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Sample records for calcium oxalate stone

  1. Oxalate and sucralose absorption in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers.

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    Knight, John; Jiang, Juquan; Wood, Kyle D; Holmes, Ross P; Assimos, Dean G

    2011-08-01

    To better understand intestinal oxalate transport by correlating oxalate and sucralose absorption in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Oxalate has been hypothesized to undergo absorption in the large and small intestine by both paracellular and transepithelial transport. Sucralose is a chlorinated sugar that is absorbed by paracellular mechanisms. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers were recruited to provide urine specimens on both a self-selected diet and after a meal containing 90 mg of (13)C(2-)oxalate and 5 g of sucralose, and a stool sample for determination of Oxalobacter formigenes colonization. The 24-hour urine collections were fractionated into the first 6 hours and the subsequent 18 hours. Sucralose and oxalate excretion were measured during these periods and used to estimate absorption. Thirty-eight subjects were evaluated. The majority of both the (13)C(2-)oxalate and sucralose absorption occurred within the 0-6-hour collection. The (13)C(2-)oxalate and sucralose absorptions were significantly correlated at the 0-6 hour, the 6-24 hour, and the total 24-hour time periods (P 15% absorption) also absorbed significantly more sucralose during the 0-6 hour and whole 24-hour time points (P sucralose absorption, may also influence oxalate absorption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diversity in protein profiles of individual calcium oxalate kidney stones.

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    Okumura, Nobuaki; Tsujihata, Masao; Momohara, Chikahiro; Yoshioka, Iwao; Suto, Kouzou; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko; Takao, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Calcium oxalate kidney stones contain low amounts of proteins, some of which have been implicated in progression or prevention of kidney stone formation. To gain insights into the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, we have characterized protein components of calcium oxalate kidney stones by proteomic approaches. Proteins extracted from kidney stones showed highly heterogeneous migration patterns in gel electrophoresis as reported. This was likely to be mainly due to proteolytic degradation and protein-protein crosslinking of Tamm-Horsfall protein and prothrombin. Protein profiles of calcium oxalate kidney stones were obtained by in-solution protease digestion followed by nanoLC-MALDI-tandem mass spectrometry, which resulted in identification of a total of 92 proteins in stones from 9 urolithiasis patients. Further analysis showed that protein species and their relative amounts were highly variable among individual stones. Although proteins such as prothrombin, osteopontin, calgranulin A and calgranulin B were found in most stones tested, some samples had high contents of prothrombin and osteopontin, while others had high contents of calgranulins. In addition, calgranulin-rich stones had various neutrophil-enriched proteins such as myeloperoxidase and lactotransferrin. These proteomic profiles of individual kidney stones suggest that multiple systems composed of different groups of proteins including leucocyte-derived ones are differently involved in pathogenesis of individual kidney stones depending on situations.

  3. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease.

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    David W Killilea

    Full Text Available One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease.

  4. Calcium Oxalate Stone Agglomeration Inhibition [tm] Reflects Renal Stone-Forming Activity

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    Lindberg, Jill S.; Cole, Francis E.; Romani, William; Husserl, Fred E.; Fuselier, Harold A.; Kok, Dirk J.; Erwin, Donald T.

    2000-01-01

    Louisiana and other Gulf South states comprise a “Stone Belt” where calcium oxalate stone formers (CaOx SFs) are found at a high rate of approximately 5%. In these patients, the agglomeration of small stone crystals, which are visible in nearly all morning urine collections, forms stones that can become trapped in the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. Without therapy, about half of CaOx SFs repeatedly form kidney stones, which can cause excruciating pain that can be relieved by passage, fragmentation (lithotripsy), or surgical removal. The absence of stones in “normal” patients suggests that there are stone inhibitors in “normal” urines. At the Ochsner Renal Stone Clinic, 24-hour urine samples are collected by the patient and sent to the Ochsner Renal Stone Research Program where calcium oxalate stone agglomeration inhibition [tm] measurements are performed. Urine from healthy subjects and inactive stone formers has demonstrated strongly inhibited stone growth [tm] in contrast to urine from recurrent CaOx SFs. [tm] data from 1500 visits of 700 kidney stone patients have been used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in Ochsner's CaOx SF patients. These data have also been used to demonstrate the interactive roles of certain identified urinary stone-growth inhibitors, citrate and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), which can be manipulated with medication to diminish recurrent stone formation. Our goal is to offer patients both financial and pain relief by reducing their stones with optimized medication, using medical management to avoid costly treatments. PMID:21811395

  5. Proteomic analysis of a rare urinary stone composed of calcium carbonate and calcium oxalate dihydrate: a case report.

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    Kaneko, Kiyoko; Matsuta, Yosuke; Moriyama, Manabu; Yasuda, Makoto; Chishima, Noriharu; Yamaoka, Noriko; Fukuuchi, Tomoko; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Suzuki, Koji

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the matrix protein of a rare urinary stone that contained calcium carbonate. A urinary stone was extracted from a 34-year-old male patient with metabolic alkalosis. After X-ray diffractometry and infrared analysis of the stone, proteomic analysis was carried out. The resulting mass spectra were evaluated with protein search software, and matrix proteins were identified. X-ray diffraction and infrared analysis confirmed that the stone contained calcium carbonate and calcium oxalate dihydrate. Of the identified 53 proteins, 24 have not been previously reported from calcium oxalate- or calcium phosphate-containing stones. The protease inhibitors and several proteins related to cell adhesion or the cytoskeleton were identified for the first time. We analyzed in detail a rare urinary stone composed of calcium carbonate and calcium oxalate dihydrate. Considering the formation of a calcium carbonate stone, the new identified proteins should play an important role on the urolithiasis process in alkaline condition. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  6. Blumea Balsamifera (Sambong Tea as a Therapeutic Drink for Calcium Oxalate Stones

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    Montealegre Charlimagne M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate stones are among the most prevalent type of kidney stones. Methods of treatment range from surgical removal, shockwave lithotripsy, medical and natural treatment. In the Philippines, consuming tea preparation of Blumea balsamifera is believed to aid in the treatment of kidney stones. The effect of Blumea balsamifera tea in the nucleation of calcium oxalate crystals was studied at 0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg tea preparation per mL of the crystallization solution by UV-Vis spectrophotomery. Induction time decreased with increasing concentration of Blumea balsamifera tea. Further analysis showed that this decrease in induction time is due to a decrease in surface free energy from 20.95 mJ/m2 to 19.48 mJ/m2 and 17.22 mJ/m2 at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL, respectively. This decrease in induction time correspond to an increased nucleation rate thus, a large number of smaller crystals are formed. This explains the therapeutic benefits of consuming Blumea balsamifera tea as stone formers would form smaller stones that are easier to eliminate by urination.

  7. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

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    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  8. [The effect of different food forms on the urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation].

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    Siener, R; Hesse, A

    1993-03-01

    The aim of this 17-day study was to examine the influence of four different diets on urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation in 10 healthy male subjects. In the course of phase 0, the subjects were on their individual diet for 2 days. In the following phases I, II, and III the subjects received three different standard diets for a duration of 5 days each. Whereas DIET 1 (normal mixed diet) corresponded to the dietary habits of men aged 19 to 35 years, DIET 2 (balanced mixed diet) and DIET 3 (ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet) were calculated according to the dietary recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition (DGE) for the same age-group. The risk of calcium oxalate stone formation, calculated by the computer program EQUIL of FINLAYSON, was highest on the self-selected diet and on DIET 1, but declined significantly on the intake of DIET 2 by 50% on average compared to DIET 1 and by 61% compared to phase 0. On DIET 3 no further significant decline in the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation was observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the change of usual dietary habits into a balanced mixed diet significantly reduces the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation. With a vegetarian diet a comparable decline in urine supersaturation of calcium oxalate can be achieved with respect to a mixed diet according to requirements. Since urinary oxalic acid excretion increased significantly, a vegetarian diet is not recommend for calcium oxalate stone patients with absorptive hyperoxaluria.

  9. Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites

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    S. Vaitheeswari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model.Materials and Methods:The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4 on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques.Results:The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4.Conclusion:Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O32-and SO42- moiety produced by the test compounds.

  10. Serum estradiol and testosterone levels in kidney stones disease with and without calcium oxalate components in naturally postmenopausal women.

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    Zhao, Zhijian; Mai, Zanlin; Ou, Lili; Duan, Xiaolu; Zeng, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data reveal that the overall risk for kidney stones disease is lower for women compared to age-matched men. However, the beneficial effect for the female sex is lost upon menopause, a time corresponding to the onset of fall in estrogen levels. The aim of this study was to describe the serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) characteristics of naturally postmenopausal women with kidney stones. 113 naturally postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed kidney stones (aged 57.4±4.98 years) and 84 age frequency matched stone-free controls (56.9±4.56 years) were validly recruited in the case-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between sex hormones and kidney stones were estimated with logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic data and medical history. Patients were also stratified analyzed according to stone components (calcium oxalate stones [COS]; non-calcium oxalate stones [NCOS]). Serum E2 (21.1 vs. 31.1 pg/ml) was significantly lower in kidney stones patients compared to controls. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that this effect was driven by COS patients (pkidney stones. These findings support the hypothesis that higher postmenopausal endogenous estrogens may protect against kidney stones with ageing.

  11. Peeping into human renal calcium oxalate stone matrix: characterization of novel proteins involved in the intricate mechanism of urolithiasis.

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    Kanu Priya Aggarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients suffering from urolithiasis represents one of the major challenges which nephrologists face worldwide today. For enhancing therapeutic outcomes of this disease, the pathogenic basis for the formation of renal stones is the need of hour. Proteins are found as major component in human renal stone matrix and are considered to have a potential role in crystal-membrane interaction, crystal growth and stone formation but their role in urolithiasis still remains obscure. METHODS: Proteins were isolated from the matrix of human CaOx containing kidney stones. Proteins having MW>3 kDa were subjected to anion exchange chromatography followed by molecular-sieve chromatography. The effect of these purified proteins was tested against CaOx nucleation and growth and on oxalate injured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK renal epithelial cells for their activity. Proteins were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server. In silico molecular interaction studies with CaOx crystals were also investigated. RESULTS: Five proteins were identified from the matrix of calcium oxalate kidney stones by MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server with the competence to control the stone formation process. Out of which two proteins were promoters, two were inhibitors and one protein had a dual activity of both inhibition and promotion towards CaOx nucleation and growth. Further molecular modelling calculations revealed the mode of interaction of these proteins with CaOx at the molecular level. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and characterized Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein, UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 2, RIMS-binding protein 3A, Macrophage-capping protein as novel proteins from the matrix of human calcium oxalate stone which play a critical role in kidney stone

  12. Effects of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on risk factors for urinary calcium oxalate stones in rats.

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    Woottisin, Surachet; Hossain, Rayhan Zubair; Yachantha, Chatchai; Sriboonlue, Pote; Ogawa, Yoshihide; Saito, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the antilithic effect of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on known risk factors for calcium oxalate stones in rats. We divided 30 male Wistar rats into 5 equal groups. Controls were fed a standard diet and the remaining groups received a 3% glycolate diet for 4 weeks to induce hyperoxaluria. One glycolate fed group served as the untreated group and the others were given oral extracts of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa or Phyllanthus amarus at a dose of 3.5 mg daily. We collected 24-hour urine and blood samples. Kidneys were harvested for histological examination. We measured the renal tissue content of calcium and oxalate. The Hibiscus sabdariffa group showed significantly decreased serum oxalate and glycolate, and higher oxalate urinary excretion. The Phyllanthus amarus group showed significantly increased urinary citrate vs the untreated group. Histological examination revealed less CaOx crystal deposition in the kidneys of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus treated rats than in untreated rats. Those rats also had significantly lower renal tissue calcium content than untreated rats. All parameters in the Orthosiphon grandiflorus treated group were comparable to those in the untreated group. Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus decreased calcium crystal deposition in the kidneys. The antilithic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa may be related to decreased oxalate retention in the kidney and more excretion into urine while that of Phyllanthus amarus may depend on increased urinary citrate. In contrast, administering Orthosiphon grandiflorus had no antilithic effect. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Expression of matrix Gla protein and bone morphogenetic protein 2 in renal papillary tissues in patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones].

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    Zhu, Min; Zeng, Feng; Cui, Yu; Liu, Xifeng; Chen, Hequn

    2017-03-28

    To compare expression levels of matrix Gla protein (MGP) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) in Randall's plaque of renal papillary tissues in patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones and the underlying mechanism for stone formation.
 Methods: A total of 30 samples of Randall's plaque in renal papillary tissues from patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones were collected from the Department of Urology of Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from April, 2015 to December, 2015 and served as an experimental group. Ten samples of renal papillary tissues in patients undergone renal tumor nephrectomy were collected from the same hospital and served as a control group. The expressions of MGP and BMP-2 mRNA and protein were detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot.Meanwhile, immunohistochemical technique was used to observe the expressions of MGP and BMP-2 in different parts of renal papillary tissues in the 2 groups.
 Results: 1) The mRNA expression levels of MGP in the experimental group and the control group were 0.760±0.804 and 1.365±0.348, respectively, with significant difference between them (P0.05). The expression levels of BMP-2 protein in the experimental group and the control group were 0.885±0.220 and 0.682±0.272, respectively, with significant difference between them (Pkidney stones, and the formation of calcium oxalate kidney stone might be a kind of osteogenetic reaction or ectopic calcification.

  14. Catechin prevents the calcium oxalate monohydrate induced renal calcium crystallization in NRK-52E cells and the ethylene glycol induced renal stone formation in rat

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    2013-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species play important roles in renal calcium crystallization. In this study, we examined the effects of catechin, which have been shown to have antioxidant properties on the renal calcium crystallization. Methods In the vitro experiment, the changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential, expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase 3 were measured to show the effects of catechin treatment on the NRK-52E cells induced by calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). In the vivo study, Sprague–Dawley rats were administered 1% ethylene glycol (EG) to generate a rat kidney stone model and then treated with catechin (2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day) for 14 days. The urine and serum variables were dected on 7 and 14 days after EG administration. The expression of cytochrome c, cleaved caspase 3, SOD, osteopontin (OPN), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in kidney were measured. Furthermore, the mitochondrial microstructure in the kidney was also examined by transmission electron microscopy. Results Catechin treatment could prevent the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of SOD, 4-HNE, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase 3 in NRK-52E cells induced by the COM. For the in vivo experiments, the EG administration induced renal calcium crystallization was also prevented by the catechin. The expression of SOD, OPN, MDA, OPN and 8-OHdG, were increased after EG administration and this increase was diminished by catechin. Moreover, catechin also prevented EG induced mitochondrial collapse in rat. Conclusions Catechin has preventive effects on renal calcium crystallization both in vivo and in vitro, and provide a potential therapeutic treatment for this disease. PMID:24044655

  15. Separate effects of urinary chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate on the crystallization of urinary calcium oxalate: differences between stone formers and normal control subjects.

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    Shum, D K; Gohel, M D

    1993-07-01

    1. Urinary glycosaminoglycans were recovered from the papain digest of polyanions precipitated sequentially by cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium acetate-saturated ethanol. Those from the early morning urine of 48 stone formers and 43 normal control subjects measured 11 and 16 micrograms of uronic acid/ml of urine, respectively. 2. Preparative agarose gel electrophoresis of the recovered glycosaminoglycans in barium acetate buffer (pH 5.8) yielded fractions containing purely chondroitin sulphate, co-polymeric chondroitin/dermatan sulphates and heparan sulphate. Identification was based on the susceptibility of the fractions to chondroitinase or nitrous acid treatment. Similar compositions of glycosaminoglycan classes were observed in samples from stone formers and normal control subjects. 3. The fractionated glycosaminoglycans were dissolved in urine ultrafiltrate to assay for nucleation-promoting and growth-inhibiting activities towards crystallization of urinary calcium oxalate. When compared at the same uronic acid concentration, both the urinary chondroitin sulphate isomers and heparan sulphates of stone formers demonstrated the capacity to enhance crystal nucleation from calcium oxalate endogenous in urine ultrafiltrates, whereas only urinary heparan sulphates of normal control subjects demonstrated this capacity. 4. Tissue-derived reference chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and heparin, when similarly tested, showed negligible crystal nucleation-promoting activity. The tissue-derived heparan sulphate was similar to the urinary heparan sulphates in showing marked crystal nucleation-promoting activity. 5. Crystal-growth inhibitory activity was evident in all urinary glycosaminoglycan fractions studied. In particular, urinary heparan sulphate of normal control subjects showed higher activity than that of stone formers or the chondroitin sulphate isomers of both stone formers and normal control subjects (P < 0.005).

  16. Effects of 5 different diets on urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation: evidence of different renal handling mechanisms in different race groups.

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    Rodgers, Allen L; Lewandowski, Sonja

    2002-09-01

    Since the incidence of renal calculi in the South African black population is extremely rare while in white subjects it occurs at the same rate as elsewhere in the western world, we investigated the possibility that different renal handling mechanisms in response to different dietary challenges might occur in the 2 race groups. We administered 5 different dietary protocols, including low calcium, high oxalate, vitamin C, high salt and lacto-vegetarian, to 10 healthy male subjects from each race group. We collected 24-hour urine at baseline and after 4 days on the prescribed diet which were analyzed for biochemical and physicochemical risk factors. Dietary intake was controlled throughout the experimental period. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was recorded at baseline and analyzed using food composition tables. Statistical analysis of variance was performed on all the data. The low calcium diet caused statistically significant changes only in black subjects, which consisted of urinary oxalate increase (0.17 to 0.23 mmol./24 hours, p = 0.01), relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate decrease (1.88 to 0.97, p = 0.03) and relative supersaturation of brushite increase (0.85 to 1.69, p = 0.03). The high oxalate diet caused statistically significant changes in both race groups but these changes were different in the 2 groups. In white subjects urinary pH increased (6.24 to 6.62, p = 0.01), potassium excretion increased (40.01 to 73.49, p = 0.01) and relative supersaturation of brushite increased (1.34 to 2.12, p = 0.05). In black subjects urinary citrate increased (1.94 to 2.99 mmol./24 hours, p = 0.01). Clinically unimportant changes occurred in both race groups after the other 3 diets. Renal handling of dietary calcium and oxalate in South African black and white subjects is different and may explain the different stone incidence in the 2 race groups.

  17. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

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    Mohammad Kargar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a total of 200 subjects divided in two equal groups. They were selected from the patients with urinary tract stones, visiting urologist, and also normal people. The level of calcium, oxalate, and citrate in the urinary samples, parathyroid and calcium in the serum samples, and degrading activity of fecal lactobacillus strains of all the subjects were evaluated. Then, data analysis was carried out using SPSS-11.5, χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that the patients had higher urinary level of oxalate and calcium, as well as higher serum level of parathyroid hormone than normal people. In contrast, urinary level of citrate was higher in normal people. In addition, there was a significant difference between the oxalate-degrading capacities of lactobacillus isolated from the patients and their normal peers.Conclusion: Reduction of digestive lactobacillus-related oxalate-degrading capacity and increased serum level of parathyroid hormone can cause elevated urinary level of oxalate and calcium in people with kidney stone.

  18. The osteopontin-controlled switching of calcium oxalate monohydrate morphologies in artificial urine provides insights into the formation of papillary kidney stones.

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    Langdon, Aaron; Grohe, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    The protein osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) kidney stones. To gain insight into these mechanisms, crystallization was induced by addition of human kidney OPN to artificial urine (ionic strength comparable to urine; without citrate), and the OPN-COM interaction studied using a combination of scanning electron (SEM) and confocal microscopy. By SEM, we found that increasing OPN concentrations formed large monoclinic penetration twins (no protein added) and, at higher concentrations (1-, 2μg/ml OPN), super and hyper twins with crystal habits not found in previous studies. For instance, the hyper twins indicate well-facetted gearwheel-like habits with "teeth" developed in all crystallographic directions. At OPN concentrations ≥2μg/ml, a switching to small dumbbell-shaped COM habits with fine-textured surfaces occurred. Confocal microscopy of these dumbbells indicates protein incorporation in almost the entire crystal structure (in contrast to facetted COM), proposing a threshold concentration of ∼2μg/ml OPN for the facetted to the non-facetted habit transformation. Both the gearwheel-like and the dumbbell-shaped habit are again found side-by-side (presumably triggered by OPN concentration gradients within the sample) in in-vitro formed conglomerates, which resemble cross-sections of papillary kidney stones. The abrupt transformation from facetted to non-facetted habits and the unique compliance of the two in-vitro formed habits with the two main morphologies found in papillary kidney stones propose that OPN is a main effector in direct stone-forming processes. Moreover, stone structures which exhibit these two morphologies side-by-side might serve as a novel indicator for OPN concentrations surrounding those structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Nano- and Microsized Crystals in the Urine of Calcium Oxalate Stone Patients and Control Subjects

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    Jie Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the properties of different sizes of urinary crystallites between calcium oxalate (CaOx calculi patients and healthy controls. Methods. We studied the average particle size, size distribution, intensity-autocorrelation curve, zeta potential (ζ, conductivity, mobility, aggregation state, and stability of different sizes of urinary crystallites by nanoparticle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy after filtration through a microporous membrane with an aperture size from 0.22 μm to 0.45, 1.2, 3, and 10 μm. Results. The urinary crystallites of the CaOx calculi patients were uneven and much easy to aggregate than those of controls. The number of large-sized crystallites of the patients was significantly more than that of the controls. The main components of the nanosized urinary crystallites in patients were CaOx monohydrate (COM, uric acid, and β-calcium phosphate, and these components were basically similar to those of the microsized urinary crystallites. The urinary crystallites of the calculi patients were easier to aggregate than that of the controls, and the small-sized urinary crystallites were much easier to agglomerate. Conclusions. The urinary system of CaOx calculi patients is unstable and highly susceptible to urinary crystallite aggregation. The rapid aggregation of urinary crystallites may be the key factor affecting urolithiasis formation.

  20. Wu-Ling-San formula prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WLS formula is a promising adjunct to surgical and medical management of kidney stones. Active therapy with WLS formula has a positive effect on diuresis without leading to electrolyte imbalance. Key words: Calcium oxalate, Urinary Stone, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wu-Ling-San Formula, Nephrolithiasis.

  1. Experimental determination of multiple thermodynamic and kinetic risk factors for nephrolithiasis in the urine of healthy controls and calcium oxalate stone formers: does a universal discriminator exist?

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    Rodgers, A L; Webber, D; Hibberd, B

    2015-11-01

    Nephrolithiasis is thought to be governed by urinary thermodynamic and kinetic risk factors. However, identification of one or more of these factors which consistently and unambiguously differentiates between healthy subjects (N) and calcium oxalate (CaOx) renal stone patients (SF) remains elusive. The present study addresses this challenge. 24 h urines were collected from 15 N and 10 SF. Urine compositions were used to compute thermodynamic risk indices including urinary ratios, quotients and supersaturation (SS) values, while CaOx metastable limits (MSL) were determined experimentally. Crystallisation kinetics was determined by measuring rates of particle formation (number, volume, size) using a Coulter counter multisizer (CC) and a Coulter flow cytometer (FC). Particle shapes were qualitatively differentiated by FC and were viewed directly by scanning electron microscopy. Several urinary composition ratios and risk quotients were significantly different between the groups. However, there were no significant differences between CaOx MSL or SS values. Using transformed FC data, the rate of CaOx crystallisation in SF was significantly greater than in N. This was not supported by CC measurements. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to particle size or CaOx crystal growth rates. Single and aggregated CaOx dihydrate crystals were observed in both groups with equal frequency and there were no differences in the kinetic properties of these deposits. A few CaOx monohydrate crystals were observed in SF. Although several risk factors were found to be significantly different between the groups, none of them were consistently robust when compared to other cognate factors. Arguments were readily invoked which demonstrated inter-factor inconsistencies and conflicts. We suspect that a unique discriminatory factor, such as any of those which we investigated in the present study, may not exist.

  2. Urinary metals in a spontaneous canine model of calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

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    Eva Furrow

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is a common and painful condition in people. The pathogenesis of this disease is complex and poorly understood. Laboratory animal and in vitro studies have demonstrated an effect of multiple trace metals in the crystallization process, and studies in humans have reported relationships between urinary metal concentrations and stone risk. Dogs are a spontaneous model of calcium oxalate urolithiasis, and the metal content of canine calcium oxalate stones mirrors that of human stones. The aim of this study was to test for a relationship between urinary metals and calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs. We hypothesized that urinary metals would differ between dogs with and without calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Urine from 122 dogs (71 cases and 51 stone-free controls was analyzed for calcium and 12 other metals. The cases had higher urinary calcium, copper, iron, and vanadium and lower urinary cobalt. Higher urinary vanadium in the cases was associated with being fed a therapeutic stone-prevention diet. Urinary calcium had a strong positive correlation with strontium and moderate positive correlations with chromium, nickel, and zinc. The results of this study complement the findings of similar human studies and suggest a potential role of trace metals in calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Further investigation into how trace metals may affect stone formation is warranted.

  3. Short communication: Urinary oxalate and calcium excretion by dogs and cats diagnosed with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Kummeling, A.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urine concentrations of oxalate and calcium play an important role in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation in dogs and cats, with high excretions of both substances increasing the chance of CaOx urolithiasis. In 17 CaOx-forming dogs, urine calcium:creatinine ratio (Ca:Cr) was found

  4. Factors influencing the crystallisation of calcium oxalate in urine - critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W. G.; Scurr, D. S.; Bridge, Christine M.

    1981-05-01

    This article describes in vivo and in vitro studies carried out to determine the factors which influence the nucleation, crystal growth and crystal aggregation of calcium oxalate in urine. It covers the roles of urinary supersaturation, the oxalate/calcium ratio of urine, the relative importance of hyperoxaluria and hypercalciuria in causing crystalluria and the importance of crystalluria in the genesis of calcium oxalate stones. In vitro studies on seeded crystal growth and aggregation and on the spontaneous precipitation of calcium oxalate define some of the macromolecular factors in urine which promote and inhibit crystal growth and aggregation. Fractionation of the urinary macromolecular anions shows that the major inhibitors are in the acidic glycosaminoglycan fraction with relatively minor contributions from Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein and from RNA. One insoluble residue acts as a weak promoter of growth and aggregation but when re-combined with the inhibitory fractions the promoter effect is cancelled out. The net effect of urine is to inhibit strongly growth and aggregation.

  5. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplin, John R.; Frick, Kevin K.; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D.; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D.; Bushinsky, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation. PMID:25855777

  6. 2D map of proteins from human renal stone matrix and evaluation of their effect on oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury

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    K.P. Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Proteins constitute a major portion of the organic matrix of human calcium oxalate (CaOx renal stones and the matrix is considered to be important in stone formation and growth. The present study evaluates the effect of these proteins on oxalate injured renal epithelial cells accompanied by a 2D map of these proteins. Materials and Methods Proteins were isolated from the matrix of kidney stones containing CaOx as the major constituent using EGTA as a demineralizing agent. The effect of more than 3kDa proteins from matrix of human renal (calcium oxalate CaOx stones was investigated on oxalate induced cell injury of MDCK renal tubular epithelial cells. A 2D map of >3kDa proteins was also generated followed by protein identification using MALDI-TOF MS. Results The >3kDa proteins enhanced the injury caused by oxalate on MDCK cells. Also, the 2D map of proteins having MW more than 3kDa suggested the abundance of proteins in the matrix of renal stone. Conclusion Studies indicate that the mixture of >3kDa proteins in the matrix of human renal stones acts as promoter of calcium oxalate crystal nucleation and growth as it augments the renal epithelial cell injury induced by oxalate. The effect of promoters masks the inhibitors in the protein mixture thereby leading to enhanced renal cell injury. 2D map throws light on the nature of proteins present in the kidney stones.

  7. Calcium Oxalate: A Surface Treatment for Limestone

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    Tody M. Cezar

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the artificially induced surface conversion of calcium carbonate to the more durable calcium oxalate. Extensive research is being carried out on wall paintings and marble sculpture at the Opicificio delle Pietre Dure e Laboratori di Restauro in Florence, Encouraged by their work, I have researched the effectiveness of the conversion on English limestones. The treated samples have been compared to untreated samples for appearance, hardness, resistance to acid and alkali, porosity, and durability. The results have been assessed considering ease of use, effectiveness, and the appropriateness of the treatment.

  8. Electron imaging of calcium oxalate crystals in beagle dogs’ urine

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    Walaa I. Mohamaden

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate crystalluria appears to be a common problem in most of small animal clinics. This current study aimed at inducing a condition of oxalate crystalluria in beagles and record the primary changes in canine blood and urine on response to oxalates injection. 15 dogs were divided into two groups; those in the treatment group were injected intravenously with 0.5 M potassium oxalate and the dogs of control group were injected with physiological saline for five successive days. Urine test revealed a significant decrease in urinary creatinine and urinary urea nitrogen levels. The ultrastructural examination of urine sediment showed typical and atypical phases of calcium oxalate crystals and the X-ray defractionation of these crystals showed high content of calcium in addition to other minerals. Therefore potassium oxalate injection may provide an example of calcium oxalate crystalluria which may answer some question around the pathogenesis of this problem in dogs.

  9. INHIBITION OF CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALLIZATION IN-VITRO BY VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS (L.) POIT.

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal Kumkum; Varma Ranjana

    2012-01-01

    Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit. commonly known as Vilayati tulsi, belongs to the Mint family Lamiaceae. The inhibition of in-vitro calcium-oxalate crystal (a major component of most urinary stones) formation by various extracts of Hyptis was investigated by titrimetric method. The inhibitor potency of alcohol extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit was found to be comparable to that of cystone (a proprietary drug for dissolving kidney stones). Thus alcohol extract could be further analyzed in viv...

  10. Effect of Blumea balsamifera extract on the phase and morphology of calcium oxalate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Charlimagne M; De Leon, Rizalinda L

    2017-10-01

    Calcium oxalate crystals are found in majority of kidney stones with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) as one of the primary types of kidney stones. Various methods of treatment exist, including herbal treatment in the Philippines that uses the medicinal herb Blumea balsamifera (B. balsamifera). The effect of B. balsamifera extract on the morphology of calcium oxalate crystals was studied by light microscopy, image analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The extract decreased the crystal size by 5.22%-82.62% depending on the degree of supersaturation. Through analysis of the projected area of the crystals, the extract was found to shift the phase of the crystals from COM to calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD). This shift in phase is significant with a COM to COD shift of 88.26% at 0.5 mg/mL of extract and 91.53% at 1.0 mg/mL of extract. Scanning election microscopic (SEM) images revealed aggregation of crystals at 0 mg/mL of extract. At 1.0 mg/mL of extract, the scanning electron micrographs showed discernible crystal unit boundaries. B. balsamifera extract was observed to have decreased crystal size, shifted crystal phase from COM to COD and prevented the aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals.

  11. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  12. Probable functions of calcium oxalate crystals in different tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Representatives of seven major edible aroid accessions were screened for calcium oxalate using standard histochemical methods. All the accessions were noted to contain calcium oxalate in the forms of raphide bundles and intra-amylar crystals. The crystals were widely present in all parts of the plants including spongy ...

  13. Nanoscale observations of the effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.

    2016-04-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4ṡxH2O) minerals are naturally occurring minerals found in fossils, plants, kidney stones and is a by-product in some processes such as paper, food and beverage production [1,2]. In particular, calcium oxalate monohydrate phase (COM) also known as whewellite (CaC2O4ṡH2O), is the most frequently reported mineral phase found in urinary and kidney stones together with phosphates. Organic additives are well known to play a key role in the formation of minerals in both biotic and abiotic systems, either facilitating their precipitation or hindering it. In this regard, recent studies have provided direct evidence demonstrating that citrate species could enhance dissolution of COM and inhibit their precipitation. [3,4] The present work aims at evauate the influence of pH, citrate and oxalic acid concentrations in calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces (Island Spar, Chihuahua, Mexico) through in-situ nanoscale observation using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, Multimode, Bruker) in flow-through experiments. Changes in calcium oxalate morphologies and precipitated phases were observed, as well as the inhibitory effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation, which also lead to stabilization an the amorphous calcium oxalate phase. [1] K.D. Demadis, M. Öner, Inhibitory effects of "green"additives on the crystal growth of sparingly soluble salts, in: J.T. Pearlman (Ed.), Green Chemistry Research Trends, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 265-287. [2] M. Masár, M. Zuborová, D. Kaniansky, B. Stanislawski, Determination of oxalate in beer by zone electrophoresis on a chip with conductivity detection, J. Sep. Sci. 26 (2003) 647-652. [3] Chutipongtanate S, Chaiyarit S, Thongboonkerd V. Citrate, not phosphate, can dissolve calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and detach these crystals from renal tubular cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;689:219-25. [4] Weaver ML, Qiu SR, Hoyer JR, Casey WH, Nancollas GH, De Yoreo JJ

  14. Peptides of Matrix Gla protein inhibit nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals.

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    Maria Goiko

    Full Text Available Matrix Gla protein (MGP is a phosphorylated and γ-carboxylated protein that has been shown to prevent the deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in the walls of blood vessels. MGP is also expressed in kidney and may inhibit the formation of kidney stones, which mainly consist of another crystalline phase, calcium oxalate monohydrate. To determine the mechanism by which MGP prevents soft-tissue calcification, we have synthesized peptides corresponding to the phosphorylated and γ-carboxylated sequences of human MGP in both post-translationally modified and non-modified forms. The effects of these peptides on hydroxyapatite formation and calcium oxalate crystallization were quantified using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Peptides YGlapS (MGP1-14: YγEpSHEpSMEpSYELNP, YEpS (YEpSHEpSMEpSYELNP, YGlaS (YγESHESMESYELNP and SK-Gla (MGP43-56: SKPVHγELNRγEACDD inhibited formation of hydroxyapatite in order of potency YGlapS > YEpS > YGlaS > SK-Gla. The effects of YGlapS, YEpS and YGlaS on hydroxyapatite formation were on both crystal nucleation and growth; the effect of SK-Gla was on nucleation. YGlapS and YEpS significantly inhibited the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals, while simultaneously promoting the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate. The effects of these phosphopeptides on calcium oxalate monohydrate formation were on growth of crystals rather than nucleation. We have shown that the use of dynamic light scattering allows inhibitors of hydroxyapatite nucleation and growth to be distinguished. We have also demonstrated for the first time that MGP peptides inhibit the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate. Based on the latter finding, we propose that MGP function not only to prevent blood-vessel calcification but also to inhibit stone formation in kidney.

  15. Prevention of recurrent calcium stones: diet versus drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, P

    1994-01-01

    Excessive intakes of meat protein, oxalate and potentially sodium, as well as insufficient intakes of vegetables fibers, calcium and fluid all lead to increased urinary crystallization. Renal stone disease, however, does not have to ensue. The underlying condition in a given patient is of paramount importance to allow 'bad eating habits' to lead to nephrolithiasis. Several of these underlying abnormalities have been detected so far from which we recently derived the powder keg and tinderbox theory. Most of the time, the dietary approach to nephrolithiasis allows recurrence of renal stone formation to be prevented. The pharmacological approach should be reserved for refractory cases.

  16. The influence of freezer storage of urine samples on the BONN-Risk-Index for calcium oxalate crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Norbert; Zimmermann, Diana J

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to quantify the effect of a 1-week freezer storage of urine on its calcium oxalate crystallization risk. Calcium oxalate is the most common urinary stone material observed in urolithiasis patients in western and affluent countries. The BONN-Risk-Index of calcium oxalate crystallization risk in human urine is determined from a crystallization experiment performed on untreated native urine samples. We tested the influence of a 1-week freezing on the BONN-Risk-Index value as well as the effect of the sample freezing on the urinary osmolality. In vitro crystallization experiments in 49 native urine samples from stone-forming and non-stone forming individuals were performed in order to determine their calcium oxalate crystallization risk according to the BONN-Risk-Index approach. Comparison of the results derived from original sample investigations with those obtained from the thawed aliquots by statistical evaluation shows that i) no significant deviation from linearity between both results exists and ii) both results are identical by statistical means. This is valid for both, the BONN-Risk-Index and the osmolality data. The differences in the BONN-Risk-Index results of both procedures of BONN-Risk-Index determination, however, exceed the clinically acceptable difference. Thus, determination of the urinary calcium oxalate crystallization risk from thawed urine samples cannot be recommended.

  17. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsland, Kristin J; Coe, Fredric L; White, Mark D; Erhard, Michael J; DeFoor, William R; Mahan, John D; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Asplin, John R

    2012-06-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence, treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone-forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-h urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone-forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones, all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH, and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones.

  18. Calcium oxalate crystal adherence to hyaluronan-, osteopontin-, and CD44-expressing injured/regenerating tubular epithelial cells in rat kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asselman (Marino); A. Verhulst; M.E. de Broe; C.F. Verkoelen

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRetention of crystals in the kidney is an essential early step in renal stone formation. Studies with renal tubular cells in culture indicate that hyaluronan (HA) and osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual cell surface receptor CD44 play an important role in calcium oxalate

  19. Dietary Zinc and Incident Calcium Kidney Stones in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasian, Gregory E; Ross, Michelle E; Song, Lihai; Grundmeier, Robert W; Massey, James; Denburg, Michelle R; Copelovitch, Lawrence; Warner, Steven; Chi, Thomas; Killilea, David W; Stoller, Marshall L; Furth, Susan L

    2017-05-01

    We determined the association between dietary zinc intake and incident calcium kidney stones in adolescents. We also examined the relationship between dietary zinc intake and urinary zinc excretion between cases and controls. We conducted a nested case-control study within a large pediatric health care system. Three 24-hour dietary recalls and spot urine chemistry analyses were obtained for 30 participants 12 to 18 years old with a first idiopathic calcium based kidney stone and 30 healthy controls matched for age, sex, race and month of enrollment. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between daily zinc intake and incident calcium kidney stones, adjusting for dietary phytate, protein, calcium, sodium and oxalate. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between dietary and urine zinc, adjusting for urine creatinine and dietary phytate and calcium. Cases had lower daily zinc intake (8.1 mg) than controls (10 mg, p = 0.029). Daily zinc intake of boys and girls with calcium stones was 2 mg and 1.2 mg less, respectively, than the daily intake recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Odds of incident stones were reduced by 13% for every 1 mg increase in daily zinc intake (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-0.99). There was an estimated 4.5 μg/dl increase in urine zinc for every 1 mg increase in dietary zinc (p = 0.009), with weak evidence of a smaller increase in urine zinc in cases than in controls (interaction p = 0.08). Decreased dietary zinc intake was independently associated with incident calcium nephrolithiasis in this population of adolescents. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

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    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  1. Crystal growth and morphology of calcium oxalates and carbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of the research described in this thesis is to establish a relationship between the crystal structure and morphology of calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate crystals grown from aqueous solutions. Starting point is the PBC (Periodic Bond Chain) theory formulated by Hartman and

  2. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  3. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  4. Role of the organic matter in calcium oxalate lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Isern, Bernat; Perello, Joan; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

    2005-05-01

    Urine contains variable amounts of organic matter derived from cell degradation. The cellular detritus is composed by membranous and cytosolic glycoproteins, etc. The aim of this paper was to study the role of organic matter in calcium oxalate crystal development and to evaluate the action of some crystallization inhibitors on this process. Crystallization studies were carried out on urine in stagnant urine as well as under flow conditions, in presence and absence of cellular debris. Low amounts of cellular debris (when batch conditions were used), exhibited some inhibitory activity on heterogeneous nucleation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals, probably due to glycoproteins. Increasing amounts of cellular debris, however, promoted the nucleation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. When cellular debris was retained in a cavity with a urine flow, this organic matter effectively induced the development of primary aggregates of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals (crystallization range 2.8 mg/h per mg of organic matter). Presence of crystallization inhibitors prevented or minimized crystal development. These findings show that cell debris provides the necessary elements for the development of oxalate crystals and that this process can be effectively inhibited by presence of crystallization inhibitors.

  5. Reinjury risk of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals on injured renal epithelial cells: aggravation of crystal adhesion and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Bhadja, Poonam; Yao, Xiu-Qiong; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Renal epithelial cell injury facilitates crystal adhesion to cell surface and serves as a key step in renal stone formation. However, the effects of cell injury on the adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate crystals and the nano-crystal-induced reinjury risk of injured cells remain unclear. African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells were injured with H2O2 to establish a cell injury model. Cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, propidium iodide staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were determined to examine cell injury during adhesion. Changes in the surface structure of H2O2-injured cells were assessed through atomic force microscopy. The altered expression of hyaluronan during adhesion was examined through laser scanning confocal microscopy. The adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals to Vero cells was observed through scanning electron microscopy. Nano-COM and COD binding was quantitatively determined through inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. The expression of hyaluronan on the cell surface was increased during wound healing because of Vero cell injury. The structure and function of the cell membrane were also altered by cell injury; thus, nano-crystal adhesion occurred. The ability of nano-COM to adhere to the injured Vero cells was higher than that of nano-COD crystals. The cell viability, SOD activity, and Δψm decreased when nano-crystals attached to the cell surface. By contrast, the MDA content, reactive oxygen species production, and cell death rate increased. Cell injury contributes to crystal adhesion to Vero cell surface. The attached nano-COM and COD crystals can aggravate Vero cell injury. As a consequence, crystal adhesion and aggregation are enhanced. These findings provide further insights into kidney stone formation.

  6. Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2014-10-01

    Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors affecting crystallization, dispersion, and aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate in various urinary environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, Kimberly Gail

    The mechanisms for the formation of kidney stones are not well understood. One possible mechanism is the formation of aggregates in the nephron tubules of the kidneys. However, altering the urinary environment may be a method to help prevent the recurrence of the formation of kidney stones. The primary inorganic constituent found in kidney stones of North American patients is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). In this research, studies on the effect of mixing rate on COM precipitation showed that rapid mixing compared to slow mixing produced smaller particle sizes and a narrower particle size distribution due to the more uniform supersaturation level. The findings are consistent with the general contention that mixing directly influences nucleation rate while mixing rate has relatively little influence over rate of growth in precipitation processes. Screening and central composite experimental designs are used to determine the effect of various factors on the aggregation and dispersion characteristics of previously grown calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals in artificial urinary environments of controlled variables. The variables examined are pH, calcium, oxalate, pyrophosphate, citrate, and protein concentrations in ultrapure water and artificial urine. Optical density measurements, zeta potential analysis, particle size analyzer, optical microscopy, AFM force measurements, protein adsorption, and ions and small molecule adsorption have been used to assess the state of aggregation and dispersion of the COM crystals and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in such a complex system. The data indicate that our model protein, mucin, acts as a dispersant. This is attributed to steric hindrance resulting from the adsorbed mucoprotein. Oxalate, however, promotes aggregation. Interesting interactions between protein and oxalate along with protein and citrate are observed. Such interactions (synergistic or antagonistic) are found to depend on the concentrations of

  8. The nucleation and growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate on self- assembled monolayers (SAMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.A.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Graff, G.L.; Fryxell, G.E.; Rieke, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    A physical chemical approach was used to study calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) nucleation and growth on various organic interfaces. Self-assembling monolayers (SAMs), containing derivatized organic functional groups, were designed to mimic various amino acid residues present in both urine and stone matrix macromolecules. Derivatized surfaces include SAMs with terminal methyl, bromo, imidazole, and thiazolidine-carboxylic acid functional groups. Pronounced differences in COM deposition were observed for the various interfaces with the imidazole and thiazolidine surfaces having the greatest effect and the methyl and bromo groups having little or no nucleating potential.

  9. Role of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin in calcium oxalate crystallization

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    Carvalho M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the defenses against nephrolithiasis is provided by macromolecules that modulate the nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention of crystals in the kidneys. The aim of the present study was to determine the behavior of two of these proteins, Tamm-Horsfall and uromodulin, in calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro. We studied a group of 10 male stone formers who had formed at least one kidney stone composed of calcium oxalate. They were classified as having idiopathic nephrolithiasis and had no well-known metabolic risk factors involved in kidney stone pathogenesis. Ten normal men were used as controls, as was a group consisting of five normal women and another consisting of five pregnant women. Crystallization was induced by a fixed supersaturation of calcium oxalate and measured with a Coulter Counter. All findings were confirmed by light and scanning electron microscopy. The number of particulate material deposited from patients with Tamm-Horsfall protein was higher than that of the controls (P<0.001. However, Tamm-Horsfall protein decreased the particle diameter of the stone formers when analyzed by the mode of the volume distribution curve (P<0.002 (5.64 ± 0.55 µm compared to 11.41 ± 0.48 µm of uromodulin; 15.94 ± 3.93 µm and 12.45 ± 0.97 µm of normal men Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively; 8.17 ± 1.57 µm and 9.82 ± 0.95 µm of normal women Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively; 12.17 ± 1.41 µm and 12.99 ± 0.51 µm of pregnant Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively. Uromodulin produced fewer particles than Tamm-Horsfall protein in all groups. Nonetheless, the total volume of the crystals produced by uromodulin was higher than that produced by Tamm-Horsfall protein. Our results indicate a different effect of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin. This dual behavior suggests different functions. Tamm-Horsfall protein may act on nucleation and inhibit crystal aggregation, while

  10. Mediation of calcium oxalate crystal growth on human kidney epithelial cells with different degrees of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shen [Graduate School of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Su Zexuan, E-mail: suz2008@126.com [The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yao Xiuqiong; Peng Hua; Deng Suiping [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang Jianming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2012-05-01

    The current study examined the role of injured human kidney tubular epithelial cell (HKC) in the mediation of formation of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals by means of scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. HKC was injured using different concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Cell injury resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration and an increase in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and expression of osteopontin (OPN). Injured cells not only promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals, but also induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals that strongly adhere to cells. These results imply that injured HKCs promote stone formation by providing more nucleating sites for crystals, promoting the aggregation of crystals, and inducing the formation of COM crystals. - Graphical abstract: Injured cells promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals, induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct nucleation and growth of CaOxa crystals on both normal and injured cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stronger green fluorescence, i.e. OPN expression, was seen on the injury cell surface Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Injured cells promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Injured cells induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decrease cell viability in a dose-dependent manner at 0.1-1 mmol/L.

  11. Papillary and Nonpapillary Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Renal Calculi: Comparative Study of Etiologic Factors

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    Enrique Pieras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM renal calculi can be classified into two groups: papillary and nonpapillary. In this paper, a comparative study between etiologic factors of COM papillary and nonpapillary calculi is performed. The study included 40 patients with COM renal calculi. The urine of these individuals was analyzed. Case history, lifestyle, and dietetic habits were obtained.No significant differences between urinary biochemical data of both groups were observed; 50% of COM papillary stone formers and 40% of COM nonpapillary stone formers had urolithiasis family history. A low consumption of phytate-rich products was observed for both groups. A relationship between profession with occupational exposure to cytotoxic products and COM papillary renal lithiasis was detected.The results suggest that COM papillary calculi would be associated to papillary epithelium alterations together with a crystallization inhibitors deficit, whereas COM nonpapillary calculi would be associated to the presence of heterogeneous nucleants and a crystallization inhibitors deficit.

  12. Size-dependent cellular uptake mechanism and cytotoxicity toward calcium oxalate on Vero cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Urinary crystals with various sizes are present in healthy individuals and patients with kidney stone; however, the cellular uptake mechanism of calcium oxalate of various sizes has not been elucidated. This study aims to compare the internalization of nano-/micron-sized (50 nm, 100 nm, and 1 μm) calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) crystals in African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells. The internalization and adhesion of COM and COD crystals to Vero cells were enhanced with decreasing crystal size. Cell death rate was positively related to the amount of adhered and internalized crystals and exhibited higher correlation with internalization than that with adhesion. Vero cells mainly internalized nano-sized COM and COD crystals through clathrin-mediated pathways as well as micron-sized crystals through macropinocytosis. The internalized COM and COD crystals were distributed in the lysosomes and destroyed lysosomal integrity to some extent. The results of this study indicated that the size of crystal affected cellular uptake mechanism, and may provide an enlightenment for finding potential inhibitors of crystal uptake, thereby decreasing cell injury and the occurrence of kidney stones.

  13. Adsorption characteristics of amino acids on to calcium oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junbin; Lin, Rihui; Long, Han; Liang, Yuwei; Chen, Yangyang

    2015-09-15

    Adsorption of amino acids on to calcium oxalate found in urinary calculus has been studied and the adsorption characteristics were analyzed. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to fit the kinetics data. The pseudo-second-order model best described the dynamic behavior of the adsorption process. The uptake of glutamic acid and aspartic acid were found to decrease as solution pH increasing from 4 to 8. The experimental data obtained at different pH conditions were analyzed and fitted by Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Sips isotherm models using linear and nonlinear regression analysis. Error analysis (correlation coefficient, residual root mean square error and chi-square test) showed that the Langmuir I isotherm model and the non-linear form of Sips isotherm model should be primarily adopted for fitting the equilibrium data. The maximum adsorption capacity of glutamic acid and aspartic acid onto calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are 0.059 and 0.066μmol/g at pH 4, respectively. These studies have the vital significance for research aimed at exploring the role of urinary amino acids effect the formation process of calcium oxalate crystals found in urinary calculus and for potential application in the design of synthetic peptides used for urinary calculi therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison

    2009-01-01

    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  15. Efficacy of Mixtures of Magnesium, Citrate and Phytate as Calcium Oxalate Crystallization Inhibitors in Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

    2015-09-01

    The main aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mixtures of magnesium, citrate and phytate as calcium oxalate crystallization inhibitors. A turbidimetric assay in synthetic urine was performed to obtain induction times for calcium oxalate crystallization in the absence and presence of different mixtures of inhibitors. The morphology of calcium oxalate crystals in the absence or presence of inhibitors and mixtures of the inhibitors was evaluated in 2 crystallization experiments at low and high calcium oxalate supersaturation. The crystals formed were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Examination of crystallization induction times revealed clear inhibitory effects of magnesium, citrate and phytate on calcium oxalate crystallization, supporting usefulness in the treatment and prevention of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Significant synergistic effects between magnesium and phytate were observed. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that phytate is a powerful crystal growth inhibitor of calcium oxalate, totally preventing the formation of trihydrate and monohydrate. In addition to crystallization inhibition capacity, citrate and magnesium avoided calcium oxalate crystallization by decreasing its supersaturation. The synergistic effect between magnesium and phytate on calcium oxalate crystallization suggests that a combination of these 2 compounds may be highly useful as antilithiasis therapy. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hippuric acid as a significant regulator of supersaturation in calcium oxalate lithiasis: the physiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Stoyanka S; Gutzow, Ivan S

    2013-01-01

    At present, the clinical significance of existing physicochemical and biological evidence and especially the results we have obtained from our previous in vitro experiments have been analyzed, and we have come to the conclusion that hippuric acid (C6H5CONHCH2COOH) is a very active solvent of Calcium Oxalate (CaOX) in physiological solutions. Two types of experiments have been discussed: clinical laboratory analysis on the urine excretion of hippuric acid (HA) in patients with CaOX lithiasis and detailed measurements of the kinetics of the dissolution of CaOX calculi in artificial urine, containing various concentrations of HA. It turns out that the most probable value of the HA concentration in the control group is approximately ten times higher than the corresponding value in the group of the stone-formers. Our in vitro analytical measurements demonstrate even a possibility to dissolve CaOX stones in human urine, in which increased concentration of HA have been established. A conclusion can be that drowning out HA is a significant regulator of CaOX supersaturation and thus a regulation of CaOX stone formation in human urine. Discussions have arisen to use increased concentration of HA in urine both as a solubilizator of CaOX stones in the urinary tract and on the purpose of a prolonged metaphylactic treatment.

