by providing more nucleating sites for crystals, promoting the aggregation of crystals, and inducing the formation of COM crystals. - Graphical abstract: Injured cells promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals, induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Highlights: ► A direct nucleation and growth of CaOxa crystals on both normal and injured cells. ► Stronger green fluorescence, i.e. OPN expression, was seen on the injury cell surface ► Injured cells promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals. ► Injured cells induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. ► H2O2 decrease cell viability in a dose-dependent manner at 0.1–1 mmol/L.

  7. The construction of an oxalate-degrading intestinal stem cell population in mice: a potential new treatment option for patients with calcium oxalate calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Liu, Guanlin; Ye, Zhangqun; Kong, Debo; Yao, Lingfang; Guo, Hui; Yang, Weimin; Yu, Xiao

    2012-04-01

    About 80% of all urological stones are calcium oxalate, mainly caused by idiopathic hyperoxaluria (IH). The increased absorption of oxalate from the intestine is the major factor underlying IH. The continuous self-renewal of the intestinal epithelium is due to the vigorous proliferation and differentiation of intestinal stem cells. If the intestinal stem cell population can acquire the ability to metabolize calcium oxalate by means of oxc and frc transgenes, this will prove a promising new therapy option for IH. In our research, the oxalate-degrading genes of Oxalobacter formigenes (Oxf)-the frc gene and oxc gene-were cloned and transfected into a cultured mouse-derived intestinal SC population to give the latter an oxalate-degrading function. Oxf was isolated and cultivated and the oxalate-degrading genes-frc and oxc-were cloned. The dicistronic eukaryotic expression vector pIRES-oxc-frc was constructed and transferred into the mouse stem cell population. After selection with G418, the expression of the genes was identified. The oxalate-degrading function of transfected cells was determined by transfection into the intestinal stem cell population of the mouse. The change in oxalate concentration was determined with an ion chromatograph. The recombinant plasmid containing oxc and frc genes was transfected into the stem cell population of the mouse and the expression of the genes found normal. The cell population had acquired an oxalate-degrading function. The oxc and frc genes could be transfected into the intestinal stem cell population of the mouse and the cells acquired an oxalate-degrading function. PMID:21892601

  8. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

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    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  9. 枸橼酸钾预防舰艇人员尿草酸钙结石复发的疗效观察%Clinical research on the prevention of the formation of urinary calcium oxalate stone among naval afloat personnel with potassium citrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆丹; 胡永胜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism for the formation of urinary calcium oxalate stone with potassium citrate and its effects on the relapse of urinary calcium oxalate stone .Methods Seventy-two naval afloat personnel with kidney stone , who had received treatment of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy at the outpatient, were randomly divided into the control group (n=34) and the potassium citrate group (n=38).Following lithotripsy, the patients in the control group were asked to drink more water, have more physical exercises and eat less food with rich calcium and high oxalic acid .The patients in the potassium citrate group were given 12.5%potassium citrate orally at a dosage of 10 ml, 3 times a day for a prolonged time.Blood and urine biochemical indexes were detected both before and after medication. Furthermore, ultrasonography was taken once every 3 months and the patients had medical follow-up for 12 months.Results One week after they were given potassium citrate orally, urine pH value, potassium and citric acid elevated markedly, while urine calcium decreased obvious-ly.Twelve-month follow-up indicated that 5 patients in the control group had relapse of lithiasis with a recurrence rate of 14.7%, while for the 38 patients in the potassium citrate group, there was only one case of relapse, with a recurrence rate of 2.63%.Significant differences could be noted in recurrence rate, when comparisons were made between the two groups(P<0.01).Conclusion Potassium citrate could decrease the level of urine calcium, and as a consequence could prevent the relapse of urinary calcium oxalate stone effectively .%目的:探讨枸橼酸钾预防尿草酸钙结石形成的机制及其对尿草酸钙结石复发的影响。方法选择72例舰艇人员经过门诊体外震波碎石治疗后肾结石患者,按治疗方法分为对照组34例和枸橼酸钾组38例。对照组碎石后要求多饮水、多运动、少吃富含高钙、高草酸、高尿酸食品;

  10. Influence of calcium oxalate crystal accumulation on the calcium content of seeds from Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Paul A

    2012-04-01

    Crystals of calcium oxalate often form in cells adjacent to the vascular bundles in the tissues along the xylem stream. This spatial crystal pattern suggests a role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport and partitioning to edible organs such as seeds. To investigate this potential role, microscopic and biochemical comparisons were conducted on the different tissues of Medicago truncatula wild-type and the calcium oxalate defective (cod) 5 which lacks the ability to accumulate prismatic crystals in the cells adjacent to the vascular bundles. Calcium measurements showed that cod5 seeds had more calcium and cod5 pods contained less calcium than the corresponding wild-type tissues. Roots, stems, and leaves from cod5 and wild-type had similar calcium content. Although cod5 was devoid of prismatic crystals, cod5 pods were observed to form druse crystals of calcium oxalate not found in wild-type pods. Taken together these findings suggest a functional role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport to the seeds. Regulating calcium uptake at the roots also appeared to be another point of control in determining seed calcium content. Overall, regulating the long distance transport and partitioning of calcium to the seeds appears to be a complex process with multiple points of control. PMID:22325887

  11. Calcium oxalate contribution to calcium cycling in forests of contrasting nutrient status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (Ca oxalate) is an insoluble biomineral that forms in plants and fungi, and occurs in soils across many types of ecosystems. Assessing how Ca oxalate may shape ecosystem Ca cycling requires information on the distribution of Ca oxalate among plant biomass, detritus, and mineral soil, and how it varies with ecosystem Ca status. We compared two Douglas-fir forests of contrasting ecosystem Ca availability, and found that Ca oxalate was partitioned similarly among plant biomass, detritus and mineral soil major ecosystem compartments at both sites, and total pools of Ca oxalate were greater in the high-Ca forest. However, the proportional importance of Ca oxalate was greater in the low-Ca than high-Ca forest (18% versus 4% of actively cycling ecosystem Ca, respectively). And calcium oxalate in mineral soil, which is of particular interest as a potential long-term Ca reservoir, was a larger portion of total available Ca (exchangeable Ca plus Ca oxalate Ca) in the low-Ca site than the high-Ca site (9% versus 1% of available soil Ca, respectively). Calcium oxalate was the dominant form of Ca returned from plants to soil as leaf litterfall at the high-Ca site, yet calcium oxalate disappeared rapidly from decomposing litter (0.28 yr−1 or faster) at both sites. We conclude that accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest ecosystems appears most closely related to overall Ca supply for live biomass pools, and that the accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest floor and mineral soil is limited by rapid microbial degradation of putatively unavailable Ca oxalate.

  12. Reinjury risk of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals on injured renal epithelial cells: aggravation of crystal adhesion and aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Bhadja, Poonam; Yao, Xiu-Qiong; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal epithelial cell injury facilitates crystal adhesion to cell surface and serves as a key step in renal stone formation. However, the effects of cell injury on the adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate crystals and the nano-crystal-induced reinjury risk of injured cells remain unclear. Methods African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells were injured with H2O2 to establish a cell injury model. Cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, propidium iodide staining, hematoxylin–eosin staining, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were determined to examine cell injury during adhesion. Changes in the surface structure of H2O2-injured cells were assessed through atomic force microscopy. The altered expression of hyaluronan during adhesion was examined through laser scanning confocal microscopy. The adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals to Vero cells was observed through scanning electron microscopy. Nano-COM and COD binding was quantitatively determined through inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. Results The expression of hyaluronan on the cell surface was increased during wound healing because of Vero cell injury. The structure and function of the cell membrane were also altered by cell injury; thus, nano-crystal adhesion occurred. The ability of nano-COM to adhere to the injured Vero cells was higher than that of nano-COD crystals. The cell viability, SOD activity, and Δψm decreased when nano-crystals attached to the cell surface. By contrast, the MDA content, reactive oxygen species production, and cell death rate increased. Conclusion Cell injury contributes to crystal adhesion to Vero cell surface. The attached nano-COM and COD crystals can aggravate Vero cell injury. As a consequence, crystal adhesion and aggregation are enhanced. These findings provide further insights into kidney stone

  13. On thorium and plutonium cocrystallization with calcium oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of possibility of 239Pu and 234Th concentration from bone ashe (calcium phosphate) hydrochloric acid solutions by coprecipitation with nonisotopic medium (CaC2O4) for their further radiometry or alpha-spectrometry is carried out. Thorium and plutonium distribution coefficients in calcium oxalate precipitate - solution system, as well as coefficients of Th and Pu cocrystallization with CaC2O4 and cocrystallization type are determined. Possibility of Pu and Th concentration from bone tissue solutions is demonstrated on small oxalate amount containing 25% of Ca total amount in bone tissue

  14. Dietary habits of calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, L A; Heilberg, I P; Cuppari, L; Medeiros, F A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Schor, N

    1993-08-01

    1. Since dietary factors are known to be related to nephrolithiasis, calcium stone-forming (CSF) patients were evaluated in terms of calcium, total protein of both animal and plant origin, carbohydrate and energy intakes, on the basis of 72-h dietary records during the week plus 24-h dietary records during the week-end. 2. The data for 77 calcium stone formers (57 with absorptive hypercalciuria and 20 with renal hypercalciuria) were compared to those for 29 age-matched healthy subjects. The body mass index of the CSF group was higher than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Consumption of all nutrients was similar for both groups during the week but week-end dietary records for CSF showed higher calcium intake (586 +/- 38 vs 438 +/- 82 mg/day, P < 0.05), protein to body weight ratio (1.2 +/- 0.1 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 g kg-1 day-1, P < 0.05) and animal protein (56 +/- 3 vs 40 +/- 3 g/day, P < 0.05) when compared with healthy subjects. 3. Comparison of hypercalciuria subtypes (renal hypercalciuria and absorptive hypercalciuria) did not indicate any difference in calcium or energy intake between groups, either during the week or during the week-end. However, the absorptive hypercalciuric group presented higher protein and animal protein consumption during the week-end. 4. These data suggest a low calcium intake in this population, even by stone formers. The higher animal protein consumption by our calcium stone formers observed during week-ends seems to be more important than calcium intake for stone formation. PMID:8298515

  15. Factors affecting crystallization, dispersion, and aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate in various urinary environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, Kimberly Gail

    The mechanisms for the formation of kidney stones are not well understood. One possible mechanism is the formation of aggregates in the nephron tubules of the kidneys. However, altering the urinary environment may be a method to help prevent the recurrence of the formation of kidney stones. The primary inorganic constituent found in kidney stones of North American patients is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). In this research, studies on the effect of mixing rate on COM precipitation showed that rapid mixing compared to slow mixing produced smaller particle sizes and a narrower particle size distribution due to the more uniform supersaturation level. The findings are consistent with the general contention that mixing directly influences nucleation rate while mixing rate has relatively little influence over rate of growth in precipitation processes. Screening and central composite experimental designs are used to determine the effect of various factors on the aggregation and dispersion characteristics of previously grown calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals in artificial urinary environments of controlled variables. The variables examined are pH, calcium, oxalate, pyrophosphate, citrate, and protein concentrations in ultrapure water and artificial urine. Optical density measurements, zeta potential analysis, particle size analyzer, optical microscopy, AFM force measurements, protein adsorption, and ions and small molecule adsorption have been used to assess the state of aggregation and dispersion of the COM crystals and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in such a complex system. The data indicate that our model protein, mucin, acts as a dispersant. This is attributed to steric hindrance resulting from the adsorbed mucoprotein. Oxalate, however, promotes aggregation. Interesting interactions between protein and oxalate along with protein and citrate are observed. Such interactions (synergistic or antagonistic) are found to depend on the concentrations of

  16. Role of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin in calcium oxalate crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the defenses against nephrolithiasis is provided by macromolecules that modulate the nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention of crystals in the kidneys. The aim of the present study was to determine the behavior of two of these proteins, Tamm-Horsfall and uromodulin, in calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro. We studied a group of 10 male stone formers who had formed at least one kidney stone composed of calcium oxalate. They were classified as having idiopathic nephrolithiasis and had no well-known metabolic risk factors involved in kidney stone pathogenesis. Ten normal men were used as controls, as was a group consisting of five normal women and another consisting of five pregnant women. Crystallization was induced by a fixed supersaturation of calcium oxalate and measured with a Coulter Counter. All findings were confirmed by light and scanning electron microscopy. The number of particulate material deposited from patients with Tamm-Horsfall protein was higher than that of the controls (P<0.001. However, Tamm-Horsfall protein decreased the particle diameter of the stone formers when analyzed by the mode of the volume distribution curve (P<0.002 (5.64 ± 0.55 µm compared to 11.41 ± 0.48 µm of uromodulin; 15.94 ± 3.93 µm and 12.45 ± 0.97 µm of normal men Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively; 8.17 ± 1.57 µm and 9.82 ± 0.95 µm of normal women Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively; 12.17 ± 1.41 µm and 12.99 ± 0.51 µm of pregnant Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively. Uromodulin produced fewer particles than Tamm-Horsfall protein in all groups. Nonetheless, the total volume of the crystals produced by uromodulin was higher than that produced by Tamm-Horsfall protein. Our results indicate a different effect of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin. This dual behavior suggests different functions. Tamm-Horsfall protein may act on nucleation and inhibit crystal aggregation, while

  17. Quantitative analysis of colonization with real-time PCR to identify the role of Oxalobacter formigenes in calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batislam, Ertan; Yilmaz, Erdal; Yuvanc, Ercan; Kisa, Ozgul; Kisa, Ucler

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the study was to quantitatively measure the number of Oxalobacter formigenes (O. formigenes) colonizations in the gastrointestinal tract in calcium oxalate-forming patients with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Calcium oxalate-forming patients (n: 27) were included in the study. Serum calcium, sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine levels, as well as 24 h urine levels of calcium and oxalate were measured. The numbers of O. formigenes colonies in stool samples were detected by real-time PCR. One or two metabolic abnormalities were detected in 15 of 27 patients. The O. formigenes levels in patients with metabolic disturbance were significantly decreased when compared to the patients with no metabolic abnormalities (p: 0.038). The undetectable levels of O. formigenes were encountered in one of five patients with hypercalciuria, in three of four patients with hyperoxaluria and in four of six patients with both hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria. In nine patients with a history of stone recurrence, O. formigenes colonization was significantly lower than the patients with the first stone attack (p: 0.001). O. formigenes formation ceased or significantly diminished in patients with calcium oxalate stones with a coexistence of both hyperoxaluria and hypercalciuria. The measurement of O. formigenes colonies by real-time PCR seemed to be an inconvenient and expensive method. For this reason, the real-time PCR measurements can be spared for the patients with stone recurrences and with metabolic abnormalities like hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria. The exact measurement of O. formigenes may also help more accurate programming of O. formigenes-based treatments.

  18. Papillary and Nonpapillary Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Renal Calculi: Comparative Study of Etiologic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pieras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM renal calculi can be classified into two groups: papillary and nonpapillary. In this paper, a comparative study between etiologic factors of COM papillary and nonpapillary calculi is performed. The study included 40 patients with COM renal calculi. The urine of these individuals was analyzed. Case history, lifestyle, and dietetic habits were obtained.No significant differences between urinary biochemical data of both groups were observed; 50% of COM papillary stone formers and 40% of COM nonpapillary stone formers had urolithiasis family history. A low consumption of phytate-rich products was observed for both groups. A relationship between profession with occupational exposure to cytotoxic products and COM papillary renal lithiasis was detected.The results suggest that COM papillary calculi would be associated to papillary epithelium alterations together with a crystallization inhibitors deficit, whereas COM nonpapillary calculi would be associated to the presence of heterogeneous nucleants and a crystallization inhibitors deficit.

  19. Studies on calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization: influence of inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, F; Kroupa, M; Costa-Bauzá, A

    1994-01-01

    A simple model to study calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallization on different substrates is presented and the action of different potential inhibitors is evaluated and discussed. COM heterogeneous nucleation was assayed on solid surfaces as calcium phosphate, mixtures of mucin with calcium phosphate, and wax. In the presence of a non-protected non-renewed solid surface in contact with normal urine, COM crystal formation could be detected at short intervals (3 h). The most active heterogeneous nucleation capacity corresponded to calcium phosphate. In the presence of 10% mucin, owing to the renewal of the surface layer no COM crystal were detected on the pellet's surface. The study of citrate and pentosan polysulphate (a semisynthetic polysaccharide) on COM heterogeneous nucleation demonstrated some important inhibitory effects when concentration increased and time decreased. Maximum effects were selectively manifested on calcium phosphate surfaces. Only phytic acid at adequate concentration exhibited a total inhibitory capacity of COM formation, even during longer intervals (15 h). PMID:7521089

  20. Calcium oxalate crystals in eucalypt ectomycorrhizae: morphochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylro, Victor Satler; de Freitas, André Luiz Moreira; Otoni, Wagner Campos; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems, benefitting plants principally by increasing the uptake of water and nutrients such as calcium from the soil. Previous work has demonstrated accumulation of crystallites in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, but detailed morphological and chemical characterization of these crystals has not been performed. In this work, cross sections of acetic acid-treated and cleared ectomycorrhizal fragments were visualized by polarized light microscopy to evaluate the location of crystals within cortical root cells. Ectomycorrhizal sections were also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) microprobe analysis. The predominant forms of crystals were crystal sand (granules) and concretions. Calcium, carbon and oxygen were detected by EDS as constituent elements and similar elemental profiles were observed between both crystal morphologies. All analyzed crystalline structures were characterized as calcium oxalate crystals. This is the first report of the stoichiometry and morphology of crystals occurring in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas in tropical soils. The data corroborates the role of ectomycorrhizae in the uptake and accumulation of calcium in the form of calcium oxalate crystals in hybrid eucalypt plants. PMID:23844062

  1. Calcium oxalate crystals in eucalypt ectomycorrhizae: morphochemical characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Satler Pylro

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems, benefitting plants principally by increasing the uptake of water and nutrients such as calcium from the soil. Previous work has demonstrated accumulation of crystallites in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, but detailed morphological and chemical characterization of these crystals has not been performed. In this work, cross sections of acetic acid-treated and cleared ectomycorrhizal fragments were visualized by polarized light microscopy to evaluate the location of crystals within cortical root cells. Ectomycorrhizal sections were also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (EDS microprobe analysis. The predominant forms of crystals were crystal sand (granules and concretions. Calcium, carbon and oxygen were detected by EDS as constituent elements and similar elemental profiles were observed between both crystal morphologies. All analyzed crystalline structures were characterized as calcium oxalate crystals. This is the first report of the stoichiometry and morphology of crystals occurring in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas in tropical soils. The data corroborates the role of ectomycorrhizae in the uptake and accumulation of calcium in the form of calcium oxalate crystals in hybrid eucalypt plants.

  2. Research the mechanism of N-acetyl cysteine inhibiting renal calcium oxalate stone formation in rats%N-乙酰半胱氨酸抑制大鼠肾草酸钙结石形成机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雍偲; 刘春

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨N-乙酰半胱氨酸(NAC)对大鼠肾草酸钙结石形成的影响及机制,为临床预防尿路结石提供理论依据.方法:将30只健康清洁成年雄性Wistar大鼠先在相同环境下适应性喂养1周,然后随机分为3组:A组(空白对照组)、B组(单纯诱石组)、C组(诱石+ NAC干预组).A组饮去离子水,B组饮1%乙二醇的去离子水,C组饮1%乙二醇去离子水,并给予NAC 100 mg/(kg·d)灌胃.第4周处死大鼠,取出双肾,左肾纵向剖开,用10%甲醛固定,HE染色石蜡切片,在100、400倍光镜下观察肾组织草酸钙结晶沉积情况,并进行分级及评分.右肾皮质制成10%的匀浆,检测丙二醛(MDA)及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD).全部实验数据通过SPSS17.0统计软件分析处理.结果:①肾脏结晶沉积情况分级及评分结果:与B组相比,C组的肾脏结晶沉积评分明显降低(P<0.05).②MDA检测结果:与B组相比,C组的MDA含量降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).③SOD检测结果:与B组相比,C组的SOD含量增高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).④A、B、C三组肾组织结晶等级评分与SOD含量的相关系数为-0.499(P<0.01),结晶评分与MDA含量的相关系数为0.592(P<0.01).结论:NAC可以通过其抗氧化作用抑制大鼠肾草酸钙结石的形成.%Objective:To study the effect and mechanism of N-acetyl cysteine(NAC) on renal calcium oxalate stone formation in rats, For clinical prevention urinary stones provide theoretical basis. Methods: At first, 30 health clean adult male Wistar rats adaptability feeding 1 week in the same environment,then randomly divided into 3 groups(n = 10) : group A(Blank control group), group BCstone forming group), group CXstone forming + NAC intervention group), group A drink deionized water, group B drink 1% glycol in deionized water, group C drink 1% glycol in deionized water, and to give NAC100 mg/(kg ? d) by lavage. After feeding for 4 weeks, remove double kidney, left renal opened

  3. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cailleau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa, has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the acidic conditions in these types of soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. In addition, a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues contributes to the carbonate flux and is identified as a direct consequence of wood feeding by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter, and an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting agents (mainly termites, saprophytic fungi, and bacteria release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition, some of these agents are themselves producers of oxalate (e.g. fungi. Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can then start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate

  4. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cailleau

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa, has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the theoretical acidic conditions of these soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. Regarding the carbonate flux, another direct consequence of wood feeding is a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues, which is not consumed by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter. Therefore, an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting gents (mainly termites, fungi, and bacteria release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition some of these gents are themselves producers of oxalate (fungi. Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate-carbonate pathway. The solution is pumped

  5. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleau, G.; Braissant, O.; Verrecchia, E. P.

    2011-07-01

    An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa), has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the acidic conditions in these types of soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. In addition, a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues contributes to the carbonate flux and is identified as a direct consequence of wood feeding by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter, and an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting agents (mainly termites, saprophytic fungi, and bacteria) release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition, some of these agents are themselves producers of oxalate (e.g. fungi). Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can then start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate-carbonate pathway. The solution is

  6. Sulfate and thiosulfate inhibit oxalate transport via a dPrestin (Slc26a6)-dependent mechanism in an insect model of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Greg M; Hirata, Taku; Anderson, Jacob B; Cabrero, Pablo; Gallo, Christopher J R; Dow, Julian A T; Romero, Michael F

    2016-01-15

    Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract disorders, with the majority of kidney stones composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx). Given its prevalence (US occurrence 10%), it is still poorly understood, lacking progress in identifying new therapies because of its complex etiology. Drosophila melanogaster (fruitfly) is a recently developed model of CaOx nephrolithiasis. Effects of sulfate and thiosulfate on crystal formation were investigated using the Drosophila model, as well as electrophysiological effects on both Drosophila (Slc26a5/6; dPrestin) and mouse (mSlc26a6) oxalate transporters utilizing the Xenopus laevis oocyte heterologous expression system. Results indicate that both transport thiosulfate with a much higher affinity than sulfate Additionally, both compounds were effective at decreasing CaOx crystallization when added to the diet. However, these results were not observed when compounds were applied to Malpighian tubules ex vivo. Neither compound affected CaOx crystallization in dPrestin knockdown animals, indicating a role for principal cell-specific dPrestin in luminal oxalate transport. Furthermore, thiosulfate has a higher affinity for dPrestin and mSlc26a6 compared with oxalate These data indicate that thiosulfate's ability to act as a competitive inhibitor of oxalate via dPrestin, can explain the decrease in CaOx crystallization seen in the presence of thiosulfate, but not sulfate. Overall, our findings predict that thiosulfate or oxalate-mimics may be effective as therapeutic competitive inhibitors of CaOx crystallization. PMID:26538444

  7. Effects of temperature and sodium carboxylate additives on mineralization of calcium oxalate in silica gel systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Jianming; DENG Suiping; LI Xiangping; TAN Yanhua; Bernd Tieke

    2004-01-01

    The effects of temperature and multifunctional sodium carboxylate additives on the phase composition and morphology of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals grown in silica gel system were systematically investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR). The sodium carboxylates investigated include: monocarboxylate sodium acetate (NaAc), disodium tartrate (Na2tart), trisodium citrate (Na3cit), and the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Na2edta). The temperature range was from 7℃ to 67℃. The crystallization temperature affects the phase compositions, the growth rate, and the morphology of CaOxa. First, the logarithm of the percentage of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) formed at a certain temperature (T) is proportional to the reciprocal of temperature (1/T). Second, the weight of CaOxa crystals decreases as decreasing the temperature. At a given temperature, the ability of the sodium carboxylates to induce COD follows the order: Na2edta > Na3cit > Na2tart >> NaAc. Third, the multicarboxylates can decrease the surface area of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM).It makes the edges and tips of COM crystals blunt and oval. All the three changes, an increase of the content of COD, a decrease of the weight of CaOxa crystals, and a decrease of the surfacearea of COM crystals,can inhibit the formation of CaOxa stones. These results support the clinical use of citrates and may be helpful in elucidating the mechanisms of the formation of CaOxa calculus.

  8. Interactions in Calcium Oxalate Hydrate/Surfactant Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiric; Filipovic-Vincekovic; Babic-Ivancić Vdović Füredi-Milhofer

    1999-04-15

    Phase transformation of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) into the thermodynamically stable monohydrate (COM) in anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) and cationic (dodecylammonium chloride) surfactant solutions has been studied. Both surfactants inhibit, but do not stop transformation from COD to COM due to their preferential adsorption at different crystal faces. SDS acts as a stronger transformation inhibitor. The general shape of adsorption isotherms of both surfactants at the solid/liquid interface is of two-plateau-type, but differences in the adsorption behavior exist. They originate from different ionic and molecular structures of crystal surfaces and interactions between surfactant headgroups and solid surface. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Hyperoxaluria leads to dysbiosis and drives selective enrichment of oxalate metabolizing bacterial species in recurrent kidney stone endures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryavanshi, Mangesh V.; Bhute, Shrikant S.; Jadhav, Swapnil D.; Bhatia, Manish S.; Gune, Rahul P.; Shouche, Yogesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperoxaluria due to endogenously synthesized and exogenously ingested oxalates is a leading cause of recurrent oxalate stone formations. Even though, humans largely rely on gut microbiota for oxalate homeostasis, hyperoxaluria associated gut microbiota features remain largely unknown. Based on 16S rRNA gene amplicons, targeted metagenomic sequencing of formyl-CoA transferase (frc) gene and qPCR assay, we demonstrate a selective enrichment of Oxalate Metabolizing Bacterial Species (OMBS) in hyperoxaluria condition. Interestingly, higher than usual concentration of oxalate was found inhibitory to many gut microbes, including Oxalobacter formigenes, a well-characterized OMBS. In addition a concomitant enrichment of acid tolerant pathobionts in recurrent stone sufferers is observed. Further, specific enzymes participating in oxalate metabolism are found augmented in stone endures. Additionally, hyperoxaluria driven dysbiosis was found to be associated with oxalate content, stone episodes and colonization pattern of Oxalobacter formigenes. Thus, we rationalize the first in-depth surveillance of OMBS in the human gut and their association with hyperoxaluria. Our findings can be utilized in the treatment of hyperoxaluria associated recurrent stone episodes. PMID:27708409

  10. Potential Pharmacologic Treatments for Cystinuria and for Calcium Stones Associated with Hyperuricosuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, David S. (NYUSM)

    2012-03-14

    Two new potential pharmacologic therapies for recurrent stone disease are described. The role of hyperuricosuria in promoting calcium stones is controversial with only some but not all epidemiologic studies demonstrating associations between increasing urinary uric acid excretion and calcium stone disease. The relationship is supported by the ability of uric acid to 'salt out' (or reduce the solubility of) calcium oxalate in vitro. A randomized, controlled trial of allopurinol in patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria was also effective in preventing recurrent stones. Febuxostat, a nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (also known as xanthine dehydrogenase or xanthine oxidoreductase) may have advantages over allopurinol and is being tested in a similar protocol, with the eventual goal of determining whether urate-lowering therapy prevents recurrent calcium stones. Treatments for cystinuria have advanced little in the past 30 years. Atomic force microscopy has been used recently to demonstrate that effective inhibition of cystine crystal growth is accomplished at low concentrations of L-cystine methyl ester and L-cystine dimethyl ester, structural analogs of cystine that provide steric inhibition of crystal growth. In vitro, L-cystine dimethyl ester had a significant inhibitory effect on crystal growth. The drug's safety and effectiveness will be tested in an Slc3a1 knockout mouse that serves as an animal model of cystinuria.

  11. Does the Use of Chitosan Contribute to Oxalate Kidney Stone Formation?

    OpenAIRE

    Moacir Fernandes Queiroz; Karoline Rachel Teodosio Melo; Diego Araujo Sabry; Guilherme Lanzi Sassaki; Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan is widely used in the biomedical field due its chemical and pharmacological properties. However, intake of chitosan results in renal tissue accumulation of chitosan and promotes an increase in calcium excretion. On the other hand, the effect of chitosan on the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) has not been described. In this work, we evaluated the antioxidant capacity of chitosan and its interference in the formation of CaOx crystals in vitro. Here, the chitosan obtained c...

  12. Antilithiatic Activity of phlorotannin rich extract of Sarghassum Wightii on Calcium Oxalate Urolithiais – In Vitro and In VivoEvaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sujatha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Urolithiasis is a common urological disorder responsible for serious human affliction and cost to the society with a high recurrence rate. The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluate the phlorotannin rich extract of Sargassum wightii using suitable in vitro and in vivo models to provide scientific evidence for its antilithiatic activity.Materials and Methods:To explore the effect of Sargassum wightii on calcium oxalate crystallization, in vitro assays like crystal nucleation, aggregation and crystal growth were performed. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced in male Sprague dawley rats using a combination of gentamicin and calculi producing diet (5% ammonium oxalate and rat pellet feed. The biochemical parameters like calcium, oxalate, magnesium, phosphate, sodium and potassium were evaluated in urine, serum and kidney homogenates. Histopathological studies were also done to confirm the biochemical findings.Results:The yield of Sargassum wightii extract was found to be 74.5 gm/kg and confirmed by quantitative analysis. In vitro experiments with Sargassum wightii showed concentration dependent inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation, aggregation and growth supported by SEM analysis. In the in vivo model, Sargassum wightiireduced both calcium and oxalate supersaturation in urine, serum and deposition in the kidney. The biochemical results were supported by histopathological studies.Conclusion:The findings of the present study suggest that Sargassum wightii has the ability to prevent nucleation, aggregation and growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Sargassum wightii has better preventive effect on calcium oxalate stone formation indicating its strong potential to develop as a therapeutic option to prevent recurrence of urolithiasis.

  13. Raman spectroscopy study of calcium oxalate extracted from cacti stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frausto-Reyes, Claudio; Loza-Cornejo, Sofia; Terrazas, Teresa; Terrazas, Tania; Miranda-Beltrán, María de la Luz; Aparicio-Fernández, Xóchitl; López-Macías, Brenda M; Morales-Martínez, Sandra E; Ortiz-Morales, Martín

    2014-01-01

    To find markers that distinguish the different Cactaceae species, by using near infrared Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we studied the occurrence, in the stem, of solid deposits in five Cactaceae species (Coryphantha clavata, Ferocactus latispinus, Opuntia ficus-indica, O. robusta, and O. strepthacantha) collected from their natural habitats from a region of México. The deposits in the tissues usually occurred as spheroidal aggregates, druses, or prismatic crystals. From the Raman spectra, the crystals were identified either as calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaC2O4·H2O) or calcium oxalate dihydrate (CaC2O4·2H2O). Opuntia species (subfamily Opuntioideae) showed the presence of CaC2O4·H2O, and the deposition of CaC2O4·2H2O was present in C. clavata and F. latispinus (subfamily Cactoideae, Cacteae tribe). As a punctual technique, Raman spectroscopy seems to be a useful tool to identify crystal composition. In addition to allowing the analysis of crystal morphology, this spectroscopic technique can be used to identify Cactaceae species and their chemotaxonomy. PMID:25280368

  14. Calcium oxalate precipitation by diffusion using laminar microfluidics: toward a biomimetic model of pathological microcalcifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffite, G; Leroy, C; Bonhomme, C; Bonhomme-Coury, L; Letavernier, E; Daudon, M; Frochot, V; Haymann, J P; Rouzière, S; Lucas, I T; Bazin, D; Babonneau, F; Abou-Hassan, A

    2016-04-01

    The effect of mixing calcium and oxalate precursors by diffusion at miscible liquid interfaces on calcium oxalate crystalline phases, and in physiological conditions (concentrations and flow rates), is studied using a microfluidic channel. This channel has similar dimensions as the collection duct in human kidneys and serves as a biomimetic model in order to understand the formation of pathological microcalcifications. PMID:26974287

  15. In vitro effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum) extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekkoum, Khaled; Cheriti, Abdelkrim; Taleb, Safia

    2011-10-01

    Urolithiasis can lead to the loss of renal function in some cases. In this study, we tested the inhibiting effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum L) extract on calcium oxalate crystallization in a turbidimetric model, by FTIR spectroscopy, and polarized microscopy. The results show that this plant extract has a major inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization. PMID:22164778

  16. ANALYZE AND DIFFERENTIATE URIC ACID STONES AND CALCIUM STONES FROM IMAGES USING STATISTICAL PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Nasira; M. Ranjitha

    2015-01-01

    Image analysis plays a vital role in medical diagnostics. Analysing texture is a major source of discrimination in image analysis. In this paper, we have worked on and analysed images of kidney stones to differentiate between the chemical compositions of different types of stone. The most common types of stones are Calcium and Uric acid stone, hence our study focuses on these two categories. Identifying chemical composition is very crucial as it helps the patients to keep a control on their d...

  17. Herbal extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata inhibit growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, V. S.; Parekh, B. B.; Joshi, M. J.; Vaidya, A. B.

    2005-02-01

    A large number of people in this world are suffering from urinary stone problem. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) containing stones (calculi) are commonly found. In the present study, COM crystals were grown by a double diffusion gel growth technique using U-tubes. The gel was prepared from hydrated sodium metasilicate solution. The gel framework acts like a three-dimensional crucible in which the crystal nuclei are delicately held in the position of their formation, and nutrients are supplied for the growth. This technique can be utilized as a simplified screening static model to study the growth, inhibition and dissolution of urinary stones in vitro. The action of putative litholytic medicinal plants, Tribulus terrestris Linn. ( T.t) and Bergenia ligulata Linn. ( B.l.), has been studied in the growth of COM crystals. Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata are commonly used as herbal medicines for urinary calculi in India. To verify the inhibitive effect, aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata were added along with the supernatant solutions. The growth was measured and compared, with and without the aqueous extracts. Inhibition of COM crystal growth was observed in the herbal extracts. Maximum inhibition was observed in Bergenia ligulata followed by Tribulus terrestris. The results are discussed.

  18. Bone disease in calcium stone forming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Szejnfeld, V L; Carvalho, A B; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1994-09-01

    The association between idiopathic hypercalciuria and osteopenia (OP) has been recently recognized. It is not established whether or not calcium intake plays a critical role in the loss of bone mass. Fifty-five calcium stone forming patients with either absorptive hypercalciuria (AH) or fasting hypercalciuria (FH), 29 males and 26 premenopausal females, were submitted to dual photon absorptiometry at lumbar spine. Calcium intake was assessed by a 72 hr dietary record. OP was detected in 20% (11/55) of patients, being more common among men, 9/26 (35%) than in women, 2/29 (7%), p < 0.05. Male FH patients presented lower mean bone mineral density (BMD) than sex, weight and age-matched control (1.058 +/- 0.18 vs 1.209 +/- 0.13 g/cm2, X +/- SD, p < 0.05). OP was more frequent in FH patients, 7/20 (35%) than in AH patients 4/35 (11%), albeit the difference was not statistically significant. There was no correlation between calcium intake and BMD measurement. Six osteopenic male FH patients were further submitted to histomorphometric evaluation with tetracycline double labeling. Bone volume was lower than the controls (13.2 +/- 3.0 vs 27.2 +/- 3.7%, p < 0.05). Osteoid surfaces were reduced, although not significantly (10.1 +/- 8.2% vs 15.9 +/- 6.7%). Eroded surfaces were markedly increased (23.9 +/- 13.4 vs 4.2 +/- 1.4%, p < 0.05). The bone formation rate was very low with a complete lack of tetracycline double labeling in 4 patients. These data suggest low bone volume, tendency to low bone formation, increased bone resorption and a severe mineralization defect, consistent with normal or low bone turnover osteoporosis. PMID:7994936

  19. Oxalate co-precipitation synthesis of calcium zirconate and calcium titanate powders.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Fine powders of calcium zirconate (CaZrO{sub 3}, CZ) and calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}, CT) were synthesized using a nonaqueous oxalate co-precipitation route from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}4 H{sub 2}O and group(IV) n-butoxides (Ti(OBu{sup n}){sub 4} or Zr(OBu{sup n}){sub 4}). Several reaction conditions and batch sizes (2-35 g) were explored to determine their influence on final particle size, morphology, and phase. Characterization of the as-prepared oxalate precursors, oven dried oxalate precursors (60-90 C), and calcined powders (635-900 C) were analyzed with TGA/DTA, XRD, TEM, and SEM. Densification and sintering studies on pressed CZ pellets at 1375 and 1400 C were also performed. Through the developed oxalate co-precipitation route, densification temperatures for CZ were lowered by 125 C from the 1500 C firing temperature required for conventional mixed oxide powders. Low field electrical tests of the CZ pellets indicated excellent dielectric properties with dielectric constants of {approx}30 and a dissipation factor of 0.0004 were measured at 1 kHz.

  20. Effect of Concentration of Structurally-Different Carboxylic Acids on Growth and Aggregation of Calcium Oxalate in Gel Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG,Sui-Ping; OUYANG,Jian-Ming

    2007-01-01

    The effect of concentration of structurally-different carboxylic acids such as ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (H4edta), citric acid (H3cit), tartaric acid (H2tart), and acetic acid (HOAc) on growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) in gel systems was comparatively investigated. H2tart and H3cit could change the morphology of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and induce the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD). H4edta could induce the formation of COD at a lower concentration of 0.33 mmol/L and have the strongest ability to inhibit aggregation of COM. HOAc inhibited COM aggregation only at a higher concentration than 500 mmol/L. With increasing the number of carboxylic groups in an acid or increasing the concentration of carboxylic acid, the capacity of this acid to induce COD formation and to inhibit growth and aggregation of COM crystals increased. That is, this capacity followed the order: H4edta>H3cit>H2tart>>HOAc. The result in this work suggested that the presence of H3cit and H2tart in urine played a role in the natural defense against stone formation.

  1. Modulation of Tartrates with Various Counterions on the Phases of Calcium Oxalate in Gelatinous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ming OUYANG; Xiang Ping LI

    2005-01-01

    Effect of various counterions of tartrate on the crystallization of calcium oxalate in gel system was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various tartrates with hydrogen (H2tart), sodium (Na2tart), potassium (K2tart), ammonium ((NH4)2tart), and a mixture of sodium and potassium cations (NaKtart) were considered. For H2tart, Na2tart, and (NH4)2tart, calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) was induced. However, for K2tart and NaKtart,calcium oxalate trihydrate (COT) was obtained.

  2. Acidic polyanion poly(acrylic acid) prevents calcium oxalate crystal deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinman, Jack G.; Alatalo, Laura J.; Beshensky, Ann M.; Wesson, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic macromolecules inhibit calcium oxalate nucleation, growth, aggregation and attachment to cells in vitro. To test for such an effect in vivo we used osmotic minipumps to continuously infuse several doses of the 5.1 kDa poly(acrylic acid) (pAA5.1) into rats fed a diet which causes renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition. Although kidneys of rats receiving the saline control contained calcium oxalate crystals, measured by polarized light microscopy, those of animals given pAA5.1 had sign...

  3. Growth kinetics of calcium oxalate monohydrate. III. Variation of solution composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijvoet, Olav L. M.; Blomen, Leo J. M. J.; Will, Eric J.; van der Linden, Hanneke

    1983-11-01

    The influence of the variations of initial supersaturation, ionic strength and calcium-to-oxalate ratio on the growth kinetics of calcium oxalate monohydrate from suspension at 37°C have been investigated in an isotopic system. All experiments can be described with a single growth formula, containing three constants: kA (growth rate constant), La (thermodynamic solubility product) and [ tm] (a parameter describing the agglomeration of any seed suspension). This formula is able to predict any growth curve when the initial concentrations of seed, oxalate and indifferent electrolyte are known. Comparisons with datak from the literature are discussed.

  4. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations

  5. Concave Urinary Crystallines: Direct Evidence of Calcium Oxalate Crystals Dissolution by Citrate In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Feng Shang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in urinary crystal properties in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx calculi after oral administration of potassium citrate (K3cit were investigated via atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD, and zeta potential analyzer. The AFM and SEM results showed that the surface of urinary crystals became concave, the edges and corners of crystals became blunt, the average size of urinary crystallines decreased significantly, and aggregation of urinary crystals was reduced. These changes were attributed to the significant increase in concentration of excreted citrate to  mg/L after K3cit intake from  mg/L before K3cit intake. After the amount of urinary citrate was increased, it complexed with Ca2+ ions on urinary crystals, which dissolved these crystals. Thus, the appearance of concave urinary crystals was a direct evidence of CaOx dissolution by citrate in vivo. The XRD results showed that the quantities and species of urinary crystals decreased after K3cit intake. The mechanism of inhibition of formation of CaOx stones by K3cit was possibly due to the complexation of Ca2+ with citrate, increase in urine pH, concentration of urinary inhibitor glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, and the absolute value of zeta potential after K3cit intake.

  6. In vitro inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization and crystal adherence to renal tubular epithelial cells by Terminalia arjuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, A; Tandon, S; Singla, S K; Tandon, C

    2016-04-01

    Urolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and remains a public health problem around the world. Of all types of renal stones, calcium oxalate (CaOx) is the most common composition formed in the urinary system of the patients with urolithiasis. The present study is aimed at evaluating the antiurolithiatic properties of the Tris-Cl extract (TE) of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna). The antilithiatic activity of TE of T. arjuna was investigated on nucleation, aggregation, and growth of the CaOx crystals, as well as its protective potency was tested on oxalate-induced cell injury of NRK-52E renal epithelial cells. Also, in vitro antioxidant activity of TE T. arjuna bark was also determined. The TE of T. arjuna exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of nucleation and growth of CaOx crystals. Inhibition of aggregation of CaOx crystals remains constant. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 48 h, the TE prevented the cells from injury and CaOx crystal adherence resulting in increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The TE also scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals with an IC50 at 51.72 µg/mL. The results indicated that T. arjuna is a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis as it attains the ability to inhibit CaOx crystallization and scavenge DPPH free radicals in vitro along with a cytoprotective role. PMID:26424092

  7. Metabolism of Fructose to Oxalate and Glycolate

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, J.; Assimos, D. G.; EASTER, L.; Holmes, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    Much attention has been recently directed at fructose consumption because of its association with obesity and subsequent development of chronic diseases. It was recently reported that an increased fructose intake increases the risk of forming kidney stones. It was postulated that fructose consumption may increase urinary oxalate, a risk factor for calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. However, conflicting results have been obtained in human studies examining the relationship between fructose ...

  8. Structural enzymology of oxalate degradation in Oxalobacter formigenes

    OpenAIRE

    Berthold, Catrine L.

    2008-01-01

    Oxalic acid, as one of nature's most highly oxidised compounds, is toxic to most organisms. It is introduced in the human body in the diet but also as a waste product of cellular metabolism. Mammals do not posses the ability to degrade oxalate and must excrete it in the urine or through the intestine. Accumulation of oxalate may lead to a number of pathological conditions in humans and a majority of all kidney stones are formed by calcium oxalate. Fortunately, the anaerobic ...

  9. ANALYZE AND DIFFERENTIATE URIC ACID STONES AND CALCIUM STONES FROM IMAGES USING STATISTICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Nasira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Image analysis plays a vital role in medical diagnostics. Analysing texture is a major source of discrimination in image analysis. In this paper, we have worked on and analysed images of kidney stones to differentiate between the chemical compositions of different types of stone. The most common types of stones are Calcium and Uric acid stone, hence our study focuses on these two categories. Identifying chemical composition is very crucial as it helps the patients to keep a control on their diet. A statistical comparison is made between these two categories and we have observed significant difference in various classic parameters. A new approach is presented that uses only selected statistical parameters and hence it differs from all previous approaches that differentiates the different types of stones from images without clinical interference.

  10. Infusum Daun Alpukat Sebagai Inhibitor Kristalisasi Kalsium Oksalat pada Ginjal (THE AVOCADO LEAVES INFUSUM AS INHIBITOR ON RENAL CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Madyastuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine crystal is a crystal nucleus which tend to form urine stone. The case of urine stone seems to beincreased every year. Crystallization could induce acute tubular necrosis which impact on renal dysfunction.The signs of this condition are high level of urea, creatinine and decrease glomerulus filtration rate. Theobjective of this research was to evaluate the effects of infusum Persea americana Mill as an inhibitorcrystallization which induced by ethylene glycol on white male rats. 20 male rats were divided into 4groups; K1 as negative group received only distilled water ad libitum, K2 as positive group receiveddistilled water containing ethylene glycol, K3 (dose 5% and K4 (dose 10% as treatment groups receivedwater containing ethylene glycol and avocado leaves infusion. Phytochemsitry screening of infusion avocadoleaves consisted of flavonoid, saponin, tanine and quinone. Result of analysis showed that the level ofureum and creatinine on K2 was higher than K3 and K4 group. The increased level could be inhibited byinfusion avocado leaves. The measurement of glomerular filtration rate in treatment groups wassignificantly different (p<0.05. Descriptive histopathology observation showed that renal lesio in grouptreatment (K3 and K4 were declined. Large crystal calcium oxalate on K2 group was observed by usingpolarized microscope, whereas small crystal calcium oxalate were seen in the infusion of avocado leavesgroups. These result showed the ability of infusion of avocado leaves as an inhibitor on the growth ofcrystallization calcium oxalate

  11. Association of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with Calcium Oxalate Calcul us Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少刚; 刘继红; 胡少群; 叶章群

    2003-01-01

    To study the relationship between polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (VDR) allele with formation of calcium oxalate calculus and find the predisposing genes of calcium oxalate calculus, we screened out 150 patients who suffered from calcium oxalate calculus. 36 of them had idiopathic hypercalciuria according to analysis of calculus component and assay of urine calcium. The polymorphisms of VDR gene Taq1, Apa1 and Fok1 were detected using PCR-RFLP technique and the correlation were analyzed between the polymorphism and urinary calculus or between the polymorphism and hypercalciuria. The difference in each genotypic frequency of the allele of promoter Fok1 between calculus group and healthy group or between idiopathic hypercalciuria calculus group and health group was significant. The content of 24-h urine calcium of those who had genotype ff was obviously higher than that of those who have other genotypes in the same group. There was no significant difference in the polymorphism of gene Apa1 and Taq1 between each two groups. It is concluded that hypercalciuria and calcium oxalate calculus were related to the polymorphism of VDR gene's promoter Fok1 allele, but it had nothing to do with the polymorphism of gene Apa1 and Taq1. The genotype ff was a candidate heredity marker of calcium calculus disease.

  12. Oxalate content of cereals and cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Roswitha; Hönow, Ruth; Voss, Susanne; Seidler, Ana; Hesse, Albrecht

    2006-04-19

    Detailed knowledge of food oxalate content is of essential importance for dietary treatment of recurrent calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Dietary oxalate can contribute considerably to the amount of urinary oxalate excretion. Because cereal foods play an important role in daily nutrition, the soluble and total oxalate contents of various types of cereal grains, milling products, bread, pastries, and pasta were analyzed using an HPLC-enzyme-reactor method. A high total oxalate content (>50 mg/100 g) was found in whole grain wheat species Triticum durum (76.6 mg/100 g), Triticum sativum (71.2 mg/100 g), and Triticum aestivum (53.3 mg/100 g). Total oxalate content was comparably high in whole grain products of T. aestivum, that is, wheat flakes and flour, as well as in whole grain products of T. durum, that is, couscous, bulgur, and pasta. The highest oxalate content was demonstrated for wheat bran (457.4 mg/100 g). The higher oxalate content in whole grain than in refined grain cereals suggests that oxalic acid is primarily located in the outer layers of cereal grains. Cereals and cereal products contribute to the daily oxalate intake to a considerable extent. Vegetarian diets may contain high amounts of oxalate when whole grain wheat and wheat products are ingested. Recommendations for prevention of recurrence of calcium oxalate stone disease have to take into account the oxalate content of these foodstuffs. PMID:16608223

  13. Effect of Calcium on the Vanadium Extraction from High Calcium Type Stone Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Shenxu; LIANG Liang; ZHANG Yimin; HAN Shihua; HU Yangjia

    2015-01-01

    The high calcium type stone coal from Hubei province was leached by water and dilute acid separately after being roasted with different dosage of NaCl. The water leaching rate of vanadium (WLRV) was low and only 26.8%of vanadium can be leached by water when 4%NaCl was added, but the acid leaching rate of vanadium (ALRV) was relatively high. Calcium in the high calcium type stone coal is greatly superfluous relative to vanadium, hence, the calcium reacts with vanadium to form Ca(VO3)2, Ca2V2O7 and Ca3(VO4)2 orderly during the stone coal roasting process and high temperature is beneficial to the reactions between calcium and vanadium, which was validated by simulated reactions between pure calcium carbonate and vanadium pentoxide. These calcium vanadates are all water insoluble but acid soluble and this causes the low WLRV and relatively high ALRV. After calcium removal by HCl, the WLRV is highly enhanced and reaches about 50%when only 2%NaCl was added. If the HCl content is too high, the stone coal is easily sintered and the formed glass structure can enwrap vanadium, which leads the WLRV to decline. Single water leaching process is not appropriate to extract vanadium from high calcium type stone coal.

  14. Mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate endocytosis by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Campos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals adhere to and are internalized by tubular renal cells and it seems that this interaction is related (positively or negatively to the appearance of urinary calculi. The present study analyzes a series of mechanisms possibly involved in CaOx uptake by Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. CaOx crystals were added to MDCK cell cultures and endocytosis was evaluated by polarized light microscopy. This process was inhibited by an increase in intracellular calcium by means of ionomycin (100 nM; N = 6; 43.9% inhibition; P<0.001 or thapsigargin (1 µM; N = 6; 33.3% inhibition; P<0.005 administration, and via blockade of cytoskeleton assembly by the addition of colchicine (10 µM; N = 8; 46.1% inhibition; P<0.001 or cytochalasin B (10 µM; N = 8; 34.2% inhibition; P<0.001. Furthermore, CaOx uptake was reduced when the activity of protein kinase C was inhibited by staurosporine (10 nM; N = 6; 44% inhibition; P<0.01, or that of cyclo-oxygenase by indomethacin (3 µM; N = 12; 17.2% inhibition; P<0.05; however, the uptake was unaffected by modulation of potassium channel activity with glibenclamide (3 µM; N = 6, tetraethylammonium (1 mM; N = 6 or cromakalim (1 µM; N = 6. Taken together, these data indicate that the process of CaOx internalization by renal tubular cells is similar to the endocytosis reported for other systems. These findings may be relevant to cellular phenomena involved in early stages of the formation of renal stones.

  15. [In vitro effect of Hordeum vulgare on the crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaroud, Samira; Harrache, Djamila; Amar, Amina

    2012-01-01

    The recommended conservative treatment of hyperoxaluria is mainly based on hyperhydration and ingestion of inhibitors of crystallization. In accordance with this context, the aim of this study was to determine the in vitro effect of Hordeum vulgare on calcium oxalate crystallization oxalo-dependent. The crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate in supersaturated aqueous solution at 37 °C, was followed in a model turbidimetric continuous in a closed system. The proposed model is very good reproducibility (CV < 10%), crystallization was monitored continuously in the presence of Hordeum vulgare at different concentrations (0.0625 to 1 g/L). The comparison of turbidimetric parameters, that characterize the growth stage of monohydrated oxalate calcium crystals and observation of the crystals obtained at the end of crystallization into scanning electron microscopy, have been able to demonstrate the inducing effect of Hordeum vulgare to 0.0625 g/L and a slight inhibitory effect at the others concentrations. PMID:23207820

  16. Decreased renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase activity in calcium oxalate calculi patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊汇; 刘继红; 章咏裳; 叶章群; 王少刚

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the activity of vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis compared with healthy individuals and to assess its relationship to the renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Methods Renal parenchymas were harvested from urolithic patients and renal tumor patients undergoing nephrectomy. The renal carboxylase activity was evaluated as the radioactivity of [14C] labeled sodium bicarbonate in carboxylic reactions in vitro using β-liquid scintillation counting. Results Significantly reduced activity of renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase was observed in the urolithic group as compared with normal controls (P<0.01). Conclusion It suggests that the reduced carboxylase activity observed in the urolithic patients may play an important role in the course of renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

  17. Promotion on Nucleation and Aggregation of Calcium Oxalate Crystals by Injured African Green Monkey Renal Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燊; 彭花; 姚秀琼; 苏泽轩; 欧阳健明

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to detect the properties of African green monkey renal epithelial cells (Vero) after oxidative injury and to study the mediation of the injured Vero on aggregation and formation of calcium oxalate crystals. This injury model was induced by 0.15 mmol/L H2O2 according to the pretest evaluation. The results suggested that H2O2 could injure Vero significantly and decrease cell viability in a time-dependent manner for exposure time of 0.5--2 h. After cell injury, the indexes connected with oxidative injury changed. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content and osteopontin (OPN) expression increased, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) level decreased. It resulted in the increase of both the amount of CaOxa crystals and the degree of crystal aggregation on the injured cells. This work indicated that injured cells promoted the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, thus increased the risk of formation of urinary stone.

  18. Influence of sodium pentosan polysulphate and certain inhibitors on calcium oxalate crystal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, D; Subha, K; Saravanan, N; Varalakshmi, P

    1996-03-01

    Calcium oxalate crystal growth and aggregation leads to the formation of renal calculi. It is known to be inhibited by several compounds both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The present study highlights the inhibitory potential of sodium pentosan polysulphate (SPP), a semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan (GAG) on calcium oxalate crystal growth in vitro. Its efficacy was compared with those of known inhibitors like pyrophosphate, heparin and chondroitin-4-sulphate. Of the above compounds pyrophosphate was found to be the most potent inhibitor. Among the GAGs, SPP exhibited 80% inhibitory activity as compared to heparin. A lesser degree of inhibition was observed with chondroitin-4-sulphate. PMID:8709973

  19. Separation of plutonium from sulphate bearing analytical waste by co-precipitation with calcium oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple approach for separation of Plutonium from sulfate bearing Analytical waste is presented here. The analytical waste is generated during analysis of plutonium using the Drummond-Grand potentiometric method mainly contains sulphate ions. The removal and recovery of plutonium from this waste is important due to radio toxicity associated with it as well as its strategic importance. Plutonium is co-precipitated with calcium oxalate by calcium nitrate and potassium oxalate mixture. The recovery is almost complete (99.96%). This method is adapted for routine use in our laboratory. (author)

  20. Leaf calcium oxalate crystal structure and its role in defense against a chewing insect in Medicago truncatula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystals of calcium oxalate are common in plants and widely distributed among many plant families. These hard and largely insoluble crystals take on many shapes and sizes depending on the tissue and species. In Medicago truncatula, calcium oxalate crystals are abundant in leaves and accumulate in sh...

  1. Simplified estimates of ion-activity products of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in mouse urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiselius, Hans-Göran; Ferraz, Renato Ribeiro Nogueira; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at formulating simplified estimates of ion-activity products of calcium oxalate (AP(CaOx)) and calcium phosphate (AP(CaP)) in mouse urineto find the most important determinants in order to limit the analytical work-up. Literature data on mouse urine composition was used to determine the relative effect of each urine variable on the two ion-activity products. AP(CaOx) and AP(CaP) were calculated by iterative approximation with the EQUIL2 computerized program. The most important determinants for AP(CaOx) were calcium, oxalate and citrate and for AP(CaP) calcium, phosphate, citrate, magnesium and pH. Urine concentrations of the variables were used. A simplified estimate of AP(CaOx) (AP(CaOx)-index(MOUSE)) that numerically approximately corresponded to 10(8) × AP(CaOx) was given the following expression:[Formula: see text]For a series of urine samples with various composition the coefficient of correlation between AP(CaOx)-index(MOUSE) and 10(8) × AP(CaOx) was 0.99 (p = 0.00000). A similar estimate of AP(CaP) (AP(CaP)-index(MOUSE)) was formulated so that it approximately would correspond numerically to 10(14) × AP(CaP) taking the following form:[Formula: see text]For a series of variations in urine composition the coefficient of correlation was 0.95 (p = 0.00000). The two approximate estimates shown in this article are simplified expressions of AP(CaOx) and AP(CaP). The intention of these theoretical calculations was not to get methods for accurate information on the saturation levels in urine, but to have mathematical tools useful for rough conclusions on the outcome of different experimental situations in mice. It needs to be emphasized that the accuracy will be negatively influenced if urine variables not included in the formulas differ very much from basic concentrations.

  2. Formation of ring calcium oxalate patterns induced by domains in DPPC Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ming Liu; Sui Ping Deng; Hui Zheng; Jian Ming Ouyang

    2007-01-01

    The ring patterns of calcium oxalate crystals were induced by domains in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of dipalmitoylpho-sphatidylcholine (DPPC). The result was explained by the defects at the ring boundaries of liquid condensed (LC) and liquid expanded (LE) phases of LB film. These boundaries could provide less free energy and much more nucleating sites for COM crystals.

  3. Sulfate but not thiosulfate reduces calculated and measured urinary ionized calcium and supersaturation: implications for the treatment of calcium renal stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Rodgers

    Full Text Available Urinary sulfate (SO4(2- and thiosulfate (S2O3(2- can potentially bind with calcium and decrease kidney stone risk. We modeled the effects of these species on the concentration of ionized calcium (iCa and on supersaturation (SS of calcium oxalate (CaOx and calcium phosphate (CaP, and measured their in vitro effects on iCa and the upper limit of stability (ULM of these salts.Urine data from 4 different types of stone patients were obtained from the Mayo Nephrology Clinic (Model 1. A second data set was obtained from healthy controls and hypercalciuric stone formers in the literature who had been treated with sodium thiosulfate (STS (Model 2. The Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS was used to calculate iCa and SS. In Model 1, these parameters were calculated as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations. In Model 2, data from pre- and post STS urines were analyzed. ULM and iCa were determined in human urine as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations.Calculated iCa and SS values for all calcium salts decreased with increasing sulfate concentration. Thiosulfate had no effect on these parameters. In Model 2, calculated iCa and CaOx SS increased after STS treatment, but CaP SS decreased, perhaps due to a decrease in pH after STS treatment. In confirmatory in vitro experiments supplemental sulfate, but not thiosulfate, significantly increased the calcium needed to achieve the ULM of CaP and tended to increase the oxalate needed to reach the ULM of CaOx. Sulfate also significantly decreased iCa in human urine, while thiosulfate had no effect.Increasing urinary sulfate could theoretically reduce CaOx and CaP stone risk. Although STS may reduce CaP stone risk by decreasing urinary pH, it might also paradoxically increase iCa and CaOx SS. As such, STS may not be a viable treatment option for stone disease.

  4. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    G. Cailleau; Braissant, O; E. P. Verrecchia

    2011-01-01

    An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa), has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the theoretical acidic conditions of these soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from fi...

  5. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    G. Cailleau; Braissant, O; E. P. Verrecchia

    2011-01-01

    An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa), has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the acidic conditions in these types of soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and e...

  6. Enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate and effects on soluble oxalate concentration in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israr, Beenish; Frazier, Richard A; Gordon, Michael H

    2017-01-01

    Soluble oxalate in foods is major concern for kidney stone formers due to its tendency to increase urinary oxalate concentration. Phytate forms complexes with cations, which increases soluble oxalate by making cations unavailable to precipitate oxalate. Thus, in order to reduce soluble oxalate, bran samples (wheat, oat and barley) and bean samples (red kidney bean and white bean) were treated with phytase. Release of phosphate after phytate degradation and its association with calcium was determined. Phosphate concentration increased after application of phytase in all samples, but effect on soluble oxalate concentration varied. Wheat and oat bran showed significant reduction (P<0.05) in soluble oxalate compared to bean samples. Wheat bran, oat bran and white bean had a lower calcium:phosphate ratio than barley bran and red kidney beans. Correlation of the calcium:phosphate molar ratio with release of phosphate depends on concentration of calcium ions and this influences soluble oxalate concentration. PMID:27507467

  7. Alarm Photosynthesis: Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Internal CO2 Source in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooulakou, Georgia; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Orkoula, Malvina G; Kontoyannis, Christos G; Fasseas, Costas; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Klapa, Maria I; Karabourniotis, George

    2016-08-01

    Calcium oxalate crystals are widespread among animals and plants. In land plants, crystals often reach high amounts, up to 80% of dry biomass. They are formed within specific cells, and their accumulation constitutes a normal activity rather than a pathological symptom, as occurs in animals. Despite their ubiquity, our knowledge on the formation and the possible role(s) of these crystals remains limited. We show that the mesophyll crystals of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) exhibit diurnal volume changes with a gradual decrease during daytime and a total recovery during the night. Moreover, stable carbon isotope composition indicated that crystals are of nonatmospheric origin. Stomatal closure (under drought conditions or exogenous application of abscisic acid) was accompanied by crystal decomposition and by increased activity of oxalate oxidase that converts oxalate into CO2 Similar results were also observed under drought stress in Dianthus chinensis, Pelargonium peltatum, and Portulacaria afra Moreover, in A. hybridus, despite closed stomata, the leaf metabolic profiles combined with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements indicated active photosynthetic metabolism. In combination, calcium oxalate crystals in leaves can act as a biochemical reservoir that collects nonatmospheric carbon, mainly during the night. During the day, crystal degradation provides subsidiary carbon for photosynthetic assimilation, especially under drought conditions. This new photosynthetic path, with the suggested name "alarm photosynthesis," seems to provide a number of adaptive advantages, such as water economy, limitation of carbon losses to the atmosphere, and a lower risk of photoinhibition, roles that justify its vast presence in plants. PMID:27261065

  8. Alarm Photosynthesis: Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Internal CO2 Source in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooulakou, Georgia; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Orkoula, Malvina G; Kontoyannis, Christos G; Fasseas, Costas; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Klapa, Maria I; Karabourniotis, George

    2016-08-01

    Calcium oxalate crystals are widespread among animals and plants. In land plants, crystals often reach high amounts, up to 80% of dry biomass. They are formed within specific cells, and their accumulation constitutes a normal activity rather than a pathological symptom, as occurs in animals. Despite their ubiquity, our knowledge on the formation and the possible role(s) of these crystals remains limited. We show that the mesophyll crystals of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) exhibit diurnal volume changes with a gradual decrease during daytime and a total recovery during the night. Moreover, stable carbon isotope composition indicated that crystals are of nonatmospheric origin. Stomatal closure (under drought conditions or exogenous application of abscisic acid) was accompanied by crystal decomposition and by increased activity of oxalate oxidase that converts oxalate into CO2 Similar results were also observed under drought stress in Dianthus chinensis, Pelargonium peltatum, and Portulacaria afra Moreover, in A. hybridus, despite closed stomata, the leaf metabolic profiles combined with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements indicated active photosynthetic metabolism. In combination, calcium oxalate crystals in leaves can act as a biochemical reservoir that collects nonatmospheric carbon, mainly during the night. During the day, crystal degradation provides subsidiary carbon for photosynthetic assimilation, especially under drought conditions. This new photosynthetic path, with the suggested name "alarm photosynthesis," seems to provide a number of adaptive advantages, such as water economy, limitation of carbon losses to the atmosphere, and a lower risk of photoinhibition, roles that justify its vast presence in plants.

  9. Reevaluation of the plant "gemstones": Calcium oxalate crystals sustain photosynthesis under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooulakou, Georgia; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Orkoula, Malvina G; Kontoyannis, Christos G; Fasseas, Costas; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Klapa, Maria I; Karabourniotis, George

    2016-09-01

    Land plants face the perpetual dilemma of using atmospheric carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and losing water vapors, or saving water and reducing photosynthesis and thus growth. The reason behind this dilemma is that this simultaneous exchange of gases is accomplished through the same minute pores on leaf surfaces, called stomata. In a recent study we provided evidence that pigweed, an aggressive weed, attenuates this problem exploiting large crystals of calcium oxalate as dynamic carbon pools. This plant is able to photosynthesize even under drought conditions, when stomata are closed and water losses are limited, using carbon dioxide from crystal decomposition instead from the atmosphere. Abscisic acid, an alarm signal that causes stomatal closure seems to be implicated in this function and for this reason we named this path "alarm photosynthesis." The so-far "enigmatic," but highly conserved and widespread among plant species calcium oxalate crystals seem to play a crucial role in the survival of plants.

  10. Urinary stone analysis on 12,846 patients: a report from a single center in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenqi; Yang, Bicheng; Ou, Lili; Liang, Yeping; Wan, Shawpong; Li, Shujue; Zeng, Guohua

    2014-02-01

    We reported a retrospective review of the urinary stone compositions in 12,846 patients. Data on urinary stone compositions analyzed between January 2003 and December 2012 in our center were collected. Infrared spectroscopy was used for stone analysis. Predominant stone component was recorded. Patients were divided into four age groups: 0-18, 19-40, 41-60, and 61-92, and five categories by components. In order to determine the change of stone characteristics with respect to time, data were also divided into two periods, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012. A total of 12,846 stones were included in this study. The age of the patients ranged from 1 to 92 years with 7,736 males and 5,110 females. Stone made of single component was rare, 2.61%. Calcium oxalate stone was the most common component at 82.56%. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were more common in male than in female. The incidence of calcium phosphate stones and uric acid stones had increased during the past 5 years, while calcium oxalate stones decreased. We found the highest incidence of stone disease in the 41-60 years old group and the lowest in the 1-18 years old for both genders. Calcium oxalate was the dominant component in every group but was more prevalent in 19-40 years group. The percentage of magnesium ammonium phosphate stone and uric acid stone increased with age.

  11. Synthesis of calcium oxalate crystals in culture medium irradiated with non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurake, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Nakamura, Kae; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Mizuno, Masaaki; Yamanishi, Yoko; Hori, Masaru

    2016-09-01

    Octahedral particulates several tens of microns in size were synthesized in a culture medium irradiated through contact with a plume of non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma (NEAPP). The particulates were identified in the crystalline phase as calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD). The original medium contained constituents such as NaCl, d-glucose, CaCl2, and NaHCO3 but not oxalate or oxalic acid. The oxalate was clearly synthesized and crystallized in the medium as thermodynamically unstable COD crystals after the NEAPP irradiation.

  12. Mimicking the growth of a pathologic biomineral: shape development and structures of calcium oxalate dihydrate in the presence of polyacrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Annu; Rosseeva, Elena; Hochrein, Oliver; Carrillo-Cabrera, Wilder; Simon, Paul; Duchstein, Patrick; Zahn, Dirk; Kniep, Rüdiger

    2012-03-26

    The morphogenesis of calcium oxalate hydrates in aqueous solutions was investigated by varying the pH, oxalate concentration, and the concentration of the sodium salt of polyacrylate (PAA). With increasing amounts of PAA in solution, the shape of tetragonal calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) changes from bipyramidal through elongated bipyramidal prisms to dumbbells and finally reverts to rodlike tetragonal bipyramidal prisms. PAA is incorporated into the prismatic zones of the growing COD crystals, thereby reducing the growth rate of the {100} faces along the direction. Dumbbells start to develop through "non-crystallographic" branching from the prism faces and the formation of "multiple head" crystals. Adsorption of PAA on the rough surfaces of the splitting individuals supports the selection of new subindividuals and leads to the formation of core-shell patterns. The various shapes and structures of the biomimetic COD/PAA crystals and aggregates are closely related to the well-known "pathologic" individuals observed in the urine of patients with urinary disease (including urinary stones). PMID:22354632

  13. Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Marchesotti, Federica; Zanetti, Giampaolo

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. Each patient was subjected to an investigation including a 24-h dietary record and 24-h urine sample taken over the same period. Nutrients and calories were calculated by means of food composition tables using a computerized procedure. Daily PRAL was calculated considering the mineral and protein composition of foods, the mean intestinal absorption rate for each nutrient and the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, oxalate, urate, citrate, and creatinine levels were measured in the urine. The mean daily PRAL was higher in male than in female patients (24.1+/-24.0 vs 16.1+/-20.1 mEq/day, P=0.000). A significantly (P=0.01) negative correlation (R=-0.18) was found between daily PRAL and daily urinary citrate, but no correlation between PRAL and urinary calcium, oxalate, and urate was shown. Daily urinary calcium (R=0.186, P=0.011) and uric acid (R=0.157, P=0.033) were significantly related to the dietary intake of protein. Daily urinary citrate was significantly related to the intakes of copper (R=0.178, P=0.015), riboflavin (R=0.20, P=0.006), piridoxine (R=0.169, P=0.021) and biotin (R=0.196, P=0.007). The regression analysis by stepwise selection confirmed the significant negative correlation between PRAL and urinary citrate (P=0.002) and the significant positive correlation between riboflavin and urinary citrate (P=0.000). Urinary citrate excretion of renal stone formers (RSFs) is highly dependent from dietary acid load. The computation of the renal acid load is advisable to investigate the role of diet in the pathogenesis of calcium stone disease and it is also a useful tool to evaluate the lithogenic potential of

  14. Papillary and Nonpapillary Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Renal Calculi: Comparative Study of Etiologic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Pieras; Antonia Costa-Bauz; Margarita Ramis; Felix Grases

    2006-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) renal calculi can be classified into two groups: papillary and nonpapillary. In this paper, a comparative study between etiologic factors of COM papillary and nonpapillary calculi is performed. The study included 40 patients with COM renal calculi. The urine of these individuals was analyzed. Case history, lifestyle, and dietetic habits were obtained.No significant differences between urinary biochemical data of both groups were observed; 50% of COM papillary...

  15. Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Eucalypt Ectomycorrhizae: Morphochemical Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Pylro, Victor Satler; de Freitas, André Luiz Moreira; Otoni, Wagner Campos; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems, benefitting plants principally by increasing the uptake of water and nutrients such as calcium from the soil. Previous work has demonstrated accumulation of crystallites in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, but detailed morphological and chemical characterization of these crystals has not been performed. In this work, cross sections of acetic acid-treated and cleared ectomycorrhizal fragments were visualized by polarized light microscopy to e...

  16. NEW FRONTIERS ON NEPHROLITHIASIS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF KIDNEY STONES

    OpenAIRE

    Malan Rajat; Walia Anu; Gupta Sumeet,

    2011-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis (also known as kidney stones, renal stones, urinary stones, urolithiasis, and renal calculi) affects a great number of patients worldwide. These can be of different types like calcium-oxalate, struvite, uric acid, cysteine. Larger stones in the urinary tract can cause extreme pain in the lower back or side. Urinary tract infections, kidney disorders and certain metabolic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism are also linked to stone formation. Cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, Hyperc...

  17. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies.

  18. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  19. Environmental factors affect calcium oxalate crystals formation in tradescantia pallida (commelinaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tradescantia pallida has major types of calcium oxalate crystals i.e., raphide, prismatic, and druse that are widely distributed within collenchmya, cortical and vascular parenchyma in the stem. However, mechanisms involved in crystal formation in response to stress conditions are not properly understood. In order to evaluate formation of these crystals in response to heavy metals i.e., mercury, sections of control (untreated) and mercury treated plants were prepared, stained with toluidine blue and photographed (infinity software). Mercuric chloride at high doses increased all types of crystals as compared with low doses; suggesting that mercury stress increases metabolic activities of Tradescantia that produce crystals may be, in order to defend themselves. So in T. pallida, crystal formation is influenced by mercury stress that increased raphide and prismatic crystals in the treated plants. However, biochemical aspects involved in oxalic acid formation and release of Ca by Hg need to be explored more. (author)

  20. Alcohol dispersions of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles for stone conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Suzuki, Amelia; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion

    2013-09-10

    Alcohol dispersions of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, the so-called nanolimes, are emerging as an effective conservation material for the consolidation of stone, mortars, and plasters present in old masonry and/or mural paintings. To better understand how this treatment operates, to optimize its performance and broaden its applications, here we study the nano and microstructural characteristics, carbonation behavior, and consolidation efficacy of colloidal alcohol dispersions of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles produced by both homogeneous (commercial nanolime) and heterogeneous phase synthesis (aged slaked lime and carbide lime putties). We observe that the alcohol not only provides a high colloidal stability to Ca(OH)2 particles, but also affects the kinetics of carbonation and CaCO3 polymorph selection. This is due to the pseudomorphic replacement of Ca(OH)2 particles by calcium alkoxides upon reaction with ethanol or 2-propanol. The extent of this replacement reaction depends on Ca(OH)2 size and time. Hydrolysis of alkoxides speeds up the carbonation process and increases the CaCO3 yield. The higher degree of transformation into calcium alkoxide of both the commercial nanolime and the carbide lime fosters metastable vaterite formation, while calcite precipitation is promoted upon carbonation of the aged slaked lime due its lower reactivity, which limits calcium alkoxide formation. A higher consolidation efficacy in terms of strength gain of treated porous stone is achieved in the latter case, despite the fact that the carbonation is much faster and reaches a higher yield in the former ones. Formation of alkoxides, which has been neglected in previous studies, needs to be considered when applying nanolime treatments. These results show that the use Ca(OH)2 nanoparticle dispersions prepared with either aged slaked lime or carbide lime putties is an economical and effective conservation alternative to commercial nanolimes produced by homogeneous phase synthesis. Ultimately, this

  1. Consolidation of degraded ornamental porous limestone stone by calcium carbonate precipitation induced by the microbiota inhabiting the stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Lopez, C; Rodriguez-Navarro, C; Piñar, G; Carrillo-Rosúa, F J; Rodriguez-Gallego, M; Gonzalez-Muñoz, M T

    2007-08-01

    Although it has already been shown that calcareous stone can be consolidated by using a bacterially inoculated culture medium, a more user-friendly method is the in situ application of a sterile culture medium that is able to activate, among the microbial community of the stone, those bacteria with a potential for calcium carbonate precipitation. In order to test this new method for stone consolidation, non-sterilized decayed porous limestone was immersed in sterile nutritional media. Results were compared to those of the runs in which stone sterilized prior to the treatment was used. The effects of the microbial community on stone consolidation were determined by recording the evolution of the culture media chemistry. The treated stone was tested for mechanical resistance and porosity. Results demonstrate that the tested media were able to activate bacteria from the microbial community of the stone. As a consequence of the growth of these bacteria, an alkalinization occurred that resulted in calcium carbonate precipitation. The new precipitate was compatible with the substrate and consolidated the stone without pore plugging. Therefore, a good candidate to in situ consolidate decayed porous limestone is the application of a sterile culture medium with the characteristics specified in the present study.

  2. Interactions between calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells: endocytosis and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohjimoto, Y; Ebisuno, S; Tamura, M; Ohkawa, T

    1996-01-01

    The present investigation was designed to study the biological responses in cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells exposed to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the most common type of urinary crystals. The addition of COM crystals significantly accelerated the multiplication of MDCK cells and significantly activated the cell viability. After exposure of MDCK cells to COM crystals, scanning electron microscopy revealed that some crystals adhered to the plasma membrane and others were endocytosed by the cell. This cellular uptake of crystals was time dependent from 1 to 8 h and showed a specificity according to crystal type. However, the endocytosis of aggregated COM crystals was less marked than that of non-aggregated crystals. Pre-treatment with each of the glycosaminoglycans (sodium pentosan polysulphate, heparin, and chondroitin sulphate C) produced a significant reduction of the cellular uptake of COM crystals, suggesting that these glycosaminoglycans may play some critical roles in preventing the cellular uptake of crystals. Although investigation in further detail is necessary, we speculate that these crystal-cell interactions, that is, the cellular uptake of crystals and cell proliferation, may be among the earliest processes in the formation of kidney stones. PMID:8873377

  3. Stone formation and management after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarplin, Sarah; Ganesan, Vishnu; Monga, Manoj

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a significant health concern and is associated with an increased risk of nephrolithiasis, particularly in women. The underlying pathophysiology of stone formation in obese patients is thought to be related to insulin resistance, dietary factors, and a lithogenic urinary profile. Uric acid stones and calcium oxalate stones are common in these patients. Use of surgical procedures for obesity (bariatric surgery) has risen over the past two decades. Although such procedures effectively manage obesity-dependent comorbidities, several large, controlled studies have revealed that modern bariatric surgeries increase the risk of nephrolithiasis by approximately twofold. In patients who have undergone bariatric surgery, fat malabsorption leads to hyperabsorption of oxalate, which is exacerbated by an increased permeability of the gut to oxalate. Patients who have undergone bariatric surgery show characteristic 24 h urine parameters including low urine volume, low urinary pH, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria and hyperuricosuria. Prevention of stones with dietary limitation of oxalate and sodium and a high intake of fluids is critical, and calcium supplementation with calcium citrate is typically required. Potassium citrate is valuable for treating the common metabolic derangements as it raises urinary pH, enhances the activity of stone inhibitors, reduces the supersaturation of calcium oxalate, and corrects hypokalaemia. Both pyridoxine and probiotics have been shown in small studies to reduce hyperoxaluria, but further study is necessary to clarify their effects on stone morbidity in the bariatric surgery population. PMID:25850790

  4. Analysis of urinary stone composition in Eastern India by X-ray diffraction crystallography

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    Tarun Jindal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stones in the urinary system are common in our country. This study was done to assess the composition of the urinary stones in eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done over a period of thirty months. A total of 90 stones were analyzed in this time period by using X-ray diffraction crystallography. Results: Of the 90 stones analyzed, 77 were renal stones, 12 were ureteric stones and one was a bladder stone. Six stones (all renal did not have properties to be represented by X-ray diffraction crystallography. The overall prevalence of the oxalate containing stones was 85.7% with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM being the major constituent. Calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD was the next most common constituent. Struvite stones constituted 9.5% of the stones analyzed. Pure calcium phosphate stones were found in 4.7% of the cases. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the stone composition in the eastern part of India is different from that in other parts of the country. We have a comparatively lower prevalence of oxalate stones while a higher prevalence of phosphate and struvite stones.

  5. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  6. Laparoscopic treatment of a calcium fluorophosphate stone within a seminal vesicle cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Han; Yu-Ru Yang; Xin-Yuan Zhang; Qiang Wei

    2008-01-01

    Stones in the seminal vesicles are extremely rare. We present a 62-year-old patient with a stone within a seminal vesicle cyst, who was cured by laparoscopic treatment. The operative time was 80 min, and the estimated blood loss was 90 mL. Scanning electron microscope examination of the stone showed a compact crystal image externally and sparse spherical crystal structure in kernel. Composition of the stone was calcium fluorophosphate on X-ray diffractometer. The follow-up time was 15 months with no recurrence of cyst or stone. To our knowledge, this case is the first to describe laparoscopic removal of a stone within a seminal vesicle cyst, and the first to describe calcium fluorophosphate as the composition of seminal vesicle stones.

  7. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemamalini Ketha

    Full Text Available Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH2D concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined.In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, 1,25(OH2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH2D, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls.Serum Ca and 1,25(OH2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001. Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH2D/25(OHD ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008. Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82. In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OHD and 24,25(OH2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05.Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk.

  8. Oxalobacter formigenes Colonization and Oxalate Dynamics in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingsheng; Ellis, Melissa L; Knight, John

    2015-08-01

    Animal and human studies have provided compelling evidence that colonization of the intestine with Oxalobacter formigenes reduces urinary oxalate excretion and lowers the risk of forming calcium oxalate kidney stones. The mechanism providing protection appears to be related to the unique ability of O. formigenes to rely on oxalate as a major source of carbon and energy for growth. However, much is not known about the factors that influence colonization and host-bacterium interactions. We have colonized mice with O. formigenes OxCC13 and systematically investigated the impacts of diets with different levels of calcium and oxalate on O. formigenes intestinal densities and urinary and intestinal oxalate levels. Measurement of intestinal oxalate levels in mice colonized or not colonized with O. formigenes demonstrated the highly efficient degradation of soluble oxalate by O. formigenes relative to other microbiota. The ratio of calcium to oxalate in diets was important in determining colonization densities and conditions where urinary oxalate and fecal oxalate excretion were modified, and the results were consistent with those from studies we have performed with colonized and noncolonized humans. The use of low-oxalate purified diets showed that 80% of animals retained O. formigenes colonization after a 1-week dietary oxalate deprivation. Animals not colonized with O. formigenes excreted two times more oxalate in feces than they had ingested. This nondietary source of oxalate may play an important role in the survival of O. formigenes during periods of dietary oxalate deprivation. These studies suggest that the mouse will be a useful model to further characterize interactions between O. formigenes and the host and factors that impact colonization. PMID:25979889

  9. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, Guido; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in crossover design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related factor

  10. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J. C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E. A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, G.; Kema, I. P.; Hendriks, W. H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related facto

  11. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D and found that (A + B are more abundant than (C + D in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine of kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p < 0.005. Dissociation constants toward calcium oxalate monohydrate were 10-fold different, with Beagles' isoforms being 10 times stronger inhibitors compare to those of Mini-Schnauzers'. Isoforms C + D of NC were the main isoforms isolated in stone-forming dogs. CONCLUSION: NC of these two species of dogs differently affects calcium oxalate crystallization and might have a role in determining ulterior urinary stone formation.

  12. Approach to the Patient with Nephrolithiasis; The Stone Quiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Assadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of stones in patients with idiopathic nephrolithiasis. A calcium phosphate stones are more typical of patients with renal tubular acidosis, chronic urinary tract infection and primary hyperparathyroidism. A non-contrast enhanced helical computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen is the diagnostic procedure of choice with superior sensitivity and specificity of almost 100% compared to the KUB and abdominal ultrasound. Patients should be instructed to strain their urine and bring in any stone that passes for analysis. Stone identification enables better planning of subsequent therapy. The likelihood of stone passage is 95% for stones up to 5 mm in size. Stones larger than 5 mm in diameter that do not pass in several days merit referral to an urologist for lithotripsy, or lithotomy. No specific work-up or drug therapy is typically provided for patients who have passed a single stone. Long term management of patients who have passed their first stone includes recommendations to avoid a diet high in salt or animal protein and maintenance of a fluid intake greater than 2 liters per day. A low calcium diet is also an important risk factor for calcium nephrolithiasis. A low dietary calcium intake reduces the concentration of calcium in the intestinal lumen which can lead to increase in gastrointestinal absorption and urinary excretion of oxalate. Patient with recurrent disease should receive a complete evaluation to treat the identified risk factors and prevent stone formation.

  13. Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanu Priya Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person’s ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation.

  14. Can Hounsfield Unit Value Predict Type of Urinary Stones?

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    Alper Gok

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of this study is to determine the role of Hounsfield unit (HU in predicting results of stone analysis. Material and Method: This study included 199 patients to whom percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL procedures were applied between January 2008 and May 2011 in our clinic. Before the procedure HU values of kidney stones were measured using non-contrast computed tomography. After the operation, obtained stone samples were analysed using X-ray diffraction technique. HU values were compared with stone analysis results. Results: Stone analysis revealed eight different stone types. Distribution of stone types and HU value ranges were as follows: 85% calcium oxalate monohydrate, 730-1130 HU; 38% calcium oxalate dihydrate, 510-810 HU; 21% uric acid, 320-550 HU; 23% struvite, 614-870 HU; 7% calcium hydrogene phosphate, 1100-1365 HU; 3% cystine, 630-674 HU; 15% mixed uric acid plus calcium oxalate, 499-840 HU; and 7% mixed cystine plus calcium phosphate, 430-520 HU. HU values of all stone types ranged between 320 and 1365. There was a statistically significant relation between HU values of uric acid and non uric acid stones (p

  15. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris

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    A. Aggarwal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as “gokhru” which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals as well as on oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells. RESULTS: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  16. In vitro effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. on calcium oxalate crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajij Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. is widely used in the management of urolithiasis in Unani system of medicine. Aim: To evaluate the effect of the hydro alcoholic extract of A. capillus-veneris Linn. on calcium oxalate crystallisation by in vitro study. Materials and Methods: The study includes crystallization, nucleation and aggregation assay. Crystallization was induced by addition of 50 μl of 0.1 M sodium oxalate in whole urine in the absence and the presence of extract at different concentrations (0.50 mg, 0.75 mg and 1 mg. The nucleation and aggregation rates were followed at 620 nm after mixing calcium chloride and sodium oxalate solution and in a buffered solution containing calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals, respectively. The rate was evaluated by comparing the slope of turbidity in the presence of extract with that of control using the spectrophotometer. Crystals in the urine were also analysed by light microscopy. Results and Conclusion: Extract of the test drug inhibited the crystallization in solution; less and smaller particles were observed in the presence of extract. These results were further confirmed in the nucleation assay, though the rate of nucleation was not inhibited but number of crystals was found to be decreased. The test drug also inhibited crystal aggregation. It can be concluded therefore, that the test drug possesses significant antilithiasic activity.

  17. Hyperoxaluria in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis--what are the limits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J

    1999-01-01

    , and the syndrome of mild hyperoxaluric calcium nephrolithiasis could not be identified in our population of idiopathic stone formers. Hence, a limit of abnormal oxalate excretion that distinguishes an idiopathic stone former from a non-stone former could not be defined in our population. Therefore...

  18. Analysis of urinary stone based on a spectrum absorption FTIR-ATR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyana, V.; Haryanto, F.; Fitri, L. A.; Ridwan, T.; Anwary, F.; Soekersi, H.

    2016-03-01

    This research analysed the urinary stone by measuring samples using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy and black box analysis. The main objective of this study is to find kinds of urinary stone and determine a total spectrum, which is a simple model of the chemical and mineral composition urinary stone through black box analysis using convolution method. The measurements result showed that kinds of urinary stone were pure calcium oxalate monohydrate, ion amino acid calcium oxalate monohydrate, a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate with calcium phosphate, a mixture of ion amino acid calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate,pure uric acid, ion amino acid uric acid, and a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate with ion amino acid uric acid. The results of analysis of black box showed characteristics as the most accurate and precise to confirm the type of urinary stones based on theregion absorption peak on a graph, the results of the convolution, and the shape of the total spectrum on each urinary stones.

  19. Metabolomics analysis for hydroxy-L-proline-induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Songyan; Yang, Rui; Peng, Zhongjiang; Lu, Hongtao; Li, Na; Ding, Jiarong; Cui, Xingang; Chen, Wei; Dong, Xin

    2016-01-01

    About 80% of kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx) with variable amounts of calcium phosphate, and hyperoxaluria is considered as an important factor of CaOx nephrolithiasis. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms of CaOx nephrolithiasis remain undefined. In this study, we successfully developed a rat model with hydroxy-L-proline (HLP) -induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. Rats were continuously orally administrated with HLP for 28 days. Urine and blood samples were collected from the rats treated with or without HLP at four different time points. UPLC-Q-TOF/MS was applied to profile the abundances of metabolites. To obtain more comprehensive analysis of metabolic profiling spectrum, combination of RP-LC and HILIC were applied. We identify 42 significant differential metabolites in the urine, and 13 significant differential metabolites in the blood. Pathway analysis revealed that the pathways involved in amino acid metabolism, taurine metabolism, bile acid synthesis, energy metabolism, TCA cycle, purine metabolism, vitamin metabolism, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide metabolism have been modulated by HLP treatment. This study suggested that a number of metabolic pathways are dysfunctional in the HLP induced crystal kidney injury, and further studies on those pathways are warranted to better understand the metabolic mechanism of CaOx nephrolithiasis. PMID:27443631

  20. The preventive effect of sodium pentosan polysulfate against renal stone formation in hyperoxaluric rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Tatsuya; Ishii, Keiichi; Yoneda, Yukio; Kamikawa, Sadanori; Kanazawa, Toshinao; Sugimoto, Toshikado; Osswald, Hartmut

    2002-10-01

    Sodium pentosan polysulfate (SPP), a semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan, was administered to rats with hyperoxaluria, induced by a vitamin B6 deficient diet, as a model of calcium oxalate stone formation. We studied the preventive effects of SPP on stone formation as well as its inhibitory effects on stone growth by autoradiography and radioluminography after intravenous injection of (14)C-oxalate. The rats were divided into non-treated and SPP-treated groups. The non-treated rats were divided into three groups: one group was fed a regular diet, while the other two groups were fed a vitamin B6 deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. The SPP-treated rats were divided into two groups: one group was intravenously injected with SPP from the start of the vitamin B6 deficient diet for a total of 4 weeks and the other group was injected with the same amount of SPP after 2 weeks of the diet for 2 weeks. (14)C-oxalate renal macroautoradiograms were prepared, and calcium oxalate deposits in the renal tissues were compared between the non-treated and SPP-treated groups. The preventive effects on calcium oxalate stone formation were clearly observed in the group injected with SPP for 4 weeks. Even in the other SPP-treated group, in which the administration of SPP was started at 2 weeks after the start of the diet when calcium oxalate stone formation was already observed, the size of the calcium oxalate deposits observed after 4 weeks was smaller than that in the non-treated group fed a vitamin B6 deficient diet for 4 weeks. In conclusion, our results show that SPP has not only preventive effects on calcium oxalate stone formation but also growth inhibitory effects on stones in hyperoxaluric rats.

  1. Modulation of Calcium Oxalate Crystallization by Proteins and Small Molecules Investigated by In Situ Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, R.; Orme, C.; Cody, A. M.; Wierzbicki, A.; Hoyer, J.; Nancollas, G.; de Yoreo, J.

    2002-12-01

    Understanding the physical mechanisms by which biological inhibitors control nucleation and growth of inorganic crystals is a major focus of biomineral research. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), which plays a functional role in plant physiology, is also a source of pathogenesis in humans where it causes kidney stone disease. Although a great deal of research has been carried out on the modulation COM by proteins and small molecules, the basic mechanism has not yet been understood. However, because the proteins that play a role in COM growth have been identified and sequenced, COM provides an excellent model system for research into biomineral growth. In this study, in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor the COM surface under controlled growth conditions both from pure solutions and those doped with citrate and osteopontin (OPN) in order to determine their effects on surface morphology and growth dynamics at the molecular level. As with other solution-grown crystals such as calcite, COM grows on complex dislocation hillocks. In pure solution, while growth on the (010) face is isotropic, hillocks on the (-101) face exhibit anisotropic step kinetics. Steps of [-10-1] and orientation are clearly delineated with the [-10-1] being the fast growing direction. When citrate is added to the solution, both growth rate and morphology are drastically changed on (-101) face, especially along the [-10-1] direction. This results in isotropic disc-shaped hillocks a shape that is then reflected in the macroscopic growth habit. In contrast, no large growth changes were observed on the (010) facet. At the same time, molecular modeling predicts an excellent fit of the citrate ion into the (-101) plane and a poor fit to the (010) face. Here we propose a model that reconciles the step-specific interactions implied by the AFM results with the face-specific predictions of the calculations. Finally, we present the results of doping with aspartic acid as well as OPN, an

  2. Extraction and estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate crystals in the foliage of conifer and hardwood trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Rakesh; Chamberlain, Bradley; Long, Stephanie; Turlapati, Swathi A; Quigley, Gloria

    2015-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop a method for the extraction and indirect estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the foliage of trees. Foliar tissue was collected from a single tree of each species (five conifers and five hardwoods) for comparison of extractions in different solvents using 10 replicates per species from the same pool of tissue. For each species, calcium (Ca) and oxalate were extracted sequentially in double deionized water and 2N acetic acid, and finally, five replicate samples were extracted in 5% (0.83N) perchloric acid (PCA) and the other five in 2N hydrochloric acid (HCl); three cycles of freezing and thawing were used for each solvent. Total ions were extracted by microwave digestion. Calcium was quantified with an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer method and oxalate was eluted and quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography method. This experiment was repeated again with two conifer and two hardwood species using four trees per species, and two analytical replicates for each tree. We report here that, regardless of age of individual trees within a species, time of collection or species type, the third extraction in PCA or HCl resulted in near equimolar quantities of Ca and oxalate (r(2) ≥ 0.99). This method provides an easy estimate of the quantity of CaOx crystals using a small sample of foliar tissue. An additional benefit of PCA is that it precipitates the nucleic acids and proteins, allowing the quantification of several free/soluble metabolites such as amino acids, polyamines, organic acids and inorganic elements all from a single sample extract.

  3. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakıroglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca. The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics.

  4. Renal tubular injury induced by ischemia promotes the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in rats with hyperoxaluria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanwei; Liu, Wanpeng; Hui, Limei; Zhao, Jianjun; Yang, Xuecheng; Wang, Yonghua; Niu, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    Hyperoxaluria and cell injury are key factors in urolithiasis. Oxalate metabolism may be altered by renal dysfunction and therefore, impact the deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. We investigated the relationship of renal function, oxalate metabolism and CaOx crystal deposition in renal ischemia. One hundred male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Hyperoxaluria model (Group A and B) was established by feeding rats with 0.75 % ethylene glycol (EG). The left renal pedicle was clamped for 30 min to establish renal ischemia Groups (B and C), while Groups A and D underwent sham operation. Then, serum and urine oxalate (Ox), creatinine (Cr) and urea nitrogen (UN) levels were evaluated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) and ion mass spectrum (IMS) at days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14. CaOx crystallization was assessed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). A temporal and significant increase of serum Cr and UN levels was observed in Groups B and C compared to values obtained for Groups A and D (P renal tissue. Our results indicated that renal tubular injury induced by renal ischemia might not affect Ox levels but could promote CaOx crystal retention under hyperoxaluria.