  17. Hippuric Acid as a Significant Regulator of Supersaturation in Calcium Oxalate Lithiasis: The Physiological Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyanka S. Atanassova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the clinical significance of existing physicochemical and biological evidence and especially the results we have obtained from our previous in vitro experiments have been analyzed, and we have come to the conclusion that hippuric acid (C6H5CONHCH2COOH is a very active solvent of Calcium Oxalate (CaOX in physiological solutions. Two types of experiments have been discussed: clinical laboratory analysis on the urine excretion of hippuric acid (HA in patients with CaOX lithiasis and detailed measurements of the kinetics of the dissolution of CaOX calculi in artificial urine, containing various concentrations of HA. It turns out that the most probable value of the HA concentration in the control group is approximately ten times higher than the corresponding value in the group of the stone-formers. Our in vitro analytical measurements demonstrate even a possibility to dissolve CaOX stones in human urine, in which increased concentration of HA have been established. A conclusion can be that drowning out HA is a significant regulator of CaOX supersaturation and thus a regulation of CaOX stone formation in human urine. Discussions have arisen to use increased concentration of HA in urine both as a solubilizator of CaOX stones in the urinary tract and on the purpose of a prolonged metaphylactic treatment.

  18. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cailleau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa, has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the acidic conditions in these types of soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. In addition, a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues contributes to the carbonate flux and is identified as a direct consequence of wood feeding by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter, and an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting agents (mainly termites, saprophytic fungi, and bacteria release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition, some of these agents are themselves producers of oxalate (e.g. fungi. Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can then start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate

  19. Calcium oxalate crystal growth modification; investigations with confocal Raman microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMulkin, Calum J.; Massi, Massimiliano; Jones, Franca

    2017-06-01

    Confocal Raman Microscopy (CRM) in combination with a photophysical investigation has been employed to give insight into the interaction between calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and a series of tetrazole containing crystal growth modifier's (CGM's), in conjunction with characterisation of morphological changes using scanning electron and optical microscopy. The tetrazole CGM's were found to interact by surface adsorption with minimal morphological changes to the COM crystals however, significant interactions via chemisorption were observed; it was discovered that the chemisorption is sufficiently strong for aggregation of the tetrazole species to occur within the crystal during crystallisation.

  20. Natural Abundance 43Ca NMR as a Tool for Exploring Calcium Biomineralization: Renal Stone Formation and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

    2011-12-07

    Renal stone diseases are a global health issue with little effective therapeutic recourse aside from surgery and shock-wave lithotripsy, primarily because the fundamental chemical mechanisms behind calcium biomineralization are poorly understood. In this work, we show that natural abundance 43Ca NMR at 21.1 T is an effective means to probe the molecular-level Ca2+ structure in oxalate-based kidney stones. We find that the 43Ca NMR resonance of an authentic oxalate-based kidney stone cannot be explained by a single pure phase of any common Ca2+-bearing stone mineral. Combined with XRD results, our findings suggest an altered calcium oxalate monohydrate-like Ca2+ coordination environment for some fraction of Ca2+ in our sample. The evidence is consistent with existing literature hypothesizing that nonoxalate organic material interacts directly with Ca2+ at stone surfaces and is the primary driver of renal stone aggregation and growth. Our findings show that 43Ca NMR spectroscopy may provide unique and crucial insight into the fundamental chemistry of kidney stone formation, growth, and the role organic molecules play in these processes.

  1. The initial and subsequent inflammatory events during calcium oxalate lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, John W M; Gohel, Mayur-Danny I; Poon, Ngork-Wah; Shum, Daisy K Y; Tam, Po-Chor; Au, Doris W T

    2010-08-05

    Crystallization is believed to be the initiation step of urolithiasis, even though it is unknown where inside the nephron the first crystal nucleation occurs. Direct nucleation of calcium oxalate and subsequent events including crystal retention, cellular damage, endocytosis, and hyaluronan (HA) expression, were tested in a two-compartment culture system with intact human proximal tubular HK-2 cell monolayer. Calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) was nucleated and bound onto the apical surface of the HK-2 cells under hypercalciuric and hyperoxaluric conditions. These cells displayed mild cellular damage and internalized some of the adhered crystals within 18h post-COD-exposure, as revealed by electron microscopy. Prolonged incubation in complete medium caused significant damage to disrupt the monolayer integrity. Furthermore, hyaluronan disaccharides were detected in the harvested media, and were associated with HAS-3 mRNA expression. Human proximal cells were able to internalize COD crystals which nucleated directly onto the apical surface, subsequently triggering cellular damage and HAS-3 specific hyaluronan synthesis as an inflammatory response. The proximal tubule cells here demonstrate that it plays an important role in facilitating urolithiasis via endocytosis and creating an inflammatory environment whereby free hyaluronan in tubular fluid can act as crystal-binding molecule at the later segments of distal and collecting tubules. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum) extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekkoum, Khaled; Cheriti, Abdelkrim; Taleb, Safia

    2011-10-01

    Urolithiasis can lead to the loss of renal function in some cases. In this study, we tested the inhibiting effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum L) extract on calcium oxalate crystallization in a turbidimetric model, by FTIR spectroscopy, and polarized microscopy. The results show that this plant extract has a major inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization.

  3. Citrate salts for preventing and treating calcium containing kidney stones in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rebecca; Hanchanale, Vishwanath S; Myatt, Andy; Somani, Bhaskar; Nabi, Ghulam; Biyani, C Shekhar

    2015-10-06

    Kidney stones affect people worldwide and have a high rate of recurrence even with treatment. Recurrences are particularly prevalent in people with low urinary citrate levels. These people have a higher incidence of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate stones. Oral citrate therapy increases the urinary citrate levels, which in turn binds with calcium and inhibits the crystallisation thus reduces stone formation. Despite the widespread use of oral citrate therapy for prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stones, the evidence to support its clinical efficacy remains uncertain. The objective of this review was to determine the efficacy and adverse events associated with citrate salts for the treatment and prevention of calcium containing kidney stones. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register to 29 July 2015 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the efficacy and adverse events associated with citrate salts for the treatment and prevention of calcium containing kidney stones in adults treated for a minimum of six months. Two authors assessed studies for inclusion in this review. Data were extracted according to predetermined criteria. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model, and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for continuous outcomes. We included seven studies that included a total of 477 participants, most of whom had oxalate stones. Of these, three studies (247 participants) compared potassium citrate with placebo or no intervention; three (166 participants) compared potassium-sodium citrate with no intervention; and one (64 participants) compared potassium-magnesium citrate with placebo. Overall, quality of the reporting of the included studies was considered moderate to

  4. Oxygen nano-bubble water reduces calcium oxalate deposits and tubular cell injury in ethylene glycol-treated rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Yasuhiko; Yasui, Takahiro; Taguchi, Kazumi; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Niimi, Kazuhiro; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Okada, Atsushi; Kubota, Yasue; Kawai, Noriyasu; Itoh, Yasunori; Tozawa, Keiichi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2013-08-01

    Renal tubular cell injury induced by oxalate plays an important role in kidney stone formation. Water containing oxygen nano-bubbles (nanometer-sized bubbles generated from oxygen micro-bubbles; ONB) has anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we investigated the inhibitory effects of ONB water on kidney stone formation in ethylene glycol (EG)-treated rats. We divided 60 rats, aged 4 weeks, into 5 groups: control, the water-fed group; 100 % ONB, the 100 % ONB water-fed group; EG, the EG treated water-fed group; EG + 50 % ONB and EG + 100 % ONB, water containing EG and 50 % or 100 % ONB, respectively. Renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition, urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and renal expression of inflammation-related proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, and the crystal-binding molecule hyaluronic acid were compared among the 5 groups. In the control and 100 % ONB groups, no renal CaOx deposits were detected. In the EG + 50 % ONB and EG + 100 % ONB groups, ONB water significantly decreased renal CaOx deposits, urinary NAG excretion, and renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, osteopontin, and hyaluronic acid expression and increased renal superoxide dismutase-1 expression compared with the EG group. ONB water substantially affected kidney stone formation in the rat kidney by reducing renal tubular cell injury. ONB water is a potential prophylactic agent for kidney stones.

  5. Oxalate co-precipitation synthesis of calcium zirconate and calcium titanate powders.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Fine powders of calcium zirconate (CaZrO{sub 3}, CZ) and calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}, CT) were synthesized using a nonaqueous oxalate co-precipitation route from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}4 H{sub 2}O and group(IV) n-butoxides (Ti(OBu{sup n}){sub 4} or Zr(OBu{sup n}){sub 4}). Several reaction conditions and batch sizes (2-35 g) were explored to determine their influence on final particle size, morphology, and phase. Characterization of the as-prepared oxalate precursors, oven dried oxalate precursors (60-90 C), and calcined powders (635-900 C) were analyzed with TGA/DTA, XRD, TEM, and SEM. Densification and sintering studies on pressed CZ pellets at 1375 and 1400 C were also performed. Through the developed oxalate co-precipitation route, densification temperatures for CZ were lowered by 125 C from the 1500 C firing temperature required for conventional mixed oxide powders. Low field electrical tests of the CZ pellets indicated excellent dielectric properties with dielectric constants of {approx}30 and a dissipation factor of 0.0004 were measured at 1 kHz.

  6. Sat1 is dispensable for active oxalate secretion in mouse duodenum

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Narae; Knauf, Felix; Jiang, Zhirong; Markovich, Daniel; Aronson, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    Mice deficient for the apical membrane oxalate transporter SLC26A6 develop hyperoxalemia, hyperoxaluria, and calcium oxalate stones due to a defect in intestinal oxalate secretion. However, the nature of the basolateral membrane oxalate transport process that operates in series with SLC26A6 to mediate active oxalate secretion in the intestine remains unknown. Sulfate anion transporter-1 (Sat1 or SLC26A1) is a basolateral membrane anion exchanger that mediates intestinal oxalate transport. Mor...

  7. Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal deposition on kidneys of urolithiatic rats by Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laikangbam, Reena; Damayanti Devi, M

    2012-06-01

    The present study aims at systematic evaluation of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa to establish its scientific validity for anti-urolithiatic property using ethylene glycol-induced hyperoxaluria model in male albino rats. Administration of a mixture of 0.75% ethylene glycol and 2% ammonium chloride resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. The decrease in the serum calcium concentration indicates an increased calcium oxalate formation. Supplementation of aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa at different doses (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight) significantly lowered the deposition of stone-forming constituents in the kidneys and serum of urolithiatic rats. These findings have been confirmed through histological investigations. Results of in vivo genotoxicity testing showed no significant chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells of ethylene glycol-induced rats. The plant extracts at the doses investigated induced neither toxic nor lethal effects and are safe. It can be concluded that the calyces of H. sabdariffa are endowed with anti-urolithiatic activity and do not have genotoxic effects. Thus, it can be introduced in clinical practices and medicine in the form of orally administered syrup after further investigations and clinical trials.

  8. Modulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by citrate through selective binding to atomic steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, S R; Wierzbicki, A; Salter, E A; Zepeda, S; Orme, C A; Hoyer, J R; Nancollas, G H; Cody, A M; De Yoreo, J J

    2004-10-19

    The majority of human kidney stones are composed primarily of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Thus, determining the molecular mechanisms by which urinary constituents modulate calcium oxalate crystallization is crucial for understanding and controlling urolithiassis in humans. A comprehensive molecular-scale view of COM shape modification by citrate, a common urinary constituent, obtained through a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling is now presented. We show that citrate strongly influences the growth morphology and kinetics on the (-101) face but has much lower effect on the (010) face. Moreover, binding energy calculations show that the strength of the citrate-COM interaction is much greater at steps than on terraces and is highly step-specific. The maximum binding energy, -166.5 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, occurs for the [101] step on the (-101) face. In contrast, the value is only -56.9 kJ {center_dot} mol-1 for the [012] step on the (010) face. The binding energies on the (-101) and (010) terraces are also much smaller, -65.4 and -48.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} respectively. All other binding energies lie between these extremes. This high selectivity leads to preferential binding of citrate to the acute [101] atomic steps on the (-101) face. The strong citrate-step interactions on this face leads to pinning of all steps, but the anisotropy in interaction strength results in anisotropic reductions in step kinetics. These anisotropic changes in step kinetics are, in turn, responsible for changes in the shape of macroscopic COM crystals. Thus, the molecular scale growth morphology and the bulk crystal habit in the presence of citrate are similar, and the predictions of molecular simulations are fully consistent with the experimental observations.

  9. Roles of Macrophage Exosomes in Immune Response to Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilubon Singhto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In kidney stone disease, macrophages secrete various mediators via classical secretory pathway and cause renal interstitial inflammation. However, whether their extracellular vesicles, particularly exosomes, are involved in kidney stone pathogenesis remained unknown. This study investigated alterations in exosomal proteome of U937-derived macrophages (by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate activation after exposure to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals for 16-h using 2-DE-based proteomics approach. Six significantly altered proteins in COM-treated exosomes were successfully identified by nanoscale liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry as proteins involved mainly in immune processes, including T-cell activation and homeostasis, Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis, interferon-γ (IFN-γ regulation, and cell migration/movement. The decreased heat shock protein 90-beta (HSP90β and increased vimentin were confirmed by Western blotting. ELISA showed that the COM-treated macrophages produced greater level of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, one of the markers for inflammasome activation. Functional studies demonstrated that COM-treated exosomes enhanced monocyte and T-cell migration, monocyte activation and macrophage phagocytic activity, but on the other hand, reduced T-cell activation. In addition, COM-treated exosomes enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 by monocytes that could be restored to its basal level by small-interfering RNA targeting on vimentin (si-Vimentin. Moreover, si-Vimentin could also abolish effects of COM-treated exosomes on monocyte and T-cell migration as well as macrophage phagocytic activity. These findings provided some implications to the immune response during kidney stone pathogenesis via exosomal pathway of macrophages after exposure to COM crystals.

  10. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stones by making changes in how much sodium , animal protein , calcium , or oxalate is in the food you ... See tips to reduce your sodium intake . Limit animal protein Eating animal protein may increase your chances of ...

  11. Urinary Exertion Of Calcium By Urinary Stone Disease Patients And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the urinary excretion of calcium by subjects in a known area of high incidence of urinary stone disease, and a known area of low incidence, 12 adult male patients with idiopathic calcigerous urinary stone disease in south-East Nigeria and 55 similar patients from Scotland, United Kingdom were analyzed ...

  12. Oxalate content of cereals and cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Roswitha; Hönow, Ruth; Voss, Susanne; Seidler, Ana; Hesse, Albrecht

    2006-04-19

    Detailed knowledge of food oxalate content is of essential importance for dietary treatment of recurrent calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Dietary oxalate can contribute considerably to the amount of urinary oxalate excretion. Because cereal foods play an important role in daily nutrition, the soluble and total oxalate contents of various types of cereal grains, milling products, bread, pastries, and pasta were analyzed using an HPLC-enzyme-reactor method. A high total oxalate content (>50 mg/100 g) was found in whole grain wheat species Triticum durum (76.6 mg/100 g), Triticum sativum (71.2 mg/100 g), and Triticum aestivum (53.3 mg/100 g). Total oxalate content was comparably high in whole grain products of T. aestivum, that is, wheat flakes and flour, as well as in whole grain products of T. durum, that is, couscous, bulgur, and pasta. The highest oxalate content was demonstrated for wheat bran (457.4 mg/100 g). The higher oxalate content in whole grain than in refined grain cereals suggests that oxalic acid is primarily located in the outer layers of cereal grains. Cereals and cereal products contribute to the daily oxalate intake to a considerable extent. Vegetarian diets may contain high amounts of oxalate when whole grain wheat and wheat products are ingested. Recommendations for prevention of recurrence of calcium oxalate stone disease have to take into account the oxalate content of these foodstuffs.

  13. Genetically modified Medicago truncatula lacking calcium oxalate has increased calcium bioavailability and partially rescues vitamin D receptor knockout mice phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    How the distribution and sequestered form of plant macro/micro-nutrients influence their bioavailability, and ultimately impact human health, is poorly understood. The legume Medicago truncatula has a portion of its tissue calcium sequestered in the form of the calcium oxalate crystal, which reduces...

  14. Synthesis of CaTiO3 from calcium titanyl oxalate hexahydrate (CTO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. Calcium titanate, CaTiO3, an importantmicrowave dielectric material and one of major phases in syn- roc (synthetic rock), a titanate ceramic with potential application for fixation of high level nuclear waste was synthesized from calcium titanyl oxalate [CaTiO (C2O4)2⋅6H2O] (CTO) by employing microwave heating ...

  15. Microvillar injury in renal tubular epithelial cells induced by calcium oxalate crystal and the protective role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong-Ngern, Kedsarin; Vinaiphat, Arada; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of kidney stone disease remained unclear. This study investigated its initial cellular/molecular mechanisms when calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal adhered to renal tubular cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed decreased length and density of microvilli, whereas Western blot analysis showed that whole-cell ezrin (a microvillus-stabilizing protein), not β-actin, was decreased in COM-treated cells. Immunofluorescence staining, followed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionations, revealed decreases in both ezrin and F-/β-actin at apical membrane. Cytoskeletal extraction by Triton X-100 showed reduced cytoskeleton-associated ezrin, consistent with colocalization data of ezrin/F-actin. Thr(567)-phosphorylated ezrin and RhoA increased in COM-treated cells. A protein oxidation blot assay showed an increase in oxidized proteins in COM-treated cells that could be prevented by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which also preserved the whole-cell ezrin level, stabilized apical membrane ezrin/F-actin colocalization, and maintained microvillar structure in COM-treated and H2O2-treated cells. Our data clearly demonstrated the reduction of ezrin and actin expression at the apical membrane of COM-treated cells, most likely because of oxidative stress, which could be prevented by EGCG. These findings provide a novel approach to better understanding of the pathogenesis of kidney stone disease in its initial phase and offer potential preventive strategy against microvillar injury induced by COM crystals in patients with kidney stones.-Fong-ngern, K., Vinaiphat, A., Thongboonkerd, V. Microvillar injury in renal tubular epithelial cells induced by calcium oxalate crystal and the protective role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate. © FASEB.

  16. Circular patterns of calcium oxalate monohydrate induced by defective Langmuir-Blodgett film on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jieyu [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang Jianming [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn

    2009-01-01

    The defective Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on quartz injured by potassium oxalate (K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was used as a model system to induce growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that circular defective domains with a diameter of 1-200 {mu}m existed in the LB film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed circular patterns of aggregated calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallites were induced by these defective domains. It was ascribed to that the interaction between the negatively-charged oxalate ions and the phosphatidyl groups in DPPC headgroups makes the phospholipid molecules rearranged and exist in an out-of-order state in the LB film, especially at the boundaries of liquid-condensed (LC)/liquid-expanded (LE) phases, which provide much more nucleating sites for COM crystals.

  17. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations

  18. Defining and Systematic Analyses of Aggregation Indices to Evaluate Degree of Calcium Oxalate Crystal Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakdithep Chaiyarit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crystal aggregation is one of the most crucial steps in kidney stone pathogenesis. However, previous studies of crystal aggregation were rarely done and quantitative analysis of aggregation degree was handicapped by a lack of the standard measurement. We thus performed an in vitro assay to generate aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals with various concentrations (25–800 μg/ml in saturated aggregation buffer. The crystal aggregates were analyzed by microscopic examination, UV-visible spectrophotometry, and GraphPad Prism6 software to define a total of 12 aggregation indices (including number of aggregates, aggregated mass index, optical density, aggregation coefficient, span, number of aggregates at plateau time-point, aggregated area index, aggregated diameter index, aggregated symmetry index, time constant, half-life, and rate constant. The data showed linear correlation between crystal concentration and almost all of these indices, except only for rate constant. Among these, number of aggregates provided the greatest regression coefficient (r = 0.997; p < 0.001, whereas the equally second rank included aggregated mass index and optical density (r = 0.993; p < 0.001 and r = −0.993; p < 0.001, respectively and the equally forth were aggregation coefficient and span (r = 0.991; p < 0.001 for both. These five indices are thus recommended as the most appropriate indices for quantitative analysis of COM crystal aggregation in vitro.

  19. Defining and Systematic Analyses of Aggregation Indices to Evaluate Degree of Calcium Oxalate Crystal Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2017-01-01

    Crystal aggregation is one of the most crucial steps in kidney stone pathogenesis. However, previous studies of crystal aggregation were rarely done and quantitative analysis of aggregation degree was handicapped by a lack of the standard measurement. We thus performed an in vitro assay to generate aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with various concentrations (25-800 μg/ml) in saturated aggregation buffer. The crystal aggregates were analyzed by microscopic examination, UV-visible spectrophotometry, and GraphPad Prism6 software to define a total of 12 aggregation indices (including number of aggregates, aggregated mass index, optical density, aggregation coefficient, span, number of aggregates at plateau time-point, aggregated area index, aggregated diameter index, aggregated symmetry index, time constant, half-life, and rate constant). The data showed linear correlation between crystal concentration and almost all of these indices, except only for rate constant. Among these, number of aggregates provided the greatest regression coefficient (r = 0.997; p < 0.001), whereas the equally second rank included aggregated mass index and optical density (r = 0.993; p < 0.001 and r = -0.993; p < 0.001, respectively) and the equally forth were aggregation coefficient and span (r = 0.991; p < 0.001 for both). These five indices are thus recommended as the most appropriate indices for quantitative analysis of COM crystal aggregation in vitro.

  20. Protective Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. fruit extract against calcium oxalate monohydrate induced proximal tubular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraft-Bahloul, Nassima; Husson, Cécile; Ourtioualous, Meriam; Sinaeve, Sébastien; Atmani, Djebbar; Stévigny, Caroline; Nortier, Joëlle L; Antoine, Marie-Hélène

    2017-09-14

    The world prevalence of kidney stones is increasing and plants are frequently used to treat urolithiasis. Pistacia lentiscus L, a plant which freely grows around the Mediterranean basin areas, is widely used for various pathologies. P. lentiscus has an important impact as it has economical value on top of its pharmacological interest. Decoctions of its aerial parts and/or resin are used to treat kidney stones. To in vitro assess the potential nephroprotective effect of Pistacia lentiscus ethanolic fruit extract (PLEF) on proximal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Human Kidney [HK]-2 cells were incubated with and without COM in the presence or absence of PLEF. Cell viability was measured by the resazurin assay. The expression of E-cadherin was analyzed by PCR. The extracellular production of H2O2 was measured by Amplex® Red H2O2 Assay. The numbers of detached or non-adherent COM crystals in the presence of PLEF were microscopically captured and counted using ImageJ software. The interaction of PLEF with COM and the effect of PLEF on crystal size were analyzed by flow cytometry. The spectrophotometric measurement of turbidity was performed for assessing the COM concentration. PLEF incubated with COM was able to increase the cell viability. The decrease of E-cadherin expression after incubation with COM was counteracted by PLEF. Overproduction of H2O2 induced by COM was also inhibited by PLEF. Observations using flow cytometry showed that interactions between PLEF and the COM crystals occurred. PLEF was also effective in reducing the particles size and in lowering COM concentration. Our data show that COM tubulotoxicity can be significantly reversed by PLEF -at least in part- via an inhibition of COM crystals adhesion onto the apical membrane. This early beneficial effect of PLEF needs to be further investigated as a useful strategy in nephrolithiasis prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  1. Infusum Daun Alpukat Sebagai Inhibitor Kristalisasi Kalsium Oksalat pada Ginjal (THE AVOCADO LEAVES INFUSUM AS INHIBITOR ON RENAL CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Madyastuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine crystal is a crystal nucleus which tend to form urine stone. The case of urine stone seems to beincreased every year. Crystallization could induce acute tubular necrosis which impact on renal dysfunction.The signs of this condition are high level of urea, creatinine and decrease glomerulus filtration rate. Theobjective of this research was to evaluate the effects of infusum Persea americana Mill as an inhibitorcrystallization which induced by ethylene glycol on white male rats. 20 male rats were divided into 4groups; K1 as negative group received only distilled water ad libitum, K2 as positive group receiveddistilled water containing ethylene glycol, K3 (dose 5% and K4 (dose 10% as treatment groups receivedwater containing ethylene glycol and avocado leaves infusion. Phytochemsitry screening of infusion avocadoleaves consisted of flavonoid, saponin, tanine and quinone. Result of analysis showed that the level ofureum and creatinine on K2 was higher than K3 and K4 group. The increased level could be inhibited byinfusion avocado leaves. The measurement of glomerular filtration rate in treatment groups wassignificantly different (p<0.05. Descriptive histopathology observation showed that renal lesio in grouptreatment (K3 and K4 were declined. Large crystal calcium oxalate on K2 group was observed by usingpolarized microscope, whereas small crystal calcium oxalate were seen in the infusion of avocado leavesgroups. These result showed the ability of infusion of avocado leaves as an inhibitor on the growth ofcrystallization calcium oxalate

  2. A retrospective study of the prevalence of calcium oxalate crystals in veterinary Aspergillus cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Courtney L; Dark, Michael J; Conway, Julia A; Farina, Lisa L

    2017-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Aspergillus are some of the most common fungal pathogens in veterinary species, primarily affecting the respiratory tract. In both human and veterinary cases, calcium oxalate crystals have been documented in sites of Aspergillus infection. Cases in multiple species (16 birds, 15 horses, 5 dogs, 1 ox, and 1 dolphin) were identified that had either positive cultures for Aspergillus sp., or had conidiophores present that could be identified as belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Histologic slides were examined to confirm the presence of oxalate crystals and how often they were identified on the original report. Calcium oxalate deposition was detected in 14 of 38 cases examined, including A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. niger, and unspecified Aspergillus sp. infections. Calcium oxalate crystals were identified in 11 of 16 avian cases, as well as in 1 of 1 bovine, 1 of 15 equine, and 1 of 5 canine cases. Crystals were described in only 3 of the 14 original pathology reports of these cases, indicating that identification and reporting of crystals in histologic specimens could be improved. All the tissues with crystals were respiratory tissues with air interfaces, including nasal sinus, trachea, syrinx, lung, and air sac. In cases with crystals identified on H&E-stained sections, crystals were frequently not present or were fewer in number in tissue sections stained with Gomori methenamine silver and periodic acid-Schiff. Routine polarization of slides of fungal infections, especially in the respiratory tract, should be considered to check for calcium oxalate crystals.

  3. Mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate endocytosis by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Campos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals adhere to and are internalized by tubular renal cells and it seems that this interaction is related (positively or negatively to the appearance of urinary calculi. The present study analyzes a series of mechanisms possibly involved in CaOx uptake by Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. CaOx crystals were added to MDCK cell cultures and endocytosis was evaluated by polarized light microscopy. This process was inhibited by an increase in intracellular calcium by means of ionomycin (100 nM; N = 6; 43.9% inhibition; P<0.001 or thapsigargin (1 µM; N = 6; 33.3% inhibition; P<0.005 administration, and via blockade of cytoskeleton assembly by the addition of colchicine (10 µM; N = 8; 46.1% inhibition; P<0.001 or cytochalasin B (10 µM; N = 8; 34.2% inhibition; P<0.001. Furthermore, CaOx uptake was reduced when the activity of protein kinase C was inhibited by staurosporine (10 nM; N = 6; 44% inhibition; P<0.01, or that of cyclo-oxygenase by indomethacin (3 µM; N = 12; 17.2% inhibition; P<0.05; however, the uptake was unaffected by modulation of potassium channel activity with glibenclamide (3 µM; N = 6, tetraethylammonium (1 mM; N = 6 or cromakalim (1 µM; N = 6. Taken together, these data indicate that the process of CaOx internalization by renal tubular cells is similar to the endocytosis reported for other systems. These findings may be relevant to cellular phenomena involved in early stages of the formation of renal stones.

  4. ANALYSIS OF MACRONUTRIENCONTENT, GLYCEMIC INDEX AND CALCIUM OXALATE ELIMINATION IN Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Lukitaningsih

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the research to find alternative sources of carbohydrates as a replacement for rice has been developed. Walur is one of the carbohydrate sources that can be explored because it can be grown in any area with out special treatment. However, walur has limitation for direct consumption, because it contains calcium oxalate. The purposes of this study were to determine the chemical character (macronutrient content, calculate glycemic index and get the proper washing techniques to elimin ate calcium oxalate of walur. Macro nutrients content studied in this research include carbohydrates, fats, protein, star chand crude fiber. Analysis of macronutrients has been chemically done, while the glycemic index was measured by in vivo using glucose as a standard. Elimination of calcium oxalate was conducted by washing the fresh walur tubers using a solution of0.01NHCl-NaOH, 5% NaCl, and solution of lemon-lime. The content of oxalate before and after washing was analyzed by permanganometry method. The results showed that walur containing 4.34 ±0.07% of reducingsugar,3.24 ± 0.06 % of not-reducing sugar, 11.27±0.40 % of crude fiber,0.03±1.05 % of starchand0.57±0.01 % of protein. Qualitative analysis of fatty acids showed that hexade canoicacid, octade cadienoicacid, and the acide icosatetranoic were detected in high concentrations. The glycemic index valueof walur was relative lylow, about of 16.9. In addition, washing technique using a solution of lemon-lime was the most excellent technique and can reduce the oxalate content up to61.82%.Fromthis research, it can be concluded that walur can be used as food substitute esrice after washing treatment using lemon-lime solution to remove the calcium oxalate content.

  5. Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L M; Mackenzie, A; Dance, D R; Young, K C

    2013-04-07

    Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image.

  6. Synthesis of CaTiO3 from calcium titanyl oxalate hexahydrate (CTO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 30; Issue 3. Synthesis of CaTiO3 from calcium titanyl oxalate hexahydrate (CTO) as precursor employing microwave heating technique. B M Patil R S Srinivasa S R Dharwadkar. Ceramics Volume 30 Issue 3 June 2007 pp 225-229 ...

  7. Does the Use of Chitosan Contribute to Oxalate Kidney Stone Formation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Fernandes Queiroz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is widely used in the biomedical field due its chemical and pharmacological properties. However, intake of chitosan results in renal tissue accumulation of chitosan and promotes an increase in calcium excretion. On the other hand, the effect of chitosan on the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx has not been described. In this work, we evaluated the antioxidant capacity of chitosan and its interference in the formation of CaOx crystals in vitro. Here, the chitosan obtained commercially had its identity confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. In several tests, this chitosan showed low or no antioxidant activity. However, it also showed excellent copper-chelating activity. In vitro, chitosan acted as an inducer mainly of monohydrate CaOx crystal formation, which is more prevalent in patients with urolithiasis. We also observed that chitosan modifies the morphology and size of these crystals, as well as changes the surface charge of the crystals, making them even more positive, which can facilitate the interaction of these crystals with renal cells. Chitosan greatly influences the formation of crystals in vitro, and in vivo analyses should be conducted to assess the risk of using chitosan.

  8. Influence of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E; von Unruh, G E; Hesse, A

    2008-09-01

    To compare quantitatively the effect of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion. Eight healthy volunteers (three men and five women, mean age 28.6+/-6.3) were studied. Each volunteer performed the [(13)C(2)]oxalate absorption test thrice on a low-oxalate mixed diet, thrice on a low-oxalate vegetarian diet and thrice on a high-oxalate vegetarian diet. For each test, the volunteers had to adhere to an identical diet and collect their 24-h urines. In the morning of the second day, a capsule containing [(13)C(2)]oxalate was ingested. On the low-oxalate vegetarian diet, mean intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly to 15.8+/-2.9% (P=0.012) and 0.414+/-0.126 mmol/day (P=0.012), compared to the mixed diet. On the high-oxalate vegetarian diet, oxalate absorption (12.5+/-4.6%, P=0.161) and urinary excretion (0.340+/-0.077 mmol/day, P=0.093) did not change significantly, compared to the mixed diet. A vegetarian diet can only be recommended for calcium oxalate stone patients, if the diet (1) contains the recommended amounts of divalent cations such as calcium and its timing of ingestion to a meal rich in oxalate is considered and (2) excludes foodstuffs with a high content of nutritional factors, such as phytic acid, which are able to chelate calcium.

  9. Human dental microwear caused by calcium oxalate phytoliths in prehistoric diet of the lower Pecos region, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, D R; Reinhard, K J

    1998-11-01

    Recent research demonstrates that silica phytoliths of dietary origin are associated with microwear of human teeth. Previous research has shown that severe enamel microwear and dental wear characterizes Archaic hunter-gatherers in the lower Pecos region of west Texas. Calcium oxalate crystals are especially common in Archaic coprolites. The vast majority are derived from prickly pear and agave, which were the dietary staples in west Texas for 6,000 years. The calcium oxalate phytoliths are harder than enamel. Therefore, calcium oxalate crystals are the most likely source of previously documented dental microwear and wear in the lower Pecos region.

  10. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    OpenAIRE

    Basri Cakıroglu; Akif Nuri Dogan; Tuncay Tas; Ramazan Gozukucuk; Bekir Sami Uyanik

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. Howeve...

  11. Sulfate but not thiosulfate reduces calculated and measured urinary ionized calcium and supersaturation: implications for the treatment of calcium renal stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Rodgers

    Full Text Available Urinary sulfate (SO4(2- and thiosulfate (S2O3(2- can potentially bind with calcium and decrease kidney stone risk. We modeled the effects of these species on the concentration of ionized calcium (iCa and on supersaturation (SS of calcium oxalate (CaOx and calcium phosphate (CaP, and measured their in vitro effects on iCa and the upper limit of stability (ULM of these salts.Urine data from 4 different types of stone patients were obtained from the Mayo Nephrology Clinic (Model 1. A second data set was obtained from healthy controls and hypercalciuric stone formers in the literature who had been treated with sodium thiosulfate (STS (Model 2. The Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS was used to calculate iCa and SS. In Model 1, these parameters were calculated as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations. In Model 2, data from pre- and post STS urines were analyzed. ULM and iCa were determined in human urine as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations.Calculated iCa and SS values for all calcium salts decreased with increasing sulfate concentration. Thiosulfate had no effect on these parameters. In Model 2, calculated iCa and CaOx SS increased after STS treatment, but CaP SS decreased, perhaps due to a decrease in pH after STS treatment. In confirmatory in vitro experiments supplemental sulfate, but not thiosulfate, significantly increased the calcium needed to achieve the ULM of CaP and tended to increase the oxalate needed to reach the ULM of CaOx. Sulfate also significantly decreased iCa in human urine, while thiosulfate had no effect.Increasing urinary sulfate could theoretically reduce CaOx and CaP stone risk. Although STS may reduce CaP stone risk by decreasing urinary pH, it might also paradoxically increase iCa and CaOx SS. As such, STS may not be a viable treatment option for stone disease.

  12. The effect of different diets on urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Roswitha; Hesse, Albrecht

    2002-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of defined diet modifications on urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation. Ten healthy male volunteers consumed a self-selected diet (SD) for 14 days, and three different standard diets for a period of 5 days each. Whereas the western-type diet (WD) is representative of the usual dietary habits, the normal mixed diet (ND) and the ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet (VD) were calculated according to the requirements. The risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation, calculated as relative supersaturation (EQUIL2) from urine composition, was highest during ingestion of diets SD and WD. The intake of diet ND resulted in a significant decrease in relative supersaturation with calcium oxalate by 58% (p<0.05) compared with diet WD, due to a significant decline in urinary calcium and uric acid excretion and a significant increase in urinary volume, pH-value and citrate excretion. In spite of an increase in urinary pH, citrate and magnesium excretion and a decline in calcium excretion, no further significant decrease in the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation was observed on diet VD, due to a significant increase in urinary oxalate by 30% (p<0.05) on average. The change of usual dietary habits for a normal mixed diet significantly reduces the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation. With a vegetarian diet a similar decline in urinary supersaturation with calcium oxalate can be achieved compared to a normal mixed diet. Since urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly, a vegetarian diet without adequate intake of calcium may not be recommended to patients with mild hyperoxaluria.

  13. Calcium and calcium magnesium carbonate specimens submitted as urinary tract stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, M H; Chafe, L; Longerich, L; Mason, R A

    1993-02-01

    Of 8,129 specimens submitted as urinary stones from 6,095 patients, 67 from 15 patients were predominantly calcium carbonate or calcium magnesium carbonate (dolomite) by infrared analysis. Detailed study of 1 man and 4 women who submitted 3 or more such specimens showed that all were of aragonite calcium carbonate crystal form in 2 women and all calcite in the man. All 3 patients had a long history of nephrolithiasis preceding submission of calcium carbonate stones. There was frequent and often painful spontaneous passage of many small stones. Medullary sponge kidney was reported in 2 patients. Specimens submitted by the other 2 women included dolomite and quartz artifacts. Of the other 10 patients 4 had calcite and 1 had aragonite (possibly true stones). Five patients had artifacts with dolomite in 3 and mixed specimens in 2. True calcium carbonate kidney stones and calcium carbonate artifacts may be difficult to distinguish, and dolomite and quartz artifacts may require x-ray diffraction for clear-cut diagnosis.

  14. The Effect of Stone Composition on the Efficacy of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery: Kidney Stones 1 - 3 cm in Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuquan; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Xiaojie; Chong, Tie

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of stone composition on the efficacy of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) with kidney stones of 1-3 cm, 1-2 cm, and 2-3 cm in diameter. We undertook a retrospective analysis of 74 patients with kidney stones who underwent RIRS. The patients were divided into two groups based on stone composition: Group I (n=47) (calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate) was the hard to fragment stone group and group II (n=27) (calcium oxalate dihydrate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and uric acid) was the easy to fragment stone group. Forty-six patients with kidney stones 1 to 2 cm in diameter were divided into group A (n=30) (smaller than 20 mm, hard to fragment stones) and group B (n=16) (smaller than 20 mm, easy to fragment stones). Twenty-eight patients with stones 2 to 3 cm in diameter were divided into group C (n=17) (larger than 20 mm, hard to fragment stones) and group D (n=11) (larger than 20 mm, easy-to-crush stones). The stone clearance rates of group I and group II were 66.0% and 88.9%, respectively (Pkidney stones. For 2-3 cm calcium oxalate dihydrate stones, uric acid stones, and magnesium ammonium phosphate stones, the outcome of RIRS treatment was relatively good, and RIRS is recommended.

  15. Effect of aqueous extract of “eryngium campestre” on the prevention of pathologic alterations caused by calcium oxalate crystals induced by ethylene glycol in the cortex and medulla of rats’ kidneys

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad Esmaeili; Mehran Falahpour amiry; Abdolghader Taene; Mina Hemmati; Mohammad Malekaneh

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: Due to the effects of herbs in the prevention of kidney stones, the present study aimed at assessing the effect of aqueous eryngium campestre on the prevention of pathologic alterations caused by calcium oxalate crystals induced by ethylene glycol in the cortex and medulla of rats’kidneys. Materials and Methods: To conduct the study 40 male Wistar rats, weighing 200 – 250 gr were randomly divided into 5 equal groups; i.e. the healthy control group that just ...

  16. Probable functions and remobilisation of calcium oxalates in Musa L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    plantain fruit pulp with distinct intra-amylar crystals; (B) ripened fruit pulp with little or no crystals; (C) over- ripened fruit pulp with ... ripened peels showing reduction in size of the raphide bundles; and (F) over-ripened peel showing apparent lack of raphide ... The process of recycling and/or remobilization of calcium in plants ...

  17. Production of citric and oxalic acids and solubilization of calcium phosphate by Penicillium bilaii.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, J. E.; Kuiack, C

    1992-01-01

    An isolate of Penicillium bilaii previously reported to solubilize mineral phosphates and enhance plant uptake of phosphate was studied. Using agar media with calcium phosphate and the pH indicator alizarin red S, the influence of the medium composition on phosphate solubility and medium acidification was recorded. The major acidic metabolites produced by P. bilaii in a sucrose nitrate liquid medium were found to be oxalic acid and citric acid. Citric acid production was promoted under nitrog...

  18. Degradation of sulfated polysaccharide extracted from algal Laminaria japonica and its modulation on calcium oxalate crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang Jianming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang Miao; Lu Peng; Tan Jin [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-08-30

    Sulfated polysaccharide (LPS) extracted from alga Laminaria japonica was degraded by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The average molecular weight of LPS was apparently decreased from 172,000 to 9550 after degradation, while the proportion of sulfate groups (-OSO{sub 3}{sup -}) and carboxylic groups (-COO{sup -}) in the molecular chains of LPS were slightly decreased from 4.5% and 5.20% to 3.9% and 4.64%, respectively. The effects of degraded and natural LPS on formation of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals were investigated in vitro using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta-potential, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. LPS could increase the concentration of soluble Ca{sup 2+} ions in the solution, decrease the weight of precipitated CaOxa, and increase the negative value of zeta-potential of CaOxa crystals. LPS also inhibits the formation of thermodynamically stable calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, while inducing and stabilizing metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. These results suggested that both degraded and natural LPS could decrease CaOxa crystallization, but the inhibition efficiency of the degraded LPS was clearly superior to that of the natural LPS. We expected this investigation would provide encouragement for further exploration into new drugs for the prevention and treatment of urolithiasis.

  19. L-Carnitine Protects Renal Tubular Cells Against Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystals Adhesion Through Preventing Cells From Dedifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujue Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The interactions between calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals and renal tubular epithelial cells are important for renal stone formation but still unclear. This study aimed to investigate changes of epithelial cell phenotype after COM attachment and whether L-carnitine could protect cells against subsequent COM crystals adhesion. Methods: Cultured MDCK cells were employed and E-cadherin and Vimentin were used as markers to estimate the differentiate state. AlexaFluor-488-tagged COM crystals were used in crystals adhesion experiment to distinguish from the previous COM attachment, and adhesive crystals were counted under fluorescence microscope, which were also dissolved and the calcium concentration was assessed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: Dedifferentiated MDCK cells induced by transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 shown higher affinity to COM crystals. After exposure to COM for 48 hours, cell dedifferentiation were observed and more subsequent COM crystals could bind onto, mediated by Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling. L-carnitine attenuated this signaling, resulted in inhibition of cell dedifferentiation and reduction of subsequent COM crystals adhesion. Conclusions: COM attachment promotes subsequent COM crystals adhesion, by inducing cell dedifferentiation via Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling. L-carnitine partially abolishes cell dedifferentiation and resists COM crystals adhesion. L-carnitine, may be used as a potential therapeutic strategy against recurrence of urolithiasis.

  20. Crystallization of calcium oxalate dihydrate in a buffered calcium-containing glucose solution by irradiation with non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurake, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Nakamura, Kae; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Mizuno, Masaaki; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Hori, Masaru

    2017-10-01

    Oxalate was synthesized in the glucose solution by irradiation with non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP), in which the NEAPP plume contacted the solution surface, via the generation of several intermediate organic products such as gluconic acid. A thermodynamically unstable phase of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystallized rapidly during incubation of a NEAPP-irradiated glucose solution that contained calcium ions and was buffered at neutral pH. Longer irradiation times increased the growth rate and the number of seed crystals.

  1. Risk factors associated with calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chika C; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Pearl, David L; Yang, Mingyin; Wang, Mansen; Blois, Shauna L; Lund, Elizabeth M; Dewey, Cate E

    2014-08-01

    Calcium oxalate urolithiasis results from the formation of aggregates of calcium salts in the urinary tract. Difficulties associated with effectively treating calcium oxalate urolithiasis and the proportional increase in the prevalence of calcium oxalate uroliths relative to other urolith types over the last 2 decades has increased the concern of clinicians about this disease. To determine factors associated with the development of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States, a retrospective case-control study was performed. A national electronic database of medical records of all dogs evaluated between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010 at 787 general care veterinary hospitals in the United States was reviewed. Dogs were selected as cases at the first-time diagnosis of a laboratory-confirmed urolith comprised of at least 70% calcium oxalate (n=452). Two sets of control dogs with no history of urolithiasis diagnosis were randomly selected after the medical records of all remaining dogs were reviewed: urinalysis examination was a requirement in the selection of one set (n=1808) but was not required in the other set (n=1808). Historical information extracted included urolith composition, dog's diet, age, sex, neuter status, breed size category, hospital location, date of diagnosis, and urinalysis results. Multivariable analysis showed that the odds of first-time diagnosis of calcium oxalate urolithiasis were significantly (P30 mg/dL (OR: 1.55, 1.04-2.30). Patient demographics and urinalysis results are important factors that can support risk assessment and early identification of canine oxalate urolithiasis. Therefore, periodic urolith screening and monitoring of urine parameters should be encouraged for dogs at risk of developing these uroliths. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. MRP-1 and BCRP Promote the Externalization of Phosphatidylserine in Oxalate-treated Renal Epithelial Cells: Implications for Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, YiFu; Yu, ShiLiang; Gan, XiuGuo; Zhang, Ze; Wang, Yan; Wang, YingWei; An, RuiHua

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the possible involvement of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in the oxalate-induced redistribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) in renal epithelial cell membranes. A western blot analysis was used to examine the MRP-1 and BCRP expression levels. Surface-expressed PS was detected by the annexin V-binding assay. The cell-permeable fluorogenic probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate was used to measure the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. A rat model of hyperoxaluria was obtained using 0.5% ethylene glycol and 1.0% ammonium chloride. In addition, certain animals received verapamil (50 mg/kg body weight), which is a common inhibitor of MRP-1 and BCRP. The degree of nephrolithiasis was assessed histomorphometrically using sections stained by Pizzolato method and by measuring the calcium oxalate crystal content in the renal tissue. Oxalate produced a concentration-dependent increase in the synthesis of MRP-1 and BCRP. Treatment with MK571 and Ko143 (MRP-1- and BCRP-specific inhibitors, respectively) significantly attenuated the oxalate-induced PS externalization. Adding the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine significantly reduced MRP-1 and BCRP expression. In vivo, markedly decreased nephrocalcinosis was observed compared with that in the rat model of hyperoxaluria without verapamil treatment. Oxalate induces the upregulation of MRP-1 and BCRP, which act as phospholipid floppases causing PS externalization in the renal epithelial cell membrane. The process is mediated by intracellular ROS production. The ROS-mediated increase in the synthesis of MRP-1 and BCRP can play an important role in hyperoxaluria-promoted calcium oxalate urolithiasis by facilitating phosphatidylserine redistribution in renal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preventive Kidney Stones: Continue Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Farahnak; Moghtaderi, Mastaneh

    2017-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common health problem across the globe with a prevalence of 15%-20%. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is the most common cause of nephrolithiasis, and calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of stones in idiopathic hypercalciuric patients. Calcium phosphate stones are frequently associated with other diseases such as renal tubular acidosis type 1, urinary tract infections, and hyperparathyroidism. Compared with flat abdominal film and renal sonography, a noncontrast helical computed tomography scan of the abdomen is the diagnostic procedure of choice for detection of small and radiolucent kidney stones with sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%. Stones smaller than 5 mm in diameter often pass the urinary tract system and rarely require surgical interventions. The main risk factors for stone formation are low urine output, high urinary concentrations of calcium, oxalate, phosphate, and uric acid compounded by a lower excretion of magnesium and citrate. A complete metabolic workup to identify the risk factors is highly recommended in patients who have passed multiple kidney stones or those with recurrent disease. Calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones are treated by the use of thiazide diuretics, allopurinol, and potassium citrate. Strategies to prevent kidney stone recurrence should include the elimination of the identified risk factors and a dietary regimen low in salt and protein, rich in calcium and magnesium which is coupled with adequate fluid intake.

  4. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies.

  5. Stone composition among first-time symptomatic kidney stone formers in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prince; Enders, Felicity T.; Vaughan, Lisa E.; Bergstralh, Eric J; Knoedler, John J.; Krambeck, Amy E; Lieske, John C; Rule, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the variation in kidney stone composition and its relationship to risk factors and recurrence among first-time stone formers in the general population. Patients and Methods Medical records were manually reviewed and validated for symptomatic kidney stone episodes among Olmsted County, Minnesota residents from January 1, 1984 to December 31, 2012. Clinical and laboratory characteristics and the risk of symptomatic recurrence were compared between stone compositions. Results There were 2961 validated first-time symptomatic kidney stone formers. Stone composition analysis was obtained in 1508 (51%) at the first episode. Stone formers were divided into the following mutually exclusive groups: any brushite (0.9%), any struvite (0.9%), any uric acid (4.8%), majority calcium oxalate (76%) or majority hydroxyapatite (18%). Stone composition varied with clinical characteristics. A multivariable model had a 69% probability of correctly estimating stone composition, but assuming calcium oxalate monohydrate stone was correct 65% of the time. Symptomatic recurrence at 10 years was approximately 50% for brushite, struvite, and uric acid, but approximately 30% for calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite stones (Pcomposition, they are of limited utility for estimating stone composition. Rarer stone compositions are more likely to recur. PMID:26349951

  6. Determination of thermodynamic parameters for complexation of calcium and magnesium with chondroitin sulfate isomers using isothermal titration calorimetry: Implications for calcium kidney-stone research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Jackson, Graham E.

    2017-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) occurs in human urine. It has several potential binding sites for calcium and as such may play an inhibitory role in calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (kidney stone disease by reducing the supersaturation (SS) and crystallization of these salts. Urinary magnesium is also a role player in determining speciation in stone forming processes. This study was undertaken to determine the thermodynamic parameters for binding of the disaccharide unit of two different CS isomers with calcium and magnesium. These included the binding constant K. Experiments were performed using an isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC) at 3 different pH levels in the physiological range in human urine. Data showed that interactions between the CS isomers and calcium and magnesium occur via one binding site, thought to be sulfate, and that log K values are 1.17-1.93 and 1.77-1.80 for these two metals respectively. Binding was significantly stronger in Mg-CS than in Ca-CS complexes and was found to be dependent on pH in the latter but not in the former. Furthermore, binding in Ca-CS complexes was dependent on the location of the sulfate binding site. This was not the case in the Mg-CS complexes. Interactions were shown to be entropy driven and enthalpy unfavourable. These findings can be used in computational modeling studies to predict the effects of the calcium and magnesium CS complexes on the speciation of calcium and the SS of calcium salts in real urine samples.

  7. Production of calcium oxalate crystals by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Maria Carolina S do; de Oliveira, Bruno V; de Tomazella, Daniela P T; Silva, José A Fracassi da; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2008-04-01

    Oxalic acid has been shown as a virulence factor for some phytopathogenic fungi, removing calcium from pectin and favoring plant cell wall degradation. Recently, it was published that calcium oxalate accumulates in infected cacao tissues during the progression of Witches' Broom disease (WBD). In the present work we report that the hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of WBD, produces calcium oxalate crystals. These crystals were initially observed by polarized light microscopy of hyphae growing on a glass slide, apparently being secreted from the cells. The analysis was refined by Scanning electron microscopy and the compositon of the crystals was confirmed by energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry. The production of oxalate by M. perniciosa was reinforced by the identification of a putative gene coding for oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate. This gene was shown to be expressed in the biotrophic-like mycelia, which in planta occupy the intercellular middle-lamella space, a region filled with pectin. Taken together, our results suggest that oxalate production by M. perniciosa may play a role in the WBD pathogenesis mechanism.