  5. Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU: variation of fasting urinary protein is a window to pathophysiology or simple consequence of renal stones in situ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwille PO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In IRCU it is uncertain whether variation of urinary protein, especially non-albumin protein (NAlb-P, is due to the presence of stones or reflects alteration of oxidative metabolism. Aims To validate in a tripartite cross-sectional study of 187 ambulatory male patients, undergoing a standardized laboratory programme, whether stones impact on N-Alb-P or the state of oxidative metabolism interferes with IRCU pathophysiology. Methods In part 1 the strata low and high of fasting urinary excretion rate per 2 h of N-Alb-P, malonedialdehyde, hypoxanthine, xanthine, pH and other urine components were compared, and association with renal stones in situ evaluated; in part 2 the co-variation of oxidatively modulated environment, fasting urinary pH, calcium (Ca salt crystallization risk and the number of patients with stones in situ was examined; in part 3, the nucleation of Ca oxalate and Ca phosphate was tested in undiluted postprandial urine of patients and related to the state of oxidative metabolism. Results In part 1, N-Alb-P excretion > 4.3 mg was associated with increase of blood pressure, excretion of total protein, hypoxanthine (a marker of tissue hypoxia, malonedialdehyde (a marker of lipid peroxidation, sodium, magnesium, citrate, uric acid, volume, pH, and increase of renal fractional excretion of both NAlb-P and uric acid; when stones were present, urinary pH was elevated but other parameters were unaffected. Significant predictors of N-Alb-P excretion were malonedialdehyde, fractional N-Alb-P and hypoxanthine. In part 2, urine pH > 6.14 was associated with unchanged blood pressure and plasma vasopressin, increase of blood pH, urinary volume, malonedialde hyde, fractional excretion of N-Alb-P, uric acid, Ca phosphate, but not Ca oxalate, supersaturation; this spectrum was accompanied by decrease of concentration of urinary total and free magnesium, total and complexed citrate, plasma uric acid (in humans the major

  6. Experimental study of the inhibitory effect of γ-linolenic acid on calcium oxalate crystalization in rats%月见草油抑制草酸钙结晶形成的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海滨; 石玮; 岳中瑾

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解月见草油在草酸钙结石形成中的作用,为临床治疗提供新的方法与思路.方法 雄性SD大鼠60只,随机分为4组,各组15只.C组和D组以月见草油(含γ-亚麻酸9.2%)或葵花籽油(含亚油酸70%)10 g/kg灌胃4周后,用诱石剂1%乙二醇(EG)加2%氯化氨喂饮,同时继续以月见草油或葵花籽油灌胃4周,8周后检测各组大鼠肾功能、24 h血尿生化指标和肾草酸钙结晶情况;仅饲普通饲料(A组,空白组)和普通饲料加1%乙二醇(EG)加2%氯化氨喂饮(B组,成石组)大鼠作为对照.结果 月见草油组肾组织水肿较轻,肾内草酸钙结晶数及肾成石率低于成石组(P<0.05),尿枸橼酸较成石组高(P<0.01),24 h尿钙、尿草酸排泄均低于成石组(P<0.01),血尿素氮(P<0.01)、血肌酐(P<0.05)低于成石组.结论 γ-亚麻酸能有效改善肾功能,减少尿钙及草酸的排泄,抑制实验鼠肾草酸钙结晶形成,在尿石症防治方面可能有一定应用价值.%Objective To compare the role of y-linolenic acid (y-LNA) in the prevention of stone-forming with that of linoleic acid (LNA). Methods 60 male adult SD rats were divided into 4 groups, group A (normal control), group B (stone forming), group C (evening primrose oil, 9. 2% y-LNA), and group D (sunflower seed oil, 70% LN). Rats in group C were fed with evening primrose oil and rats in group D with sunflower seed oil for 4 weeks. Renal stone formation was induced by 1% ethylene glycol (EG) plus 2% muriate. Meanwhile, gavage was continued with evening primrose oil and sunflower seeds oil. After 8 weeks, all rats were sacrificed and the renal function, 24 h blood and urine biochemical indexes, renal calcium oxalate crystallization and urinary oxalate were detected. Results The parenchymal edema in group C were milder compared with that in group B. Calcium oxalate crystallization, urinary calcium excretion (P<0. 01), urinary oxalate(P<0. 01), blood urea nitrogen (P<0. 01) and creatinine (P<0. 05

  7. An optical micromethod for the determination of relative crystallisation rates of calcium oxalate in gels: method and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, W; Mergner, C; Simon, M

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a new, highly efficient micromethod for the determination of relative crystallisation rates of calcium oxalate (CaOx). Crystallisation is performed in the upper layer of a gel (bactoagar, agarose) which contains one component (oxalate) of the sparingly soluble salt. Precipitation is started by pipetting Ca++ containing solutions (in the presence and absence of crystallisation inhibitors) onto the gel. The process is followed quantitatively as a function of time by means of vertical light path photometry carrying out quasi-simultaneous multideterminations within a 50-fold multicuvette. The test volume is 0.1 ml. The method is suitable for large scale determinations. About 50 single crystallisation kinetics can be measured within 5-15 min. Testing three known inhibitors of CaOx crystal formation, relative inhibitory activities were obtained with standard errors of 1%-4%. PMID:6868222

  8. Tamm-Horsfall protein in recurrent calcium kidney stone formers with positive family history: abnormalities in urinary excretion, molecular structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Markus; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Zipperle, Ljerka; Hess, Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) powerfully inhibits calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, but structurally abnormal THPs from recurrent calcium stone formers may promote crystal aggregation. Therefore, increased urinary excretion of abnormal THP might be of relevance in nephrolithiasis. We studied 44 recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers with a positive family history of stone disease (RCSF(fam)) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Twenty-four-hour urinary THP excretion was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Structural properties of individually purified THPs were obtained from analysis of elution patterns from a Sepharose 4B column. Sialic acid (SA) contents of native whole 24-h urines, crude salt precipitates of native urines and individually purified THPs were measured. THP function was studied by measuring inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation in vitro (pH 5.7, 200 mM sodium chloride). Twenty-four-hour urine excretion of THP was higher in RCSF(fam) (44.0 +/- 4.0 mg/day) than in C (30.9 +/- 2.2 mg/day, P = 0.015). Upon salt precipitation and lyophilization, elution from a Sepharose 4B column revealed one major peak (peak A, cross-reacting with polyclonal anti-THP antibody) and a second minor peak (peak B, not cross-reacting). THPs from RCSF(fam) eluted later than those from C (P = 0.021), and maximum width of THP peaks was higher in RCSF(fam )than in C (P = 0.024). SA content was higher in specimens from RCSF(fam) than from C, in native 24-h urines (207.5 +/- 20.4 mg vs. 135.2 +/- 16.1 mg, P = 0.013) as well as in crude salt precipitates of 24-h urines (10.4 +/- 0.5 mg vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9 mg, P = 0.002) and in purified THPs (75.3 +/- 9.3 microg/mg vs. 48.8 +/- 9.8 microg/mg THP, P = 0.043). Finally, inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal aggregation by 40 mg/L of THP was lower in RCSF(fam) (6.1 +/- 5.5%, range -62.0 to +84.2%) than in C (24.9 +/- 6.0%, range -39.8 to +82.7%), P = 0.022, and only 25 out of 44 (57%) THPs from RCSF

  9. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation.

  10. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  11. Correlation between air pollution and crystal pattern of calcium oxalate in plant leaves of street trees in Itami City. [Ginkgo biloba; Salix babylonica; Aphananthe aspera; Robinia pseudoacacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K.; Tatsumi, S.

    1975-01-01

    A characteristic difference in calcium oxalate crystal patterns in leaves of roadside trees planted in relatively unpolluted northern parts of Itami City and in parts of the city polluted by automobile exhaust was discovered. The species of trees examined were Ginkgo biloba, Salix babylonica, Aphananthe aspera, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Poplar. The leaves of trees grown in relatively less air polluted areas displayed crystal aggregates of calcium oxalate (50-80 micron) that were arranged in rows on both sides of the central vein; some scattered crystal aggregates between veins were observed. Trees grown in air polluted areas showed irregular crystal patterns and more scattering of the crystals between veins. The cause of the observed differences in the pattern of crystal aggregates was attributed to the difference in metabolism of trees under different environmental conditions. Air pollutants disturb the normal metabolism of the tree and cause hyperproduction of calcium oxalate.

  12. Synthesis of CaTiO3 from calcium titanyl oxalate hexahydrate (CTO) as precursor employing microwave heating technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B M Patil; R S Srinivasa; S R Dharwadkar

    2007-06-01

    Calcium titanate, CaTiO3, an important microwave dielectric material and one of major phases in synroc (synthetic rock), a titanate ceramic with potential application for fixation of high level nuclear waste was synthesized from calcium titanyl oxalate [CaTiO (C2O4)2.6H2O] (CTO) by employing microwave heating technique. CTO heated in microwave heating system in air at 500°C for 1 h gave a perovskite, CaTiO3. The product obtained by heating of CTO in the same system at 700°C for the same duration was however, much more crystalline. CaTiO3 obtained by the present method was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET surface area measurement.

  13. Racemic calcium tartrate tetrahydrate [form (II)] in rat urinary stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, A; Bazin, D; Daudon, M; Brochot, A; Robbez-Masson, V; Maisonneuve, V

    2009-06-01

    The title compound, [Ca(C4H4O6)].4H2O, calcium tartrate tetrahydrate, is a new triclinic centrosymmetric form identified in rat kidney calculus. The crystal structure was determined from powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The four water molecules belong to one square face of the Ca-atom coordination (a square antiprism), the four O atoms of the second square face coming from two tartrate anions, building infinite chains alternating Ca atom polyhedra and tartrate anions along a, with the chains cross-linked by a network of hydrogen bonds.

  14. Do teas rich in antioxidants reduce the physicochemical and peroxidative risk factors for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in humans? Pilot studies with Rooibos herbal tea and Japanese green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A; Mokoena, M; Durbach, I; Lazarus, J; de Jager, S; Ackermann, H; Breytenbach, I; Okada, A; Usami, M; Hirose, Y; Ando, R; Yasui, T; Kohri, K

    2016-08-01

    Several experimental and animal studies have demonstrated that substances rich in antioxidants can reduce the physicochemical and peroxidative risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) renal stone formation in urine and blood. However, there are very few such investigations in humans. In the present pilot study, two varieties of tea, a green one from Japan (JGT) and a herbal one from South Africa (Rooibos) (RT), both rich in antioxidants, were administered to a group of CaOx stone formers (SF) (n = 8) for 30 days. Both teas were analysed for polyphenols by high-performance liquid chromatography and for minerals by plasma atomic and optical emission spectroscopy. 24 h urines (baseline and day 30) were analysed for lithogenic factors. CaOx metastable limits and crystal nucleation and growth kinetics were also determined in each urine sample. Deposited crystals were inspected by scanning electron microscopy. Blood samples were collected (baseline and day 30). Biomarkers of oxidative stress including plasma and urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) were also determined. Urinary physicochemical risk factors were also investigated after ingestion of RT for 30 days in two control groups (CG1 and CG2), the latter one of which consisted of habitual JGT drinkers. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank tests and Mann-Whitney tests for paired and independent measurements, respectively. Several flavonoids and catechins were quantified in RT and JGT, respectively, confirming that both teas are rich sources of antioxidants. Mineral content was found to be far below dietary reference intakes. There were no significant changes in any of the urinary physicochemical or peroxidative risk factors in the control groups or in SF, except for the supersaturation (SS) of brushite (Bru) which decreased in the latter group after ingestion of JGT. Crystal morphology showed a tendency to change from

  15. The effect of intracrystalline and surface-bound osteopontin on the attachment of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals to Mandin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in ultrafiltered human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurgood, Lauren A.; Sørensen, Esben Skipper; Ryall, Rosemary L.

    2012-01-01

    Osteopontin has been shown to both promote and inhibit the attachment of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals to cultured renal epithelial cells in aqueous media. In this study we examined the role of OPN on the growth and attachment of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals, to which it more readily...

  16. The composition of urinary stones in central sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine chemical analysis of urinary stones of central sindh. Study design: Prospective and randomized study. Setting: Department of Surgery and Pathology of Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences Nawabshah. Duration of study: Three years from May 2008 to May 2011. Material and Methods: Total 106 urolith patients who underwent open stone surgery were included in the study. EDTA Titration used for determination of calcium ions and determination of oxalate, phosphate, magnesium, ammonia, uric acid and cystine stones was carried out using spectrophotometer. These patients were asked to fill out a proforma with parameters of age, sex, radiological location of stone and chemical composition of surgically recovered stones. The stone analysis findings were reviewed and compared with other reported series Results: In this study 75(70.75%) patients were male and 31 (29.25%) female. Male to female ratio was of 2.41:1. The age ranged from 1 to 70 years with the mean of 22.69 years. The peak incidence of upper urinary tract stone in 20-30 years and lower urinary tract stones in both sexes was under 10 years. Anatomical location of stone showed 48(45.29%) renal, 13(12.26%) ureteric and 45(42.45%) bladder calculi. Chemical analysis revealed 56(52.8%) calcium oxalate, 7(6.6%) calcium phosphate, 11(10.3%) ammonium urate, 18(16.9%) uric acid, 13(12.2%) Sturvite and 1(0.9%) cystine calculi. Conclusion: It was concluded that urolithiasis is predominantly male disease. No age group was spared to stone disease. Calcium oxalate, uric acid, ammonium urate and mixed calculi are the main types in our study due to poor nutritional status, poverty and inadequate health facilities. Considering that knowledge of stone composition is of utmost importance to modify the incidence of urolithiasis. (author)

  17. Pathophysiology of incomplete renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers: evidence of disturbed calcium, bone and citrate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Bollerslev, Jens; Hansen, A B;

    1993-01-01

    Urinary acidification, bone metabolism and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 recurrent stone formers with incomplete renal tubular acidosis (iRTA), 10 recurrent stone formers with normal urinary acidification (NUA) and 10 normal controls (NC). Patients with iRTA had......-carbonic acidosis during fasting may be a pathophysilogical factor of both nephrolithiasis and disturbed bone metabolism in stone formers with iRTA....... significantly increased in iRTA compared with NUA and NC (P <0.01), indicating increased bone turnover in stone formers with iRTA. Stone formers with iRTA thus presented with disturbed calcium, bone and citrate metabolism--the same metabolic abnormalities which characterize classic type 1 RTA. Mild non...

  18. Atypical findings in a patient with a renal milky stone including a cake of stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Takaharu

    2006-08-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted to our department with the diagnosis of a renal calculus. She exhibited dull left flank pain. A plain film revealed a round opaque calcific density in the left kidney in the supine and the upright position. There was no connection between the calcification and the renal collecting system by retrograde pyelography. Computed tomography in the supine position showed a rounded calcification in the left renal parenchyma without a semilunar configuration. She was diagnosed with left renal calyceal diverticula calculi. She underwent a surgical intervention which found a renal milky stone including a 10-mm. diameter stone. The examination of the fluid and the stone material disclosed three components: calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate. The present case is interesting because its characteristics differ from the common features of renal milky stone.

  19. Introduction: Kidney Stone Research, Lessons From Human Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Fredric L.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, the prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and calcium phosphate; 10% of struvite; 9% of uric acid; and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stone. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. In this introduction, I have outlined our current thinking of the possible mechanisms involved in stone formation based on our biopsy data collected from a series of human kidney stone formers. In addition, I have presented a set of questions as a means of focusing future research in this field.

  20. Low temperature synthesis of high quality carbon nanospheres through the chemical reactions between calcium carbide and oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Yonggui, E-mail: xieyg2004@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Huang Qizhong, E-mail: qzhuang@mail.csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Huang Baiyun [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Xie Xiangmin [Applied Chemistry Department, College of Science, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan 410128 (China)

    2010-11-01

    Carbon nanospheres (CNSs) were synthesized through the chemical reactions of calcium carbide and oxalic acid without using catalysts. The chemical reactions were carried out in a sealed stainless steel pressure vessel with various molar ratios at temperatures of 65-250 deg. C. The synthesized CNSs have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) attached to the SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The total yield of carbonaceous materials relative to the starting material is about 4% (w/w). SEM and TEM results reveal that the percentage of CNSs is high (>95%). The CNSs that have been synthesized are roe-like spheres of relatively uniform size with diameters of 60-120 nm. The attached EDS result shows that the carbon content of CNSs reaches up to 98%.

  1. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs4236480 in TRPV5 Calcium Channel Gene Is Associated with Stone Multiplicity in Calcium Nephrolithiasis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Khaleel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is characterized by calcification of stones in the kidneys from an unknown cause. Animal models demonstrated the functional roles of the transient receptor potential vanilloid member 5 (TRPV5 gene in calcium renal reabsorption and hypercalciuria. Therefore, TRPV5 was suggested to be involved in calcium homeostasis. However, whether genetic polymorphisms of TRPV5 are associated with kidney stone multiplicity or recurrence is unclear. In this study, 365 Taiwanese kidney-stone patients were recruited. Both biochemical data and DNA samples were collected. Genotyping was performed by a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. We found that a TRPV5 polymorphism (rs4236480 was observed to be associated with stone multiplicity of calcium nephrolithiasis, as the risk of stone multiplicity was higher in patients with the TT+CT genotype than in patients with the CC genotype (p=0.0271. In summary, despite the complexity of nephrolithiasis and the potential association of numerous calcium homeostatic absorption/reabsorption factors, TRPV5 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis.

  2. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  3. Estimation of urinary stone composition by automated processing of CT images

    CERN Document Server

    Chevreau, Grégoire; Conort, Pierre; Renard-Penna, Raphaëlle; Mallet, Alain; Daudon, Michel; Mozer, Pierre; 10.1007/s00240-009-0195-3

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article was developing an automated tool for routine clinical practice to estimate urinary stone composition from CT images based on the density of all constituent voxels. A total of 118 stones for which the composition had been determined by infrared spectroscopy were placed in a helical CT scanner. A standard acquisition, low-dose and high-dose acquisitions were performed. All voxels constituting each stone were automatically selected. A dissimilarity index evaluating variations of density around each voxel was created in order to minimize partial volume effects: stone composition was established on the basis of voxel density of homogeneous zones. Stone composition was determined in 52% of cases. Sensitivities for each compound were: uric acid: 65%, struvite: 19%, cystine: 78%, carbapatite: 33.5%, calcium oxalate dihydrate: 57%, calcium oxalate monohydrate: 66.5%, brushite: 75%. Low-dose acquisition did not lower the performances (P < 0.05). This entirely automated approach eliminat...

  4. In vivo oxalate degradation by liposome encapsulated oxalate oxidase in rat model of hyperoxaluria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: EMA-oxalate oxidase encapsulated liposome caused oxalate degradation in experimental hyperoxaluria indicating that the enzyme could be used as a therapeutic agent in hyperoxaluria leading to urinary stones.

  5. Evaluation of biochemical urinary stone composition and its relationship to tap water hardness in Qom province, central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslemi MK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Kazem Moslemi1, Hossein Saghafi2, Seyed Mohammad Amin Joorabchin31Department of Urology, Kamkar Hospital, 2Department of Nephrology, Kamkar Hospital, School of Medicine, 3School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IranPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical stone composition in general population of Qom province, central Iran, and its relationship with high tap water hardness.Materials and methods: In a prospective study, from March 2008 to July 2011, biochemical analysis of urinary stones in patients living in Qom province for at least 5 years was performed. Stones were retrieved by spontaneous passage, endoscopic or open surgery, and after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Demographic findings and the drinking water supply of patients were evaluated and compared with biochemical stone analysis.Results: Stone analysis was performed in 255 patients. The most dominant composition of urinary stones was calcium oxalate (73%, followed by uric acid (24%, ammonium urate (2%, and cystine (1%. The peak incidence of urinary stone was in patients in their forties. Overall male to female ratio was 4.93:1.Conclusion: The dominant stone composition in inhabitants of central Iran, where tap water hardness is high, was calcium oxalate stones. On the basis of this study, biochemical urinary stone composition of Qom does not differ from other regions of Iran with lower water hardness.Keywords: stone analysis, water hardness, urinary stones, stone composition

  6. Inhibition of Glycolate Oxidase With Dicer-substrate siRNA Reduces Calcium Oxalate Deposition in a Mouse Model of Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Chaitali; Avitahl-Curtis, Nicole; Pursell, Natalie; Larsson Cohen, Marita; Holmes, Benjamin; Diwanji, Rohan; Zhou, Wei; Apponi, Luciano; Koser, Martin; Ying, Bo; Chen, Dongyu; Shui, Xue; Saxena, Utsav; Cyr, Wendy A; Shah, Anee; Nazef, Naim; Wang, Weimin; Abrams, Marc; Dudek, Henryk; Salido, Eduardo; Brown, Bob D; Lai, Chengjung

    2016-04-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an autosomal recessive, metabolic disorder caused by mutations of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), a key hepatic enzyme in the detoxification of glyoxylate arising from multiple normal metabolic pathways to glycine. Accumulation of glyoxylate, a precursor of oxalate, leads to the overproduction of oxalate in the liver, which accumulates to high levels in kidneys and urine. Crystalization of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the kidney ultimately results in renal failure. Currently, the only treatment effective in reduction of oxalate production in patients who do not respond to high-dose vitamin B6 therapy is a combined liver/kidney transplant. We explored an alternative approach to prevent glyoxylate production using Dicer-substrate small interfering RNAs (DsiRNAs) targeting hydroxyacid oxidase 1 (HAO1) mRNA which encodes glycolate oxidase (GO), to reduce the hepatic conversion of glycolate to glyoxylate. This approach efficiently reduces GO mRNA and protein in the livers of mice and nonhuman primates. Reduction of hepatic GO leads to normalization of urine oxalate levels and reduces CaOx deposition in a preclinical mouse model of PH1. Our results support the use of DsiRNA to reduce liver GO levels as a potential therapeutic approach to treat PH1. PMID:26758691

  7. Ozone-Induced Responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): Metabolic Cross-Talk between Volatile Organic Compounds and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Poliana Cardoso-Gustavson; Vanessa Palermo Bolsoni; Debora Pinheiro de Oliveira; Maria Tereza Gromboni Guaratini; Marcos Pereira Marinho Aidar; Mauro Alexandre Marabesi; Edenise Segala Alves; Silvia Ribeiro de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morph...

  8. A genetic polymorphism (rs17251221 in the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR is associated with stone multiplicity in calcium nephrolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii-Her Chou

    Full Text Available Calcium nephrolithiasis is one of the most common causes of renal stones. While the prevalence of this disease has increased steadily over the last 3 decades, its pathogenesis is still unclear. Previous studies have indicated that a genetic polymorphism (rs17251221 in the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR is associated with the total serum calcium levels. In this study, we collected DNA samples from 480 Taiwanese subjects (189 calcium nephrolithiasis patients and 291 controls for genotyping the CASR gene. Our results indicated no significant association between the CASR polymorphism (rs17251221 and the susceptibility of calcium nephrolithiasis. However, we found a significant association between rs17251221 and stone multiplicity. The risk of stone multiplicity was higher in patients with the GG+GA genotype than in those with the AA genotype (chi-square test: P = 0.008; odds ratio  =  4.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-15.92; Yates' correction for chi-square test: P = 0.013. In conclusion, our results provide evidence supporting the genetic effects of CASR on the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis.

  9. 加味健脾益肾方对草酸钙肾结石患者术后尿骨桥蛋白的影响%Effects of Modified Jianpi Yishen Decoction on Urinary Osteopontin of Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis Patients After Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炎; 林峰; 翁雪云; 许旭敏; 余绍龙; 陈智锋; 温志鹏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of modified Jianpi Yishen Decoction on urinary osteopontin (OPN) in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis patients after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) or ureteroscope lithotomy (URL);To clarify the mechanism of modified Jianpi Yishen Decoction on the prevention of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Methods Totally 116 calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis patients were randomly divided into trial group (62 cases) and control group (54 cases). The trial group took modified Jianpi Yishen Decoction every other day, while the control group took potassium sodium hydrogen citrate granules three times a day. The concentrations of OPN, urinary calcium and urinary oxalic acid of the patients in the two groups were observed before treatment and 2 weeks and 4 weeks of treatment. Results The concentration of urinary OPN of 2 weeks and 4 weeks of the treatment in the trial group was significantly increased compared with before treatment (P0.05). The differences in the concentrations of urinary calcium and urinary oxalic acid of the two groups between before and after treatment were not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion Modified Jianpi Yishen Decoction can effectively restrain the formation of the calcium oxalate stones by increasing the level of urinary OPN, which demonstrates effective prevention in the calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis patients after PCNL or URL.%目的:观察加味健脾益肾方对草酸钙肾结石患者经皮肾镜碎石取石或输尿管镜碎石取石术后尿骨桥蛋白(OPN)的影响,探讨加味健脾益肾方预防草酸钙肾结石的作用机制。方法将116例草酸钙肾结石术后患者随机分为试验组62例和对照组54例。试验组服用加味健脾益肾方,隔日1次;对照组口服枸橼酸氢钾钠颗粒,每日3次。观察2组患者服药前及服药2、4周时尿OPN、尿钙、尿草酸含量。结果治疗组治疗2、4周时患者尿OPN含量与治疗前比较显著上升(P<0.05),且与对

  10. Urinary tract stone occurrence in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized clinical trial of calcium and vitamin D supplements123

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Robert B; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Larson, Joseph C.; Cochrane, Barbara; Gass, Margery; Masaki, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized clinical trial (RCT) of calcium plus vitamin D (CaD) supplements found a 17% excess in urinary tract stone incidence in the supplemented group. This study evaluated whether this risk is modified by participant characteristics.

  11. Calcium carbonate precipitation by heterotrophic bacteria isolated from biofilms formed on deteriorated ignimbrite stones: influence of calcium on EPS production and biofilm formation by these isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Angélica; Sepúlveda-Sánchez, José David; Mercedes Alonso Guzmán, Elia Mercedes; Le Borgne, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrophic CaCO3-precipitating bacteria were isolated from biofilms on deteriorated ignimbrites, siliceous acidic rocks, from Morelia Cathedral (Mexico) and identified as Enterobacter cancerogenus (22e), Bacillus sp. (32a) and Bacillus subtilis (52g). In solid medium, 22e and 32a precipitated calcite and vaterite while 52g produced calcite. Urease activity was detected in these isolates and CaCO3 precipitation increased in the presence of urea in the liquid medium. In the presence of calcium, EPS production decreased in 22e and 32a and increased in 52g. Under laboratory conditions, ignimbrite colonization by these isolates only occurred in the presence of calcium and no CaCO3 was precipitated. Calcium may therefore be important for biofilm formation on stones. The importance of the type of stone, here a siliceous stone, on biological colonization is emphasized. This calcium effect has not been reported on calcareous materials. The importance of the effect of calcium on EPS production and biofilm formation is discussed in relation to other applications of CaCO3 precipitation by bacteria.

  12. Calcium oxalate biomineralization in plants%植物体内草酸钙的生物矿化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀丽; 张文君; 鲁剑巍; 王荔军

    2012-01-01

    草酸钙晶体在特化的植物晶异细胞内的形成是一种基本的、重要的生理代谢过程.不同植物草酸钙晶体在形态/结构上存在多样性和种间专一性,它们具有特定的尺寸和形貌,并且成核后晶体的生长和特化细胞的发育间存在显著的协同作用,这表明草酸钙的生物合成不是一种简单的化学结晶过程,而是受遗传和生物大分子的精确调控.被塑造的矿化相在特定的膜包覆空间内经历了各自不同的生物化学途径,最终形成热力学稳定相.草酸钙晶体赋予植物许多不同的功能,主要包括对高容量钙的调节和植物自我保护作用,从而间接地反映出植物在不同生境中进化的印迹.本文介绍了草酸钙晶体在植物体内合成的草酸代谢途径、钙的吸收和累积,主要讨论晶体生长过程的植物调节机制以及体外模拟生物分子对草酸钙结晶动力学过程的调控等,以期揭示植物体内草酸钙的生物矿化机制,并为仿生材料合成和人类病理结石的抑制等提供重要线索.%Calium oxalate (CaOx) biomineralization with diverse and species-specific morphologies and structures formed in specialized cells (idioblast) is a basic and important process in many plant families. During their formation there exist the synergetic interactions between cell growth/expansion and crystal nucleation/growth, indicating that the mineralization process is precisely controlled by biomacromolecules through the exquisite bio-regulation mechanisms rather than a simple chemical precipitation reaction. The mineralized phases and the final mature products formed inside cells are shaped and thermodynamically stabilized by various biomacromolecules expressed and synthesized in corresponding bio-pathways. CaOx crystals in plants fulfill a variety of crucial functions, including the high-capacity calcium regulation and self-protection of plants against herbivory by large animals as well as insects

  13. Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Indicator of Plant Stress in Conifers at two elevations on Mount Moosilauke, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. N.; Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Graham, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The research presented was conducted as part of Watershed Watch, a two-week hands-on summer program for undeclared entry-level undergraduates, designed to recruit and retain students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. The research was conducted on needles of red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) at the University of New Hampshire. The presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) in the cell walls of spruce mesophyll cells has been reported as an indicator of environmental stress. To assess this, first and third year needles of both species were collected from Mt. Moosilauke (Woodstock, NH) at two elevations (790m and 960m). Needles were analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Estimates of chlorophyll and water were made using the Red Edge Inflection Point and the Moisture Stress Index. These were compared to SEM images of needle sections to visually correlate the amount of CaOx with the reflectance indices. Balsam fir from 790m have a higher occurrence of CaOx in their first and third year needles than from the 960m site, while spectroscopy results indicated less stress (i.e., higher chlorophyll and more water) at the lower site. This does not support a correlation between CaOx and stress factors in balsam fir. In red spruce, those needles with fewest CaOx had higher estimates of chlorophyll and water, supporting the correlation. Based on these results, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between CaOx and plant stress in different species of conifers.

  14. 肾上皮细胞损伤使草酸钙晶体黏附增强的分子机制%Molecular Mechanism of Adhesion of Monohydrate and Dihydrate Calcium Oxalate Crystals on Injured Kidney Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘琼枝; 孙新园; 姚秀琼; 欧阳健明

    2016-01-01

    研究了非洲绿猴肾上皮细胞( Vero)在损伤前后与一水合草酸钙( COM)和二水合草酸钙( COD)晶体的黏附作用及其引起的细胞反应,探讨了肾结石形成机理。 COM和COD晶体与损伤细胞的黏附加重了细胞的过氧化损伤程度,导致损伤细胞的活力进一步降低,乳酸脱氢酶( LDH)释放量和活性氧( ROS)进一步增加,坏死细胞数量进一步增多,细胞体积缩小,并出现凋亡小体。 COM晶体对细胞的损伤能力显著大于COD晶体。扫描电子显微镜( SEM)观测结果表明,损伤组Vero与COM微晶的黏附作用显著强于对照组,且能促进COM微晶的聚集。共聚焦显微镜观测结果表明, Vero损伤后,其表面表达的晶体黏附分子透明质酸( HA)显著增加, HA分子是促进微晶黏附的重要原因。细胞表面草酸钙的黏附量和晶体聚集程度与细胞的损伤程度成正相关。本文结果从分子和细胞水平上提示,细胞损伤是导致草酸钙肾结石形成的重要因素。%Effects of cell injury on calcium oxalate monohydrate( COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate( COD) microcrystalline adhesion and cellular response of calcium oxalate microcrystalline on African green monkey renal epithelial( Vero) cells after adhesion were evaluated. COM amd COD crystal adhesion to injured Vero cells increased oxidative damage degree, the LDH release amount, reactive oxygen species( ROS) and dead cells and decreased cell viability. The cells shrinked and apoptotic bodies appeared. COM crystals caused more serious damage to injured Vero cells than COD crystals. The results of scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) showed that the adhesive capacity of injured Vero cells to COM was significantly stronger than the con-trol group, which enhanced crystals adhesion and aggregation. Laser scanning confocal microscope showed that Vero cell injury increased the expression of crystal binding hyaluronic acid ( HA ) molecules which were

  15. Phenotypic characterization of kidney stone formers by endoscopic and histological quantification of intrarenal calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnes, Michael P; Krambeck, Amy E; Cornell, Lynn; Williams, James C; Korinek, Mark; Bergstralh, Eric J; Li, Xujian; Rule, Andrew D; McCollough, Cynthia M; Vrtiska, Terri J; Lieske, John C

    2013-10-01

    Interstitial Randall's plaques and collecting duct plugs are distinct forms of renal calcification thought to provide sites for stone retention within the kidney. Here we assessed kidney stone precursor lesions in a random cohort of stone formers undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Each accessible papilla was endoscopically mapped following stone removal. The percent papillary surface area covered by plaque and plug were digitally measured using image analysis software. Stone composition was determined by micro-computed tomography and infrared analysis. A representative papillary tip was biopsied. The 24-h urine collections were used to measure supersaturation and crystal growth inhibition. The vast majority (99%) of stone formers had Randall's plaque on at least 1 papilla, while significant tubular plugging (over 1% of surface area) was present in about one-fifth of patients. Among calcium oxalate stone formers the amount of Randall's plaque correlated with higher urinary citrate levels. Tubular plugging correlated positively with pH and brushite supersaturation but negatively with citrate excretion. Lower urinary crystal growth inhibition predicted the presence of tubular plugging but not plaque. Thus, tubular plugging may be more common than previously recognized among patients with all types of stones, including some with idiopathic calcium oxalate stones.

  16. Citrate, oxalate, sodium, and magnesium levels in fresh juices of three different types of tomatoes: evaluation in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Erdal; Batislam, Ertan; Kacmaz, Murat; Erguder, Imge

    2010-06-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices containing citrate may be recommended as an alternative in mild to moderate level hypocitraturic calcium stone formers who cannot tolerate pharmacological treatment. Tomato has been proved a citrate-rich vegetable. Tomato juice usage as citrate sources in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers were evaluated in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices. Ten 100 ml samples were prepared from three different tomato types processed through a blender. These samples were examined in terms of citrate, oxalate, calcium, magnesium, and sodium contents. No difference was detected between the parameters tested in three different tomato juices. Fresh tomato juice may be useful in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers due to its high content of citrate and magnesium, and low content of sodium and oxalate. As the three different types of tomatoes did not differ in terms of citrate, magnesium, sodium, and oxalate content, they may be useful for clinical use if also supported by clinical studies.

  17. Micro-CT observations of the 3D distribution of calcium oxalate crystals in cotyledons during maturation and germination in Lotus miyakojimae seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Hayami, Masato; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Karahara, Ichirou; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Terada, Yasuko; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takano, Hidekazu; Kagoshima, Yasushi; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2013-06-01

    The cotyledon of legume seeds is a storage organ that provides nutrients for seed germination and seedling growth. The spatial and temporal control of the degradation processes within cotyledons has not been elucidated. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals, a common calcium deposit in plants, have often been reported to be present in legume seeds. In this study, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was employed at the SPring-8 facility to examine the three-dimensional distribution of crystals inside cotyledons during seed maturation and germination of Lotus miyakojimae (previously Lotus japonicus accession Miyakojima MG-20). Using this technique, we could detect the outline of the embryo, void spaces in seeds and the cotyledon venation pattern. We found several sites that strongly inhibited X-ray transmission within the cotyledons. Light and polarizing microscopy confirmed that these areas corresponded to CaOx crystals. Three-dimensional observations of dry seeds indicated that the CaOx crystals in the L. miyakojimae cotyledons were distributed along lateral veins; however, their distribution was limited to the abaxial side of the procambium. The CaOx crystals appeared at stage II (seed-filling stage) of seed development, and their number increased in dry seeds. The number of crystals in cotyledons was high during germination, suggesting that CaOx crystals are not degraded for their calcium supply. Evidence for the conservation of CaOx crystals in cotyledons during the L. miyakojimae germination process was also supported by the biochemical measurement of oxalic acid levels.

  18. Kidney stone composition in overweight and obese patients: a preliminary report

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    Mosli HA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hisham A Mosli,1 Hala H Mosli,2 Wissam K Kamal11Department of Urology, 2Department of Internal Medicine (Endocrinology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To report preliminary information on urinary stone composition in patients who are either overweight or obese with kidney stone disease.Methods: A cohort of patients (n = 138 with nephrolithiasis were prospectively followed from January 2011 for 18 months. Of those, 64 (46% were found to be overweight with body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 and 74 (54% were obese with body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2. Stone characteristics including size, location, and composition were studied in detail, and patients' age, weight, height, and gender were all documented. The stone size and location were studied radiologically while semiquantitative stone analysis was carried out using the DiaSys method, which involves titrimetric determination of calcium, colorimetric determination/visual assessment of oxalate, phosphate, magnesium, ammonium, uric acid, and cystine, and qualitative determination of carbonate.Results: Eighteen stones were collected from overweight and obese patients. Those obtained were either spontaneously passed (n = 2, fragments passed following shockwave lithotripsy (n = 11, extracted ureteroscopically (n = 2, or extracted by percutaneous nephrolithotomy (n = 3. About 95% of the stones contained calcium oxalate and more than half contained uric acid.Conclusion: This report confirms that kidney stones are mainly composed of calcium oxalate and uric acid in overweight and obese patients with nephrolithiasis.Keywords: urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis, obesity, renal stone, body mass index (BMI, calculus, stone composition, analysis

  19. Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation

  20. Effect of Hydrophilic Extract of Allium Jesdianum on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Stone in Male Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    R Vahdani; S Mehrabi; J Malekzadeh; R Jannesar; H Sadeghi; A Shafaeifar

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aim: Considering the evidence which show the effect of herbal medicine on renal stone treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allium Jesdianum on prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stone in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, forty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (each group 11 rats) and then studied for 30 days. The Healthy control group only received normal water and a regular diet. The negative...

  1. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  2. The effects of the calcium-restricted diet of urolithiasis patients with absorptive hypercalciuria type II on risk factors for kidney stones and osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, A. van; Ploeg, E.M.C. van der; Habets, H.M.L.; Meer, R. van der; Hermus, R.J.J.; Janknegt, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The calcium (Ca)-restricted diet of urolithiasis patients with absorptive hypercalciuria type II may decrease Ca excretion but increase biochemical markers of risk for osteopenia. We randomly allocated 25 patients from six hospitals into an experimental group (Ca restriction to 500 mg/day, oxalate-r

  3. A Survey of Epidemiologic Factors in Patients with Urinary Stones in Hamadan

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    H.R. Ghasemi Basir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: After urinary tract infection and prostatic disorders , the urine stones are the third common genitourinary diseases. Demographic, environmental and genetic factors affect urine stone formation. The aim of our study is to survey epidemiologic factors in pa-tients with urinary stones referring to educational hospitals of Hamadan during 2010-2013. Materials & Methods: In this analytic-cross-sectional study, we studied 500 cases of urinary stones referring to educational hospitals of Hamadan. The data were collected from electronic patient records system of laboratory. The results were registered in a check list and analyzed by spss16 and descriptive statistical indicators. Results: The patients were between 0.5-84 years. The average age of them was 40.36 years. In our study of 500 cases, 348 cases were male (69.6% and 152 cases were female (30.4%. The male to female ratio was 2.3 to 1. Urinary stones were more prevalent in 25- 45 year old men and 30-50 year old women. Among 500 patients, 466 cases had only one type of renal stones and 34 cases had 2 types. The calcium oxalate was the most common stone (386 cases, 72.5%. The other common stone types were uric acid (130 cases, 24.3 %, cystine (14 cases,2.6 % ,calcium carbonate (3 cases,0.5 % and calcium phosphate (1 case,0.1 % Conclusion: Urinary stones are twice as common in men as in women. Most patients are be-tween 38-42 years old. The most common stone in both sexes and all ages was calcium ox-alate. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:157-163

  4. Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elaine M.

    2007-04-01

    Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

  5. Metabolic Evaluation of Kidney Transplant Recipients for Stone Disease and Comparison with Healthy Controls and Stone Formers

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    Serdar Savaşçı

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic effects of kidney transplantation and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs on stone formation in the post-transplant period. Materials and Methods Forty kidney transplant recipients (KTRs and 40 patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL operation due to kidney stone disease between January 2002 and January 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. For control group 20 patients who neither had urinary stone disease (USD nor a kidney transplant were chosen. Results No statistical difference was observed in terms of age, gender, body-mass index (BMI and urinary pH between the groups. Twenty-four hour urine volume was significantly higher in the KTRs (p=0.001. However 24 hour urinary oxalate, citrate, uric acid, sodium and calcium levels were lower in the KTRs when compared to two other groups (p=0.001, p=0.0001, p=0.004, p=0.046, p=0.017, respectively. Twenty-four hour urinary potassium levels in the control group and the phosphorus levels in the group undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy were higher compared to other groups (p=0.022, p=0.008. After follow-up of 23.55±14 (2-50 months none of the KTRs were diagnosed with a urinary stone.Conclusion Although no stones were detected in the transplant group, low levels of urinary citrate may lead to de novo stone formation in the longer follow-up. Low levels of urinary calcium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid and increased urine volume may axplain the fact that no stone was detected in this group. CNIs may increase metabolic tendency to stone formation in addition to their nephrotoxic effects. However our data does not support routine citrate replacement therapy for preventing stone formation and minimizing the toxic effects of CNIs due to tubular acidosis.

  6. A pilot study of the effect of sodium thiosulfate on urinary lithogenicity and associated metabolic acid load in non-stone formers and stone formers with hypercalciuria.

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    Onyeka W Okonkwo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sodium thiosulfate (STS reduced calcium stone formation in both humans and genetic hypercalciuric stone forming (GHS rats. We sought to measure urine chemistry changes resulting from STS administration in people. DESIGN SETTING PARTICIPANTS MEASUREMENTS: STS was given to healthy and hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Five normal non-stone forming adults (mean age 33 years, and 5 people with idiopathic hypercalciuria and calcium kidney stones (mean age 66 years participated. Two baseline 24-hour urine collections were performed on days 2 and 3 of 3 days of self-selected diets. Subjects then drank STS 10 mmol twice a day for 7 days and did urine collections while repeating the self-selected diet. Results were compared by non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. The primary outcome was the resulting change in urine chemistry. RESULTS: STS administration did not cause a significant change in urinary calcium excretion in either group. In both groups, 24 hour urinary ammonium (P = 0.005 and sulfate excretion (P = 0.007 increased, and urinary pH fell (P = 0.005; citrate excretion fell (P<0.05 in hypercalciuric participants but not in non-stone formers. Among stone formers with hypercalciuria, 3 of 5 patients had measurement of serum HCO3 concentration after the STS period: it did not change. The net effect was an increase in supersaturation of uric acid, and no change in supersaturation of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. CONCLUSIONS: The basis for studies demonstrating that STS prevented stones in rats and people was not reflected by the changes in urine chemistry reported here. Although serum HCO3 did not change, urine tests suggested an acid load in both non-stone forming and hypercalciuric stone-forming participants. The long term safety of STS needs to be determined before the drug can be tested in humans for long-term prevention of stone recurrence.

  7. Kidney Stones in Children and Teenagers in the Central Coast Region of Tunisia

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    Mohamed Fadhel Najjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since 1980s, the clinical and biological characteristics of urolithiasis in Tunisian children have continuously evolved. This retrospective study defines the current status of urolithiasis among children and adolescents in Tunisia.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 310 children and adolescents (age: 3 months - 19 yearsbetween 2003 and 2010, holding urolithiasis. A first-line metabolic, urine and plasma work-up was performed in all patients. Physical and chemical analysis of the stones was performed respectively by stereomicroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Statistical analysis of the results was performed with SPSS 11.0 software. The Chisquare test was used for comparison of percentages.Findings: Our study shows a male predominance of urolithiasis with a sex ratio of 1.5. Stones were located in the upper urinary tract in 70.7% of cases. Calcium oxalate was the predominant constituent in 52.6% of stones. There was an increasing prevalence of calcium oxalate stones according to age in both genders (48.6%in infants vs 68.5% in teenagers (P<0.01. Struvite was more frequent in patients aged 2-9 years (P<0.02and significantly more prevalent in boys than in girls (P<0.001. Ammonium urate stones were observed in 14.2% and were more frequent in infants.Conclusion: Our results emphasize a high percentage of calcium oxalate stones and a low percentage of struvite stones. The persistence of urate stones reflects the particular eating habits and the infectious risk factors. The patient’s age is an important factor that must be taken into account during etiopathogenic workup.

  8. Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla

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    Yukiko Wadamori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW. Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW. The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate.

  9. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

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    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary stone risk profile is uncertain. Sports beverage do not affect the urinary stone risk profile. Hyperoxaluria: A diet low in oxalate and/or a calcium intake normal to high (800-1200 mg/day for adults reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, conversely a diet rich in oxalates and/or a diet low in calcium increase urinary oxalate. A restriction in protein intake may reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate although a vegetarian diet may lead to an increase in urinary oxalate. Adding bran to a diet low in oxalate cancels its effect of reducing urinary oxalate. Conversely, the addition of supplements of fruit and vegetables to a mixed diet does not involve an increased excretion of oxalate in the urine. The intake of pyridoxine reduces the excretion of oxalate. Hyperuricosuria: In patients with renal calcium stones the decrease of the urinary excretion of uric acid after restriction of dietary protein and purine is suggested although not clearly demonstrated. Hypocitraturia: The administration of alkaline-citrates salts is recommended for the medical treatment of renal stone-formers with hypocitraturia, although compliance to this treatment is limited by gastrointestinal side effects and costs. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables (excluding those with high oxalate content increases citrate excretion and involves a significant protection against the risk of stone formation. Citrus (lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and lime and non citrus fruits (melon are natural sources of dietary citrate, and several studies have shown the potential of these fruits and/or their juices in raising urine citrate levels. Children: There are enought basis to advice an adequate fluid intake also in children. Moderate dietary salt restriction and implementation of potassium intake are useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion whereas dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for children with nephrolithiasis. It seems

  10. Renal-Stone Risk Assessment During Space Shuttle Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. 24-hr urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation ratios of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. Food and fluid consumption was recorded for a 48-hr period ending with the urine collection. Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of stone-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. The importance of the hypercalciuria was noted since renal excretion was high relative to the intake.

  11. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

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    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  12. 不同类型尿石的XRD,FTIR和热释光谱分析%XRD, FTIR and Thermoluminescence Spectra of Different Types of Urinary Stones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锦; 何节玉; 欧阳健明

    2011-01-01

    Using thermoluminescence spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the chemical compositions of four types of kidney stones were investigated. They are calcium oxalate, uric acid, calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi(struvite). Experimental results showed that in the 305 cases of stones, calculi oxalate stones were found to account for 63%, uric acid stones 22%, calcium phosphate stones 8%, struvite 5%, and the stones with other compositions 2%. There were significant differences in the thermoluminescence spectra among the 4 types of urinary stones, which can provide an important basis for the clinic diagnosis of urinary stone types.%采用热释光谱仪(TLD)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)和红外光谱仪(FTIR)研究了四类不同类型肾结石的化学组分,它们分别是:草酸钙、尿酸、磷酸钙和磷酸铵镁结石.实验结果表明,在所研究的305例尿石中,草酸钙为主要组分的占63%,尿酸22%,磷酸钙8%,磷酸铵镁5%,其他组分2%.四类肾结石的热释光谱存在显著差异,可为临床上诊断肾结石的类型提供启示.