  8. Calcium oxalate crystals: an integral component of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum/Brassica carinata pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uloth, Margaret B; Clode, Peta L; You, Ming Pei; Barbetti, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Oxalic acid is an important virulence factor for disease caused by the fungal necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, yet calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals have not been widely reported. B. carinata stems were infected with S. sclerotiorum and observed using light microscopy. Six hours post inoculation (hpi), CaOx crystals were evident on 46% of stem sections and by 72 hpi on 100%, demonstrating that the secretion of oxalic acid by S. sclerotiorum commences before hyphal penetration. This is the first time CaOx crystals have been reported on B. carinata infected with S. sclerotiorum. The shape of crystals varied as infection progressed. Long tetragonal rods were dominant 12 hpi (68% of crystal-containing samples), but by 72 hpi, 50% of stems displayed bipyramidal crystals, and only 23% had long rods. Scanning electron microscopy from 24 hpi revealed CaOx crystals in all samples, ranging from tiny irregular crystals (sclerotiorum growth and infection controls the form taken by CaOx crystals.

  9. Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein reduces promotion of calcium oxalate crystal aggregation induced by urate in human urine in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, P K; Marshall, V R; Ryall, R L

    1994-08-01

    1. Increasing the concentration of dissolved urate promotes calcium oxalate crystallization in urine from which Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein, an inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, has almost completely been removed. This study aimed to determine whether the effect of urate could be reduced or abolished by a physiological concentration of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein. This was approached in two ways. 2. The effect of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein on calcium oxalate crystallization induced by urate was tested in ultrafiltered (10 kDa) urine samples from 10 healthy men. Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein (35 mg/l) was added to half of each specimen, the urate concentration was increased by the addition of sodium urate solution and crystallization was induced by a standard load of oxalate. The remainder of each urine specimen was used as a control; these specimens were treated with an identical amount of urate solution, but contained no Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein. Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein had no effect on the urinary metastable limit or on the deposition of calcium oxalate, but significantly reduced the size of the particles precipitated. 3. The effect of increasing the urate concentration in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein was tested. Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein (35 mg/l) was added to 10 ultrafiltered urine samples as before, the samples were divided, and the concentration of urate was increased in half of each specimen. Compared with the control to which no urate was added, urate significantly reduced the amount of oxalate required to induce spontaneous calcium oxalate nucleation and increased the median volume and the particle size of the material deposited.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Urinary Stone Analysis of 1,000 Patients in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii-Her Chou

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common urologic disease. Stones may occur in the kidney, ureter, or urinary bladder. We collected 1,000 stone samples in the subtropical area of southern Taiwan. Stone components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Mixed components of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate were the most common form of stones (52.3%, followed by calcium oxalate (27.8% and calcium phosphate (9.3%. Uric acid stones accounted for 7.6%. Magnesium ammonium phosphate stones accounted for 3.0%. Only one cystine stone was found. In the study of urinary stone formation mechanism and prevention of recurrent urolithiasis, knowing the stone composition is important.

  11. An Assessment of Engineered Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation on Plant Growth and Development as a Step toward Evaluating Its Use to Enhance Plant Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of new approaches to control chewing insects has been sought not only for direct use in reducing crop loss but also in managing resistance to the pesticides already in use. Engineered formation of calcium oxalate crystals is a potential strategy that could be developed to fulfill both these needs. As a step toward this development, this study investigates the effects of transforming a non-calcium oxalate crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, into a crystal accumulating plant. Calcium oxalate crystal accumulating A. thaliana lines were generated by ectopic expression of a single bacterial gene encoding an oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme. Biochemical and cellular studies suggested that the engineered A. thaliana lines formed crystals of calcium oxalate in a manner similar to naturally occurring crystal accumulating plants. The amount of calcium oxalate accumulated in leaves also reached levels similar to those measured in the leaves of Medicago truncatula in which the crystals are known to play a defensive role. Visual inspection of the different engineered lines, however, suggested a phenotypic consequence on plant growth and development with higher calcium oxalate concentrations. The restoration of a near wild-type plant phenotype through an enzymatic reduction of tissue oxalate supported this observation. Overall, this study is a first to provide initial insight into the potential consequences of engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in non-crystal accumulating plants.

  12. A comparative study of mud-like and coralliform calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Qiao, Tie; Huang, Hai-Yi; Zhong, Hai-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    To gain insight to underlying mechanism of the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) gallbladder stones, we did comparative study of stones with mud appearance and those with coralliform appearance. A total of 93 gallbladder stones with mud appearance and 50 stones with coralliform appearance were analyzed. The appearance, color, texture, and the detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs by microscopic examination were compared between the two groups. Then, the material compositions of stones were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the spectrogram characteristics were compared. Moreover, microstructure characteristics of the two kinds of stones were observed and compared with Scanning Electron Microscopy. Mud-like gallbladder stones were mainly earthy yellow or brown with brittle or soft texture, while coralliform stones were mainly black with extremely hard texture, the differences between the two groups was significant (p mud-like gallbladder stones were CaCO3 stones, and mainly aragonite; while all of the coralliform stones were CaCO3 stones, and mainly calcite (p mud-like CaCO3 stones was lower than that in coralliform CaCO3 stones (p Mud-like CaCO3 stones mainly happened to patients with cystic duct obstruction. Clonorchis sinensis infection was mainly associated with coralliform (calcite) CaCO3 stones. Cystic duct obstruction was mainly associated with mud-like (aragonite) CaCO3 stones. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Oxypurines, protein, glucose and the functional state of blood vasculature are markers of renal calcium stone-forming processes? Observations in men with idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Mahimaidos; Schwille, Paul O

    2002-03-01

    In idiopathic calcium urolithiasis the relationships between oxypurines, accompanying proteins and glucose in urine and plasma, and the associated metabolic activity (MA) are unknown. To establish whether MA is related to these parameters and to calcium oxalate crystallization, or whether it reflects a reaction of metabolism to systemic insults was the major goal of the work. One hundred fifty one males were studied in three trials: trial 1 (n=130 patients) and trial 2 (n=24 patients) were cross-sectional; trial 3 included 11 patients and 14 controls). Mean age was 46 years (trials 1 and 2) and 29 years (trial 3). In trial 1 the stratification was based on the median urinary oxypurine excretion, in trial 2 on the median plasma oxypurine concentration (below or above: Low and High subgroups). No dietary restrictions were imposed, but standardized ambulatory laboratory testing was carried out. MA was quantitated by a score. Established analytical methods were used, except for oxypurine measurement which was done by high performance liquid chromatography. Patients with kidney stones tended to be overweight (body mass index >25 kg/(m)2) and to have fasting hyperglycemia. In trial 1 severe oxypurinuria, and especially severe xanthinuria, was associated with an increase in urinary pH, creatinine clearance, proteins, uric acid, malonedialdehyde (indicator of lipid peroxidation), systolic blood pressure, and with a decrease in plasma uric acid (synonymous with a decrease of antioxidant capacity). Tubular reabsorption of proteins and stone-forming substances was diminished but MA remained unchanged despite slightly increased calcium oxalate crystal growth. In trial 2 high adenosine and xanthine coincided with elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high uric acid with high urinary malonedialdehyde, high summed oxypurines minus uric acid with an increase of diastolic blood pressure, glycemia and MA; urinary nitrate (indicator of systemic vasodilation) was unchanged

  14. Alcohol dispersions of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles for stone conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Suzuki, Amelia; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion

    2013-09-10

    Alcohol dispersions of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, the so-called nanolimes, are emerging as an effective conservation material for the consolidation of stone, mortars, and plasters present in old masonry and/or mural paintings. To better understand how this treatment operates, to optimize its performance and broaden its applications, here we study the nano and microstructural characteristics, carbonation behavior, and consolidation efficacy of colloidal alcohol dispersions of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles produced by both homogeneous (commercial nanolime) and heterogeneous phase synthesis (aged slaked lime and carbide lime putties). We observe that the alcohol not only provides a high colloidal stability to Ca(OH)2 particles, but also affects the kinetics of carbonation and CaCO3 polymorph selection. This is due to the pseudomorphic replacement of Ca(OH)2 particles by calcium alkoxides upon reaction with ethanol or 2-propanol. The extent of this replacement reaction depends on Ca(OH)2 size and time. Hydrolysis of alkoxides speeds up the carbonation process and increases the CaCO3 yield. The higher degree of transformation into calcium alkoxide of both the commercial nanolime and the carbide lime fosters metastable vaterite formation, while calcite precipitation is promoted upon carbonation of the aged slaked lime due its lower reactivity, which limits calcium alkoxide formation. A higher consolidation efficacy in terms of strength gain of treated porous stone is achieved in the latter case, despite the fact that the carbonation is much faster and reaches a higher yield in the former ones. Formation of alkoxides, which has been neglected in previous studies, needs to be considered when applying nanolime treatments. These results show that the use Ca(OH)2 nanoparticle dispersions prepared with either aged slaked lime or carbide lime putties is an economical and effective conservation alternative to commercial nanolimes produced by homogeneous phase synthesis. Ultimately, this

  15. Extraction and estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate crystals in the foliage of conifer and hardwood trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Bradley Chamberlain; Stephanie Long; Swathi A. Turlapati; Gloria. Quigley

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop a method for the extraction and indirect estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the foliage of trees. Foliar tissue was collected from a single tree of each species (five conifers and five hardwoods) for comparison of extractions in different solvents using 10 replicates per species from the same pool of...

  16. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, G.; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  17. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315029412; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311469728; Everts, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073713694; Bosch, Guido; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in crossover design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  18. Isolation and prevention of calcium oxalate-induced apoptotic death and oxidative stress in MDCK cells by diosgenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sarmistha; Goswami, Gagan; Pandrangi, Anupama

    2014-12-05

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) has been shown to be the most frequent constituent of kidney stones. The interactions of cells with COM crystals produce a variety of physiological and pathological changes including the development of oxidative stress, cellular injury and apoptosis. On the other hand, diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin, is well known for its antioxidant activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether diosgenin protects MDCK renal epithelial cells from COM-induced apoptotic death. Diosgenin was isolated from fruits of Solanum xanthocarpum by silica gel column chromatography. It was obtained in high yields (1.23%) and the purity was ascertained by HPTLC analysis. Characterization of diosgenin was done by mp, UV-visible spectrophotometry, elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR analysis. Cells were co-incubated with COM (80μg/cm(2)) and diosgenin (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10μg/mL) for 24h. It was found that diosgenin attenuated the apoptotic death induced by COM as measured in terms of cell viability, caspase -9/3 activities and DNA fragmentation percent. The inhibitory role of diosgenin on caspase -9/3 activities was also analyzed using molecular docking experiments, which showed interactions to their active sites by H-bonds. Diosgenin also attenuated the increase in lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion induced by COM crystals. In conclusion, the preventive effect of diosgenin is associated to the inhibition of oxidative stress and caspases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemamalini Ketha

    Full Text Available Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH2D concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined.In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, 1,25(OH2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH2D, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls.Serum Ca and 1,25(OH2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001. Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH2D/25(OHD ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008. Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82. In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OHD and 24,25(OH2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05.Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk.

  20. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D and found that (A + B are more abundant than (C + D in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine of kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p < 0.005. Dissociation constants toward calcium oxalate monohydrate were 10-fold different, with Beagles' isoforms being 10 times stronger inhibitors compare to those of Mini-Schnauzers'. Isoforms C + D of NC were the main isoforms isolated in stone-forming dogs. CONCLUSION: NC of these two species of dogs differently affects calcium oxalate crystallization and might have a role in determining ulterior urinary stone formation.

  1. Effect of Postharvest Oxalic Acid and Calcium Chloride on Quality Attributes of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruits and vegetables have special importance as a very important part of the human food supply. And from the beginnings of life, man has used these products to supply a part of his food. Nowadays, horticultural products are widely used in the diet. Cherry is one of the deciduous trees in the temperate regions, which is potassium rich. Use of Oxalic acid significantly reduces frost injury in pomegranate fruits during storage at a temperature of 2° C. In fruit trees, the importance of calcium is due to a delay in fruit ripening process and this way products have better portability. Materials and Methods: Firmness test was measured using the FT011 model of penetrometer. For determination of titratable acidity, the 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH titration method was used. Total Soluble solids content (SSC of fruit was measured by a digital refractometer (PAL-1. For determination of vitamin C in fruit juices, titration method with the indicator, 2,6-di-chlorophenolindophenol was used. Fruit juice pH was measured using pH meter model HI 9811.In order to investigate the effect of postharvest soaking treatment with Oxalic acid on the qualitative specifications and storage life of single grain sweet cherry fruit a research was conducted. This experience was conducted in a completely randomized design with 3 replications separately for the two materials. In this experiment Oxalic acid, in four levels (0,4,6 and 8 mM and Calcium chloride in four levels (0, 40, 55 and 70 mM were applied on the single grain sweet cherry fruit in the form of soaking and sampleswith7-day intervals for a period of 28 days from the fridge out and quanti tate and qualitative traits such as stiffness, weight loss, Titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C and pH were measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that compared with control ones all of the concentrations of Oxalic acid and Calcium chloride caused significant differences in the amount

  2. Accurately Diagnosing Uric Acid Stones from Conventional Computerized Tomography Imaging: Development and Preliminary Assessment of a Pixel Mapping Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Vishnu; De, Shubha; Shkumat, Nicholas; Marchini, Giovanni; Monga, Manoj

    2018-02-01

    Preoperative determination of uric acid stones from computerized tomography imaging would be of tremendous clinical use. We sought to design a software algorithm that could apply data from noncontrast computerized tomography to predict the presence of uric acid stones. Patients with pure uric acid and calcium oxalate stones were identified from our stone registry. Only stones greater than 4 mm which were clearly traceable from initial computerized tomography to final composition were included in analysis. A semiautomated computer algorithm was used to process image data. Average and maximum HU, eccentricity (deviation from a circle) and kurtosis (peakedness vs flatness) were automatically generated. These parameters were examined in several mathematical models to predict the presence of uric acid stones. A total of 100 patients, of whom 52 had calcium oxalate and 48 had uric acid stones, were included in the final analysis. Uric acid stones were significantly larger (12.2 vs 9.0 mm, p = 0.03) but calcium oxalate stones had higher mean attenuation (457 vs 315 HU, p = 0.001) and maximum attenuation (918 vs 553 HU, p uric acid stones. A combination of stone size, attenuation intensity and attenuation pattern from conventional computerized tomography can distinguish uric acid stones from calcium oxalate stones with high sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Kidney stones: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Priscilla; Noble, Helen; Al-Modhefer, Abdul-Kadhum; Walsh, Ian

    2016-11-10

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing, and approximately 12 000 hospital admissions every year are due to this condition. This article will use a case study to focus on a patient diagnosed with a calcium oxalate kidney stone. It will discuss the affected structures in relation to kidney stones and describe the pathology of the condition. Investigations for kidney stones, differential diagnosis and diagnosis, possible complications and prognosis, will be discussed. Finally, a detailed account of management strategies for the patient with kidney stones will be given, looking at pain management, medical procedures and dietary interventions.

  4. Treatment and prevention of kidney stones: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, Lynda; Kohlstadt, Ingrid

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Kidney stones are associated with chronic kidney disease. Preventing recurrence is largely specific to the type of stone (e.g., calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, cystine, struvite [magnesium ammonium phosphate]), and uric acid stones); however, even when the stone cannot be retrieved, urine pH and 24-hour urine assessment provide information about stone-forming factors that can guide prevention. Medications, such as protease inhibitors, antibiotics, and some diuretics, increase the risk of some types of kidney stones, and patients should be counseled about the risks of using these medications. Managing diet, medication use, and nutrient intake can help prevent the formation of kidney stones. Obesity increases the risk of kidney stones. However, weight loss could undermine prevention of kidney stones if associated with a high animal protein intake, laxative abuse, rapid loss of lean tissue, or poor hydration. For prevention of calcium oxalate, cystine, and uric acid stones, urine should be alkalinized by eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables, taking supplemental or prescription citrate, or drinking alkaline mineral waters. For prevention of calcium phosphate and struvite stones, urine should be acidified; cranberry juice or betaine can lower urine pH. Antispasmodic medications, ureteroscopy, and metabolic testing are increasingly being used to augment fluid and pain medications in the acute management of kidney stones.

  5. Can Hounsfield Unit Value Predict Type of Urinary Stones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Gok

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of this study is to determine the role of Hounsfield unit (HU in predicting results of stone analysis. Material and Method: This study included 199 patients to whom percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL procedures were applied between January 2008 and May 2011 in our clinic. Before the procedure HU values of kidney stones were measured using non-contrast computed tomography. After the operation, obtained stone samples were analysed using X-ray diffraction technique. HU values were compared with stone analysis results. Results: Stone analysis revealed eight different stone types. Distribution of stone types and HU value ranges were as follows: 85% calcium oxalate monohydrate, 730-1130 HU; 38% calcium oxalate dihydrate, 510-810 HU; 21% uric acid, 320-550 HU; 23% struvite, 614-870 HU; 7% calcium hydrogene phosphate, 1100-1365 HU; 3% cystine, 630-674 HU; 15% mixed uric acid plus calcium oxalate, 499-840 HU; and 7% mixed cystine plus calcium phosphate, 430-520 HU. HU values of all stone types ranged between 320 and 1365. There was a statistically significant relation between HU values of uric acid and non uric acid stones (p

  6. Risk of recurrence of idiopathic calcium kidney stones: analysis of data from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a frequent condition. While it is generally accepted that such condition carries a risk of recurrence over time, the exact risk and its predictors have been rarely quantitated. We aimed to estimate recurrence of kidney stones, overall and in specific subgroups, from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of calcium stone formers. Systematic review of RCTs of adult patients with idiopathic calcium kidney stones. Recurrence rates analyzed in subgroups based on type of intervention and other characteristics, using Poisson regression models. The analysis included 21 RCTs with 2168 participants over a median follow-up of 3.2 years (range 0.5-9.7). The median recurrence of kidney stones was 15 per 100 person-years (range 0-110). Recurrence was higher in those with two or more previous stone episodes compared to those with a single episode at enrolment (16 vs. 6 per 100 person-years, p stone episodes. The overall recurrence rate of stones depends on factors such as previous stone history and type of treatment. Dietary approaches seem to be more effective among single stone formers, whereas drugs seem to be more effective among recurrent stone formers.

  7. Correlation between the degree of air pollution and the distribution of calcium oxalate crystals in the gingko leaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K.; Hozumi, K.

    1972-12-01

    It is now found that the leaves of the gingko tree, Gingko biloba Linn, start to change color prematurely (in July) and are frequently shed considerably in advance of their normal release due to exposure to automotive exhaust. A comparison was made between leaves taken from clean locations free from exhaust fumes and others from high traffic intersections in urban areas. There were noticeable changes in the distribution of inorganic crystals, calcium oxalate, which suggested a biochemical synthesis in the leaf of oxalic acid from inspired carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water, with subsequent neutralization by calcium ion. Results showed significant differences in the size and shape of the crystals, and in their original sites in the leaf. An effect of air pollution from automobile exhaust fumes upon the metabolism of the gingko tree is thus strikingly evident. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Associations of diet and breed with recurrence of calcium oxalate cystic calculi in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heidi S; Swecker, William S; Becvarova, Iveta; Weeth, Lisa P; Werre, Stephen R

    2015-05-15

    To evaluate the long-term risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) cystic calculi in dogs of various breeds fed 1 of 2 therapeutic diets. Retrospective cohort study. Animals-135 dogs with a history of CaOx cystic calculi. Medical records for 4 referral hospitals were searched to identify dogs that had had CaOx cystic calculi removed. Owners were contacted and medical records evaluated to obtain information on postoperative diet, recurrence of signs of lower urinary tract disease, and recurrence of cystic calculi. Dogs were grouped on the basis of breed (high-risk breeds, low-risk breeds, and Miniature Schnauzers) and diet fed after removal of cystic calculi (diet A, diet B, and any other diet [diet C], with diets A and B being therapeutic diets formulated to prevent recurrence of CaOx calculi). Breed group was a significant predictor of calculi recurrence (as determined by abdominal radiography or ultrasonography), with Miniature Schnauzers having 3 times the risk of recurrence as did dogs of other breeds. Dogs in diet group A had a lower prevalence of recurrence than did dogs in diet group C, but this difference was not significant in multivariable analysis. Results indicated that Miniature Schnauzers had a higher risk of CaOx cystic calculi recurrence than did dogs of other breeds. In addition, findings suggested that diet may play a role in decreasing recurrence, but future prospective studies are needed to validate these observations.

  9. Calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) analysis for the identification of decayed tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Huang, Linpei

    2014-10-24

    The history of tea is poorly known, mainly due to the questionable identification of decayed tea plants in archaeological samples. This paper attempts to test the utility of calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) for the identification of tea in archaeological samples. It provides the first survey of the macropatterns of calciphytoliths in several species of Theaceae and common non-Theaceae plants. Crystals were extracted from 45 samples of tea, Theaceae and common non-Theaceae plants, and detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. In tea plants, druse and trichome base are the most distinctive crystals. Druses have the smallest diameter (11.65 ± 3.64 μm), and trichome bases have four distinctive straight and regular cracks, similar to a regular extinction cross. The results provide morphological criteria for distinguishing tea from other plants, specifically the presence of identifiable druses together with calcified trichome bases. The implications are significant for understanding the history of tea and plant exploitation, especially for plants for which the preservation of macrofossils is poor.

  10. Hyperoxaluria in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis--what are the limits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The object of this study was to investigate the role for measurement of 24-h renal oxalate excretion in the evaluation of idiopathic calcium stone formers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Renal excretion rates of oxalate and creatinine were measured in 24-h urines in 46 consecutive male recurrent...

  11. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  12. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakıroglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca. The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics.

  13. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have ...

  14. Correlation between air pollution and crystal pattern of calcium oxalate in plant leaves of street trees in Itami City. [Ginkgo biloba; Salix babylonica; Aphananthe aspera; Robinia pseudoacacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K.; Tatsumi, S.

    1975-01-01

    A characteristic difference in calcium oxalate crystal patterns in leaves of roadside trees planted in relatively unpolluted northern parts of Itami City and in parts of the city polluted by automobile exhaust was discovered. The species of trees examined were Ginkgo biloba, Salix babylonica, Aphananthe aspera, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Poplar. The leaves of trees grown in relatively less air polluted areas displayed crystal aggregates of calcium oxalate (50-80 micron) that were arranged in rows on both sides of the central vein; some scattered crystal aggregates between veins were observed. Trees grown in air polluted areas showed irregular crystal patterns and more scattering of the crystals between veins. The cause of the observed differences in the pattern of crystal aggregates was attributed to the difference in metabolism of trees under different environmental conditions. Air pollutants disturb the normal metabolism of the tree and cause hyperproduction of calcium oxalate.

  15. An oxalyl-CoA dependent pathway of oxalate catabolism plays a role in regulating calcium oxalate crystal accumulation and defending against oxalate-secreting phytopathogens in Medicago truncatula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considering the widespread occurrence of oxalate in nature and its broad impact on a host of organisms, it is surprising that so little is known about the turnover of this important acid. In plants, oxalate oxidase is the most well studied enzyme capable of degrading oxalate, but not all plants pos...

  16. Dietary calcium from dairy and non-dairy sources and risk of symptomatic kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric N.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Because of high correlations between dairy intake and total dietary calcium, previously reported associations between lower calcium intake and increased kidney stone risk represent de facto associations between milk products and risk. We sought to examine associations between dietary calcium from non-dairy and dairy sources and symptomatic nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods We conducted prospective studies in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; N=30,762 men), the Nurses’ Health Study I (NHS I; N=94,164 women), and the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II; N=101,701 women). We excluded men ≥ 60 years old because we previously reported inverse associations between calcium intake and risk only in men kidney stones over a combined 56 years of follow-up. For participants in the highest compared to lowest quintile of non-dairy dietary calcium, the multivariable relative risks of kidney stones were 0.71 (95% CI 0.56–0.92; P for trend 0.007) for HPFS, 0.82 (0.69–0.98; P trend 0.08) for NHS I, and 0.74 (0.63–0.87; P trend 0.002) for NHS II. The multivariable relative risks comparing highest to lowest quintile of dairy calcium were 0.77 (0.63–0.95; P trend 0.01) for HPFS, 0.83 (0.69–0.99; P trend 0.05) for NHS I, and 0.76 (0.65–0.88; P trend 0.001) for NHS II. Conclusions Higher dietary calcium from either non-dairy or dairy sources is independently associated with lower kidney stone risk. PMID:23535174

  17. The effect of intracrystalline and surface-bound osteopontin on the attachment of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals to Mandin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in ultrafiltered human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurgood, Lauren A.; Sørensen, Esben Skipper; Ryall, Rosemary L.

    2012-01-01

    Osteopontin has been shown to both promote and inhibit the attachment of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals to cultured renal epithelial cells in aqueous media. In this study we examined the role of OPN on the growth and attachment of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals, to which it more readily...

  18. Evaluation of oxalate decarboxylase and oxalate oxidase for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassland, Pierre; Sjöde, Anders; Winestrand, Sandra; Jönsson, Leif J; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    2010-05-01

    Increased recirculation of process water has given rise to problems with formation of calcium oxalate incrusts (scaling) in the pulp and paper industry and in forest biorefineries. The potential in using oxalate decarboxylase from Aspergillus niger for oxalic acid removal in industrial bleaching plant filtrates containing oxalic acid was examined and compared with barley oxalate oxidase. Ten different filtrates from chemical pulping were selected for the evaluation. Oxalate decarboxylase degraded oxalic acid faster than oxalate oxidase in eight of the filtrates, while oxalate oxidase performed better in one filtrate. One of the filtrates inhibited both enzymes. The potential inhibitory effect of selected compounds on the enzymatic activity was tested. Oxalate decarboxylase was more sensitive than oxalate oxidase to hydrogen peroxide. Oxalate decarboxylase was not as sensitive to chlorate and chlorite as oxalate oxidase. Up to 4 mM chlorate ions, the highest concentration tested, had no inhibitory effect on oxalate decarboxylase. Analysis of the filtrates suggests that high concentrations of chlorate present in some of the filtrates were responsible for the higher sensitivity of oxalate oxidase in these filtrates. Oxalate decarboxylase was thus a better choice than oxalate oxidase for treatment of filtrates from chlorine dioxide bleaching.

  19. Do teas rich in antioxidants reduce the physicochemical and peroxidative risk factors for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in humans? Pilot studies with Rooibos herbal tea and Japanese green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A; Mokoena, M; Durbach, I; Lazarus, J; de Jager, S; Ackermann, H; Breytenbach, I; Okada, A; Usami, M; Hirose, Y; Ando, R; Yasui, T; Kohri, K

    2016-08-01

    Several experimental and animal studies have demonstrated that substances rich in antioxidants can reduce the physicochemical and peroxidative risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) renal stone formation in urine and blood. However, there are very few such investigations in humans. In the present pilot study, two varieties of tea, a green one from Japan (JGT) and a herbal one from South Africa (Rooibos) (RT), both rich in antioxidants, were administered to a group of CaOx stone formers (SF) (n = 8) for 30 days. Both teas were analysed for polyphenols by high-performance liquid chromatography and for minerals by plasma atomic and optical emission spectroscopy. 24 h urines (baseline and day 30) were analysed for lithogenic factors. CaOx metastable limits and crystal nucleation and growth kinetics were also determined in each urine sample. Deposited crystals were inspected by scanning electron microscopy. Blood samples were collected (baseline and day 30). Biomarkers of oxidative stress including plasma and urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) were also determined. Urinary physicochemical risk factors were also investigated after ingestion of RT for 30 days in two control groups (CG1 and CG2), the latter one of which consisted of habitual JGT drinkers. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank tests and Mann-Whitney tests for paired and independent measurements, respectively. Several flavonoids and catechins were quantified in RT and JGT, respectively, confirming that both teas are rich sources of antioxidants. Mineral content was found to be far below dietary reference intakes. There were no significant changes in any of the urinary physicochemical or peroxidative risk factors in the control groups or in SF, except for the supersaturation (SS) of brushite (Bru) which decreased in the latter group after ingestion of JGT. Crystal morphology showed a tendency to change from

  20. Renal geology (quantitative renal stone analysis) by 'Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Iqbal

    2008-01-01

    To prospectively determine the precise stone composition (quantitative analysis) by using infrared spectroscopy in patients with urinary stone disease presenting to our clinic. To determine an ideal method for stone analysis suitable for use in a clinical setting. After routine and a detailed metabolic workup of all patients of urolithiasis, stone samples of 50 patients of urolithiasis satisfying the entry criteria were subjected to the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis after adequate sample homogenization at a single testing center. Calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate stone mixture was most commonly encountered in 35 (71%) followed by calcium phosphate, carbonate apatite, magnesium ammonium hexahydrate and xanthine stones. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy allows an accurate, reliable quantitative method of stone analysis. It also helps in maintaining a computerized large reference library. Knowledge of precise stone composition may allow the institution of appropriate prophylactic therapy despite the absence of any detectable metabolic abnormalities. This may prevent and or delay stone recurrence.

  1. Effects of a urolith prevention diet on urine compositions of glycosaminoglycans, Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, and nephrocalcin in cats with calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulich, Jody P; Osborne, Carl A; Carvalho, Mauricio; Nakagawa, Yasushi

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate urine concentrations of glycosaminoglycans, Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, and nephrocalcin in cats fed a diet formulated to prevent calcium oxalate uroliths. 10 cats with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. In a previous study conducted in accordance with a balanced crossover design, cats were sequentially fed 2 diets (the diet each cat was consuming prior to urolith detection and a diet formulated to prevent calcium oxalate uroliths). Each diet was fed for 8 weeks. At the end of each 8-week period, a 72-hour urine sample was collected. Concentrations of glycosaminoglycans, Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, and the 4 isoforms of nephrocalcin in urine samples collected during that previous study were measured in the study reported here. RESULTS; Diet had no effect on the quantity of Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein and nephrocalcin in urine. However, the urine concentration of glycosaminoglycans was significantly higher during consumption of the urolith prevention diet. Feeding a urolith prevention diet increased the urine concentration of glycosaminoglycans, which are glycoprotein inhibitors of growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals.

  2. Dietary calcium from dairy and nondairy sources, and risk of symptomatic kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric N; Curhan, Gary C

    2013-10-01

    Because of high correlations between dairy intake and total dietary calcium, previously reported associations between lower calcium intake and increased kidney stone risk represent de facto associations between milk products and risk. We examined associations between dietary calcium from nondairy and dairy sources, and symptomatic nephrolithiasis. We performed prospective studies in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) in 30,762 men, and in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and II in 94,164 and 101,701 women, respectively. We excluded men 60 years old or older because we previously reported inverse associations between calcium intake and risk only in men younger than 60 years. Food frequency questionnaires were used to assess calcium intake every 4 years. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to adjust for age, body mass index, supplemental calcium, diet and other factors. We documented 5,270 incident kidney stones during the combined 56 years of followup. In participants in the highest vs the lowest quintile of nondairy dietary calcium the multivariate relative risk of kidney stones was 0.71 (95% CI 0.56-0.92, p for trend 0.007) in HPFS, 0.82 (95% CI 0.69-0.98, p trend 0.08) in NHS I and 0.74 (95% CI 0.63-0.87, p trend 0.002) in NHS II. When comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of dairy calcium, the multivariate relative risk was 0.77 (95% CI 0.63-0.95, p trend 0.01) for HPFS, 0.83 (95% CI 0.69-0.99, p trend 0.05) for NHS I and 0.76 (95% CI 0.65-0.88, p trend 0.001) for NHS II. Higher dietary calcium from nondairy or dairy sources is independently associated with a lower kidney stone risk. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Concentration gradient of oxalate from cortex to papilla in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Tatsuya; Ishii, Keiichi; Sugimoto, Toshikado; Kamikawa, Sadanori; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Yoneda, Yukio; Kanazawa, Toshinao; Kishimoto, Taketoshi

    2003-02-01

    The kidney eliminates the major fraction of plasma oxalate. It is well known that oxalate is freely filtered by glomeruli and secreted by the proximal tubules. However, the renal handling of oxalate in distal nephrons, which is considered as playing an important role in stone formation, remains obscure. At 15-180 min after intravenous injection of 14C-oxalate to rats, the intrarenal localization of radioactivity was quantitatively measured by the radioluminographic method using a bioimaging analyzer. Tissue radioactivity was compared with plasma, and urinary radioactivities were measured by a liquid scintillation counter. The control study was conducted with 14C-inulin. The radioactivity of 14C-oxalate in the papilla was 10 times greater than in the cortex and eight times greater than in the medulla 180 min after injection when almost no radioactivity was present in the urine. In contrast, the radioactivity of 14C-inulin was nine times less in the papilla than in the cortex at the same time. Oxalate remains in the renal papilla for an extended period. This accumulation of oxalate may be attributed to calcium oxalate crystal fixation along the deep nephron which is considered to be the first step of stone formation.

  4. Rare calcium oxalate monohydrate calculus attached to the wall of the renal pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Prieto, Rafael M; Saus, Carlos; Servera, Antonio; García-Miralles, Reyes; Benejam, Joan

    2011-04-01

    Most renal calculi can be classified using well-established criteria in a manner that reflects both composition and fine structure under specific pathophysiological conditions. However, when a large patient population is considered, rare renal calculi invariably appear, some of which have never been classified; careful study is required to establish stone etiology in such cases. The patient in the present case report formed two types of calculi. One was attached on the wall of the renal pelvis near the ureter and part of the calculus was embedded inside pelvic renal tissue. The calculus developed on an ossified calcification located in the pelvis tissue. Current knowledge on the development of calcification in soft tissues suggests a pre-existing injury as an inducer of its development. A mechanism of calculus formation is proposed. The second stone was a typical jack-stone calculus. © 2011 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. In vivo oxalate degradation by liposome encapsulated oxalate oxidase in rat model of hyperoxaluria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: EMA-oxalate oxidase encapsulated liposome caused oxalate degradation in experimental hyperoxaluria indicating that the enzyme could be used as a therapeutic agent in hyperoxaluria leading to urinary stones.

  6. Protective effect of standardized extract of Biophytum sensitivum against calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil T. Pawar

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These results indicated that the MBS reduced and prevented the growth of urinary stones. However, cystone (500 mg/kg is more effective than the MBS (400 mg/kg in alleviating the urolithiasis. This finding supports the traditional use of B. sensitivum for urolithiasis.

  7. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  8. Calcium and phosphorus regulatory hormones and risk of incident symptomatic kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric N; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Curhan, Gary C

    2015-04-07

    Calcium and phosphorus regulatory hormones may contribute to the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis. However, there has been no prospective study to date of plasma hormone levels and risk of kidney stones. This study aimed to examine independent associations between plasma levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and creatinine and the subsequent risk of incident kidney stones. This study was a prospective, nested case-control study of men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who were free of diagnosed nephrolithiasis at blood draw. During 12 years of follow-up, 356 men developed an incident symptomatic kidney stone. Using risk set sampling, controls were selected in a 2:1 ratio (n=712 controls) and matched for age, race, and year, month, and time of day of blood collection. Baseline plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and creatinine were similar in cases and controls. Mean 1,25(OH)2D and median FGF23 levels were higher in cases than controls but differences were small and statistically nonsignificant (45.7 versus 44.2 pg/ml, P=0.07 for 1,25[OH]2D; 47.6 versus 45.1 pg/ml, P=0.08 for FGF23). However, after adjusting for body mass index, diet, plasma factors, and other covariates, the odds ratios of incident symptomatic kidney stones in the highest compared with lowest quartiles were 1.73 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 2.71; P for trend 0.01) for 1,25(OH)2D and 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 2.19; P for trend 0.03) for FGF23. There were no significant associations between other plasma factors and kidney stone risk. Higher plasma 1,25(OH)2D, even in ranges considered normal, is independently associated with higher risk of symptomatic kidney stones. Although of borderline statistical significance, these findings also suggest that higher FGF23 may be

  9. Influence of acidifying or alkalinizing diets on bone mineral density and urine relative supersaturation with calcium oxalate and struvite in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartges, Joseph W; Kirk, Claudia A; Cox, Sherry K; Moyers, Tamberlyn D

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of acidifying or alkalinizing diets on bone mineral density and urine relative supersaturation (URSS) with calcium oxalate and struvite in healthy cats. 6 castrated male and 6 spayed female cats. 3 groups of 4 cats each were fed diets for 12 months that differed only in acidifying or alkalinizing properties (alkalinizing, neutral, and acidifying). Body composition was estimated by use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and 48-hour urine samples were collected for URSS determination. Urine pH differed significantly among diet groups, with the lowest urine pH values in the acidifying diet group and the highest values in the alkalinizing diet group. Differences were not observed in other variables except urinary ammonia excretion, which was significantly higher in the neutral diet group. Calcium oxalate URSS was highest in the acidifying diet group and lowest in the alkalinizing diet group; struvite URSS was not different among groups. Diet was not significantly associated with bone mineral content or density. Urinary undersaturation with calcium oxalate was achieved by inducing alkaluria. Feeding an alkalinizing diet was not associated with URSS with struvite. Bone mineral density and calcium content were not adversely affected by diet; therefore, release of calcium from bone caused by feeding an acidifying diet may not occur in healthy cats.

  10. Nanoscale "fluorescent stone": Luminescent Calcium Fluoride Nanoparticles as Theranostic Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjun; Zhang, Yuanwei; Huang, Ling; Yang, Yuchen; Zhao, Yang; El-Banna, Ghida; Han, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) based luminescent nanoparticles exhibit unique, outstanding luminescent properties, and represent promising candidates as nanoplatforms for theranostic applications. There is an urgent need to facilitate their further development and applications in diagnostics and therapeutics as a novel class of nanotools. Here, in this critical review, we outlined the recent significant progresses made in CaF2-related nanoparticles: Firstly, their physical chemical properties, synthesis chemistry, and nanostructure fabrication are summarized. Secondly, their applications in deep tissue bio-detection, drug delivery, imaging, cell labeling, and therapy are reviewed. The exploration of CaF2-based luminescent nanoparticles as multifunctional nanoscale carriers for imaging-guided therapy is also presented. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in the development of such CaF2-based platform for future development in regard to its theranostic applications.

  11. Internet program for facilitating dietary modifications limiting kidney stone risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jessica N; Easter, Linda; Amoroso, Robert; Benfield, Debra; Mufarri, Patrick W; Knight, John; Holmes, Ross P; Assimos, Dean G

    2013-10-01

    Certain dietary modifications limit the risk of stone recurrence. Compliance is an important component of dietary therapy for stone prevention, and self-efficacy is an important ingredient of compliance. We developed an internet program to facilitate dietary compliance for stone prevention and performed a pilot study to assess its effectiveness. The internet program provides information regarding dietary modifications including increased fluid consumption, limited animal protein, sodium, and oxalate intake, and adequate calcium consumption. Participants record their daily food and fluid intake and receive immediate feedback as to whether they were compliant or not. Five adult calcium stone formers collected three 24 hour urine specimens on self-selected diets, three 24 hour urine specimens while on a stone preventive metabolic diet, and three 24 hour urine specimens after utilizing the internet program for 1 month. Urinary stone risk parameters were measured, and data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and Student's t test. All participants recorded their meals and snacks for each day and found the program easy to navigate. The mean time in hours from food consumption to log in was 35.25 +/- 70.8 hours. There were no statistically significant differences in stone risk factors between the controlled and internet dietary phases. Oxalate excretion was significantly higher during the self-selected dietary intake (p = 0.03). This pilot study demonstrates that subjects appear to be compliant with utilization of an interactive internet program for stone prevention with dietary modifications. In addition, improvement in certain stone risk parameters occurred.

  12. Strontium Substitution for Calcium in Lithogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; Chi, Thomas; Miller, Joe; Flechner, Lawrence; Fakra, Sirine; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Strontium has chemical similarity to calcium, which enables the replacement of calcium by strontium in biomineralization processes. Incorporating strontium into human bone and teeth has been studied extensively but little research has been performed of the incorporation of strontium into urinary calculi. We used synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption techniques to examine the presence of strontium in different types of human kidney stones. Materials and Methods Multiple unique human stone samples were obtained via consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomies/ureteroscopies. A portion of each stone was sent for standard laboratory analysis and a portion was retained for x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption measurements. X-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption measurements determined the presence, spatial distribution and speciation of strontium in each stone sample. Results Traditional kidney stone analyses identified calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid and cystine stones. X-ray fluorescence measurements identified strontium in all stone types except pure cystine. X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping of the samples revealed co-localization of calcium and strontium. X-ray absorption measurements of the calcium phosphate stone showed strontium predominately present as strontium apatite. Conclusions Advanced x-ray fluorescence imaging identified strontium in all calcium based stones, present as strontium apatite. This finding may be critical since apatite is thought to be the initial nidus for calcium stone formation. Strontium is not identified by standard laboratory stone analyses. Its substitution for calcium can be reliably identified in stones from multiple calcium based stone formers, which may offer opportunities to gain insight into early events in lithogenesis. PMID:23260568

  13. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs4236480 in TRPV5 Calcium Channel Gene Is Associated with Stone Multiplicity in Calcium Nephrolithiasis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Khaleel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is characterized by calcification of stones in the kidneys from an unknown cause. Animal models demonstrated the functional roles of the transient receptor potential vanilloid member 5 (TRPV5 gene in calcium renal reabsorption and hypercalciuria. Therefore, TRPV5 was suggested to be involved in calcium homeostasis. However, whether genetic polymorphisms of TRPV5 are associated with kidney stone multiplicity or recurrence is unclear. In this study, 365 Taiwanese kidney-stone patients were recruited. Both biochemical data and DNA samples were collected. Genotyping was performed by a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. We found that a TRPV5 polymorphism (rs4236480 was observed to be associated with stone multiplicity of calcium nephrolithiasis, as the risk of stone multiplicity was higher in patients with the TT+CT genotype than in patients with the CC genotype (p=0.0271. In summary, despite the complexity of nephrolithiasis and the potential association of numerous calcium homeostatic absorption/reabsorption factors, TRPV5 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis.

  14. The role of interfacial chemistry in surface nucleation and growth of calcium oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, L.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.

    1993-06-01

    The surface adsorption of Ca{sup 2+} and oxalate anions (Ox{sup 2{minus}}) on SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide colloids were by electrosonic amplitude measurements. Kinetics studies of CaO{sub x} formation on the model oxide surfaces were carried out using constant composition method. Results suggested Ca{sup 2+} and Ox{sup 2{minus}} adsorptiopn was promoted on the oxide surfaces with opposite charges, and the specific adsorption of the divalent ions also resulted in surface charge reversal. For heterogeous nucleation of CaO{sub x} on the three model oxide surfaces, induction times ranged from 270 to 360 minutes compared with 1200 minutes estimated for homogeneous nucleation and 700 minutes for spontaneous or nucleation at pH 6.5 and S = 3.3. Lower nucleation barriers, 27 mJ/m{sup 2} for SiO{sub 2}, 26 mJ/m{sup 2} for TiO{sub 2}, were observed by studying the dependence of nucleation induction times as the function of solution supersaturation.

  15. The accuracy of noncontrast spiral computerized tomography in detecting lucent renal stones: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Adwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal stones are one of the most common diseases in the urology field that are easily diagnosed by one of the standard imaging techniques. Noncontrast spiral computerized tomography (CT can detect up to 95% of the renal, ureteric and bladder stones, especially those with calcium composition, and considered nowadays one of the most accurate methods for detecting undetectable stones by other modalities. We report a case of a 60-year-old female who presented with colicky right flank pain due to large calcium oxalate renal stone that is undetected by standard imaging technique including spiral CT scan. Uretroscopy diagnosed and ultimately treat this patient problem.

  16. The accuracy of noncontrast spiral computerized tomography in detecting lucent renal stones: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwan, Ayman; Binsaleh, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Renal stones are one of the most common diseases in the urology field that are easily diagnosed by one of the standard imaging techniques. Noncontrast spiral computerized tomography (CT) can detect up to 95% of the renal, ureteric and bladder stones, especially those with calcium composition, and considered nowadays one of the most accurate methods for detecting undetectable stones by other modalities. We report a case of a 60-year-old female who presented with colicky right flank pain due to large calcium oxalate renal stone that is undetected by standard imaging technique including spiral CT scan. Uretroscopy diagnosed and ultimately treat this patient problem.

  17. Studies on calcium uptake by myometrial microsomes with particular reference to the dependence on inorganic phosphate and oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, S

    1978-09-01

    Ca uptake by microsomes isolated from non-pregnant rabbit myometrium was potentiated by both inorganic phosphate (Pi) and oxalate anions. Both Pi and oxalate had little effect on the initial rate of uptake but a pronounced effect on the capacity of Ca uptake measured after 20 min which was greater in the presence of oxalate than that of Pi (5 mM each). The presence or absence of sucrose in the uptake medium had a significant effect on oxalate-induced potentiation of Ca uptake but not on that potentiated by Pi or that measured in the absence of either potentiating anion. A part of Ca accumulated additionally under the influence of sucrose could be removed by washing microsomes with KCl. Another significant difference between the pontentiating effect of oxalate and Pi was observed when the pH of the incubation medium was varied. In the presence of oxalate the pH optimum was between 6.4--6.8, whereas that in its absence or in the presence of Pi the optimal pH was around 7.2. Reduction in pH from 7.2 to 6.8 along with the substitution of KCl by sucrose resulted in 3-fold increase in Ca uptake when oxalate was used as the potentiating anion. The results suggest that Ca is taken up by a different mechanism in the presence of oxalate than that in its absence or when oxalate anion is substituted with inorganic phosphate.

  18. Urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, citrate, oxalate, and uric acid by healthy schoolchildren using a 12-h collection protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Torres, Concepción; Rodrigo, Dolores; Grases, Félix; García-Raja, Ana M; Gómez, Cristina; Lumbreras, Javier; Frontera, Guiem

    2014-07-01

    Improving knowledge about normal urine composition in children is important for early prevention of lithiasis. We describe urinary excretion values of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphate (P), citrate (Cit), uric acid (Ur), and oxalate (Ox) in healthy children with and without a family history of lithiasis, using a 12-h urine collection protocol. Urine samples were obtained from 184 children (5-12 years): a spot sample collected in the afternoon, and a 12-h overnight sample. Solute/creatinine (Cr) and 12-h solute excretion was calculated. Urinary excretion values of the studied solutes are presented as percentile values, separately for each type of sample. Due to age-related differences in the solute/creatinine ratios, except for Ca and Cit, results are described according to the child's age. The presence of excretion values related to an increased risk of lithiasis was more common in children with a family history. We report data from urine samples collected by using a simplified collection protocol. The observed differences between children with and without a family history of lithiasis could justify that in population studies aimed at setting reference values, the former are excluded.

  19. Renal papillary calcification and the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal calculi: a case series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to determine in a case series (four patients) how calcified deposits in renal papillae are associated with the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi. Methods From the recently collected papillary calculi, we evaluated retrospectively patients, subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy, with COM papillary lithiasis. Results The COM papillary calculi were found to result from subepithelial injury. Many of these lesions underwent calcification by hydroxyapatite (HAP), with calculus morphology and the amount of HAP in the concave zone dependent on the location of the calcified injury. Most of these HAP deposits grew, eroding the epithelium covering the renal papillae, coming into contact with urine and starting the development of COM calculi. Subepithelial HAP plaques may alter the epithelium covering the papillae, resulting in the deposit of COM crystals directly onto the epithelium. Tissue calcification depends on a pre-existing injury, the continuation of this process is due to modulators and/or crystallization inhibitors deficiency. Conclusions Since calculus morphology and the amount of detected HAP are dependent on the location and widespread of calcified injury, all types of papillary COM calculi can be found in the same patient. All patients had subepithelial calcifications, with fewer papillary calculi, demonstrating that some subepithelial calcifications did not further evolve and were reabsorbed. A high number of subepithelial calcifications increases the likelihood that some will be transformed into COM papillary calculi. PMID:23497010

  20. Influence of substrate mineralogy on bacterial mineralization of calcium carbonate: implications for stone conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Jroundi, Fadwa; Schiro, Mara; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; González-Muñoz, María Teresa

    2012-06-01

    The influence of mineral substrate composition and structure on bacterial calcium carbonate productivity and polymorph selection was studied. Bacterial calcium carbonate precipitation occurred on calcitic (Iceland spar single crystals, marble, and porous limestone) and silicate (glass coverslips, porous sintered glass, and quartz sandstone) substrates following culturing in liquid medium (M-3P) inoculated with different types of bacteria (Myxococcus xanthus, Brevundimonas diminuta, and a carbonatogenic bacterial community isolated from porous calcarenite stone in a historical building) and direct application of sterile M-3P medium to limestone and sandstone with their own bacterial communities. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and 2-dimensional XRD (2D-XRD) analyses revealed that abundant highly oriented calcite crystals formed homoepitaxially on the calcitic substrates, irrespective of the bacterial type. Conversely, scattered spheroidal vaterite entombing bacterial cells formed on the silicate substrates. These results show that carbonate phase selection is not strain specific and that under equal culture conditions, the substrate type is the overruling factor for calcium carbonate polymorph selection. Furthermore, carbonate productivity is strongly dependent on the mineralogy of the substrate. Calcitic substrates offer a higher affinity for bacterial attachment than silicate substrates, thereby fostering bacterial growth and metabolic activity, resulting in higher production of calcium carbonate cement. Bacterial calcite grows coherently over the calcitic substrate and is therefore more chemically and mechanically stable than metastable vaterite, which formed incoherently on the silicate substrates. The implications of these results for technological applications of bacterial carbonatogenesis, including building stone conservation, are discussed.

  1. Mineralogical and morphological investigation of kidney stones of a Mediterranean region (Basilicata, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannossi, Maria Luigia; Mongelli, Giovanni; Tateo, Fabio; Summa, Vito

    2012-01-01

    Kidney stones are a very frequent finding in southern Italy, but stone analysis is not routinely performed. However, it is an important requirement not only for a successful treatment of this disease, but also for the prophylaxis to prevent any recurrence. We therefore set out to analyze 80 kidney stones collected from Basilicata Region (Southern, Italy). X-ray powder diffraction as well as optical and scanning electron microscopy and petrographic thin section analysis have been applied in order to determine the mineralogical and morphological compositions. The internal structure and the relation between major and minor components have facilitated the classification of the kidney stones according to a detailed scheme. As it is known from other country, calcium oxalate stones were the most frequent (59%) [39% mainly composed of whewellite, CaC₂O₄*H₂O and 29% is mainly made of weddellite, CaC₂O₄*2H₂O]. Uric acid stones were abundant too (18%). Calcium phosphate and cystine stone were less. The results of the observations of kidney stones in thin petrographic sections led to the identification of more cores in the same whewellite kidney stones. In some kidney stones the core is not situated in the central zone, which represents the point of attachment on kidney wall. Basilicata kidney stone prevalence is different from the average prevalence determined in other Mediterranean areas. The comparison showed that calcium oxalate stones seem to be more frequent, and there is a high prevalence of uric acid kidney stones and a lower prevalence of phosphate kidney stones, especially hydroxyapatite. The relative increase frequency of uric acid stones in the northern part of the Region may be due to high-purine diets and softness water consumption.