  13. Inhibition of oxalate nephrolithiasis with Ammi visnaga (AI-Khillah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Z A; Assiri, A M; Al-Afghani, H M; Maghrabi, T M

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Ammi visnaga seeds on experimentally - induced kidney stones - in male Wistar albino rats. Oxalate nephrolithiasis was experimentally induced by 3% glycolic acid (added in their diet) given for the period of four weeks. A highly significant amount of deposits were found in the kidneys, which were analyzed quantitatively. These deposits were mainly of calcium oxalate in composition. Daily oral (gavage) treatment with Ammi visnaga (500 mg/kg) highly reduced the incidence of nephrolithiasis (calcium oxalate deposition in the kidneys). Ammi visnaga seeds extract showed highly potent diuretic activity. The reduction in body weight, increase in kidneys weight, increase in water intake, decrease in urine output found in glycolic acid control group were prevented to various extent on Ammi visnaga treatment; and the values became to insignificant difference with control group. The changes in weights of liver, heart and lungs of the three groups were insignificant. Uraemia and hyperbilirubinaemia observed in glycolic acid control group were found to be ameliorated by Ammi visnaga seed extract treatment.

  14. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  15. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

  16. Sobresaturacion urinaria del Oxalato de Calcio más alla de la Nefrolitiasis: La relación con el daño tubulointersticial Urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation beyond nephrolithiasis: Relationship with tubulointerstitial damage

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    J. E. Toblli

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos estudios han demostrado que el producto de la actividad iónica (PAI de oxalato de calcio (OxCa en la orina, como indicador de sobresaturación (SS urinaria, es mayor en pacientes formadores de cálculos que en sujetos normales. Más allá de la relación entre SS urinaria del OxCa y litogénesis, la exposición de OxCa al epitelio tubular puede ocasionar lesiones en la célula tubular y en el intersticio renal. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la posible relación entre SS urinaria de OxCa y el daño tubulointersticial (TI en un modelo animal de hiperoxaluria. Durante cuatro semanas, ratas Sprague-Dawley machos, divididas en dos grupos recibieron: grupo 1 Control [G1], (n= 8 agua, grupo 2 [G2], (n = 8 etilenglicol (ETG al 1% en el agua de beber. La SS urinaria de OxCa se valoró mediante el PAI del OxCa. Las lesiones TI se analizaron al finalizar el estudio por microscopía óptica e inmunohistoquímica. El G2 (ETG presentó valores mayores (pA number of studies have demonstrated that the urinary ion activity product (IAP of calcium oxalate (CaOx, as an index of urinary CaOx supersaturation (SS, is higher in renal stone formers than in normal subjects. Besides, the relation between CaOx SS and lithogenesis, crystal CaOx exposition can produce tubular cell as well as renal interstitial lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible relationship between CaOx SS and tubulointerstitial (TI damage in an animal model of hyperoxaluria. During four weeks, male Sprague-Dawley rats received: G1 (n=8 control regular water, and G2 (n= 8 1% ethylene glycol (ETG (precursor for oxalates in drinking water. In order to evaluate urinary CaOx SS, IAP assessed by Tisselius formula was performed. At the end of the study, renal lesions were evaluated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Animals from G2 (ETG presented higher (p< 0.01 values of: a urinary oxalate excretion; b urinary CaOx SS; c crystalluria score; d proteinuria; and lower (p

  17. Pathophysiology of the Hypercalciuria in the Genetic Hypercalciuric Stone-Forming Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushinsky, David A.

    2007-04-01

    Given evidence for a genetic cause of hypercalciuria, we screened adult male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for hypercalciuria and used those with the highest urinary calcium excretion to breed the next generation, followed by subsequent selection and inbreeding of their most hypercalciuric progeny. By the 30th generation, and continuing to the present, the GHS rats (for Genetic Hypercalciuric Stone-forming rats) excrete 8-10 times as much calcium as simultaneously studied control rats The GHS rats were found to have defects in calcium transport in the intestine, kidneys and bone, similar to abnormalities found in many patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. The GHS rats also form kidney stones. By the conclusion of an 18 wk study, all of the GHS rats formed stones, while there was no stone formation in similarly treated SD controls. The GHS rats, when fed a standard 1.2% calcium diet, form only poorly crystalline apatite stones. However, when 5% hydroxyproline is added to the diet of the GHS rats, they form only calcium oxalate stones.

  18. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  19. Ozone-induced responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae: metabolic cross-talk between volatile organic compounds and calcium oxalate crystal formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cardoso-Gustavson

    Full Text Available Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC, specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA, mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC in the defence against ozone (O3 oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3 that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3.

  20. Ozone-induced responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): metabolic cross-talk between volatile organic compounds and calcium oxalate crystal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3. PMID:25165889

  1. Ozone-induced responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): metabolic cross-talk between volatile organic compounds and calcium oxalate crystal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3.

  2. Ozone-Induced Responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): Metabolic Cross-Talk between Volatile Organic Compounds and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3. PMID:25165889

  3. The increased risk of urinary stone disease in betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Siân E; Singh, Sadmeet; Robertson, William G

    2006-08-01

    The chewing of betel quid is a common practice in many countries of the world, particularly in Southeast Asia. The quid consists of a preparation of areca nut, betel leaf and calcium hydroxide "lime" paste ("chuna"). For the first time, we present a study that links its use to urinary stone disease. Eight patients (seven male and one female) who presented to our Stone Unit with recurrent urinary stones were included in the study. All were from the Indian subcontinent and were found to regularly chew betel. The patients underwent metabolic screening including blood, random urine and 24-h urine tests, quantitative chemical analysis of their calculi (where possible) and each completed a 7-day Diet Diary on his/her free, home diet. The study demonstrated a high incidence of hypercalciuria, a tendency to pass an alkaline urine and low urinary citrate excretion among the patients. Together these urinary risk factors increase the probability of developing both calcium phosphate-containing and calcium oxalate-containing stones. In support of this hypothesis, the patients were found to form stones consisting mainly of calcium phosphate but mixed with calcium oxalate. It is concluded that the use of calcium hydroxide "chuna" in the betel quid is the major contributor to the cause of urinary stones in its users. Moreover, the development of urinary lithiasis in such patients may be a precursor to milk-alkali syndrome in those individuals whose chewing habit is more extensive than in the patients in this study and who do not seek to decrease their habit over the long term. PMID:16534642

  4. Clinical investigation on gastric oxalate absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志强; 叶章群; 曾令启; 杨为民

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the stomach role in exogenous oxalate absorption.Methods The kinetic variation of urinary oxalate excretion (mg/min) in 10 healthy adults and 8 patients who underwent total gastrectomy was investigated before and after an oral spinach oxalate load. The bioavailability of the oxalate load in the healthy adults was calculated and compared with that in the patients.Results The oxalate content in the oral spinach load was 2567-2670 mg. The urinary oxalate excretion (mg/min) in the 10 healthy adults increased significantly 20 minutes after loading (this increase was compared against their basic oxalate excretion level of 0.0331±0.0203). Further observations after loading include: a first peak of oxalate excretion 40 minutes after loading; an oxalate excretion level double that of the basic level after 60 minutes (0.0732±0.0294) and a second peak appearing at 3 hours (P<0.01). A "first peak" (0.063%±0.062%) was not in any of the patients who underwent a total gastrectomy. Furthermore, a bioavailability of oxalate, which was 50% lower than that in the healthy subjects, appeared 60 minutes after loading (0.098%±0.071%, P<0.01). Conclusions The stomach is a powerful oxalate absorption organ under normal physiological conditions. Further investigation on the relationship between stomach dysfunction and urinary calcium oxalate formation is needed.

  5. NEW FRONTIERS ON NEPHROLITHIASIS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF KIDNEY STONES

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    Malan Rajat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis (also known as kidney stones, renal stones, urinary stones, urolithiasis, and renal calculi affects a great number of patients worldwide. These can be of different types like calcium-oxalate, struvite, uric acid, cysteine. Larger stones in the urinary tract can cause extreme pain in the lower back or side. Urinary tract infections, kidney disorders and certain metabolic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism are also linked to stone formation. Cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, Hypercalciuria, drinking less water, consuming more salty food can cause stone formation in urinary tract. Various precautions and treatment are available includes life style changing (drinking more water or more fluid intake and reducing calcium rich diet intake, avoid junk food, Medical therapy (use of diuretics and other medicines, the over use of synthetic drugs which results in higher incidence of adverse drug reaction has motivated humans to return to nature for safe remedies and surgical treatment The present article revealed the update knowledge about remedy and treatment of nephrolithiasis for all those peoples who is having renal colic pain.

  6. Influence of Substrate Mineralogy on Bacterial Mineralization of Calcium Carbonate: Implications for Stone Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Jroundi, Fadwa; Schiro, Mara; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; González-Muñoz, María Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The influence of mineral substrate composition and structure on bacterial calcium carbonate productivity and polymorph selection was studied. Bacterial calcium carbonate precipitation occurred on calcitic (Iceland spar single crystals, marble, and porous limestone) and silicate (glass coverslips, porous sintered glass, and quartz sandstone) substrates following culturing in liquid medium (M-3P) inoculated with different types of bacteria (Myxococcus xanthus, Brevundimonas diminuta, and a carb...

  7. Surface aggregation of urinary proteins and aspartic acid-rich peptides on the faces of calcium oxalate monohydrate investigated by in situ force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, M L; Qiu, S R; Hoyer, J R; Casey, W H; Nancollas, G H; De Yoreo, J J

    2008-05-28

    The growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), osteopontin (OPN), and the 27-residue synthetic peptides (DDDS){sub 6}DDD and (DDDG){sub 6}DDD [where D = aspartic acid and X = S (serine) or G (glycine)] was investigated via in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that these three growth modulators create extensive deposits on the crystal faces. Depending on the modulator and crystal face, these deposits can occur as discrete aggregates, filamentary structures, or uniform coatings. These proteinaceous films can lead to either the inhibition or increase of the step speeds (with respect to the impurity-free system) depending on a range of factors that include peptide or protein concentration, supersaturation and ionic strength. While THP and the linear peptides act, respectively, to exclusively increase and inhibit growth on the (-101) face, both exhibit dual functionality on the (010) face, inhibiting growth at low supersaturation or high modulator concentration and accelerating growth at high supersaturation or low modulator concentration. Based on analyses of growth morphologies and dependencies of step speeds on supersaturation and protein or peptide concentration, we argue for a picture of growth modulation that accounts for the observations in terms of the strength of binding to the surfaces and steps and the interplay of electrostatic and solvent-induced forces at crystal surface.

  8. Biopsy proven medullary sponge kidney: clinical findings, histopathology, and role of osteogenesis in stone and plaque formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P; Worcester, Elaine M; Williams, James C; Sommer, Andre J; Lingeman, James E; Phillips, Carrie L; Coe, Fredric L

    2015-05-01

    Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is associated with recurrent stone formation, but the clinical phenotype is unclear because patients with other disorders may be incorrectly labeled MSK. We studied 12 patients with histologic findings pathognomonic of MSK. All patients had an endoscopically recognizable pattern of papillary malformation, which may be segmental or diffuse. Affected papillae are enlarged and billowy, due to markedly enlarged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD), which contain small, mobile ductal stones. Patients had frequent dilation of Bellini ducts, with occasional mineral plugs. Stones may form over white (Randall's) plaque, but most renal pelvic stones are not attached, and have a similar morphology as ductal stones, which are a mixture of calcium oxalate and apatite. Patients had no abnormalities of urinary acidification or acid excretion; the most frequent metabolic abnormality was idiopathic hypercalciuria. Although both Runx2 and Osterix are expressed in papillae of MSK patients, no mineral deposition was seen at the sites of gene expression, arguing against a role of these genes in this process. Similar studies in idiopathic calcium stone formers showed no expression of these genes at sites of Randall's plaque. The most likely mechanism for stone formation in MSK appears to be crystallization due to urinary stasis in dilated IMCD with subsequent passage of ductal stones into the renal pelvis where they may serve as nuclei for stone formation.

  9. Effect of Hydrophilic Extract of Allium Jesdianum on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Stone in Male Wistar Rats

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    R Vahdani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Considering the evidence which show the effect of herbal medicine on renal stone treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allium Jesdianum on prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stone in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, forty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (each group 11 rats and then studied for 30 days. The Healthy control group only received normal water and a regular diet. The negative control group received 1% ethylene glycol in water during the study. The low dose and high dose preventive groups received 750 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg of Allium Jesdianum with 1% ethylene glycol every day. The 24-hour urine samples of rats were collected on days 1, 15 and 30 of the study. Then, under anesthesia, blood samples were taken directly from the heart. All rats were then killed and pathology of kidneys was checked for crystals of calcium oxalates in renal tubules. Data analysis was done by the SPSS software using One-way ANOVA. Results: The number of calcium oxalate crystals in the negative control group (18.7 ±26.1, the low dose preventive group (5.3±8.2 and high dose preventive group (80.6±82.8 in comparison to the healthy control group were increased and this difference in the high dose preventive group and healthy control group was significant (p <0.05 . Urinary oxalate in the 30th day was more in both preventive groups and negative control group in comparison to healthy control group and this diference was statistically significant (p <0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that Allium Jesdianum doesn't have a preventive effect on the formation of renal stones, and it also increases calcium oxalate crystals in kidney of male wistar rats that need more studies.

  10. Diagnostic value of color Doppler twinkling artifact and in urinary calcium stones: an in vitro experiment%彩色多普勒闪烁伪像对泌尿系含钙结石诊断价值的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青; 李杰; 孙霄; 商蒙蒙; 时丹丹; 宁松; 程琳

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨彩色多普勒闪烁伪像对泌尿系含钙结石的诊断及鉴别诊断价值.方法 制备一水草酸钙、羟基磷灰石及磷酸三钙三种结石模型,分别包埋于猪肾内进行超声扫查,测量闪烁伪像长度及宽度,计算闪烁伪像强度及声影对比噪声比(C/N ratio),并进行统计学分析.结果 所有结石模型均产生闪烁伪像及声影,各成分结石闪烁伪像强度、长度、宽度及声影C/N差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.01);各成分结石闪烁伪像强度95%置信区间无重叠,任意两种成分闪烁伪像强度差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);一水草酸钙声影C/N和磷酸三钙声影C/N均大于羟基磷灰石声影C/N,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).ROC曲线分析显示,以1 127为截断值,闪烁伪像强度诊断为羟基磷灰石的曲线下面积为0.743,诊断敏感性74%,特异性68 %,阳性预测值69.8%,阴性预测值72.3%.结论 彩色多普勒闪烁伪像可区分泌尿系含钙结石的化学成分,提高了超声定性诊断泌尿系结石的应用价值.%Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of twinkling artifact in urinary calcium stones.Methods Calcium oxalate monohydrate,hydroxyapatite and whitlockite stone phantoms were prepared and embedded in porcine kidneys for ultrasound scanning.The length and width of twinkling artifact were measured.The intensity of twinkling artifact and the contrast-to-noise ratio (C/N ratio) of acoustic shadowing were recorded and all the data was analyzed statistically.Results All the stone phantoms generated twinkling artifact and acoustic shadowing.The difference of the intensity,length and width of twinkling artifact and the C/N ratio of acoustic shadowing had statistically significant each composition (P <0.01).There was no overlap between 95% confidence interval of the intensity of twinkling artifact for any two compositions,and any two compositions of stones could be differentiated by the intensity of

  11. Prophylaxis and therapeutic effects of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) on renal stone formation in Balb/c mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ghalayini, Ibrahim F.; Mohammed A. Al-Ghazo; Mohammad N. A. Harfeil

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prophylactic potential of herbal decoction from Rubus idaeus, a medicinal plant widely used in the Middle East to treat kidney stones, by assessing the effect of administration in experimentally induced calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was based on administration of glyoxylate and/or herbal treatments simultaneously for 12 days, followed by histological and biochemical tests. Group I was used as a negative control. Grou...

  12. Enrofloxacinium oxalate

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    Thammarse S. Yamuna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, 2C19H23FN3O3+·C2O42− {systematic name: bis-[4-(3-carboxy-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinolin-7-yl-1-ethylpiperazin-1-ium] oxalate}, crystallizes with two independent monocations (A and B and an oxalate dianion (C in the asymmetric unit. The piperazinium ring in both the cations adopts a slightly disordered chair conformation. The dihedral angles between the mean planes of the cyclopropyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring are 50.6 (5° (A and 62.2 (5° (B. In each of the cations, a single O—H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal, the oxalate anions interact with the cations through N—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O interactions, forming R22(8 graph-set ring motifs. Weak C—H...F interactions along with further C—H...O interactions are observed between the cations, forming zigzag chains along [001]. In addition, π–π stacking interactions are observed with centroid–centroid distances of 3.5089 (13, 3.5583 (13, 3.7900 (13 and 3.7991 (13 Å.

  13. Origin of Urinary Oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2007-04-01

    Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

  14. Investigation of kidney stones by X-ray diffraction method

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    Muakthong, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of 39 male kidney stone samples and 11 female kidney stone samples obtained from Songklanakarind Hospital, Hat Yai, Songkhla was carried out. Most samples were obtained from patients ages over 40 years. By means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, kidney stones can be classified according to their structure and composition into 3 groups is 1. uric acid (C5H4N4O3 and ammonium acid urate (C5H7N5O3 2. oxalates; whewelite (C2CaO4!H2O CaC2O4!H2O and weddellite (C2CaO4!2H2O 3. phosphates; struvite (NH4MgPO4!6H2O and calcium phosphate hydrate (Ca3(PO42!xH2O. External and internal environments such as occupation, dietary habits, lack of water-drinking etc. are the major factors for kidney stone formation. Results from this study are very useful for the patients to prevent recrystallization of kidney stones by avoiding some elements or some organic compounds which are main components of kidney stones formed in the human urinary system.

  15. Helicobacter pylori and urinary system stones: endoluminal damage as sub-hypothesis to support the current stone theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verit, Ayhan; Güner, Numan Dogu

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a atypical gram-negative bacteria preferring gastric mucosa which also have bizarre multisystem effects extended to some malignancies, hematologic and vascular disorders through some not well defined pathophysiologic pathways. Our pioneer data was pointing that the urinary system stone existence was seemed to be high in the group of H. pylori+cases. While the explanation of the reason of the coincidence of renal-gall bladder stones, it was previously suggested that there may be a shift mechanism of intestinal microbial flora, from Oxalobacter formigenes that may reduce the risk of renal stone by consuming intestinal oxalate, to H. pylori which is known to induce gallstone by unknown mechanism. This hypothesis is an indirect one and highly controversial for the effect of H. pylori in the renal stone formation because intestinal absorption of oxalate is not significant when it is compared with the endogen oxalate. The present preliminary unique data in connection with our hypothesis claimed that a possible relation between H. pylori and renal stones. We think that this detrimental effect is due to the possible systemic influence such as vascular and/or endoluminal sickness due to the H. pylori other than directs bacteriologic colonization. There is strong evidence that H. pylori have some role in the atherosclerotic procedure. The vascular theory of Randall plaque formation at renal papilla and subsequent calcium oxalate stone development that suggests microvascular injury of renal papilla in an atherosclerotic-like fashion results in calcification near vessel walls that eventually erodes as a calculus format into the urinary system. Briefly, theories of stone and atherosclerosis seemed to be overlap and H. pylori is one of the factor of both processes. In addition to our hypothesis, we claimed that H. pylori might have same detrimental effect on endoluminal surfaces of urinary and genital systems and resulting in some special

  16. Analysis of Bone Density in Patients with Urolithiasis; Role of Hypercalciuria in Bone Loss: Do These Patients Need a Low-Calcium Diet?

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    Ali-Asghar Yarmohammadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kidney stone is a common urologic complaint. In this study, bone density in stone formers was compared with that of a control group; bone density of stone formers was also analyzed based on age, sex and stone configuration. Methods: In a group of 85 patients with upper urinary calcium stones and 85 healthy people, variables such as age, height, weight, BMI, T-score and Z-score results of bone densitometry of lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4 and femoral neck were recorded. The serum levels of uric acid, calcium, potassium, sodium, phosphor, alkaline phosphates and parathyroid hormone were also analyzed and recorded. Furthermore, all patients, 24-hour urine was studied for levels of cr, oxalate, citrate, uric acid calcium, urea and the total volume. Results: Lumbar and femoral bone mineral density (BMD was significantly lower in patients suffering from renal stone. This difference was also significant when the study and control groups were classified into hypercalciuric and normocalciuric ones. Based on the densimetric results of lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck, BMD reduction among menopause women was significantly greater. Conclusion: Noting the lack of relationship between hypercalciuria and bone loss, and noting that a low-calcium diet not only has no proved role in renal stone prevention, but also it leads to calcium imbalance and finally bone loss, low-calcium diets are not suggested for renal stone formers

  17. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 220C, 450C, and 600C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  18. Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Miyaoka

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described according to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine. Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya, inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium, inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan. In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events is needed.

  19. Bacteriological study and structural composition of staghorn stones removed by the anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Shafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the composition of staghorn stones and to assess the proportion of infected stones as well as the correlation between infection in the stones and bacteria grown in urine. Samples of 45 consecutive stones removed through anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedures were taken from the operation site and samples of urine were obtained by simultaneous bladder catheterization. The frequency of infection in the stones and correlation between infection of stone and urine samples were determined with respect to the composition of the stones. Twenty-two males and 23 females, with respective mean ages of 48.3 ± 15.6 years and 51 ± 7.4 years, were studied. The stone and urine cultures yielded positive results in ten and 16 patients, respectively, of a total of 45 patients (22.2% and 35.5%, respectively. Calcium oxalate was the main constituent of staghorn stones, seen in 31 patients (68.8%, uric acid in 12 patients (26.6% and struvite and/or calcium phosphate in 11 patients (24.4%. In seven of ten stones with bacterial growth, bacteria were isolated from urine cultures as well, which accounted for a concordance rate of 70%. The bacteria grown in the stone were the cause of urinary tract infection (UTI in 43.5% of the cases. Stone infection was significantly associated with UTI (OR = 6.47; 95% CI 1.43-31.7, P = 0.021 and presence of phosphate in the stones (OR = 18, 95% CI 3.28-99.6, P = 0.0006. E. coli was the most common bacteria grown from the stones, and was isolated in 50% of the cases; Ureaplasma urealyticum was the most common organism causing UTI, grown in 62.5% of the urine samples. There was a high concordance rate between bacteria in the stones and urine. These findings indicate that the urine culture can provide information for selection of an appropriate anti-microbial agent for stone sterilization. In addition, preventing re-growth or recurrence of stones and treatment of post-surgical infections would be

  20. In vitro studies of calcium mixed minerals growth in different growth faces and semiconductor laser induced suppression of nuclei strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Kanchana; P Sundaramoorthi

    2008-12-01

    Kidney stone consists of various organic, inorganic and semi organic compounds. Mineral oxalate monohydrate and di-hydrate are the main organic constituents of kidney stones. However, mechanisms leading to the formation of mineral oxalate kidney stones are not clearly understood. The effect of some urinary stone constituents such as ammonium oxalate, calcium citrate, proteins and trace elements were reported by us. The calcium magnesium hydrogen phosphate (CaMHP) crystals were grown in SMS gel medium which provides the necessary kidney stimuli growth medium. The growth processes were done by single diffusion method for different physical and chemical parameters. The pH range in which HPO$^{2-}_{4}$ ions dominates were considered which in turn is necessary for the growth of CaMHP crystals. In the present study, calcium magnesium hydrogen phosphate (CaMHP) crystals are grown in three different growth faces to attain the total nucleation reduction. As an extension of this research, many characterization studies have been carried out like XRD, FTIR, TGA, SEM and etching and the results are reported.

  1. Analysis of urinary stone constituents using powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pragnya A Bhatt; Parimal Paul

    2008-03-01

    Constituents of urinary stones obtained from various patients from western part of India, which is a highly urinary stone disease-prone area, have been analysed. Eight stones from four patients were collected through urologists and have been analysed using powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image of selected samples were also carried out. The analysis revealed that calcium oxalate monohydrate, which is also known as whewellite, is the common constituent of all of the stones, particularly at the initial stage of stone formation. However, multi phases viz. whewellite phase, and hydroxyl and carbonate apatite phases are also detected in the case of third and fourth patients, from where multiple stones were obtained. Interestingly, in these mixed phase stones the concentration of whewellite decreases with increasing the concentration of apatite phases. Thermal behaviour of the whewellite phase was studied by TGA and variable temperature XRD analysis. Morphology of the whewellite and apatite phases, examined by SEM image, has also been reported.

  2. 姜黄素干预对乙二醇诱导的大鼠肾草酸钙结石形成的影响%Effects of curcumin intervention on ethylene glycol-induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢锋; 张士青

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of curcumin intervention on ethylene glycol-induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats. Methods Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into single nephrolithiasis induction group (calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis induced by 1% ethylene glycol drinking), nephrolithiasis induction + curcumin intervention group (1% ethylene glycol drinking + intragastric administration of 20 mg o kg-1 o d-1 curcumin), single curcumin group (deionized water drinking + intragastric administration of 20 mg o kg-1 o d-1 curcumin) and blank control group (deionized water drinking), with 8 rats in each group. Before and after the experiment (4 weeks after treatment), serum and urine concentrations of ionized calcium and magnesium, urine oxalic acid, urine citric acid and serum concentration of creatinine were measured in rats. Rats were sacrificed, renal tissues were obtained, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) in renal tissues were determined, the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tissues was observed with HE staining, and the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells was detected by TUNEL method. Results Compared with blank control group, the urine oxalic acid, apoptosis index of renal tubular epithelial cells, content of MDA in renal tissues and serum concentration of creatinine were moderately higher, and the urine concentration of ionized magnesium, urine content of citric acid and activity of T-SOD in renal tissues were moderately lower in single curcumin group. Compared with single nephrolithiasis induction group, the urine oxalic acid, apoptosis index of renal tubular epithelial cells and content of MDA in renal tissues were significantly decreased, and the Urine concentration of ionized magnesium, urine content of citric acid and activity of T-SOD in renal tissues were significantly increased in nephrolithiasis induction + curcumin intervention group ( P < 0. 05

  3. Thickness of calcium carbonate coats on stones of the Heishanxia terraces of the Yellow River and dating of coarse clastic sedimentary geomorphic surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The calcium carbonate coats on stones developed in soil on the geomorphic surfaces of coarse clastic sediments in arid-semiarid regions contain evident information of age. The thickness of coats can be used not only as a good age indicator for the geomorphic surfaces but also coats themselves can be directly used as dating materials in the ESR method. Through measuring the thickness of carbonate coats on stones in soils on the alluvial terraces in the mouth of the Heishanxia gorge of the Yellow River and ESR dating of layers separated from the carbonate coats, the average of accumulation rates of the thickness of carbonate coats on stones since 1.57 Ma was calculated to be 0.10 mm/ka in the studied area, and a regression equation between carbonate coat thickness and age was also generated. From these research results, ages of T2-T11 terraces of the Yellow River in the studied area were systematically determined, and their values are in turn 18 ka, 94 ka, 139 ka, 215 ka, 305 ka, 410 ka, 495 ka, 742 ka, 1072 ka and 1570 ka. The reliability of all these age data is confirmed by the obtained 14C, OSL ages (T2, T3 and T4) and ESR ages of neighbor terraces, and they are completely consistent with the geological epochs estimated by geological and geomorphologic comparison and analysis.

  4. Use of the probability of stone formation (PSF score to assess stone forming risk and treatment response in a cohort of Brazilian stone formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Turney

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim was to confirm that PSF (probability of stone formation changed appropriately following medical therapy on recurrent stone formers. Materials and Methods Data were collected on 26 Brazilian stone-formers. A baseline 24-hour urine collection was performed prior to treatment. Details of the medical treatment initiated for stone-disease were recorded. A PSF calculation was performed on the 24 hour urine sample using the 7 urinary parameters required: voided volume, oxalate, calcium, urate, pH, citrate and magnesium. A repeat 24-hour urine sample was performed for PSF calculation after treatment. Comparison was made between the PSF scores before and during treatment. Results At baseline, 20 of the 26 patients (77% had a high PSF score (> 0.5. Of the 26 patients, 17 (65% showed an overall reduction in their PSF profiles with a medical treatment regimen. Eleven patients (42% changed from a high risk (PSF > 0.5 to a low risk (PSF 0.5 during both assessments. Conclusions The PSF score reduced following medical treatment in the majority of patients in this cohort.

  5. The Relation between Bone and Stone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Nancy S.; Bushinsky, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Hypercalciuria is the most common metabolic abnormality found in patients with calcium-containing kidney stones. Patients with hypercalciuria often excrete more calcium than they absorb, indicating a net loss of total body calcium. The source of this additional urine calcium is almost certainly the skeleton, the largest repository of calcium in the body. Hypercalciuric stone formers exhibit decreased bone mineral density (BMD) which is correlated with the increase in urine calcium excretion. ...

  6. Effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder on sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats

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    Rahul V Takawale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of advances in the present practice of medicine, the formation and growth of calculi continues to trouble mankind, as there is no satisfactory drug to treat kidney stones. In India, many indigenous drugs are in use for the treatment of urinary calculus disease. Objective: The present study was intended to determine anti-urolithiatic effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder (LSFP against sodium oxalate (NaOx induced urolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were grouped as Vehicle Group (received vehicle gum acacia 2% w/v 1 mL/kg/p.o., NaOx Group(Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg,i.p., LSFP Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. LSFP suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg, Cystone Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. Cystone suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg. Result: The increased severity of microscopic calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals deposition along with increased concentration in the kidney was seen after 7 days of NaOx (70 mg/kg, i.p. pre-treatment. LSFP (500 mg/kg, p.o. and standard marketed formulation Cystone (500 mg/kg, p.o. caused a significant reversal of NaOx-induced changes in ion excretion and urinary CaOx concentration in 7 days treatment. Conclusion: From the results, it was concluded that LSFP showed beneficial effect against urolithiasis by decreasing CaOx excretion and preventing crystal deposition in the kidney tubules.

  7. Isolation and characterizations of oxalate-binding proteins in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roop-ngam, Piyachat; Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Pongsakul, Nutkridta; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2012-08-01

    Oxalate-binding proteins are thought to serve as potential modulators of kidney stone formation. However, only few oxalate-binding proteins have been identified from previous studies. Our present study, therefore, aimed for large-scale identification of oxalate-binding proteins in porcine kidney using an oxalate-affinity column containing oxalate-conjugated EAH Sepharose 4B beads for purification followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to resolve the recovered proteins. Comparing with those obtained from the controlled column containing uncoupled EAH-Sepharose 4B (to subtract the background of non-specific bindings), a total of 38 protein spots were defined as oxalate-binding proteins. These protein spots were successfully identified by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) and/or tandem MS (MS/MS) as 26 unique proteins, including several nuclear proteins, mitochondrial proteins, oxidative stress regulatory proteins, metabolic enzymes and others. Identification of oxalate-binding domain using the PRATT tool revealed "L-x(3,5)-R-x(2)-[AGILPV]" as a functional domain responsible for oxalate-binding in 25 of 26 (96%) unique identified proteins. We report herein, for the first time, large-scale identification and characterizations of oxalate-binding proteins in the kidney. The presence of positively charged arginine residue in the middle of this functional domain suggested its significance for binding to the negatively charged oxalate. These data will enhance future stone research, particularly on stone modulators. PMID:22796524

  8. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  9. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  10. Oxalic acid has an additional, detoxifying function in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annerose Heller

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the diseases caused by the necrotroph plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is not well understood. To investigate the role of oxalic acid during infection high resolution, light-, scanning-, transmission electron microscopy and various histochemical staining methods were used. Our inoculation method allowed us to follow degradation of host plant tissue around single hyphae and to observe the reaction of host cells in direct contact with single invading hyphae. After penetration the outer epidermal cell wall matrix appeared degraded around subcuticular hyphae (12-24 hpi. Calcium oxalate crystals were detected in advanced (36-48 hpi and late (72 hpi infection stages, but not in early stages. In early infection stages, surprisingly, no toxic effect of oxalic acid eventually secreted by S. sclerotiorum was observed. As oxalic acid is a common metabolite in plants, we propose that attacked host cells are able to metabolize oxalic acid in the early infection stage and translocate it to their vacuoles where it is stored as calcium oxalate. The effects, observed on healthy tissue upon external application of oxalic acid to non-infected, living tissue and cell wall degradation of dead host cells starting at the inner side of the walls support this idea. The results indicate that oxalic acid concentrations in the early stage of infection stay below the toxic level. In plant and fungi oxalic acid/calcium oxalate plays an important role in calcium regulation. Oxalic acid likely could quench calcium ions released during cell wall breakdown to protect growing hyphae from toxic calcium concentrations in the infection area. As calcium antimonate-precipitates were found in vesicles of young hyphae, we propose that calcium is translocated to the older parts of hyphae and detoxified by building non-toxic, stable oxalate crystals. We propose an infection model where oxalic acid plays a detoxifying role in late infection stages.

  11. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  12. Analysis of bulk and inorganic degradation products of stones, mortars and wall paintings by portable Raman microprobe spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alonso, M; Castro, K; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Angulo, M; Olazabal, M A; Madariaga, J M

    2004-05-01

    This work reports the use of a portable Raman microprobe spectrometer for the analysis of bulk and decaying compounds in carbonaceous materials such as stones, mortars and wall paintings. The analysed stones include limestone, dolomite and carbonaceous sandstone, gypsum and calcium oxalate, both mono- and dihydrated, being the main inorganic degradation products detected. Mortars include bulk phases with pure gypsum, calcite and mixtures of both or with sand, soluble salts being the most important degradation products. The pigments detected in several wall paintings include Prussian blue, iron oxide red, iron oxide yellow, vermilion, carbon black and lead white. Three different decaying processes have been characterised in the mortars of the wall paintings: (a) a massive absorption of nitrates that reacted with calcium carbonate and promoted the unbinding of pigment grains, (b) the formation of black crusts in the vault of the presbytery and (c) the thermodecomposition of pigments due to a fire.

  13. Biomimetic Randall's plaque as an in vitro model system for studying the role of acidic biopolymers in idiopathic stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Archana; Rodriguez, Douglas; Khan, Saeed; Gower, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Randall's plaque (RP) deposits seem to be consistent among the most common type of kidney stone formers, idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. This group forms calcium oxalate renal stones without any systemic symptoms, which contributes to the difficulty of understanding and treating this painful and recurring disease. Thus, the development of an in vitro model system to study idiopathic nephrolithiasis, beginning with RP pathogenesis, can help in identifying how plaques and subsequently stones form. One main theory of RP formation is that calcium phosphate deposits initially form in the basement membrane of the thin loops of Henle, which then fuse and spread into the interstitial tissue, and ultimately make their way across the urothelium, where upon exposure to the urine, the mineralized tissue serves as a nidus for overgrowth with calcium oxalate into a stone. Our group has found that many of the unusual morphologies found in RP and stones, such as concentrically laminated spherulites and mineralized collagenous tissue, can be reproduced in vitro using a polymer-induced liquid precursor (PILP) process, in which acidic polypeptides induce a liquid phase amorphous precursor to the mineral, yielding non-equilibrium crystal morphologies. Given that there are many acidic proteins and polysaccharides present in the renal tissue and urine, we have put forth the hypothesis that the PILP system may be involved in urolithiasis. Therefore, our goal is to develop an in vitro model system of these two stages of composite stone formation to study the role that various acidic macromolecules may play. In our initial experiments presented here, the development of "biomimetic" RP was investigated, which will then serve as a nidus for calcium oxalate overgrowth studies. To mimic the tissue environment, MatriStem(®) (ACell, Inc.), a decellularized porcine urinary bladder matrix was used, because it has both an intact epithelial basement membrane surface and a tunica propria

  14. STUDY OF URINE PH, HYPERCALCIURIA, URINARY TRACT INFECTION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH STONE COMPOSITION IN BHOPAL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This prospective case control study is an attempt to study the importance and significance of urinary pH, urinary tract infection (Urinary Culture and hypercalciuria and its correlation with stone composition in patients of urolithiasis. METHODS: This prospective cases control study is done at the Department of Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal (M.P. India from October 2013 to October 2014. We have included 25 healthy persons as control group for the comparison of study group i.e. patients of urolithiasis. RESULTS: Total (43.5% persons were having stones in upper urinary tract. The mean age (+/-SD of the study group was 31.5 for the males and 34.5 for the females. In control group it was 30.4 males and 30.2 for the females. The overall ratio of M/F was 1.5:1.0 in stone former (Study group group and 2.1:1.0 in control group. Most (82.5% of stone former persons were in lower and middle socioeconomic group. 65.2% persons in stone former group were taking water less than 2 liters per day while in normal control group it was 48%. Milk and milk products consumption was very high in stone formers i.e. 34/46(73.9%. Pain in the flanks is the first symptom of upper urinary tract calculi. Haematuria and burning during micturition were present in 75% and 50% patients respectively. Pain during micturition was in 75% of the stone formers. Urinary pH was mostly acidic in stone formers. The pH of urine in stone formers was 5.40±0.05 whereas in control group it was 6.34±0.08. In our study we found that most of the stones formed in normal acidic urine pH were composed of mainly calcium oxalate as dominant component while in alkaline urine at pH 6 to 8 triple phosphate is the major stone component. Uric acid is mainly present in stones formed in acidic urine. 24 Hours urine volume was significantly low in stone formers (750±156ml than in normal individuals (1250±250ml. S. Calcium level was also raised marginally

  15. Metabolic evaluation in first-time renal stone formers in north India: A single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of stone recurrence in first-time stone formers (FTSF varies from 26% to 53%. There is no consensus regarding metabolic evaluation in these individuals. We evaluated the metabolic abnormalities in first-time renal stone forming patients in North India. Thirty-nine patients, (29 males and 10 females with mean age 39.3 ± 12.9 years who presented with nephrolithiasis for the first time were evaluated. We evaluated the calcium homeostasis [serum corrected total calcium, phosphorous, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, parathormone (iPTH, 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25(OHD 3 , 1-25 di-hydroxy cholecalciferol (1,25(OH 2 D 3 ] and performed the calcium load test also. Two 24-h urine collections were taken for citrate, oxalate, calcium and uric acid. Ammonium chloride loading test for diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis was performed in all patients. For each of the diagnostic categories, descriptive statistics were computed for all biochemical variables. A two-tailed P-value <0.05 was regarded as significant. Metabolic abnormalities were detected in 92.3% of the patients (n = 39 studied. Of them, almost 60% had two or more metabolic abnormalities. The most common metabolic abnormality was hypo-citraturia (82%, followed by hyper-oxaluria (56% and hyper-calciuria (41%. Five percent of the patients had incomplete renal tubular acidosis, signifying the importance of the ammonium chloride loading test in patients with renal stones. None of the study patients were detected to have primary hyperparathyroidism. In three patients, the etiology could not be detected. Our findings suggest that an underlying disorder is present in majority of first-time renal stone formers. Intervention with appropriate treatment can prevent recurrences. Hence, comprehensive metabolic evaluation is recommended in all FTSF.

  16. Trace element relations to renal stones phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluszkiewicz, C.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Gazilka, M.

    1990-04-01

    The renal stones formation is still not well known and seems to be a very complex phenomenon. Therefore, the renal stones were analyzed by the Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as by the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) method. Using FTIR the samples were grouped into 5 types: phosphates, mixture of phosphates and oxalates, oxalates, mixture of oxalates and uric acid, and uric acid. PIXE was used to determine Trace Element (TE) contents. The combination of the two analysis methods enables us to find some TE relations to different renal stones phases. In general it appeared that TE contents in mixed structures are always between values of the respective pure phases. It was also found that some of the toxic elements are related to the structures but not necessarily to environmental influences as in the case of lead. All data were statistically analyzed and the correalations of the elements are presented.

  17. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.

  18. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation. PMID:22492273

  19. Nephrolithiasis, stone composition, meteorology, and seasons in Malta: Is there any connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Jesmar; Attard, Stephanie; Carachi, Alexander; Galea, Ruth; Fava, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Context: The effect of seasons and meteorology on the incidence of nephrolithiasis has been studied in various regions around the globe, but seldom in the Mediterranean. Aims: This retrospective analysis aims at investigating these putative effects in the Maltese Islands, whose climate is typically Mediterranean, followed by a systematic review of the literature. Materials and Methods: Submission rate and chemical composition of all kidney stones after spontaneous passage or surgical removal between January 2009 and December 2011 were analyzed according to seasons and corresponding meteorology. Results: A total of 389 stones were analyzed. A higher stone submission rate was observed in summer compared to winter (31.6% vs. 20.8%, P = 0.0008) and in the warm period compared to the cold period (57.1% vs. 42.9%, P = 0.0001). Significant correlation was established between the monthly number of stones and mean monthly maximum temperature (r = 0.50, P = 0.002), mean monthly temperature (r = 0.49, P = 0.003) and mean monthly Humidex (r = 0.49, P = 0.007). Humidex was found to be an independent predictor for stone submission (β = 0.49, P = 0.007). The majority of stones contained calcium (83.3%), combined with oxalate (77.6%), phosphate (14.7%), and carbonate (2.8%). Some stones (11.8%) contained a mixture of >1 negatively charged molecules. Urate (11.6%), cysteine (4.6%), and ammonium-magnesium-phosphate (0.5%) constituted the rest. There was no association between chemical composition and seasons. Literature review included 25 articles. Higher ambient temperature and warm seasons were the most commonly encountered risk factors for both presentation and etiology of nephrolithiasis. Conclusions: A significant positive correlation was noted between ambient temperature and stone submission rate, which was significantly higher during the warm months in Malta.

  20. Biochemical Risk Factors for Stone Formation in Healthy School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasumeh Mohkam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of urolithiasis in childhood is increasing. The wide geographic variation in the incidence of lithiasis in childhood is related to climatic, dietary, and socioeconomic factors. Many children with stone disease have a metabolic abnormality. In Southeast Asia, urinary calculi are endemic and are related to dietary factors. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of renal stone, urine metabolic abnormality, control of blood pressure and demographic character in elementary school children of Qom. A cross sectional study was performed on 110 primary school children (56 girls and 54 boys aged 7 to 11 years old. Demographic data such as age, height, weight were gathered, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Urine analysis and culture, urinary levels of calcium, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, uric acid, cystine, citrate, oxalate, protein and sonographic findings were evaluated. The mean (±SD of age was 8.85±1.51 years. Only one child had renal stone (1%, but the prevalence of abnormal renal sonography was 7%. The most prevalent urine metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria (23% and hypocitraturia (100%. 11.2% of children had positive urine culture that all were female. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 7.1% for girls and 11.1% for boys. The prevalence of renal stone in children in this study was 1%, which means the accurate judgment about the prevalence of renal stone in Qom city needs more comprehensive studies. Similar to other studies in Iran this study shows that the prevalence of hypercalciuria is significantly higher comparing to other countries, it may be associated with excessive intake of sodium.

  1. Biomimetic Randall’s Plaque as an In Vitro Model System for Studying the Role of Acidic Biopolymers in Idiopathic Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Archana; Rodriguez, Douglas; Khan, Saeed; Gower, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Randall’s plaque (RP) deposits seem to be consistent among the most common type of kidney stone formers, idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. This group forms calcium oxalate renal stones without any systemic symptoms, which contributes to the difficulty of understanding and treating this painful and recurring disease. Thus, the development of an in vitro model system to study idiopathic nephrolithiasis, beginning with RP pathogenesis, can help in identifying how plaques, and subsequently stones, form. One main theory of RP formation is that calcium phosphate deposits initially form in the basement membrane of the thin loops of Henle, which then fuse and spread into the interstitial tissue, and ultimately make their way across the urothelium, where upon exposure to the urine, the mineralized tissue serves as a nidus for overgrowth with calcium oxalate into a stone. Our group has found that many of the unusual morphologies found in RP and stones, such as concentrically-laminated spherulites and mineralized collagenous tissue, can be reproduced in vitro using a polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process, in which acidic polypeptides induce a liquid-phase amorphous precursor to the mineral, yielding non-equilibrium crystal morphologies. Given that there are many acidic proteins and polysaccharides present in the renal tissue and urine, we have put for the hypothesis that the PILP system may be involved in urolithiasis. Therefore, our goal is to develop an in vitro model system of these two stages of composite stone formation in order to study the role that various acidic macromolecules may play. In our initial experiments presented here, the development of “biomimetic” RP was investigated, which will then serve as a nidus for calcium oxalate overgrowth studies. In order to mimic the tissue environment, MatriStem® (ACell, Inc.), a decellularized porcine urinary bladder matrix was used, because it has both an intact epithelial basement membrane surface

  2. Oxalate metal complexes in aerosol particles: implications for the hygroscopicity of oxalate-containing particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Furukawa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols have both a direct and an indirect cooling effect that influences the radiative balance at the Earth's surface. It has been estimated that the degree of cooling is large enough to weaken the warming effect of carbon dioxide. Among the cooling factors, secondary organic aerosols (SOA play an important role in the solar radiation balance in the troposphere as SOA can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and extend the lifespan of clouds because of their high hygroscopic and water soluble nature. Oxalic acid is an important component of SOA, and is produced via several formation pathways in the atmosphere. However, it is not certain whether oxalic acid exists as free oxalic acid or as metal oxalate complexes in aerosols, although there is a marked difference in their solubility in water and their hygroscopicity. We employed X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to characterize the calcium (Ca and zinc (Zn in aerosols collected at Tsukuba in Japan. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected for this purpose using an impactor aerosol sampler. It was shown that 10–60% and 20–100% of the total Ca and Zn in the finer particles (<2.1 μm were present as Ca and Zn oxalate complexes, respectively. Oxalic acid is hygroscopic and can thus increase the CCN activity of aerosol particles, while complexes with various polyvalent metal ions such as Ca and Zn are not hygroscopic, which cannot contribute to the increase of the CCN activity of aerosols. Based on the concentrations of noncomplexed and metal-complexed oxalate species, we found that most of the oxalic acid is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, suggesting that oxalic acid does not always increase the hygroscopicity of aerosols in the atmosphere. Similar results are expected for other dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic and succinic acids. Thus, it is advisable that the cooling effect of organic aerosols should be estimated by including the

  3. Quantificação do stone clinic effect em pacientes com nefrolitíase Quantification of the stone clinic effect in patients with nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O termo stone clinic effect refere-se ao efeito do aumento da ingestão hídrica e aconselhamento dietético na evolução clínica da doença calculosa renal. OBJETIVO: O nosso objetivo foi quantificar esta variável em pacientes portadores de nefrolitíase. MÉTODOS: Vinte e cinco pacientes (11 mulheres e 14 homens; 47,64±10,55 anos com nefrolitíase recorrente foram acompanhados com consultas trimestrais por um ano. Orientações sobre aumento da ingestão hídrica, diminuição do consumo de sal e proteína foram rotineiramente fornecidas. Nenhum paciente foi submetido à terapia farmacológica. Foram coletados no início (S1 e no final do seguimento (S2 os seguintes parâmetros: atividade clínica e radiológica da doença litiásica, urina de 24 horas com dosagem de creatinina, cálcio, sódio, ácido úrico, citrato, oxalato e magnésio. A supersaturação (SS para o oxalato de cálcio foi calculada pelo índice de Tiselius. RESULTADOS: Onze (44% pacientes apresentaram hipocitratúria, nove (36% hipercalciúria e cinco (20% hiperuricosúria. Houve aumento do volume urinário (1903±811 vs 2381±919 ml/dia, pBACKGROUND: The ''stone clinic effect'' refers to the effect of encouraging a high intake of fluid and diet counseling in the clinical evolution of kidney stone disease. Objective: Our objective was to determine the extent of this variable in patients with nephrolithiasis. METHODS: Twenty-five patients (11 female and 14 male; 47.64±10.55 years old with recurrent nephrolithiasis were prospectively followed for one year, with 3-month interval medical evaluation. Patients were advised to increase the fluid intake, and to limit the intake of salt and protein. No patient was submitted to pharmacological therapy. Two 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline (S1 and in the end of follow-up (S2 for the measurement of creatinine, calcium, sodium, uric acid, citrate, oxalate and magnesium. Metabolic and radiological activity was also

  4. Caoxite-hydroxyapatite composition as consolidating material for the chalk stone from Basarabi-Murfatlar churches ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Turcanu-Caruţiu, Daniela; Fierăscu, Radu-Claudiu; Fierăscu, Irina; Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Ion, Mihaela-Lucia; Teodorescu, Sofia; Vasilievici, Gabriel; Rădiţoiu, Valentin

    2015-12-01

    The development of new composition for surface conservation of some architectural monuments represents now an important research topic. The Basarabi-Murfatlar Ensemble, recognized as the first religious monument from mediaeval Dobrogea (Romania) (from 9th to 11th century), is one of the most impressive archaeological sites of Europe. This ensemble is built from amorphous calcium carbonate, very sensitive to humidity, frost, salts, etc. The aim of this paper is to test on chalk stone samples a new consolidant - hydroxyapatite (HAp) mixed with calcium oxalate trihydrate (caoxite) (COT). Some specific techniques for evaluation its impact on chalk stone surface are used, as follows: petrographical and physical-chemical techniques: SEM, OM, ICP-AES, TGA, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, chromatic parameters changes, the accelerated weathering tests: heating, freeze-thaw, and their effects on porosity and capillary water uptake by the chalk surface. All these have been evaluated before and after treatment with COT-HAp, putting into evidence the effect of the new composition on the chalk stone surface. HAp induces COT stabilization, and their joint composition can bind weathered stone blocks providing a substantial reinforcement of chalk surface.