  2. Multi-element analysis of milk by ICP-oa-TOF-MS after precipitation of calcium and proteins by oxalic and nitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husáková, Lenka; Urbanová, Iva; Šrámková, Jitka; Konečná, Michaela; Bohuslavová, Jana

    2013-03-15

    In this work a simple technique employing oxalic and nitric acid to cow's milk samples prior to analysis by inductively coupled plasma orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ICP-oa-TOF-MS) was introduced. After the precipitation of calcium and proteins via oxalic and nitric acid, respectively, the resulting liquid phase was aspirated with a concentric glass nebulizer for ICP-TOF-MS determination of trace elements. Precipitation of proteins is essential for better separation of solid and liquid phase of modified samples. Separation of calcium as a precipitated non-soluble oxalate enables the elimination of spectral interferences originating from different calcium containing species like (40)Ca(35)Cl(+), (40)Ca(37)Cl(+), (43)Ca(16)O(+), (40)Ca(18)O(+), (44)Ca(16)O(+), (43)Ca(16)O(1)H(+) onto the determination of As, Se, Co and Ni whose assay is more difficult when using conventional quadrupole instruments. High detection capability is further an advantage as the approach enables the analysis without dilution. The methodology may serve, in addition, for a fast and sensitive determination of some other elements. After that, direct, reliable and simultaneous determination of 16 elements (Li, Be, B, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, Ga, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb, Cs, Tl) at trace and ultra-trace levels in milk can be performed under optimum instrumental conditions and by using Rh as an internal standard. Accuracy and precision was assessed by measuring NCS ZC73015 milk powder control standard, yielding results in agreement with certified values and RSD <10%. The accuracy was also checked by comparison of the results of the proposed method with those found by a method based on a microwave-assisted digestion of real samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Calcium carbonate precipitation by heterotrophic bacteria isolated from biofilms formed on deteriorated ignimbrite stones: influence of calcium on EPS production and biofilm formation by these isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Angélica; Sepúlveda-Sánchez, José David; Mercedes Alonso Guzmán, Elia Mercedes; Le Borgne, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrophic CaCO3-precipitating bacteria were isolated from biofilms on deteriorated ignimbrites, siliceous acidic rocks, from Morelia Cathedral (Mexico) and identified as Enterobacter cancerogenus (22e), Bacillus sp. (32a) and Bacillus subtilis (52g). In solid medium, 22e and 32a precipitated calcite and vaterite while 52g produced calcite. Urease activity was detected in these isolates and CaCO3 precipitation increased in the presence of urea in the liquid medium. In the presence of calcium, EPS production decreased in 22e and 32a and increased in 52g. Under laboratory conditions, ignimbrite colonization by these isolates only occurred in the presence of calcium and no CaCO3 was precipitated. Calcium may therefore be important for biofilm formation on stones. The importance of the type of stone, here a siliceous stone, on biological colonization is emphasized. This calcium effect has not been reported on calcareous materials. The importance of the effect of calcium on EPS production and biofilm formation is discussed in relation to other applications of CaCO3 precipitation by bacteria.

  4. [Pathophysiology, diagnosis and conservative therapy in calcium kidney calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, B

    2003-02-01

    Annual incidences of kidney stones are about 0.1-0.4% of the population, and lifetime prevalences in the USA and Europe range between 8 and 15%. Kidney stones occur more frequently with increasing age and among men. Within ten years, the disease usually recurs in more than 50% of patients. Nowadays, about 85% of all kidney stones contain calcium salts (calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphate) as their main crystalline components. Because human urine is commonly supersaturated with respect to calcium salts as well as to uric acid, crystalluria is very common, i.e. healthy people excrete up to ten millions of microcrystals every day. Recurrent stone formers appear to excrete lower amounts or structurally defective forms of crystallization inhibitors which allows for the formation of large crystal aggregates as precursors of stones. Alternatively, crystal adhesion to urothelial surfaces may be enhanced in stone formers. Medical treatment of renal colic is based on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, because prostaglandins appear to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of pain during ureteral obstruction. In addition, centrally acting analgesics such as pethidine-HCl may be required in many cases. The administration of high amounts (3-4 liters/day) of intravenous fluids should be abandoned, since it may raise intraureteral pressure whereby pain increases and kidney pelvis or fornices may rupture. All first-stone formers should undergo a simple basic evaluation, including stone analysis (x-ray diffraction or infrared spectrometry), serum values of ionized calcium (alternatively: total calcium and albumin) and creatinine, urinalysis and repeated measurements of fasting urine pH in order to detect urinary acidification disorders or low urine pH. In high-risk patients with as first stone episode (i.e. strongly positive family history, inflammatory bowel disease, short-bowel syndrome, nephrocalcinosis, bilateral stones, hypercalcemia, renal tubular acidosis, airline

  5. Pathophysiology of incomplete renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers: evidence of disturbed calcium, bone and citrate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Bollerslev, Jens; Hansen, A B

    1993-01-01

    RTA compared with 3 of 10 with NUA, and 0 of 10 NC. The citrate/calcium ratio in urine was significantly reduced in iRTA compared with the value in NUA (P formation (serum osteocalcin) and bone resorption (urinary hydroxyproline) were...... significantly increased in iRTA compared with NUA and NC (P calcium, bone and citrate metabolism--the same metabolic abnormalities which characterize classic type 1 RTA. Mild non-carbonic......Urinary acidification, bone metabolism and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 recurrent stone formers with incomplete renal tubular acidosis (iRTA), 10 recurrent stone formers with normal urinary acidification (NUA) and 10 normal controls (NC). Patients with iRTA had...

  6. Kidney stone composition in overweight and obese patients: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosli HA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hisham A Mosli,1 Hala H Mosli,2 Wissam K Kamal11Department of Urology, 2Department of Internal Medicine (Endocrinology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To report preliminary information on urinary stone composition in patients who are either overweight or obese with kidney stone disease.Methods: A cohort of patients (n = 138 with nephrolithiasis were prospectively followed from January 2011 for 18 months. Of those, 64 (46% were found to be overweight with body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 and 74 (54% were obese with body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2. Stone characteristics including size, location, and composition were studied in detail, and patients' age, weight, height, and gender were all documented. The stone size and location were studied radiologically while semiquantitative stone analysis was carried out using the DiaSys method, which involves titrimetric determination of calcium, colorimetric determination/visual assessment of oxalate, phosphate, magnesium, ammonium, uric acid, and cystine, and qualitative determination of carbonate.Results: Eighteen stones were collected from overweight and obese patients. Those obtained were either spontaneously passed (n = 2, fragments passed following shockwave lithotripsy (n = 11, extracted ureteroscopically (n = 2, or extracted by percutaneous nephrolithotomy (n = 3. About 95% of the stones contained calcium oxalate and more than half contained uric acid.Conclusion: This report confirms that kidney stones are mainly composed of calcium oxalate and uric acid in overweight and obese patients with nephrolithiasis.Keywords: urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis, obesity, renal stone, body mass index (BMI, calculus, stone composition, analysis

  7. Evaluation of biochemical urinary stone composition and its relationship to tap water hardness in Qom province, central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammad Kazem; Saghafi, Hossein; Joorabchin, Seyed Mohammad Amin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical stone composition in general population of Qom province, central Iran, and its relationship with high tap water hardness. In a prospective study, from March 2008 to July 2011, biochemical analysis of urinary stones in patients living in Qom province for at least 5 years was performed. Stones were retrieved by spontaneous passage, endoscopic or open surgery, and after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Demographic findings and the drinking water supply of patients were evaluated and compared with biochemical stone analysis. Stone analysis was performed in 255 patients. The most dominant composition of urinary stones was calcium oxalate (73%), followed by uric acid (24%), ammonium urate (2%), and cystine (1%). The peak incidence of urinary stone was in patients in their forties. Overall male to female ratio was 4.93:1. The dominant stone composition in inhabitants of central Iran, where tap water hardness is high, was calcium oxalate stones. On the basis of this study, biochemical urinary stone composition of Qom does not differ from other regions of Iran with lower water hardness.

  8. Evidence Report: Risk of Renal Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Pietrzyk, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The formation of renal stones poses an in-flight health risk of high severity, not only because of the impact of renal colic on human performance but also because of complications that could potentially lead to crew evacuation, such as hematuria, infection, hydronephrosis, and sepsis. Evidence for risk factors comes from urine analyses of crewmembers, documenting changes to the urinary environment that are conducive to increased saturation of stone-forming salts, which are the driving force for nucleation and growth of a stone nidus. Further, renal stones have been documented in astronauts after return to Earth and in one cosmonaut during flight. Biochemical analysis of urine specimens has provided indication of hypercalciuria and hyperuricemia, reduced urine volumes, and increased urine saturation of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. A major contributor to the risk for renal stone formation is bone atrophy with increased turnover of the bone minerals. Dietary and fluid intakes also play major roles in the risk because of the influence on urine pH (more acidic) and on volume (decreased). Historically, specific assessments on urine samples from some Skylab crewmembers indicated that calcium excretion increased early in flight, notable by day 10 of flight, and almost exceeded the upper threshold for normal excretion (300mg/day in males). Other crewmember data documented reduced intake of fluid and reduced intake of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and citrate (an inhibitor of calcium stone formation) in the diet. Hence, data from both short-duration and long-duration missions indicate that space travel induces risk factors for renal stone formation that continue to persist after flight; this risk has been documented by reported kidney stones in crewmembers.

  9. Response surface methodology based extraction of Tribulus terrestris leads to an upsurge of antilithiatic potential by inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kaushik

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris has significant antilithiatic efficacy established via both in vitro as well as in vivo studies and is used in numerous anti-urolithiatic herbal formulations viz. Cystone, Uriflow, Uritone and Neeri. However, to fully utilize its antilithiatic potential, the influence of different extraction parameters on antilithiatic ability of T. terrestris aqueous extract needs elucidation. Thus, the current study was undertaken using statistically optimized extraction conditions for aqueous extract preparation. Response surface methodology was employed to observe the influence of three variables i.e. temperature (°C, time (h and solid: liquid ratio (S: L on the extraction yield (% and protein content (mg/g of T. terrestris aqueous extract. RSM results revealed that the high S:L ratio, low temperature and reduced incubation time were optimal conditions for aqueous extraction. Under such extraction conditions the protein content reached the value of 26.6±1.22 mg/g and the obtained extraction yield was 27.32±1.62%. The assessment of antilithiatic activity of 4 selected extracts (AE1-4, revealed enhanced nucleation and aggregation inhibition of calcium oxalate crystals with AE1 and AE2, which in addition significantly altered the size and morphology of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals compared to AE3 and AE4. In vitro cell culture based studies on renal epithelial cells (MDCK, NRK-52E and PK 15 proved that the AE1 showed higher cytoprotective potency by increasing cell viability as compared to the oxalate treated group. The free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract lowered the reactive oxygen specie's induced damage and potentially reduced the signals of programmed cell death due to oxalate injury. In addition, modulation of the COM crystal morphology was enhanced by AE1 as compared to AE2. The FTIR and GC-MS analysis of AE1, showed the presence of biomolecules which could aid in the attenuation of lithiatic process. In

  10. Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation

  11. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  12. Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgarisvar. cicla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadamori, Yukiko; Vanhanen, Leo; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2014-04-23

    Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet ( Beta vulgaris var. cicla) stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW). The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly ( p < 0.05) reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate.

  13. Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Wadamori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW. Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW. The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate.

  14. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts

  15. A Survey of Epidemiologic Factors in Patients with Urinary Stones in Hamadan

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    H.R. Ghasemi Basir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: After urinary tract infection and prostatic disorders , the urine stones are the third common genitourinary diseases. Demographic, environmental and genetic factors affect urine stone formation. The aim of our study is to survey epidemiologic factors in pa-tients with urinary stones referring to educational hospitals of Hamadan during 2010-2013. Materials & Methods: In this analytic-cross-sectional study, we studied 500 cases of urinary stones referring to educational hospitals of Hamadan. The data were collected from electronic patient records system of laboratory. The results were registered in a check list and analyzed by spss16 and descriptive statistical indicators. Results: The patients were between 0.5-84 years. The average age of them was 40.36 years. In our study of 500 cases, 348 cases were male (69.6% and 152 cases were female (30.4%. The male to female ratio was 2.3 to 1. Urinary stones were more prevalent in 25- 45 year old men and 30-50 year old women. Among 500 patients, 466 cases had only one type of renal stones and 34 cases had 2 types. The calcium oxalate was the most common stone (386 cases, 72.5%. The other common stone types were uric acid (130 cases, 24.3 %, cystine (14 cases,2.6 % ,calcium carbonate (3 cases,0.5 % and calcium phosphate (1 case,0.1 % Conclusion: Urinary stones are twice as common in men as in women. Most patients are be-tween 38-42 years old. The most common stone in both sexes and all ages was calcium ox-alate. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:157-163

  16. Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elaine M.

    2007-04-01

    Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

  17. Irritant contact dermatitis caused by needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, in Agave tequilana among workers in tequila distilleries and agave plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, M L; Ogura, T; Soffchi, L

    2001-02-01

    It was found that needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, are found abundantly in all tissues of Agave tequilana plants; thus, 1 droplet (0.03 ml) of juice pressed from leaves contains 100-150 crystals, 30-500 microm in length, sharpened at both ends. In tequila distilleries, 5/6 of the workers who handle the agave stems have experienced the characteristic irritation. In contrast, only 1/3 of workers in agave plantations who harvest agave plants, complain of the irritation. It is confirmed that all the irritation suffered in both distilleries and plantations takes place at bodily locations where the plants come into contact with the worker's skin in the course of their work.

  18. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

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    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  19. Effects of Tamm-Horsfall protein with normal and reduced sialic acid content upon the crystallization of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate in human urine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallson, P C; Choong, S K; Kasidas, G P; Samuell, C T

    1997-01-01

    To examine the effects of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) of normal and low sialic acid content on urinary crystallization, and establish whether there are changes conducive to the formation of kidney stones...

  20. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary stone risk profile is uncertain. Sports beverage do not affect the urinary stone risk profile. Hyperoxaluria: A diet low in oxalate and/or a calcium intake normal to high (800-1200 mg/day for adults reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, conversely a diet rich in oxalates and/or a diet low in calcium increase urinary oxalate. A restriction in protein intake may reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate although a vegetarian diet may lead to an increase in urinary oxalate. Adding bran to a diet low in oxalate cancels its effect of reducing urinary oxalate. Conversely, the addition of supplements of fruit and vegetables to a mixed diet does not involve an increased excretion of oxalate in the urine. The intake of pyridoxine reduces the excretion of oxalate. Hyperuricosuria: In patients with renal calcium stones the decrease of the urinary excretion of uric acid after restriction of dietary protein and purine is suggested although not clearly demonstrated. Hypocitraturia: The administration of alkaline-citrates salts is recommended for the medical treatment of renal stone-formers with hypocitraturia, although compliance to this treatment is limited by gastrointestinal side effects and costs. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables (excluding those with high oxalate content increases citrate excretion and involves a significant protection against the risk of stone formation. Citrus (lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and lime and non citrus fruits (melon are natural sources of dietary citrate, and several studies have shown the potential of these fruits and/or their juices in raising urine citrate levels. Children: There are enought basis to advice an adequate fluid intake also in children. Moderate dietary salt restriction and implementation of potassium intake are useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion whereas dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for children with nephrolithiasis. It seems

  1. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, Domenico; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Lotti, Tullio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Borghi, Loris; Caione, Paolo; Carini, Marco; Caudarella, Renata; Ferraro, Manuel; Gambaro, Giovanni; Gelosa, Marco; Guttilla, Andrea; Illiano, Ester; Martino, Marangella; Meschi, Tiziana; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miano, Roberto; Napodano, Giorgio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Rendina, Domenico; Rocco, Francesco; Rosa, Marco; Sanseverino, Roberto; Salerno, Annamaria; Spatafora, Sebastiano; Tasca, Andrea; Ticinesi, Andrea; Travaglini, Fabrizio; Trinchieri, Alberto; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-07-07

    stone risk profile is uncertain. Sports beverage do not affect the urinary stone risk profile. HYPEROXALURIA: A diet low in oxalate and/or a calcium intake normal to high (800-1200 mg/day for adults) reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, conversely a diet rich in oxalates and/or a diet low in calcium increase urinary oxalate. A restriction in protein intake may reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate although a vegetarian diet may lead to an increase in urinary oxalate. Adding bran to a diet low in oxalate cancels its effect of reducing urinary oxalate. Conversely, the addition of supplements of fruit and vegetables to a mixed diet does not involve an increased excretion of oxalate in the urine. The intake of pyridoxine reduces the excretion of oxalate. HYPERURICOSURIA: In patients with renal calcium stones the decrease of the urinary excretion of uric acid after restriction of dietary protein and purine is suggested although not clearly demonstrated. HYPOCITRATURIA: The administration of alkaline-citrates salts is recommended for the medical treatment of renal stone-formers with hypocitraturia, although compliance to this treatment is limited by gastrointestinal side effects and costs. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables (excluding those with high oxalate content) increases citrate excretion and involves a significant protection against the risk of stone formation. Citrus (lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and lime) and non citrus fruits (melon) are natural sources of dietary citrate, and several studies have shown the potential of these fruits and/or their juices in raising urine citrate levels. There are enought basis to advice an adequate fluid intake also in children. Moderate dietary salt restriction and implementation of potassium intake are useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion whereas dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for children with nephrolithiasis. It seems reasonable to advice a balanced consumption of fruit and vegetables and a low

  2. In vitro studies of calcium mixed minerals growth in different growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Mineral oxalate monohydrate and di-hydrate are the main organic constituents of kidney stones. However, mechanisms leading to the formation of mineral oxalate kidney stones are not clearly understood. The effect of some urinary stone ...

  3. A pilot study of the effect of sodium thiosulfate on urinary lithogenicity and associated metabolic acid load in non-stone formers and stone formers with hypercalciuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyeka W Okonkwo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sodium thiosulfate (STS reduced calcium stone formation in both humans and genetic hypercalciuric stone forming (GHS rats. We sought to measure urine chemistry changes resulting from STS administration in people. DESIGN SETTING PARTICIPANTS MEASUREMENTS: STS was given to healthy and hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Five normal non-stone forming adults (mean age 33 years, and 5 people with idiopathic hypercalciuria and calcium kidney stones (mean age 66 years participated. Two baseline 24-hour urine collections were performed on days 2 and 3 of 3 days of self-selected diets. Subjects then drank STS 10 mmol twice a day for 7 days and did urine collections while repeating the self-selected diet. Results were compared by non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. The primary outcome was the resulting change in urine chemistry. RESULTS: STS administration did not cause a significant change in urinary calcium excretion in either group. In both groups, 24 hour urinary ammonium (P = 0.005 and sulfate excretion (P = 0.007 increased, and urinary pH fell (P = 0.005; citrate excretion fell (P<0.05 in hypercalciuric participants but not in non-stone formers. Among stone formers with hypercalciuria, 3 of 5 patients had measurement of serum HCO3 concentration after the STS period: it did not change. The net effect was an increase in supersaturation of uric acid, and no change in supersaturation of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. CONCLUSIONS: The basis for studies demonstrating that STS prevented stones in rats and people was not reflected by the changes in urine chemistry reported here. Although serum HCO3 did not change, urine tests suggested an acid load in both non-stone forming and hypercalciuric stone-forming participants. The long term safety of STS needs to be determined before the drug can be tested in humans for long-term prevention of stone recurrence.

  4. Incidence and characteristics of kidney stones in patients with horseshoe kidney: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Aditya S; Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Sakhuja, Ankit; Mao, Michael A; Erickson, Stephen B

    2018-01-01

    The horseshoe kidney (HSK) is the most common type of renal fusion anomaly. The incidence and characteristics of kidney stones in patients with HSK are not well studied. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the incidence and types of kidney stones in patients with HSK. A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the databases' inception through November 2016. Studies assessing the incidence and types of kidney stones in patients with HSK were included. We applied a random-effects model to estimate the incidence of kidney stones. The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; no. CRD42016052037). A total of 14 observational studies with 943 patients (522 adults and 421 pediatric) with HSK were enrolled. The estimated pooled incidence of kidney stones was 36% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15%-59%) in adults with the HSK. Kidney stones were less common in pediatric patients with HSK with an estimated pooled incidence of 3% (95% CI, 2%-5%). The mean age of adult stone formers with HSK was 44.9 ± 6.2 years, and 75% were males. Within reported studies, 89.2% of kidney stones were calcium-based stones (64.2% calcium oxalate [CaOx], 18.8% calcium phosphate [CaP], and 6.2% mixed CaOx/CaP), followed by struvite stones (4.2%), uric acid stones (3.8%), and others (2.8%). Kidney stones are very common in adult patients with HSK with an estimated incidence of 36%. Calcium-based stones are the most prevalent kidney stones in adults with HSKs. These findings may impact the prevention and clinical management of kidney stones in patients with HSK.

  5. Evaluation and medical management of kidney stones in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasian, Gregory E; Copelovitch, Lawrence

    2014-11-01

    We review the current literature on the diagnostic evaluation and dietary and pharmacological management of children with nephrolithiasis. We searched MEDLINE(®), Embase(®) and the Cochrane Library from their inceptions to March 2014 for published articles in English on kidney stones and therapy in children 0 to 18 years old. Based on review of the titles and abstracts, 110 of the 1,014 articles (11%) were potentially relevant to the diagnostic evaluation and medical management of nephrolithiasis in children. We summarized this literature and drew on studies performed in adult populations to augment areas in which no studies of sufficient quality have been performed in children, and to highlight areas in need of research. During the last 25 years the incidence of nephrolithiasis in children has increased by approximately 6% to 10% annually and is now 50 per 100,000 adolescents. Kidney stones that form during childhood have a similar composition to those that form in adulthood. Approximately 75% to 80% of stones are composed of predominantly calcium oxalate, 5% to 10% are predominantly calcium phosphate, 10% to 20% are struvite and 5% are pure uric acid. The recurrence rate of nephrolithiasis in patients with stones that form during childhood is poorly defined. Ultrasound should be used as the initial imaging study to evaluate children with suspected nephrolithiasis, with noncontrast computerized tomography reserved for those in whom ultrasound is nondiagnostic and the suspicion of nephrolithiasis remains high. Current treatment strategies for children with kidney stone disease are based largely on extrapolation of studies performed in adult stone formers and single institution cohort or case series studies of children. Tamsulosin likely increases the spontaneous passage of ureteral stones in children. Increased water intake and reduction of salt consumption should be recommended for all children with a history of kidney stones. Potassium citrate is a

  6. Sobresaturacion urinaria del Oxalato de Calcio más alla de la Nefrolitiasis: La relación con el daño tubulointersticial Urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation beyond nephrolithiasis: Relationship with tubulointerstitial damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Toblli

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos estudios han demostrado que el producto de la actividad iónica (PAI de oxalato de calcio (OxCa en la orina, como indicador de sobresaturación (SS urinaria, es mayor en pacientes formadores de cálculos que en sujetos normales. Más allá de la relación entre SS urinaria del OxCa y litogénesis, la exposición de OxCa al epitelio tubular puede ocasionar lesiones en la célula tubular y en el intersticio renal. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la posible relación entre SS urinaria de OxCa y el daño tubulointersticial (TI en un modelo animal de hiperoxaluria. Durante cuatro semanas, ratas Sprague-Dawley machos, divididas en dos grupos recibieron: grupo 1 Control [G1], (n= 8 agua, grupo 2 [G2], (n = 8 etilenglicol (ETG al 1% en el agua de beber. La SS urinaria de OxCa se valoró mediante el PAI del OxCa. Las lesiones TI se analizaron al finalizar el estudio por microscopía óptica e inmunohistoquímica. El G2 (ETG presentó valores mayores (pA number of studies have demonstrated that the urinary ion activity product (IAP of calcium oxalate (CaOx, as an index of urinary CaOx supersaturation (SS, is higher in renal stone formers than in normal subjects. Besides, the relation between CaOx SS and lithogenesis, crystal CaOx exposition can produce tubular cell as well as renal interstitial lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible relationship between CaOx SS and tubulointerstitial (TI damage in an animal model of hyperoxaluria. During four weeks, male Sprague-Dawley rats received: G1 (n=8 control regular water, and G2 (n= 8 1% ethylene glycol (ETG (precursor for oxalates in drinking water. In order to evaluate urinary CaOx SS, IAP assessed by Tisselius formula was performed. At the end of the study, renal lesions were evaluated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Animals from G2 (ETG presented higher (p< 0.01 values of: a urinary oxalate excretion; b urinary CaOx SS; c crystalluria score; d proteinuria; and lower (p

  7. Ozone-Induced Responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): Metabolic Cross-Talk between Volatile Organic Compounds and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3. PMID:25165889

  8. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  9. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  10. Effect of Phenolic Compounds from Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.leaves on Experimental kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byahatti, Vivek V.; Pai, K. Vasantkumar; D’Souza, Marina G

    2010-01-01

    Kidney stone formation or Urolithiasis is a complex process that results from series of several physicochemical events including super-saturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention within the kidneys. Among the treatments include Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and drug treatment. Even this ESWL treatment may cause acute renal injury, decrease in renal function and increase in stone recurrence. In addition, persistent residual stone fragments and possibility of infection after ESWL represent a serious problem in the treatment of stones. Data from in-vitro, in-vivo and clinical trials reveal that phytotherapeutic agents could be useful as either alternative or an adjunct therapy in the management of Urolithiasis. Medicinal plants /natural products are more acceptable to the body because they promote the repair mechanism in natural way. Various plant species of the genus Bergenia, have been reported to posses antiurolithiatic property. Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl, is one the ingredient of reputed herbal formulation Cy stone for the treatment of kidney stones. In this study alcohol, butanol, ethyl acetate extracts and isolated phenolic compounds from the Ayurvedic and Unani herb, Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. leaves (Saxifragaceae) were evaluated for their potential to dissolve experimentally prepared kidney stones-calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, by an in-vitro model. Phenolic compound P1 isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves, demonstrated highest dissolution of both stones when compared to test extracts at 10 mg concentration. However, it was more effective in dissolving calcium phosphate stones (67.74 %) than oxalate (36.95%). Reference standard-formulation Cystone was found to be more effective (48.48%) when compared to compound P1. PMID:22557418

  11. Rapid vaporization of kidney stones, ex vivo, using a Thulium fiber laser at pulse rates up to 500 Hz with a stone basket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2014-03-01

    The Holmium:YAG laser (λ = 2120 nm) is currently the preferred laser for fragmenting kidney stones in the clinic. However, this laser has some limitations, including operation at low pulse rates and a multimode spatial beam profile which prohibits its use with smaller, more flexible optical fibers. Our laboratory is studying the Thulium fiber laser (λ = 1908 nm) as an alternative lithotripter. The TFL has several advantages, including lower stone ablation thresholds, use with smaller and more flexible fibers, and operation at arbitrary pulse lengths and pulse rates. Previous studies have reported increased stone ablation rates with TFL operation at higher pulse rates, however, stone retropulsion remains an obstacle to even more efficient stone ablation. This study explores TFL operation at high pulse rates in combination with a stone stabilization device (e.g. stone basket) for improved efficiency. A TFL beam with pulse energy of 35 mJ, pulse duration of 500-μs, and pulse rates of 10-500 Hz was coupled into 100-μm-core, low-OH, silica fibers, in contact mode with uric acid and calcium oxalate monohydrate stones, ex vivo. TFL operation at 500 Hz produced UA and COM stone ablation rates up to 5.0 mg/s and 1.3 mg/s, respectively. High TFL pulse rates produced increased stone ablation rates sufficient for use in the clinic.

  12. Effects of hydrophilic extract of Nasturtium officinale on prevention of ethylene glycol induced renal stone in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Sadrollah; Askarpour, Eslam; Mehrabi, Farhad; Jannesar, Ramin

    2016-10-01

    Nasturtium officinale is a traditional herb that is used for diuresis. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of hydrophilic extract of Nasturtium officinale on ethylene glycol-induced renal stone in male Wistar rats. In this study 32 male Wistar rats were randomly divided in six groups and studied during 30 days. Two groups of negative and healthy control received 1% ethylene glycol in water respectively. Low and high dose preventive groups, in addition to 1% ethylene glycol, daily gavaged with 750 mg/kg and 1.5 g/kg of extract respectively. All rats were hold in metabolic cages individually in days 0, 15 and 30 and 24-hour urine samples were collected and checked for urinary parameters of stone formation. In 30th day, rats were anesthetized with ether, and after taking serum sample from them, were sacrificed and their kidneys were sent for pathological evaluation and for presence and volume of calcium oxalate crystals. Percentage of calcium oxalate crystals in negative control groups (75%), preventive groups with low dose (28.6%) and high dose (57.1%) in comparison to healthy control group (12.5%) increased (P Nasturtium officinale extract has no significant effects in urinary and chemical parameters efficient in calcium oxalate stone crystals in rat but its extract in low dose has some preventive effect on renal stone formation.

  13. Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine in cats with kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Li, Jun; Yerramilli, Murthy; Jewell, Dennis E

    2017-01-01

    Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) correlate with renal function in cats and SDMA has been shown to be a more reliable and earlier marker for chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared with serum creatinine (Cr). Calcium oxalate uroliths tend to develop in mid-to-older aged cats and kidney stones may cause a reduction in renal function with increased SDMA, but normal serum Cr. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine if cats with kidney stones had increased serum SDMA concentrations, and whether SDMA increased earlier than serum creatinine concentrations. Cats in the colony with kidney stones diagnosed between August 2010 and December 2015 (n = 43) were compared with healthy geriatric cats (n = 21) without kidney stones. Serum SDMA concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and serum Cr concentrations were determined by enzymatic colorimetry. Cats with kidney stones were diagnosed antemortem by radiographic imaging (n = 12) or by postmortem necropsy (n = 31). Retrospectively, serum SDMA was found to be increased above the upper reference limit in 39 of 43 cats with kidney stones. Serum Cr was increased above the upper reference limit in 18 of 43 cats; 6 of these 18 cats had terminal azotemia only. The mean time that serum SDMA was increased before serum Cr was increased was 26.9 months (range 0 to 60 months). Kidney stones were composed of calcium oxalate in 30 of 34 cats. The lifespan for cats with kidney stones (mean, 12.5 years; range, 6.1 to 18.1 years) was shorter (P kidney stones have an effect on mortality rate or rate of CKD progression. In conclusion, if SDMA concentrations are elevated in mid-to-older aged cats, further imaging studies are warranted to check for the presence of kidney stones.

  14. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  15. Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity and relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and struvite in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Catherine M F; Hawthorne, Amanda; Colyer, Alison; Stevenson, Abigail E

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that daily fluid intake influences urinary dilution, and consequently the risk of urolithiasis in human subjects and dogs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dietary moisture on urinary parameters in healthy adult cats by comparing nutritionally standardised diets, varying only in moisture content. A total of six cats were fed a complete dry food (6.3 % moisture) hydrated to 25.4, 53.2 and 73.3 % moisture for 3 weeks in a randomised block cross-over design. Urinary specific gravity (SG), urine volume, water drunk and total fluid intake were measured daily; relative supersaturation (RSS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite was calculated using the SUPERSAT computer program. Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet produced urine with a significantly lower SG (P cats fed the diet with 73.3 % moisture and significantly lower than the 6.3 % moisture diet (CaOx RSS 2.29 (sem 0.21)). The effect of diet on struvite RSS was less clear, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Total fluid intake was significantly increased (P Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet had a higher total daily fluid intake resulting in a more dilute urine with a lower risk of CaOx when compared with the lower-moisture diets.

  16. Surface aggregation of urinary proteins and aspartic acid-rich peptides on the faces of calcium oxalate monohydrate investigated by in situ force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, M L; Qiu, S R; Hoyer, J R; Casey, W H; Nancollas, G H; De Yoreo, J J

    2008-05-28

    The growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), osteopontin (OPN), and the 27-residue synthetic peptides (DDDS){sub 6}DDD and (DDDG){sub 6}DDD [where D = aspartic acid and X = S (serine) or G (glycine)] was investigated via in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that these three growth modulators create extensive deposits on the crystal faces. Depending on the modulator and crystal face, these deposits can occur as discrete aggregates, filamentary structures, or uniform coatings. These proteinaceous films can lead to either the inhibition or increase of the step speeds (with respect to the impurity-free system) depending on a range of factors that include peptide or protein concentration, supersaturation and ionic strength. While THP and the linear peptides act, respectively, to exclusively increase and inhibit growth on the (-101) face, both exhibit dual functionality on the (010) face, inhibiting growth at low supersaturation or high modulator concentration and accelerating growth at high supersaturation or low modulator concentration. Based on analyses of growth morphologies and dependencies of step speeds on supersaturation and protein or peptide concentration, we argue for a picture of growth modulation that accounts for the observations in terms of the strength of binding to the surfaces and steps and the interplay of electrostatic and solvent-induced forces at crystal surface.

  17. Enrofloxacinium oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thammarse S. Yamuna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, 2C19H23FN3O3+·C2O42− {systematic name: bis-[4-(3-carboxy-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinolin-7-yl-1-ethylpiperazin-1-ium] oxalate}, crystallizes with two independent monocations (A and B and an oxalate dianion (C in the asymmetric unit. The piperazinium ring in both the cations adopts a slightly disordered chair conformation. The dihedral angles between the mean planes of the cyclopropyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring are 50.6 (5° (A and 62.2 (5° (B. In each of the cations, a single O—H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal, the oxalate anions interact with the cations through N—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O interactions, forming R22(8 graph-set ring motifs. Weak C—H...F interactions along with further C—H...O interactions are observed between the cations, forming zigzag chains along [001]. In addition, π–π stacking interactions are observed with centroid–centroid distances of 3.5089 (13, 3.5583 (13, 3.7900 (13 and 3.7991 (13 Å.

  18. Relationship between Urolithiasis and Nutrition in Patients with Urinary Stones in Ardabil City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hossain Khani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Urolithiasis is the third common urinary disease. While, relationship between the urinary stones and diet is known to some extent, but there are controversies about it. The aim of this study was to determine the association between food habit, nutrients intake and kinds of urinary stone disease.   Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive analytical study was performed on 150 patients (91 male and 59 females with urinary stone disease in Ardabil during 2008-2009. Data of urinary stones analysis, type of stone in the graph, type of stone, preventive emprise and type of drinking water were recorded. Food data were recorded using 24-hour dietary recalls three days in week and food frequency questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS, Food Processor III software, and ANOVA Statistical program .  Results: Findings showed that the most common and lowest form of urinary stone disease in men and women were calcium oxalate and ammonium phosphate, respectively. There was significant inverse association between beta-carotene intake and the percentage of uric acid stone disease (p<0.05. We observed significant relationship between vitamin A and folacin intake with percentage of uric acid stone disease (p<0.05. There was significant relationship between consumption of cheese and pickles with calcium phosphate stone disease (p<0.05. There was no significant association between other foods and nutrients intake with types of urinary stone disease .  Conclusion: This study showed the consumption of some nutrients including folacin, vitamin A and some foods such as cheese was associated with the incidence of urinary stone disease. Therefore, taking accurate diet could possibly prevent the incidence of urinary stone diseases.

  19. [Composition of 359 kidney stones from the East region of Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouslama, S; Boutefnouchet, A; Hannache, B; Djemil, T; Kadi, A; Dahdouh, A; Saka, S; Daudon, M

    2016-01-01

    Determine stones composition of the upper urinary tract in the eastern region of Algeria. Our study focuses on a set of 359 stones of the upper urinary tract collected between January 2007 and December 2012 at hospitals in the eastern region of Algeria and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The male/female ratio was only 1.32. Calcium oxalate prevailed in 68.5% of stones and 49.3% of nuclei, mainly as whewellite (51.8% of stones and 37.9% of nuclei vs 16.7% and 11.4% respectively for weddellite). Carbapatite prevailed in 15% of stones and 29.8% of nuclei. The struvite, identified in 11.1% of calculi, prevailed in 3.9% of stones and 3.1% of nuclei. Among purines, uric acid prevailed with frequencies quite close to 8.9% and 7% respectively in the stone and in the nucleus while the ammonium urate prevailed in only 0.3% of stones and 3.3% of nuclei. The cystine frequency was 3.6% in both stone and nucleus. The frequency of stone with umbilication was 26.2%. Whewellite was the main component of umbilicated stones with Randall's plaque. Our results suggest that stones of the urinary tract in the Algerian east region resemble those observed in industrialized countries. Some features such as stones location, the whewellite prevalence, the frequencies of main components in both the stone and the nucleus as well as the formation of stones on renal papilla confirm this trend. 4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction ofBiophytum sensitivumextract against sodium oxalate-induced urolithiasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Anil T; Vyawahare, Niraj S

    2017-10-01

    The methanolic whole plant extract of Biophytum sensitivum (gǎnyìng cǎo) has been found to possess antiurolithiatic effect. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antiurolithiatic effect of some fractions of methanolic whole plant extract of B. sensitivum (MBS) in rats as a step toward activity-directed isolation of antiurolithiatic component. The MBS was successively extracted with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water to obtain fractions. Sodium oxalate (70 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to rats for seven days to develop calcium oxalate urolithiasis. These rats were treated with two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) of the fractions, 1 h before sodium oxalate injections. Antiurolithiatic activity was assessed by estimating biochemical changes in urine, serum and kidney homogenate along with histological changes in kidney tissue. Sodium oxalate administration caused biochemical alterations in urine which was found to be prevented significantly by the ethyl acetate fraction. Supplementation with ethyl acetate fraction prevented the elevation of serum creatinine, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen levels. The elevated calcium, oxalate and phosphate levels in the kidney tissue homogenate of lithiatic rats were significantly reduced by the treatment with ethyl acetate fraction. The ethyl acetate fraction also caused significant decrease in lipid peroxidation activity, accumulation of calcium oxalate deposits and histological changes in the kidney tissue. The results showed that the antiurolithiatic component of the methanolic whole plant extract of the plant is contained in the ethyl acetate fraction. The effect is attributed to its diuretic, antioxidant, nephroprotective properties and effect on lowering the concentration of urinary stone-forming constituents.

  1. Effect of Hydrophilic Extract of Allium Jesdianum on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Stone in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vahdani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Considering the evidence which show the effect of herbal medicine on renal stone treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allium Jesdianum on prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stone in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, forty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (each group 11 rats and then studied for 30 days. The Healthy control group only received normal water and a regular diet. The negative control group received 1% ethylene glycol in water during the study. The low dose and high dose preventive groups received 750 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg of Allium Jesdianum with 1% ethylene glycol every day. The 24-hour urine samples of rats were collected on days 1, 15 and 30 of the study. Then, under anesthesia, blood samples were taken directly from the heart. All rats were then killed and pathology of kidneys was checked for crystals of calcium oxalates in renal tubules. Data analysis was done by the SPSS software using One-way ANOVA. Results: The number of calcium oxalate crystals in the negative control group (18.7 ±26.1, the low dose preventive group (5.3±8.2 and high dose preventive group (80.6±82.8 in comparison to the healthy control group were increased and this difference in the high dose preventive group and healthy control group was significant (p <0.05 . Urinary oxalate in the 30th day was more in both preventive groups and negative control group in comparison to healthy control group and this diference was statistically significant (p <0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that Allium Jesdianum doesn't have a preventive effect on the formation of renal stones, and it also increases calcium oxalate crystals in kidney of male wistar rats that need more studies.

  2. Oxalate contents of commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, James; Huang, Chris; Liebman, Michael

    2015-10-01

    To assess the total and soluble oxalate contents of commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs. Twenty-two Chinese medicinal herbs were extracted in both acid and water prior to determination of total and soluble oxalate, respectively. Oxalate was assayed in herbal extracts using a well-established enzymatic procedure. Among the 22 medicinal herbs, there was significant variation in oxalate content; Houttuynia cordata contained the highest amount of soluble oxalate (2146 mg/100 g) and Selaginella doederleinii contained the lowest amount (71 mg/ 100 g). The results indicated that different Chinese medicinal herbs, even from the same family, contain significantly different amounts of oxalate. In susceptible individuals, the use of medicinal herbs with the highest oxalate contents could increase risk of kidney stone formation.

  3. Label-free proteomic methodology for the analysis of human kidney stone matrix composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzmann, Frank A; Evan, Andrew P; Coe, Fredric L

    2016-01-01

    to generate a comprehensive profile of their proteomes, including physicochemical and bioinformatic analysis.`. RESULTS: We identified and quantified 1,059 unique protein database entries in the two human kidney stone samples, revealing a more complex proteome than previously reported. Protein composition...... demonstrate relevant constitutive differences between stones. We have analyzed the matrices of two unique human calcium oxalate stones (CaOx-Ia and CaOx-Id) using a simple but effective chaotropic reducing solution for extraction/solubilization combined with label-free quantitative mass spectrometry...... powders combined with label-free quantitative mass spectrometry has yielded the most comprehensive list to date of the proteins that constitute the human kidney stone proteome....

  4. Evaluation of Oxalate Concentration in the U.S. Spinach Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to its high nutrient content, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is also known to have greater amount of oxalic acid than most crops. Oxalic acid may form crystals with minerals to reduce the bioavailability and absorption of calcium and iron in diets, and calcium oxalate may deposit in the...

  5. Kaleidoscopic Views in the Bone Marrow: Oxalate Crystals in a Patient Presenting with Bicytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Dere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancytopenia associated with BM infiltration of different deposits is a rare condition mostly associated with amyloidosis or the accumulation of iron. One of the rarest deposits in the BM is oxalate crystals due to hyperoxaluria [1,2,3]. Primary hyperoxaluria, a genetic disorder due to mutation in the alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase gene, located on chromosome 2q37.3 and resulting in the conversion of glyoxylate to oxalate, is characterized by increased production of oxalic acid because of the specific liver enzyme deficiency and generally presents with renal stones, renal or liver failure, and oxalosis [4]. Calcium oxalate may even be deposited into various tissues such as those of the retina, peripheral nerves, arterial media, and heart [4,5]. The medical history of nephrolithiasis at early ages, characteristic appearance of birefringent crystals forming rosettes in the BM, and the envelope-like forms in the BM aspirates seen in our case supported the diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria, which is best confirmed by genetic studies and treated with liver transplantation because of the location of the abnormal enzymes in the hepatocytes.

  6. Computerized tomography magnified bone windows are superior to standard soft tissue windows for accurate measurement of stone size: an in vitro and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Brian H; Kambadakone, Avinash; Monga, Manoj; Anderson, James K; Thoreson, Andrew A; Lee, Hang; Dretler, Stephen P; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2009-04-01

    We determined the most accurate method of measuring urinary stones on computerized tomography. For the in vitro portion of the study 24 calculi, including 12 calcium oxalate monohydrate and 12 uric acid stones, that had been previously collected at our clinic were measured manually with hand calipers as the gold standard measurement. The calculi were then embedded into human kidney-sized potatoes and scanned using 64-slice multidetector computerized tomography. Computerized tomography measurements were performed at 4 window settings, including standard soft tissue windows (window width-320 and window length-50), standard bone windows (window width-1120 and window length-300), 5.13x magnified soft tissue windows and 5.13x magnified bone windows. Maximum stone dimensions were recorded. For the in vivo portion of the study 41 patients with distal ureteral stones who underwent noncontrast computerized tomography and subsequently spontaneously passed the stones were analyzed. All analyzed stones were 100% calcium oxalate monohydrate or mixed, calcium based stones. Stones were prospectively collected at the clinic and the largest diameter was measured with digital calipers as the gold standard. This was compared to computerized tomography measurements using 4.0x magnified soft tissue windows and 4.0x magnified bone windows. Statistical comparisons were performed using Pearson's correlation and paired t test. In the in vitro portion of the study the most accurate measurements were obtained using 5.13x magnified bone windows with a mean 0.13 mm difference from caliper measurement (p = 0.6). Measurements performed in the soft tissue window with and without magnification, and in the bone window without magnification were significantly different from hand caliper measurements (mean difference 1.2, 1.9 and 1.4 mm, p = 0.003, window settings with magnification. For uric acid calculi the measurement error was observed only in standard soft tissue window settings. In vivo 4.0x

  7. Oxalate Content of Taro Leaves Grown in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Du Thanh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves were harvested from four different cultivars of Colocasia esculenta and three cultivars of Alocasia odora that were growing on nine different farms in central Vietnam. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Total calcium determinations were also carried out on the same samples. The total oxalate content of the leaves ranged from 433.8 to 856.1 mg/100 g wet matter (WM while the soluble oxalate ranged from 147.8 to 339.7 mg/100 g WM. The proportion of soluble oxalate ranged from 28% to 41% (overall mean 35% of the total oxalate content of the leaves. The equivalent insoluble oxalate proportion ranged from 59% to 72% of the total (overall mean 65%. There was little difference between the Colocasia esculenta and Alocasia odora taro cultivars, although the total oxalate content was significantly higher in Alocasia odora cultivars. The overall mean total calcium content was 279.5 mg/100 WM and the percentage of insoluble calcium bound as calcium oxalate ranged from 31.7% to 57.3% of the total calcium content (overall mean 47.1%. The oxalate content in taro leaves is a major factor to consider when different cultivars of taro are recommended for human or animal consumption.

  8. Acute oxalate intoxication associated to ingestion of eshnan (Seidlitzia rosmarinus) in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Mohammad Reza; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza; Najarnezhad, Vahid; Pirouz, Hossein Janati; Bami, Mohammad Heidarpour

    2011-08-01

    An outbreak of acute oxalate intoxication in a sheep flock was associated to Seidlitzia rosmarinus (Chenopodiaceae) with a mortality rate of about 19%. Affected sheep showed marked azotemia and hypocalcemia. Post-mortem findings included congestion and hemorrhage in visceral organs, ruminitis frequently associated with precipitation of birefringent calcium oxalate crystals, and acute nephrosis with numerous birefringent calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. This is the first report of oxalate poisoning due to ingestion of S. rosmarinus in sheep.

  9. Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Miyaoka

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described according to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine. Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya, inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium, inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan. In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events is needed.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and DFT-modeling of novel agents for the protection and restoration of historical calcareous stone substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiore, Laura; Aragoni, M Carla; Carcangiu, Gianfranco; Cocco, Ombretta; Isaia, Francesco; Lippolis, Vito; Meloni, Paola; Murru, Arianna; Tuveri, Enrica; Arca, Massimiliano

    2015-06-15

    The ammonium salts of oxamate (AmOxam) and monomethyloxalate (AmMeox), structurally related to ammonium oxalate (AmOx), were synthesized and characterized as protecting agents/filler for calcareous stone substrates. Both compounds featured an improved solubility in water and alcoholic-water mixtures with respect to AmOx. While AmOxam is stable in aqueous solution and reacts with calcite to afford the corresponding insoluble calcium oxamate (CaOxam), AmMeox spontaneously undergoes hydrolysis to give ammonium monohydrogen oxalate hemihydrate (AmBiox) and calcium oxalate (CaOx). Both compounds have been tested for the restoration of naturally weathered marble and biomicritic limestone. The formation of a superficial layer of CaOxam and CaOx was observed on stone samples treated with AmOxam and AmMeox, respectively, depending on the solvent mixture. A quantum-mechanical study was carried out at DFT level in order to investigate the nature of the interactions occurring between the lithic substrate (calcite) and the passivating agents, showing how the structural modifications on oxalic acid derivatives can be exploited to fine-tune their interaction with the calcite surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacteriological study and structural composition of staghorn stones removed by the anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Shafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the composition of staghorn stones and to assess the proportion of infected stones as well as the correlation between infection in the stones and bacteria grown in urine. Samples of 45 consecutive stones removed through anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedures were taken from the operation site and samples of urine were obtained by simultaneous bladder catheterization. The frequency of infection in the stones and correlation between infection of stone and urine samples were determined with respect to the composition of the stones. Twenty-two males and 23 females, with respective mean ages of 48.3 ± 15.6 years and 51 ± 7.4 years, were studied. The stone and urine cultures yielded positive results in ten and 16 patients, respectively, of a total of 45 patients (22.2% and 35.5%, respectively. Calcium oxalate was the main constituent of staghorn stones, seen in 31 patients (68.8%, uric acid in 12 patients (26.6% and struvite and/or calcium phosphate in 11 patients (24.4%. In seven of ten stones with bacterial growth, bacteria were isolated from urine cultures as well, which accounted for a concordance rate of 70%. The bacteria grown in the stone were the cause of urinary tract infection (UTI in 43.5% of the cases. Stone infection was significantly associated with UTI (OR = 6.47; 95% CI 1.43-31.7, P = 0.021 and presence of phosphate in the stones (OR = 18, 95% CI 3.28-99.6, P = 0.0006. E. coli was the most common bacteria grown from the stones, and was isolated in 50% of the cases; Ureaplasma urealyticum was the most common organism causing UTI, grown in 62.5% of the urine samples. There was a high concordance rate between bacteria in the stones and urine. These findings indicate that the urine culture can provide information for selection of an appropriate anti-microbial agent for stone sterilization. In addition, preventing re-growth or recurrence of stones and treatment of post-surgical infections would be

  12. Use of the Acoustic Shadow Width to Determine Kidney Stone Size with Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmire, Barbrina; Harper, Jonathan D; Cunitz, Bryan W; Lee, Franklin C; Hsi, Ryan; Liu, Ziyue; Bailey, Michael R; Sorensen, Mathew D

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is known to overestimate kidney stone size. We explored measuring the acoustic shadow behind kidney stones combined with different ultrasound imaging modalities to improve stone sizing accuracy. A total of 45 calcium oxalate monohydrate stones were imaged in vitro at 3 different depths with the 3 different ultrasound imaging modalities of conventional ray line, spatial compound and harmonic imaging. The width of the stone and the width of the acoustic shadow were measured by 4 operators blinded to the true size of the stone. Average error between the measured and true stone width was 1.4 ± 0.8 mm, 1.7 ± 0.9 mm, 0.9 ± 0.8 mm for ray line, spatial compound and harmonic imaging, respectively. Average error between the shadow width and true stone width was 0.2 ± 0.7 mm, 0.4 ± 0.7 mm and 0.0 ± 0.8 mm for ray line, spatial compound and harmonic imaging, respectively. Sizing error based on the stone width worsened with greater depth (p <0.001) while the sizing error based on the shadow width was independent of depth. Shadow width was a more accurate measure of true stone size than a direct measurement of the stone in the ultrasound image (p <0.0001). The ultrasound imaging modality also impacted the measurement accuracy. All methods performed similarly for shadow size while harmonic imaging was the most accurate stone size modality. Overall 78% of the shadow sizes were accurate to within 1 mm, which is similar to the resolution obtained with clinical computerized tomography. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. NALP3-mediated inflammation is a principal cause of progressive renal failure in oxalate nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Felix; Asplin, John R.; Granja, Ignacio; Schmidt, Insa M.; Moeckel, Gilbert; David, Rachel; Flavell, Richard A.; Aronson, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Oxalate nephropathy with renal failure is caused by multiple disorders causing hyperoxaluria due to either overproduction of oxalate (primary hyperoxaluria) or excessive absorption of dietary oxalate (enteric hyperoxaluria). To study the etiology of renal failure in crystal-induced kidney disease, we created a model of progressive oxalate nephropathy by feeding mice a diet high in soluble oxalate (high oxalate in the absence of dietary calcium). Renal histology was characterized by intratubular calcium-oxalate crystal deposition with an inflammatory response in the surrounding interstitium. Oxalate nephropathy was not found in mice fed a high oxalate diet that also contained calcium. NALP3, also known as cryopyrin, has been implicated in crystal-associated diseases such as gout and silicosis. Mice fed the diet high in soluble oxalate demonstrated increased NALP3 expression in the kidney. Nalp3-null mice were completely protected from the progressive renal failure and death that occurred in wild-type mice fed the diet high in soluble oxalate. NALP3-deficiency did not affect oxalate homeostasis, thereby excluding differences in intestinal oxalate handling to explain the observed phenotype. Thus, progressive renal failure in oxalate nephropathy results primarily from NALP3-mediated inflammation. PMID:23739234

  14. Computational and experimental studies on oxalic acid imprinted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    imprinted polymer. KIRAN KUMAR TADI and R V MOTGHARE. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, South Ambazari Road,. Nagpur 440 ... Keywords. Computational approach; molecularly imprinted polymer; oxalic acid; adsorption studies. ... High levels of oxalic acid remove calcium ...