  5. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  6. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  7. Probabilistic Modeling of the Renal Stone Formation Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lauren M.; Myers, Jerry G.; Goodenow, Debra A.; McRae, Michael P.; Jackson, Travis C.

    2013-01-01

    randomly sampling the probability distributions of the electrolyte concentrations and system parameters that are inputs into the deterministic model. The total urine chemistry concentrations are used to determine the urine chemistry activity using the Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS), a biochemistry model. Information used from JESS is then fed into the deterministic growth model. Outputs from JESS and the deterministic model are passed back to the probabilistic model where a multivariate regression is used to assess the likelihood of a stone forming and the likelihood of a stone requiring clinical intervention. The parameters used to determine to quantify these risks include: relative supersaturation (RS) of calcium oxalate, citrate/calcium ratio, crystal number density, total urine volume, pH, magnesium excretion, maximum stone width, and ureteral location. Methods and Validation: The RSFM is designed to perform a Monte Carlo simulation to generate probability distributions of clinically significant renal stones, as well as provide an associated uncertainty in the estimate. Initially, early versions will be used to test integration of the components and assess component validation and verification (V&V), with later versions used to address questions regarding design reference mission scenarios. Once integrated with the deterministic component, the credibility assessment of the integrated model will follow NASA STD 7009 requirements.

  8. Mineralogical Composition of the Urinary Stones from Different Provinces in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan H. Afaj

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For this study, 25 samples of urinary stones were chosen from different provinces in Iraq as representative sampling localities. These samples of urinary stones were collected to represent kidney, urate, and bladder stones. The main objectives of this study are to try to shed some light on the possibilities of tracking down the effective environmental factors that determine the mineralogical and chemical composition of these stones. The stones were examined using several techniques, the most important of which was the use of the X-ray diffraction (XRD technique to determine the mineralogical composition of these stones. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM test was conducted to determine the crystallographic forms and structures for the minerals forming these stones. Optical properties of these minerals were studied using a polarizing microscope. All these techniques revealed that the calcium oxalate, represented in Whewellite mineral, is the most dominant type of these stones, in addition to other minerals such as Hydroxy apatite, Struvite, and Uricite. Dittmarite was pointed out for the first time ever in some samples. This mineral has not been determined in any previous study worldwide.Considering the results of mineralogical and chemical examinations of the urinary stones in question, and the statistical information gathered from the Iraqi Health Ministry, statistical analyses were applied. The ratio of male-female cases in this study happened to be 4:1, which was higher than the ratio in the years 1988––1989 and 1993–1994, 2:1; 3:1 respectively. The highest percentage of the cases was in the 15–50 age group, which is considered as the most productive years of human lifetime. This study showed that one of the most significant factors was that the mineralogical variation of urinary stones in some Iraqi provinces was due to geographical differences, which reflect the variation in lithogenic factors and also climatological factors. Other

  9. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ‘Averrhoa bilimbi’ fruit juice ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; A Mathew; Rajesh, R; Kurien, G.; J. RAJESH; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.

    2013-01-01

    Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patien...

  10. Microbial Community Transplant Results in Increased and Long-Term Oxalate Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron W; Oakeson, Kelly F; Dale, Colin; Dearing, M Denise

    2016-08-01

    Gut microbes are essential for the degradation of dietary oxalate, and this function may play a role in decreasing the incidence of kidney stones. However, many oxalate-degrading bacteria are susceptible to antibiotics and the use of oxalate-degrading probiotics has only led to an ephemeral reduction in urinary oxalate. The objective of the current study was to determine the efficacy of using whole-community microbial transplants from a wild mammalian herbivore, Neotoma albigula, to increase oxalate degradation over the long term in the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus. We quantified the change in total oxalate degradation in lab rats immediately after microbial transplants and at 2- and 9-month intervals following microbial transplants. Additionally, we tracked the fecal microbiota of the lab rats, with and without microbial transplants, using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of a hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial transplants resulted in a significant increase in oxalate degradation, an effect that persisted 9 months after the initial transplants. Functional persistence was corroborated by the transfer, and persistence of a group of bacteria previously correlated with oxalate consumption in N. albigula, including an anaerobic bacterium from the genus Oxalobacter known for its ability to use oxalate as a sole carbon source. The results of this study indicate that whole-community microbial transplants are an effective means for the persistent colonization of oxalate-degrading bacteria in the mammalian gut. PMID:27312892

  11. Frequency of Metabolic Risk Factors in Children with Urinary Tract Stones Referred to Hamadan Pediatric Nephrology Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.E. Momtaz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Urinary stones are among the most common complaints referred to nephrologist and urologists. Although incidence of urolithiasis is low in children compared to adults and only 7% of all urinary stones are diagnosed before the age of 16 but stones are detected more frequently in pediatric age group in recent years. Metabolic derangements, infection, neurogenic bladder and urinary obstruction are major risk factors of urolithiasis. Common metabolic risk factors of urolithiasis in children are hypercalciuria, uricosuria, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria, metabolic acidosis and cystinuria. There are many clinical studies about the frequency of these metabolic risk factors with different results reflecting difference in diet, geographic area and genetics in study populations. In this study we tried to evaluate the frequency of metabolic causes of urinary stones in children referred to Hamadan pediatric nephrology clinic.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional-descriptive study 156 patients referred due to urinary stones to pediatric nephrology clinic underwent thorough metabolic evaluations including: serum calcium,phosphorus, uric acid, creatinine and non fasting random urine sample for calcium, creatinine , uric acid , oxalate, citrate and cystine . urine solute: creatinine ratios were calculated and compared with normative data.Results: Of 156 patients 136(87.2% had metabolic derangements including: hyperuricosuria in 71 (45.5%, hypercalciuria in 41(26.3%, hypocitraturia in 26 (16.7%, hyperoxaluria in 16(10.3%,cystinuria in 1(0.6% and metabolic acidosis in 39 (25%.Conclusion: High rate of metabolic derangement in pediatric urinary stone patients mandates proper metabolic evaluation in all of them. hyperuricosuria was the most common metbolic finding instead of hypercalciuria in this study. This could be due to differences in diet, geographic area and genetic background in various populations.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci

  12. Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU: pathophysiology evaluated in light of oxidative metabolism, without and with variation of several biomarkers in fasting urine and plasma - a comparison of stone-free and -bearing male patients, emphasizing mineral, acid-base, blood pressure and protein status*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwilie PO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IRCU is traditionally considered as lifestyle disease (associations with, among others, overweight, obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, arising from excess, in 24 h urine, of calcium (Ca salts (calcium oxalate (CaOx, calcium phosphate (CaPi, supersaturation of, and crystallization in, tubular fluid and urine, causing crystal-induced epithelial cell damage, proteinuria, crystal aggregation and uroliths. Methods Another picture emerges from the present uncontrolled study of 154 male adult IRCU patients (75 stone-bearing (SB and 79 age-matched stone-free (SF, in whom stone-forming and other parameters in fasting urine and plasma were contrasted with five biomarkers (see footnote of oxidative metabolism (OM, without and with variation of markers. Results 1 In SB vs. SF unstratified OM biomarkers were statistically unchanged, but the majority of patients was overweight; despite, in SB vs. SF urine pH, total and non-albumin protein concentration were elevated, fractional urinary uric acid excretion and blood bicarbonate decreased, whereas urine volume, sodium, supersaturation with CaOx and CaPi (as hydroxyapatite were unchanged; 2 upon variation of OM markers (strata below and above median numerous stone parameters differed significant!', among others urine volume, total protein, Ca/Pi ratio, pH, sodium, potassium, plasma Ca/Pi ratio and parathyroid hormone, blood pressure, renal excretion of non-albumin protein and other substances; 3 a significant shift from SF to SB patients occurred with increase of urine pH, decrease of blood bicarbonate, and increase of diastolic blood pressure, whereas increase of plasma uric acid impacted only marginally; 4 in both SF and SB patients a strong curvilinear relationship links a rise of urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, but in SB urine Ca/Pi failed to correlate significantly with urine hydroxyapatite supersaturation; 5 also in SB, plasma Ca/Pi and urinary nitrate were

  13. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of crystallization impacting calcium phosphate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocondi, Jennifer L.; El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Nancollas, George H.; Orme, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The biomineral calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O), known as brushite, is a malleable material that both grows and dissolves faster than most other calcium minerals, including other calcium phosphate phases, calcium carbonates and calcium oxalates. Within the body, this ready formation and dissolution can play a role in certain diseases, such as kidney stone and plaque formation. However, these same properties, along with brushite’s excellent biocompatibility, can be used to great benefit in making resorbable biomedical cements. To optimize cements, additives are commonly used to control crystallization kinetics and phase transformation. This paper describes the use of in situ scanning probe microscopy to investigate the role of several solution parameters and additives in brushite atomic step motion. Surprisingly, this work demonstrates that the activation barrier for phosphate (rather than calcium) incorporation limits growth kinetics and that additives such as magnesium, citrate and bisphosphonates each influence step motion in distinctly different ways. Our findings provide details of how, and where, molecules inhibit or accelerate kinetics. These insights have the potential to aid in designing molecules to target specific steps and to guide synergistic combinations of additives. PMID:20308110

  15. The potential role of salt abuse on the risk for kidney stone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Harvey, J. A.; Padalino, P. K.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The kidney stone-forming risk of a high sodium diet was evaluated by assessing the effect of such a diet on the crystallization of stone-forming salts in urine. Fourteen normal subjects participated in 2 phases of study of 10 days duration each, comprising a low sodium phase (basal metabolic diet containing 50 mmol. sodium per day) and a high sodium phase (basal diet plus 250 mmol. sodium chloride per day). The high sodium intake significantly increased urinary sodium (34 +/- 12 to 267 +/- 56 mmol. per day), calcium (2.73 +/- 1.03 to 3.93 +/- 1.51 mmol. per day) and pH (5.79 +/- 0.44 to 6.15 +/- 0.25), and significantly decreased urinary citrate (3.14 +/- 1.19 to 2.52 +/- 0.83 mmol. per day). Arterialized venous blood bicarbonate and total serum carbon dioxide concentrations decreased significantly during the high sodium diet, whereas serum chloride concentration increased. However, no change in arterialized venous pH was detected. Thus, a high sodium intake not only increased calcium excretion, but also increased urinary pH and decreased citrate excretion. The latter effects are probably due to sodium-induced bicarbonaturia and a significant decrease in serum bicarbonate concentration, respectively. Commensurate with these changes, the urinary saturation of calcium phosphate (brushite) and monosodium urate increased, and the inhibitor activity against calcium oxalate crystallization (formation product) decreased. The net effect of a high sodium diet was an increased propensity for the crystallization of calcium salts in urine.

  16. Ornamental Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Harrell, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The ornamental stones of ancient Egypt comprise a large and diverse group of rocks. Their attractive colors and patterns, and ability to take a good polish, made them sought after for decorative applications in art and architecture. At least 48 varieties of ornamental stone were used by the Egyptians and these come from 45 known ancient quarries, two in northern Sudan and the rest in Egypt.  

  17. Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn; Xue, Jun-Fa; Shang, Yun-Feng

    2013-10-15

    The property changes of urinary nanocrystallites in 20 cases of uric acid (UA) stone formers after 1 week of potassium citrate (K{sub 3}cit) intake were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Before K{sub 3}cit intake, the urinary crystallites mainly contained UA and calcium oxalate. After K{sub 3}cit intake, the components changed to urate and UA; the qualities, species, and amounts of aggregated crystallites decreased; urine pH, citrate, and glycosaminoglycan excretions increased; and UA excretion, Zeta potential, and crystallite size decreased. The stability of crystallites followed the order: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Therefore, the components of urinary stones were closely related to the components of urinary crystallites. - Graphical abstract: The relationships among stone components, urinary crystallite components, and urine pH were established. The crystallites stability order was: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Highlights: • Urine crystallite property of uric acid stone former after K{sub 3}cit intake was studied. • The components of crystallites in urine are closely related to type of stones. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the qualities and species of crystallites decreased. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the amount of aggregated crystallites decreased. • The stability of urinary crystallites of UA patients increased after taking K{sub 3}cit.

  18. Persistence of 1,25D-induced hypercalciuria in alendronate-treated genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats fed a low-calcium diet

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, Kevin K; Asplin, John R.; Culbertson, Christopher D.; Granja, Ignacio; Krieger, Nancy S.; Bushinsky, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats demonstrate increased intestinal Ca absorption, increased bone resorption, and reduced renal tubular Ca reabsorption leading to hypercalciuria and all form kidney stones. GHS have increased vitamin D receptors (VDR) at these sites of Ca transport. Injection of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D) leads to a greater increase in urine (u)Ca in GHS than in control Sprague-Dawley (SD), possibly due to the additional VDR. In GHS the increased uCa persists on a low-Ca...

  19. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  20. Tetraphenylphosphonium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. W. Dean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H20P+·C2HO4−, two symmetry-independent ion pairs are present. The cations aggregate into puckered sheets via zigzag infinite chains of sixfold phenyl embraces and parallel fourfold phenyl embraces, while the anions form hydrogen-bonded chains between the sheets of cations. In the two independent oxalate anions, the angles between the normals to the two least-squares carboxylate COO planes are unusually large, viz. 72.5 (1 and 82.1 (1°.

  1. Multiple bilateral stones as a cause of acute renal failure: Three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ozturk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex renal stones are staghorn calculi stones >2 cm and most calculus are calcium stones. In patients found with obstruction may need an emergency intervention. Three patients with multiple stones causing bilateral renal obstruction were operated.

  2. Composition of common bile duct stones in Chinese patients during and after endoscopic sphincterotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Lun Tsai; Kwok-Hung Lai; Chiun-Ku Lin; Hoi-Hung Chan; Ching-Chu Lo; Ping-I Hsu; Wen-Chi Chen; Jin-Shiung Cheng; Gin-Ho Lo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is a well-established therapeutic modality for the removal of common bile duct (CBD) stones. After ES there are still around 10% of patients that experience recurrent CBD stones. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of CBD stones before and after ES and its clinical significance in Chinese patients.METHODS: From January 1996 to December 2003, 735Veterans General Hospital and stone specimens from 266patients were sent for analysis. Seventy-five patients had recurrent CBD stones and stone specimens from 44patients were sent for analysis. The composition of the stones was analyzed by infrared (IR) spectrometry and they were classified as cholesterol or bilirubinate stones according to the predominant composition. Clinical data were analyzed.RESULTS: In the initial 266 stone samples, 217 (82%)were bilirubinate stones, 42 (16%) were cholesterol stones,3 were calcium carbonate stones, 4 were mixed cholesterol and bilirubinate stones. Patients with bilirubinate stones were significantly older than patients with cholesterol stones (66±13 years vs 56±17 years, P= 0.001). In the 44 recurrent stone samples, 38 (86%) were bilirubinate stones, 3 (7%) were cholesterol stones, and 3 were mixed cholesterol and bilirubinate stones. In 27 patients, bothinitial and recurrent stone specimens can be obtained,23 patients had bilirubinate stones initially and 2 became cholesterol stones in the recurrent attack. In the four patients with initial cholesterol stones, three patients had bilirubinate stones and one patient had a cholesterol stone in the recurrent attack.CONCLUSION: Bilirubinate stone is the predominant composition of initial or recurrent CBD stone in Chinese patients. The composition of CBD stones may be different from initial stones after ES.

  3. Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts

  4. Allylammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Dziuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated molecular salt, C3H8N+·C2HO4−·0.5H2O, the water O atom lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. The C=C—C—N torsion angle in the cation is 2.8 (3° and the dihedral angle between the CO2 and CO2H planes in the anion is 1.0 (4°. In the crystal, the hydrogen oxalate ions are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating [010] chains. The allylammonium cations bond to the chains through N—H...O and N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds. The water molecule accepts two N—H...O hydrogen bonds and makes two O—H...O hydrogen bonds. Together, the hydrogen bonds generate (100 sheets.

  5. Urinary oxalate excretion by very low birth weight infants receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campfield, T; Braden, G

    1989-11-01

    Renal calcifications have been described in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, and diuretic drug-associated hypercalciuria is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of this lesion. Hyperoxaluria is an important cause of renal stone formation in children and adults. Because parenteral nutrition solutions contain the oxalate precursors ascorbate and glycine, the relationship between total parenteral nutrition administration and oxalate excretion in VLBW infants was examined. Administration of approximately 0.5 g of total parenteral nutrition protein per kilogram per day to VLBW infants was associated with an increased urinary oxalate concentration and an increased urinary oxalate to creatinine ratio, when compared with VLBW infants receiving a glucose and electrolyte solution. A further increase in urinary oxalate concentration and oxalate to creatinine ratio was noted when total parenteral nutrition protein was increased to approximately 1.5 g of protein per kilogram per day. In VLBW infants who receive total parenteral nutrition, elevated urinary oxalate concentrations may develop and may be a factor in the pathogenesis of nephrocalcinosis in these infants.

  6. Homogeneous oxalate precipitation of Pu(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on homogeneous oxalate precipitation using diethyl oxalate which was compared to precipitating Pu(III) oxalate with solid oxalic acid. The diethyl oxalate technique at 75 degrees C is better because it gives 50% less plutonium in the filtrate with a reasonable filtering time. Also, the procedure for the homogeneous precipitation is easier to automate because the liquid diethyl oxalate is simpler to introduce into the precipitator than solid oxalic acid. It also provides flexibility because the hydrolysis rate and therefore the precipitation rate can be controlled by varying the temperature

  7. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ‘Averrhoa bilimbi’ fruit juice ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurien, G.; Rajesh, J.; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.

    2013-01-01

    Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

  8. Metal complexation inhibits the effect of oxalic acid in aerosols as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Furukawa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols have both a direct and an indirect cooling effect that influences the radiative balance at the Earth's surface. It has been estimated that the degree of cooling is large enough to cancel the warming effect of carbon dioxide. Among the cooling factors, secondary organic aerosols (SOA play a key role in the solar radiation balance in the troposphere as SOA can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and extend the lifespan of clouds because of their high hygroscopic and water soluble nature. Oxalic acid is one of the major components of SOA, and is produced via several formation pathways in the atmosphere. However, it is not certain whether oxalic acid exists as free oxalic acid or as metal oxalate complexes in aerosols, although there is a marked difference in their solubility in water and their hygroscopicity. We employed X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to characterize the calcium (Ca and zinc (Zn in aerosols collected at Tsukuba in Japan with fractionation based on particle size using an impactor aerosol sampler. It was shown that 10–60% and 20–100% of the total Ca and Zn in the finer particles (<2.1 μm were present as Ca and Zn oxalate complexes, respectively. Oxalic acid can act as CCN because of its hygroscopic properties, while metal complexes are not hygroscopic, and so cannot be CCN. Based on the concentration of noncomplexed and metal-complexed oxalate species, we found that most of the oxalic acid is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, suggesting that oxalic acid does not act as CCN in the atmosphere. Similar results are expected for other dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic and succinic acids. Thus, it is possible that the cooling effect of organic aerosols assumed in various climate modeling studies is overestimated because of the lack of information on metal oxalate complexes in aerosols.

  9. Analytical Study of Oxalates Coprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana MARTA

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the establishing of the oxalates coprecipitation conditions in view of the synthesis of superconducting systems. A systematic analytical study of the oxalates precipitation conditions has been performed, for obtaining superconducting materials, in the Bi Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. For this purpose, the formulae of the precipitates solubility as a function of pH and oxalate excess were established. The possible formation of hydroxo-complexes and soluble oxalato-complexes was taken into account. A BASIC program was used for tracing the precipitation curves. The curves of the solubility versus pH for different oxalate excess have plotted for the four oxalates, using a logaritmic scale. The optimal conditions for the quantitative oxalate coprecipitation have been deduced from the diagrams. The theoretical curves were confirmed by experimental results. From the precursors obtained by this method, the BSCCO superconducting phases were obtained by an appropriate thermal treatment. The formation of the superconducting phases was identified by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  10. Opisthorchiasis-associated biliary stones:Light and scanning electron microscopic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Banchob Sripa; Pipatphong Kanla; Poonsiri Sinawat; Melissa R. Haswell-Elkins

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Biliary stones are frequentty encountered in areas endemic for opisthorchiasis in Thailand. The present study was to describe the prevalence and pathogenesis of these stones.METHODS: Gallstones and/or common bile duct stones and bile specimens from 113 consecutive cholecystectomies were included. Bile samples, including sludge and/or microcalculi, were examined for Opisthorchis viverrini eggs,calcium and bilirubin. The stones were also processed for scanning electron microscopic (SEM) study.RESULTS: Of the 113 cases, 82 had pigment stones, while one had cholesterol stones. The other 30 cases had no stones. Most of the stone cases (76%, 63/83) had multiple stones, while the remainder had a single stone. Stones were more frequently observed in females. Bile examination was positive for O. viverrini eggs in 50% of the cases studied. Aggregates of calcium bilirubinate precipitates were observed in all cases with sludge. Deposition of calcium bilirubinate on the eggshell was visualized by special staining. A SEM study demonstrated the presence of the parasite eggs in the stones. Numerous crystals,morphologically consistent with calcium derivatives and cholesterol precipitates, were seen.CONCLUSION: Northeast Thailand has a high prevalence of pigment stones, as observed at the cholecystectomy, and liver fluke infestation seems involved in the pathogenesis of stone formation.

  11. Persistence of 1,25D-induced hypercalciuria in alendronate-treated genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats fed a low-calcium diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Kevin K; Asplin, John R; Culbertson, Christopher D; Granja, Ignacio; Krieger, Nancy S; Bushinsky, David A

    2014-05-01

    Genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats demonstrate increased intestinal Ca absorption, increased bone resorption, and reduced renal tubular Ca reabsorption leading to hypercalciuria and all form kidney stones. GHS have increased vitamin D receptors (VDR) at these sites of Ca transport. Injection of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D) leads to a greater increase in urine (u)Ca in GHS than in control Sprague-Dawley (SD), possibly due to the additional VDR. In GHS the increased uCa persists on a low-Ca diet (LCD) suggesting enhanced bone resorption. We tested the hypothesis that LCD, coupled to inhibition of bone resorption by alendronate (alen), would eliminate the enhanced 1,25D-induced hypercalciuria in GHS. SD and GHS were fed LCD and half were injected daily with 1,25D. After 8 days all were also given alen until euthanasia at day 16. At 8 days, 1,25D increased uCa in SD and to a greater extent in GHS. At 16 days, alen eliminated the 1,25D-induced increase in uCa in SD. However, in GHS alen decreased, but did not eliminate, the 1,25D-induced hypercalciuria, suggesting maximal alen cannot completely prevent the 1,25D-induced bone resorption in GHS, perhaps due to increased VDR. There was no consistent effect on mRNA expression of renal transcellular or paracellular Ca transporters. Urine CaP and CaOx supersaturation (SS) increased with 1,25D alone in both SD and GHS. Alen eliminated the increase in CaP SS in SD but not in GHS. If these results are confirmed in humans with IH, the use of bisphosphonates, such as alen, may not prevent the decreased bone density observed in these patients. PMID:24573387

  12. Is Every Stone Urinary Stone? A Rare Case of Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gunes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary vaginal stones in children are extremely rare medical condition but important because they are often mistaken for urinary stones. Here, we present the case of an 11-year-old girl with multiple vaginal stones.

  13. Aluminum-activated Oxalate Secretion does not Associate with Internal Content among Some Oxalate Accumulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Li Yang; Lei Zhang; Shao Jian Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Although aluminum (AI)-activated secretion of oxalate has been considered to be an Important AI-exclusion mechanism,whether it is a general response in oxalate accumulators and related to oxalate content in roots are still not clear.Here,we examined the oxalate secretion and oxalate content in some oxalate accumulators,and investigated the role of oxalate secretion in AI resistance.When oxalate content in amaranth roots was decreased by about 50% with the increased ratio of NH4+-N to NO3——N in nutrient solution,the amount of AI-activated oxalate secretion still remained constant.There was no relationship between the content of the water soluble oxalate in four species of oxalate accumulators and the amount of the AI-activated oxalate secretion in roots.Furthermore,oxalate secretion is poorly associated with AI resistance among these species.Based on the above results,we concluded that although all of the oxalate accumulators tested could secrete oxalate rapidly,the density of anion channels in plasma membrane may play a more important role in AI-activated oxalate secretion.Key words: aluminum toxicity; Amaranthus; anion channel; oxalate accumulator; oxalate secretion.

  14. Importance of oxalate precursors for oxalate metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Miyazato, T; Hatano, T

    1999-11-01

    Three metabolic precursors of oxalate were compared after intravenous administration to rats by measuring the urinary excretion of oxalate and related substances using capillary electrophoresis. Urine specimens were collected hourly from eight male Wistar rats (approximately 200 g) in each group. Glyoxylate (2 mg), glycolate (10 mg), and hydroxypyruvate (100 mg) were almost equally oxalogenic based on urinary oxalate excretion, with 22.0, 6.1, and 0.4% of the respective doses being converted into oxalate, 3, 8.9, and 0.2% into glycolate, and 1, 0.1, and 0.003% into glyoxylate. The mean urinary excretion of oxalate peaked between 1 and 2 h, while that of glycolate peaked at 1 h. The baseline urinary excretion of glycolate and glyoxylate was 0.11 to 0.24 micromol/h and 0.0 to 8.3 nmol/h, respectively, and all three agents caused a significant increase of urinary glycolate excretion for 2 to 3 h. Only glyoxylate administration increased urinary glyoxylate excretion at 1 h. Hydroxypyruvate administration significantly increased urinary hydroxypyruvate, glycerate, and citrate excretion at 1 to 2 h. The increase of urinary citrate excretion remains to be explained. PMID:10541259

  15. The oxalate-carbonate pathway: at the interface between biology and geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junier, P.; Cailleau, G.; Martin, G.; Guggiari, M.; Bravo, D.; Clerc, M.; Aragno, M.; Job, D.; Verrecchia, E.

    2012-04-01

    The formation of calcite in otherwise carbonate-free acidic soils through the biological degradation of oxalate is a mechanism termed oxalate-carbonate pathway. This pathway lies at the interface between biological and geological systems and constitutes an important, although underestimated, soil mineral carbon sink. In this case, atmospheric CO2 is fixed by the photosynthetic activity of oxalogenic plants, which is partly destined to the production of oxalate used for the chelation of metals, and particularly, calcium. Fungi are also able to produce oxalate to cope with elevated concentrations of metals. In spite of its abundance as a substrate, oxalate is a very stable organic anion that can be metabolized only by a group of bacteria that use it as carbon and energy sources. These bacteria close the biological cycle by degrading calcium oxalate, releasing Ca2+ and inducing a change in local soil pH. If parameters are favourable, the geological part of the pathway begins, because this change in pH will indirectly lead to the precipitation of secondary calcium carbonate (calcite) in unexpected geological conditions. Due to the initial acidic soil conditions, and the absence of geological carbonate in the basement, it is unexpected to find C in the form of calcite. The activity of the oxalate-carbonate pathway has now been demonstrated in several places around the world, suggesting that its importance can be even greater than expected. In addition, new roles for each of the biological players of the pathway have been revealed recently forcing us to reconsider a global biogeochemical model for oxalate cycling.

  16. The constituents of bladder stones and the factors contributing to the composition:a study of 120 cases%120例膀胱结石成分分析及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁坚红; 陈雪莲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the constituents of bladder stones as well as the factors that lead to the composition of the stones so as to work out solutions to the disease.Method 120 cases of bladder calculi were examined for the constituents and then the general data of the patients were reviewed for the possible factors resulting in the composition of the stones.Finding s Bladder stones were found to exist in two types: stones of single constituent and stones of multiple constituents.Stones of single constituents include those of calcium oxalate monohydrate (90%), carbonate apatite (80.33%), and anhydrous uric acid (70%).Stones of multiple constituents include those of calcium oxalate monohydrate+carbonate apatite (90.83%) and monohydrate calcium carbonate apatite +two water calcium oxalate (93.33%).The factors leading to the disease include BMI ( OR =7.452), complications ( OR =3.987), gender ( OR =3.599), education (OR =3.112), age (OR =2.599), genetic (OR =2.098), and the amount of water in-take (OR =2.045) (P <0.01).All of these factors bear statistical significance.Conclusion Bladder calculi composition tend to occur in male patients in the age bracket of 25 ~50 years, especially in those with obesity.%目的:分析膀胱结石患者的结石成分,研究膀胱结石形成的影响因素,为防治膀胱结石提供依据。方法分析120例膀胱结石患者的膀胱结石成分,并根据患者的一般资料分析膀胱结石形成的影响因素。结果膀胱结石有单一和多种复合混合等形式,主要是以多种混合形式存在;各单一成分主要有一水草酸钙(90.00%)、碳酸磷灰石(80.33%)、无水尿酸(70.00%),多种混合形式主要有一水草酸钙+碳酸磷灰石(90.83%)、一水草酸钙+碳酸磷灰石+二水草酸钙(93.33%)。患者膀胱结石的影响因素有 BMI(OR =7.452)、并发症(OR =3.987)、性别(OR=3.599)、学历(OR =3.112

  17. OrnamentalRocks & Stones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ORNAMENTALrocksandstonesareasbeautifulandvaluableastheyaredurable.Suchrocksandstonesareusuallynamedafterplaceswheretheyarefound.ExamplesincludeLingbi,Taihu,KunshanandDan(marble)stones.Heipan,aLingbistone,ispitchblack,shiny,andhasturtleveinsonitssurfa...

  18. Twenty-four-hour urine constituents in stone formers: a study from the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, N S; Sadiq, S M; Kamaliah, M D; Norakmal, A W; Gohar, M N

    2013-05-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence world-wide, probably more common in industrialized countries. The metabolic evaluation of 24-h urine collection has been considered as part of the management of urinary stone patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine constituents in stone formers and its relation to demographic data in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and six patients were recruited in this study from two hospitals in the same geographical region; 96 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and an informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The 24-h urine was collected in sterile bottles with a preservative agent and calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium and phosphate were tested using commercial kits on a Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer. The age (mean ± SD) of 96 patients was 56.45 ± 13.43 years and 82.3% of the patients were male while 17.7% were female. The 24-h urine abnormalities were hypercalciuria (14.5%), hyperoxaluria (61.4%), hypocitraturia (57.2%), hyperuricouria (19.7%), hypomagnesuria (59.3%) and hyperphosphaturia (12.5%). Hyperoxaluria (61.4%) was the most common abnormality detected during the analysis of 24-h urine constituents in contradiction to industrial countries, where hypercalciuria was the most common finding. The high frequencies of hypomagnesuria and hypocitraturia reflect the important role of magnesium and citrate in stone formation and their prophylactic role in the treatment of urinary stone disease in the given population.

  19. Twenty-four-hour urine constituents in stone formers: A study from the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence world-wide, probably more common in industrialized countries. The metabolic evaluation of 24-h urine collection has been considered as part of the management of urinary stone patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine constituents in stone formers and its relation to demographic data in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and six patients were recruited in this study from two hospitals in the same geographical region; 96 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and an informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The 24-h urine was collected in sterile bottles with a preservative agent and calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium and phosphate were tested using commercial kits on a Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer. The age (mean ± SD of 96 patients was 56.45 ± 13.43 years and 82.3% of the patients were male while 17.7% were female. The 24-h urine abnormalities were hypercalciuria (14.5%, hyperoxaluria (61.4%, hypocitraturia (57.2%, hyperuricouria (19.7%, hypomagnesuria (59.3% and hyperphosphaturia (12.5%. Hyperoxaluria (61.4% was the most common abnormality detected during the analysis of 24-h urine constituents in contradiction to industrial countries, where hypercalciuria was the most common finding. The high frequencies of hypomagnesuria and hypocitraturia reflect the important role of magnesium and citrate in stone formation and their prophylactic role in the treatment of urinary stone disease in the given population.

  20. 4-Methoxybenzamidinium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Irrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The title hydrated salt, C8H11N2O+·C2HO4−·H2O, was synthesized by a reaction of 4-methoxybenzamidine (4-amidinoanisole and oxalic acid in water solution. In the cation, the amidinium group forms a dihedral angle of 15.60 (6° with the mean plane of the benzene ring. In the crystal, each amidinium unit is bound to three acetate anions and one water molecule by six distinct N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The ion pairs of the asymmetric unit are joined by two N—H...O hydrogen bonds into ionic dimers in which the carbonyl O atom of the semi-oxalate anion acts as a bifurcated acceptor, thus generating an R12(6 motif. These subunits are then joined through the remaining N—H...O hydrogen bonds to adjacent semi-oxalate anions into linear tetrameric chains running approximately along the b axis. The structure is stabilized by N—H...O and O—H...O intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The water molecule plays an important role in the cohesion and the stability of the crystal structure being involved in three hydrogen bonds connecting two semi-oxalate anions as donor and a benzamidinium cation as acceptor.

  1. Metaphylaxis, diet and lifestyle in stone disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Kok (Dirk)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The most common urinary stones (calcium salts, uric acid) form due to genetic factors and lifestyle. This review describes why, if and how medication and lifestyle changes can reduce the risk of formation. Methods: Previous reports were reviewed to obtain information on three

  2. Miniature ball-tip optical fibers for use in thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher R.; Hardy, Luke A.; Kennedy, Joshua D.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Optical fibers, consisting of 240-μm-core trunk fibers with rounded, 450-μm-diameter ball tips, are currently used during Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy to reduce mechanical damage to the inner lining of the ureteroscope working channel during fiber insertion and prolong ureteroscope lifetime. Similarly, this study tests a smaller, 100-μm-core fiber with 300-μm-diameter ball tip during thulium fiber laser (TFL) lithotripsy. TFL was operated at a wavelength of 1908 nm, with 35-mJ pulse energy, 500-μs pulse duration, and 300-Hz pulse rate. Calcium oxalate/phosphate stone samples were weighed, laser procedure times were measured, and ablation rates were calculated for ball tip fibers, with comparison to bare tip fibers. Photographs of ball tips were taken before and after each procedure to track ball tip degradation and determine number of procedures completed before need for replacement. A high speed camera also recorded the cavitation bubble dynamics during TFL lithotripsy. Additionally, saline irrigation rates and ureteroscope deflection were measured with and without the presence of TFL fiber. There was no statistical difference (P>0.05) between stone ablation rates for single-use ball tip fiber (1.3±0.4 mg/s) (n=10), multiple-use ball tip fiber (1.3±0.5 mg/s) (n=44), and conventional single-use bare tip fibers (1.3±0.2 mg/s) (n=10). Ball tip durability varied widely, but fibers averaged greater than four stone procedures before failure, defined by rapid decline in stone ablation rates. Mechanical damage at the front surface of the ball tip was the limiting factor in fiber lifetime. The small fiber diameter did not significantly impact ureteroscope deflection or saline flow rates. The miniature ball tip fiber may provide a cost-effective design for safe fiber insertion through the ureteroscope working channel and into the ureter without risk of instrument damage or tissue perforation, and without compromising stone ablation efficiency during TFL lithotripsy.

  3. A model of relationship between climate and soil factors related to oxalate content in porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume corm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERAFINAH INDRIYANI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indriyani S, Arisoesilaningsih E, Wardiyati T, Purnobasuki H (2011 A model of relationship between climate and soil factors related to oxalate content in porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume corm. Biodiversitas 12: 45-51. The abiotic environment as well as the biotic environment, involved climate and soil affect directly or indirectly to plant growth as well as plant substance. The objective of the research was to obtain a model of relationship between climate and soil factors related to oxalate content in porang corm. Porang corms were collected from five locations of porang agroforestry in East Java. The locations were (i Klangon Village, Saradan Subdistrict, Madiun District; (ii Klino Villlage, Sekar Subdistrict, Bojonegoro District; (iii Bendoasri Village, Rejoso Subdistrict, Nganjuk District; (iv Sugihwaras Village, Nggluyu Subdistrict, Nganjuk District and (v Kalirejo Village, Kalipare Subdistrict, Malang District. Geography variable consist of altitude. Climate variables consist of percentage of radiation, temperature and rainfall. Soil variables consist of electrical conductivity, pH, soil specific gravity, soil organic matter, available of calcium, and cation exchange capacity (CEC. Vegetation variables consist of species of plant tree and percentage of coverage. Porang vegetative growth variables consist of plant height, number of bulbil, canopy diameter, and petiole diameter. Corm variables consist of corm diameter, corm weight, and corm specific gravity. Oxalate variables consist of total oxalate, soluble oxalate, insoluble oxalate, and density of calcium oxalate crystal. Oxalate contents were measured based on AOAC method. All of variables were collected from first to fourth growth period of porang. Data were analyzed by smartPLS (Partial Least Square software. The results showed that there were significantly direct effect between altitude and temperature, altitude and CEC of soil, temperature and CEC of soil, altitude and

  4. Shoushan Carved Stone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Shoushan stone carving is a culture unto itself. The fine and closely-textured stones are found in the Shoushan Mountain in the southeastern part of the Fujian Province. Featuring great variety in colors and veins, the Shoushan stones are divided into several categories according to the place they are found, the mining caves where they are produced, or their colors. The stones come in yellow, red, green. white and purple. Tianhuang Stone is the best of all. The history of working with the stones dates back to more than 1,500 years ago.Artisans make

  5. Variation in oxalate and oxalate decarboxylase production by six species of brown and white rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Oliver, Jason; Howell, Caitlin;

    cell lumen where it quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions and oxalate, resulting in a pH decrease of the environment, and oxalate-cation complexes. Generally, brown rot fungi accumulate larger quantities of oxalic acid in the wood than white rot fungi. The amount of oxalic acid has been shown to vary...... of formic acid and CO2 (Makela et al., 2002). So far only a few species of brown rot fungi have been shown to accumulate this enzyme (Micales, 1995, Howell and Jellison, 2006).   The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the levels of soluble oxalate and total oxalate, in correlation...

  6. 双源CT对泌尿系结石成分的定性诊断价值评价%The valuation of dual source CT for diagnosis of urinary stone composi-tion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海鸿; 周应恩; 赵波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of dual source CT on urinary stone constituents qualitative,aims to improve the correct diagnosis rate and the clinical curative effect. Methods Selected 53 patients with suspected urinary calculi hospitalized because of abdominal pain in our hospital from August 2014 to December 2014, 53 patients with suspected urinary calculi treated with dual source CT scan, stone composition, compared with stone infrared spectrum analysis results after the operation were analyzed. Results Dual source CT showed a total of 42 cases patients with gallstone,89 stones,postoperative infrared spectroscopy confirmed that a total of 35 cases of gallstone patients,a total of 66 star stone. There were stone of 8 components, mainly oxalic acid calculi, 30 patients, 59(89.4%) stones;followed by uric acid calculi in 3 cases,4(6.2%),2 cases of other stones 3(4.4%). Dual source CT showed containing calcium oxalate stone 76,accounting for all the stones of the 85.4%(76/89),spectrum proved that the 59(77.6%). Du-al energy that contain calcium oxalate (59/62) with accuracy of 95.2%, sensitivity 100%, specificity 61.0%(36/59),and negative predictive value of 100%. Pure calcium oxalate(20/59)with accuracy of 38.9%,sensitivity of 100%,and negative predictive value of 100%. Conclusion Using dual source CT in diagnosis of urinary calculi in the analysis of the composition of the stones in the body, good accuracy, and can better distinguish the different components of the stone,make the qualitative judgment, in order to provide evidence for clinical treatment. In the group of patients with oxalate stones up to about 90%,different from previous research,analysis may be related to regional,national,differ-ences in diet,pending further study.%目的:探讨双源CT对泌尿系结石成分定性的诊断价值,旨在提高临床诊断的正确率,改善患者的临床疗效。方法选取我院2014年8~12月间因腹痛怀疑

  7. Crystallisation properties in stone forming and normal subjects' urine diluted using a standardised procedure to match the composition of urine in the distal part of the distal tubule and the middle part of the collecting duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiselius, H G; Hallin, A; Lindbäck, B

    2001-04-01

    Using a standardised procedure, we assessed the crystallisation properties of calcium phosphate in urine with a composition matching that in the distal part of the distal tubules (DTd) and of calcium oxalate in urine with a composition matching that in the mid-collecting duct (CDm). We used 8-h urine samples collected between 2200 h and 0600 h with sodium azide as preservative. Urine from ten patients with recurrent CaOx stone formation and from ten normal subjects was used for the measurements. The DTd and CDm samples were obtained by diluting the voided 8-h urine to 3000 ml and 1750 ml per 1.73 m2 body surface area, respectively. The nucleation was studied in DTd urine following supersaturation with CaP. The crystal size distribution was assessed with a Coulter counter both following supersaturation of DTd urine with CaP and of CDm urine with CaOx. The crystallisation of CaP in DTd urine as well as that of CaOx in CDm urine, in the presence of CaP crystals that had been precipitated in DTd urine, was measured with the isotope technique. The inhibition of CaOx and brushite crystal aggregation in standardised diluted aliquots of DTd and CDm urine was assessed spectrophotometrically as the rate of sedimentation. There was a slightly increased sedimentation rate and a lower initial absorbance in DTd urine from stone formers supersaturated with CaP. Although these findings might reflect a state of increased crystal aggregation in stone formers' urine, this could not be confirmed by crystal size measurements in the Coulter counter. The inhibition of brushite crystal aggregation in DTd urine was significantly in stone formers' urine than in normal subjects' urine (P crystallisation assessments was carried out on a small number of standardised diluted urine samples only, the results nevertheless emphasise a defect in aggregation inhibition as one important determinant for an abnormal calcium salt crystallisation in patients with recurrent stone formations. This

  8. An aqueous extract of Ammi visnaga fruits and its constituents khellin and visnagin prevent cell damage caused by oxalate in renal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanachayangkul, P; Byer, K; Khan, S; Butterweck, V

    2010-07-01

    Teas prepared from the fruits of Ammi visnaga L. (syn. "Khella") have been traditionally used in Egypt as a remedy to treat kidney stones. It was the aim of our study to evaluate the effect of a Khella extract (KE) as well as the two major constituents khellin and visnagin on renal epithelial injury using LLC-PK1 and Madin-Darby-canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Both cell lines provide suitable model systems to study cellular processes that are possibly involved in the development of a renal stone. LLC-PK1 and MDCK cell lines were exposed to 300 microM oxalate (Ox) or 133 microg/cm(2) calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) in presence or absence of 10, 50, 100 or 200 microg/mL KE. To evaluate cell damage, cell viability was assessed by determining the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). KE (e.g. 100 microg/ml) significantly decreased LDH release from LLC-PK1 (Ox: 8.46+0.76%; Ox + 100 microg/ml KE: 5.41+0.94%, p<0.001) as well as MDCK cells (Ox: 30.9+6.58%; Ox+100 microg/ml KE: 17.5+2.50%, p<0.001), which indicated a prevention of cell damage. Similar effects for KE were observed in both cell lines when COM crystals were added. In LLC-PK1 cells khellin and visnagin both decreased the % LDH release significantly in cells that were pretreated with Ox or COM crystals. However, khellin and visnagin exhibited different responses in MDCK cells. Whereas khellin slightly reduced the % LDH release after exposure of the cells to Ox and COM crystals, visnagin significantly decreased % LDH release only after COM crystal exposure. Overall both compounds were more active in LLC-PK1 than in MDCK cells. In summary, exposure of renal epithelial cells to Ox or COM crystals was associated with a significant release of LDH indicating cell injury. Our data demonstrate that KE as well as khellin and visnagin could prevent renal epithelial cell damage caused by Ox and COM and could therefore play a potential role in the prevention of stone formation associated with hyperoxaluria.

  9. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: What is a ... the ureters. [ Top ] Are kidney stones common in children? No exact information about the incidence of kidney ...

  10. Acute management of stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Osther, Palle J S

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stone management is often conservative due to a high spontaneous stone passage rate or non-symptomatic calyceal stones that do not necessarily require active treatment. However, stone disease may cause symptoms and complications requiring urgent intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: In this review, we update latest research and current recommendations regarding acute management of stones, with particular focus on imaging, pain management, active stone interventions, medical expulsive therapy, and urolithiasis in pregnancy and childhood. RESULTS: Acute stone management should be planned...... with careful consideration of stone size and location, symptoms, patient comorbidity and radiation dose. CONCLUSION: In case of infective hydronephrosis, compromised renal function or persistent pain despite adequate analgesic treatment acute intervention is indicated....

  11. Chemical Component Analysis of Urinary stones and Its Clinical Application in JIEYANG%揭阳地区尿路结石成分分析及临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑长征; 卢勇; 陈晓生; 黄沛东; 杨少东; 王彦波

    2012-01-01

      Objective:To analyze the chemical composition of urinary stones and provide the preventivemeasure of urinary stones formation. Method:A total of 316 subjects were included in this study were selected and randomly divided into two groups:intervention group and nonintervention group. Chemical analysis was carried out on 316 random urinary stones samples. The chemical constituents of stones were analyzed with the clinical data.The intervention group were gave the patients dietaryinstruction according to their respective stone ingredient. Result:The upper system stones were more frequently found than the lower system stones. The most common component of the urinary stones are mixed stones(77.53%), which are mainly composed of calcium oxalate and phosphate stones(59.18%). The single stones are mainly composed of calcium oxalate(71.83%).87.03% of urinary stones had a high content of calcium oxalate.Stones obtained from the kidney and ureter usually had a highercontent of calcium and phosphate. Urate stone were usually found in the bladder. Recurrence rate of the intervention group was 3.14%;and the nonintervention group 7.01%. The difference in the recurrence rate of intervention group and nonintervention group was significant.Conclusion:With the knowledge on the chemical composition of Urinary stones, the formation of stones may be prevented by controlling the diets.%  目的:探讨揭阳地区尿路结石成分构成情况,并根据尿路结石成分构成指导尿路结石饮食及生活习惯,减少尿路结石的复发.方法:收集揭阳市人民医院住院患者尿路结石标本316例,随机分为干预组与非干预组,采用化学滴定法对尿路结石化学成分进行定性分析,干预组根据尿路结石分析成分结果对患者饮食及生活习惯进行指导,非干预组未对患者饮食及生活习惯进行干预,比较两组患者尿路结石的复发率.结果:本地区尿路结石主要为上尿路结石,下

  12. Dual-source dual-energy CT for the differentiation of urinary stone composition: preliminary study%双源CT双能量成像对泌尿系统结石成分分析的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琪放; 严景民; 张挽时; 孟利民; 时惠平; 王东; 毕永民; 李相生; 方红; 郭和清

    2011-01-01

    氨酸结石、混合尿酸结石与其他类型结石.%Objective To evaluate dual-source dual-energy CT(DSCT) for the differentiation of urinary stone composition in vitro. Methods Ninety-seven urinary stones were obtained by endoscopic lithotripsy and scanned using dual-source dual-energy CT. The stones were divided into six groups according to infrared spectroscopy stone analysis: uric acid ( UA ) stones ( n = 10 ), cystine stones ( n = 5 ), struvite stones( n = 6), calcium oxalate ( CaOx ) stones ( n = 22 ), mixed UA stones ( n=7 ) and mixed calcium stones(n=47). Hounsfield units (HU) of each stone were recorded for the 80 kV and the 140 kV datasets by hand-drawing method. HU difference, HU ratio and dual energy index ( DEI ) were calculated and compared among the stone groups with one-way ANOVA. Using dual energy software to determine the composition of all stones, results were compared to infrared spectroscopy analysis. Results There were statistical differences in HU difference [(-17±13), (229±34),(309 ±45), (512 ±97), (201±64)and (530±71) HU respectively], in HU ratio (0.96±0.03, 1.34 ±0.04, 1.41 ±0.03, 1.47 ±0.03,1.30±0.07, and 1.49 ±0.03 respectively), and DEI( -0.006 ±0.004, 0.064 ±0.007, 0.080 ±0. 007, 0. 108±0.011 ,0. 055 ±0.014 and 0. 112 ±0.008 respectively ) among different stone groups(F=124. 894,407.028, 322. 864 respectively, P <0. 01 ). There were statistical differences in HU difference,HU ratio and DE1 between UA stones and the other groups( P < 0. 01 ). There were statistical differences in HU difference, HU ratio and DEI between CaOx or mixed calcium stones and the other four groups (P<0. 01 ). There was statistical difference in HU ratio between cystine and struvite stones ( P < 0. 01 ). There were statistical differences in HU difference, HU ratio and DEI between struvite and mixed UA stones (P<0. 05 ). Dual energy software correctly characterized 10 UA stones, 4 cystine stones, 22 CaOx stones and 6 mixed UA

  13. ROLE OF THE MICROFLORA IN DISTAL INTESTINAL TRACT BY MAINTAINING OXALATE HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osolodchenko T.P.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal microflora is part of the human body and performs numerous function. Considerable research interest is in the field of probiotics for the prevention of kidney stones, which is one of the most common urological diseases.Urolithiasis is one of the most common urological diseases. This is polyetiological disease congenital and acquired character with complex physical and chemical processes that occur not only in the urinary system, but also the whole body. None of the treatments does not guarantee full recovery of the patient and often leads to relapse. The open methods of removal stones yield news minimally invasive the technologys. Development of stone formation depends on the presence of many factors, metabolic disorders, chronic urinary tract infections, genetic disorders and more. Most have the following metabolic disorders as hypercalciuria, hiperurikuria, hipotsytraturia , hyperoxaluria and hipomahniuria. Among all types of urolithiasis kaltsiyoksalatnyy ranked first in the prevalence rate - about 75.0 - 85.0 % of cases. Dietary restriction by oxalates іs the unreliable method of preventing disease. Although there is evidence for the growth inhibition normobiocenosis representatives, which in turn enhances the absorption of salts of oxalic acid oxalate in the application of sodium , magnesium and cobalt in their intragastric administration. Recently published many papers on the impact on the level of oxalate intestinal microflora. The first publications appeared on the influence of gram-negative obligate anaerobes O. formigenes the concentration of oxalate in the urine. This anaerobic bacteria living in the colon, its prevalence - 46.0 % - 77.0 % of the adult population. O. formigenes reveals the symbiotic interaction with the human body by reducing absorption of oxalate in the intestinal cavity with subsequent decrease in their concentration in plasma and urine. O. formigenes has two key enzymes - oksalyl

  14. Rejoinder to Lynda Stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    Responds to Lynda Stone's comments on the author's essay on the interpretation of history. Demonstrates the linkages between his argument and those of Stone. Concludes by contesting some of her interpretations of his philosophical forebear, Edmund Husserl, and by pointing to the common objectives of both his and Stone's research. (DSK)

  15. Analysis of stone components urinary stone patients with different BMI%不同体质指数尿路结石患者结石化学成分分析(附850例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石泉; 章璟; 王国增; 杨佳伟; 顾燕; 杨芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察不同体质指数( BMI)尿路结石患者结石化学成分.方法 根据我国BMI标准,将850例尿路结石患者分为正常组( BMI <24)245例、超重组(BMI 24 ~27)327例、肥胖组(BMI≥28) 278例.采用傅立叶红外光谱法分析其结石化学成分.结果 850例中,结石成分为草酸钙、磷酸钙、尿酸、磷酸镁铵者分别为645(75.9%)、128( 15.1%)、52(6.1%)、25(2.9%)例.其中尿酸结石患者平均年龄均高于其他结石成分患者(P<0.05),男性比例显著高于女性(P<0.05);磷酸铵镁结石男性比例低于女性(P<0.01).正常组、超重组、肥胖组中,草酸钙结石者分别为70.2%、78.0%、78.4% (P <0.05),尿酸结石者分别为2.9%、7.0%、7.9%(P<0.05),磷酸镁铵结石者分别为7.3%、1.2%、1.1%(P<0.01),三组磷酸钙结石比例相近(P>0.05).结论 BMI对结石成分有一定的影响;超重及肥胖的结石患者中,尿酸、草酸钙结石比例显著高于BMI正常的结石患者;尿酸、草酸钙结石患者应注意控制体质量.%Objective To study urinary stone components in urinary stone patients with different body mass index (BMI). Methods In 850 urinary stone patients, 245 were normal weight group ( BMI 0.05). Conclusions The prevalence of urinary stone disease is found to be associated with BMI. The percentages of uric acid and calcium oxalate stones are higher in overweight and obese group than in normal one. Uric acid and calcium oxalate stone patients are suggested to keep body weight in normal range.

  16. [Formation of organic acids by fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazanova, K V; Shchiparev, S M; Vlasov, D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Capacity of the fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments for acid formation was studied in cultures under various carbon sources and cultivation conditions. The composition of organic nutrients was adjusted according to the results of investigation of the surface layers from the monuments in urban environment. The primary soil formed at the surface of the stone monuments under urban conditions was shown to contain a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and is a rich substrate for fungal growth. Oxalic acid was produced by fungi grown on media with various concentrations of sugars, sugar alcohols, and organic acids. Malic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids were identified only at elevated carbohydrate concentrations, mostly in liquid cultures. Oxalic acid was the dominant among the acids produced by Aspergillus niger at all experimental setups. Unlike A. niger, the relative content of oxalic acid produced by Penicillium citrinum decreased at high carbohydrate concentrations.

  17. Genome wide analysis of differentially expressed genes in HK-2 cells, a line of human kidney epithelial cells in response to oxalate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweaty Koul

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a multi-factorial disease which, in the majority of cases, involves the renal deposition of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted primarily by the kidney. Previous studies have shown that elevated levels of oxalate are detrimental to the renal epithelial cells; however, oxalate renal epithelial cell interactions are not completely understood. In this study, we utilized an unbiased approach of gene expression profiling using Affymetrix HG_U133_plus2 gene chips to understand the global gene expression changes in human renal epithelial cells [HK-2] after exposure to oxalate. We analyzed the expression of 47,000 transcripts and variants, including 38,500 well characterized human genes, in the HK2 cells after 4 hours and 24 hours of oxalate exposure. Gene expression was compared among replicates as per the Affymetrix statistical program. Gene expression among various groups was compared using various analytical tools, and differentially expressed genes were classified according to the Gene Ontology Functional Category. The results from this study show that oxalate exposure induces significant expression changes in many genes. We show for the first time that oxalate exposure induces as well as shuts off genes differentially. We found 750 up-regulated and 2276 down-regulated genes which have not been reported before. Our results also show that renal cells exposed to oxalate results in the regulation of genes that are associated with specific molecular function, biological processes, and other cellular components. In addition we have identified a set of 20 genes that is differentially regulated by oxalate irrespective of duration of exposure and may be useful in monitoring oxalate nephrotoxicity. Taken together our studies profile global gene expression changes and provide a unique insight into oxalate renal cell interactions and oxalate nephrotoxicity.

  18. 氟化钙参与石煤提钒过程的浸出行为研究%Acid-Leaching of Vanadium from Stone Coal with Calcium Fluoride Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王非; 张一敏; 黄晶; 刘涛; 赵杰; 张国斌

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of leaching vanadium from stone coal with calcium fluoride was researched under the conditions of 95 ℃,4 h,1 ml·g-1,15% (volume fraction) H2SO4 and 5% (mass fraction) calcium fluoride.The leaching rate of vanadium could reach 92.39%.Through the analyses of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES),valence state vanadium and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for the raw ore of stone coal,ICP-AES,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and 19F liquid nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the leachate,and XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the leaching residue,the whole leaching process could be summarized that calcium fluoride reacted with sulfuric acid to generate hydrofluoric acid and the hydrofluoric acid solution (HF) could enhance the leaching process owing to its strong destructiveness to vanadium-bearing minerals; calcite consumed part of acid to generate CaSO4 and CO2 ; chlorite and vanadium-bearing phlogopite were thoroughly broken down and released V,Al,K,Mg,Si etc.[AlF5] 2-and [SiF6] 2-were generated and left in the leachate after F-reacted with other elements in the vanadium leaching.In the process of intense stir,the released Ⅴ(Ⅲ) was oxidized into VO2+ by O2 from air to exist in leachate.Part of the released Al existed in leachate as Al3 + and others combined with F to generate [AlF5] 2-.Part of the released Si existed in residue as SiO2,and the rest combined with F to generate [SiF6] 2-.It was because the bond energies of Al-F and Si-F were bigger than that of Al-O and Si-O,and the generation of [AlF5] 2-and [SiF6] 2-made the leaching system more stable and facilitated leaching vanadium.%研究了氟化钙参与石煤提钒过程的浸出行为,浸出条件为95℃,4h,1ml·g-1,15%(体积分数)硫酸和5%(质量分数)氟化钙.在此条件下钒的浸出率可达到92.39%.通过对石煤原矿进行电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱分析(ICP-AES)、钒价态分析和X射线衍射(XRD

  19. Crystal structure of dimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2+·HC2O4−·0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH22C2O4 salt and Sn(CH33Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a dimethylammonium cation (Me2NH2+, an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4−, and half a molecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4 situated about an inversion center. From a supramolecular point of view, the three components interact together via hydrogen bonding. The Me2NH2+ cations and the HC2O4− anions are in close proximity through bifurcated N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds, while the HC2O4− anions are organized into infinite chains via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, propagating along the a-axis direction. In addition, the oxalic acid (H2C2O4 molecules play the role of connectors between these chains. Both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of each diacid are involved in four intermolecular interactions with two Me2NH2+ and two HC2O4− ions of four distinct polymeric chains, via two N—H...O and two O—H...O hydrogen bonds, respectively. The resulting molecular assembly can be viewed as a two-dimensional bilayer-like arrangement lying parallel to (010, and reinforced by a C—H...O hydrogen bond.

  20. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei

    2004-01-01

    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  1. Urinary Stones in Neonates: Dilemma Between Urolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Narter; Fehmi Narter; Kemal Sarıca

    2015-01-01

    Urinary stones are extremely rare in the neonatal population. Most of the urinary stones in the neonate contain calcium. Nephrolithiasis in the neonate may be as urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. The incidence of nephrocalcinosis is not yet clear and can be differ in many researches due to the etiology. On the other hand, the incidence of urolithiasis in childhood is almost 10% of that in adults. Especially in the first decade, it is more common in boys. It may occur wit...

  2. Stone Tool Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hikade, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In ancient Egypt, flint or chert was used for knapped stone tools from the Lower Palaeolithic down to the Pharaonic Period. The raw material was available in abundance on the desert surface, or it could be mined from the limestone formations along the Nile Valley. While the earliest lithic industries of Prehistoric Egypt resemble the stone tool assemblages from other parts of Africa, as well as Asia and Europe, the later Prehistoric stone industries in Egypt had very specific characteristics,...

  3. In vivo determination of renal stone composition with dual-energy computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-Henry Corbett

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composition of renal stones influences management of patients with renal stone disease. Currently stone composition can only be analysed ex vivo after stone extraction or passage, but recent introduction of dual-energy computed tomography (CT to clinical practice has raised interest in the ability of this technology to determine composition of renal stones in vivo.Objectives: To determine renal stone composition in patients using single-source dual-energy rapid-peak kilovolt (kVp switching CT.Method: Nineteen patients with renal stones for percutaneous nephrolithotomy were evaluated with single-source dual-energy computed tomography on a Discovery CT 750HD. The Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI effective atomic number (Zeff and attenuation at 70 keV monochromatic energy were used to predict the stone composition. Infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction of stones after extraction served as the reference standard.Results: Two (10.5% of the 19 stones had uric acid as major component. The other 17 (89.5% were calcium-based stones. No statistically significant difference between the GSI Zeff and calculated effective atomic number (Z for stone compounds was found. The GSI Zeff and attenuation could differentiate between uric acid and non-uric acid stones. No differentiation between different calcium stones could be made.Conclusion: Uric acid and non-uric acid renal stones can be differentiated with single-source dual-energy in vivo. The GSI Zeff reflects the dominant material in polycrystalline stones.

  4. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmipathi Khandrika

    Full Text Available Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria.

  5. Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... year-old white gentleman who's got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having ... patient with Lithotripsy. Now the stones -- there are three stones here in the pelvis of the kidney, ...

  6. Automated homogeneous oxalate precipitation of Pu(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogeneous oxalate precipitation using diethyl oxalate was compared to precipitating Pu(III) oxalate with solid oxalic acid. The diethyl oxalate technique at 75 degree C is better because it gives 50% less plutonium in the filtrate with a reasonable filtering time. Also, the procedure for the homogeneous precipitation is easier to automate because the liquid diethyl oxalate is simpler to introduce into the precipitator than solid oxalic acid. It also provides flexibility because the hydrolysis rate and therefore the precipitation rate can be controlled by varying the temperature. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Artificial photosynthesis of oxalate and oxalate-based polymer by a photovoltaic reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Nong, Guangzai; Chen, Shan; Xu, Yuanjin; Huang, Lijie; Zou, Qingsong; Li, Shiqiang; Mo, Haitao; Zhu, Pingchuan; Cen, Weijian; Wang, Shuangfei

    2014-01-01

    A photovoltaic reactor was designed for artificial photosynthesis, based on the reactions involved in high energy hydrogen atoms, which were produced from water electrolysis. Water and CO2, under the conditions studied, were converted to oxalate (H2C2O4) and a polymer. This was the first time that the oxalates and oxalate-based polymer were produced from the artificial photosynthesis process.

  8. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  9. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

  10. Mysterious Jiana Stone Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuBingshu

    2004-01-01

    In Tibetan-inhabited areas, visitors can often find piles of stone carved with six-word mystic teaching of truth or Buddhist sutras at lakesides, mountain entrances, monasteries, roadsides or burial sites. Those ubiquitous stone piles, painted in white, red or blue, are the mysterious and world famous Manipile, or called “holy pile”.

  11. Chlorthalidone Improves Vertebral Bone Quality in Genetic Hypercalciuric Stone-Forming Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bushinsky, David A.; Willett, Thomas; Asplin, John R.; Culbertson, Christopher; Che, Sara P. Y.; Grynpas, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We have bred a strain of rats to maximize urine (U) calcium (Ca) excretion and model hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis. These genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats excrete more UCa than control Sprague-Dawley rats, uniformly form kidney stones and, similar to patients, demonstrate lower bone mineral density. Clinically thiazide diuretics reduce UCa and prevent stone formation; however, whether they benefit bone is not clear. We used GHS rats to test the hypothesis that the thiazide diu...

  12. On complexe oxalates of plutonium(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium compounds of general composition MPu(C2O4)2xnH2O, where M=Li, Na, NH4, K, Cs and n=0.5-3.5, have been separated from solutions of alkali metal and ammonium oxalates and identified using the methods of X-ray diffraction and chemical analyses. The behaviour of plutonium (3) differs from that of americium (3) in solutions of lithium- and sodium oxalates, but the difference decreases with the increase in the monovalent cation radius, so that in the cesium oxalate solution plutonium (3) behaves in the same manner as americium (3). The reaction of the compounds NH4Pu(C2O4)2xH2O and CsPu(C2O4)2x0.5H2O to heating is studied. Ammonium salt of plutonium oxalate begins to rapidly decompose at 250 deg C. At approximately 350 deg C the formation of PuO2 completes. Rapid decomposition of cesium salt of plutonium oxalate is observed above 300 deg C. The study of the IR spectra of double plutonium (3) with ammonium-or-cesium oxalates permitted to draw certain conclusions on the nature of chemical bonds in the compounds

  13. Modeling the Adsorption of Oxalate onto Montmorillonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M Elena; Emiroglu, Caglayan; García, David; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio; Huertas, F Javier

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a multiscale modeling of the interaction of oxalate with clay mineral surfaces from macroscale thermodynamic equilibria simulations to atomistic calculations is presented. Previous results from macroscopic adsorption data of oxalate on montmorillonite in 0.01 M KNO3 media at 25 °C within the pH range from 2.5 to 9 have been used to develop a surface complexation model. The experimental adsorption edge data were fitted using the triple-layer model (TLM) with the aid of the FITEQL 4.0 computer program. Surface complexation of oxalate is described by two reactions: >AlOH + Ox(2-) + 2H(+) = >AlOxH + H2O (log K = 14.39) and >AlOH + Ox(2-) + H(+) = >AlOx(-) + H2O (log K = 10.39). The monodentate complex >AlOxH dominated adsorption below pH 4, and the bidentate complex >AlOx(-) was predominant at higher pH values. Both of the proposed inner-sphere oxalate species are qualitatively consistent with previously published diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopic results for oxalate on montmorillonite edge surface (Chem. Geol. 2014, 363, 283-292). Atomistic computational studies have been performed to understand the interactions at the molecular level between adsorbates and mineral surface, showing the atomic structures and IR frequency shifts of the adsorption complexes of oxalate with the edge surface of a periodic montmorillonite model. PMID:26444928

  14. Improving nutritional quality and fungal tolerance in soya bean and grass pea by expressing an oxalate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Ghosh, Sumit; Irfan, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, β-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme. PMID:26798990

  15. Chemical and morphological analysis of kidney stones: a double-blind comparative study Análise química e morfológica de cálculos renais: estudo comparativo duplo-cego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fernandes Ribeiro da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare chemical to morphological kidney stone composition analysis based on a sample of 50 stones retrieved from patients at a nephrology service. METHODS: The chemical analysis was performed with a Bioclin® kit, while a 10-mm magnifying glass (10x; Prolabo, Paris, France was employed in the morphological analysis. Findings obtained with the two methods were compared and classified as concordant (100% agreement, partly concordant (concordant for major components, discordant for minor components or discordant (discordant for major components. RESULTS: In the chemical analysis, the most commonly observed major component was calcium (70%, followed by oxalate (66%, ammonium (56%, urate (28% and carbonate (24%. In the morphological analysis, the most commonly observed major components were calcium phosphate and magnesium (32% each, followed by calcium oxalate monohydrate (24%, uric acid and urates (20% each, calcium oxalate dihydrate (18% and cystine (6%. Infectious kidney stones were identified in 34% and 24% of cases by morphological and chemical analysis, respectively. Thirty-eight percent of the samples were classified as concordant, 52% were partly concordant and 10% were discordant. CONCLUSION: We suggest kidney stones be routinely submitted to both types of analysis for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in lithogenesis.OBJETIVO: Comparar a análise química com a análise morfológica de 50 cálculos urinários provenientes de pacientes em um serviço de nefrologia. MÉTODOS: A análise química foi realizada utilizando o kit da Bioclin®, enquanto que a morfológica foi realizada com auxílio de uma lupa de 10mm (Prolabo, Paris, France. A comparação entre as técnicas foi classificada em concordante (100% de concordância, parcialmente concordante (componentes majoritários concordantes e minoritários discordantes e discordante (discordância nos componentes majoritários. RESULTADOS: Na análise química os

  16. DURABILITY OF DIMENSION STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Crnković

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a survey of the possible origins of the strain and deformation of stone. A range of origins which can be influenced is suggested, from those occurring under natural conditions in the deposit to those resulting from technologies applied in quarrying, stone processing and dressing, including environment with natural and technogenic factors. No new information can be given on the behavior of the stone processed and used in building according to the most recent technologies, because the time-span of its exposure to the influence of natural and technogenic factors has been too short.

  17. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Rafel M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine is discussed.

  18. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking the wrong types of fluids, such as soft drinks or drinks with caffeine, may cause substances in ... such as chocolate, peanut butter, and dark-colored soft drinks. Children who form uric acid or cystine stones ...

  19. Investigating selective stone crushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igumentsev, Yu.V.; Kolesnikov, A.L.

    1984-03-01

    The URK-6 stone crusher developed by UkrNIIproekt is described. Experimental units of the URK-6 crusher were successfully tested in the Ehkibastuz surface coal mines. The crusher is used on the SRs/k/-470 bucket wheel excavators for crushing oversize stone and coal. It is driven by 2 electric motors each with a rated power of 55 kW. The URK-6 crushes stones with size to 0.9 m and compression strength coefficient on the Protod'yakonov scale to 10 degrees. After crushing, size of stones and coal does not exceed 0.3 m. The URK-6 is a selective crusher. Service life of beaters ranges from 6 to 8 months. The system weighs 7500 kg. Design, specifications and performance of the URK-6 crusher are evaluated.

  20. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  1. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospital emergency room. To make a diagnosis of kidney stones, the doctor will ask about the symptoms and how long they've been going on; your child's diet; factors that could be causing dehydration; any family ...

  2. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Shrivastava; Kailash

    2004-08-01

    The presence of kidney stone in the kidney causes discomfort to patients. Hence, removal of such stones is important which is commonly done these days, non-destructively, with lithotripters without surgery. Commercially, lithotripters like extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripters (ESWL) made by Siemens etc are in routine use. These methods are very cumbersome and expensive. Treatment of the patients also takes comparatively more time because of more number of sittings. Some delicate nerves and fibres in the surrounding areas of the stones present in the kidney are also damaged by high ultrasonic intensity used in such systems. In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavitation bubbles are found to implode faster, with more disintegration efficiency of the lithotripters, which give better treatment to the patients.

  3. Kidney Stones in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also help prevent kidney stones, such as orange juice or lemonade. Talk with your health care ... perform a physical exam and take a medical history. The health care provider may perform urine, blood, ...

  4. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    OpenAIRE

    Hjalmar S Kühl; Kalan, Ammie K.; Mimi Arandjelovic; Floris Aubert; Lucy D’Auvergne; Annemarie Goedmakers; Sorrel Jones; Laura Kehoe; Sebastien Regnaut; Alexander Tickle; Els Ton; Joost van Schijndel; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Samuel Angedakin; Anthony Agbor

    2016-01-01

    The authors would like to thank the Max Planck Society and Krekeler Foundation for generous funding of the Pan African Programme. The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behav...

  5. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted ...

  6. 菌株DM8320安全评价及其发酵乳对大鼠肾结石形成的影响%Safety evaluation of Lactobacillus DM8320 and effects of its fermented milk on rat kidney stone formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董婷婷; 朱琳; 袁杰利

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety of Lactobacillus DM8320 preliminarily and observe the effects of its fermented milk on rat kidney stone formation. Methods Acute toxicity test, bacterial translocation test and plasmid detection test were performed. In the model construction process of Wistar rats with kidney stones, fermented milk of DM8320 was administered. On the 29th day, the body weight and the contents of calcium and oxalic acid in urine were detected. Paraffin sections of rat left kidneys were made to observe the stone occurrence of each experimental group. Results DM8320 strains had no plasmids, no acute toxicity, and did not translocate in healthy rats. DM8320 fermented milk had reduced the oxalic acid and calcium contents in the urine of rats with kidney stones. Paraffin section results showed that the calcium oxalate content of the stone group was the largest, followed by the low dose treatment group, and that of the high dose treatment group was the least. Conclusion Strain DM8320 has a certain degree of safety, and its fermented milk can inhibit the formation of kidney stones in Wistar rats.%目的 对具有降解草酸能力的菌株DM8320进行初步安全性评价并观察其发酵乳对肾结石模型大鼠的影响.方法 通过检测DM8320的质粒,细菌易位试验以及急性毒性试验对DM8320进行初步安全性评价.构建大鼠肾结石模型的同时灌胃目的菌株的牛奶发酵乳,实验第29天,收集24 h尿液并检测尿液中钙离子、草酸的含量.取大鼠左肾制作石蜡切片,观察各个实验组结石发生情况.结果 菌株DM8320中不含质粒,未发生细菌易位现象,不具有毒性.DM8320发酵乳可降低肾结石模型大鼠尿中的草酸和钙离子含量.观察各组大鼠肾脏石蜡切片,结石组中结石含量最多,低剂量组次之,高剂量组肾结石结晶含量较少.结论 菌株DM8320具有一定的安全性,其发酵乳对Wistar大鼠肾结石的形成具有一定的抑制作用.

  7. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario

  8. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario

  9. 结石红外光谱自动分析系统在尿路结石成分分析中的应用%Application of LIIR Automatic Analysis System of Infrared Spectroscopy in the determination of urinary stone composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙西钊; 沈露明; 丛小明; 王云; 吕建林; 贺雷

    2011-01-01

    cases were located in kidney (60.34%), 504 cases in ureter (34.76%) and 71 cases in bladder (4.90%). All stones were analyzed by LIIR Automatic Analysis System of Infrared Spectroscopy (Tianjin). Analysis results were reevaluated by the artificial analysis of spectrogram, if necessary, with polarization microscope, chemical analysis, and X-ray diffraction.Results Calcium oxalate monohydrate stones were found in 714 cases (49. 24%), carbonate apatite stones in 444 cases (30.62%), anhydrous uric acid stones in 93 cases (6.41%), calcium oxalate dihydrate stones in 92 cases (6. 34 % ), ammonium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate stones in 28 cases (1.93%), cystine stones in 23 cases (1.59%), ammonium urate stones in 20 cases (1.38%), uric acid dihydrate stones in 16 cases (1.10%), brushite stones in 12 cases (0.83%), sodium urate monohydrate stones in 2 cases (0. 14%), calcium carbonate stones in 1 cases (0. 07%), and other stone types in 5 cases (0. 34%). Most urinary stones were composed of 2 or more compositions, and pure stones were only observed in 397 cases (27.38%). Most of the mixed stones contained calcium and non-calcium mixed stone was rarely observed. In addition, 15 stones were found in infants who had consumed melamine-contaminated milk powder. These stones were composed of uric acid dihydrate and ammonium urate. The results of reevaluation by artificial analysis showed the following: among pure and mixed stones, false detection occurred in 6 cases (0.41%), of which the composition was ammonium urate or carbonate apatite determined by automatic system but the true composition was anhydrous uric acid. False negative detection occurred in 9 cases (0.62%), of which the composition was ammonium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate or carbonate apatite in 7 cases, but in other 2 cases the composition could not be determined by artificial analysis. The false negative detection of components with relatively low content occurred in 6 cases and 10 cases in stones with 2

  10. Urinary Stones in Neonates: Dilemma Between Urolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Narter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary stones are extremely rare in the neonatal population. Most of the urinary stones in the neonate contain calcium. Nephrolithiasis in the neonate may be as urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. The incidence of nephrocalcinosis is not yet clear and can be differ in many researches due to the etiology. On the other hand, the incidence of urolithiasis in childhood is almost 10% of that in adults. Especially in the first decade, it is more common in boys. It may occur with inherited metabolic changes such as hypercalciuria, primary hyperoxaluria or cystinuria. Stone formation can be effected by iatrogenic causes such as hyperalimentation (parenteral nutrition, diuretic therapy (furosemide, acetazolamide that is especially in the bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The stone formation may occur due to anatomic or functional obstructions and infections of urinary system. Most of the urinary stones in the neonatal period are diagnosed as a nephrocalcinosis. However there aren’t any exact differences between nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. Some authors suggested nephrocalcinosis is the initial step of urinary stone formation. On the other hand, the others purposed that both of them are different pathologies. In this review, we tried to summarized differences and similarities, in the context of urinary stones and the nephrocalcinosis in the neonates.

  11. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration

  12. Measurement of calcium content of gallstones by computed tomography and the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Masashi; Tamasawa, Naoki; Takebe, Kazuo (Hirosaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Makino, Isao; Sakuraba, Kiyoshi; Tamura, Toyokazu

    1990-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones, we studied gallbladder contractility by oral cholecystography, the computed tomography (CT) number of stones for 30 gallstone patients, calcium content of 13 stones operatively extirpated, and the degree of inflammatory change in 13 surgical gallbladder specimens. There was significant correlation between the calcium content and CT numbers of stones, and 1% of the calcium content of gallstone was approximately equal to 40 Hounsfield Units (HU) of the CT number. The calcium content of stones in patients with normal gallbladder contractility was extrapolated to be below 1.5%, while that with poor contractility ranged from 0% to 21%. Additionally there is a possibility that calcium content increases, related to the inflammatory change of gallbladder. Hence our results suggested that measurement of the CT number of stones is useful to evaluate the calcium content of gallstones, and that the gallbladder contractility could be one of the factors to influence calcification of stones. (author).

  13. Diagnosis of rare inherited glyoxalate metabolic disorders through in-situ analysis of renal stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, D. E.; Grohe, B.; Hoppe, B.; Beck, B. B.; Tessadri, R.

    2012-04-01

    The primary hyperoxalurias type I - III constitute rare autosomal-recessive inherited disorders of the human glyoxylate metabolism. By mechanisms that are ill understood progressive nephrocalcinosis and recurrent urolithiasis (kidney stone formation) often starting in early childhood, along with their secondary complications results in loss of nephron mass which progresses to end-stage renal failure over time. In the most frequent form, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the rule and combined liver/kidney transplantation respectively pre-emptive liver transplantation are the only causative treatment today. Hence, this contributes significantly to healthcare costs and early diagnosis is extremely important for a positive outcome for the patient. We are developing a stone-based diagnostic method by in-detail multi-methods investigation of the crystalline moiety in concert with urine and stone proteomics. Stone analysis will allow faster analysis at low-impact for the patients in the early stages of the disease. First results from combined spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR)and geochemical micro-analyses (Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation ICP-MS) are presented here that show significant differences between stones from hyperoxaluria patients and those formed by patients without this disorder (idiopathic stones). Major differences exist in chemistry as well as in morphology and phase composition of the stones. Ca/P ratios and Mg contents differentiate between oxalate-stones from hyperoxaluria patients and idiopathic stones. Results show that also within the different subtypes of primary hyperoxaluria significant differences can be found in stone composition. These imply differences in stone formation which could be exploited for new therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, the results provide important feedback for suspected but yet unconfirmed cases of primary hyperoxaluria when used in concert with the genetic methods routinely applied.

  14. Analisis Kelarutan Garam Kalsium pada Batu Ginjal dalam Infusa Meniran (Phyllantus niruri L.) secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Wongso, Fransisca

    2016-01-01

    Kidney stones are stones that occur either in kidney and urethra. The most common type of stones are made of calcium crystal. About 60% kidney stones contain calcium oxalate, phosphate, carbonate, uric acid, magnesium, and ammonium. Meniran (stonebreaker) has benefit as diuretic and inhibitor or breaker of kidney stone formation. It contained potassium that can replace calcium to join carbonate, oxalate, or uric forming soluble compounds and slowly will come out together with urine. The purpo...

  15. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  16. Fasting and urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  17. Urinary pH as a Risk Factor for Stone Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2007-04-01

    A high urinary pH is main risk factor for the calcium phosphate stone formation; however, its pathophysiologic mechanism has not been fully understood. The introduction of Topiramate in the treatment of various neurological disorders has been complicated by metabolic acidosis, significant hypocitraturia, elevated urinary pH, and calcium phosphate stone formation. This model provides a probe to investigate the pathophysiologic mechanism of calcium phosphate stone formation and perhaps to develop appropriate countermeasures in the future. On the other hand an unduly acidic urine predisposes one to uric acid nephrolithiasis. Our recent investigation linking low urinary pH, and defective renal ammoniagenesis to insulin resistance provides new knowledge to unfold the pathophysiology of uric acid nephrolithiasis. The metabolic profile leading to uric acid stone may emerge as one of the components of metabolic syndrome.

  18. Oxalic acid degradation by a novel fungal oxalate oxidase from Abortiporus biennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grąz, Marcin; Rachwał, Kamila; Zan, Radosław; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oxalate oxidase was identified in mycelial extracts of a basidiomycete Abortiporus biennis strain. Intracellular enzyme activity was detected only after prior lowering of the pH value of the fungal cultures by using oxalic or hydrochloric acids. This enzyme was purified using size exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-25) and ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose). This enzyme exhibited optimum activity at pH 2 when incubated at 40°C, and the optimum temperature was established at 60°C. Among the tested organic acids, this enzyme exhibited specificity only towards oxalic acid. Molecular mass was calculated as 58 kDa. The values of Km for oxalate and Vmax for the enzyme reaction were 0.015 M and 30 mmol min(-1), respectively. PMID:27337220

  19. Screening of Indigenous Oxalate Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Faeces and South Indian Fermented Foods: Assessment of Probiotic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivasamy Gomathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5, 6.71% (AB1, and 9.3% (AB11 which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria.

  20. Screening of indigenous oxalate degrading lactic acid bacteria from human faeces and South Indian fermented foods: assessment of probiotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathi, Sivasamy; Sasikumar, Ponnusamy; Anbazhagan, Kolandaswamy; Sasikumar, Sundaresan; Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M S; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria.

  1. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal calculi - self-care; Nephrolithiasis - self-care; Stones - kidney - self-care ... You visited your health care provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care steps. Which steps ...

  2. The application of p3tm neutron generator in activity determination of sengkuang (oleacharis dulcis) kidney stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengkuang (oleocharis dulcis) as a solvent for kidney stone has been know. To investigate the solubility of calcium stone in the extract of oleacharis dulcis by neutron generator in determining the activity of oleacharis dulcis extract as a solvent for kidney stone. The extract activity was based ons it ability in dissolving of calcium kidney stone. The solvability of each extract determined using neutron generator. To each ten milliliters extracts of oleacharis dulcis in water and in ethyl acetate was added respectively 150 mg calcium kidney stone and incubated for 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours. Then 0.5 ml of each extract and standard solution (solution with certain concentration of calcium) was transferred to a polyethylene tube respectively in irradiated for ten minutes in neutron generator. Concentration of calcium was calculated using relative method by comparing the count values of each extract with that of the standard solution. The result obtained show that calcium could be detected in ethyl acetate within two hours incubation time, while for argon was at various incubation found in both extracts and its maximum concentration at 4 and 5 hours incubation time in ethyl acetate and water fraction respectively. Based on the data above, it can be concluded that the solvability was influenced by type of extracting solvent and length of incubation time. Key words : olecharis dulcis, kidney stone, calcium

  3. Challenging Case: Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Mark S; Ziemba, Justin B; Matlaga, Brian R; Monga, Manoj

    2016-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman presents to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident, and a CT scan revealed no injuries but incidentally notes three non-obstructing stones in the left kidney of 3, 4, and 5 mm in size. She is completely asymptomatic and has no history of urolithiasis. PMID:27566646

  4. Urinary stone disease in Kano, North Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Aji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary stone disease is the third most common affliction of the urinary tract after urinary tract infection and pathologic conditions of the prostate. Although the disease is commoner in the developed countries, the incidence is also increasing in the developing countries. In this study, we sought to determine the pattern and treatment given for patients with urinary stones in our institution. Patients and Method: A 5 year retrospective study of patients treated for urolithiasis was conducted in a Teaching Hospital in North-western Nigeria. The age, sex, clinical presentations, investigations and treatment offered to the patients were reviewed. Results: A total of seventy six patients were treated for urinary stones during the study period. 58(76.3% were males and 18(23.7% females. Majority of patients 39(51.3% presented with loin pain as the main presenting symptom. The diagnosis of stones was by plain abdominal Xray(KUB in 68 patients and abdominal ultrasound scan in 46 cases. Urine culture was positive in 27 patients with E. coli as the predominant organism. All had normal serum calcium, phosphate and uric acid. 56(73.7% patients had stones in the upper urinary tract and 20 (26.3% in the lower urinary tract. Thirty four (44.7% patients were found to have predisposing factors. Most of the patients 50(65.7% were treated by open surgery and 26(34.2% by endoscopic removal/lithotripsy. Conclusion: Urinary stone disease is common in this environment. Majority of the stones are radio-opaque on plain xrays. Significant number of patients had a predisposing factor and majority of the stones were found in the upper tract. Most of the patients were treated by open surgery while a significant number were treated with endoscopic removal/lithotripsy.

  5. Calcium supplements: do they help or harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joann E; Bassuk, Shari S

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations for calcium intake call for 1,000 mg per day for women ages 19-50 and 1,200 mg per day for women over age 50 to ensure bone health. Given recent concerns that calcium supplements may raise risk for cardiovascular disease and kidney stones, women should aim to meet this recommendation primarily by eating a calcium-rich diet and taking calcium supplements only if needed to reach the RDA goal (often only approximately 500 mg per day in supplements is required). PMID:23880796

  6. Characteristics of plant calcium fractions for 25 species in Tengger Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to plant calcium fractions in the desert.To address the characteristic of the calcium fractions of desert plants,we collected 25 plant species in Tengger Desert,observed the calcium crystals using an optical microscope and determined water soluble calcium,acetic acid soluble calcium,and hydrochloric acid soluble calcium.To do so,we used sequential fractionation procedures to probe the relationships among different functional groups,different growth forms,or different successional stages.The results showed that the psammophyte,the late successional plants,and the drought-resistant shrub and semi-shrub all held considerable calcium oxalate crystal compared to the grassland plants,the early successional plants,and the perennial herb.With the proceeding succession,the acetic acid soluble calcium decreased gradually,and the hydrochloric acid soluble calcium increased gradually.The perennial herb had more water soluble calcium,while shrub held greater hydrochloric acid soluble calcium.The grassland plants held more water soluble calcium,while psammophyte had greater hydrochloric acid soluble calcium.This implies that the plants that are relatively sensitive to drought hold more calcium ion,while the drought-resistance plants hold more calcium oxalate.Thus,the plant calcium components are in close relation to plant drought-resistance,and of important significance in plant physiology of the desert.

  7. Diet: from food to stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Justin I; Antonelli, Jodi A; Pearle, Margaret S

    2015-02-01

    Dietary factors have been shown to influence urine composition and modulate the risk of kidney stone disease. With the rising prevalence of stone disease in many industrialized nations, dietary modification as therapy to improve lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained appeal, as it is both relatively inexpensive and safe. While some dietary measures, such as a high fluid intake, have been shown in long-term randomized clinical trials to have durable effectiveness, other dietary factors have been subjected to only short-term clinical or metabolic studies and their efficacy has been inferred. Herein, we review the current literature regarding the role of diet in stone formation, focusing on both the effect on urinary stone risk factors and the effect on stone recurrence. PMID:24938177

  8. Medical management of renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Monica S C; Pearle, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing in industrialized nations, resulting in a corresponding rise in economic burden. Nephrolithiasis is now recognized as both a chronic and systemic condition, which further underscores the impact of the disease. Diet and environment play an important role in stone disease, presumably by modulating urine composition. Dietary modification as a preventive treatment to decrease lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained interest because of its potential to be safer and more economical than drug treatment. However, not all abnormalities are likely to be amenable to dietary therapy, and in some cases drugs are necessary to reduce the risk of stone formation. Unfortunately, no new drugs have been developed for stone prevention since the 1980s when potassium citrate was introduced, perhaps because the long observation period needed to demonstrate efficacy discourages investigators from embarking on clinical trials. Nonetheless, effective established treatment regimens are currently available for stone prevention. PMID:26977089

  9. Renal Stone Associated with the Ketogenic Diet in a 5-Year Old Girl with Intractable Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ji Na; Song, Ji Eun; Shin, Jae Il; Kim, Heung Dong; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Jae Seung

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a 5-year-old girl who developed a renal stone while following the ketogenic diet to treat refractory seizure disorder. Three months after initiating the ketogenic diet, she developed severe abdominal pain and vomiting. The spot urine calcium-to-creatinine (Ca/Cr) ratio and 24-hour urine evaluation showed hypercalciuria. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed a stone in the right ureteropelvic junction, resulting in hydronephrosis of the right kidney. The renal s...

  10. Advances in percutaneous stone surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hartman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of large renal stones has changed considerably in recent years. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis has mandated that urologists perform more surgeries for large renal calculi than before, and this has been met with improvements in percutaneous stone surgery. In this review paper, we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, exit strategies, and post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis.

  11. Kinetic study of oxalic acid inhibition on enzymatic browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S M; Moon, K D; Lee, C Y

    2000-06-01

    Oxalic acid has a strong antibrowning activity. The inhibitory pattern on catechol-PPO model system appeared to be competitive, with a K(i) value of 2.0 mM. When the PPO was incubated with oxalic acid, the activity was not recovered via dialysis, but the inactivated enzyme partially recovered its activity when cupric ion was added. Comparing the relative antibrowning effectiveness of oxalic acid with other common antibrowning agents, oxalic acid with I(50) value of 1.1 mM is as effective as kojic acid and more potent than cysteine and glutathione.

  12. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  13. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  14. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  15. The prevalence of pulp stones in historical populations from the middle Euphrates valley (Syria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Julian; Zalewska, Marta; Wiśniewska, Ewa; Szopiński, Kazimierz; Olczyk-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There are many reports in the literature concerning pulp stones in contemporary living populations, but there are no descriptions of cases of pulp stones and their prevalence in populations of the past. Here we present a study of pulp stones in a series of archaeologically derived samples from the Middle Euphrates Valley (Syria) obtained from two sites: Terqa and Tell Masaikh. The specimens were assigned to five periods: Early Bronze (2650-2350 BC); Middle Bronze (2200-1700 BC); late Roman (AD 200-400); Islamic (AD 600-1200); and Modern Islamic (AD 1850-1950). A total of 529 teeth representing 117 adult individuals of both sexes were examined. Pulp stones were identified by X-ray and 10 selected specimens were sectioned for histological study. Pulp stones were found in 99 of 117 individuals (85%) and in 271 of 529 (51%) teeth. Pulp stone prevalence was found to increase with age, for individuals of older age classes have more pulp stones than younger individuals. Intriguingly, the prevalence of single pulp stones was higher among older individuals (36-45, >46), while younger individuals (17-25, 26-35) more often possessed multiple stones. Individuals with moderate to highly advanced dental wear have pulp stones significantly more often than individuals whose tooth wear is limited to invisible or very small facets. Though there is no statistical significance in the prevalence of pulp stones across chronological periods, it appears that a high level of calcium in the diet is accompanied by a greater prevalence of pulp stones.

  16. Crystal structure of (ferrocenylmethyldimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Ndiaye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title salt, [Fe(C5H5(C8H13N](HC2O4, consists of discrete (ferrocenylmethyldimethylammonium cations and hydrogen oxalate anions. The anions are connected through a strong O—H...O hydrogen bond, forming linear chains running parallel to [100]. The cations are linked to the anions through bifurcated N—H...(O,O′ hydrogen bonds. Weak C—H...π interactions between neighbouring ferrocenyl moieties are also observed.

  17. Renal stone disease: Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiologic considerations; Physiochemistry of urinary stone formations; Nutritional aspects of stone disease; Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis; Struvite stones; and Contemporary approaches to removal of renal and ureteral calculi

  18. Renal stone disease: Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, C.Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiologic considerations; Physiochemistry of urinary stone formations; Nutritional aspects of stone disease; Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis; Struvite stones; and Contemporary approaches to removal of renal and ureteral calculi.

  19. 尿路结石与尿路感染的相关性研究%Correlation between urinary stones and urinary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沛林; 张立国; 孟斌

    2014-01-01

    .6%). Numbers of urine abnormalities,urine positivities,positive intraoperative cotton swabs and urinary tract infections in patients in the group with infected stones,were significantly higher than in the group without infected stones and the differences were statistically significant(χ2=8.203,73.99,178.9,24.26,P<0.05). The incidence rates of hexahydrate magnesium ammonium phosphate, carbonate apatite and hydroxyapatite stones in the group with infected stones were significantly higher than those in the non-infected-rock group while the incidence rates of calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were found significantly lower than those in the non-infected-stone group,with differences statistically significant (χ2=167.6,21.00,8.586,73.17,48.79,P<0.05). Conclusion Bacteria could cause urinary tract stones,and infected stones were always associated with urinary tract infections. Bacteria detection in patients with urinary calculi was particularly important to avoid the urinary tract infections.