  15. Mode of Action: Oxalate Crystal-Induced Renal Tubule Degeneration and Glycolic Acid-Induced Dysmorphogenesis—Renal and Developmental Effects of Ethylene Glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Rick A.; Meek, M E.; Carney, E W.

    2005-10-01

    Ethylene glycol can cause both renal and developmental toxicity, with metabolism playing a key role in the mode of action (MOA) for each form of toxicity. Renal toxicity is ascribed to the terminal metabolite oxalic acid, which precipitates in the kidney in the form of calcium oxalate crystals and is believed to cause physical damage to the renal tubules. The human relevance of the renal toxicity of ethylene glycol is indicated by the similarity between animals and humans of metabolic pathways, the observation of renal oxalate crystals in toxicity studies in experimental animals and human poisonings, and cases of human kidney and bladder stones related to dietary oxalates and oxalate precursors. High-dose gavage exposures to ethylene glycol also cause axial skeletal defects in rodents (but not rabbits), with the intermediary metabolite, glycolic acid, identified as the causative agent. However, the mechanism by which glycolic acid perturbs development has not been investigated sufficiently to develop a plausible hypothesis of mode of action, nor have any cases of ethylene glycol-induced developmental effects been reported in humans. Given this, and the variations in sensitivity between animal species in response, the relevance to humans of ethylene glycol-induced developmental toxicity in animals is unknown at this time.

  16. Use of the probability of stone formation (PSF score to assess stone forming risk and treatment response in a cohort of Brazilian stone formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Turney

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim was to confirm that PSF (probability of stone formation changed appropriately following medical therapy on recurrent stone formers. Materials and Methods Data were collected on 26 Brazilian stone-formers. A baseline 24-hour urine collection was performed prior to treatment. Details of the medical treatment initiated for stone-disease were recorded. A PSF calculation was performed on the 24 hour urine sample using the 7 urinary parameters required: voided volume, oxalate, calcium, urate, pH, citrate and magnesium. A repeat 24-hour urine sample was performed for PSF calculation after treatment. Comparison was made between the PSF scores before and during treatment. Results At baseline, 20 of the 26 patients (77% had a high PSF score (> 0.5. Of the 26 patients, 17 (65% showed an overall reduction in their PSF profiles with a medical treatment regimen. Eleven patients (42% changed from a high risk (PSF > 0.5 to a low risk (PSF 0.5 during both assessments. Conclusions The PSF score reduced following medical treatment in the majority of patients in this cohort.

  17. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  18. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  19. Vitamin B6 intake and the risk of incident kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Taylor, Eric N; Gambaro, Giovanni; Curhan, Gary C

    2017-07-03

    Higher vitamin B6 intake might reduce urinary excretion of oxalate, one of the major determinants of risk for calcium oxalate kidney stones. Previous studies investigating the association between intake of vitamin B6 and risk of stones found conflicting results. We sought to investigate the association in three large prospective cohorts. We prospectively examined the association in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; n = 42,919 men), Nurses' Health Study I (NHS I; n = 60,003 older women), and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II; n = 90,629 younger women). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident stones across categories of total vitamin B6 intake (kidney stones were confirmed. In univariate and multivariate analyses, there was no association between intake of vitamin B6 and incident stones. The HR for stones in the highest category compared with the lowest was 1.05 (95% CI 0.85, 1.30; p value for trend = 0.61) for HPFS, 0.95 (95% CI 0.76, 1.18; p value for trend = 0.42) for NHS I, and 1.06 (95% CI 0.91, 1.24; p value for trend = 0.34) for NHS II. The pooled adjusted HR for the highest category compared with the lowest was 1.03 (95% CI 0.92, 1.15; p value for trend = 0.60). Intake of vitamin B6 is not associated with risk of incident kidney stones.

  20. Production of calcium hydroxide from the waste of Cariri stone; Producao de hidroxido de calcio a partir de residuo da pedra Cariri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, T.M.E.; Santos, A.M.M.; Brasileiro, M.I.; Pinheiro, S.F.L.; Prado, A.C.A., E-mail: tiagomaiaea@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Cariri (UFCA), Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The extraction of Cariri stone in the northeast is a frequent activity because of its ornamental application as well as for the construction sector. However, by this extraction, untapped waste formation grows and becomes a problem for the environment. The objective of this work is to produce calcium hydroxide, from this limestone residue, with controlled porosity, solubility and particle size. The waste was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and thermal analysis (TGA). The limestone was calcined at 850°C and 950°C for 45 minutes and three hours, being characterized by XRD, XRF and TGA. Once calcined, it was hydrated with 17,5g and 22g oxide to 100mL water and manually mixed for 15 and 25 minutes. The calcium hydroxides have been submitted for tests in vivo in rats and will be characterized by XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Infrared. (author)

  1. A new method for the analysis of soluble and insoluble oxalate in pulp and paper matrices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Engineering Keywords: Oxalate, ion chromatography, methanesulphonic acid, calcium oxalate URL: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/lwct Email: John.Kadla@ubc.ca Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology For Peer Review Only A new method for the analysis... the effectiveness of various strategies to control oxalate scale deposition. KEYWORDS Oxalate, soluble, insoluble, methanesulphonic acid, ion chromatography, pulp and paper Page 1 of 33 URL: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/lwct Email: John...

  2. PHOSPHATE CRYSTALLURIA IN VARIOUS FORMS OF UROLITHIASIS AND POSSIBILITIES OF ITS PROGNOSTICATION IN PATIENTS WITH PHOSPHATE STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Konstantinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition of types of crystalluria in various forms of urolithiasis and biochemical signs of phosphate crystals in the urine, while phosphate urolithiasis (infectious origin.Patients and methods. The study involved 144 patients with recurrent urolithiasis — 75 women and 69 men. Of these, 46 — diagnosed calculi with uric acid, 44 — calcium oxalate or mixed with a prevalence of calcium oxalate, in 54 — phosphate rocks (carbonate-apatite and/or struvite. The age of patients ranged from 21 to 74 years. 93 people have been under long-term, within 2–15 years, outpatient observation. The examination included the collection of anamnesis, general and microbiological analysis of urine, biochemical blood serum and urine on 10 indicators, reflecting renal function, state of the protein, water and electrolyte metabolism, uric acid metabolism, the chemical composition of the stone analysis.Results. It was found that in patients with calcium oxalate stones phosphaturia has been diagnosed in 2% of cases. And, along with calcium phosphate crystals they had oxalate crystals. In patients with phosphate urolithiasis phosphaturia observed in 96% of patients, in two patients (4% they determined except phosphates also oxalate salt in urine sediment. Patients with phosphate urolithiasis at occurrence of phosphate crystalluria have metabolic state changes: increased serum uric acid concentration from 0.322 ± 0.009 to 0.367 ± 0.018 mmol/l daily renal excretion of inorganic phosphate 23.94 ± 2.93 mmol/day to 32.12 ± 4.39 mmol/day, and reduced total calcium content in urine 6.61 ± 0.94 mmol/day to 3.37 ± 0.89 mmol/day. The results led to the following conclusion.Conclusion. Biochemical signs of occurrence of phosphate crystalluria in patients with stones of infectious origin can be: the approaching level of excretion in the urine of inorganic phosphates to 32,12 ± 4,39 mmol/day, serum uric acid concentration to 0,367 ± 0,018 mmol/l, and the

  3. Screening of oxalate degrading lactic acid bacteria of food origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Murru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A screening for oxalate degrading abilities was initially carried on within Lactic Acid Bacteria cultures of different food origin. Seventy-nine strains were drop-inoculated onto MRS agar plates containing calcium oxalate. By comparing colonies diameters, 31 strains were used to inoculate, in parallel, MRS and MRS modified by sodium oxalate addition. Differences in the strains’ growth were assessed by colony forming unit counts. For two strains, the growth in oxalate enriched medium was significantly higher; while, for eleven strains an opposite behaviour was recorded. Two strains – probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus LbGG and Enterococcus faecalis 59 – were chosen. The first strain appeared to be able to metabolize oxalate more efficiently than the other tested cultures, while strain 59 appeared unable to gather advantage by oxalates and, indeed, appeared to be inhibited by the salt presence in the medium. Outcomes revealed that higher glucose concentrations may favour oxalates utilization. In MRS with oxalate, but without glucose, citrate was completely metabolized. Evaluation along time confirmed that the oxalate degradation is more significant in presence of glucose. Outcomes may represent a good start for the development of a safe and even probiotic culture able to lower the oxalates content of food.

  4. In vivo determination of urinary stone composition using dual energy computerized tomography with advanced post-acquisition processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, D E; Ferrandino, M N; Preminger, G M; Paulson, E K; Lipkin, M E; Boll, D T

    2010-12-01

    We assessed whether dual energy computerized tomography with advanced post-image processing can accurately differentiate urinary calculi composition in vivo. A total of 25 patients scheduled to undergo ureteroscopic/percutaneous nephrolithotomy were prospectively identified. Dual energy computerized tomography was performed using 64-slice multidetector computerized tomography. Novel post-processing (DECTSlope) used pixel by pixel analyses to generate data sets grayscale encoding ratios of relative differences in attenuation of low (DECT80 kVp) and high energy (DECT140 kVp) series. Surgical extraction and Fourier spectroscopy resulted in 82 calculi. Of these stones 51 showed minor admixtures (uric acid, ammonium urate, struvite, calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite) and 31 were polycrystalline (mixtures of calcium oxalate monohydrate/dihydrate and calcium phosphate). Analyses identified stone clusters of equal composition and distinct attenuation descriptors on DECT140 kVp, DECT80 kVp and DECTSlope. Iterative cross-validation of the 3 dual energy computerized tomography data sets was used to identify characteristic attenuation limits for each stone type. Attenuatio profiles showed substantial overlap among various stones on DECT140 kVp (uric acid 427.3±168.1 HU, ammonium urate 429.9±99.7 HU, struvite 480.2±123.5 HU, calcium oxalate monohydrate 852.4±301.4 HU, brushite 863.7±180.1 HU and polycrystalline 858.1±210.5 HU) and on DECT80 kVp (uric acid 493.6±182.8 HU, ammonium urate 591.5±157.9 HU, struvite 712.4±173.9 HU, calcium oxalate monohydrate 1,240.5±494.7 HU, brushite 1,532.1±273.1 HU and polycrystalline 1,358.7±316.8 HU). Statistically spectral separation was not sufficient to characterize stones unambiguously based on DECT140 kVp/DECT80 kVp attenuation. Analysis of attenuation showed sufficient spectral separation on DECTSlope (uric acid 14.9±10.9 U, ammonium urate 56.1±1.8 U, struvite 42.7±1.4 U, calcium oxalate monohydrate 62.8±1.8 U and

  5. THE CORE OF THE PSEUDOSTEM OF MUSA IN THE TREATMENT OF URINARY STONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, R. Gopakumara

    1995-01-01

    Ayurveda recommends many simple herbs in the treatment of urological afflictions like urolithiasis. Seventyone patients diagnosed to be suffering from urolithiasis were treated with juice of the core of the pseudostem of Musa Paradisiaca and Musa sapientum. A significant segment of them passed out calculi of varying size after consuming the drug for two weeks. Recurrence of stone formation was also prevented by the treatment, The author concludes that the plant material is quite effective in curing urolithiasis, especially of the calcium oxalate variety. PMID:22556713

  6. Mineralogical Composition of Urinary Stones and Their Frequency in Patients: Relationship to Gender and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Keshavarzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation reports the mineralogy and possible pathological significance of urinary stones removed from patients in Fars province, Iran. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and polarizing microscope (PM techniques were used to investigate the mineralogical compositions of urinary stones. The identified mineral components include whewellite, weddellite, hydroxyapatite, uricite and cystine. These techniques revealed that the whewellite and uricite were the most common mineral phases. Platy-like/monoclinic whewellite, prismatic/monoclinic uric acid and hexagonal cystine crystals were revealed by SEM. Biominerals (calcium carbonate and quartz were also identified in PM images. Of the variables determining the type of precipitated minerals, the effects of pH on depositional conditions proved to be the most apparent parameter, as shown by occurrences and relationships among the studied minerals. Our results revealed the importance of detailed knowledge of mineralogical composition in assessing the effects of age and sex. The highest incidence of urinary stones was observed in the 40–60 age group. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones are more frequent in men than women. Finally, the study concluded that knowledge of the mineralogical composition of urinary stones is important as it helps the scientific community to explain the chemistry and the etiology of the calculi in the urinary system.

  7. The systematic classification of gallbladder stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Qiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To develop a method for systematic classification of gallbladder stones, analyze the clinical characteristics of each type of stone and provide a theoretical basis for the study of the formation mechanism of different types of gallbladder stones. METHODOLOGY: A total of 807 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones were enrolled and their gallstones were studied. The material composition of gallbladder stones was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the distribution and microstructure of material components was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition and distribution of elements were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer. Gallbladder stones were classified accordingly, and then, gender, age, medical history and BMI of patients with each type of stone were analyzed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gallbladder stones were classified into 8 types and more than ten subtypes, including cholesterol stones (297, pigment stones (217, calcium carbonate stones (139, phosphate stones (12, calcium stearate stones (9, protein stones (3, cystine stones (1 and mixed stones (129. Mixed stones were those stones with two or more than two kinds of material components and the content of each component was similar. A total of 11 subtypes of mixed stones were found in this study. Patients with cholesterol stones were mainly female between the ages of 30 and 50, with higher BMI and shorter medical history than patients with pigment stones (P<0.05, however, patients with pigment, calcium carbonate, phosphate stones were mainly male between the ages of 40 and 60. CONCLUSION: The systematic classification of gallbladder stones indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of the microstructure, elemental composition and distribution, providing an important basis for the mechanistic study of gallbladder stones.

  8. Efficacy and safety of Oxalobacter formigenes to reduce urinary oxalate in primary hyperoxaluria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Bernd; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Hulton, Sally-Anne; Cochat, Pierre; Niaudet, Patrick; Kemper, Markus J.; Deschênes, George; Unwin, Robert; Milliner, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is a rare genetic disease, in which high urinary oxalate (Uox) cause recurrent kidney stones and/or progressive nephrocalcinosis, often followed by early end-stage renal disease, as well as extremely high plasma oxalate, systemic oxalosis and premature death. Oxalobacter

  9. Bone Genes in the Kidney of Stone Formers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P.; Bledsoe, Sharon B.

    2008-09-01

    Intraoperative papillary biopsies from kidneys of idiopathic-calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) have revealed a distinct pattern of mineral deposition in the interstitium of the renal papilla. The earliest sites of these deposits, termed Randall's plaque, are found in the basement membrane of thin loops of Henle and appear to spread into the surrounding interstitium down to the papillary epithelium. Recent studies show kidney stones of ICSF patients grow attached to the renal papilla and at sites of Randall's plaque. Together these observations suggest that plaque formation may be the critical step in stone formation. In order to control plaque formation and thereby reduce future kidney stone development, the mechanism of plaque deposition must be understood. Because the renal papilla has unique anatomical features similar to bone and the fact that the interstitial deposits of ICSF patients are formed of biological apatite, this paper tests the hypothesis that sites of interstitial plaque form as a result of cell-mediated osteoblast-like activity.

  10. A review of oxalate poisoning in domestic animals: tolerance and performance aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Abdullah, R B; Wan Khadijah, W E

    2013-08-01

    Published data on oxalate poisoning in domestic animals are reviewed, with a focus on tolerance and performance. Oxalic acid is one of a number of anti-nutrients found in forage. It can bind with dietary calcium (Ca) or magnesium (Mg) to form insoluble Ca or Mg oxalate, which then may lead to low serum Ca or Mg levels as well as to renal failure because of precipitation of these salts in the kidneys. Dietary oxalate plays an important role in the formation of Ca oxalate, and a high dietary intake of Ca may decrease oxalate absorption and its subsequent urinary excretion. Oxalate-rich plants can be supplemented with other plants as forage for domestic animals, which may help to reduce the overall intake of oxalate-rich plants. Non-ruminants appear to be more sensitive to oxalate than ruminants because in the latter, rumen bacteria help to degrade oxalate. If ruminants are slowly exposed to a diet high in oxalate, the population of oxalate-degrading bacteria in the rumen increases sufficiently to prevent oxalate poisoning. However, if large quantities of oxalate-rich plants are eaten, the rumen is overwhelmed and unable to metabolize the oxalate and oxalate-poisoning results. Based on published data, we consider that poisoning in ruminants, although blood Ca level may decrease. In the case of non-ruminants, <0.5% soluble oxalate may be acceptable. However, these proposed safe levels of soluble oxalate should be regarded as preliminary. Further studies, especially long-term studies, are needed to validate and improve the recommended safe levels in animals. This review will encourage further research on the relationships between dietary oxalate, other dietary factors and renal failure in domestic animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. 21 CFR 862.1542 - Oxalate test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxalate test system. 862.1542 Section 862.1542 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment of urinary stones or certain other metabolic disorders. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  12. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  13. Extraction and concentration of biogenic calcium oxalate from plant leaves Extração e concentração de oxalato de cálcio biogênico de folhas de plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liovando Marciano da Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to extract and concentrate calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals from plant leaves that form the above mentioned crystals. The chemical and physical studies of CaOx from plant to be performed depend on an adequate amount of the crystals. The plant used in this study was croton (Codiaeum variegatum. The leaves were ground in a heavy duty blender and sieved through a 0.20 mm sieve. The suspension obtained was suspended in distilled water. The crystals were concentrated at the bottom of a test tube. The supernatant must be washed until it is free of plant pigments and other organic substances. Biogenic CaOx crystals have well-defined and sharp peaks, indicating very high crystallinity. Moreover, the CaOx crystals were not damaged during the extraction procedure, as can be seen on the scanning electron microscope images. The porposed method can be considered efficient to extract and concentrate biogenic calcium oxalate.O objetivo deste estudo foi extrair e concentrar cristais de oxalato de cálcio (CaOx a partir de folhas de plantas que formam os cristais mencionados. Os estudos químicos e físicos de CaOx de plantas a serem realizados demandam uma massa adequada dos cristais. A planta usada neste estudo foi o cróton (Codiaeum variegatum. As folhas foram trituradas por um liquidificador industrial e peneiradas em peneira de 0,20 mm. Ao suco obtido foi adicionada água destilada. Os cristais foram concentrados no fundo da proveta. É necessário manter a lavagem dos cristais até que o sobrenadante fique livre de pigmentos de plantas e outras substâncias orgânicas. Os cristais de CaOx apresentaram picos bem formados e estreitos, indicando que sua cristalinidade é muito alta; além disso, esses cristais não foram danificados durante o procedimento de extração, o que pode ser visto observando-se as fotos obtidas pelo microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O método apresentado pode ser considerado eficiente para extrair

  14. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turn to calcium-fortified (or "calcium-set") tofu, soy milk, tempeh, soy yogurt, and cooked soybeans (edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. You can get decent ...

  15. Heterogeneous disease modeling for Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in case-control studies: application to renal stones and calcium-sensing receptor polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D C; Grover, V K; Smith, C A; Cole, D E C

    2009-03-01

    Renal stone formation due to hypercalciuria is a relatively common disorder with clear evidence for genetic predisposition, but cryptic phenotypic heterogeneity has hampered identification of candidate genes. The R990G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the calcium sensing receptor (CASR) gene has been associated with hypercalciuria in stone formers and shows the appropriate functional phenotype in cell culture. In our preliminary association analysis of a case-control cohort, however, we observed significant Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD) for the cases (n= 223), but not controls (n= 676) at the R990G locus, pointing us toward the general disease model incorporating HWD. Because there is an adjacent CASR SNP, A986S, which is in negative linkage disequilibrium with R990G, we extended the general disease model to enable testing of a two-site hypothesis. In our data set, there is no lack of fit (P= .345) for the single-locus model for the R990G genotype, and likelihood ratio testing favors a recessive effect with an eight-fold increase in risk (P < .001) for GG homozygotes, relative to wild-type, based on a population prevalence of 2%. Addition of the A986S genotype provides no additional information either by itself or when included in our two-site model.

  16. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  17. Metabolic evaluation in first-time renal stone formers in north India: A single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of stone recurrence in first-time stone formers (FTSF varies from 26% to 53%. There is no consensus regarding metabolic evaluation in these individuals. We evaluated the metabolic abnormalities in first-time renal stone forming patients in North India. Thirty-nine patients, (29 males and 10 females with mean age 39.3 ± 12.9 years who presented with nephrolithiasis for the first time were evaluated. We evaluated the calcium homeostasis [serum corrected total calcium, phosphorous, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, parathormone (iPTH, 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25(OHD 3 , 1-25 di-hydroxy cholecalciferol (1,25(OH 2 D 3 ] and performed the calcium load test also. Two 24-h urine collections were taken for citrate, oxalate, calcium and uric acid. Ammonium chloride loading test for diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis was performed in all patients. For each of the diagnostic categories, descriptive statistics were computed for all biochemical variables. A two-tailed P-value <0.05 was regarded as significant. Metabolic abnormalities were detected in 92.3% of the patients (n = 39 studied. Of them, almost 60% had two or more metabolic abnormalities. The most common metabolic abnormality was hypo-citraturia (82%, followed by hyper-oxaluria (56% and hyper-calciuria (41%. Five percent of the patients had incomplete renal tubular acidosis, signifying the importance of the ammonium chloride loading test in patients with renal stones. None of the study patients were detected to have primary hyperparathyroidism. In three patients, the etiology could not be detected. Our findings suggest that an underlying disorder is present in majority of first-time renal stone formers. Intervention with appropriate treatment can prevent recurrences. Hence, comprehensive metabolic evaluation is recommended in all FTSF.

  18. The preservation of urine samples for determination of renal stone risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicar, M. J.; Hsu, M. C.; Johnson, T.; Pak, C. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A preservation technique for urine specimens before determination of stone risk factors was evaluated. The purpose of these experiments was to prove the effectiveness of the preservatives used to prevent changes in the concentrations of those constituents measured. Measured concentrations in fresh specimens were compared with those in the same specimens after storage with the preservatives. Refrigeration at 4 degrees C up to five days was appropriate in a laboratory setting, as no significant changes in urinary concentrations occurred. Refrigeration, however, did not offer a convenient method for shipping. Chemical preservation was found to be an effective alternative to refrigeration. Thymol prevented changes in concentration of pH, citrate, uric acid, sulfate, sodium, potassium, and cyclic AMP, while a mixture of hydrochloric (HCl) acid and boric acid prevented changes in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, oxalate, ammonium, and creatinine. Thus, the addition of thymol or HCl/boric acid to urine specimens will prevent significant changes in the concentrations of stone risk factors.

  19. Increased dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids alter serum fatty acid concentrations and lower risk of urine stone formation in cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available The lifespan of cats with non-obstructive kidney stones is shortened compared with healthy cats indicating a need to reduce stone formation and minimize chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on urine characteristics. Domestic-short-hair cats (n = 12; mean age 5.6 years were randomized into two groups and fed one of two dry-cat foods in a cross-over study design. For one week before study initiation, all cats consumed control food that contained 0.07% arachidonic acid (AA, but no eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Group 1 continued eating control food for 56 days. Group 2 was fed test food for 56 days, which was control food plus fish oil and high-AA oil. Test food contained 0.17% AA, 0.09% EPA and 0.18% DHA. After 56 days, cats were fed the opposite food for another 56 days. At baseline and after each feeding period, serum was analyzed for fatty acid concentrations, and urine for specific gravity, calcium concentration, relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals, and a calcium-oxalate-titrimetric test was performed. After consuming test food, cats had increased (all P<0.001 serum concentrations of EPA (173%, DHA (61%, and AA (35%; decreased urine specific gravity (P = 0.02; decreased urine calcium concentration (P = 0.06; decreased relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals (P = 0.03; and increased resistance to oxalate crystal formation (P = 0.06 compared with cats consuming control food. Oxalate crystal formation was correlated with serum calcium concentration (r = 0.41; P<0.01. These data show benefits for reducing urine stone formation in cats by increasing dietary PUFA.

  20. Increased dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids alter serum fatty acid concentrations and lower risk of urine stone formation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Brockman, Jeff A; Davidson, Stephen J; MacLeay, Jen M; Jewell, Dennis E

    2017-01-01

    The lifespan of cats with non-obstructive kidney stones is shortened compared with healthy cats indicating a need to reduce stone formation and minimize chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on urine characteristics. Domestic-short-hair cats (n = 12; mean age 5.6 years) were randomized into two groups and fed one of two dry-cat foods in a cross-over study design. For one week before study initiation, all cats consumed control food that contained 0.07% arachidonic acid (AA), but no eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Group 1 continued eating control food for 56 days. Group 2 was fed test food for 56 days, which was control food plus fish oil and high-AA oil. Test food contained 0.17% AA, 0.09% EPA and 0.18% DHA. After 56 days, cats were fed the opposite food for another 56 days. At baseline and after each feeding period, serum was analyzed for fatty acid concentrations, and urine for specific gravity, calcium concentration, relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals, and a calcium-oxalate-titrimetric test was performed. After consuming test food, cats had increased (all Purine specific gravity (P = 0.02); decreased urine calcium concentration (P = 0.06); decreased relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals (P = 0.03); and increased resistance to oxalate crystal formation (P = 0.06) compared with cats consuming control food. Oxalate crystal formation was correlated with serum calcium concentration (r = 0.41; Purine stone formation in cats by increasing dietary PUFA.

  1. Pathology and Epidemiology of Oxalate Nephrosis in Cheetahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Emily P; Church, Molly E; Nemser, Sarah M; Yakes, Betsy Jean; Evans, Eric R; Reimschuessel, Renate; Lemberger, Karin; Thompson, Peter N; Terio, Karen A

    2017-11-01

    To investigate cases of acute oxalate nephrosis without evidence of ethylene glycol exposure, archived data and tissues from cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus) from North America ( n = 297), southern Africa ( n = 257), and France ( n = 40) were evaluated. Renal and gastrointestinal tract lesions were characterized in a subset of animals with ( n = 100) and without ( n = 165) oxalate crystals at death. Crystals were confirmed as calcium oxalate by Raman spectroscopy in 45 of 47 cheetahs tested. Crystals were present in cheetahs from 3.7 months to 15.9 years old. Cheetahs younger than 1.5 years were less likely to have oxalates than older cheetahs ( P = .034), but young cheetahs with oxalates had more oxalate crystals than older cheetahs ( P Cheetahs with oxalate crystals were more likely to have renal amyloidosis, interstitial nephritis, or colitis and less likely to have glomerular loop thickening or gastritis than those without oxalates. Crystal number was positively associated with renal tubular necrosis ( P ≤ .001), regeneration ( P = .015), and casts ( P ≤ .001) but inversely associated with glomerulosclerosis, renal amyloidosis, and interstitial nephritis. Crystal number was unrelated to the presence or absence of colitis and was lower in southern African than American and European animals ( P = .01). This study found no evidence that coexisting chronic renal disease (amyloidosis, interstitial nephritis, or glomerulosclerosis), veno-occlusive disease, gastritis, or enterocolitis contributed significantly to oxalate nephrosis. Oxalate-related renal disease should be considered as a potential cause of acute renal failure, especially in young captive cheetahs. The role of location, diet, stress, and genetic predisposition in the pathogenesis of oxalate nephrosis in cheetahs warrants further study.

  2. Nephrolithiasis, stone composition, meteorology, and seasons in Malta: Is there any connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Jesmar; Attard, Stephanie; Carachi, Alexander; Galea, Ruth; Fava, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of seasons and meteorology on the incidence of nephrolithiasis has been studied in various regions around the globe, but seldom in the Mediterranean. This retrospective analysis aims at investigating these putative effects in the Maltese Islands, whose climate is typically Mediterranean, followed by a systematic review of the literature. Submission rate and chemical composition of all kidney stones after spontaneous passage or surgical removal between January 2009 and December 2011 were analyzed according to seasons and corresponding meteorology. A total of 389 stones were analyzed. A higher stone submission rate was observed in summer compared to winter (31.6% vs. 20.8%, P = 0.0008) and in the warm period compared to the cold period (57.1% vs. 42.9%, P = 0.0001). Significant correlation was established between the monthly number of stones and mean monthly maximum temperature (r = 0.50, P = 0.002), mean monthly temperature (r = 0.49, P = 0.003) and mean monthly Humidex (r = 0.49, P = 0.007). Humidex was found to be an independent predictor for stone submission (β = 0.49, P = 0.007). The majority of stones contained calcium (83.3%), combined with oxalate (77.6%), phosphate (14.7%), and carbonate (2.8%). Some stones (11.8%) contained a mixture of >1 negatively charged molecules. Urate (11.6%), cysteine (4.6%), and ammonium-magnesium-phosphate (0.5%) constituted the rest. There was no association between chemical composition and seasons. Literature review included 25 articles. Higher ambient temperature and warm seasons were the most commonly encountered risk factors for both presentation and etiology of nephrolithiasis. A significant positive correlation was noted between ambient temperature and stone submission rate, which was significantly higher during the warm months in Malta.

  3. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  4. Renal stone characterization using high resolution imaging mode on a photon counting detector CT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A.; Gutjahr, R.; Henning, A.; Kappler, S.; Halaweish, A.; Abdurakhimova, D.; Peterson, Z.; Montoya, J.; Leng, S.; McCollough, C.

    2017-03-01

    In addition to the standard-resolution (SR) acquisition mode, a high-resolution (HR) mode is available on a research photon-counting-detector (PCD) whole-body CT system. In the HR mode each detector consists of a 2x2 array of 0.225 mm x 0.225 mm subpixel elements. This is in contrast to the SR mode that consists of a 4x4 array of the same subelements, and results in 0.25 mm isotropic resolution at iso-center for the HR mode. In this study, we quantified ex vivo the capabilities of the HR mode to characterize renal stones in terms of morphology and mineral composition. Forty pure stones - 10 uric acid (UA), 10 cystine (CYS), 10 calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and 10 apatite (APA) - and 14 mixed stones were placed in a 20 cm water phantom and scanned in HR mode, at radiation dose matched to that of routine dual-energy stone exams. Data from micro CT provided a reference for the quantification of morphology and mineral composition of the mixed stones. The area under the ROC curve was 1.0 for discriminating UA from CYS, 0.89 for CYS vs COM and 0.84 for COM vs APA. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the percent UA in mixed stones was 11.0% with a medium-sharp kernel and 15.6% with the sharpest kernel. The HR showed qualitatively accurate characterization of stone morphology relative to micro CT.

  5. Effect of processing and cooking on total and soluble oxalate content in frozen root vegetables prepared for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. LISIEWSKA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxalate content of beetroot, carrot, celeriac and parsnip after freezing by traditional and modified methods (the latter resulting in a convenience food product, and after the preparation of frozen products for consumption was evaluated. The highest content of total and soluble oxalates (105 and 82 mg 100 g-1 fresh matter was found in beetroot. The lowest proportion (55% of soluble oxalates was noted in celeriac; this proportion was higher in the remaining vegetables, being broadly similar for each of them. Blanching brought about a significant decrease in total and soluble oxalates in fresh vegetables. Cooking resulted in a higher loss of oxalates. The level of oxalates in products prepared for consumption directly after freezing approximated that before freezing. Compared with the content before freezing, vegetables prepared for consumption by cooking after frozen storage contained less oxalates, except for total oxalates in parsnip and soluble oxalates in beetroot and celeriac. The highest ratio of oxalates to calcium was found in raw beetroot; it was two times lower in raw carrot; five times lower in raw celeriac; and eight times lower in raw parsnip. These ratios were lower after technological and culinary processing. The percentage of oxalate bound calcium depended on the species; this parameter was not significantly affected by the procedures applied. The true retention of oxalates according to Judprasong et al. (2006 was lower than retention calculated taking its content in 100 g fresh matter into account.;

  6. Quantificação do stone clinic effect em pacientes com nefrolitíase Quantification of the stone clinic effect in patients with nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O termo stone clinic effect refere-se ao efeito do aumento da ingestão hídrica e aconselhamento dietético na evolução clínica da doença calculosa renal. OBJETIVO: O nosso objetivo foi quantificar esta variável em pacientes portadores de nefrolitíase. MÉTODOS: Vinte e cinco pacientes (11 mulheres e 14 homens; 47,64±10,55 anos com nefrolitíase recorrente foram acompanhados com consultas trimestrais por um ano. Orientações sobre aumento da ingestão hídrica, diminuição do consumo de sal e proteína foram rotineiramente fornecidas. Nenhum paciente foi submetido à terapia farmacológica. Foram coletados no início (S1 e no final do seguimento (S2 os seguintes parâmetros: atividade clínica e radiológica da doença litiásica, urina de 24 horas com dosagem de creatinina, cálcio, sódio, ácido úrico, citrato, oxalato e magnésio. A supersaturação (SS para o oxalato de cálcio foi calculada pelo índice de Tiselius. RESULTADOS: Onze (44% pacientes apresentaram hipocitratúria, nove (36% hipercalciúria e cinco (20% hiperuricosúria. Houve aumento do volume urinário (1903±811 vs 2381±919 ml/dia, pBACKGROUND: The ''stone clinic effect'' refers to the effect of encouraging a high intake of fluid and diet counseling in the clinical evolution of kidney stone disease. Objective: Our objective was to determine the extent of this variable in patients with nephrolithiasis. METHODS: Twenty-five patients (11 female and 14 male; 47.64±10.55 years old with recurrent nephrolithiasis were prospectively followed for one year, with 3-month interval medical evaluation. Patients were advised to increase the fluid intake, and to limit the intake of salt and protein. No patient was submitted to pharmacological therapy. Two 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline (S1 and in the end of follow-up (S2 for the measurement of creatinine, calcium, sodium, uric acid, citrate, oxalate and magnesium. Metabolic and radiological activity was also

  7. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  8. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  9. Preservation of urine samples for metabolic evaluation of stone-forming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Renato Ribeiro Nogueira; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria; Ferreira, Larissa Gorayb; Nishiura, José Luiz; Siliano, Priscila Reina; Gomes, Samirah Abreu; Moreira, Silvia Regina Silva; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2006-10-01

    Metabolic evaluation of stone-forming (SF) patients is based on the determination of calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid and other parameters in 24-h urine samples under a random diet. A reliable measurement of urinary oxalate requires the collection of urine in a receptacle containing acid preservative. However, urinary uric acid cannot be determined in the same sample under this condition. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the addition of preservatives (acid or alkali) after urine collection would not modify the results of those lithogenic parameters. Thirty-four healthy subjects (HS) were submitted to two non-consecutive collections of 24-h urine. The first sample was collected in a receptacle containing hydrochloric acid (HCl 6 N) and the second in a dry plastic container, with HCl being added as soon as the urine sample was received at the laboratory. Additionally, 34 HS and 34 SF patients collected a spot urine sample that was divided into four aliquots, one containing HCl, another containing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3 )5 g/l), and two others in which these two preservative agents were added 24 h later. Urinary oxalate, calcium, magnesium, citrate, creatinine and uric acid were determined. Urinary parameters were also evaluated in the presence of calcium oxalate or uric acid crystals. Mean values of all urinary parameters obtained from previously acidified 24-h urine samples did not differ from those where acid was added after urine collection. The same was true for spot urine samples, with the exception of urinary citrate that presented a slight albeit significant change of 5.9% between samples in HS and 3.1% in SF. Uric acid was also not different between pre- and post-alkalinized spot urine samples. The presence of crystals did not alter these results. We concluded that post-delivery acidification or alkalinization of urine samples does not modify the measured levels of urinary oxalate, calcium, magnesium, creatinine and uric acid, and that the

  10. [Epidemiological study on urinary stones in the region of Fez and the risk of recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Habbani, R; Chaqroune, A; Sqalli Houssaini, T; Arrayhani, M; El Ammari, J; Dami, F; Chouhani, B A; Lahrichi, A

    2016-04-01

    In Morocco, few works on morpho-constitutional analysis of urinary calculi have been published, especially for patients in the region of Fez. This work aims to make a retrospective epidemiological study on the nature of urinary calculi with patients from the region of Fez and control the urine of the same patients after a period of three months to report on the risk of recurrence. Urinary stones were collected mostly in the nephrology service and urology service at the Hassan II Hospital in Fez. These calculations after being dried for 24 hours at room temperature underwent a morphological analysis, followed by infrared spectroscopic analysis Fourier transform. After a period of about three months, morning urine of the same patients was analyzed by crystalluria to control the presence of crystals that reflect a risk of recurrence. In our series of 123 samples, the age of patients ranges from 2-79 years. The prevalence was higher for men with a sex ratio of 1.3. The results of the analysis calculations showed that 61% were formed of calcium oxalate and 15% of uric acid and 25% of stones were carbapatite, struvite, cystine… The study by crystalluria urine revealed the presence of the crystals in 69% of patients' nephrolithiasis. The results of our study are conformed to the series of results in other regions of Morocco regarding the predominance of calcium oxalate stones. The presence of crystals in the urine of 69% of patients may indicate other recurrences. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective effect of dietary polyphenol caffeic acid on ethylene glycol-induced kidney stones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Fauzia; Wahab, Atia-Tul-; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2017-06-14

    Dietary polyphenol caffeic acid (1) has been reported for various pharmacological activities. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of caffeic acid (1) on ethylene glycol-induced renal stones in rats. For the study, male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups; normal, pathological, and standard drug controls, and preventive and curative groups. Normal control group received drinking water for 8 weeks. Pathological, standard drug, preventive, and curative groups received 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of calcium oxalate stone formation, along with the regular diet. Standard drug group received Urocit-K by gavage from day 1, while preventive and curative groups received caffeic acid (1) by gavage at doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg on day 1 and day 14, respectively. At the end of the experiment, urine analysis and kidney histopathology were performed. Real-time PCR was performed to evaluate the renal expression of the most important genes involved in urolithiasis, i.e., osteopontin, Tamm-Horsfall, prothrombin fragment 1, and bikunin genes. The results indicated that in both the preventive and curative groups, treatment of rats with caffeic acid (1) significantly regulated the altered biochemical parameters, along with the remarkable reduction of calcium oxalate deposits in the kidneys, as compared to the pathological group. Treatment with compound 1 also resulted in down-regulation of the osteopontin gene, and up-regulation of the prothrombin fragment 1, Tamm-Horsfall, and bikunin genes. These results suggest that caffeic acid (1) can be further investigated for the prevention, and treatment of kidney stones.

  12. Fiber optic muzzle brake tip for reducing fiber burnback and stone retropulsion during thulium fiber laser lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Gonzalez, David A.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-01-01

    The experimental thulium fiber laser (TFL) is being explored as an alternative to the current clinical gold standard Holmium:YAG laser for lithotripsy. The near single-mode TFL beam allows coupling of higher power into smaller optical fibers than the multimode Holmium laser beam profile, without proximal fiber tip degradation. A smaller fiber is desirable because it provides more space in the ureteroscope working channel for increased saline irrigation rates and allows maximum ureteroscope deflection. However, distal fiber tip burnback increases as fiber diameter decreases. Previous studies utilizing hollow steel sheaths around recessed distal fiber tips reduced fiber burnback but increased stone retropulsion. A "fiber muzzle brake" was tested for reducing both fiber burnback and stone retropulsion by manipulating vapor bubble expansion. TFL lithotripsy studies were performed at 1908 nm, 35 mJ, 500 μs, and 300 Hz using a 100-μm-core fiber. The optimal stainless steel muzzle brake tip tested consisted of a 1-cm-long, 560-μm-outer-diameter, 360-μm-inner-diameter tube with a 275-μm-diameter through hole located 250 μm from the distal end. The fiber tip was recessed a distance of 500 μm. Stone phantom retropulsion, fiber tip burnback, and calcium oxalate stone ablation studies were performed ex vivo. Small stones with a mass of 40±4 mg and 4-mm-diameter were ablated over a 1.5-mm sieve in 25±4 s (n=10) without visible distal fiber tip burnback. Reduction in stone phantom retropulsion distance by 50% and 85% was observed when using muzzle brake tips versus 100-μm-core bare fibers and hollow steel tip fibers, respectively. The muzzle brake fiber tip simultaneously provided efficient stone ablation, reduced stone retropulsion, and minimal fiber degradation during TFL lithotripsy.

  13. DASH-Style Diet Associates with Reduced Risk for Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Teresa T.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on kidney stone formation is unknown. We prospectively examined the relation between a DASH-style diet and incident kidney stones in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 45,821 men; 18 yr of follow-up), Nurses' Health Study I (n = 94,108 older women; 18 yr of follow-up), and Nurses' Health Study II (n = 101,837 younger women; 14 yr of follow-up). We constructed a DASH score based on eight components: high intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, low-fat dairy products, and whole grains and low intake of sodium, sweetened beverages, and red and processed meats. We used Cox hazards regression to adjust for factors that included age, BMI, and fluid intake. Over a combined 50 yr of follow-up, we documented 5645 incident kidney stones. Participants with higher DASH scores had higher intakes of calcium, potassium, magnesium, oxalate, and vitamin C and had lower intakes of sodium. For participants in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of DASH score, the multivariate relative risks for kidney stones were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.46 to 0.65) for men, 0.58 (95% CI, 0.49 to 0.68) for older women, and 0.60 (95% CI, 0.52 to 0.70) for younger women. Higher DASH scores were associated with reduced risk even in participants with lower calcium intake. Exclusion of participants with hypertension did not change the results. In conclusion, consumption of a DASH-style diet is associated with a marked decrease in kidney stone risk. PMID:19679672

  14. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  15. Effect of being overweight on urinary metabolic risk factors for kidney stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, Linda; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Johri, Nikhil; Robertson, William; Walsh, Steven B; Moochhala, Shabbir; Unwin, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence and incidence of kidney stone disease have increased markedly during the past several decades, and studies have demonstrated that inappropriate dietary habits are leading to more obesity and overweight (OW) in children and adults, which may be important in stone formation. Obese and OW patients share most of the same risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity, while the impact of being OW, rather than obese, on urinary metabolic parameters of kidney stone formers (KSF) is less well known. The aims of this study were to investigate urinary metabolic parameters, stone composition and probability of stone formation (Psf) in OW KSF when compared with normal weight (NW) and obese KSF. The kidney stone database for KSF attending a large metabolic stone clinic was investigated. Patients with a recorded BMI, confirmed diagnosis of kidney stone disease and full metabolic evaluation were divided into three categories: BMI ≤25.0 kg/m(2) (NW group), BMI 25-30 kg/m(2) (OW group) and BMI >30.0 kg/m(2) (obese group). Twenty-four hour urinary volume (U.Vol), pH (U.pH), calcium (U.Ca), oxalate (U.Ox), citrate (U.Cit), uric acid (U.UA), magnesium (U.Mg), sodium (U.Na) and potassium (U.K) excretions, along with stone composition and Psf, were then compared among the groups. A total of 2132 patients were studied, of whom 833 (39%) were NW, 863 (40.5%) were OW and 436 (20.5%) were obese. OW and obese KSF were older (mean age 43 ± 15 in NW, 48 ± 13 in OW and 50 ± 12 years in obese; P for trend Stone composition data (N = 640) showed a significantly higher incidence of uric acid stones in OW and obese groups (P for trend stone types were detected in OW and obese compared with NW KSF. Similar to obese KSF, OW KSF show clear alterations in metabolic urinary profiles that are associated with increased overall risk of stone formation. This greater risk is primarily due to raised U.UA and U.Na, lower U.pH and higher prevalence of hypercalciuria, along with unchanged levels

  16. Biochemical and dietary factors of uric acid stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-02-28

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of "pure" uric acid renal stone formers (UA-RSFs) with that of mixed uric acid/calcium oxalate stone formers (UC-RSFs) and to identify which urinary and dietary risk factors predispose to their formation. A total of 136 UA-RSFs and 115 UC-RSFs were extracted from our database of renal stone formers. A control group of 60 subjects without history of renal stones was considered for comparison. Data from serum chemistries, 24-h urine collections and 24-h dietary recalls were considered. UA-RSFs had a significantly (p = 0.001) higher body mass index (26.3 ± 3.6 kg/m 2 ) than UC-RSFs, whereas body mass index of UA-RSFs was higher but not significantly than in controls (24.6 ± 4.7) (p = 0.108). The mean urinary pH was significantly lower in UA-RSFs (5.57 ± 0.58) and UC-RSFs (5.71 ± 0.56) compared with controls (5.83 ± 0.29) (p = 0.007). No difference of daily urinary uric acid excretion was observed in the three groups (p = 0.902). Daily urinary calcium excretion was significantly (p = 0.018) higher in UC-RSFs (224 ± 149 mg/day) than UA-RSFs (179 ± 115) whereas no significant difference was observed with controls (181 ± 89). UA-RSFs tend to have a lower uric acid fractional excretion (0.083 ± 0.045% vs 0.107+/-0.165; p = 0.120) and had significantly higher serum uric acid (5.33 ± 1.66 vs 4.78 ± 1.44 mg/dl; p = 0.007) than UC-RSFs. The mean energy, carbohydrate and vitamin C intakes were higher in UA-SFs (1987 ± 683 kcal, 272 ± 91 g, 112 ± 72 mg) and UC-SFs (1836 ± 74 kcal, 265 ± 117, 140 ± 118) with respect to controls (1474 ± 601, 188 ± 84, 76 ± 53) (p = 0.000). UA-RSFs should be differentiated from UC-RSFs as they present lower urinary pH, lower uric acid fractional excretion and higher serum uric acid. On the contrary, patients with UC-RSFs show urinary risk factors

  17. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  18. Dimension stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, T.P.

    2003-01-01

    Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

  19. Acúmulo de ácido oxálico e cristais de cálcio em ectomicorrizas de eucalipto.: II- formação de cristais de oxalato de cálcio induzida por fungos ectomicorrízicos em raízes laterais finas Accumulation of oxalic acid and calcium crystals in ectomycorrhizas of eucalypt.: II- calcium oxalate crystal formation induced by ectomicorrhizal fungi in fine lateral roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Alexander Zambrano Gonzalez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O eucalipto é eficiente na aquisição de Ca do solo, mas pouco se sabe sobre a participação das ectomicorrizas e dos ácidos orgânicos nesse processo em campo. O acúmulo de cristais de Ca (CaOx foi avaliado em, aproximadamente, 2.100 raízes laterais finas e ectomicorrizas do híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, cultivado por 2,5 anos em área com topografia típica em meia laranja, com vertente côncavo-convexa, na região de Viçosa, MG. Técnicas de microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura foram usadas para a visualização dos CaOx. Em 73,7 % das raízes, ocorreu abundante acúmulo de drusas e grânulos de CaOx nas células do córtex. A presença conspícua de CaOx foi observada em 56,2 % das ectomicorrizas e em 17,5 % das raízes laterais finas não colonizadas, evidenciando o papel das micorrizas no acúmulo de Ca em eucalipto. A forma predominante dos CaOx foram as drusas nas ectomicorrizas e os grânulos cristalinos nas raízes. Os dez morfotipos de ectomicorrizas observados na área diferiram quanto à presença e à morfologia dos CaOx, o que pode representar distintas capacidades dos fungos ectomicorrízicos em fornecer Ca para a planta hospedeira. A análise da superfície do manto das ectomicorrizas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura não evidenciou a presença de CaOx nessa estrutura, confirmando que, nas condições avaliadas, o acúmulo de cristais limita-se ao córtex radicular. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de CaOx em ectomicorrizas de eucalipto no Brasil, com dados que comprovam que há mecanismos de armazenamento de Ca nas ectomicorrizas em áreas com baixa disponibilidade do elemento.Eucalypt is efficient at taking up Ca from the soil, however little is known about the contribution of ectomycorrhizas and organic acids to this process under field conditions. The accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx was evaluated in, approximately, 2,100 fine lateral roots

  20. [Renal morphological changes in experimental oxalate nephrolithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motin, Yu G; Lepilov, A V; Larionov, P M

    2017-01-01

    Тo evaluate renal morphological changes in the early stages of lithogenic processes and during urinary correction of urine with oxalate-chelating compounds (sodium citrate). An experimental model of oxalate nephrolithiasis was performed on 80 male Wistar rats weighing 180 to 250 g. Rat kidneys were morphologically and ultrastructurally studied. Immunohistochemical techniques were applied to study the features of development of endoplasmic reticulum stress. There were histotopographic changes in the renal tissue elements in the early stages of development of lithogenic processes accompanied by characteristic ultrastructural changes in the epithelium of the renal tubules and collecting ducts: by expansion of elements in the granular endoplasmic network, by mitochondrial damage with formation of large, ampullary extended cristae, and by emergence of autolysosomes. Signs of development of endoplasmic reticulum stress with activation of protein GADD153 were found, which deteriorated the cell lining of the nephron tubules and collecting ducts. In the early stages of development of lithogenic processes, there are stereotypic ultrastructural and histotopographic changes in the epithelium of the nephron tubules and collecting ducts, which contribute to the progression of stone formation processes and to the disruption of cellular homeostasis with activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress, synthesis impairment, or post-translational modifications in modulator proteins of lithogenesis.

  1. Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU: pathophysiology evaluated in light of oxidative metabolism, without and with variation of several biomarkers in fasting urine and plasma - a comparison of stone-free and -bearing male patients, emphasizing mineral, acid-base, blood pressure and protein status*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwilie PO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IRCU is traditionally considered as lifestyle disease (associations with, among others, overweight, obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, arising from excess, in 24 h urine, of calcium (Ca salts (calcium oxalate (CaOx, calcium phosphate (CaPi, supersaturation of, and crystallization in, tubular fluid and urine, causing crystal-induced epithelial cell damage, proteinuria, crystal aggregation and uroliths. Methods Another picture emerges from the present uncontrolled study of 154 male adult IRCU patients (75 stone-bearing (SB and 79 age-matched stone-free (SF, in whom stone-forming and other parameters in fasting urine and plasma were contrasted with five biomarkers (see footnote of oxidative metabolism (OM, without and with variation of markers. Results 1 In SB vs. SF unstratified OM biomarkers were statistically unchanged, but the majority of patients was overweight; despite, in SB vs. SF urine pH, total and non-albumin protein concentration were elevated, fractional urinary uric acid excretion and blood bicarbonate decreased, whereas urine volume, sodium, supersaturation with CaOx and CaPi (as hydroxyapatite were unchanged; 2 upon variation of OM markers (strata below and above median numerous stone parameters differed significant!', among others urine volume, total protein, Ca/Pi ratio, pH, sodium, potassium, plasma Ca/Pi ratio and parathyroid hormone, blood pressure, renal excretion of non-albumin protein and other substances; 3 a significant shift from SF to SB patients occurred with increase of urine pH, decrease of blood bicarbonate, and increase of diastolic blood pressure, whereas increase of plasma uric acid impacted only marginally; 4 in both SF and SB patients a strong curvilinear relationship links a rise of urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, but in SB urine Ca/Pi failed to correlate significantly with urine hydroxyapatite supersaturation; 5 also in SB, plasma Ca/Pi and urinary nitrate were

  2. Tetraphenylphosphonium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. W. Dean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H20P+·C2HO4−, two symmetry-independent ion pairs are present. The cations aggregate into puckered sheets via zigzag infinite chains of sixfold phenyl embraces and parallel fourfold phenyl embraces, while the anions form hydrogen-bonded chains between the sheets of cations. In the two independent oxalate anions, the angles between the normals to the two least-squares carboxylate COO planes are unusually large, viz. 72.5 (1 and 82.1 (1°.

  3. Changes in dietary macronutrient profile do not appear to affect endogenous urinary oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The progressive increase in calcium oxalate uroliths reported in cats diagnosed with urolithiasis may partly be due to changes in nutrition. Since cats have a predominant mitochondrial alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) location, high carbohydrate intake may induce endogenous oxalate

  4. Effect of aqueous extract of “eryngium campestre” on the prevention of pathologic alterations caused by calcium oxalate crystals induced by ethylene glycol in the cortex and medulla of rats’ kidneys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sajjad Esmaeili; Mehran Falahpour amiry; Abdolghader Taene; Mina Hemmati; Mohammad Malekaneh

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: Due to the effects of herbs in the prevention of kidney stones, the present study aimed at assessing the effect of aqueous eryngium campestre on the prevention of pathologic alterations caused...

  5. Effect calcusol to reduce the calcium crystal retention in kidney epithelial cells model of nephrolothiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Soni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kidney stones is a disease that characterized by a disturbance in the bladder. The main constituent of kidney stones namely Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM crystals. The presence of a COM crystal adhesion to renal tubular cells, will initiate the internalization which will further lead to the formation of crystals retention in the kidney. In Indonesia, there are many herbal products are considered able to cope the complaints due to the kidney stone disease. One of the herbal product is Calcusol „¢, which is the main constituent of those herbal product was the leaf extract of tempuyung. This study observed the effectiveness of Calcusol „¢ in reducing crystals retention that was formed in kidney epithelial cells model of nephrolithiasis. The result showed that Calcusol „¢ is able to reduce the average number of calcium crystals retention in the renal epithelial cells. It indicate that Calcusol „¢ has the ability to reduce crystals retention that already formed in renal epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results of this study are expected to be one of the considerations for further research on the potential of overcoming Calcusol „¢ in kidney stone disease

  6. Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn; Xue, Jun-Fa; Shang, Yun-Feng

    2013-10-15

    The property changes of urinary nanocrystallites in 20 cases of uric acid (UA) stone formers after 1 week of potassium citrate (K{sub 3}cit) intake were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Before K{sub 3}cit intake, the urinary crystallites mainly contained UA and calcium oxalate. After K{sub 3}cit intake, the components changed to urate and UA; the qualities, species, and amounts of aggregated crystallites decreased; urine pH, citrate, and glycosaminoglycan excretions increased; and UA excretion, Zeta potential, and crystallite size decreased. The stability of crystallites followed the order: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Therefore, the components of urinary stones were closely related to the components of urinary crystallites. - Graphical abstract: The relationships among stone components, urinary crystallite components, and urine pH were established. The crystallites stability order was: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Highlights: • Urine crystallite property of uric acid stone former after K{sub 3}cit intake was studied. • The components of crystallites in urine are closely related to type of stones. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the qualities and species of crystallites decreased. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the amount of aggregated crystallites decreased. • The stability of urinary crystallites of UA patients increased after taking K{sub 3}cit.

  7. Allylammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Dziuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated molecular salt, C3H8N+·C2HO4−·0.5H2O, the water O atom lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. The C=C—C—N torsion angle in the cation is 2.8 (3° and the dihedral angle between the CO2 and CO2H planes in the anion is 1.0 (4°. In the crystal, the hydrogen oxalate ions are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating [010] chains. The allylammonium cations bond to the chains through N—H...O and N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds. The water molecule accepts two N—H...O hydrogen bonds and makes two O—H...O hydrogen bonds. Together, the hydrogen bonds generate (100 sheets.

  8. Oxalate analysis methodology for decayed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; William Kenealy; Patricia K. Lebow

    2008-01-01

    Oxalate from partially decayed southern pine wood was analyzed by HPLC or colorimetric assay. Oxalate extraction efficiency, assessed by comparing analysis of whole wood cubes with ground wood, showed that both wood geometries could be extracted with comparable efficiency. To differentiate soluble oxalate from total oxalate, three extraction methods were assessed,...

  9. Effect of potassium oxalate on liver function and kidney tissue of dogs (beagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamaden Walaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate crystalluria is a problem of growing concern in dogs. A few reports have discussed acute kidney injury by oxalates in dogs, describing ultrastructural findings in particular. We evaluated the possibility of deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tissue and its probable consequences. Six dogs were intravenously injected with 0.5 M potassium oxalate (KOx for seven consecutive days. By the end of the experiment, ultrasonography revealed a significant increase in the renal mass and renal parenchymal echogenicity. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were gradually increased. The histopathological features of the kidneys were assessed by both light and electron microscopy, which showed CaOx crystal deposition accompanied by morphological changes in the renal tissue of KOx injected dogs. Canine renal oxalosis provides a good model to study the biological and pathological changes induced upon damage of renal tissue by KOx injection.

  10. Analytical Study of Oxalates Coprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana MARTA

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the establishing of the oxalates coprecipitation conditions in view of the synthesis of superconducting systems. A systematic analytical study of the oxalates precipitation conditions has been performed, for obtaining superconducting materials, in the Bi Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. For this purpose, the formulae of the precipitates solubility as a function of pH and oxalate excess were established. The possible formation of hydroxo-complexes and soluble oxalato-complexes was taken into account. A BASIC program was used for tracing the precipitation curves. The curves of the solubility versus pH for different oxalate excess have plotted for the four oxalates, using a logaritmic scale. The optimal conditions for the quantitative oxalate coprecipitation have been deduced from the diagrams. The theoretical curves were confirmed by experimental results. From the precursors obtained by this method, the BSCCO superconducting phases were obtained by an appropriate thermal treatment. The formation of the superconducting phases was identified by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  11. Component analyses of urinary nanocrystallites of uric acid stone formers by combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, fast Fourier transformation, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Xue, Jun-Fa; Xia, Zhi-Yue; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to analyse the components of nanocrystallites in urines of patients with uric acid (UA) stones. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of HRTEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were performed to analyse the components of these nanocrystallites. XRD and FFT showed that the main component of urinary nanocrystallites was UA, which contains a small amount of calcium oxalate monohydrate and phosphates. EDS showed the characteristic absorption peaks of C, O, Ca and P. The formation of UA stones was closely related to a large number of UA nanocrystallites in urine. A combination of HRTEM, FFT, EDS and XRD analyses could be performed accurately to analyse the components of urinary nanocrystallites.

  12. Guaifenesin stone matrix proteomics: a protocol for identifying proteins critical to stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbach-Mandel, A M; Mandel, N S; Cohen, S R; Kleinman, J G; Ahmed, F; Mandel, I C; Wesson, J A

    2017-04-01

    Drug-related kidney stones are a diagnostic problem, since they contain a large matrix (protein) fraction and are frequently incorrectly identified as matrix stones. A urine proteomics study patient produced a guaifenesin stone during her participation, allowing us to both correctly diagnose her disease and identify proteins critical to this drug stone-forming process. The patient provided three random midday urine samples for proteomics studies; one of which contained stone-like sediment with two distinct fractions. These solids were characterized with optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Immunoblotting and quantitative mass spectrometry were used to quantitatively identify the proteins in urine and stone matrix. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the sediment was 60 % protein and 40 % guaifenesin and its metabolite guaiacol. Of the 156 distinct proteins identified in the proteomic studies, 49 were identified in the two stone-components with approximately 50 % of those proteins also found in this patient's urine. Many proteins observed in this drug-related stone have also been reported in proteomic matrix studies of uric acid and calcium containing stones. More importantly, nine proteins were highly enriched and highly abundant in the stone matrix and 8 were reciprocally depleted in urine, suggesting a critical role for these proteins in guaifenesin stone formation. Accurate stone analysis is critical to proper diagnosis and treatment of kidney stones. Many matrix proteins were common to all stone types, but likely not related to disease mechanism. This protocol defined a small set of proteins that were likely critical to guaifenesin stone formation based on their high enrichment and high abundance in stone matrix, and it should be applied to all stone types.

  13. Multiple bilateral stones as a cause of acute renal failure: Three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ozturk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex renal stones are staghorn calculi stones >2 cm and most calculus are calcium stones. In patients found with obstruction may need an emergency intervention. Three patients with multiple stones causing bilateral renal obstruction were operated.

  14. [The evaluation of anti-nutritive components in beer on the example of oxalic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Agnieszka; Baca, Elzbieta; Baranowski, Krzysztof; Michałowska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Food in its composition contains anti-nutritional substances that reduces or prevents the use of valuable nutrients. The oxalic acid, as phytate and dietary fiber, occurs naturally in foods of plant origin, to which the beer is classified. The negative effect of oxalic acid is reducing the bioavailability of calcium and magnesium, and disorder of metabolism of the body's absorption of these elements from the diet. The excess of oxalic acid and its salt in the diet contributes to the formation of certain diseases, such as oxalate urolithiasis, osteoporosis, arthritis, etc. Due to the diuretic effect of beer, drinking moderate amounts of it is recommended as a preventive and support urinary tract disorders. The aim of this study was to determine and comparison the oxalic acid content in selected beers available on the Polish market. Fifty seven samples of beer were used for this study. These samples were divided into three groups depending on the alcohol concentration declared by the producers (1st group--below 5.5% vol., 2nd group--from 5.5 to 6.5% vol., 3rd group--above 6.5% vol.). The beer samples were incubated in the ultrasonic bath for 15 minutes following pH adjustments up to pH = 2 with the 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid to transform calcium oxalates into soluble form, then filtered. The oxalic acid concentration was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with conductivity detection. The concentration of oxalic acid in tested samples of beer ranged from 1.8 to 30.3 mg/L. No considerable differences between the concentration of oxalic acid in the three tested group of beer with the various content of the alcohol were found. Basing on the average concentrations of the oxalic acid in the different groups of the tested beers the positive trend in oxalic acid concentration related to the increase of alcohol could be observed. The very low concentration of oxalic acid allows to classify beer as food product safe for the human health in terms of low

  15. Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts

  16. Kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your provider about what treatment options may work for you. You will need to take self-care steps. Which steps you take depend on the type of stone you have, but they may include: Drinking extra water and other liquids Eating more of some foods ...

  17. Diet and Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contain high levels of oxalate include: peanuts, rhubarb, spinach, beets, chocolate and sweet potatoes. The oxalate content ... drink at least three quarts (12 cups) of water a day to help reduce the risk for ...

  18. Family history and biochemical diagnosis in 1948 kidney stone formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Spivacow

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of family history of nephrolithiasis is associated with an increased risk of renal lithiasis. Different epidemiological studies have shown a family component in the incidence of it, which is independent of dietary and environmental factors. The role of heredity is evident in monogenic diseases such as cystinuria, Dent’s disease or primary hyperoxaluria, while a polygenic inheritance has been proposed to explain the tendency to form calcium oxalate stones. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the family history of patients with renal lithiasis and the correlation of family history with its corresponding biochemical alteration, considering only those with a single metabolic alteration. Methods: a prospective and retrospective observational and analytical study that included 1948 adults over 17 years of age and a normal control group of 165 individuals, all evaluated according to an ambulatory protocol to obtain a biochemical diagnosis. They were asked about their family history of nephrolithiasis and classified into five groups according to the degree of kinship and the number of people affected in the family. Results: a positive family history of nephrolithiasis was found in 27.4% of renal stone formers, predominantly in women, compared to 15.2% of normal controls. The family history of nephrolithiasis was observed especially in 31.4% of patients with hypomagnesuria and in 29.6% of hypercalciuric patients. The rest of the biochemical alterations had a positive family history between 28.6% in hyperoxaluria and 21.9% in hypocitraturia. The highest percentage of family history of nephrolithiasis was found in cystinuria (75% although there were few patients with this diagnosis. Conclusions: the inheritance has a clear impact on urolithiasis independently of the present biochemical alteration. Family history of nephrolithiasis of the first and second degree was observed between 21 and 32% of patients with renal

  19. Lactobacillus gasseri Gasser AM63(T) degrades oxalate in a multistage continuous culture simulator of the human colonic microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewanika, Thokozile R; Reid, Sharon J; Abratt, Valerie R; Macfarlane, George T; Macfarlane, Sandra

    2007-07-01

    Colonic oxalate-degrading bacteria have been shown to play an important role in human kidney stone formation. In this study, molecular analysis of the Lactobacillus gasseri genome revealed a cluster of genes encoding putative formyl coenzyme A transferase (frc) and oxalyl coenzyme A decarboxylase (oxc) homologues, possibly involved in oxalate degradation. The ability of Lactobacillus gasseri Gasser AM63(T) to degrade oxalate was confirmed in vitro. Transcription of both genes was induced by oxalate, and reverse transcription-PCR confirmed that they were co-transcribed as an operon. A three-stage continuous culture system (CCS) inoculated with human fecal bacteria was used to model environmental conditions in the proximal and distal colons, at system retention times within the range of normal colonic transit rates (30 and 60 hours). A freeze-dried preparation of L. gasseri was introduced into the CCS under steady-state growth conditions. Short chain fatty acid analysis indicated that addition of L. gasseri to the CCS did not affect the equilibrium of the microbial ecosystem. Oxalate degradation was initiated in the first stage of the CCS, corresponding to the proximal colon, suggesting that this organism may have potential therapeutic use in managing oxalate kidney stone disease in humans.

  20. Incidence of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Mao, Michael A; Kittanamongkolchai, Wonngarm; Jaffer Sathick, Insara J; Dhondup, Tsering; Erickson, Stephen B

    2016-12-24

    To evaluate the incidence and characteristics of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the inception of the databases through March 2016. Studies assessing the incidence of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients were included. We applied a random-effects model to estimate the incidence of kidney stones. Twenty one studies with 64416 kidney transplant patients were included in the analyses to assess the incidence of kidney stones after kidney transplantation. The estimated incidence of kidney stones was 1.0% (95%CI: 0.6%-1.4%). The mean duration to diagnosis of kidney stones after kidney transplantation was 28 ± 22 mo. The mean age of patients with kidney stones was 42 ± 7 years. Within reported studies, approximately 50% of kidney transplant recipients with kidney stones were males. 67% of kidney stones were calcium-based stones (30% mixed CaOx/CaP, 27%CaOx and 10%CaP), followed by struvite stones (20%) and uric acid stones (13%). The estimated incidence of kidney stones in patients after kidney transplantation is 1.0%. Although calcium based stones are the most common kidney stones after transplantation, struvite stones (also known as "infection stones") are not uncommon in kidney transplant recipients. These findings may impact the prevention and clinical management of kidney stones after kidney transplantation.

  1. Acute management of stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Osther, Palle J S

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stone management is often conservative due to a high spontaneous stone passage rate or non-symptomatic calyceal stones that do not necessarily require active treatment. However, stone disease may cause symptoms and complications requiring urgent intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: In this review, we update latest research and current recommendations regarding acute management of stones, with particular focus on imaging, pain management, active stone interventions, medical expulsive therapy, and urolithiasis in pregnancy and childhood. RESULTS: Acute stone management should be planned...

  2. Chronic dietary oxalate nephropathy after intensive dietary weight loss regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khneizer, Gebran; Al-Taee, Ahmad; Mallick, Meher S; Bastani, Bahar

    2017-07-01

    Hyperoxaluria has been associated with nephrolithiasis as well as acute and chronic kidney disease. We present a case of end stage renal failure caused by excessive dietary oxalate intake in a dietary weight loss regimen. A 51-year-old Caucasian male with the past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, gout, hypertension and morbid obesity was referred to the primary care clinic after being found pale and easily fatigued. The patient had lost 36 kg over a 7-month period by implementing exercise and intense dietary measures that included 6 meals of spinach, kale, berries, and nuts. Physical examination revealed a blood pressure of 188/93 mm Hg with sunken eyes and dry mucus membranes. Laboratory workup was notable for blood urea nitrogen of 122 mg/dL, creatinine of 12 mg/dL, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 4.4 mL/min/1.73m2. Patient denied any history of renal disease or renal stones, or taking herbal products, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antifreeze (ethylene glycol), or any type of "diet pills." Family history was unremarkable for any renal diseases. After failing intravenous fluid resuscitation, patient was started on maintenance hemodialysis. Abdominal imaging was consistent with chronic renal parenchymal disease with no evidence of nephrolithiasis. Renal biopsy revealed numerous polarized oxalate crystal deposition and diabetic nephropathy class IIA. At this point the patient was instructed to adopt a low oxalate diet. A 24-hour urine collection was remarkable for pH 4.7, citrate <50 mg, and oxalate 46 mg. Importantly, serum oxalate level was undetectable. Repeat renal biopsy 5 months later while patient was still on maintenance hemodialysis revealed persistence of extensive oxalate crystal deposition. Patient has been referred for evaluation for renal transplantation. Clinicians need to maintain a high index of suspicion for dietary hyperoxaluria as a potential etiology for acute or chronic kidney failure, particularly in

  3. The effects of the calcium-restricted diet of urolithiasis patients with absorptive hypercalciuria type II on risk factors for kidney stones and osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, A. van; Ploeg, E.M.C. van der; Habets, H.M.L.; Meer, R. van der; Hermus, R.J.J.; Janknegt, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The calcium (Ca)-restricted diet of urolithiasis patients with absorptive hypercalciuria type II may decrease Ca excretion but increase biochemical markers of risk for osteopenia. We randomly allocated 25 patients from six hospitals into an experimental group (Ca restriction to 500 mg/day,

  4. Persistence of 1,25D-induced hypercalciuria in alendronate-treated genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats fed a low-calcium diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplin, John R.; Culbertson, Christopher D.; Granja, Ignacio; Krieger, Nancy S.; Bushinsky, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats demonstrate increased intestinal Ca absorption, increased bone resorption, and reduced renal tubular Ca reabsorption leading to hypercalciuria and all form kidney stones. GHS have increased vitamin D receptors (VDR) at these sites of Ca transport. Injection of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D) leads to a greater increase in urine (u)Ca in GHS than in control Sprague-Dawley (SD), possibly due to the additional VDR. In GHS the increased uCa persists on a low-Ca diet (LCD) suggesting enhanced bone resorption. We tested the hypothesis that LCD, coupled to inhibition of bone resorption by alendronate (alen), would eliminate the enhanced 1,25D-induced hypercalciuria in GHS. SD and GHS were fed LCD and half were injected daily with 1,25D. After 8 days all were also given alen until euthanasia at day 16. At 8 days, 1,25D increased uCa in SD and to a greater extent in GHS. At 16 days, alen eliminated the 1,25D-induced increase in uCa in SD. However, in GHS alen decreased, but did not eliminate, the 1,25D-induced hypercalciuria, suggesting maximal alen cannot completely prevent the 1,25D-induced bone resorption in GHS, perhaps due to increased VDR. There was no consistent effect on mRNA expression of renal transcellular or paracellular Ca transporters. Urine CaP and CaOx supersaturation (SS) increased with 1,25D alone in both SD and GHS. Alen eliminated the increase in CaP SS in SD but not in GHS. If these results are confirmed in humans with IH, the use of bisphosphonates, such as alen, may not prevent the decreased bone density observed in these patients. PMID:24573387

  5. Dual energy CT kidney stone differentiation in photon counting computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutjahr, R.; Polster, C.; Henning, A.; Kappler, S.; Leng, S.; McCollough, C. H.; Sedlmair, M. U.; Schmidt, B.; Krauss, B.; Flohr, T. G.

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates the capabilities of a whole-body photon counting CT system to differentiate between four common kidney stone materials, namely uric acid (UA), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), cystine (CYS), and apatite (APA) ex vivo. Two different x-ray spectra (120 kV and 140 kV) were applied and two acquisition modes were investigated. The macro-mode generates two energy threshold based image-volumes and two energy bin based image-volumes. In the chesspattern-mode four energy thresholds are applied. A virtual low energy image, as well as a virtual high energy image are derived from initial threshold-based images, while considering their statistically correlated nature. The energy bin based images of the macro-mode, as well as the virtual low and high energy image of the chesspattern-mode serve as input for our dual energy evaluation. The dual energy ratio of the individually segmented kidney stones were utilized to quantify the discriminability of the different materials. The dual energy ratios of the two acquisition modes showed high correlation for both applied spectra. Wilcoxon-rank sum tests and the evaluation of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves suggest that the UA kidney stones are best differentiable from all other materials (AUC = 1.0), followed by CYS (AUC ≍ 0.9 compared against COM and APA). COM and APA, however, are hardly distinguishable (AUC between 0.63 and 0.76). The results hold true for the measurements of both spectra and both acquisition modes.

  6. Thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones using a 50-μm-core silica optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Richard L.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Our laboratory is currently studying the experimental thulium fiber laser (TFL) as a potential alternative laser lithotripter to the gold standard, clinical Holmium:YAG laser. We have previously demonstrated the efficient coupling of TFL energy into fibers as small as 100-μm-core-diameter without damage to the proximal end. Although smaller fibers have a greater tendency to degrade at the distal tip during lithotripsy, fiber diameters (≤200 μm) have been shown to increase the saline irrigation rates through the working channel of a flexible ureteroscope, to maximize the ureteroscope deflection, and to reduce the stone retropulsion during laser lithotripsy. In this study, a 50-μm-core-diameter, 85-μm-outer-diameter, low-OH silica fiber is characterized for TFL ablation of human calcium oxalate monohydrate urinary stones, ex vivo. The 50-μm-core fiber consumes approximately 30 times less cross-sectional area inside the single working channel of a ureteroscope than the standard 270-μm-core fiber currently used in the clinic. The ureteroscope working channel flow rate, including the 50-μm fiber, decreased by only 10% with no impairment of ureteroscope deflection. The fiber delivered up to 15.4±5.9 W under extreme bending (5-mm-radius) conditions. The stone ablation rate measured 70±22 μg/s for 35-mJ-pulse-energy, 500-μs-pulse-duration, and 50-Hz-pulse-rate. Stone retropulsion and fiber burnback averaged 201±336 and 3000±2600 μm, respectively, after 2 min. With further development, thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using ultra-small, 50-μm-core fibers may introduce new integration and miniaturization possibilities and potentially provide an alternative to conventional Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy using larger fibers.

  7. Primary Nonfunction of Renal Allograft Secondary to Acute Oxalate Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Parasuraman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary nonfunction (PNF accounts for 0.6 to 8% of renal allograft failure, and the focus on causes of PNF has changed from rejection to other causes. Calcium oxalate (CaOx deposition is common in early allograft biopsies, and it contributes in moderate intensity to higher incidence of acute tubular necrosis and poor graft survival. A-49-year old male with ESRD secondary to polycystic kidney disease underwent extended criteria donor kidney transplantation. Posttransplant, patient developed delayed graft function (DGF, and the biopsy showed moderately intense CaOx deposition that persisted on subsequent biopsies for 16 weeks, eventually resulting in PNF. The serum oxalate level was 3 times more than normal at 85 μmol/L (normal <27 μmol/L. Allograft nephrectomy showed massive aggregates of CaOx crystal deposition in renal collecting system. In conclusion, acute oxalate nephropathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of DGF since optimal management could change the outcome of the allograft.

  8. ROLE OF THE MICROFLORA IN DISTAL INTESTINAL TRACT BY MAINTAINING OXALATE HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osolodchenko T.P.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal microflora is part of the human body and performs numerous function. Considerable research interest is in the field of probiotics for the prevention of kidney stones, which is one of the most common urological diseases.Urolithiasis is one of the most common urological diseases. This is polyetiological disease congenital and acquired character with complex physical and chemical processes that occur not only in the urinary system, but also the whole body. None of the treatments does not guarantee full recovery of the patient and often leads to relapse. The open methods of removal stones yield news minimally invasive the technologys. Development of stone formation depends on the presence of many factors, metabolic disorders, chronic urinary tract infections, genetic disorders and more. Most have the following metabolic disorders as hypercalciuria, hiperurikuria, hipotsytraturia , hyperoxaluria and hipomahniuria. Among all types of urolithiasis kaltsiyoksalatnyy ranked first in the prevalence rate - about 75.0 - 85.0 % of cases. Dietary restriction by oxalates іs the unreliable method of preventing disease. Although there is evidence for the growth inhibition normobiocenosis representatives, which in turn enhances the absorption of salts of oxalic acid oxalate in the application of sodium , magnesium and cobalt in their intragastric administration. Recently published many papers on the impact on the level of oxalate intestinal microflora. The first publications appeared on the influence of gram-negative obligate anaerobes O. formigenes the concentration of oxalate in the urine. This anaerobic bacteria living in the colon, its prevalence - 46.0 % - 77.0 % of the adult population. O. formigenes reveals the symbiotic interaction with the human body by reducing absorption of oxalate in the intestinal cavity with subsequent decrease in their concentration in plasma and urine. O. formigenes has two key enzymes - oksalyl

  9. The effect of dietary hydroxyproline and dietary oxalate on urinary oxalate excretion in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Plantinga, E.A.; Thomas, D.G.; Queau, Y.; Biourge, V.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    In humans and rodents, dietary hydroxyproline (hyp) and oxalate intake affect urinary oxalate (Uox) excretion. Whether Uox excretion occurs in cats was tested by feeding diets containing low oxalate (13 mg/100g DM) with high (Hhyp-Lox), moderate (Mhyp-Lox), and low hyp (Lhyp-Lox) concentrations

  10. The effect of dietary hydroxyproline and dietary oxalate on urinary oxalate excretion in cats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, Judith; Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Thomas, D.G.; Queau, Yann; Hendriks, Wouter; Biourge, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    In humans and rodents, dietary hydroxyproline (hyp) and oxalate intake affect urinary oxalate (Uox) excretion. Whether Uox excretion occurs in cats was tested by feeding diets containing low oxalate (13 mg/100 g DM) with high (Hhyp-Lox), moderate (Mhyp-Lox), and low hyp (Lhyp-Lox) concentrations

  11. Stone risk after bladder substitution with the ileal-urethral Kock reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Poulsen, A L; Steven, K

    2000-01-01

    to be the main risk factor for calcium stone formation in non-infected Kock reservoir patients, and citrate supplementation appears to be the most obvious choice for stone prophylaxis in patients with intestinal urinary diversion and recurrent renal stone formation....

  12. Miniature ball-tip optical fibers for use in thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher R.; Hardy, Luke A.; Kennedy, Joshua D.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Optical fibers, consisting of 240-μm-core trunk fibers with rounded, 450-μm-diameter ball tips, are currently used during Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy to reduce mechanical damage to the inner lining of the ureteroscope working channel during fiber insertion and prolong ureteroscope lifetime. Similarly, this study tests a smaller, 100-μm-core fiber with 300-μm-diameter ball tip during thulium fiber laser (TFL) lithotripsy. TFL was operated at a wavelength of 1908 nm, with 35-mJ pulse energy, 500-μs pulse duration, and 300-Hz pulse rate. Calcium oxalate/phosphate stone samples were weighed, laser procedure times were measured, and ablation rates were calculated for ball tip fibers, with comparison to bare tip fibers. Photographs of ball tips were taken before and after each procedure to track ball tip degradation and determine number of procedures completed before need for replacement. A high speed camera also recorded the cavitation bubble dynamics during TFL lithotripsy. Additionally, saline irrigation rates and ureteroscope deflection were measured with and without the presence of TFL fiber. There was no statistical difference (P>0.05) between stone ablation rates for single-use ball tip fiber (1.3±0.4 mg/s) (n=10), multiple-use ball tip fiber (1.3±0.5 mg/s) (n=44), and conventional single-use bare tip fibers (1.3±0.2 mg/s) (n=10). Ball tip durability varied widely, but fibers averaged greater than four stone procedures before failure, defined by rapid decline in stone ablation rates. Mechanical damage at the front surface of the ball tip was the limiting factor in fiber lifetime. The small fiber diameter did not significantly impact ureteroscope deflection or saline flow rates. The miniature ball tip fiber may provide a cost-effective design for safe fiber insertion through the ureteroscope working channel and into the ureter without risk of instrument damage or tissue perforation, and without compromising stone ablation efficiency during TFL lithotripsy.

  13. Tannin, oxalate, saponin, cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two species of cola, Cola nitida and Cola acuminate, were investigated for their possible relative contents of the secondary plant products:- tannin, oxalate, saponin, cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides. The two cola species gave low levels of tannin and oxalate but very high levels of cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides as ...

  14. Association analysis for oxalate concentration in spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening and breeding low-oxalate germplasm is a major objective in spinach breeding. This research aims to conduct association analysis and identify SNP markers associated with oxalate concentration in spinach germplasm. A total of 310 spinach genotypes including 300 USDA germplasm accessions and ...

  15. Oxalate (Halogeton) poisoning of sheep: certain physiopathologic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littledike, E T; James, L; Cook, H

    1976-06-01

    Certain clinical changes associated with acute oxalate (halogeton) poisoning were determined in sheep given (by stomach tube into the rumen) a lethal dose of Halogeton glomeratus. Plasma concentrations of calcium and calcium ion activity decreased over several hours to such low levels that tetany or coma occurred and death followed. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of calcium did not reflect the degree of hypocalcemia. In 2 pregnant sheep administered halogeton, the plasma concentration of calcium in the fetus did not decrease despite the appearance of severe maternal hypocalcemia. Increases in plasma total inorganic phosphate and magnesium concentrations occurred as the hypocalcemia progressed. Hyperglycemia was often marked as hypocalcemia became severe; however, as hyperglycemia increased, plasma immunoreactive insulin concentrations remained inappropriately low in relation to the plasma concentration of glucose. Intravenous infusion of a calcium solution at this time was associated with marked increase in immunoreactive insulin concentration and a decrease in glucose concentration. Ruminal activity, as measured by frequency and amplitude of contractions of the rumen, was greatly reduced as hypocalcemia progressed. Seemingly, body temperature became lowered as severity of the hypocalcemia progressed. Seemingly, body temperature became lowered as severity of the hypocalcemia increased, as determined by intramuscularly or intraperitoneally implanted temperature telemetry devices. However, the occurrence of tetany and the fleece covering could either modify or reverse this decrease in body temperature.

  16. Crystal structure of dimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2+·HC2O4−·0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH22C2O4 salt and Sn(CH33Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a dimethylammonium cation (Me2NH2+, an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4−, and half a molecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4 situated about an inversion center. From a supramolecular point of view, the three components interact together via hydrogen bonding. The Me2NH2+ cations and the HC2O4− anions are in close proximity through bifurcated N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds, while the HC2O4− anions are organized into infinite chains via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, propagating along the a-axis direction. In addition, the oxalic acid (H2C2O4 molecules play the role of connectors between these chains. Both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of each diacid are involved in four intermolecular interactions with two Me2NH2+ and two HC2O4− ions of four distinct polymeric chains, via two N—H...O and two O—H...O hydrogen bonds, respectively. The resulting molecular assembly can be viewed as a two-dimensional bilayer-like arrangement lying parallel to (010, and reinforced by a C—H...O hydrogen bond.

  17. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmipathi Khandrika

    Full Text Available Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria.

  18. Reaction of Hydrazine Hydrate with Oxalic Acid: Synthesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of oxalic acid with hydrazine hydrate (in appropriate mole ratio) forms the dihydrazinium oxalate under specific experimental condition. The title compound is a molecular salt containing two discrete hydrazinium cations and an oxalate anion. The oxalate anion is perfectly planar and there is a crystallographic ...

  19. CONCENTRATION OF Pu USING OXALATE TYPE CARRIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, D.M.; Black, R.P.S.

    1960-04-19

    A method is given for dissolving and reprecipitating an oxalate carrier precipitate in a carrier precipitation process for separating and recovering plutonium from an aqueous solution. Uranous oxalate, together with plutonium being carried thereby, is dissolved in an aqueous alkaline solution. Suitable alkaline reagents are the carbonates and oxulates of the alkali metals and ammonium. An oxidizing agent selected from hydroxylamine and hydrogen peroxide is then added to the alkaline solution, thereby oxidizing uranium to the hexavalent state. The resulting solution is then acidified and a source of uranous ions provided in the acidified solution, thereby forming a second plutoniumcarrying uranous oxalate precipitate.

  20. Rejoinder to Lynda Stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    Responds to Lynda Stone's comments on the author's essay on the interpretation of history. Demonstrates the linkages between his argument and those of Stone. Concludes by contesting some of her interpretations of his philosophical forebear, Edmund Husserl, and by pointing to the common objectives of both his and Stone's research. (DSK)

  1. The effect of restrictive bariatric surgery on urinary stone risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semins, Michelle J; Asplin, John R; Steele, Kimberly; Assimos, Dean G; Lingeman, James E; Donahue, Susan; Magnuson, Thomas; Schweitzer, Michael; Matlaga, Brian R

    2010-10-01

    Malabsorptive bariatric procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) place patients at risk for developing kidney stones. Stone risk factors after purely restrictive procedures such as gastric banding and sleeve gastrectomy are not well characterized. Therefore, we performed a study to examine urinary risk factors of patients who underwent restrictive gastric surgery for bariatric indications. A total of 18 patients were enrolled in the study; 14 underwent gastric banding and 4 underwent sleeve gastrectomy. All subjects collected 24-hour urine specimens; at least 6 months had elapsed between surgery and urine collection. Standard stone risk parameters were assessed, and comparisons were made with a group of normal adult nonstone-formers, routine stone-formers, and RYGB bariatric surgery subjects. Urinary oxalate excretion of the restrictive cohort was significantly less than the RYGB cohort (35.4 vs. 60.7 mg/d; P stone-formers (37.2 mg/d; P = .997). There were no other significant differences in urinary parameters. Restrictive bariatric surgery does not appear to be associated with an increased risk for kidney stone disease. In particular, urinary oxalate levels were significantly less than those of RYGB subjects and not significantly different from routine stone-formers and nonstone-forming controls. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Artificial photosynthesis of oxalate and oxalate-based polymer by a photovoltaic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Guangzai; Chen, Shan; Xu, Yuanjin; Huang, Lijie; Zou, Qingsong; Li, Shiqiang; Mo, Haitao; Zhu, Pingchuan; Cen, Weijian; Wang, Shuangfei

    2014-01-06

    A photovoltaic reactor was designed for artificial photosynthesis, based on the reactions involved in high energy hydrogen atoms, which were produced from water electrolysis. Water and CO2, under the conditions studied, were converted to oxalate (H2C2O4) and a polymer. This was the first time that the oxalates and oxalate-based polymer were produced from the artificial photosynthesis process.

  3. GENETIC BASIS OF RENAL CELLULAR DYSFUNCTION AND THE FORMATION OF KIDNEY STONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed R.; Canales, Benjamin K.

    2013-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a result of formation and retention of crystals within the kidneys. The driving force behind crystal formation is urinary supersaturation with respect to the stone forming salts, which means that crystals form when the concentrations of participating ions are higher than the thermodynamic solubility for that salt. Levels of supersaturation are kept low and under control by proper functioning of a variety of cells including those that line the renal tubules. It is our hypothesis that crystal deposition i.e. formation and retention in the kidneys, is a result of impaired cellular function, which may be intrinsic and inherent or triggered by external stimuli and challenges. Cellular impairment or dysfunction affects the supersaturation, by influencing the excretion of participating ions such as calcium, oxalate and citrate and causing hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria or hypocitraturia. The production and excretion of macromolecular promoters and inhibitors of crystallization is also dependent upon proper functioning of the renal epithelial cells. Insufficient or ineffective crystallization modulators such as osteopontin (OPN), Tamm Horsfall protein (THP), bikunin (BK) etc are most likely produced by the impaired cells. PMID:19517103

  4. Acúmulo de ácido oxálico e cristais de cálcio em ectomicorrizas de eucalipto.: I- produção de ácido oxálico e concentração de nutrientes em raízes laterais finas colonizadas por fungos ectomicorrízicos Accumulation of oxalic acid and calcium crystals in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas.: I- oxalic acid production and nutrient concentration in fine lateral roots colonized with ectomicorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Alexander Zambrano Gonzalez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O eucalipto apresenta ótimo crescimento em solo com baixa fertilidade, mas pouco se sabe sobre a participação das ectomicorrizas e de ácidos orgânicos na aquisição e no acúmulo de nutrientes pela planta em campo. A produção de ácido oxálico e sua relação com as concentrações de P, Ca, Mg e K foram avaliadas em ectomicorrizas e raízes laterais finas de híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, de 2,5 anos de idade, na região de Viçosa, MG. A área de estudo apresenta topografia típica em meia laranja, de vertente côncavo-convexa. Foram também avaliadas as concentrações desse composto no solo rizosférico, não rizosférico e ectomicorrizosférico. As maiores percentagens de colonização micorrízica foram observadas na área de encosta, onde havia limitada disponibilidade de nutrientes e alta saturação de Al. As concentrações de ácido oxálico + oxalato corresponderam, em mg kg-1: folhas, 324,6; ectomicorrizas, 208,3; raízes laterais finas não colonizadas, 183,1. Já no solo, as concentrações foram maiores no solo ectomicorrizosférico, com 183,7 mg kg-1, seguido pelo solo rizosférico, com 134,3 mg kg-1, e pelo solo não rizosférico, com 76,0 mg kg-1. As maiores concentrações de ácido oxálico e P (p Eucalypt is highly efficient at growing in nutrient-poor soils, but little is known about the role of ectomycorrhizas and organic acids in nutrient uptake and storage under field conditions. Oxalic acid production and its relationships with Ca, P, K, and Mg concentrations were evaluated in the ectomycorrhizas and fine lateral roots of a 2.5 year-old Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid grown in a mountainous area at Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Oxalic acid concentrations were also evaluated in rhizospheric, non-rhizospheric, and ectomycorhizospheric soil. Mycorrhizal colonization was highest in a slope area with limited nutrient availability and high Al saturation. The oxalic acid concentration

  5. Chaga mushroom-induced oxalate nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yuko; Seta, Koichi; Ogawa, Yayoi; Takayama, Tatsuya; Nagata, Masao; Taguchi, Takashi; Yahata, Kensei

    2014-06-01

    Chaga mushrooms have been used in folk and botanical medicine as a remedy for cancer, gastritis, ulcers, and tuberculosis of the bones. A 72-year-old Japanese female had been diagnosed with liver cancer 1 year prior to presenting at our department. She underwent hepatectomy of the left lobe 3 months later. Chaga mushroom powder (4 - 5 teaspoons per day) had been ingested for the past 6 months for liver cancer. Renal function decreased and hemodialysis was initiated. Renal biopsy specimens showed diffuse tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Oxalate crystals were detected in the tubular lumina and urinary sediment and oxalate nephropathy was diagnosed. Chaga mushrooms contain extremely high oxalate concentrations. This is the first report of a case of oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of Chaga mushrooms.

  6. Using Hounsfield unit measurement and urine parameters to predict uric acid stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spettel, Sara; Shah, Paras; Sekhar, Kiran; Herr, Allen; White, Mark D

    2013-07-01

    To determine the in vivo ability to predict uric acid stone composition by Hounsfield units (HU) with the addition of urine parameters. We reviewed all consecutive stones sent for analysis during a 4-year period from our institution for patients with an in-house computed tomography (CT) scan within the prior 6 months and urinalysis within the prior week. CT scans were independently reviewed by a radiologist blinded to stone composition. Of the 507 patients with stones sent for analysis, 235 met the criteria for inclusion. Analysis showed 212 stones were predominantly calcium-based, and 22 were predominantly uric acid in composition. There was a significant difference between calcium stones and uric acid stones in mean HU (890 ± 20 vs 484 ± 44; P 4 mm. Uric acid stones show a significant difference in HU and urine pH from calcium stones, and the use of both criteria is superior to either separately. For a stone >4 mm, a HU ≤500 and pH ≤5.5 has a positive predictive value of 90% for uric acid composition. Our prediction model gives a straightforward tool that can be easily measured to predict a uric acid stone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic metabolic acidosis reduces urinary oxalate excretion and promotes intestinal oxalate secretion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittamore, Jonathan M; Hatch, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Urinary oxalate excretion is reduced in rats during a chronic metabolic acidosis, but how this is achieved is not clear. In this report, we re-examine our prior work on the effects of a metabolic acidosis on urinary oxalate handling [Green et al., Am J Physiol Ren Physiol 289(3):F536-F543, 2005], offering a more detailed analysis and interpretation of the data, together with new, previously unpublished observations revealing a marked impact on intestinal oxalate transport. Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with 0.28 M ammonium chloride in their drinking water for either 4 or 14 days followed by 24 h urine collections, blood-gas and serum ion analysis, and measurements of (14)C-oxalate fluxes across isolated segments of the distal colon. Urinary oxalate excretion was significantly reduced by 75% after just 4 days compared to control rats, and this was similarly sustained at 14 days. Oxalate:creatinine clearance ratios indicated enhanced net re-absorption of oxalate by the kidney during a metabolic acidosis, but this was not associated with any substantive changes to serum oxalate levels. In the distal colon, oxalate transport was dramatically altered from net absorption in controls (6.20 ± 0.63 pmol cm(-2) h(-1)), to net secretion in rats with a metabolic acidosis (-5.19 ± 1.18 and -2.07 ± 1.05 pmol cm(-2) h(-1) at 4 and 14 days, respectively). Although we cannot rule out modifications to bi-directional oxalate movements along the proximal tubule, these findings support a gut-kidney axis in the management of oxalate homeostasis, where this shift in renal handling during a metabolic acidosis is associated with compensatory adaptations by the intestine.

  8. Further Studies on Oxalic Acid Biosynthesis in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Richard F.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1978-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid functions as a precursor of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulating plants. The present study extends this observation to include Rumex crispus L. (curly dock), Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red root pigweed), Chenopodium album L. (lamb's-quarters), Beta vulgaris L. (sugar beet), Halogeton glomeratus M. Bieb. (halogeton), and Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb). Several species with low oxalate content are also examined. When l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid is supplied to young seedlings of R. crispus or H. glomeratus, a major portion of the 14C is released over a 24-hour period as 14CO2 and only a small portion is recovered as [14C]oxalate, unlike cuttings from 2- or 4-month-old plants which retain a large part of the 14C as [14C]oxalic acid and release very little 14CO2. Support for an intermediate role of oxalate in the release of 14CO2 from l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid is seen in the rapid release of 14CO2 by R. crispus and H. glomeratus seedlings labeled with [14C]oxalic acid. The common origin of oxalic acid carbon in the C1 and C2 fragment from l-ascorbic acid is demonstrated by comparison of 14C content of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulators after cuttings or seedlings are supplied equal amounts of l-[1-14C]- or l-[UL-14C]ascorbic acid. Theoretically, l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid will produce labeled oxalic acid containing three times as much 14C as l-[UL-14C]ascorbic acid when equal amounts of label are provided. Experimentally, a ratio of 2.7 ± 0.5 is obtained in duplicate experiments with six different species. PMID:16660342

  9. Further Studies on Oxalic Acid Biosynthesis in Oxalate-accumulating Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, R F; Loewus, F A

    1978-04-01

    l-Ascorbic acid functions as a precursor of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulating plants. The present study extends this observation to include Rumex crispus L. (curly dock), Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red root pigweed), Chenopodium album L. (lamb's-quarters), Beta vulgaris L. (sugar beet), Halogeton glomeratus M. Bieb. (halogeton), and Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb). Several species with low oxalate content are also examined.When l-[1-(14)C]ascorbic acid is supplied to young seedlings of R. crispus or H. glomeratus, a major portion of the (14)C is released over a 24-hour period as (14)CO(2) and only a small portion is recovered as [(14)C]oxalate, unlike cuttings from 2- or 4-month-old plants which retain a large part of the (14)C as [(14)C]oxalic acid and release very little (14)CO(2). Support for an intermediate role of oxalate in the release of (14)CO(2) from l-[1-(14)C]ascorbic acid is seen in the rapid release of (14)CO(2) by R. crispus and H. glomeratus seedlings labeled with [(14)C]oxalic acid.The common origin of oxalic acid carbon in the C1 and C2 fragment from l-ascorbic acid is demonstrated by comparison of (14)C content of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulators after cuttings or seedlings are supplied equal amounts of l-[1-(14)C]- or l-[UL-(14)C]ascorbic acid. Theoretically, l-[1-(14)C]ascorbic acid will produce labeled oxalic acid containing three times as much (14)C as l-[UL-(14)C]ascorbic acid when equal amounts of label are provided. Experimentally, a ratio of 2.7 +/- 0.5 is obtained in duplicate experiments with six different species.

  10. Improving nutritional quality and fungal tolerance in soya bean and grass pea by expressing an oxalate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Ghosh, Sumit; Irfan, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, β-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme. © 2016 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Histochemical localization and probable functions of calcium oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Julian O. Osuji

    plant tissues by Pizzolato (AgNO3-H2O2) method. Stain Technol. 44:257-259. Stace CA (1980). Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics. Edward Arnold,. London. Tilton VR (1978). A developmental and histochemical study of the female reproductive system in Ornithogalum caudatum Ait. Using light and electron microscopy.

  12. Modeling Stone Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Gonzalez, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the main modeling techniques for stone columns, both ordinary stone columns and geosynthetic-encased stone columns. The paper tries to encompass the more recent advances and recommendations in the topic. Regarding the geometrical model, the main options are the "unit cell", longitudinal gravel trenches in plane strain conditions, cylindrical rings of gravel in axial symmetry conditions, equivalent homogeneous soil with improved properties and three-dimensional models, eith...

  13. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Prieto, Rafel M

    2006-01-01

    Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins) and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine) is discussed. PMID:16956397

  14. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Rafel M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine is discussed.

  15. Managing caliceal stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J Gross

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural course of untreated asymptomatic caliceal calculi has not been clearly defined, especially in terms of disease progression, and the indications for and outcomes of surgical intervention are not precise. Caliceal stones may remain asymptomatic but, in case of migration, ureteral calculi can cause acute ureteric colic with severe complications. The decision for an active treatment of caliceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the European Association of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of caliceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate stone removal is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR after ESWL depend on stone site and composition and, especially for lower pole calculi, the SFR differ widely from other caliceal stones. Minimally-invasive procedures including percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of caliceal stones, associated with low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centers of excellence.

  16. In vivo determination of renal stone composition with dual-energy computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-Henry Corbett

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composition of renal stones influences management of patients with renal stone disease. Currently stone composition can only be analysed ex vivo after stone extraction or passage, but recent introduction of dual-energy computed tomography (CT to clinical practice has raised interest in the ability of this technology to determine composition of renal stones in vivo.Objectives: To determine renal stone composition in patients using single-source dual-energy rapid-peak kilovolt (kVp switching CT.Method: Nineteen patients with renal stones for percutaneous nephrolithotomy were evaluated with single-source dual-energy computed tomography on a Discovery CT 750HD. The Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI effective atomic number (Zeff and attenuation at 70 keV monochromatic energy were used to predict the stone composition. Infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction of stones after extraction served as the reference standard.Results: Two (10.5% of the 19 stones had uric acid as major component. The other 17 (89.5% were calcium-based stones. No statistically significant difference between the GSI Zeff and calculated effective atomic number (Z for stone compounds was found. The GSI Zeff and attenuation could differentiate between uric acid and non-uric acid stones. No differentiation between different calcium stones could be made.Conclusion: Uric acid and non-uric acid renal stones can be differentiated with single-source dual-energy in vivo. The GSI Zeff reflects the dominant material in polycrystalline stones.

  17. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration

  18. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000135.htm Kidney stones - self-care To use the sharing features on ... you how to do this. What is a Kidney Stone? A kidney stone is a solid piece of ...

  19. The distribution of free calcium ions in the cholesteatoma epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Rasmussen, Gurli; Ottosen, Peter D

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of free calcium ions in normal skin and cholesteatoma epithelium was investigated using the oxalate precipitation method. In agreement with previous observations, we could demonstrate a calcium ion gradient in normal epidermis where the cells in stratum basale and spinosum reside...

  20. Chemical and morphological analysis of kidney stones: a double-blind comparative study Análise química e morfológica de cálculos renais: estudo comparativo duplo-cego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fernandes Ribeiro da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare chemical to morphological kidney stone composition analysis based on a sample of 50 stones retrieved from patients at a nephrology service. METHODS: The chemical analysis was performed with a Bioclin® kit, while a 10-mm magnifying glass (10x; Prolabo, Paris, France was employed in the morphological analysis. Findings obtained with the two methods were compared and classified as concordant (100% agreement, partly concordant (concordant for major components, discordant for minor components or discordant (discordant for major components. RESULTS: In the chemical analysis, the most commonly observed major component was calcium (70%, followed by oxalate (66%, ammonium (56%, urate (28% and carbonate (24%. In the morphological analysis, the most commonly observed major components were calcium phosphate and magnesium (32% each, followed by calcium oxalate monohydrate (24%, uric acid and urates (20% each, calcium oxalate dihydrate (18% and cystine (6%. Infectious kidney stones were identified in 34% and 24% of cases by morphological and chemical analysis, respectively. Thirty-eight percent of the samples were classified as concordant, 52% were partly concordant and 10% were discordant. CONCLUSION: We suggest kidney stones be routinely submitted to both types of analysis for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in lithogenesis.OBJETIVO: Comparar a análise química com a análise morfológica de 50 cálculos urinários provenientes de pacientes em um serviço de nefrologia. MÉTODOS: A análise química foi realizada utilizando o kit da Bioclin®, enquanto que a morfológica foi realizada com auxílio de uma lupa de 10mm (Prolabo, Paris, France. A comparação entre as técnicas foi classificada em concordante (100% de concordância, parcialmente concordante (componentes majoritários concordantes e minoritários discordantes e discordante (discordância nos componentes majoritários. RESULTADOS: Na análise química os

  1. Lower pole stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanguedolce, Francesco; Breda, Alberto; Millan, Felix

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess efficacy and safety of prone- and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of lower pole kidney stones. METHODS: Data from patients affected by lower pole kidney stones and treated with PCNL between December 2005 and August 2010 were collected retrospectively...

  2. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some delicate nerves and fibres in the surrounding areas of the stones present in the kidney are also damaged by high ultrasonic intensity used in such systems. In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavitation bubbles are found to implode faster, with more ...