  20. Econophysics of precious stones

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, A; Uchida, N

    2006-01-01

    The importance of the power law has been well realized in econophysics over the last decade. For instance, the distribution of the rate of stock price variation and of personal assets show the power law. While these results reveal the striking scale invariance of financial markets, the behaviour of price in real economy is less known in spite of its extreme importance. As an example of markets in real economy, here we take up the price of precious stones which increases with size while the amount of their production rapidly decreases with size. We show for the first time that the price of natural precious stones (quartz crystal ball, gemstones such as diamond, emerald, and sapphire) as a function of weight obeys the power law. This indicates that the price is determined by the same evaluation measure for different sizes. Our results demonstrate that not only the distribution of an economical observable but also the price itself obeys the power law. We anticipate our findings to be a starting point for the qua...

  1. Oxalate Synthesis and Pyrolysis: A Colorful Introduction to Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Michael W.; Richards-Babb, Michelle; Sweeney, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxalate synthesis and pyrolysis provides an opportunity for students to (i) learn stoichiometry, (ii) experience the consequences of proper stoichiometric calculations and experimental techniques, and (iii) be introduced to the relevance of chemistry by highlighting oxalates in context, for example, usages and health effects. At our…

  2. Synthesis and structural characterization of actinide oxalate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxalic acid is a well-known reagent to recover actinides thanks to the very low solubility of An(IV) and An(III) oxalate compounds in acidic solution. Therefore, considering mixed-oxide fuel or considering minor actinides incorporation in ceramic fuel materials for transmutation, oxalic co-conversion is convenient to synthesize mixed oxalate compounds, precursors of oxide solid solutions. As the existing oxalate single crystal syntheses are not adaptable to the actinide-oxalate chemistry or to their manipulation constrains in gloves box, several original crystal growth methods were developed. They were first validate and optimized on lanthanides and uranium before the application to transuranium elements. The advanced investigations allow to better understand the syntheses and to define optimized chemical conditions to promote crystal growth. These new crystal growth methods were then applied to a large number of mixed An1(IV)-An2(III) or An1(IV)-An2(IV) systems and lead to the formation of the first original mixed An1(IV)-An2(III) and An1(IV)-An2(IV) oxalate single crystals. Finally thanks to the first thorough structural characterizations of these compounds, single crystal X-ray diffraction, EXAFS or micro-RAMAN, the particularly weak oxalate-actinide compounds structural database is enriched, which is essential for future studied nuclear fuel cycles. (author)

  3. The exposome for kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, David S

    2016-02-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities. PMID:26615595

  4. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  5. Study of renal stones complications in 200 patients in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Noshad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary stones are the third most common disease of the urinary. Renal stones may lead to some preventable complications. This study was designed to investigation and prediction of these complications. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 patients with kidney stones were enrolled. Kidney stone was confirmed and proven in all patients referred to Sina and Shaikh Al-Rais clinics. Their demographic characteristics like gender, age, stone number, stone type, renal failure and bio-chemistry data were evaluated. Results: Of 200 patients, 130 cases (65.0% were male and 70 cases (35.0% were female. The mean age of patients was 41.30 ± 16.06 years. Type of stone was (when evaluation was possible was mixed (11.5%. However, the type of stone was not analyzed in 112 cases (56.0%. Among complications, recurrent infection was seen (16.0%, and staghorn stones were seen in 2.5% of patients. Dialysis was positive in 3 patients (1.5%. History of surgery was positive in 3 patients (1.5%. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL history was positive in 8%. In evaluated patients, the mean level of calcium was 8.83 ± 0.27, phosphorus was 4.60 ± 0.33, parathyroid hormone (PTH was 35.20 ± 14.22, uric acid was 4.98 ± 1.57, creatinine was 1.38 ± 1.02 and blood urea nitrogen level was 16.69 ± 11.54 mg/dl. Staghorn stones are significantly associated with progression to renal failure and subsequent complications such as hemodialysis (P = 0.001, surgery (P = 0.001. Recurrent infection was more frequent in calcium-containing stones (P = 0.001 and ESWL undergoing patients (P = 0.030. Stone numbers were more than 3 in hemodialyzed (HD patients (P = 0.001. Uric acid stones were more seen in HD patients (P = 0.170. Conclusion: According to results hemodialysis and recurrent infections are seen in patients with renal stones, and they may be detected in earlier with close periodic follow-up.

  6. Estimating the Risk of Renal Stone Events During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Kerstman, Eric; Locke, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Given the bone loss and increased urinary calcium excretion in the microgravity environment, persons participating in long-duration spaceflight may have an increased risk for renal stone formation. Renal stones are often an incidental finding of abdominal imaging studies done for other reasons. Thus, some crewmembers may have undiscovered, asymptomatic stones prior to their mission. Methods: An extensive literature search was conducted concerning the natural history of asymptomatic renal stones. For comparison, simulations were done using the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The IMM is an evidence-based decision support tool that provides risk analysis and has the capability to optimize medical systems for missions by minimizing the occurrence of adverse mission outcomes such as evacuation and loss of crew life within specified mass and volume constraints. Results: The literature of the natural history of asymptomatic renal stones in the general medical population shows that the probability of symptomatic event is 8% to 34% at 1 to 3 years for stones renal stones may be one of the top drivers for medical evacuation of an International Space Station (ISS) mission. Discussion: Although the likelihood of a stone event is low, the consequences could be severe due to limitations of current ISS medical capabilities. Therefore, these risks need to be quantified to aid planning, limit crew morbidity and mitigate mission impacts. This will be especially critical for missions beyond earth orbit, where evacuation may not be an option.

  7. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  8. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Randhawa; Kamaljeet Sweety

    2000-08-01

    For preparing calcium ferrite, calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III) precursor was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of iron(III) maleate, calcium maleate and maleic acid. Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to 900°C and ferrite formation. Three consecutive decomposition steps leading to the formation of -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate have been observed at various stages of thermolysis. In the final stage the ferrite, Ca2Fe2O5, is obtained as a result of solid state reaction between -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate at 788°C, a temperature much lower than for ceramic method. The results have been compared with those of the oxalate precursor.

  9. Stone cladding engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa Camposinhos, Rui de

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents new methodologies for the design of dimension stone based on the concepts of structural design while preserving the excellence of stonemasonry practice in façade engineering. Straightforward formulae are provided for computing action on cladding, with special emphasis on the effect of seismic forces, including an extensive general methodology applied to non-structural elements. Based on the Load and Resistance Factor Design Format (LRDF), minimum slab thickness formulae are presented that take into consideration stress concentrations analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the most commonly used modern anchorage systems. Calculation examples allow designers to solve several anchorage engineering problems in a detailed and objective manner, underlining the key parameters. The design of the anchorage metal parts, either in stainless steel or aluminum, is also presented.

  10. Efficient electron-induced removal of oxalate ions and formation of copper nanoparticles from copper(II) oxalate precursor layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückriem, Kai; Grotheer, Sarah; Vieker, Henning; Penner, Paul; Beyer, André; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Swiderek, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Copper(II) oxalate grown on carboxy-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM) using a step-by-step approach was used as precursor for the electron-induced synthesis of surface-supported copper nanoparticles. The precursor material was deposited by dipping the surfaces alternately in ethanolic solutions of copper(II) acetate and oxalic acid with intermediate thorough rinsing steps. The deposition of copper(II) oxalate and the efficient electron-induced removal of the oxalate ions was monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Helium ion microscopy (HIM) reveals the formation of spherical nanoparticles with well-defined size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms their metallic nature. Continued irradiation after depletion of oxalate does not lead to further particle growth giving evidence that nanoparticle formation is primarily controlled by the available amount of precursor. PMID:27547602

  11. New indium selenite-oxalate and indium oxalate with two- and three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new indium(III) compounds with extended structures, [In2(SeO3)2(C2O4)(H2O)2].2H2O (I) and [NH3(CH2)2NH3][In(C2O4)2]2.5H2O (II), have been prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Compound I crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P-1, with a=5.2596(11) A, b=6.8649(14) A, c=9.3289(19) A, α=101.78(3)o, β=102.03(3)o, γ=104.52(3)o, while compound II crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Fdd2, with a=15.856(3) A, b=31.183(6) A, c=8.6688(17) A. In compound I, indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form two-dimensional (2D) In2(SeO3)2C2O4 layers, separated by non-coordinating water molecules. In compound II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered channels. - Graphical abstract: Two new indium(III) compounds have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. In I, the indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form 2D In2(SeO3)2C2O4 layers. In II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered ring channels

  12. A new polymorph of magnesium oxalate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-An Chen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, catena-poly[[diaquamagnesium(II]-μ-oxalato], [Mg(C2O4(H2O2]n, there is one Mg atom in an octahedral coordination with site symmetry 222, a unique C atom of the oxalate anion lying on a twofold axis, an O atom of the anion in a general position and a water O atom at a site with imposed twofold rotation symmetry. The Mg2+ ions are ligated by water molecules and bridged by the anions to form chains that are held together by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The structure of the title compound has already been reported in a different space group [Lagier, Pezerat & Dubernat (1969. Rev. Chim. Miner. 6, 1081–1093; Levy, Perrotey & Visser (1971. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. pp. 757–761].

  13. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Kidney Stones In most children and teens, kidney stones are due to the diet and/or amount of fluid the child drinks. ... prevent new stones from forming. All children with kidney stones should: Drink a lot ... the salt in their diet Limit the amount of soda or soft drinks ...

  14. Inorganic treatments for the consolidation and protection of stone artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Matteini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation and protection are two of the principal kinds of treatments through which the decay of old statues, stone facades, plasters and mural paintings caused by both natural atmospheric agents and, above all in the last five decades, by atmospheric pollution, is faced. The most traditional approach has been and is mainly based on the use of organic polymeric materials. They offer the advantage of easy application procedures and the possibility to obtain, at short times, very satisfying results. Different is their behaviour at long times. Some drawbacks come out over time both under the esthetical point of view as well as to the durability, compatibility and efficacy. Particularly critical is the situation when porous materials and soluble salts - gypsum above all - are simultaneously present. In such a situation inorganic treatments demonstrate to be much more appropriate. They assure durable and compatible results. In the present paper two of the most efficient and appropriate inorganic methods are reviewed in detail: the barium hydroxide method, both as desulfating and consolidating agent, and the ammonium oxalate method as passivating agent, consolidant and as a treatment capable of improving the natural colour contrast of the stone, when it is lost due to decay processes.

  15. Giant ureteral stone: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davut Akın

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Calculi of urinary system may be detected in ureter, bladder, and urethra. Calculi of ureter are commonly solitary and smaller than 2 cm in length. Giant ureteral stone is rare. We present our case of giant ureteral stone with imaging findings. An approximately 10 cm long stone was detected on direct urinary system graphy and intravenous urography of 28 year-old male admitted with left colic pain. The stone was extracted by open ureterolithotomy. The stone was 10 cm in length. Imaging methods are important to localize the stone, evaluate renal function, stage of hydronephrosis, differentiate acute from chronic, and diagnose predisposing factors in cases with giant ureteral stones.

  16. Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 11, 2011 I'm Dr. Paul Tachi and we're going ... stone free up until recently. The patient, as I say, has been having pain so we will ...

  17. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... soups and vegetables processed frozen foods luncheon meats fast food People who are trying to limit their sodium ... form uric acid stones should limit their meat consumption to 6 ounces each day. Animal protein may ...

  18. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined. PMID:27482644

  19. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm2 and 0.1 cm2 over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  20. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  1. Two-stage precipitation of neptunium (IV) oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neptunium (IV) oxalate was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. Process variables tested were input concentrations, solubility conditions in the first stage precipitator, precipitation temperatures, and residence time in the first stage precipitator. A procedure has been demonstrated that produces neptunium (IV) oxalate particles that filter well and readily calcine to the oxide

  2. 3.2.1. Synthesis, crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ1-oxalic acid-µ3-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kovalchukova*, Sergey Aldoshin, Andrey Utenyshev, Konstantin Bogenko, Valeriy Tkachev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ- oxalic acid-µ-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I was detected by X-Ray analysis. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with a(Å 6.2378(12; b(Å 7,1115(14; c(Å 10.489(2; α(° 94.65(3; β(° 100.12(3; γ(° 97.78(3. The sodium cation in the title compound is eight coordinated and forms a square antiprism. It is surrounded by two molecules of oxalic acid, one hydrogen oxalate anion and one water molecule. Both oxalic acid and hydrogen oxalate anion act as polydentate bridging ligands. Centrosymmetric sodium cations are bounded by hydrogen oxalate anions through a system of H bonds involving the molecules of oxalic acid. In the lattice, the 3D structure stabilized by H bonds is formed.

  3. Production and degradation of oxalic acid by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted 14C-labeled oxalic acid to CO2 during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized 14C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize 14C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi

  4. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Calcium Nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Orson W.; Fuster, Daniel G.; Xie, Xiao-Song

    2008-09-01

    Calcium stones are commonly encountered in patients with congenital distal renal tubular acidosis, a disease of renal acidification caused by mutations in either the vacuolar H+-ATPase (B1 or a4 subunit), anion exchanger-1, or carbonic anhydrase II. Based on the existing database, we present two hypotheses. First, heterozygotes with mutations in B1 subunit of H+-ATPase are not normal but may harbor biochemical abnormalities such as renal acidification defects, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia which can predispose them to kidney stone formation. Second, we propose at least two mechanisms by which mutant B1 subunit can impair H+-ATPase: defective pump assembly and defective pump activity.

  5. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    Tyndall Stone is a distinctively mottled and highly fossiliferous dolomitic limestone that belongs to the Selkirk Member of the Red River Formation, of Late Ordovician (Katian) age. It has been quarried at Garson, Manitoba, 37 km northeast of Winnipeg, since 1895, although other quarries in the area go back to 1832. Tyndall Stone, so named because it was shipped by rail from nearby Tyndall, is currently produced by Gillis Quarries Limited. It has various uses as a dimension stone. Large slabs, most often cut parallel to bedding, face the exterior or interior of many important buildings such as the Parliament Buildings and the Canadian Museum of Civilization in the Ottawa area, the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the provincial legislatures in Winnipeg and Regina, as well as many commercial buildings especially in the Canadian prairies. At the quarries, the stone is cut vertically, using eight foot (2.44 m) diameter saws mounted on one hundred foot (30.5 m) tracks, then split into 6-8 tonne blocks that are moved using front-end loaders. Gillis Quarries operates a large finishing plant with an area of about 4000 m2. Stone is processed along advanced cutting lines that feature eight primary saws and six gantry saw stations, allowing it to be made into a variety of sizes, shapes, and finishes. The Selkirk Member is 43 m thick and the stone is extracted from a 6-8 m thick interval within the lower part. The upper beds tend to be more buff-coloured than the grey lower beds due to weathering by groundwater. The stone is massive, but extracted blocks are less than ~1m thick due to splitting along stylolites. Consisting of bioturbated wackestone to packstone, the Tyndall Stone was deposited in a shallow-marine environment within the photic zone, in the central part of the vast equatorial epicontinental sea that covered much of Laurentia. Scattered thin, bioclastic grainstone lenses record brief, low-energy storm events. The distinctive mottles are formed by dolomitized

  6. A new method for the homogeneous precipitative separation of trace level lanthanides as oxalates: application to different types of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxalate precipitation of lanthanides in acidic medium is a widely used selective group separation method at percentage to trace level in different types of geological samples. Most of the procedures are based on the heterogeneous oxalate precipitation of lanthanides using calcium as carrier. In the heterogeneous precipitation, the co-precipitated impurities from the matrix elements are more, besides if the pH at the time of precipitation is not monitored carefully there is a chance of losing some of the lanthanides. In this report, we present a new homogeneous oxalate precipitation of trace level lanthanides from different types of geological samples using calcium as carrier. In the present method pH is getting adjusted (pH ∼1) on its own, after the hydrolysis of urea added to the sample solution. This acidic pH is essential for the complete precipitation of the lanthanides. Therefore, no critical parameter adjustment for the precipitation is involved in the proposed method. The oxalate precipitate obtained was in crystalline nature which facilitates the fast settlement, easy filtration; besides the co-precipitated matrix elements are very less as compared to normal heterogeneous oxalate precipitation of lanthanides. Another advantage is more quantity of the sample can be taken for the separation of lanthanides which is a limitation for other separation methods reported. Accuracy of the method was checked by analyzing nine international reference materials comprising different types of geological samples obtained from Canadian Certified Reference Project Materials such as syenite samples SY-2, SY-3 and SY-4; gabro sample MRG-1; soil samples SO-1 and SO-2; iron formation sample FeR-2; lake sediments LKSD-2 and LKSD-4. The values of the lanthanides obtained for these reference materials are comparable with recommended values, indicating that the method is accurate. The reproducibility is characterized by a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1 to 6% (n=4). (author)

  7. Bioreceptivity of building stones: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A Z; Sanmartín, P; Pereira-Pardo, L; Dionísio, A; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Macedo, M F; Prieto, B

    2012-06-01

    In 1995, Guillitte defined bioreceptivity, a new term in ecology, as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. Information about the bioreceptivity of stone is of great importance since it will help us to understand the material properties which influence the development of biological colonization in the built environment, and will also provide useful information as regards selecting stones for the conservation of heritage monuments and construction of new buildings. Studies of the bioreceptivity of stone materials are reviewed here with the aim of providing a clear set of conclusions on the topic. Definitions of bioreceptivity are given, stone bioreceptivity experiments are described, and finally the stone properties related to bioreceptivity are discussed. We suggest that a standardized laboratory protocol for evaluating stone bioreceptivity and definition of a stone bioreceptivity index are required to enable creation of a database on the primary bioreceptivity of stone materials. PMID:22534363

  8. Complex pathogenesis of hyperoxaluria after jejunoileal bypass surgery. Oxalogenic substances in diet contribute to urinary oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A F; Laker, M F; Dharmsathaphorn, K; Sherr, H P; Lorenzo, D

    1983-02-01

    Balance studies and oxalate loading tests were carried out in order to define the pathogenesis of hyperoxaluria in 8 patients with jejunoileal bypass surgery for severe obesity; two healthy volunteers were also studied. In the bypass patients, urinary oxalate was markedly elevated (118 +/- 43 mg/day, mean +/- SD) when they were on a high oxalate diet (252 mg/day). Hyperabsorption of dietary oxalate was confirmed by the markedly increased urinary recovery of [14C]oxalate given in a test meal. In addition, the oxalate radioactivity was excreted in urine far more slowly than in healthy volunteers, suggesting that the colon was a major site of oxalate absorption. Elevated urinary oxalate excretion persisted, averaging 38 +/- 12 mg/day, despite ingestion of a very low oxalate diet (approximately 6 mg/day), suggesting that the diet contained "oxalogenic" substances other than preformed dietary oxalate which also contributed to dietary oxalate in these patients. Urinary oxalate decreased in 7 of 8 patients, however, when protein-rich foods were removed from the diet, suggesting that at least one dietary factor was digestive products of protein or creatinine. These results confirm the current view that in patients with hyperoxaluria secondary to jejunoileal bypass, the majority of urinary oxalate derives from dietary oxalate that is absorbed from the colon. Tissue or bacterial production of oxalate or an oxalate precursor from dietary constituents associated with protein, however, also appears to contribute to urinary oxalate. The results provide an explanation for the reported difficulty of eliminating secondary hyperoxaluria by restriction of dietary oxalate alone. PMID:6848409

  9. Estudio exploratorio-ecológico sobre las concentraciones de sales de calcio en el agua para consumo humano y la litiasis renal en Costa Rica Exploratory-ecological study on the relationship between the concentration of calcium salts in water for human consumption and the incidence of renal stones in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darner A Mora Alvarado

    2007-12-01

    approximately 6000 cases per year of kidney stones in Costa Rica which implies an average rate of 1.7 cases per 1000 inhabitants; this pathology involves the formation of hard concretions resembling rock in any part of the urinary system. Etiology is multifactorial and involves anatomic, genetic, infectious as well as environmental factors such as the frequent intake of water with excess calcium salts also known as hard water. We carried out a county-based exploratory study of the ecologic type for the years 2001 to 2003 whereby a relationship was sought between the ingestion of calcium carbonate content in water for human consumption (which we abbreviate as (ACH and the incidence of renal calculi. With this objective in mind, we used on the one hand, data on county-based, average water-hardness from the National Water Laboratory (LNA from 4,000 water sources and, on the other, hospital discharges with the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis from 29 hospitals in the Costa Rican Social Security System. Statistical analysis was based on the Standardized Morbidity Index (which we abbreviate as IME adjusted by the indirect method as well as the Pearson correlation coefficient taken to a 95% degree of confidence. To present the data, county maps of water hardness and IME of renal calculi were used. The results indicate an ecological association between the two variables; in other words, when there is greater consumption of hard water, there exists a greater risk of renal calculi in the population with an excess risk of 27% in those places having high levels of water hardness and a Pearson coefficient for the ecological correlation of r=0,25. On the other hand, in the areas where the water predominantly is not hard, the risk is inferior to the national average. The results obtained open up new questions regarding the relationship between water hardness as well as its consumption and the incidence of kidney stones which should be answered by future studies.

  10. Vascular Calcification and Stone Disease: A New Look towards the Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen J. Yiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate (CaP crystals are formed in pathological calcification as well as during stone formation. Although there are several theories as to how these crystals can develop through the combined interactions of biochemical and biophysical factors, the exact mechanism of such mineralization is largely unknown. Based on the published scientific literature, we found that common factors can link the initial stages of stone formation and calcification in anatomically distal tissues and organs. For example, changes to the spatiotemporal conditions of the fluid flow in tubular structures may provide initial condition(s for CaP crystal generation needed for stone formation. Additionally, recent evidence has provided a meaningful association between the active participation of proteins and transcription factors found in the bone forming (ossification mechanism that are also involved in the early stages of kidney stone formation and arterial calcification. Our review will focus on three topics of discussion (physiological influences—calcium and phosphate concentration—and similarities to ossification, or bone formation that may elucidate some commonality in the mechanisms of stone formation and calcification, and pave the way towards opening new avenues for further research.

  11. An Increase Incidence in Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: Changing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Asha; Mittal, Pawan; Kumar, Rajender; Goel, Richa; Bansal, Piyush; Kumar, Himanshu Devender; Bhutani, Jaikrit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease affecting all age groups globally. As the causative factors for nephrolithiasis rises significantly, its incidence, prevalence and recurrence continues to baffle clinicians and patients. Aim To study the prevalence of different types of renal stones extracted by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgical procedures. Materials and Methods Renal stones from 50 patients were retrieved by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL), Ureterorenoscopy (URS) and open surgical techniques for qualitative tests for detection of calcium, oxalate, uric acid, phosphate, ammonium ion, carbonate, cystine and xanthine. Results Three patients had stone removed by open surgery and rest had undergone PCNL. Nine of the stones were pure of calcium oxalate, 9 were of pure uric acid and 32 were mixed stones. Forty one stones had calcium. Among the mixed stones, oxalate was present in 25 samples (39 of total), uric acid was seen in 17 (25 of total stones), phosphate was present in 23 (23 of total) and carbonate was present in 4 stones (4 of total). Only 1 patient had triple phosphate stone. 12 were of staghorn appearance of which 6 were of struvite type, 6 were pure uric acid and remaining were mixed oxalate-phosphate stones. Conclusion Our study, though in a small number of hospital based patients, found much higher prevalence of uric acid stones and mixed stones than reported by previous hospital based studies in north India (oxalate stones~90%, uric acid~1% and mixed stones~3%). Biochemical analysis of renal stones is warranted in all cases. PMID:27630833

  12. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal stones

    OpenAIRE

    Nerli, Rajendra; Jali, Mallikarjuna; Guntaka, Ajay Kumar; Patne, Pravin; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Murigendra Basayya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of urinary stone disease has shown a steep rise in recent decades along with marked modifications in dietary habits and life- style. There has been an increased prevalence of urinary stone disease in patients with diabetes. We took up this study to determine the association of diabetes mellitus with kidney stones in patients undergoing surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with renal stones for surgical management formed the study group. Body...

  13. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diri, Akif; Karakan, Tolga; Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Germiyanoglu, Cankon

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL. PMID:25641455

  14. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Diri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL.

  15. Computational and experimental studies on oxalic acid imprinted polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kiran Kumar Tadi; R V Motghare

    2013-03-01

    Computational approach plays an important role to pre-evaluate the interactions between template and functional monomer, so that to choose functional monomer having stronger interactions with template during synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). Hence template-monomer interactions in pre-polymerization were mainly focused. In this paper, computational chemistry was applied to screen the number of mol of functional monomer that interacts with one mol of template. Intermolecular interactions between oxalic acid and acrylamide have been investigated. The binding energies Ebind were calculated by DFT (B3LYP) level of theory with the 6−31+G(d,p) basis set. It was found that four mol of acrylamide were sufficient to interact with one mol of oxalic acid in the pre-polymerization mixture. Four possible conformations and frequency calculations were performed to locate minima. Oxalic acid specific bulk polymer was obtained by the thermal initiated free radical co-polymerization of acrylamide and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate with oxalic acid as template and acetonitrile as porogen. The synthesized MIP efficiently adsorbed oxalic acid from aqueous solutions. The binding parameters ofMIP and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) were compared by Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms.

  16. What is the Incidence of Kidney Stones after Chemotherapy in Patients with Lymphoproliferative or Myeloproliferative Disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein S. Mirheydar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study describes the incidence and risk factors of de novo nephrolithiasis among patients with lymphoproliferative or myeloproliferative diseases who have undergone chemotherapy. Materials and Methods From 2001 to 2011, patients with lymphoproliferative or myeloproliferative disorders treated with chemotherapy were retrospectively identified. The incidence of image proven nephrolithiasis after chemotherapy was determined. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded. Patients with a history of nephrolithiasis prior to chemotherapy were excluded. The primary outcome was incidence of nephrolithiasis, and secondary outcomes were risk factors predictive of de novo stone. Comparative statistics were used to compare demographic and disease specific variables for patients who developed de novo stones versus those who did not. Results A total of 1,316 patients were identified and the incidence of de novo nephrolithiasis was 5.5% (72/1316; symptomatic stones 1.8% 24/1316. Among patients with nephrolithiasis, 72.2% had lymphoproliferative disorders, 27.8% had myeloproliferative disorders, and 25% utilized allopurinol. The median urinary pH was 5.5, and the mean serum uric acid, calcium, potassium and phosphorus levels were 7.5, 9.6, 4.3, and 3.8 mg/dL, respectively. In univariate analysis, mean uric acid (p=0.013, calcium (p<0.001, and potassium (p=0.039 levels were higher in stone formers. Diabetes mellitus (p<0.001, hypertension (p=0.003, and hyperlipidemia (p<0.001 were more common in stone formers. In multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia, and hypercalcemia predicted stone. Conclusions We report the incidence of de novo nephrolithiasis in patients who have undergone chemotherapy. Diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia, and hypercalcemia are patient-specific risk factors that increase the odds of developing an upper tract stone following chemotherapy.

  17. Determination of chemical composition of gall bladder stones:Basis for treatment strategies in patients from Yaounde, Cameroon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fru F. Angwafo Ⅲ; Samuel Takongmo; Donald Griffith

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Gallstone disease is increasing in sub-saharan Africa (SSA).In the west, the majority of stones can be dissolved with bile salts, since the major component is cholesterol. This medical therapy is expensive and not readily accessible to poor populations of SSA. It was therefore necessary to analyze the chemical composition of biliary stones in a group of patients,so as to make the case for introducing bile salt therapy in SSA.METHODS: All patients with symptomatic gallstones were recruited in the study. All stones removed during cholecystectomy were sent to Houston for x-ray diffraction analysis. Data on age, sex, serum cholesterol, and the percentage by weight of cholesterol, calcium carbonate, and amorphous material in each stone was entered into a pre-established proforma. Frequencies of the major components of the stones were determined.RESULTS: Sixteen women and ten men aged between 27 and 73 (mean 44.9) years provided stones for the study.The majority of patients (65.38%) had stones with less than 25% of cholesterol. Amorphous material made up more than 50% and 100% of stones from 16 (61.53%) and 9 (34.61%)patients respectively.CONCLUSION: Cholesterol is present in small amounts in a minority of gallstones in Yaounde. Dissolution of gallstones with bile salts is unlikely to be successful.

  18. Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Stone Detection and Early Detection of Kidney Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. P.R. Tamilselvi; Dr.P.THANGARAJ

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Most of the previous study in diagnosis of kidney stone identifies a mere presence or absence of the stones in the kidney. However proposal in our study even present an early detection of kidney stones which helps to change the diet conditions and prevent the formation of stones. Approach: The study presented a scheme for ultrasound kidney image diagnosis for stone and its early detection based on improved seeded region growing based segmentation and cla...

  19. Post-renal acute renal failure due to a huge bladder stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Orcun; Suelozgen, Tufan; Budak, Salih; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2014-06-30

    A 63-year old male was referred to our emergency unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum renal function tests levels, blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine, were 63 mmol/L/848 μmol/L. CT (Computarised Tomography) scan showed a huge bladder stone (5 cm x 6 cm x 5 cm) with increased bladder wall thickness. Post-renal acute renal failure due to bilateral ureterohydronephrosis was diagnosed. The huge bladder stone was considered to be the cause of ureterohydronephrosis and renal failure. The patient was catheterised and received haemodialysis immediately. He received haemodialysis four times during ten days of hospitalization and the level of serum renal function tests levels (BUN/ creatinine) decreased 18 mmol/L/123 μmol/L. After improvement of renal function, we performed cystoscopy that demonstrated normal prostatic urethra and bladder neck and bilaterally normal ureteral orifices. Bladder wall was roughly trabeculated and Bladder outlet was completely obstructed by a huge bladder stone. After cystoscopy open, cystolithotomy was performed to remove calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate stone weighing 200 g removed. Four days after operation the patient was discharged uneventfully and urethral catheter was removed on the seventh day. Post-renal acute renal failure due to large bladder stones is rare in literature. According to the our knowledge; early diagnosis of the stone avoid growth to large size and prevent renal failure.

  20. Stones used in Milan architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folli, Luisa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Milan lies in a plain with clayey soil well suited to brick-making, but no stone deposits. An ample supply of stone is available, however, in the surrounding hills and mountains, which are connected to the city via both natural and artificial waterways. The types of stone used since Roman times include: granite, marble and gneiss from Ossola Valley; dolomite from Lake Maggiore; detrital limestone from Ceresio Valley; sandstone from the Brianza Hills; black limestone and marble from Lake Como; and conglomerate and sandstone from the Adda River basin. Traditionally, the chief uses have been dimension stone (all stones, column shafts (granite, slabs (marble, moulding (dolomite, limestone and ornamental (marble, dolomite, limestone.La ciudad de Milán se encuentra en una llanura de suelo arcilloso adecuado para la fabricación de ladrillos pero en la cual no hay yacimientos de rocas. No obstante, en las colinas y montañas circundantes, que están comunicadas con la ciudad mediante vías navegables naturales y artificiales, sí existe una abundante cantidad de piedra. Entre los tipos de piedra utilizados desde la época de los romanos se encuentran granitos, mármoles y gneises del valle de Ossola, dolomías del lago Mayor, calizas detríticas del valle de Ceresio (Lugano, areniscas de las colinas de la Brianza, calizas negras y mármoles del lago Como y conglomerados y areniscas de la cuenca del río Adda. Tradicionalmente, los principales usos han sido la piedra de fábrica (todas ellas, fustes de columnas (granito, losas (mármol, molduras (dolomía, caliza y ornamental (mármol, dolomía, caliza.

  1. Crystal structure of di­methyl­ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Waly; Gueye, Ndongo; Crochet, Aurélien; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2 +·HC2O4 −·0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu)3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH2)2C2O4 salt and Sn(CH3)3Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a di­methyl­ammonium cation (Me2NH2 +), an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4 −), and half a mol­ecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4) situated about an inversion center. From a supra­molecular point of view, the three components inter­act together via hydrogen bonding. The Me2NH2 + cations and the HC2O4 − anions are in close proximity through bifurcated N—H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bonds, while the HC2O4 − anions are organized into infinite chains via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, propagating along the a-axis direction. In addition, the oxalic acid (H2C2O4) mol­ecules play the role of connectors between these chains. Both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of each diacid are involved in four inter­molecular inter­actions with two Me2NH2 + and two HC2O4 − ions of four distinct polymeric chains, via two N—H⋯O and two O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, respectively. The resulting mol­ecular assembly can be viewed as a two-dimensional bilayer-like arrangement lying parallel to (010), and reinforced by a C—H⋯O hydrogen bond. PMID:25995858

  2. Crystal structure of di-methyl-ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Waly; Gueye, Ndongo; Crochet, Aurélien; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Hélène

    2015-05-01

    Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2 (+)·HC2O4 (-)·0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu)3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH2)2C2O4 salt and Sn(CH3)3Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a di-methyl-ammonium cation (Me2NH2 (+)), an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4 (-)), and half a mol-ecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4) situated about an inversion center. From a supra-molecular point of view, the three components inter-act together via hydrogen bonding. The Me2NH2 (+) cations and the HC2O4 (-) anions are in close proximity through bifurcated N-H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bonds, while the HC2O4 (-) anions are organized into infinite chains via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, propagating along the a-axis direction. In addition, the oxalic acid (H2C2O4) mol-ecules play the role of connectors between these chains. Both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of each diacid are involved in four inter-molecular inter-actions with two Me2NH2 (+) and two HC2O4 (-) ions of four distinct polymeric chains, via two N-H⋯O and two O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, respectively. The resulting mol-ecular assembly can be viewed as a two-dimensional bilayer-like arrangement lying parallel to (010), and reinforced by a C-H⋯O hydrogen bond.

  3. Characterization of wheat germin (oxalate oxidase) expressed by Pichia pastoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level secretory expression of wheat (Triticum aestivum) germin/oxalate oxidase was achieved in Pichia pastoris fermentation cultures as an α-mating factor signal peptide fusion, based on the native wheat cDNA coding sequence. The oxalate oxidase activity of the recombinant enzyme is substantially increased (7-fold) by treatment with sodium periodate, followed by ascorbate reduction. Using these methods, approximately 1 g (4 x 104 U) of purified, activated enzyme was obtained following eight days of induction of a high density Pichia fermentation culture, demonstrating suitability for large-scale production of oxalate oxidase for biotechnological applications. Characterization of the recombinant protein shows that it is glycosylated, with N-linked glycan attached at Asn47. For potential biomedical applications, a nonglycosylated (S49A) variant was also prepared which retains essentially full enzyme activity, but exhibits altered protein-protein interactions

  4. Oxalic acid adsorption states on the clean Cu(110) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Sara

    2016-11-01

    Carboxylic acids are known to assume a variety of configurations on metallic surfaces. In particular oxalic acid on the Cu(110) surface has been proposed to assume a number of upright configurations. Here we explore with DFT calculations the possible structures that oxalic acid can form on copper 110 at different protonation states, with particular attention at the possibility of forming structures composed of vertically standing molecules. In its fully protonated form it is capable of anchoring itself on the surface thanks to one of its hydrogen-free oxygens. We show the monodeprotonated upright molecule with two oxygens anchoring it on the surface to be the lowest energy conformation of a single oxalic molecules on the Cu(110) surface. We further show that it is possible for this configuration to form dense hexagonally arranged patterns in the unlikely scenario in which adatoms are not involved.

  5. Spin waves in antiferromagnetically coupled bimetallic oxalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Peter L; Fishman, Randy S

    2009-01-01

    Bimetallic oxalates are molecule-based magnets with transition-metal ions M(II) and M(')(III) arranged on an open honeycomb lattice. Performing a Holstein-Primakoff expansion, we obtain the spin-wave spectrum of antiferromagnetically coupled bimetallic oxalates as a function of the crystal-field angular momentum L(2) and L(3) on the M(II) and M(')(III) sites. Our results are applied to the Fe(II)Mn(III), Ni(II)Mn(III) and V(II)V(III) bimetallic oxalates, where the spin-wave gap varies from 0 meV for quenched angular momentum to as high as 15 meV. The presence or absence of magnetic compensation appears to have no effect on the spin-wave gap. PMID:21817242

  6. Kinetics of thermal decomposition of barium zirconyl oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of the thermal decomposition of anhydrous barium zirconyl oxalate and a carbonate intermediate have been studied. Decomposition of the anhydrous oxalate, though it could be explained based on a contracting-cube model, is quite complex. Kinetics of decomposition of the intermediate carbonate Ba2Zr2O5CO3 is greatly influenced by thermal effects during its formation. (α-t) curves are sigmoidal and obey a power law equation followed by first order decay. Presence of carbon in the vacuum-prepared carbonate has a strong deactivating effect. Decomposition of the carbonate is accompanied by growth in particle size of the product barium zirconate. (Author)

  7. Microwave studies on double rare earth oxalate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth, Anit [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Joseph, Cyriac [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Paul, Issac [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Ittyachen, M.A. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Mathew, K.T. [Microwave Imaging and Material Research Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022 (India)]. E-mail: ktm@cusat.ac.in; Lonappan, Anil [Microwave Imaging and Material Research Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022 (India); Jacob, Joe [Microwave Imaging and Material Research Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022 (India)

    2005-01-25

    Rare earth compounds are recognized for outstanding physical, magnetic and optical properties. The oxalates and molybdates have gained importance for their various properties, which find applications in electro and accusto optical devices. This paper reports the microwave dielectric studies on double rare earth oxalate crystals. Using the cavity perturbation technique dielectric parameters such as complex permittivity and conductivity at microwave frequencies is determined. Using X-ray diffraction study the crystalline nature of the samples was established. The molecular and crystal structures were identified by IR analysis.

  8. Research on Oxalate Oxidase and Its Genes in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; WANG Xiao-li; LIU jia; YI Zhi-gang; DONG Zhi-min

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the discovery, composition and structure of oxalate oxidase, as well as illustrates the biological functions of this enzyme. With a comprehensive introduction upon previous researches upon gene cloning and heredity transformation of this enzyme, it indicates that heredity transformation can increase the content of oxalate oxidase within the plants and also enhance their resistance. The paper also points out the problems such as lack of gene resources and difficulty in the transformation of heterologous genes, and the focus in later researches should be laid upon the exploration of plant resources relative to this enzyme and selection of resistant species.

  9. Differences in quantitative urine composition in stone-forming versus unaffected mate kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Eisenberg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael L Eisenberg1, Keith L Lee1, Benjamin N Breyer1, Thomas J Walsh2, Badrinath R Konety1, Marshall L Stoller11Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAObjectives: Many patients present with bilateral stones. There is a unique group of patients, however, that presents with stones exclusively on one side. We hypothesize that in such situations, 24-hour urine collections may not reveal specific defects on the affected stone-bearing kidney. We therefore evaluated selective 12-hour urine collections after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL to help determine if there is differential renal excretion.Methods: We collected urine specimens from patients with nephrolithiasis who underwent unilateral PNL. Urine samples were collected and analyzed from nephrostomy tubes, representing the affected kidneys, and from Foley bladder catheters, representing the contralateral mate kidney.Results: Thirty-one patients were studied (14 with unilateral nephrolithiasis and 17 with bilateral. Treated kidneys from patients with unilateral nephrolithiasis displayed lowered urine excretion of uric acid, sodium, chloride, calcium, and total osmoles when compared to patients with bilateral nephrolithiasis. Stone size and length of procedure were not predictive of urine composition after PNL.Conclusions: Treated kidneys from patients with a history of unilateral stone disease revealed marked differences in urine excretion compared to those with bilateral nephrolithiasis after unilateral PNL. These findings could be secondary to the surgical insult, urinary stone disease, or could be a responsible factor for stone pathogenesis.Keywords: percutaneous nephrolithotomy, kidney, stone, nephrolithiasis

  10. Effect of acute acid loading on acid-base and calcium metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, Palle J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acid-base and calcium metabolic responses to acute non-carbonic acid loading in idiopathic calcium stone-formers and healthy males using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h ammonium chloride loading studies were performed in 12 m...

  11. Concentration and size distribution of particulate oxalate in marine and coastal atmospheres - Implication for the increased importance of oxalate in nanometer atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianfeng; Li, Kai; Zhu, Yujiao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong

    2016-10-01

    In literature, particulate oxalate has been widely studied in the total suspended particles (TSP), particles 100 nm. In this article, we measured oxalate's concentrations in size-segregated atmospheric particles down to 10 nm or 56 nm during eight campaigns performed at a semi-urban coastal site, over the marginal seas of China and from the marginal seas to the northwest Pacific Ocean (NWPO) in 2012-2015. When the sum of the oxalate's concentration in particles values of 0.05-0.06 μg m-3 were observed during the two campaigns performed at NWPO. The highest average value of 0.38 μg m-3 was observed at the coastal site during a heavy pollution event. Mode analysis results of particulate oxalate and the correlation between oxalate and sulfate suggested that the elevated concentrations of oxalate in PM10 were mainly related to enhanced in-cloud formation of oxalate via anthropogenic precursors. Size distribution data in the total of 136 sets of samples also showed approximately 80% of particulate oxalate's mass existing in atmospheric particles >100 nm. Consistent with previous studies, particulate oxalate in particles >100 nm was a negligible ionic component when comparing to particulate SO42- in the same size range. However, the mole ratios of oxalate/sulfate in particles 100 nm atmospheric particles such as PM2.5, PM10, TSP, etc.

  12. 氯气氧化分解草酸钴沉淀母液中的草酸%Oxidation of oxalic acid by chlorine in mother-liquor originated from precipitation of cobalt oxalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田庆华; 易宇; 郭学益

    2011-01-01

    为有效去除草酸沉钴母液中残留的大量草酸,采用氯气作为氧化剂探索氧化分解母液中草酸的可行性.考察反应温度、反应时间、氯气用量、搅拌速度和钴离子浓度等因素对氧化效果的影响.确定了优化工艺条件:反应温度50℃,搅拌速度700 r/min,次氯酸钙150 g,6 mol/L盐酸550 mL,反应时间3h.在此条件下,草酸的氧化率可达97.9%,母液中残留的草酸质量浓度仅为0.42 g/L,处理后的母液可直接返回含钴物料的浸出,实现了工艺流程的闭路循环.%In order to remove the oxalic acid left in the mother-liquor originated from the precipitation of cobalt by oxalic acid, a novel method of using chlorine as the oxidant to decompose the oxalic acid was proposed. The main factors affecting the oxidation rate such as the solution temperature, reaction time, quantity of chlorine, stirring speed and Co2* concentration were investigated. The optimal conditions are as follows: 700 r/min of stirring speed, 150 g calcium hypochlorite, 550 mL of hydrochloric acid with concentration of 6 mol/L and 5 h of reaction time at 70 °C. Under these conditions, the oxidation rate of oxalic acid is 97.9% and the concentration of residual oxalic acid in mother liquor is only 0.42 g/L. The treated mother liquor can be returned directly for leaching cobalt. There is a closed circulation in the whole process.

  13. PREPARATION OF OXALATES OF METALS OF ATOMIC NUMBER GREATER THAN 88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for the preparation of oxalates of metals of atomic number greater than 88. A solid peroxide of the heavy metal is contacted with an aqueous oxalic acid solution ai a temperature of about 50 C for a period of time sufficient to form the insoluble metal oxalate which is subsequentiy recovered as a pures crystalline compound.

  14. Analysis of Bone Density in Patients with Urolithiasis; Role of Hypercalciuria in Bone Loss: Do These Patients Need a Low-Calcium Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Ali-Asghar Yarmohammadi; Mahmood Molaei; Samira Yaghoobi; Fateme Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Kidney stone is a common urologic complaint. In this study, bone density in stone formers was compared with that of a control group; bone density of stone formers was also analyzed based on age, sex and stone configuration. Methods: In a group of 85 patients with upper urinary calcium stones and 85 healthy people, variables such as age, height, weight, BMI, T-score and Z-score results of bone densitometry of lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) and femoral neck were recorded. The serum leve...

  15. The Matariki Stone of Rapanui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

  16. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  17. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  18. Calcium Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latvia - Lebanon - Libya - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Macedonia, Republic of - Malaysia - Malta - Mexico - Moldova - Morocco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Nigeria - ... and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What is Osteoporosis? The Board Introduction to Bone ...

  19. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  20. Urinary tract stones in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, S K; Heilman, R L; Eversman, W G

    1995-02-01

    The presence of stones during an otherwise uneventful pregnancy is a dramatic and potentially serious issue for the mother, the fetus, and the treating physicians alike. The incidence and predisposing factors are generally the same as in nonpregnant, sexually active, childbearing women. Unique metabolic effects in pregnancy such as hyperuricuria and hypercalciuria, changes in inhibitors of lithiasis formation, stasis, relative dehydration, and the presence of infection all have an impact on stone formation. The anatomic changes and physiologic hydronephrosis of pregnancy make the diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Presenting signs and symptoms include colic, flank pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, irritative voiding, fever, premature onset or cessation of labor, and pre-eclampsia. The initial evaluation and treatment are again similar to those used for the nonpregnant population. The most appropriate first-line test is renal ultrasonography, which may, by itself, allow the diagnosis to be made and provide enough information for treatment. Radiographic studies, including an appropriately performed excretory urogram, give specific information as to size and location of the stones, location of the kidneys, and differential renal function and can be used safely, but the ionizing radiation risks should be considered. All forms of treatment with the exception of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and some medical procedures are appropriate in the pregnant patient. Close coordination by the urologist, the obstetrician, the pediatrician, the anesthesiologist, and the radiologist is required for the appropriate care of these patients. PMID:7855714

  1. Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2016-05-17

    An active electrode material for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries includes a lithium transition metal oxide which is free of sodium and sulfur contaminants. The lithium transition metal oxide is prepared by calcining a mixture of a lithium precursor and a transition metal oxalate. Electrochemical devices use such active electrodes.

  2. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support.

  3. Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate by photoacoustics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sivabarathy; S Natarajan; S K Ramakrishnan; K Ramachandran

    2004-10-01

    Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate is studied by using TG, DTA and photoacoustic spectroscopy. A sharp transition at 378 K by photoacoustics is observed whereas at the same temperature the endothermic energy change observed by TG and DTA is not very sharp. This is discussed in detail with reference to the other known data for the organic crystals.