  3. Computational and experimental studies on oxalic acid imprinted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oxalic acid specific bulk polymer was obtained by the thermal initiated free radical co-polymerization of acrylamide and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate with oxalic acid as template and acetonitrile as porogen. The synthesized MIP efficiently adsorbed oxalic acid from aqueous solutions. The binding parameters ofMIP and ...

  4. Everybody Must Get Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Darvill

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely recognised that monument building in the fourth and third millennia cal BC often involved transporting selected blocks of preferred stone many kilometres over difficult terrain. Some structures incorporated blocks from several different sources, brought together as an ensemble in much the same way perhaps that assemblages of flint and stone axes reflect both local and distant sources. This article explores alternative models accounting for the selection of stones, contrasting those that foreground symbolic attachments and imposed meanings with those that focus on the intrinsic qualities of particular types of stone and their source. The assemblage of different stone types that accumulated at Stonehenge, Wiltshire, over a period of more than a thousand years is used as a case study.

  5. Renoscintigram in urinary stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egawa, Shin; Lee, Kanei; Ikeda, Shigeru; Ishibashi, Akira (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-05-01

    Seventy six patients who suffered from urinary stones on either side of the upper urinary tract were reviewed. The 99m-Tc DTPA renoscintigram was analyzed to examine whether stasis presented on the contralateral side of the urinary stone retrospectively. Though excretory urogram showed neither apparant stasis nor other abnormalities on the contralateral sides, 55 of these 76 cases showed stasis to some degree in the renoscintigram. Thirty five of these 55 cases also showed elongation of T1/2 in the ROI curve. Since 72.4% showed urinary stasis on the contralateral side of the urinary stone, we suggest the possibility that stasis can well be a cause of stone formation. In addition we warn of the possibility of future stone formation on the now healthy contralateral side.

  6. Calcium and silicon mineralization in land plants: transport, structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Petra; Elbaum, Rivka; Weiss, Ingrid M

    2011-06-01

    Plant biomineralization involves calcium and silicon transport and mineralization. Respective analytical methods and case studies are listed. Calcium carbonate is deposited in cystoliths, calcium oxalate in idioblasts. Silicon is deposited in phytoliths. Biomineralization is a coordinated process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Single Large Bladder Stone in a Young Male Adult with Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Halalsheh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bladder stones are caused when minerals are built up in the bladder, especially if the bladder is incompletely emptied. These stones will pass while they are small. Otherwise, they get stuck to the bladder wall or ureter. If this happens, they gradually gather more mineral crystals, becoming larger over time. Primary hyperparathyroidism is usually caused by a tumor within the parathyroid gland, and elevated calcium levels can cause digestive symptoms, psychiatric abnormalities, bone disease and multiple kidney stones.

  8. Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ammonium oxalate on the prevalence of microorganisms and removal of aluminum in soil by bitter leaf plant (Vernonia amygdalina). The test plant was sown in aluminium-polluted soil (conc. = 150mg Al kg-1 soil). One gram of each ...

  9. Screening of indigenous oxalate degrading lactic acid bacteria from human faeces and South Indian fermented foods: assessment of probiotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathi, Sivasamy; Sasikumar, Ponnusamy; Anbazhagan, Kolandaswamy; Sasikumar, Sundaresan; Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M S; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria.

  10. Screening of Indigenous Oxalate Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Faeces and South Indian Fermented Foods: Assessment of Probiotic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivasamy Gomathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5, 6.71% (AB1, and 9.3% (AB11 which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria.

  11. Diagnosis of rare inherited glyoxalate metabolic disorders through in-situ analysis of renal stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, D. E.; Grohe, B.; Hoppe, B.; Beck, B. B.; Tessadri, R.

    2012-04-01

    The primary hyperoxalurias type I - III constitute rare autosomal-recessive inherited disorders of the human glyoxylate metabolism. By mechanisms that are ill understood progressive nephrocalcinosis and recurrent urolithiasis (kidney stone formation) often starting in early childhood, along with their secondary complications results in loss of nephron mass which progresses to end-stage renal failure over time. In the most frequent form, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the rule and combined liver/kidney transplantation respectively pre-emptive liver transplantation are the only causative treatment today. Hence, this contributes significantly to healthcare costs and early diagnosis is extremely important for a positive outcome for the patient. We are developing a stone-based diagnostic method by in-detail multi-methods investigation of the crystalline moiety in concert with urine and stone proteomics. Stone analysis will allow faster analysis at low-impact for the patients in the early stages of the disease. First results from combined spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR)and geochemical micro-analyses (Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation ICP-MS) are presented here that show significant differences between stones from hyperoxaluria patients and those formed by patients without this disorder (idiopathic stones). Major differences exist in chemistry as well as in morphology and phase composition of the stones. Ca/P ratios and Mg contents differentiate between oxalate-stones from hyperoxaluria patients and idiopathic stones. Results show that also within the different subtypes of primary hyperoxaluria significant differences can be found in stone composition. These imply differences in stone formation which could be exploited for new therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, the results provide important feedback for suspected but yet unconfirmed cases of primary hyperoxaluria when used in concert with the genetic methods routinely applied.

  12. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle. Drinking lots of sugary, caffeinated , or sports drinks and eating a diet high in sodium (salt) ... in their diet limit consumption of soda/soft/sports drinks If dietary changes fail to prevent kidney stones, ...

  13. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  14. Fire effects on flaked stone, ground stone, and other stone artifacts [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Deal

    2012-01-01

    Lithic artifacts can be divided into two broad classes, flaked stone and ground stone, that overlap depending on the defining criteria. For this discussion, flaked stone is used to describe objects that cut, scrape, pierce, saw, hack, etch, drill, or perforate, and the debris (debitage) created when these items are manufactured. Objects made of flaked stone include...

  15. Nanobacteria: An Infectious Cause for Salivary Stone Formation and Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A El Badry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanobacteria (NB contribute to pathological calcification in the human and animal body. It has been isolated from salivary stones and suggested that it may act as a nucleus for the initiation of these stones. In the present study, we examined its role in the recurrent salivary gland stones using immunodetection with NB-specific monoclonal antibodies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM hoping to provide a method for preventing the recurrence of these stones in the patient that has suffered from salivary stones. Our study comprised 30 patients with recurrent salivary gland stones (group I and 30 patients with salivary gland stones for the first time (group II, in addition to 30 normal controls (group III. We could detect 100–500 nm nanoparticles in 24/30 (80% cases in group I with significant difference <0.05 and <0.01 when compared with group II and group III in which they were detected in 19/30 (63.3% and 6/30 (20% respectively. Also there was a significant difference <0.05 between group II and group III. We proposed that salivary stone formation is a nanobacterial disease initiated by bacterial infection. This bacteria may play an important role in the recurrence of salivary stone. So the use of calcium chelator, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, before or in combination with the suitable antibiotic that is given in an amount effective to inhibit or prevent the growth and development of nanobacteria may eradicate these stones and prevent their recurrence.

  16. Incidence and Distribution of Pulp Stones Found in Radiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of irritation by the microorganisms of dental caries on the pulpal tissue can cause a vascular wall injury, resulting in the deposition of calcium salts within the tissue.[5] Others are orthodontic tooth movement, idiopathic and genetic predisposing factors.[2]. Pulp stones appear radiographically as round or ovoid opacities.

  17. Measurement of calcium content of gallstones by computed tomography and the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Masashi; Tamasawa, Naoki; Takebe, Kazuo (Hirosaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Makino, Isao; Sakuraba, Kiyoshi; Tamura, Toyokazu

    1990-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones, we studied gallbladder contractility by oral cholecystography, the computed tomography (CT) number of stones for 30 gallstone patients, calcium content of 13 stones operatively extirpated, and the degree of inflammatory change in 13 surgical gallbladder specimens. There was significant correlation between the calcium content and CT numbers of stones, and 1% of the calcium content of gallstone was approximately equal to 40 Hounsfield Units (HU) of the CT number. The calcium content of stones in patients with normal gallbladder contractility was extrapolated to be below 1.5%, while that with poor contractility ranged from 0% to 21%. Additionally there is a possibility that calcium content increases, related to the inflammatory change of gallbladder. Hence our results suggested that measurement of the CT number of stones is useful to evaluate the calcium content of gallstones, and that the gallbladder contractility could be one of the factors to influence calcification of stones. (author).

  18. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Bo Jensen; Carol Clausen; Frederick Green

    2006-01-01

    The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, is one of the most destructive copper-tolerant fungi causing timber decay in buildings in temperate regions. Calcium and oxalic acid have been shown to play important roles in the mechanism of wood decay. The effect of calcium on growth and decay was evaluated for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi....

  19. 2-Amino-3-nitropyridinium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Akriche

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the non-centrosymetric title compound, C5H6N3O2+·C2HO4−, the hydrogen oxalate anions form corrugated chains parallel to the c axis, linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The 2-amino-3-nitropyridinium cations are anchored between theses chains by N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds and van der Waals and electrostatic interactions, creating a three-dimensional network.

  20. Biotransformation of manganese oxides by fungi: solubilization and production of manganese oxalate biominerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhan; Hillier, Stephen; Gadd, Geoffrey M

    2012-07-01

    The ability of the soil fungi Aspergillus niger and Serpula himantioides to tolerate and solubilize manganese oxides, including a fungal-produced manganese oxide and birnessite, was investigated. Aspergillus niger and S. himantioides were capable of solubilizing all the insoluble oxides when incorporated into solid medium: MnO(2) and Mn(2) O(3) , mycogenic manganese oxide (MnO(x) ) and birnessite [(Na(0.3) Ca(0.1) K(0.1) )(Mn(4+) ,Mn(3+) )(2) O(4) ·1.5H(2) O]. Manganese oxides were of low toxicity and A. niger and S. himantioides were able to grow on 0.5% (w/v) of all the test compounds, with accompanying acidification of the media. Precipitation of insoluble manganese and calcium oxalate occurred under colonies growing on agar amended with all the test manganese oxides after growth of A. niger and S. himantioides at 25°C. The formation of manganese oxalate trihydrate was detected after growth of S. himantioides with birnessite which subsequently was transformed to manganese oxalate dihydrate. Our results represent a novel addition to our knowledge of the biogeochemical cycle of manganese, and the roles of fungi in effecting transformations of insoluble metal-containing compounds in the environment. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Urinary pH as a Risk Factor for Stone Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2007-04-01

    A high urinary pH is main risk factor for the calcium phosphate stone formation; however, its pathophysiologic mechanism has not been fully understood. The introduction of Topiramate in the treatment of various neurological disorders has been complicated by metabolic acidosis, significant hypocitraturia, elevated urinary pH, and calcium phosphate stone formation. This model provides a probe to investigate the pathophysiologic mechanism of calcium phosphate stone formation and perhaps to develop appropriate countermeasures in the future. On the other hand an unduly acidic urine predisposes one to uric acid nephrolithiasis. Our recent investigation linking low urinary pH, and defective renal ammoniagenesis to insulin resistance provides new knowledge to unfold the pathophysiology of uric acid nephrolithiasis. The metabolic profile leading to uric acid stone may emerge as one of the components of metabolic syndrome.

  2. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  3. Fasting and urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  4. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of zinc oxalate nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roushani, Mahmoud [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Ilam University, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi [Faculty of Material and Manufacturing Technologies, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of zinc oxalate nanoparticles via electrolysis of a zinc plate anode in sodium oxalate solutions. ► Design of a Taguchi orthogonal array to identify the optimal experimental conditions. ► Controlling the size and shape of particles via applied voltage and oxalate concentration. ► Characterization of zinc oxalate nanoparticles by SEM, UV–vis, FT-IR and TG–DTA. - Abstract: A rapid, clean and simple electrodeposition method was designed for the synthesis of zinc oxalate nanoparticles. Zinc oxalate nanoparticles in different size and shapes were electrodeposited by electrolysis of a zinc plate anode in sodium oxalate aqueous solutions. It was found that the size and shape of the product could be tuned by electrolysis voltage, oxalate ion concentration, and stirring rate of electrolyte solution. A Taguchi orthogonal array design was designed to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The morphological characterization of the product was carried out by scanning electron microscopy. UV–vis and FT-IR spectroscopies were also used to characterize the electrodeposited nanoparticles. The TG–DTA studies of the nanoparticles indicated that the main thermal degradation occurs in two steps over a temperature range of 350–430 °C. In contrast to the existing methods, the present study describes a process which can be easily scaled up for the production of nano-sized zinc oxalate powder.

  5. SYNTHESIS OF EXPANDER TO PREVENT CONTRACTION OF CEMENT STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenova Aurika Almazovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the results of studies of the use of additives containing crystallization components significantly affecting the curing of cement, improving the structure of cement stone and concrete. The crystalline component is obtained using the rotary-pulse unit, which provides not only the grinding of agents, but their interaction with each other as well in order to accelerate the hydration and structure formation in cement stone. The degree, and kinetics of hydration, the composition of hydrated phases, the structure of the additives and cement stone was studied using the following methods: x-ray diffraction (XRD, differential thermal analysis (DTA, scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mechanical properties of cement were determined by standard methods and techniques. The expander produced by means of hydrodynamic activation of the sulfoaluminate clinker (SAC consists of ettringite and hydrated calcium silicates, which are characterized by high dispersion rate (less than 10 µm and reactivity as the seed for the crystallization of hydrated compounds. The introduction of the ultrafine additives of the crystalline SAC (within 1-5% was discovered to cause expansion of the cement stone. Implementation of the additives increases cement hydration and contributes to the formation of active centers of crystallization that lead to the fast formation of ettringite, hydrated calcium aluminates and calcium silicates. The activated crystalline additive provides for significant reduction of porosity, initial curing, and high strength of cement stone. In addition, the additive is an expansive component, forming needle-like crystals of ettringite during hydration. These microcrystals grow in the capillaries of cement stone, filling them, and create conditions for improving the crack resistance of cement concrete.

  6. Metal dependence of oxalate decarboxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, Ellen W; Angerhofer, Alexander; Moussatche, Patricia; Ozarowski, Andrew; García-Rubio, Inés; Richards, Nigel G J

    2009-07-07

    Bacillus subtilis oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) catalyzes the conversion of oxalate into CO(2) and formate. The enzyme is composed of two cupin domains, each of which contains a Mn(II) ion. Although there is general agreement that Mn(II) in the N-terminal domain mediates OxDC-catalyzed decarboxylation, legitimate questions have been raised concerning the function (if any) of the Mn(II) bound in the C-terminal cupin domain. We have investigated this problem using a series of OxDC mutants in which Mn(II) binding is perturbed by mutagenesis of Glu-101 and Glu-280, which coordinate the metal in the N-terminal and C-terminal domains, respectively. We now demonstrate that decarboxylase activity and total manganese content are sensitive to modifications in either metal-binding glutamate residue. These findings, in combination with EPR measurements, raise the possibility that the C-terminal Mn(II) center can catalyze the decarboxylation reaction. Further support for this conclusion has been provided from a combination of in vivo and in vitro strategies for preparing wild-type OxDC in which Mn(II) is incorporated to a variety of extents. Kinetic characterization of these variants shows that OxDC activity is linearly correlated with manganese content, as might be expected if both sites can catalyze the breakdown of oxalate into formate and CO(2). These studies also represent the first unequivocal demonstration that OxDC activity is uniquely mediated by manganese.

  7. Metal Dependence of Oxalate Decarboxylase Activity†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, Ellen W.; Angerhofer, Alexander; Moussatche, Patricia; Ozarowski, Andrew; García-Rubio, Inés; Richards, Nigel G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) catalyzes the conversion of oxalate into CO2 and formate. The enzyme is composed of two cupin domains, each of which contains a Mn(II) ion. Although there is general agreement that Mn(II) in the N-terminal domain mediates OxDC-catalyzed decarboxylation, legitimate questions have been raised concerning the function (if any) of the Mn(II) bound in the C-terminal cupin domain. We have investigated this problem using a series of OxDC mutants in which Mn(II) binding is perturbed by mutagenesis of Glu-101 and Glu-280, which coordinate the metal in the N-terminal and C-terminal domains, respectively. We now demonstrate that decarboxylase activity and total manganese content are sensitive to modifications in either metal-binding glutamate residue. These findings, in combination with EPR measurements, raise the possibility that the C-terminal Mn(II) center can catalyze the decarboxylation reaction. Further support for this conclusion has been provided from a combination of in vivo and in vitro strategies for preparing wild-type OxDC in which Mn(II) is incorporated to a variety of extents. Kinetic characterization of these variants shows that OxDC activity is linearly correlated with manganese content, as might be expected if both sites can catalyze the breakdown of oxalate into formate and CO2. These studies also represent the first unequivocal demonstration that OxDC activity is uniquely mediated by manganese. PMID:19473032

  8. The accuracy of noncontrast spiral computerized tomography in detecting lucent renal stones: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Adwan, Ayman; Binsaleh, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Renal stones are one of the most common diseases in the urology field that are easily diagnosed by one of the standard imaging techniques. Noncontrast spiral computerized tomography (CT) can detect up to 95% of the renal, ureteric and bladder stones, especially those with calcium composition, and considered nowadays one of the most accurate methods for detecting undetectable stones by other modalities. We report a case of a 60-year-old female who presented with colicky right flank pain due to...

  9. Crystal structure of (ferrocenylmethyldimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Ndiaye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title salt, [Fe(C5H5(C8H13N](HC2O4, consists of discrete (ferrocenylmethyldimethylammonium cations and hydrogen oxalate anions. The anions are connected through a strong O—H...O hydrogen bond, forming linear chains running parallel to [100]. The cations are linked to the anions through bifurcated N—H...(O,O′ hydrogen bonds. Weak C—H...π interactions between neighbouring ferrocenyl moieties are also observed.

  10. URINARY STONES IN CHIULDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philip

    procedures such as ureteroscopic, cystoscopic and nephroroscopic lithitomy are commonly used to treat stones in children especially in the developed countries. These techniques may be used alone or together with ESWL. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is also a popular treatment option; recently laser has also been used ...

  11. Challenging Case: Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Mark S; Ziemba, Justin B; Matlaga, Brian R; Monga, Manoj

    2016-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman presents to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident, and a CT scan revealed no injuries but incidentally notes three non-obstructing stones in the left kidney of 3, 4, and 5 mm in size. She is completely asymptomatic and has no history of urolithiasis.

  12. When Stones Teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucier, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

  13. Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made up of tiny crystals. You had a medical procedure called lithotripsy to break up the kidney stones. This article gives you advice on what to expect and how to take care of yourself after the procedure. When You're ...

  14. Charge dynamics in conducting polyaniline–metal oxalate composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    between the conductivities and EPR parameters such as line width and peak ratio, which demonstrated that both mobile and ... nate(III) (TOAl). 2.2 Synthesis of Pani and its composites with metal oxalate. Pani and its composites with metal oxalate complexes were prepared with 0⋅1 M aniline at room temperature by in situ ...

  15. Reaction of Hydrazine Hydrate with Oxalic Acid: Synthesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2013-11-28

    Nov 28, 2013 ... and one hydrazinium ion. KEY WORDS. Hydrazine, oxalic acid, dihydrazinium oxalate, crystal structure. 1. Introduction. Hydrazine, a weaker base than ammonia, is a diacidic base that forms N2H5. + [hydrazinium (+1)] and N2H6. 2+ [hydrazinium (+2)] ionic salts with mineral as well as carboxylic acids.

  16. spectrophotometric determination of trace oxalic acid with zirconium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the property that oxalic acid has the effect on the replacement of dibromochloroarsenazo in zirconium(IV)-dibromochloroarsenazo complex to produce hyperchromic effects in 1.26 M hydrochloric acid medium, a novel method for the determination of trace oxalic acid by spectrophotometry was developed.

  17. Hydrogen bonding in oxalic acid and its complexes: A database ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The basic result of carboxylic group that the oxygen atom of the –OH never seems to be a hydrogen bond acceptor is violated in the cases, namely urea oxalic acid and bis urea oxalic acid complexes, where the hydroxyl oxygen atom is an acceptor of a weak N–H... O hydrogen bond. The parameters of this hydrogen bond, ...

  18. Oxalate Synthesis and Pyrolysis: A Colorful Introduction to Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Michael W.; Richards-Babb, Michelle; Sweeney, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxalate synthesis and pyrolysis provides an opportunity for students to (i) learn stoichiometry, (ii) experience the consequences of proper stoichiometric calculations and experimental techniques, and (iii) be introduced to the relevance of chemistry by highlighting oxalates in context, for example, usages and health effects. At our…

  19. The effect of processing and preservation methods on the oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of processing and preservation methods on the oxalate levels of some Nigerian leafy vegetables. ... decanted water. Boiling and then discarding the water used for boiling vegetables provides a good means of reducing the oxalate content of leafy vegetables and consequently the associated food safety problems.

  20. Biochemical effects in normal and stone forming rats treated with the ripe kernel juice of plantain (musa paradisiaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V K; Baskar, R; Varalakshmi, P

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Musa paradisiaca stem kernel juice was investigated in experimental urolithiatic rats. Stone forming rats exhibited a significant elevation in the activities of two oxalate synthesizing enzymes - Glycollic acid oxidase and Lactate dehydrogenase. Deposition and excretion of stone forming constituents in kidney and urine were also increased in these rats. The enzyme activities and the level of crystalline components were lowered with the extract treatment. The extract also reduced the activities of urinary alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, r-glutamyl transferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and β-glucuronidase in calculogenic rats. No appreciable changes were noticed with leucine amino peptidase activity in treated rats.

  1. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy rabbits were allocated to two groups. Two hours before induction of nephrocalcinosis, one group received water and the other received aqueous extract of corn silk and continued feeding for ten days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis before induction and in the fifth and tenth post-induction day. Urine samples were taken to estimate urinary ca+2 levels and crystals. The histopathological examination was carried to check for crystal deposits in renal tissues. Results: Corn silk aqueous extract produced a significant reduction of blood urea nitrogen(5.2+/-0.08 vs 7.3+/-0.2 mmol/l, serum creatinine (85.9+/-0.2 vs 97.3+/-0.5 mmol/l and serum Na+ levels (137+/-0.2 vs 142.16+/-0.7 mmol/l with non-significant reduction in serum K+ (4.0+/-0.02 vs 4.2+/-0.05. There is a significant reduction in calcium deposition in renal parenchyma in comparison to the control group after ten days of treatment. Conclusion: Corn silk had a significant diuretic effect that accelerates the excretion of urinary calcium. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 75-78

  2. Alterations of thorium oxalate morphology by changing elementary precipitation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrpekl, V.; Beliš, M.; Wangle, T.; Vleugels, J.; Verwerft, M.

    2017-09-01

    Oxalates of actinide elements are widely used in research and industry mainly due to their low solubility in aqueous solution and easy conversion to oxide. Although thorium oxide is worldwide mostly produced by the oxalate precipitation and conversion route, the powder morphology obtained through this process is known to inhibit the packing and sintering step of the pellet production. The presented work investigates the effects of oxalate precipitation conditions on the final powder morphology. Among the precipitation conditions considered are: pH of the thorium feed solution, concentration, temperature and the order of addition (thorium solution in oxalic acid solution and vice versa) known as reverse/direct strike. Herein, we show that the morphology of the final oxalate depends significantly on the above mentioned precipitation parameters.

  3. Investigations of trace and toxic elements of kidney stones from two different Sudanese areas by µ-PIXE using Nuclear Microprobe (NMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisa, M E M; Pineda-Vargas, C A; Salah, Sami E E; Rodgers, A L

    2018-01-01

    In this study 14 kidney stones (oxalate and phosphate stones) collected from two Sudanese hospitals Particle Induced X ray Emission (µ-PIXE). This technique was used to investigate the matrix as well as the trace element compositions of kidney stones on a microscopic scale using 1.5MeV proton energy. Significant differences in elements content across the groups were found by applying statistical methods. Trace elements such as P,Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Br, and Pb showed a possible linear relationship of the mean profile for trace elements for each group of stones. This study shows that micro analysis of urinary stones can provide complementary information on patients' exposure to epidemiological risk factors such as geography, diet and drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Crystal growth methods dedicated to low solubility actinide oxalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamain, C., E-mail: christelle.tamain@cea.fr [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Marcoule, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Arab-Chapelet, B. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Marcoule, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Rivenet, M. [University Lille Nord de France, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Grandjean, S. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Marcoule, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, F. [University Lille Nord de France, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France)

    2016-04-15

    Two novel crystal growth syntheses dedicated to low solubility actinide-oxalate systems and adapted to glove box handling are described. These methods based on the use of precursors of either actinide metal or oxalic acid have been optimized on lanthanide systems (analogue of actinides(III)) and then assessed on real actinide systems. They allow the synthesis of several actinide oxalate single crystals, Am{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}·xH{sub 2}O, Th(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, M{sub 2+x}[Pu{sup IV}{sub 2−x}Pu{sup III}{sub x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 5}]·nH{sub 2}O and M{sub 1−x}[Pu{sup III}{sub 1−x}Pu{sup IV}{sub x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O]·nH{sub 2}O. It is the first time that these well-known compounds are formed by crystal growth methods, thus enabling direct structural studies on transuranic element systems and acquisition of basic data beyond deductions from isomorphic (or not) lanthanide compounds. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction, UV–visible solid spectroscopy, demonstrate the potentialities of these two crystal growth methods to obtain oxalate compounds. - Graphical abstract: Two new single crystal growth methods dedicated to actinide oxalate compounds. - Highlights: • Use of diester as oxalate precursor for crystal growth of actinide oxalates. • Use of actinide oxide as precursor for crystal growth of actinide oxalates. • Crystal growth of Pu(III) and Am(III) oxalates. • Crystal growth of mixed Pu(III)/Pu(IV) oxalates.

  5. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained

  6. [GENETIC RISK FACTORS FOR MULTIPLE KIDNEY STONE FORMATION IN THE RUSSIAN POPULATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolihin, O I; Sivkov, A V; Konstantinova, O V; Slominskij, P A; Tupicyna, T V; Kalinichenko, D N

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the association of multiple kidney stones with polymorphisms of urolithiasis candidate genes in the Russian population. A total of 75 adult patients with multiple stones (the main group) residing in the Central Russia and 189 healthy adults (control group) from the same region underwent genetic testing. The study group consisted of 41 (54.7%) males and 34 (45.3%) females with mean age 44.5 ± 14 years. The material for the study was samples of venous blood. Spectrum and frequency of polymorphic variants of four urolithiasis candidate genes were determined using real time PCR: the Klotho gene (KL, rs526906), vitamin D receptor gene (VDR, rs1540339), gene of the extracellular calcium-sensitive receptor (CASR, rs2202127), calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (ORAI1, rs7135617). Fisher angular conversion and χ2 tests showed association between the genetic polymorphisms of ORAI1 and multiple kidney stone formation in the Russian population. No association was found between multiple kidney stones and polymorphisms of genes encoding KL, VDR, CASR. These results indicate that genetic factors, in particular polymorphic variants of the ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (ORAI1, rs7135617), may affect multiple kidney stone formation in the Russian population.

  7. Efficient electron-induced removal of oxalate ions and formation of copper nanoparticles from copper(II oxalate precursor layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Rückriem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II oxalate grown on carboxy-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM using a step-by-step approach was used as precursor for the electron-induced synthesis of surface-supported copper nanoparticles. The precursor material was deposited by dipping the surfaces alternately in ethanolic solutions of copper(II acetate and oxalic acid with intermediate thorough rinsing steps. The deposition of copper(II oxalate and the efficient electron-induced removal of the oxalate ions was monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS. Helium ion microscopy (HIM reveals the formation of spherical nanoparticles with well-defined size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirms their metallic nature. Continued irradiation after depletion of oxalate does not lead to further particle growth giving evidence that nanoparticle formation is primarily controlled by the available amount of precursor.

  8. The Effect of Calcium Phosphate‑containing Desensitizing Agent on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... control), Group 3: TMD/self-etch, Group 4: Acid-etch/TMD/etch and rinse. For microleakage test, Class V adhesive cavities (3 .... purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium phosphate-containing ..... patented technique for the total-etch procedure occurs before oxalate and adhesive placement.

  9. Low Bone Density and Bisphosphonate Use and the Risk of Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Megan; Taylor, Eric; Vaidya, Anand; Curhan, Gary

    2017-08-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated lower bone density in patients with kidney stones, but no longitudinal studies have evaluated kidney stone risk in individuals with low bone density. Small studies with short follow-up reported reduced 24-hour urine calcium excretion with bisphosphonate use. We examined history of low bone density and bisphosphonate use and the risk of incident kidney stone as well as the association with 24-hour calcium excretion. We conducted a prospective analysis of 96,092 women in the Nurses' Health Study II. We used Cox proportional hazards models to adjust for age, body mass index, thiazide use, fluid intake, supplemental calcium use, and dietary factors. We also conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2294 participants using multivariable linear regression to compare 24-hour urinary calcium excretion between participants with and without a history of low bone density, and among 458 participants with low bone density, with and without bisphosphonate use. We identified 2564 incident stones during 1,179,860 person-years of follow-up. The multivariable adjusted relative risk for an incident kidney stone for participants with history of low bone density compared with participants without was 1.39 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.20 to 1.62). Among participants with low bone density, the multivariable adjusted relative risk for an incident kidney stone for bisphosphonate users was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48 to 0.98). In the cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour urine calcium excretion, the multivariable adjusted mean difference in 24-hour calcium was 10 mg/d (95% CI, 1 to 19) higher for participants with history of low bone density. However, among participants with history of low bone density, there was no association between bisphosphonate use and 24-hour calcium with multivariable adjusted mean difference in 24-hour calcium of -2 mg/d (95% CI, -25 to 20). Low bone density is an independent risk factor for incident kidney stone and is associated with

  10. Non-invasive identification of metal-oxalate complexes on polychrome artwork surfaces by reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Letizia; Rosi, Francesca; Miliani, Costanza; Daveri, Alessia; Brunetti, Brunetto G

    2013-12-01

    In this work a reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy study of twelve metal-oxalate complexes, of interest in art conservation science as alteration compounds, was performed. Spectra of the reference materials highlighted the presence of derivative-like and/or inverted features for the fundamental vibrational modes as result of the main contribution from the surface component of the reflected light. In order to provide insights in the interpretation of theses spectral distortions, reflection spectra were compared with conventional transmission ones. The Kramers-Kronig (KK) algorithm, employed to correct for the surface reflection distortions, worked properly only for the derivative-like bands. Therefore, to pay attention to the use of this algorithm when interpreting the reflection spectra is recommended. The outcome of this investigation was exploited to discriminate among different oxalates on thirteen polychrome artworks analyzed in situ by reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy. The visualization of the νs(CO) modes (1400-1200 cm(-1)) and low wavenumber bands (below 900 cm(-1)) in the raw reflection profiles allowed Ca, Cu and Zn oxalates to be identified. Further information about the speciation of different hydration forms of calcium oxalates were obtained by using the KK transform. The work proves reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy to be a reliable and sensitive spectro-analytical method for identifying and mapping different metal-oxalate alteration compounds on the surface of artworks, thus providing conservation scientists with a non-invasive tool to obtain information on the state of conservation and causes of alteration of artworks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anholt Rosetta Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This book records and celebrates the research finding of Anholt Island by students from Studio 2B, Arkitektskolen Aarhus, These mahogany constructions are our architectural versions of a Rosetta Stone. These are constructs that record layers of information about Anholt island through virtual...... on Anholt Island through qualitative means. They are tools for uncovering realities previously unseen or unimagined through the manipulation of data via personal experience....

  12. Effect of Macerase, Oxalic Acid, and EGTA on Deep Supercooling and Pit Membrane Structure of Xylem Parenchyma of Peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, M; Davis, G; Arora, R

    1991-08-01

    The object of this study was to determine if calcium cross-linking of pectin in the pit membrane of xylem parenchyma restricts water movement which results in deep supercooling. Current year shoots of ;Loring' peach (Prunus persica) were infiltrated with oxalic acid or EGTA solutions for 24 or 48 hours and then either prepared for ultrastructural analysis or subjected to differential thermal analysis. The effect of 0.25 to 1.0% pectinase (weight/volume) on deep supercooling was also investigated. The use of 5 to 50 millimolar oxalic acid and pectinase resulted in a significant reduction (flattening) of the low temperature exotherm and a distinct swelling and partial degradation of the pit membrane. EGTA (10 millimolar) for 24 or 48 hours shifted the low temperature exotherm to warmer temperatures and effected the outermost layer of the pit membrane. A hypothesis is presented on pectin-mediated regulation of deep supercooling of xylem parenchyma.

  13. Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A.; Miller, Wilson H.; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L. John

    2012-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at –30°C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function. PMID:19154961

  14. Do Calcium Supplements Predispose to Urolithiasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrakis, Diomidis; Paridis, Dionysios; Karatzas, Anastasios; Soukias, Georgios; Dailiana, Zoi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of calcium supplements, with or without vitamin D, in urinary stone formation in healthy population and in osteoporotic patients as well. Moreover, this review aims to clarify whether or not, and above which dose, they are associated with the risk of lithiasis. A research in Medline, Embase, and Scopus databases up to September 2015 was conducted using the following keywords: calcium, supplements, vitamin D, complications, lithiasis, and urinary stone. All types of studies were taken into account (cohort studies, reviews, meta-analyses), and in case they fulfilled the inclusion criteria, they were included in our review. The analysis of the data showed that calcium supplements, probably in association with anti osteoporotic treatment, do not create a predisposition towards lithiasis formation among women suffering from osteoporosis, neither among non-osteoporotic older men. In healthy postmenopausal as well as younger women, the supplements might increase susceptibility to urinary stone formation in long-term basis. The consumption of calcium supplements with the meals could play a protective role in women and younger males. There is certain evidence that supplements containing citrate may be more beneficial over the rest of calcium supplements, particularly when consumed during the meal. Osteoporotic women and healthy men are not at risk of stone formation. On the contrary, healthy women should be aware of the potential risk of developing urinary lithiasis in long-term basis.

  15. A new polymorph of magnesium oxalate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-An Chen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, catena-poly[[diaquamagnesium(II]-μ-oxalato], [Mg(C2O4(H2O2]n, there is one Mg atom in an octahedral coordination with site symmetry 222, a unique C atom of the oxalate anion lying on a twofold axis, an O atom of the anion in a general position and a water O atom at a site with imposed twofold rotation symmetry. The Mg2+ ions are ligated by water molecules and bridged by the anions to form chains that are held together by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The structure of the title compound has already been reported in a different space group [Lagier, Pezerat & Dubernat (1969. Rev. Chim. Miner. 6, 1081–1093; Levy, Perrotey & Visser (1971. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. pp. 757–761].

  16. Thermal, FT–IR and dielectric studies of gel grown sodium oxalate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Oxalic acid and its salts play an important role in human body, animals, plants and micro-organisms. Oxalic acid is produced naturally in body when ascorbic acid and glycine are metabolized. Oxalic acid metabolisms in man (Hodg- kinson and Zarembski 1968) and in oxalate accumulating plants (Yang and Loewus 1975; ...

  17. Viscosities of oxalic acid and its salts in water and binary aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Relative viscosities for the solutions of oxalic acid and its salts, viz. ammonium oxalate, sodium oxalate and potassium oxalate, at different concentrations have been determined in water and in binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (THF) [5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight of THF] at 298⋅15 K, and in water and in ...

  18. Neurotoxic effects of carambola in rats: the role of oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Liang; Chou, Kang-Ju; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Yeh, Jeng-Hsien; Fang, Hua-Chang; Chung, Hsiao-Min

    2002-05-01

    Carambola (star fruit) has been reported to contain neurotoxins that cause convulsions, hiccups, or death in uremic patients, and prolong barbiturate-induced sleeping time in rats. The constituent responsible for these effects remains uncertain. Carambola contains a large quantity of oxalate, which can induce depression of cerebral function and seizures. This study was conducted to investigate the role of oxalate in carambola toxicity in rats. The effects on barbiturate-induced sleeping time and death caused by intraperitoneal administration of carambola juice were observed in Sprague-Dawley rats. To obtain a dose-dependent response curve and evaluate the lethal dose, rats were treated with serial amounts of pure carambola juice diluted with normal saline in a volume of 1:1. To test the role of oxalate in the neurotoxic effect of carambola, either 5.33 g/kg carambola after oxalate removal or 5.33 g/kg of pure carambola juice diluted with normal saline were administered intraperitoneally, while the control group was given normal saline before pentobarbital injection. The effects of carambola and oxalate-removed carambola on barbiturate-induced sleeping time were compared with those of saline. To assess the lethal effect of oxalate in carambola, we gave rats chemical oxalate at comparable concentrations to the oxalate content of carambola. Carambola juice administration prolonged barbiturate-induced sleeping time in a dose-dependent manner. The sleeping time of rats that received normal saline and 1.33 g/kg, 2.67 g/kg, 5.33 g/kg, and 10.67 g/kg of carambola juice were 66 +/- 16.6, 93.7 +/- 13.4, 113.3 +/- 11.4, 117.5 +/- 29.0, and 172.5 +/- 38.8 minutes, respectively. The three higher-dose groups had longer sleeping times than controls (p carambola juice. Four of eight rats in the 10.67-g/kg group and all rats in the 21.33 g/kg and chemical oxalate groups died after seizure. Lethal doses of carambola juice were rendered harmless by the oxalate removal procedure

  19. Stones used in Milan architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Folli, Luisa; Bugini, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The city of Milan lies in a plain with clayey soil well suited to brick-making, but no stone deposits. An ample supply of stone is available, however, in the surrounding hills and mountains, which are connected to the city via both natural and artificial waterways. The types of stone used since Roman times include: granite, marble and gneiss from Ossola Valley; dolomite from Lake Maggiore; detrital limestone from Ceresio Valley; sandstone from the Brianza Hills; black limestone and marble fro...

  20. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  1. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  2. Subcellular distribution of calcium during spermatogenesis of zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpour, Amin; Pšenička, Martin; Niksirat, Hamid

    2017-08-01

    Calcium plays a variety of vital regulatory functions in many physiological and biochemical events in the cell. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructural distribution of calcium during different developmental stages of spermatogenesis in a model organism, the zebrafish (Danio rerio), using a combined oxalate-pyroantimonate technique. Samples were treated by potassium oxalate and potassium pyroantimonate during two fixation stages and examined using transmission electron microscopy to detect electron dense intracellular calcium. The subcellular distribution of intracellular calcium was characterized in spermatogonium, spermatocyte, spermatid, and spermatozoon stages. The area which is covered by intracellular calcium in different stages was quantified and compared using software. Isolated calcium deposits were mainly detectable in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of the spermatogonium and spermatocyte. In the spermatid, calcium was partially localized in the cytoplasm as isolated deposits. However, most calcium was transformed from isolated deposits into an unbound pool (free calcium) within the nucleus of the spermatid and the spermatozoon. Interestingly, in the spermatozoon, calcium was mainly localized in a form of an unbound pool which was detectable as an electron-dense mass within the nucleus. Also, sporadic calcium deposits were scattered in the midpiece and flagellum. The proportional area which was covered by intracellular calcium increased significantly from early to late stages of spermatogenesis. The extent of the area which was covered by intracellular calcium in the spermatozoon was the highest compared to earlier stages. Calcium deposits were also observed in the somatic cells (Sertoli, myoid, Leydig) of zebrafish testis. The notable changes in the distribution of intracellular calcium of germ cells during different developmental stages of zebrafish spermatogenesis suggest its different homeostasis and physiological functions during the

  3. DIMENSION STONE DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Crnković

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The geology, petrographycal composition and properties of dimension stone deposits in Croatia are described. Dimension stone deposits in the conception of mobilistic view of the genesis and structure of Dinarides, as well as after stratigraphic units, are considered. Valuation of the dimension stones of the active quarries is exposed. The marketable categories of dimension stone in Croatia are different varietes of limestones and calcareous clastites, primarly of Cretaceous age, and to lesser degree of Jurassic and Paleogene. The greatest part of deposits is concentrated in the Adriatic carbonate platform or Adriaticum.

  4. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg. (Online) 90 East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    However studies have indicated that infection may not be the inciting factor in stone formation, although it plays a major role in further stone crystallization2. Majority compositions of bladder stones include triple phosphate, calcium carbonate, and calcium oxalate, uric acid stones are rare4. In this case, chemical composition ...

  5. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  6. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatemeh Fattahi; Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods...

  7. The prevalence of pulp stones in historical populations from the middle Euphrates valley (Syria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Julian; Zalewska, Marta; Wiśniewska, Ewa; Szopiński, Kazimierz; Olczyk-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There are many reports in the literature concerning pulp stones in contemporary living populations, but there are no descriptions of cases of pulp stones and their prevalence in populations of the past. Here we present a study of pulp stones in a series of archaeologically derived samples from the Middle Euphrates Valley (Syria) obtained from two sites: Terqa and Tell Masaikh. The specimens were assigned to five periods: Early Bronze (2650-2350 BC); Middle Bronze (2200-1700 BC); late Roman (AD 200-400); Islamic (AD 600-1200); and Modern Islamic (AD 1850-1950). A total of 529 teeth representing 117 adult individuals of both sexes were examined. Pulp stones were identified by X-ray and 10 selected specimens were sectioned for histological study. Pulp stones were found in 99 of 117 individuals (85%) and in 271 of 529 (51%) teeth. Pulp stone prevalence was found to increase with age, for individuals of older age classes have more pulp stones than younger individuals. Intriguingly, the prevalence of single pulp stones was higher among older individuals (36-45, >46), while younger individuals (17-25, 26-35) more often possessed multiple stones. Individuals with moderate to highly advanced dental wear have pulp stones significantly more often than individuals whose tooth wear is limited to invisible or very small facets. Though there is no statistical significance in the prevalence of pulp stones across chronological periods, it appears that a high level of calcium in the diet is accompanied by a greater prevalence of pulp stones. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mixing state of oxalic acid containing particles in the rural area of Pearl River Delta, China: implications for the formation mechanism of oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chunlei; Li, Mei; Chan, Chak K.; Tong, Haijie; Chen, Changhong; Chen, Duohong; Wu, Dui; Li, Lei; Wu, Cheng; Cheng, Peng; Gao, Wei; Huang, Zhengxu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhijuan; Fu, Zhong; Bi, Yanru; Zhou, Zhen

    2017-08-01

    The formation of oxalic acid and its mixing state in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were studied using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) in the summer and winter of 2014 in Heshan, a supersite in the rural area of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China. Oxalic-acid-containing particles accounted for 2.5 and 2.7 % in total detected ambient particles in summer and winter, respectively. Oxalic acid was measured in particles classified as elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), elemental and organic carbon (ECOC), biomass burning (BB), heavy metal (HM), secondary (Sec), sodium-potassium (NaK), and dust. Oxalic acid was found predominantly mixing with sulfate and nitrate during the whole sampling period, likely due to aqueous-phase reactions. In summer, oxalic-acid-containing particle number and ozone concentration followed a very similar trend, which may reflect the significant contribution of photochemical reactions to oxalic acid formation. The HM particles were the most abundant oxalic acid particles in summer and the diurnal variations in peak area of iron and oxalic acid show opposite trends, which suggests a possible loss of oxalic acid through the photolysis of iron oxalato-complexes during the strong photochemical activity period. In wintertime, carbonaceous particles contained a substantial amount of oxalic acid as well as abundant carbon clusters and BB markers. The general existence of nitric acid in oxalic-acid-containing particles indicates an acidic environment during the formation process of oxalic acid. The peak areas of nitrate, sulfate and oxalic had similar temporal change in the carbonaceous type oxalic acid particles, and the organosulfate-containing oxalic acid particles correlated well with total oxalic acid particles during the haze episode, which suggests that the formation of oxalic acid is closely associated with the oxidation of organic precursors in the aqueous phase.

  9. Caffeine intake and the risk of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Taylor, Eric N; Gambaro, Giovanni; Curhan, Gary C

    2014-12-01

    Although caffeine intake may increase urine calcium excretion, caffeine-containing beverages have been associated with a lower risk of nephrolithiasis. We sought to determine the association between caffeine intake and the risk of incident kidney stones in 3 large prospective cohorts. We prospectively analyzed the association between intake of caffeine and incidence of kidney stones in 3 large ongoing cohort studies, the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) I and II. Information on the consumption of caffeine and the incidence of kidney stones was collected by validated questionnaires. The analysis included 217,883 participants; over a median follow-up of >8 y, 4982 incident cases occurred. After multivariate adjustment for age, BMI, fluid intake, and other factors, participants in the highest quintile of caffeine intake had a 26% (95% CI: 12%, 38%) lower risk of developing stones in the HPFS cohort, a 29% lower risk (95% CI: 15%, 41%) in the NHS I cohort, and a 31% lower risk (95% CI: 18%, 42%) in the NHS II cohort (P-trend kidney stones. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Caffeine intake and the risk of kidney stones123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric N; Gambaro, Giovanni; Curhan, Gary C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although caffeine intake may increase urine calcium excretion, caffeine-containing beverages have been associated with a lower risk of nephrolithiasis. Objective: We sought to determine the association between caffeine intake and the risk of incident kidney stones in 3 large prospective cohorts. Design: We prospectively analyzed the association between intake of caffeine and incidence of kidney stones in 3 large ongoing cohort studies, the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS) I and II. Information on the consumption of caffeine and the incidence of kidney stones was collected by validated questionnaires. Results: The analysis included 217,883 participants; over a median follow-up of >8 y, 4982 incident cases occurred. After multivariate adjustment for age, BMI, fluid intake, and other factors, participants in the highest quintile of caffeine intake had a 26% (95% CI: 12%, 38%) lower risk of developing stones in the HPFS cohort, a 29% lower risk (95% CI: 15%, 41%) in the NHS I cohort, and a 31% lower risk (95% CI: 18%, 42%) in the NHS II cohort (P-trend kidney stones. PMID:25411295

  11. Evaluation of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL): Efficacy in Treatment of Urinary System Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junuzovic, Dzelaludin; Prstojevic, Jelena Kovacevic; Hasanbegovic, Munira; Lepara, Zahid

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Elimination of stone is determined by size and its localization. Stone from the ureter in 80% of cases can be eliminated spontaneously. If the stone by its characteristics is not spontaneously eliminated, taken are further steps and therapeutic protocols to solve this problem. Material and methods: The study was prospective, open and comparative. It was conducted at the Urology Clinic Clinical Center of Sarajevo University in the period from 2007 to 2013. The study included 404 patients with urinary tract lithiasis treated by ESWL. ESWL treatment is performed on the machine Siemens Model Lithostar Multiline, which has a combined ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic display, large energy density in order to obtain optimum focus (without damaging surrounding tissue) and minimal pain that on rare occasions requires for mild sedation-sedation. Results: From a total of 404 patients included in the study there were 234 (57.92%) male and 170 (42.08%) female patients. The most common type of stone both in female and male patients was calcium type. From a total of 262 calcium stones, 105 of them (40.07%) was present in female patients and 157 (59.92%) in male. Share of infectious type of stone in female patients was 63 (49.60%) and 64 among males (50.39%). Other stones were less abundant in both the gender groups and their total number was only 17. In women their frequency was 2 (13.33%) and 13 among males (86.67%). There was a significant difference in the frequency of different types of stones by gender (x2 = 11.47, p = 0.009). Conclusion: There was no statistically significant correlation between the number of treatments and localization of stones in the ureter, as well as a statistically significant correlation between the size of the stone and the localization of calculus in the ureter. PMID:25568579

  12. CALCIUM REMOVAL FROM PAPER MACHINE EFFLUENT BY PRECIPITATION/COPRECIPITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Leandro de Sousa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In integrates pulp and paper mills, the effluent generated by the paper machine can be considered as a sector effluent, called white water, due to the high concentration of calcium. In this work, experiments were conducted to understand the behavior of the effluent in different pH values and to develop removal methods of calcium from the white water, aiming the reuse of water and the calcium recovery. Potentiometric titrations were carried out with HCl 0.022 mol L-1 and NaOH 0.025 mol L-1 standards, after adjusting the effluent pH at 12.0 and 2.0; respectively, which indicated inflection points for the carbonate, bicarbonate and kaolin, components capable of interaction with the soluble calcium. The methods for calcium removal consisted of coprecipitation/adsorption with iron (III and aluminum hydroxides, and precipitation in the presence of sodium oxalate. The results indicated that at low concentrations of ferric sulfate and aluminum sulfate, the removal of calcium is low. In the adsorption assays in the presence of Fe(OH3 and Al(OH3, the increased of the ferric sulfate concentration enabled a slight increase in the calcium removal (16.5 to 31.0 %, reaching 65.0% in the adsorption more precipitation process in pH 10.0. In case of aluminum sulfate, the removal percentages were indifferent (close to 10.0%. In the precipitation of Ca2+ in the oxalate presence, the possibility of satisfactory percentages of removal was observed (75 to 87%, keeping the effluent with the conductivity and pH unchanged, it’s very important, because the increase of effluent conductivity to reuse cause break of paper made. The calcium oxalate recuperated can be heated excessively and changed and calcium carbonate and to be reused. Tests in the highest scale have to be realized to approve the reuse of water and calcium of paper machine.

  13. Morphological and FTIR Studies of Barium Oxalate Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shedam M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the gel growth of barium oxalate single crystals in silica gels were studied in this paper. We describe the growth mechanism, effect concentration of feed solution, interchanging of the reactants, the effect of temperature and detailed study of microstructures of barium oxalate single crystals. At higher concentration of feed solution dense fibers were observed. With interchanged feed solution precipitate and spherulites have been obtained. The effect of temperature on growth barium oxalate crystals showed that there was a decrease in nucleation density at higher temperature. The crystals growth were observed under the electron microscope which revealed that the crystal have needle and spherulites structures. We also report the FTIR studies of barium oxalate crystals.

  14. (azo anils and oxalate ion) copper(ii) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    54890, Pakistan. 2Nano Science and Catalysis Division, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad-45320, Pakistan. (Received October ... Antibacterial activities of free ligands (azo anils and oxalate) and Cu(II) complexes were determined. Gram.

  15. 3.2.1. Synthesis, crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ1-oxalic acid-µ3-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kovalchukova*, Sergey Aldoshin, Andrey Utenyshev, Konstantin Bogenko, Valeriy Tkachev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ- oxalic acid-µ-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I was detected by X-Ray analysis. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with a(Å 6.2378(12; b(Å 7,1115(14; c(Å 10.489(2; α(° 94.65(3; β(° 100.12(3; γ(° 97.78(3. The sodium cation in the title compound is eight coordinated and forms a square antiprism. It is surrounded by two molecules of oxalic acid, one hydrogen oxalate anion and one water molecule. Both oxalic acid and hydrogen oxalate anion act as polydentate bridging ligands. Centrosymmetric sodium cations are bounded by hydrogen oxalate anions through a system of H bonds involving the molecules of oxalic acid. In the lattice, the 3D structure stabilized by H bonds is formed.