  4. Transcellular oxalate and Cl- absorption in mouse intestine is mediated by the DRA anion exchanger Slc26a3, and DRA deletion decreases urinary oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freel, Robert W; Whittamore, Jonathan M; Hatch, Marguerite

    2013-10-01

    Active transcellular oxalate transport in the mammalian intestine contributes to the homeostasis of this important lithogenic anion. Several members of the Slc26a gene family of anion exchangers have a measurable oxalate affinity and are expressed along the gut, apically and basolaterally. Mouse Slc26a6 (PAT1) targets to the apical membrane of enterocytes in the small intestine, and its deletion results in net oxalate absorption and hyperoxaluria. Apical exchangers of the Slc26a family that mediate oxalate absorption have not been established, yet the Slc26a3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)] protein is a candidate mediator of oxalate uptake. We evaluated the role of DRA in intestinal oxalate and Cl(-) transport by comparing unidirectional and net ion fluxes across short-circuited segments of small (ileum) and large (cecum and distal colon) intestine from wild-type (WT) and DRA knockout (KO) mice. In WT mice, all segments demonstrated net oxalate and Cl(-) absorption to varying degrees. In KO mice, however, all segments exhibited net anion secretion, which was consistently, and solely, due to a significant reduction in the absorptive unidirectional fluxes. In KO mice, daily urinary oxalate excretion was reduced 66% compared with that in WT mice, while urinary creatinine excretion was unchanged. We conclude that DRA mediates a predominance of the apical uptake of oxalate and Cl(-) absorbed in the small and large intestine of mice under short-circuit conditions. The large reductions in urinary oxalate excretion underscore the importance of transcellular intestinal oxalate absorption, in general, and, more specifically, the importance of the DRA exchanger in oxalate homeostasis.

  5. Protactinium(V) complexation by oxalic and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is devoted to complexation of Pa(V) with oxalic acid and DTPA. Structural data on the limiting complex have been collected by combining X-ray absorption Spectroscopy, Capillary Electrophoresis (CE-ICP-MS) and DFT calculations. Thermodynamic data have been deduced from solvent extraction experiments. XAS data registered on samples of Pa(V) in oxalic acid have revealed the presence of one single Pa-O oxo bond and 3 oxalate in a bidentate mode in the complex of maximum order. The structure optimization, performed through DFT calculations indicate that 2 oxalate lie in the equatorial plane of the Pa=O bond, whereas one oxygen of the third oxalate goes in the prolongation of the oxo bond. Stability constants of the three successive complexes were determined by solvent extraction in the TTA/toluene/H2O/Pa(V)/NaClO4/HClO4/H2C2O4 system at different temperatures and 3M ionic strength. The stability of the complexes was proved to increase with their order. CE-ICP-MS measurements on Pa/DTPA samples have indicated the formation of a neutral (1:1)limiting complex. This complex can therefore be written as Pa(DTPA). The optimized structure determined by DFT calculations allowed one to conclude that all eight donor atoms (5 O and 3 N) of the DTPA ligand are involved in the coordination of protactinium. The formation constant of this complex has been determined for different values of ionic strength and temperature. The complexation reaction of Pa(V) with DTPA was proved to be entropy controlled. (author)

  6. Microbial monitoring in treated stone at the Royal Chapel of Granada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jroundi, Fadwa; Pinar, Guadalupe; González-Muñoz, Maria Theresa; Sterflinger, Katja

    2014-05-01

    Biomineralization processes have been applied in situ to protect and consolidate decayed ornamental stone of the Royal Chapel in Granada (Spain). In few years, this conservation treatment has gained worth attention as environmentally friendly methodology for protection and consolidation of limestone because of the compatibilities shown between the new calcium carbonate cement and the original stone substrate. Moreover, the success of this approach may be related to the diversity of the microbiota inhabiting the stone and activated upon the biotreatment application and throughout the time. González-Muñoz et al. (2008) proposed a nutritional solution that activate among the bacteria inhabiting the stone those with carbonatogenic activity. In this study, a long-term (one, two and three years) monitoring of the microbiota present on the treated and untreated stones was done using a molecular strategy, including total DNA extraction, PCR amplification of 16S rRNA sequences, construction of clone libraries and fingerprinting by DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) analysis. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA revealed the dominant occurrence of members of Actinobacteria (44.20%), Gamma-proteobacteria (30.24%) and Chloroflexi (25.56%) after one year of the biotreatment. Whereas after two years, members of Cyanobacteria (22.10%) appeared and three years after, the microbiota consisted of only Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria with approximately the same percentage in comparison with the untreated stones, dominated exclusively by Actinobacteria (100%). Fungal diversity followed the same dynamic as bacterial diversity being Ascomicota the predominant order before treatment. After one year, members of Basidiomycota and Viridiplantae appeared on the stone while two years after, the Viridiplantae dominated with a percentage of 84.77%. Finally, three years after the treatment, fungi population started to stabilize again and Ascomicota predominated next to 16.67% of

  7. Real-Time kinetic studies of Bacillus subtilis oxalate decarboxylase and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora oxalate oxidase using a luminescent oxygen sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC, an enzyme of the bicupinsuperfamily, catalyzes the decomposition of oxalate into carbondioxide and formate at an optimal pH of 4.3 in the presence ofoxygen. However, about 0.2% of all reactions occur through anoxidase mechanism that consumes oxygen while producing twoequivalents of carbon dioxide and one equivalent of hydrogenperoxide. The kinetics of oxidase activity were studied bymeasuring the consumption of dissolved oxygen over time using a luminescent oxygen sensor. We describe the implementation of and improvements to the oxygen consumption assay. The oxidase activity of wild type OxDC was compared to that of the T165V OxDC mutant, which contains an impaired flexible loop covering the active site. The effects of various carboxylic acid-based buffers on the rate of oxidase activity were also studied. These results were compared to the oxidase activity of oxalate oxidase (OxOx, a similar bicupin enzyme that only carries out oxalate oxidation. Thetemperature dependence of oxidase activity was analyzed, andpreliminary results offer an estimate for the overall activationenergy of the oxidase reaction within OxDC. The data reported here thus provide insights into the mechanism of the oxidase activity of OxDC.

  8. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, F.; Schillinger, B.; Rohatsch, A.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

    2009-06-01

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  9. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  10. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, F. [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: hameed@ati.ac.at; Schillinger, B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, FRM II and Physics Department E21, Garching (Germany); Rohatsch, A. [Institute for Engineering Geology, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H. [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-06-21

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  11. Polarographic studies on mixed ligand complexes involving amino acids : ternary systems, Cd-α-alanine-oxalate and Cd-β-alanine-oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternary complexes of cadmium(II) with oxalate as primary ligand and α- and β-alanines as secondary ligands have been studied polarographically. Formation of three mixed complex species, [Cd(amino acid) (oxalate)], [Cd(amino acid) (oxalate)2] and [Cd(anino acid)2(oxalate)], is observed in each case. The reduction is reversible and diffusion-controlled. The stability constants have been evaluated usino the method of McMasters. The α-alanine complexes are found to be more stable than the corresponding β-alanine complexes. (author)

  12. How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Chan Sup

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracor...

  13. Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Stone Detection and Early Detection of Kidney Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. P.R. Tamilselvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most of the previous study in diagnosis of kidney stone identifies a mere presence or absence of the stones in the kidney. However proposal in our study even present an early detection of kidney stones which helps to change the diet conditions and prevent the formation of stones. Approach: The study presented a scheme for ultrasound kidney image diagnosis for stone and its early detection based on improved seeded region growing based segmentation and classification of kidney images with stone sizes. With segmented portions of the images the intensity threshold variation helps in identifying multiple classes to classify the images as normal, stone and early stone stages. The improved semiautomatic Seeded Region Growing (SRG based image segmentation process homogeneous region depends on the image granularity features, where the interested structures with dimensions comparable to the speckle size are extracted. The shape and size of the growing regions depend on this look up table entries. The region merging after the region growing also suppresses the high frequency artifacts. The diagnosis process is done based on the intensity threshold variation obtained from the segmented portions of the image and size of the portions compared to that of the standard stone sizes (less than 2 mm absence of stone, 2-4 mm early stages and 5mm and above presence of kidney stones. Results: The parameters of texture values, intensity threshold variation and stones sizes are evaluated with experimentation of various Ultrasound kidney image samples taken from the clinical laboratory. The texture extracted from the segmented portion of the kidney images presented in our study precisely estimate the size of the stones and the position of the stones in the kidney which was not done in the earlier studies. Conclusion: The integrated improved SRG and classification mechanisms presented in this study diagnosis the kidney stones presence

  14. Dependence of bisphenol A photodegradation on the initial concentration of oxalate in the lepidocrocite-oxalate complex system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Jun; LI Fang-bai; LAN Chong-yu; LIU Cheng-shuai; LI Xiao-min; LUAN Tian-gang

    2006-01-01

    To understand the degradation of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in natural environment with existence of iron oxides and carboxylic acids, the dependence ofbisphenol A (BPA) photodegradation on the initial concentration ofoxalate (Cox) in lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) aqueous suspension was investigated under both UV and visible lights in this study. Lepidocrocite powder was home-prepared by a hydrothermal process. It was found that BPA degradation was promoted greatly in the presence of oxalate owing to the formation of lepidocrocite-oxalate complex. And there was an optimal Cox, which was 2.0 and 2.4 mmol/L, under UV and visible lights, respectively. The first-order kinetic constant, k value increased 38 times from 0.17 × 10-2 min-1 in the absence of oxalate to 6.39 × 10-2 min-1 in the presence ofoxalate with an optimal Cox (2.0 mmol/L) under UV irradiation, and almost 306 times from 0.02 × 10-2 min-1 in the absence ofoxalate to 6.11 × 10-2 min-1 in the presence of oxalate with an optimal Cox (2.4 mmol/L) under visible irradiation. The BPA degradation rate increased and the first-order kinetic constants decreased with the increase in BPA initial concentration. The dependence of the variation of pH value, total-Fe and Fe2+ during the photoreaction on Cox was also investigated.The pH value increased obviously with the reaction time. Total-Fe increased dramatically at the first 5 min and then decreased quickly under UV irradiation and slowly under visible irradiation. The initial concentration of oxalate is a main factor to affect BPA photodegradation in aqueous suspension under both UV and visible lights.

  15. A Review of Porcelain Gallbladder Mimicking a Gallbladder Stone on Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyun Sun [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Cheju National University College of Medicine, Cheju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hong Rayang; Lim, Chung Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Porcelain gallbladder is a rare disorder by deposition of calcium in the wall of gallbladder. The chronic cholecystitis is reported to produce mural calcification and obstruction to the cystic duct by stone. Since porcelain gallbladder is commonly associated with gallbladder cancer, cholecystectomy is performed to prevent it. We report here a case of a patient with porcelain gallbladder. This case showed the typical ultrasonographic, computer tomographic and radiographic findings of the disease.

  16. Idiopathic Calcium Nephrolithiasis And Hypercalciuria: The Role Of Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaro, Giovanni; Abaterusso, Cataldo

    2007-04-01

    Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria are multifactorial disease conditions, the pathogenesis of which involves the interaction of environmental and individual factors. Data support a strong role of genes in the pathogenesis of these two conditions. Findings obtained in monogenic disorders characterized by renal calcium stones, and/or hypercalciuria, and/or nephrocalcinosis have proposed a number of genes as candidate genes in the pathogenesis of the common idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria. The physiological role of these genes, and findings in monogenic disorders and idiopathic, multifactorial disorders will be presented.

  17. Calcium chloride in stabilised soil roads and runways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Vardhan

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available Mudless, dustless, hard and all weather driving surfaces is a serious requirement of the forces.  surfacing by mixtures of definite amounts of locally available stone, gravel, sand, clay and Silt to which calculated amount of calcium chloride is added quickly compact and ultimately harden like concrete. This provides an easy, quick and economic- means of meeting the requirement.  Necessity of such surfaces, use and action of calcium chloride and resulting effects are discussed. Different methods of construction and application of calcium chloride are briefly related.

  18. Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

    2013-04-01

    Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global

  19. Modeling of the Calcium/Phosphorus Mass ratio for Breast Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, N.; Koukou, V.; Michail, C.; Sotiropoulou, P.; Kalyvas, N.; Kandarakis, I.; Nikiforidis, G.; Fountos, G.

    2015-09-01

    Breast microcalcifications are mainly composed of calcite (CaCO3), calcium oxalate (CaC2O4) and apatite (a calcium-phosphate mineral form). Any pathologic alteration (carcinogenesis) of the breast may produce apatite. In the present simulation study, an analytical model was implemented in order to distinguish malignant and non-malignant lesions. The Calcium/Phosphorus (Ca/P) mass ratio and the standard deviation (SD) of the calcifications were calculated. The size of the calcifications ranged from 100 to 1000 μm, in 50 μm increments. The simulation was performed for hydroxyapatite, calcite and calcium oxalate calcifications. The optimum pair of energies for all calcifications was 22keV and 50keV. Hydroxyapatite and calcite calcifications were sufficiently characterized through their distinct confidence interval (99.7%, 3SD) values for calcifications sizes above 500 μm, while the corresponding sizes for hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate characterization were found above 250 μm. Initial computer simulation results indicate that the proposed method can be used in breast cancer diagnosis, reducing the need for invasive methods, such as biopsies.

  20. A Lion of a Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm. This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

  1. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol. A.;

    2006-01-01

    The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, is one of the most destructive copper-tolerant fungi causing timber decay in buildings in temperate regions. Calcium and oxalic acid have been shown to play important roles in the mechanism of wood decay. The effect of calcium on growth and decay was evaluated...... for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi. This was done by treating copper citrate (CC)-treated Southern yellow pine (SYP) wood with a CaCl2 solution and estimating the decay rate and amount of soluble oxalic acid in an ASTM soil block test. Decay by S. lacrymans was found...... to be significantly inhibited by treatment with CaCl2 in the presence of copper. In addition, calcium showed no effect on two strains of S. lacrymans and one Serpula himantioides strain in non-copper-treated SYP wood blocks. The growth rate of S. lacrymans was not affected on malt extract agar containing CaCl2...

  2. Growth of strontium oxalate crystals in agar–agar gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P V Dalal; K B Saraf

    2011-04-01

    Single crystals of strontium oxalate have been grown by using strontium chloride and oxalic acid in agar–agar gel media at ambient temperature. Different methods for growing crystals were adopted. The optimum conditions were employed in each method by varying concentration of gel and reactants, and gel setting time etc. Transparent prismatic bi-pyramidal platy-shaped and spherulite crystals were obtained in various methods. The grown crystals were characterized with the help of FT–IR studies and monoclinic system of crystals were supported with lattice parameters = 9.67628 Å, = 6.7175 Å, = 8.6812 Å, = 113.566°, and = 521.84 Å3 calculated from X-ray diffractogram.

  3. Bis(l-serinium oxalate dihydrate: polymorph II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kulik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A corrected and improved structure of the polymorph II of 2C3H8NO3+·C2O42−·2H2O, based on single-crystal data, is presented. The structure is refined with anisotropic displacement parameters for all non-H atoms and all H atoms are located. Due to the charged moieties, the structure is classified as a molecular salt. Intermolecular O—H...O−, O—H...O and N+—H...O−hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure. The l-serinium cations and oxalate anions form a network of channels in [100] direction, filled with the water molecules of crystallization. The dihedral angle between the CO2 units of the oxalate dianion is 10.2 (3°

  4. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  5. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  6. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  7. Stone dust requirements and options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Humphreys; Terry O' Beirne [ACIRL (Australia)

    2000-10-01

    This project investigated the level of stone dusting required to inert Australian coals to prevent the propagation of a coal dust explosion. Coal samples from Australian mines were tested to determine individual inerting levels and other explosibility factors. These properties were correlated against other coal properties such as volatile content and vitrinite reflectance. The impacts of ignition energy in the test apparatus and of the presence of methane presence were examined. Results show that the inerting requirements for individual coals are not correlated to volatile content or any other common coal property. For the range of coals mined by underground methods in Australia, the individual inerting requirement varies from 83% to 85% total incombustible content (TIC) which is the stone dust plus ash and moisture from the coal. The impact of methane is to increase the inerting requirement by 5% TIC for the first 1% of methane present. Large-scale testing of one of the Australian coals was undertaken at the Klopperbos facility in South Africa to be compared against the results obtained in the laboratory. The results obtained indicated an inerting requirement of between 81.8% and 86.3% compared to the laboratory results of 84.3% at 5kJ ignition energy.

  8. Crystal structure of (ferrocenylmethyl)dimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate

    OpenAIRE

    Mamadou Ndiaye; Abdoulaye Samb; Libasse Diop; Thierry Maris

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title salt, [Fe(C5H5)(C8H13N)](HC2O4), consists of discrete (ferrocenylmethyl)dimethylammonium cations and hydrogen oxalate anions. The anions are connected through a strong O—H...O hydrogen bond, forming linear chains running parallel to [100]. The cations are linked to the anions through bifurcated N—H...(O,O′) hydrogen bonds. Weak C—H...π interactions between neighbouring ferrocenyl moieties are also observed.

  9. Conductivity of Oxalic Acid in Aqueous Solution at Low Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪良; 韩世钧

    2005-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a weak and unsymmetrical bi-basic acid. There exist dissociation and association equilibria among the species in aqueous solution. The molar conductivity of the solution is the sum of the ionic contributions.Based on this idea, a new prediction equation of ionic conductivity was proposed at low concentration. The molar conductivities of the solution and its relevant ions were calculated respectively. The results obtained were in good agreement with those from experiments and the Quint-Viallard equation.

  10. Neutral tripodal receptors towards efficient trapping of oxalate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjan Dutta; Bijit Chowdhury; Purnandhu Bose; Pradyut Ghosh

    2014-09-01

    Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) based pentafluorophenyl urea and 4-cyanophenyl thiourea receptors have shown encapsulation of oxalate (C2O$^{2−}_{4}$) in semi-aqueous environment. A single crystal X-ray study shows trapping of planar conformer of C2O$^{2−}_{4}$ in both the cases. Further solution state binding of C2O$^{2−}_{4}$ is probed by 1H-NMR titration study in semi-aqueous solvent.

  11. Equilibrium studies of oxalate and aluminum containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to develop data on the solubility and conditions leading to precipitation of sodium oxalate, sodium nitrate, Bayerite (a polymorph of gibbsite, Al(OH)3), and sodium aluminosilicate solids recently found in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The data generated will be used to improve the OLI Systems thermodynamic database for these compounds allowing better prediction of solids formation by the modeling software in the future.

  12. The crystal structure of urea oxalic acid (2:1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, S.; Bats, J.W.; Weyenberg, A.M.; Feil, D.

    1972-01-01

    The crystal structure of urea oxalic acid, 2[CO(NH2)2].(COOH)2 has been determined using three-dimensional X-ray data, collected on an automatic diffractometer. The space group is P21/c. The lattice constants are: a = 5.058 (3), b = 12.400 (3), c = 6.964 (2) A, fl= 98"13 (7) °. The number of molecul

  13. 草酸对园林植物的影响分析%Effect of oxalic acid on garden plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢佳亮

    2014-01-01

    The effect and damage oxalic acid on the human body is known to everyone. Oxalic acid is not easy to be oxidized and decomposed in the human body. The products after metabolism can cause the body pH unbalance, and affect the absorption of calcium and zinc. It is widely used in industry. Also from time to time it is used in districts to clean the exterior wall tiles or marble pavement and so on. So more or less it will have some impact on the garden plants. Therefore, we need to do some measures to minimize their influence and damage.%草酸对人体的影响和伤害为大家所熟知,草酸在人体内不容易被氧化分解掉,经代谢作用后形成的产物,可导致人体内酸碱度失去平衡,并影响对钙和锌的吸收。而在工业中被广泛应用的草酸,在小区中也不时会被用到,比如清洗外墙瓷砖或者地面大理石铺装等,对园林植物或多或少会造成一些影响,因此,需采取一些措施,使影响和伤害减到最低。

  14. Stone Formation in the Infected Pediatric Enterocystoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Proteus mirabilis is one of the most frequent bacterial agents that can induce infection stone formation by urease production. In recent years the influence of Proteus mirabilis on stone formation in enterocystoplasties has been primarily related to the presence of ure

  15. Ventricular candidiasis in stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Ventricular candidiasis is consistently one of the most prominent pathologic conditions diagnosed in stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus) in the United Arab Emirates, predominately affecting the captive population. Predisposing factors are a humid environment, stress, immunosuppression, inadequate nutrition, and an extended use of oral antibiotics. In this report, we describe the clinical signs, diagnosis, and pathologic result in stone curlews with ventricular candidiasis.

  16. Stability of Reshaping Breakwaters with Special Reference to Stone Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Hald, Tue; Burcharth, H. F.;

    1996-01-01

    inherently cause some breakage and abrasion of the individual stones and thereby also reduced stability. In order to avoid excessive abrasion a high stone quality is demanded or larger stones must be applied when constructed. To allow the designer to account for abrasion and armour stone breakage due...... movements. Also tensile stresses occur, as a result of stone against stone impact are discussed in order to make a more close connection between wave climate, stone movements and abrasion/breakage. Finally, a comparison to selected prototype structures is made to compare the armour stone movement model...

  17. Kidney stone risk following modern bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D; Canales, Benjamin K

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, a variety of reports have linked bariatric surgery to metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. Most of these studies were retrospective, lacked appropriate controls, or involved bariatric patients with a variety of inclusion criteria. Despite these limitations, recent clinical and experimental research has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this high-risk population. This review summarizes the urinary chemistry profiles that may be responsible for the increased kidney stone incidence seen in contemporary epidemiological bariatric studies, outlines the mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and potential therapies through a newly described experimental bariatric animal model, and provides a focused appraisal of recommendations for reducing stone risk in bariatric stone formers.

  18. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. PMID:26378390

  19. Translocation and bonding of calcium (45Ca) in two-year-old seedlings of spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the project ''Effect of liming and magnesium fertilization on the uptake, transport, and chemical bonding form of calcium and magnesium in conifers'', experiments regarding the calcium budget of two-year-old spruce and pine seedlings under conditions of controlled nutrition in a gravel culture were carried out. Two variants of calcium nutrition demonstrated which of the mechanisms in the calcium metabolism of trees are dependent on changes in element availability. Root labelling using the radioactive tracer 45Ca permitted aimed investigation of the uptake and translocation of calcium during shoot formation in May. The functional importance of the investigated nutritive element was characterized by breaking up the total calcium contents (45Ca) into the three essential chemical bonding forms (water-soluble Ca, Ca-pectate, Ca-oxalate) for the different tree fractions.- The culture experiments led to the conclusion that the root tips are most important as sites of calcium uptake. Translocation within the roots to the shoot took place via diffusion and exchange displacement as a function of calcium supply in the nutritive solution. There is no clue to support the assumption of a regulation of calcium uptake in spruces; in pines, by contrast, it cannot be excluded.- From a nutrition-physiological viewpoint, a total calcium content of 2 mg per gramme of dry mass is to be considered as sufficient. As this target is always attained, even where calcium supply is scarce, it is not appropriate to equate increased calcium availability with enhanced nutrient supply. Rather, the results discussed seem to support the theory that the trees now need to detoxicate excessively high calcium concentrations, which are liable to endanger the physiological cell metabolism, by a reaction with oxalic acid resulting in the formation of calcium oxalate. (orig.)

  20. Aromatase deficiency causes altered expression of molecules critical for calcium reabsorption in the kidneys of female mice *.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oz, O.K.; Hajibeigi, A.; Howard, K.; Cummins, C.L.; Abel, M. van; Bindels, R.J.M.; Word, R.A.; Kuro-o, M.; Pak, C.Y.; Zerwekh, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Kidney stones increase after menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. ArKO mice have hypercalciuria and lower levels of calcium transport proteins, whereas levels of the klotho protein are elevated. Thus, estrogen deficiency is sufficient to cause altered renal calcium handling. INTRODU

  1. Synthesis and sintering of nanocrystalline thoria doped with CaO and MgO derived through oxalate-deagglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthasivan, K., E-mail: asivan@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Balakrishnan, S.; Anthonysamy, S. [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E. [Physical Metallurgy Division, Metallurgy Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Ganesan, V. [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2013-03-15

    Thorium dioxide doped with oxides of magnesium and calcium was prepared from deagglomerated mixed oxalates. The influence of the dopant oxide concentration (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mol% MO, M = Mg, Ca) on the powder properties was studied. The dependence of bulk density, specific surface area, X-ray crystallite size, residual carbon content and distribution of particle size on the dopant concentrations was investigated in detail. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations revealed that the powders comprised cuboidal agglomerates with a nanocrystalline substructure (10 nm). It was found that 0.5 mol% calcia doped thoria exhibits better sinterability than pure thoria and magnesia doped thoria at a temperature as low as 1673 K. Further, it was demonstrated for the first time that doping nanocrystalline thoria with calcia helps reduce the de-sintering phenomena.

  2. Bone metabolism and renal stone risk during International Space Station missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M; Heer, Martina; Shackelford, Linda C; Sibonga, Jean D; Spatz, Jordan; Pietrzyk, Robert A; Hudson, Edgar K; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-01

    Bone loss and renal stone risk are longstanding concerns for astronauts. Bone resorption brought on by spaceflight elevates urinary calcium and the risk of renal stone formation. Loss of bone calcium leads to concerns about fracture risk and increased long-term risk of osteoporosis. Bone metabolism involves many factors and is interconnected with muscle metabolism and diet. We report here bone biochemistry and renal stone risk data from astronauts on 4- to 6-month International Space Station missions. All had access to a type of resistive exercise countermeasure hardware, either the Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED) or the Interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED). A subset of the ARED group also tested the bisphosphonate alendronate as a potential anti-resorptive countermeasure (Bis+ARED). While some of the basic bone marker data have been published, we provide here a more comprehensive evaluation of bone biochemistry with a larger group of astronauts. Regardless of exercise, the risk of renal stone formation increased during spaceflight. A key factor in this increase was urine volume, which was lower during flight in all groups at all time points. Thus, the easiest way to mitigate renal stone risk is to increase fluid consumption. ARED use increased bone formation without changing bone resorption, and mitigated a drop in parathyroid hormone in iRED astronauts. Sclerostin, an osteocyte-derived negative regulator of bone formation, increased 10-15% in both groups of astronauts who used the ARED (p<0.06). IGF-1, which regulates bone growth and formation, increased during flight in all 3 groups (p<0.001). Our results are consistent with the growing body of literature showing that the hyper-resorptive state of bone that is brought on by spaceflight can be countered pharmacologically or mitigated through an exercise-induced increase in bone formation, with nutritional support. Key questions remain about the effect of exercise-induced alterations in bone

  3. Mourning in Bits and Stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    We mourn our dead, publicly and privately, online and offline. Cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites make up parts of todays intricately weaved and interrelated network of death, grief and memorialization practices [1]–[5]. Whether cut in stone or made of bits, graves, cemeteries......, memorials, monuments, websites and social networking services (SNS) all are alterable, controllable and adaptive. They represent a certain rationale contrary to the emotive state of mourning (e.g. gravesites function as both spaces of internment and places of spiritual and emotional recollection). Following...... the divide between ‘states of rationale’ and ‘states of sentiment’ and augment the loop of exchanges between the two. We switch interdependently between these states by a seemingly coincidental structure, when subjected to involuntary memories or episodic reminders afforded by trigger parameters...

  4. Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Ureteral Stones: Evaluation of Patient and Stone Related Predictive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Yazici

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the patient and stone related factors which may influence the final outcome of SWL in the management of ureteral stones.Materials and Methods:Between October 2011 and October 2013, a total of 204 adult patients undergoing SWL for single ureteral stone sizing 5 to 15 mm were included into the study program. The impact of both patient (age, sex, BMI, and stone related factors (laterality, location, longest diameter and density as CT HU along with BUN and lastly SSD (skin to stone distance on fragmentation were analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Stone free rates for proximal and distal ureteral stones were 68.8% and 72.7%, respectively with no statistically significant difference between two groups (p=0.7. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, while higher BMI (mean: 26.8 and 28.1, p=0.048 and stone density values (mean: 702 HU and 930 HU, p<0.0001 were detected as statistically significant independent predictors of treatment failure for proximal ureteral stones, the only statistically significant predicting parameter for the success rates of SWL in distal ureteral stones was the higher SSD value (median: 114 and 90, p=0.012.Conclusions:Our findings have clearly shown that while higher BMI and increased stone attenuation values detected by NCCT were significant factors influencing the final outcome of SWL treatment in proximal ureteral stones; opposite to the literature, high SSD was the only independent predictor of success for the SWL treatment of distal ureteral stones.

  5. Determination of common anions in oxalate by ion chromatography coupled with UV photolysis pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Lin Cao; Ming Li Ye; Wei De Lv; Guang Wen Pan; Ting Ting Zhang; Zhong Yang Hu; Li Na Liang; Yan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    A new and simple method was developed to determine anions in oxalate of analytical reagent grade.After UV photolysis with optimal 1% H2O2 in 10,000 mg/L oxalate in the fabricated photoreactor,sample was directly injected into IC system.Satisfactory linearity,detections limits,good repeatability and spiked recovery were obtained.The method was successfully applied to determine anions in two commercial oxalate samples.

  6. Oxidation of aquatic pollutants by ferrous–oxalate complexes under dark aerobic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electron transfer from ferrous–oxalate complexes to oxygen occurs in dark conditions. • OH radicals generated by ferrous–oxalate complexes initiate the oxidation process. • Degradation kinetics depends on the speciation of ferrous–oxalate complexes. • Ferrous–oxalate complexes are the most efficient for the degradation of pollutants. - Abstract: This study evaluates the ability of FeII–oxalate complexes for the generation of ·OH through oxygen reduction and the oxidative degradation of aquatic pollutants under dark aerobic conditions (i.e., with oxygen but without light). The degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was rapid in the mixture of Fe2+ and oxalate prepared using ultrapure water, but was absent without either Fe2+ or oxalate. The formation of FeII–oxalate complexes enables two-electron reduction of oxygen to generate H2O2 and subsequent production of ·OH. The significant inhibition of 4-CP degradation in the presence of H2O2 and ·OH scavenger confirms such mechanisms. The degradation experiments with varying [Fe2+], [oxalate], and initial pH demonstrated that the degradation rate depends on [FeII(Ox)22−], but the degree of degradation is primarily determined by [FeII(Ox)22−] + [FeII(Ox)0]. Efficient degradation of diverse aquatic pollutants, especially phenolic pollutants, was observed in the FeII–oxalate complexes system, wherein the oxidation efficacy was primarily correlated with the reaction rate constant between pollutant and ·OH. The effect of various organic ligands (oxalate, citrate, EDTA, malonate, and acetate) on the degradation kinetics of 4-CP was investigated. The highest efficiency of oxalate for the oxidative degradation is attributed to its high capability to enhance the reducing power and low reactivity with ·OH

  7. Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Escitalopram Oxalate and Clonazepam in Tablet Dosage Form

    OpenAIRE

    Kakde R; Satone D

    2009-01-01

    A simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam in combined dosage form. Simultaneous equation method is employed for simultaneous determination of escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam from combined dosage forms. In this method, the absorbance was measured at 238 nm for escitalopram oxalate and 273 nm for clonazepam. Linearity was observed in range of 5-100 μg/ml and 5-50 μg/ml for escitalo...

  8. Determination of residues in honey after treatments with formic and oxalic acid under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov, Stefan; Charrière, Jean-Daniel; IMDORF, Anton; KILCHENMANN, Verena; Fluri, Peter

    2002-01-01

    International audience Formic acid and oxalic acid field trials for control of Varroa destructor were carried out in autumn according to the Swiss prescriptions during three successive years in different apiaries in Switzerland. The following parameters were determined in honey that was harvested the year after treatment: formic acid, oxalic acid and free acidity. The following range of values were found in honeys of untreated colonies: formic acid, from 17 to 284 mg/kg, n = 34; oxalic aci...

  9. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  10. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  11. Usefulness of computed tomography in recurrent nephrolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For five cases of recurrent stone formers we performed Computed Tomography, which revealed non-visualized small stones on KUB and uric acid stones. Case 1 was primary hyperparathyroidism. Case 2 had several episodes of spontaneous stone passage without any stone shadow on routine X-ray examination. Case 3 had single ureteral stone on X-ray film. Case 4 had several episodes of spontaneous passage of mixed stones (uric acid and calcium oxalate). Case 5 had bilateral radiolucent large renal stones. We emphasized the superiority of Computed Tomography in search and prophylactic therapy of the stone formation. (author)

  12. Relationship of physical and chemical properties change of rat urine and urinary stone formation with Vitamin K deficiency%维生素K缺乏时鼠尿理化性质的改变与尿结石形成的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建军; 陈鹏杰; 杨海平; 李磊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship of physical and chemical properties change of rat urine and urinary stone formation when rat received vitamin K - free diet. Methods Male Wister rats were fed by different feed and water for four weeks. The changes of volume and the physical and chemical indicators of rat urine were observed in each group. The relationship of these factors and urinary stones formation was analyzed. The contents of Vitamin K1 in plasma were detected by HPLC. Results Animal model of lack of vitamin K have been successfully replicated. Rats urine volume, urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in 24 hours in a lack of vitamin K diet group were obvious higher than those in control group. PH value of the urine shows rat urine was significantly acidified in a lack of vitamin K diet group. Conclusion The changes of physical and chemical properties of rat urine conducive to the formation of urinary stones when Vitamin K deficiency.%目的 观察无维生素K饲料喂养大鼠尿液理化性质的改变与尿结石形成的关系.方法 应用不同的饲料和饮水喂养雄性Wister大鼠4周,观察各组鼠尿量及理化指标的变化,分析其与尿结石形成的关系;并且高压液相法测定各组血浆维生素K1的浓度.结果 缺乏维生素K动物实验模型成功;缺乏维生素K饲料组大鼠尿量、尿钙和草酸的24 h排出量明显高于对照组,同时尿pH值显示缺乏维生素K饲料组鼠尿明显酸化.结论 当体内维生素K缺乏时,鼠尿理化性质改变有利于尿结石形成趋势.

  13. A human strain of Oxalobacter (HC-1) promotes enteric oxalate secretion in the small intestine of mice and reduces urinary oxalate excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Marguerite; Freel, Robert W

    2013-10-01

    Enteric oxalate secretion that correlated with reductions in urinary oxalate excretion was previously reported in a mouse model of primary hyperoxaluria, and in wild type (WT) mice colonized with a wild rat strain (OXWR) of Oxalobacter (Am J Physiol 300:G461–G469, 2010). Since a human strain of the bacterium is more likely to be clinically used as a probiotic therapeutic, we tested the effects of HC-1 in WT. Following artificial colonization of WT mice with HC-1, the bacteria were confirmed to be present in the large intestine and, unexpectedly, detected in the small intestine for varying periods of time. The main objective of the present study was to determine whether the presence of HC-1 promoted intestinal secretion in the more proximal segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, we determined whether HC-1 colonization led to reductions in urinary oxalate excretion in these mice. The results show that the human Oxalobacter strain promotes a robust net secretion of oxalate in the distal ileum as well as in the caecum and distal colon and these changes in transport correlate with the beneficial effect of reducing renal excretion of oxalate. We conclude that OXWR effects on intestinal oxalate transport and oxalate homeostasis are not unique to the wild rat strain and that, mechanistically, HC-1 has significant potential for use as a probiotic treatment for hyperoxaluria especially if it is also targeted to the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Famous building stones of our Nation's capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

  15. [Salivary stones: aetiology, composition and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, S; Brand, H S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones or sialoliths, are calcified concrements which are most frequently located in the submandibular glands and their ducts. Their size and weight show considerable variation. The aetiology is unknown. It has been suggested that salivary stones could be related to an altered saliva composition, the anatomy of the ducts of the salivary gland and/or the fusion of microsialoliths. Salivary stones consist mainly of anorganic material such as hydroxyapatite, whitlockite and calciumphosphate, but they also contain organic components such as proteins and lipids. Treatment can consist of salivary gland massage combined with an acid diet, ultrasonic pulverisation, and surgical or sialendoscopical removal. PMID:26188478

  16. Retrograde intrarenal stone surgery for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy-resistant kidney stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Nørby, Bettina; Osther, Palle Jörn

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The newer flexible ureteroscopes, 150-200-microm holmium YAG laser fibres and superflexible Dormia baskets have made it possible to reach and treat stones in all parts of the kidney. The object of this evaluation was to study the outcome of retrograde intrarenal stone surgery (RIRS......) for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)-resistant kidney stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 38 consecutive patients (18 males, 20 females) participated in the study. All patients had undergone ESWL prior to RIRS without success. In all cases the stones could be reached with the endoscope. Calculi...

  17. Should we prescribe calcium supplements for osteoporosis prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian R

    2014-02-01

    Advocacy for the use of calcium supplements arose at a time when there were no other effective interventions for the prevention of osteoporosis. Their promotion was based on the belief that increasing calcium intake would increase bone formation. Our current understandings of the biology of bone suggest that this does not occur, though calcium does act as a weak antiresorptive. Thus, it slows postmenopausal bone loss but, despite this, recent meta-analyses suggest no significant prevention of fractures. In sum, there is little substantive evidence of benefit to bone health from the use of calcium supplements. Against this needs to be balanced the likelihood that calcium supplement use increases cardiovascular events, kidney stones, gastrointestinal symptoms, and admissions to hospital with acute gastrointestinal problems. Thus, the balance of risk and benefit seems to be consistently negative. As a result, current recommendations are to obtain calcium from the diet in preference to supplements. Dietary calcium intake has not been associated with the adverse effects associated with supplements, probably because calcium is provided in smaller boluses, which are absorbed more slowly since they come together with quantities of protein and fat, resulting in a slower gastric transit time. These findings suggest that calcium supplements have little role to play in the modern therapeutics of osteoporosis, which is based around the targeting of safe and effective anti-resorptive drugs to individuals demonstrated to be at increased risk of future fractures. PMID:24707464

  18. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built

  19. Pulmonary function tests in stone crushers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Sachin B; Mane, Satish B; Handergulle, Sunita S; Kekan, Dinkar

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional type of observational study was conducted at 7 various stone crusher units on 120 male stone crushers and 120 healthy male controls. Values of FEF25-27% and PEFR were recorded on computerized spirometer and were compared between workers and age matched controls group. The value of FEF25-75% and PEFR was significantly reduced in stone crushers as compared to controls. Also as the duration of exposure increases the values of flow rates goes on decreasing among workers. Stone crushers of Marathwada region of Maharashtra exposed to silica dust were prone to develop lung disorders as indicated by reduced value of FEF25-75% and PEFR. PMID:25906617

  20. The nutrition consult for recurrent stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penniston, Kristina L

    2015-07-01

    Diet is implicated in stone formation and growth. Whether alone or in concert with pharmacologics, dietary changes may be useful in reducing recurrence but only when they correct dietary stone-forming risks. Patients benefit from recommendations individualized to their food preferences as well as to lifestyle, age, food knowledge and access, preparation skills, and cultural and ethnic identities. Urologists can provide general dietary recommendations but often lack the time to provide the full complement of individualized nutrition care offered by a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN). Urologists can partner with and refer patients to a RDN for any component of the nutrition care process: assessment of diet, diagnosis of dietary factors that contribute to stone risk factors, intervention formulation and implementation, and monitoring the effectiveness of the intervention and modifying it as needed to maintain suitably low dietary risk for stone recurrence.

  1. Hunting Plan : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge Hunting Plan provides guidance for the management of hunting on the refuge. Hunting program objectives include providing a...

  2. Protection of Metal Artifacts with the Formation of Metal-Oxalates Complexes by Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Edith; Cario, Sylvie; Simon, Anaële; Wörle, Marie; Mazzeo, Rocco; Junier, Pilar; Job, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g L(-1), and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal-oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archeological and modern metal artifacts. The production of copper oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archeological and modern). The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal-oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. On silver, a co-precipitation of copper and silver oxalates occurred. As this greenish patina would not be acceptable on silver objects, silver reduction was explored as a tarnishing remediation. First experiments showed the transformation of silver nitrate into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown extracellular mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artifacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals. PMID:22291684

  3. Kidney Stone Risk Following Modern Bariatric Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D.; Canales, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, a variety of reports have linked bariatric surgery to metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. Most of these studies were retrospective, lacked appropriate controls, or involved bariatric patients with a variety of inclusion criteria. Despite these limitations, recent clinical and experimental research has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this high-risk population. This review summarizes the urinary chemistry profiles t...

  4. The evolving epidemiology of stone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Roudakova, Ksenia; Monga, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of kidney stones is evolving – not only is the prevalence increasing, but also the gender gap has narrowed. What drives these changes? Diet, obesity or environmental factors? This article will review the possible explanations for a shift in the epidemiology, with the hope of gaining a better understanding of the extent to which modifiable risk factors play a role on stone formation and what measures may be undertaken for disease prevention in view of these changing trends.

  5. The evolving epidemiology of stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudakova, Ksenia; Monga, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of kidney stones is evolving - not only is the prevalence increasing, but also the gender gap has narrowed. What drives these changes? Diet, obesity or environmental factors? This article will review the possible explanations for a shift in the epidemiology, with the hope of gaining a better understanding of the extent to which modifiable risk factors play a role on stone formation and what measures may be undertaken for disease prevention in view of these changing trends. PMID:24497682

  6. Stone structures in the Syrian Desert

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    An arid land, known as the Syrian Desert, is covering a large part of the Middle East. In the past, this harsh environment, characterized by huge lava fields, the "harraat", was considered as a barrier between Levant and Mesopotamia. When we observe this desert from space, we discover that it is crossed by some stone structures, the "desert kites", which were the Neolithic traps for the game. Several stone circles are visible too, as many Stonehenge sites dispersed in the desert landscape.

  7. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  8. Percutaneous lithotripsy for removing difficult bile duct stones using endoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Hyung; Sohn, Chul Ho; Kim, Young Hwan [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    To describe efficacy of percutaneous lithotripsy for removing difficult bile duct stones using endoscopy. A total of 88 patients with difficulties for the removal of bile duct stones using endoscopy (an impacted stone, stone size > 15 mm, intrahepatic duct (IHD) stone, stone size to bile duct diameter ratio > 1.0), were enrolled in this study. A 12 Fr sheath was inserted through the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tract, and then nitrol stone baskets and a 0.035' snare wire were used to capture, fragment and remove the stones. The technical and clinical success rates were analyzed, together with an analysis of any complications. The overall technical success rate of stone removal was achieved in 79 of 88 patients (89.8%). In five of nine patients with failed stone removal, small residual IHD stones were noted on a cholangiogram. Even if stone removal failed in these cases, cholangitic symptoms were improved and the drainage catheter was successfully removed. Therefore, clinical success was achieved in 84 of 88 patients (95.5%). There were no significant procedure-related complications, except for sepsis in one case. Billiary stone removal using the stone basket and guide-wire snare technique through the PTBD tract is a safe and effective procedure that can be used as a primary method in patients with difficulties for the removal of bile duct stones using endoscopy.

  9. Manganese oxalate nanorods as ballistic modifier for composite solid propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Manganese oxalate nanorods were prepared using mild thermal precipitation and aging. • The nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for solid propellants. • The nanorods sensitized the thermolysis of ammonium perchlorate. • Controlled thermal decomposition of nanorods yielded manganese oxide nanoparticles. • MnO nanoparticles formed insitu in the condensed phase enhance the burning rates. - Abstract: Rod-shaped nanostructures of manganese oxalate (MnC2O4) were synthesized via mild thermal precipitation and aging process. Chemical composition of the MnC2O4 nanorods was confirmed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies revealed the crystal structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) imaging and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) were employed to study the structural features of the nanorods. The MnC2O4 nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for the burning rate enhancement of composite solid propellants (CSPs). Thermal analysis using TGA-DSC showed that MnC2O4 nanorods sensitized the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and the CSPs. Controlled thermal decomposition of the MnC2O4 nanorods resulted in the formation of managanese oxide nanoparticles with mesoporosity. A plausible mechanism for the burning rate enhancement using MnC2O4 nanorods was proposed

  10. Deep catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with oxalate-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hongying; Li, Pengcheng; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Wang, Shunan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Han

    2015-07-01

    An oxalate-based DES with a tetrabutyl ammonium chloride and oxalate acid molar ratio of 1/2 (TBO1 : 2) exhibited high activity in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under mild reaction conditions. It is potentially a promising and highly environmentally friendly approach for desulfurization of fuels. PMID:26051675

  11. The oxalic acid biosynthetic activity of Burkholderia mallei is encoded by a single locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although it is known that oxalic acid provides a selective advantage to the secreting microbe, our understanding of how this acid is biosynthesized remains incomplete. This study reports the identification, cloning, and partial characterization of the oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme from the animal ...

  12. Oxalic acid biosynthesis is encoded by an operon in Burkholderia glumae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the biosynthesis of oxalic acid is known to occur in a number of bacteria, the mechanism(s) regulating its production remains largely unknown. To date, there is no report on the identification of an oxalic acid biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria. In an attempt to identify such a gene...

  13. Reflectance spectroscopy of oxalate minerals and relevance to Solar System carbon inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applin, Daniel M.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Cloutis, Edward A.

    2016-11-01

    The diversity of oxalate formation mechanisms suggests that significant concentrations of oxalic acid and oxalate minerals could be widely distributed in the Solar System. We have carried out a systematic study of the reflectance spectra of oxalate minerals and oxalic acid, covering the 0.2-16 μm wavelength region. Our analyses show that oxalates exhibit unique spectral features that enable discrimination between oxalate phases and from other commonly occurring compounds, including carbonates, in all regions of the spectrum except for the visible. Using these spectral data, we consider the possible contribution of oxalate minerals to previously observed reflectance spectra of many objects throughout the Solar System, including satellites, comets, and asteroids. We find that polycarboxylic acid dimers and their salts may explain the reflectance spectra of many carbonaceous asteroids in the 3 μm spectral region. We suggest surface concentration of these compounds may be a type of space weathering from the photochemical and oxidative decomposition of the organic macromolecular material found in carbonaceous chondrites. The stability and ubiquity of these minerals on Earth, in extraterrestrial materials, and in association with biological processes make them useful for many applications in Earth and planetary sciences.

  14. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Oxalic Acid and Its application in Lathyrus sativus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ze-Yi; XING Geng-Mei; LI Zhi-Xiao

    2003-01-01

    @@ Oxalic acid is one of the most common nutrient chelators in the human diet found in many vegetables, such as mushroom, spinach, fresh kidney beans, rhubarb leaves and beet leaves. Some recent reports demonstrate that oxalate plays an important role in resistance stress metabolism and steady state regulation in plant. [1

  15. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hà Vũ Hồng Nguyễn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L. and golden (Actinidia chinensis L. were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW, while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  16. In vitro selection of rape variants resistant to oxalic acid using haploid stem apexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutagenic treatment was made of the haploid stem apexes rape strain '9841' and '9885' with Pingyangmycin. As a result of positive selection with oxalic acid providing selection pressure, variants with significantly higher tolerance to oxalic acid than the original ones were obtained. 3 germplasm with significantly higher resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum than cultivar Hu You 12 were selected from field test

  17. Electrochemical Oxidation and Determination of Oxalic Acid at an Exfoliated Graphite-Polystyrene Composite Electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, J.; Manea, F.; Radovan, C.; Corb, I.; Pop, A.; Burtica, G.; Malchev, P.G.; Picken, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    An exfoliated graphite-polystyrene composite electrode was evaluated as analternative electrode in the oxidation and the determination of oxalic acid in 0.1 M Na2SO4supporting electrolyte. Using CV, LSV, CA procedures, linear dependences I vs. C wereobtained in the concentrations range of oxalic aci

  18. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  19. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  20. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...