  16. [Bladder stone caused by olive oil following TVT operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kumiko; Hirata, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Koichi; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Shoji; Murase, Tatsuro

    2005-07-01

    Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), a less-invasive variation of the suburethral sling, has been rapidly gaining popularity worldwide in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. We report on two cases of bladder stones composed of fatty acid calcium following TVT operations. Case 1: A 76-year-old woman with a history of hysterectomy due to cervical cancer was suffering from vault prolapse. The insertion of a ring pessary lead to the development of stress urinary incontinence, and she was referred to our hospital. As she was frail, sexually inactive, and elderly, she underwent partial colpocleisis (Le Fort operation) combined with a TVT operation. One-month postoperative videourodynamics and chain cystourethrography (CUG) using olive oil as the lubricant showed cure of incontinence and mild support of the urethra. Her maximum flow rate was 18.8 ml/s and no residual urine was observed. Six months postoperatively she developed postmiction pain and pyuria that were not improved by antibiotics. Cystoscopy showed a small bladder stone, whose removal cured cystitis. Case 2: A 49-year-old woman, with a history of abdominal hysterectomy due to myoma uteri, visited our hospital complaining of stress urinary incontinence. A periurethral collagen injection was only temporarily effective, and she underwent a TVT operation. A 1-month postoperative evaluation including chain CUG using olive oil as the lubricant showed cure of incontinence, mild support of the urethra, a maximum flow rate of 28.8 ml/s, and no residual urine. Two months postoperatively she developed miction pain and pyuria that were solved by removing a small bladder stone. Anti-incontinence surgery increases the risk of developing bladder stones due to either foreign bodies (bladder erosion) or obstruction. However, neither of our cases had these conditions; instead, both bladder stones were composed of fatty acid calcium that appeared to be related to the olive oil used as the lubricant in chain CUG

  17. Hydrogen bonding in oxalic acid and its complexes: A database ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    terized by ZO–H. . . O = 146◦, O. . . O = 2.702 Å and H. . . O = 1.886 Å. The O–H bond is not directed at the carbonyl O atom; rather it straddles the carbonyl and hydroxyl O atoms (figure 8) as seen in the oxalic acid:amide complexes described above. β-Oxalic acid crystallizes in space group P21/c with two centrosymmetric.

  18. Oxalate Encapsulation in Aqueous Medium by Tripodal Urea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1H-NMR titration studies: All 1H-NMR titration experiments for L1 and L2 were conducted on a Bruker 300 MHz spectrometer at 298 K respectively. Potassium oxalate dihydrate (K2C2O4.2H2O) was used to prepare the stock solution of anion in DMSO-d6:D2O (1:1.1) solvent system. Lower solubility of potassium oxalate in ...

  19. Novel ultrasound method to reposition kidney stones

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Anup; Owen, Neil R.; Lu, Wei; Cunitz, Bryan W.; Kaczkowski, Peter J.; Harper, Jonathan D.; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2010-01-01

    The success of surgical management of lower pole stones is principally dependent on stone fragmentation and residual stone clearance. Choice of surgical method depends on stone size, yet all methods are subject to post-surgical complications resulting from residual stone fragments. Here we present a novel method and device to reposition kidney stones using ultrasound radiation force delivered by focused ultrasound and guided by ultrasound imaging. The device couples a commercial imaging array...

  20. A study on the industrialization of building stones and industrial stone crafts - Study on the causes of stone contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Jeon Ki; Lee, Han Yeang [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Causes of building stone contamination are acid rains in polluted areas, iron bearing minerals in stone itself, salts, sealants, cutting and grinding processes in stone factory and steel compounds structures such as stone anchors, bolts, rain culvert and guide frames. Contaminations on the building stone surface of Sejong culture center can be found around floor stones, stair stones, parterre stones, pillar stones and other outdoor stone panels. The parterre stones are contaminated by white tarnishes and rust flows are occurred on the surface of pillar stones and outdoor stone panels around entrance. Black tarnishes are cumulated on the pillar stones and other outdoor decorated stone panels and change the original granite color. Causes of building stone contaminations from Sejong culture center are wet method to attach stone panels, rust from steel compounds structures and air pollutants. Cement and mortar used from wet method react with sulfur dioxides in polluted air and from fine calcite crystals (white tarnish). Rusts from steel compounds structures such as rainwater culvert and steel guide frames can move to the stone surface by rain and leave rust flows on it. Pollutants (tar compounds, carbons, dusts, etc.) in air are cumulated with humidity on the stone surface and change color from white granite color to dusty dark color. Historical stone sculptures such as man and animal shaped stone crafts, tombstones, square stone tables in front of a tomb and guide and circumference stones around tomb in Royal Tombs (Donggu rung, Yung rung, Seoou rung and Hunin rung) distributed in Kyunggi province are contaminated by various moss and air pollutants and its original colors are deeply changed. (author). 21 refs., 11 tabs., 22 figs.

  1. Recumbent Stone Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

  2. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  3. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  4. The exposome for kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, David S

    2016-02-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities.

  5. Study of renal stones complications in 200 patients in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Noshad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary stones are the third most common disease of the urinary. Renal stones may lead to some preventable complications. This study was designed to investigation and prediction of these complications. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 patients with kidney stones were enrolled. Kidney stone was confirmed and proven in all patients referred to Sina and Shaikh Al-Rais clinics. Their demographic characteristics like gender, age, stone number, stone type, renal failure and bio-chemistry data were evaluated. Results: Of 200 patients, 130 cases (65.0% were male and 70 cases (35.0% were female. The mean age of patients was 41.30 ± 16.06 years. Type of stone was (when evaluation was possible was mixed (11.5%. However, the type of stone was not analyzed in 112 cases (56.0%. Among complications, recurrent infection was seen (16.0%, and staghorn stones were seen in 2.5% of patients. Dialysis was positive in 3 patients (1.5%. History of surgery was positive in 3 patients (1.5%. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL history was positive in 8%. In evaluated patients, the mean level of calcium was 8.83 ± 0.27, phosphorus was 4.60 ± 0.33, parathyroid hormone (PTH was 35.20 ± 14.22, uric acid was 4.98 ± 1.57, creatinine was 1.38 ± 1.02 and blood urea nitrogen level was 16.69 ± 11.54 mg/dl. Staghorn stones are significantly associated with progression to renal failure and subsequent complications such as hemodialysis (P = 0.001, surgery (P = 0.001. Recurrent infection was more frequent in calcium-containing stones (P = 0.001 and ESWL undergoing patients (P = 0.030. Stone numbers were more than 3 in hemodialyzed (HD patients (P = 0.001. Uric acid stones were more seen in HD patients (P = 0.170. Conclusion: According to results hemodialysis and recurrent infections are seen in patients with renal stones, and they may be detected in earlier with close periodic follow-up.

  6. Inorganic treatments for the consolidation and protection of stone artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Matteini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation and protection are two of the principal kinds of treatments through which the decay of old statues, stone facades, plasters and mural paintings caused by both natural atmospheric agents and, above all in the last five decades, by atmospheric pollution, is faced. The most traditional approach has been and is mainly based on the use of organic polymeric materials. They offer the advantage of easy application procedures and the possibility to obtain, at short times, very satisfying results. Different is their behaviour at long times. Some drawbacks come out over time both under the esthetical point of view as well as to the durability, compatibility and efficacy. Particularly critical is the situation when porous materials and soluble salts - gypsum above all - are simultaneously present. In such a situation inorganic treatments demonstrate to be much more appropriate. They assure durable and compatible results. In the present paper two of the most efficient and appropriate inorganic methods are reviewed in detail: the barium hydroxide method, both as desulfating and consolidating agent, and the ammonium oxalate method as passivating agent, consolidant and as a treatment capable of improving the natural colour contrast of the stone, when it is lost due to decay processes.

  7. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  8. Stone cladding engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa Camposinhos, Rui de

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents new methodologies for the design of dimension stone based on the concepts of structural design while preserving the excellence of stonemasonry practice in façade engineering. Straightforward formulae are provided for computing action on cladding, with special emphasis on the effect of seismic forces, including an extensive general methodology applied to non-structural elements. Based on the Load and Resistance Factor Design Format (LRDF), minimum slab thickness formulae are presented that take into consideration stress concentrations analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the most commonly used modern anchorage systems. Calculation examples allow designers to solve several anchorage engineering problems in a detailed and objective manner, underlining the key parameters. The design of the anchorage metal parts, either in stainless steel or aluminum, is also presented.

  9. The bioreceptivity of building stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauko Pranjić, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Muck, Tadeja; Hladnik, Aleš; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Bioreceptivity is an intrinsic property of stone, and is defined as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. The fouling and staining of building stone material due to the activity of microorganisms presents a serious problem in modern as well as historical buildings, not only due to the aesthetic impact but also due to the deterioration of the material. Biological colonisation on stone materials is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. the intrinsic properties of the stone (porosity, roughness, permeability, mineral composition), environmental parameters (e.g. solar radiation, temperature, water regime, climate, etc.), and specific microclimatic parameters (e.g. orientation, exposure to shadow, permanent capillary humidity, etc.). In order to assess the bioreceptivity of building stones, use is often made of artificial colonisation experiments compromising the inoculation of stones with a single species or a few isolated strains under laboratory conditions. In the present work the authors present the development of a method for the determination of bioreceptivity, as well as a study of the bioreceptivity of selected natural stone versus the latter's intrinsic properties. Field examples of biodeterioration are also presented. The study was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency (L1-5453).

  10. DETERMINATION OF OXALATE ION DOPANT LEVEL IN POLYPYRROLE USING FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric T; Benally, Kristal J; GreyEyes, Shawn D; McKenzie, Jason T

    A pellet method using standard addition and FT-IR was used to estimate oxalate ion doping levels in electrosynthesized polypyrrole. The method is useful for materials where removal of analyte from an insoluble material is problematic. Here, electrosynthesized oxalate doped polypyrrole is dispersed in potassium bromide. Spikes of sodium oxalate are added and the mixtures pressed into pellets. The oxalate carbonyl absorption peak is then used to quantify the amount of oxalate present in the polypyrrole. The mass fraction of oxalate dopant in polypyrrole was determined to be 0.4 ± 0.1 % and coincides with the original synthesis solution composition.

  11. Vitamin D receptor gene Alw I, Fok I, Apa I, and Taq I polymorphisms in patients with urinary stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ill Young; Kang, In-Hong; Chae, Soo-Cheon; Park, Seung Chol; Lee, Young-Jin; Yang, Yun Sik; Ryu, Soo Bang; Rim, Joung Sik

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms in Korean patients so as to identify the candidate genes associated with urinary stones. Urinary stones are a multifactorial disease that includes various genetic factors. A normal control group of 535 healthy subjects and 278 patients with urinary stones was evaluated. Of 125 patients who presented stone samples, 102 had calcium stones on chemical analysis. The VDR gene Alw I, Fok I, Apa I, and Taq I polymorphisms were evaluated using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were calculated to identify associations in both groups. The haplotype frequencies of the VDR gene polymorphisms for multiple loci were also determined. For the VDR gene Alw I, Fok I, Apa I, and Taq I polymorphisms, there was no statistically significant difference between the patients with urinary stones and the healthy controls. There was also no statistically significant difference between the patients with calcium stones and the healthy controls. A novel haplotype (Ht 4; CTTT) was identified in 13.5% of the patients with urinary stones and in 8.3% of the controls (P = .001). The haplotype frequencies were significantly different between the patients with calcium stones and the controls (P = .004). The VDR gene Alw I, Fok I, Apa I, and Taq I polymorphisms does not seem to be candidate genetic markers for urinary stones in Korean patients. However, 1 novel haplotype of the VDR gene polymorphisms for multiple loci might be a candidate genetic marker. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Classification of dimension stone wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Zeki; Pekin, Abdülkerim; Deliormanlı, Ahmet Hamdi

    2012-07-01

    For countries in which the stone industry is well developed, opposition to quarry and plant waste is gradually increasing. The primary step for waste control and environmental management is to define the problem of concern. In this study, natural building stone wastes were classified for the first time in the literature. Following on-site physical observations and research at more than 50 quarries and 20 plants, stone wastes were classified as (1) solid, (2) dust and (3) semi-slurry, slurry and cake. As a result of this study, the characteristics of wastes, their main environmental threats and the industries in which wastes could be used were defined for each group.

  13. Surface analysis of transition metal oxalates: Damage aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenakin, S.P., E-mail: chenakin@imp.kiev.ua [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Institute of Metal Physics, Nat. Acad. Sci. of Ukraine, Akad. Vernadsky Blvd. 36, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Szukiewicz, R. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Barbosa, R.; Kruse, N. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, 155 Wegner Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6515 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Gas evolution from the Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation is studied. • A comparative study of the damage caused by X-rays in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is carried out. • Effect of Ar{sup +} bombardment on the structure and composition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is studied. - Abstract: The behavior of transition metal oxalates in vacuum, under X-ray irradiation and low-energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment was studied. A comparative mass-spectrometric analysis was carried out of gas evolution from the surface of Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation. The rates of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} liberation from the oxalates were found to be in an inverse correlation with the temperatures of dehydration and decomposition, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to study the X-ray induced damage in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} by measuring the various XP spectral characteristics and surface composition of the oxalates as a function of time of exposure to X-rays. It was shown that Cu oxalate underwent a significantly faster degradation than Ni oxalate and demonstrated a high degree of X-ray induced reduction from the Cu{sup 2+} to the Cu{sup 1+} chemical state. 500 eV Ar{sup +} sputter cleaning of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} for 10 min was found to cause a strong transformation of the oxalate structure which manifested itself in an appreciable alteration of the XP core-level and valence band spectra. The analysis of changes in stoichiometry and comparison of XP spectra of bombarded oxalate with respective spectra of a reference carbonate CoCO{sub 3} implied that the bombardment-induced decomposition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} gave rise to the formation of CoO-like and disordered CoCO{sub 3}-like phases.

  14. Effects of Oxalic Acid on Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Eva; Harz, Marika; Schneider, Saskia

    2017-08-07

    Abstract: Oxalic acid dihydrate is used to treat varroosis of Apis mellifera. This study investigates lethal and sublethal effects of oxalic acid dihydrate on individually treated honeybees kept in cages under laboratory conditions as well as the distribution in the colony. After oral application, bee mortality occurred at relatively low concentrations (No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) 50 µg/bee; Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) 75 µg/bee) compared to the dermal treatment (NOAEL 212.5 µg/bee; LOAEL 250 µg/bee). The dosage used in regular treatment via dermal application (circa 175 µg/bee) is below the LOAEL, referring to mortality derived in the laboratory. However, the treatment with oxalic acid dihydrate caused sublethal effects: This could be demonstrated in an increased responsiveness to water, decreased longevity and a reduction in pH-values in the digestive system and the hemolymph. The shift towards stronger acidity after treatment confirms that damage to the epithelial tissue and organs is likely to be caused by hyperacidity. The distribution of oxalic acid dihydrate within a colony was shown by macro-computed tomography; it was rapid and consistent. The increased density of the individual bee was continuous for at least 14 days after the treatment indicating the presence of oxalic acid dihydrate in the hive even long after a treatment.

  15. Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haewook; Segal, Adam M; Seifter, Julian L; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones.

  16. Hyperoxaluria Requires TNF Receptors to Initiate Crystal Adhesion and Kidney Stone Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Shrikant R; Eberhard, Jonathan N; Desai, Jyaysi; Marschner, Julian A; Kumar, Santhosh V R; Weidenbusch, Marc; Grigorescu, Melissa; Lech, Maciej; Eltrich, Nuru; Müller, Lisa; Hans, Wolfgang; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Vielhauer, Volker; Hoppe, Bernd; Asplin, John; Burzlaff, Nicolai; Herrmann, Martin; Evan, Andrew; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-03-01

    Intrarenal crystals trigger inflammation and renal cell necroptosis, processes that involve TNF receptor (TNFR) signaling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that TNFRs also have a direct role in tubular crystal deposition and progression of hyperoxaluria-related CKD. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed upregulated tubular expression of TNFR1 and TNFR2 in human and murine kidneys with calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrocalcinosis-related CKD compared with controls. Western blot and mRNA expression analyses in mice yielded consistent data. When fed an oxalate-rich diet, wild-type mice developed progressive CKD, whereas Tnfr1-, Tnfr2- , and Tnfr1/2- deficient mice did not. Despite identical levels of hyperoxaluria, Tnfr1-, Tnfr2- , and Tnfr1/2 -deficient mice also lacked the intrarenal CaOx deposition and tubular damage observed in wild-type mice. Inhibition of TNFR signaling prevented the induced expression of the crystal adhesion molecules, CD44 and annexin II, in tubular epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo , and treatment with the small molecule TNFR inhibitor R-7050 partially protected hyperoxaluric mice from nephrocalcinosis and CKD. We conclude that TNFR signaling is essential for CaOx crystal adhesion to the luminal membrane of renal tubules as a fundamental initiating mechanism of oxalate nephropathy. Furthermore, therapeutic blockade of TNFR might delay progressive forms of nephrocalcinosis in oxalate nephropathy, such as primary hyperoxaluria. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Physicochemical mechanisms of stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Allen L

    2017-02-01

    In this article, the term "physicochemical mechanism" is defined as a sequential series of steps culminating in the formation of a renal stone. Distinctions are drawn between physicochemical prerequisites for urinary supersaturation, crystallization, and stone formation. In particular, attention is focussed on the transition from crystal to stone. Emphasis is laid on crystal retention being the fundamental mechanism by which stones are formed, and mention is made of the different ways in which it can be achieved. The processes which dictate crystal-size enlargement, either during free particle flow or during fixed particle entrapment, are described. Modulators of these processes are classified in terms of their mode of action on particular steps in the mechanism rather than on their molecular weight or size. Three different approaches for describing stone formation mechanisms are summarized. These involve mathematical models, qualitative step-by-step pathways, and qualitative non-schematic descriptions. It is suggested that although physicochemical mechanisms are crucially involved in stone formation, they do so in concert with numerous other mechanistic processes, all of which are dictated by their own specific conditions.

  18. Lunar stone saw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

    1988-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

  19. Stone technology: intracorporeal lithotripters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotland, Kymora B; Kroczak, Tadeusz; Pace, Kenneth T; Chew, Ben H

    2017-09-01

    Intracorporeal lithotripsy is becoming the most commonly used surgical method of stone treatment in Urology. The five major types of intracorporeal lithotripters are ultrasonic, ballistic, and combination lithotripters as well as laser and electrohydraulic lithotripters. The advantages and disadvantages of choosing each of these treatment modalities are reviewed. Extensive review of literature was performed to identify the types of intracorporeal lithotripters. An investigation was undertaken of the early development of each modality of intracorporeal lithotripsy and/or the mechanism of action. Challenges of each technique were identified and presented. Finally, a determination was made of how these lithotripters compare on the basis of effectiveness of action and cost based on information provided in primary literature as well as previous reviews of these modalities. Contemporary lithotripters have found widespread use in the management of urinary lithiasis. Holmium laser lithotripsy has become one of the most commonly used tools for intracorporeal lithotripsy. There is a wide variety of intracorporeal lithotripters which can be chosen based on the characteristics of each modality and the requirements of the urologist.

  20. Antiurolithiatic activity of coleus Aromaticus Benth. In Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, R.B.; T. K. Sur; Maity, L.N.; Chakraborty, S.C

    2000-01-01

    Water extract of the leaves of Coleus aromaticus  Benth. Was tested for its antiurolithiatic activity against calcium oxalate stones in male albino rats. Calcium oxalate stones were induced by feeding 3% w/w sodium oxalate along with normal feed. The water extract of coleus aromaticus (0.5 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg, once, orally for 30 days) was found to be effective in reducing deposition of calcium oxalate. Hence, it is suggested, coleus aromaticus leaves may be effective in the therapy of calcium ...

  1. Kidney Stones as an Underrecognized Clinical Sign in Pediatric Cushing Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sara H; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Keil, Margaret F; Faucz, Fabio R; Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of kidney stones in a population of children with Cushing disease (CD) and to compare it with the prevalence of kidney stones in healthy children. Clinical and biochemical data from 139 pediatric patients with CD (68 females, 71 males) were analyzed retrospectively. Computed tomography scans were reviewed for kidney stones. Among 139 patients, 27 with CD (19.4%) had either radiographic evidence and/or a history of kidney stones. Those with kidney stones had higher urine free cortisol (P = .008) and transsphenoidal surgery at an older age (P = .007). The average urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was elevated in patients with CD (0.22 ± 0.11). The prevalence of kidney stones was higher in children with CD than in normal children (19.42% vs 1.0%; P kidney stones are an underestimated complication of pediatric CD, especially when compared with the prevalence of nephrolithiasis in the general pediatric population. Long-term consequences for kidney function are not known and need to be studied. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciudin, Alexandru; Luque Galvez, Maria Pilar; Franco de Castro, Agustin; Garcia-Cruz, Eduardo; Alcover Garcia, Juan; Alvarez-Vijande Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Alcaraz Asensio, Antonio [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Urology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Salvador Izquierdo, Rafael; Nicolau, Carlos [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm{sup 2} and 0.1 cm{sup 2} over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  3. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Calcium Nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Orson W.; Fuster, Daniel G.; Xie, Xiao-Song

    2008-09-01

    Calcium stones are commonly encountered in patients with congenital distal renal tubular acidosis, a disease of renal acidification caused by mutations in either the vacuolar H+-ATPase (B1 or a4 subunit), anion exchanger-1, or carbonic anhydrase II. Based on the existing database, we present two hypotheses. First, heterozygotes with mutations in B1 subunit of H+-ATPase are not normal but may harbor biochemical abnormalities such as renal acidification defects, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia which can predispose them to kidney stone formation. Second, we propose at least two mechanisms by which mutant B1 subunit can impair H+-ATPase: defective pump assembly and defective pump activity.

  4. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  5. Correlation between oxalic acid production and copper tolerance in Wolfiporia cocos

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Clausen; Frederick. Green; B. M. Woodward; J. W. Evans; R. C. DeGroot

    2000-01-01

    The increased interest in copper-based wood preservatives has hastened the need for understanding why some fungi are able to attack copper-treated wood. Due in part to accumulation of oxalic acid by brown-rot fungi and visualization of copper oxalate crystals in wood decayed by known copper-tolerant decay fungi, oxalic acid has been implicated in copper tolerance by...

  6. Genomic evaluation of oxalate-degrading transgenic soybean in response to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxalate oxidases catalyze the degradation of oxalic acid (OA). Highly resistant transgenic soybean carrying an oxalate oxidase (OxO) gene and its susceptible parent soybean line, AC Colibri, were tested for genome-wide gene expression in response to the necrotrophic, OA producing pathogen Sclerotini...

  7. Structure of oxalate decarboxylase from Bacillus subtilis at 1.75 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ruchi; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Kinsland, Cynthia; Begley, Tadhg P; Ealick, Steven E

    2002-06-18

    Oxalate decarboxylase is a manganese-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of oxalate to formate and carbon dioxide. We have determined the structure of oxalate decarboxylase from Bacillus subtilis at 1.75 A resolution in the presence of formate. The structure reveals a hexamer with 32-point symmetry in which each monomer belongs to the cupin family of proteins. Oxalate decarboxylase is further classified as a bicupin because it contains two cupin folds, possibly resulting from gene duplication. Each oxalate decarboxylase cupin domain contains one manganese binding site. Each of the oxalate decarboxylase domains is structurally similar to oxalate oxidase, which catalyzes the manganese-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of oxalate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen peroxide. Amino acid side chains in the two metal binding sites of oxalate decarboxylase and the metal binding site of oxalate oxidase are very similar. Four manganese binding residues (three histidines and one glutamate) are conserved as well as a number of hydrophobic residues. The most notable difference is the presence of Glu333 in the metal binding site of the second cupin domain of oxalate decarboxylase. We postulate that this domain is responsible for the decarboxylase activity and that Glu333 serves as a proton donor in the production of formate. Mutation of Glu333 to alanine reduces the catalytic activity by a factor of 25. The function of the other domain in oxalate decarboxylase is not yet known.

  8. Determining the Structure of Oxalate Anion Using Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Coupled with Gaussian Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karen I.; Pullman, David P.

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory project for the upper-division physical chemistry laboratory is described, and it combines IR and Raman spectroscopies with Gaussian electronic structure calculations to determine the structure of the oxalate anion in solid alkali oxalates and in aqueous solution. The oxalate anion has two limiting structures whose vibrational spectra…

  9. Thermal, FT–IR and dielectric studies of gel grown sodium oxalate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oxalic acid metabolism is important in humans, animals and plants. The effect of oxalic acid sodium salt is widely studied in living body. The growth of sodium oxalate single crystals by gel growth is reported, which can be used to mimic the growth of crystals in vivo. The grown single crystals are colourless, transparent and ...

  10. Enzymatic oxalic acid regulation correlated with wood degradation in four brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup; Frederick Green III; Patricia K. Lebow; Bo Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a key component in the initiation of brown-rot decay and it has been suggested that it plays multiple roles during the degradation process. Oxalic acid is accumulated to varying degrees among brown-rot fungi; however, details on active regulation are scarce. The accumulation of oxalic acid was measured in this study from wood degraded by the four brown-...

  11. Flexible ureteroscopy for renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M; Amón, J H; Mainez, J A; Rodríguez, V; Alonso, D; Martínez-Sagarra, J M

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this prospective study are to present our experience with retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), and to analyze its results and complications. 150 patients with renal stones were treated with RIRS. 111 cases showed single stones whilst multiple stones were observed in 39 cases. The mean size was 19.12mm (r: 5-74). Success rate was defined as the absence of residual stones or the presence of fragments ≤2mm. in 21 (14%) patients RIRS could not be performed on first attempt because it was impossible to place the ureteral access sheath. The immediate success rate was 85.7%, and 91.6% at three months later. The average operating time was 85min (r: 25-220). Postoperative complications were observed in 22 cases (14.6%), although most of them were classified as Clavien 1 and 2 (19 cases), and only 2% (3 cases) showed Clavien 4 complications (sepsis requiring admission in the intensive care unit). 10 patients underwent a second procedure in order to complete the treatment. Thus, the number of procedures per patient was 1.06. There were no late complications. the treatment of renal stones with flexible ureteroscopy using the ureteral access sheath shows a high successful rate with a low complication rate. In order to define its indication more precisely, randomized studies comparing RIRS with minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures (miniperc and microperc) would be necessary. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. peroxo-oxalate preparation of doped barium titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, S.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Verweij, H.

    1999-01-01

    The peroxo-oxalate complexation method is a method that can be used for the preparation of doped barium titanate. In this paper we focus on BaTi0.91Zr0.09O3, which can be used for discharge capacitors in lamp starters. The preparation method described here is based on the complexation and subsequent

  13. Energy transfer and thermal studies of Pr doped cerium oxalate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, India. MS received 7 December 2009; revised 12 August 2010. Abstract. Energy transfer process at room temperature for cerium (sensitizer) oxalate single crystals doped with different concentrations (10, 13, 15, 17 and 20%) of praseodymium ions ...

  14. Charge dynamics in conducting polyaniline–metal oxalate composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyaniline (Pani) and its metal oxalate composites (∼ 10 wt.%) of trivalent metal ions of Cr, Fe, Mn, Co and Al were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization technique with potassium perdisulphate oxidant in aqueous sulphuric acid medium. These materials were characterized by UV–VIS and EPR spectral ...

  15. Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate by photoacoustics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate is studied by using TG, DTA and photoacoustic spectroscopy. A sharp transition at 378 K by photoacoustics is observed whereas at the same temperature the endothermic energy change observed by TG and DTA is not very sharp. This is discussed in detail with reference to the other ...

  16. Synthesis, Crystal structure and Characterization of a New Oxalate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . 1. Introduction. Recently, a variety of transition metal ... magnetism and even industrial applications.1,2. On the other hand, the oxalate group ..... have allowed to check the number of water molecules as well as the nature of connections to the ...

  17. Metal oxalate complexes as novel inorganic dopants: Studies on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    dust. Water was used after two distillations. Other chemi- cals were used as such without any further purification. The following metal oxalate complexes were prepared and purified as per standard methodologies (Palmer 1965;. Pass and Sutcliffe 1982): potassium trioxalatochromate. (III) [TOCr], potassium trioxalatoferrate ...

  18. Spectroscopic properties of Pr 3-doped erbium oxalate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectroscopic properties of praseodymium ions-doped erbium oxalate ( E r 2 ( C 2 O 4 ) 3 ⋅ n H 2 O ) crystals have been investigated. The crystals were grown by hydro silica gel method under suitable pH conditions and by single diffusion method. The well-grown crystals are bright and transparent. The dark green colour ...

  19. Spectroscopic properties of Pr -doped erbium oxalate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The crystals were grown by hydro silica gel method under suitable pH conditions and .... Chemical composition of the grown crystal (21% Pr3+-doped erbium oxalate crystals) was confirmed with the EDAX ... Spectroscopic parameters can be evaluated from both absorption and emission spectra. The absorption spectra of ...

  20. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    Tyndall Stone is a distinctively mottled and highly fossiliferous dolomitic limestone that belongs to the Selkirk Member of the Red River Formation, of Late Ordovician (Katian) age. It has been quarried at Garson, Manitoba, 37 km northeast of Winnipeg, since 1895, although other quarries in the area go back to 1832. Tyndall Stone, so named because it was shipped by rail from nearby Tyndall, is currently produced by Gillis Quarries Limited. It has various uses as a dimension stone. Large slabs, most often cut parallel to bedding, face the exterior or interior of many important buildings such as the Parliament Buildings and the Canadian Museum of Civilization in the Ottawa area, the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the provincial legislatures in Winnipeg and Regina, as well as many commercial buildings especially in the Canadian prairies. At the quarries, the stone is cut vertically, using eight foot (2.44 m) diameter saws mounted on one hundred foot (30.5 m) tracks, then split into 6-8 tonne blocks that are moved using front-end loaders. Gillis Quarries operates a large finishing plant with an area of about 4000 m2. Stone is processed along advanced cutting lines that feature eight primary saws and six gantry saw stations, allowing it to be made into a variety of sizes, shapes, and finishes. The Selkirk Member is 43 m thick and the stone is extracted from a 6-8 m thick interval within the lower part. The upper beds tend to be more buff-coloured than the grey lower beds due to weathering by groundwater. The stone is massive, but extracted blocks are less than ~1m thick due to splitting along stylolites. Consisting of bioturbated wackestone to packstone, the Tyndall Stone was deposited in a shallow-marine environment within the photic zone, in the central part of the vast equatorial epicontinental sea that covered much of Laurentia. Scattered thin, bioclastic grainstone lenses record brief, low-energy storm events. The distinctive mottles are formed by dolomitized

  1. Epididymal lithiasis in roosters: in the middle of the way there was a stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, André G; Oliveira, Cleida A

    2011-10-10

    The epididymal region plays an important role in the reproduction of roosters, as it is the site of functions important in the maintenance of fertility, including fluid and calcium reabsorption and sperm surface modifications. About 10 years ago, a reproductive dysfunction characterized by the formation of luminal calcium stones in the epididymal region of roosters was described. This anomaly, known as epididymal lithiasis, is associated with a significant decrease in the fertility of affected roosters. This reproductive anomaly has been observed in multiple countries and is thought to negatively impact the poultry industry; however, the cause of epididymal lithiasis has not been fully determined. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of epididymal lithiasis, including the presence of an infectious agent within the epididymal region, an autoimmune response, increased dietary calcium and vitamin D3 intake and the presence of genetic susceptibility factors; however, none of these has been proven to be the primary cause of the calcium stone formation. Nonetheless, considerable evidence suggests that regardless of the primary cause of epididymal lithiasis, this anomaly could result from a hormonal imbalance or a local impairment of calcium homeostasis in the epididymal region. The objectives of this mini-review are to 1) summarize the reproductive alterations observed in animals affected by epididymal lithiasis, 2) discuss the hypotheses proposed to explain the cause of luminal stone formation and 3) provide perspectives for future studies of this reproductive disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation of artificial kidney stones of reproducible size, shape, and mass by precision injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Robert I; Kyle, Christopher C; Carey, Donna L; Leveillee, Raymond J

    2008-01-01

    To prepare artificial kidney stones of defined shape, size, mass, and material composition via precision injection molding of Ultracal 30 cement slurries into an inexpensive biodegradable mold. A calcium alginate and silica-based mold was used to prepare casts of varying shapes in a reproducible manner. Ultracal 30 cement slurries mixed 1:1 with water were injected into these casts and allowed to harden. The artificial stones were recovered and their physical properties determined. Ex-vivo and in-vivo responses to holmium laser lithotripsy were examined. Spheres, half spheres, cylinders, cubes, tapered conical structures, and flat angulated structures were prepared with high precision without post-molding manipulations. Large spheres of average mass 0.661 g (+/- 0.037), small spheres of average mass 0.046 g (+/- 0.0026), and hexagons of average mass 0.752 g (+/- 0.0180) were found to have densities (1610-1687 kg/m(3)) within the expected range for Ultracal 30 cement stones. Ex-vivo holmium laser lithotripsy of small spheres in saline showed uniformly reproducible efficiencies of comminution. Implantation of a tapered conical stone into the ureter of a porcine model demonstrated stone comminution in vivo consistent with that seen in the ex-vivo models. We present an environmentally safe, technically simple procedure for the formation of artificial kidney stones of predetermined size and shape. The technique does not require the use of hazardous solvents or postprocedural processing of the stones. These stones are intended for use in standardized experiments of lithotripsy efficiency in which the shape of the stone as well as the mass can be predetermined and precisely controlled.

  3. Grasping the Formless in Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the ritual and social aesthetics of "petromorphic gods" in a Hindu context, this chapter demonstrates that it is not a single theoretical key but rather the interpretive combination of theories which allows one to understand how stones connect religious knowledge, performative action...... objects in cognitive technologies, and the structure of the human mind, the chapter unravels how the sensory and synaesthetic qualities have made these stones ritually important. In this weaving together of different aspects, the chapter illustrates the way in which an aesthetic approach forms...... a connective pathway within religious studies scholarship....

  4. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  5. Luserna Stone: A nomination for "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavori, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Luserna Stone (Pietra di Luserna) is the commercial name of a grey-greenish leucogranitic orthogneiss, probably from the Lower Permian Age, that outcrops in the Luserna-Infernotto basin (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy) on the border between the Turin and Cuneo provinces. Geologically speaking, it pertains to the Dora-Maira Massif that represents a part of the ancient European margin annexed to the Cottian Alps during the Alpine orogenesis; from a petrographic point of view, it is the metamorphic result of a late-Ercinian leucogranitic rock transformation. Lithological features and building applications allow the recognition of two main varieties: 1) a micro-augen gneiss with very regular schistosity planes with centimetric spacing and easy split workability, known as Splittable facies; 2) a micro-Augen gneiss characterized by lower schistosity and poor split, suitable for blocks cutting machines (diamond wires, gang-saws, traditional saws), known as Massive facies. A third, rare, white variety also exists, called "Bianchetta". Luserna stone extends over an area of approximately 50 km2, where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. The stone is quarried and processed since almost the Middle Age, and currently represents one of the three most important siliceous production cluster in Italy (together with the Ossola and Sardegna Island granites). Some characteristics of this stone - such as the relevant physical-mechanical properties, an intrinsic versatility and its peculiar splittability - have made it one of the most widely used stone materials in Italy and in the countries surrounding the North Western border of Italy. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Luserna Stone are considered to be of relevant importance for its designation as a Global Heritage Stone Resource, such as the distinctive mark on

  6. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Diri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL.

  7. The kidney stone and increased water intake trial in steel workers: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Yair; Antonelli, Jodi; Jiménez, Inmaculada Buendia; Gharbi, Hakam; Herring, Ron; Beaver, Allison; Dennis, Aphrihl; Von Merveldt, Dendra; Carter, Suzie; Cohen, Adam; Poindexter, John; Moe, Orson W; Pearle, Margaret S

    2017-04-01

    Preventing dehydration in subjects at risk may provide a means of primary prevention of kidney stones. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the hydration status of an at-risk group of steel plant workers based on end-of-shift ('post-shift') spot urine osmolality and 24-h urinary stone risk parameters. 100 volunteers were recruited from Gerdau Midlothian steel mill in Texas on 11/14/14 and 12/5/14. Clinical data were recorded and post-shift spot urine sample was used to measure urine osmolality. Participants were invited to submit a 24-h urine sample within 4 weeks of enrollment. The mean age was 41 years and 95 % were men. The majority of subjects were white (75 %), followed by 10 % Hispanic and 9 % black. The mean body mass index was 30.1 kg/m 2 and overall 16 % had a past history of stone disease. Mean post-shift urine spot osmolality was 704.5 mOsm (169-1165 mOsm) and was >800 and >700 mOsm in 39 and 57 %, respectively. Among 59 24-h urines samples, the mean volume was 1.89 ± 0.92 l/day, with 56 % 250 mg/TV), 39 % for uric acid (>700 mg/TV), 25 % for oxalate (>45 mg/TV) and 50 % for sodium (>200 meq/TV). The prevalence of stone disease in this population of steel workers was higher than the published prevalence of stone disease in the general population. A significant number of workers had concentrated post-shift and 24-h urines and elevated levels of urinary analytes.

  8. "Stone Cold": Worthy of Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthwaite, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on my experiences of teaching "Stone Cold" to respond to a blog post suggesting that the novel holds little educational value. I argue that the novel's narrative style helps to foster criticality while its subject matter can help students see the relevance of literature to the world around them. Relating this to…

  9. The ground stones from Sphinx

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řídký, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 21 (2017), s. 39-42 ISSN 1369-5770 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Sudan * Mesolithic * ground stones Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  10. Kidney Stones as an Under-Recognized Clinical Sign in Pediatric Cushing Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sara H.; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Keil, Margaret F.; Faucz, Fabio R.; Lodish, Maya B.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of kidney stones in a population of children with Cushing disease (CD) and to compare this prevalence with that of healthy children. Study design Clinical and biochemical data from 139 pediatric patients with CD (68 female, 71 male) were retrospectively analyzed. Computed tomography (CT) scans were reviewed for kidney stones. Results Of 139 patients, 27 children with CD (19.4%) had either radiographic evidence and/or a history of kidney stones. Those with kidney stones had higher urine free cortisol (p-value = 0.008) and a transsphenoidal surgery at an older age (p-value = 0.007). Average urinary calcium creatinine ratio was elevated in patients with CD (0.22 ± 0.11). The prevalence of kidney stones in children with CD was higher than in normal children (19.42% vs 1.0%, p-value kidney stones are an under-estimated complication of pediatric CD, especially when compared with the prevalence of nephrolithiasis in the general pediatric population. Long term consequences for kidney function are not known and need to be studied. PMID:26703870

  11. Anthropogenic salts from deteriorated stones of a historical monument (Kraków, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszałek, Mariola; Prajer, Marta

    2017-04-01

    The results focus on the stone architectonic elements of the Hebdowski Palace in the Okół, an old, medieval part of Kraków. The object was built around 1400, then rebuilt at the turn of the 17th century and at the first half of the 19th century. Its façade was covered with plaster, whose scaling fragments prior to the renovation in 2015 revealed underneath bricks, particularly in the lower part of the palace. The sandstone elements were used in the main portal, while the limestone ones in window frames of the lower section of the façade, base mouldings, and the buttresses at the corner of Poselska and Senacka streets (one of the oldest streets in Kraków). The stone blocks show various forms of damage, ranging from the accumulation of black crusts and efflorescences to crumbling and scaling of their surfaces. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) were used for analysing deterioration products of the stone samples that were collected during the restoration campaign of 2015. The salt minerals detected in the efflorescences and the black crusts include mainly gypsum CaSO4•2H2O and halite NaCl. On the surface of the limestone gypsum is accompanied by oxalates (whewellite CaC2O4•H2O and/or weddellite CaC2O4•2H2O). The black crust developed on both stone types also contain numerous dust particles and a carbonaceous matter, probably soot. The origin of the anthropogenic salts can be mainly assigned to air pollution, to the stones themselves (mainly in the case of the limestone), and to migration of ions from some elements of the façade (e.g. plaster) in the case of the sandstone. The chemicals used for removing ice from streets and pavements (chiefly NaCl and CaCl2) also seem to be important in the formations of the salts. Finally, the existence of simple life forms, such as lichens and fungi, could result in the precipitation of oxalates. This work has been financially supported by

  12. Stones used in Milan architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folli, Luisa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Milan lies in a plain with clayey soil well suited to brick-making, but no stone deposits. An ample supply of stone is available, however, in the surrounding hills and mountains, which are connected to the city via both natural and artificial waterways. The types of stone used since Roman times include: granite, marble and gneiss from Ossola Valley; dolomite from Lake Maggiore; detrital limestone from Ceresio Valley; sandstone from the Brianza Hills; black limestone and marble from Lake Como; and conglomerate and sandstone from the Adda River basin. Traditionally, the chief uses have been dimension stone (all stones, column shafts (granite, slabs (marble, moulding (dolomite, limestone and ornamental (marble, dolomite, limestone.La ciudad de Milán se encuentra en una llanura de suelo arcilloso adecuado para la fabricación de ladrillos pero en la cual no hay yacimientos de rocas. No obstante, en las colinas y montañas circundantes, que están comunicadas con la ciudad mediante vías navegables naturales y artificiales, sí existe una abundante cantidad de piedra. Entre los tipos de piedra utilizados desde la época de los romanos se encuentran granitos, mármoles y gneises del valle de Ossola, dolomías del lago Mayor, calizas detríticas del valle de Ceresio (Lugano, areniscas de las colinas de la Brianza, calizas negras y mármoles del lago Como y conglomerados y areniscas de la cuenca del río Adda. Tradicionalmente, los principales usos han sido la piedra de fábrica (todas ellas, fustes de columnas (granito, losas (mármol, molduras (dolomía, caliza y ornamental (mármol, dolomía, caliza.

  13. The metabolic and ecological interactions of oxalate-degrading bacteria in the Mammalian gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron W; Dearing, Denise

    2013-12-06

    Oxalate-degrading bacteria comprise a functional group of microorganisms, commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. Oxalate is a plant secondary compound (PSC) widely produced by all major taxa of plants and as a terminal metabolite by the mammalian liver. As a toxin, oxalate can have a significant impact on the health of mammals, including humans. Mammals do not have the enzymes required to metabolize oxalate and rely on their gut microbiota for this function. Thus, significant metabolic interactions between the mammalian host and a complex gut microbiota maintain the balance of oxalate in the body. Over a dozen species of gut bacteria are now known to degrade oxalate. This review focuses on the host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions that regulate the degradation of oxalate by the gut microbiota. We discuss the pathways of oxalate throughout the body and the mammalian gut as a series of differentiated ecosystems that facilitate oxalate degradation. We also explore the mechanisms and functions of microbial oxalate degradation along with the implications for the ecological and evolutionary interactions within the microbiota and for mammalian hosts. Throughout, we consider questions that remain, as well as recent technological advances that can be employed to answer them.

  14. Management of ureteric stone in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Minevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of ureteral stones in children is becoming more similar to that in adults. A number of factors must be taken into account when selecting one′s choice of therapy for ureteral stone in children such as the size of the stone, its location, its composition, and urinary tract anatomy. Endoscopic lithotripsy in children has gradually become a major technique for the treatment of ureteral stones. The stone-free rate following urteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral stones has been reported in as high as 98.5-100%. The safety and efficacy of Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy make it the intracorporeal lithotriptor of choice. Given its minimally invasive features, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL has become a primary mode of treatment for the pediatric patients with reno-ureteral stones. Stone-free rates have been reported from 59% to 91% although some patients will require more than one treatment session for stone clearance. It appears that the first-line of therapy in the child with distal and mid-ureteral stones should be ureteroscopic lithotripsy. While ESWL is still widely considered the first-line therapy for proximal ureteral calculi, there is an increasing body of evidence that shows that endoscopic or ESWL are equally safe and efficacious in those clinical scenarios. Familiarity with the full spectrum of endourological techniques facilitates a minimally invasive approach to pediatric ureteral stones.

  15. Equilibrium studies of oxalate and aluminum containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to develop data on the solubility and conditions leading to precipitation of sodium oxalate, sodium nitrate, Bayerite (a polymorph of gibbsite, Al(OH)3), and sodium aluminosilicate solids recently found in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The data generated will be used to improve the OLI Systems thermodynamic database for these compounds allowing better prediction of solids formation by the modeling software in the future.

  16. Hafnium(IV) complexation with oxalate at variable temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friend, Mitchell T.; Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullmanm, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-08-01

    Appropriate management of fission products in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is crucial in developing advanced reprocessing schemes. The addition of aqueous phase complexing agents can prevent the co-extraction of these fission products. A solvent extraction technique was used to study the complexation of Hf(IV) - an analog to fission product Zr(IV) - with oxalate at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4} utilizing a {sup 175+181}Hf radiotracer. The mechanism of the solvent extraction system of 10{sup -5} M Hf(IV) in 1 M HClO{sub 4} to thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) in toluene demonstrated a 4{sup th}-power dependence in both TTA and H{sup +}, with Hf(TTA){sub 4} the only extractable species. The equilibrium constant for the extraction of Hf(TTA){sub 4} was determined to be log K{sub ex}=7.67±0.07 (25±1 C, 1 M HClO{sub 4}). The addition of oxalate to the aqueous phase decreased the distribution ratio, indicating aqueous Hf(IV)-oxalate complex formation. Polynomial fits to the distribution data identified the formation of Hf(ox){sup 2+} and Hf(ox){sub 2(aq)} and their stability constants were measured at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4}. van't Hoff analysis was used to calculate Δ{sub r}G, Δ{sub r}H, and Δ{sub r}S for these species. Stability constants were observed to increase at higher temperature, an indication that Hf(IV)-oxalate complexation is endothermic and driven by entropy.

  17. Oxalate oxidases and differentiating surface structure in wheat: germins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, B G

    2000-07-01

    Oxalate oxidases (OXOs) have been found to be concentrated in the surface tissues of wheat embryos and grains: germin is concentrated in root and leaf sheaths that surround germinated embryos; pseudogermin (OXO-psi) is concentrated in the epidermis and bracts that 'encircle' mature grains. Most strikingly, the epidermal accumulation of OXO-psi was found to presage the transition of a delicate 'skin', similar to the fragile epidermis of human skin, into the tough shell (the miller's 'beeswing') that is typical of mature wheat grains. A narrow range of oxalate concentration (1--2 mM) in the hydrated tissues of major crop cereals (barley, maize, oat, rice, rye and wheat) contrasted with wide variations in their OXO expression, e.g. cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive varieties of maize have similar oxalate contents but the former was found to contain approx. 20-fold more germin than did the latter. Well-known OXOs in sorghum, a minor cereal, and beet, a dicotyledon, were found to have little antigenic relatedness to the germins, but the beet enzyme did share some of the unique stability properties that are peculiar to the germin-like OXOs that are found only in the major crop cereals. Their concentration in surface structures of domesticated wheat suggests a biochemical role for germin-like OXOs: programmed cell death in surface tissues might be a constitutive as well as an adaptive form of differentiation that helps to produce refractory barriers against tissue invasion by predators. Incidental to the principal investigation, and using an OXO assay (oxalate-dependent release of CO(2)) that did not rely on detecting H(2)O(2), which is often fully degraded in cell extracts, it was found that OXO activity in soluble extracts of wheat was manifested only in standard solution assays if the extract was pretreated in a variety of ways, which included preincubation with pepsin or highly substituted glucuronogalactoarabinoxylans (cell-wall polysaccharides).

  18. The crystal and molecular structure of ammonium titanyl oxalate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Velde, G.M.H.; Harkema, Sybolt; Gellings, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    Ammonium titanyl oxalate monohydrate, (NH4)2 TiO(C2O4)2·H2O, is monoclinic with cell parameters A = 13.473(2), B = 11.329(1), C = 17.646(2) Å, β = 126.66(1)°. The space group is P21/c with Z = 8, dc = 1.808 g cm−3 and dm = 1.80 g cm−3. The crystal structure was determined from single-crystal

  19. Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate by photoacoustics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    O5 [= 1⋅219(2) Å] and C5–O6 [= 1⋅235(2) Å] in the car- boxylate group of the semi-oxalate ion may be attributed to the difference in strengths of the N–H…O hydrogen bonds in which both O5 and O6 are involved ( table 1). This bond strength, in general, will be given in terms of the activation and formation energies.

  20. Differences in quantitative urine composition in stone-forming versus unaffected mate kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Eisenberg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael L Eisenberg1, Keith L Lee1, Benjamin N Breyer1, Thomas J Walsh2, Badrinath R Konety1, Marshall L Stoller11Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAObjectives: Many patients present with bilateral stones. There is a unique group of patients, however, that presents with stones exclusively on one side. We hypothesize that in such situations, 24-hour urine collections may not reveal specific defects on the affected stone-bearing kidney. We therefore evaluated selective 12-hour urine collections after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL to help determine if there is differential renal excretion.Methods: We collected urine specimens from patients with nephrolithiasis who underwent unilateral PNL. Urine samples were collected and analyzed from nephrostomy tubes, representing the affected kidneys, and from Foley bladder catheters, representing the contralateral mate kidney.Results: Thirty-one patients were studied (14 with unilateral nephrolithiasis and 17 with bilateral. Treated kidneys from patients with unilateral nephrolithiasis displayed lowered urine excretion of uric acid, sodium, chloride, calcium, and total osmoles when compared to patients with bilateral nephrolithiasis. Stone size and length of procedure were not predictive of urine composition after PNL.Conclusions: Treated kidneys from patients with a history of unilateral stone disease revealed marked differences in urine excretion compared to those with bilateral nephrolithiasis after unilateral PNL. These findings could be secondary to the surgical insult, urinary stone disease, or could be a responsible factor for stone pathogenesis.Keywords: percutaneous nephrolithotomy, kidney, stone, nephrolithiasis

  1. Uranyl peroxide pyrophosphate cage clusters with oxalate and nitrate bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jie; Ozga, Michael; Stoffer, Megan; Burns, Peter C

    2012-06-28

    Two complex cage clusters built from uranyl hexagonal bipyramids and multiple types of bridges between uranyl ions, U(30)Py(10)Ox(5) and U(38)Py(10)Nt(4), were crystallized from aqueous solution under ambient conditions. These are built from 30 uranyl hexagonal bipyramids, 10 pyrophosphate groups, and five oxalate bridges in one case, and 38 uranyl hexagonal bipyramids, 10 pyrophosphate groups, and four nitrate groups in the other. The crystal compositions are (H(3)O)(10)Li(18)K(22)[(UO(2))(30)(O(2))(30)(P(2)O(7))(10)(C(2)O(4))(5)](H(2)O)(22) and Li(24)K(36)[(UO(2))(38)(O(2))(40)(OH)(8)(P(2)O(7))(10)(NO(3))(4)](NO(3))(4)(H(2)O)(n) for U(30)Py(10)Ox(5) and U(38)Py(10)Nt(4), respectively. Cluster U(30)Py(10)Ox(5) crystallizes over a narrow range of solution pH that encourages incorporation of both oxalate and pyrophosphate, with incorporation of oxalate only being favored under more acidic conditions, and pyrophosphate only under more alkaline conditions. Cluster U(38)Py(10)Nt(4) contains two identical lobes consisting of uranyl polyhedra and pyrophosphate groups, with these lobes linked into the larger cluster through four nitrate groups. The synthesis conditions appear to have prevented closure of these lobes, and a relatively high nitrate concentration in solution favored formation of the larger cluster.

  2. Quantitative observation on teeth during calcium deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P

    1977-07-01

    Adult female rats were subjected to severe calcium deprivation by feeding them a calcium-deficient diet containing oxalate (Group A). Furthermore, pregnant and lactating animals were subjected to the same diet (Group B). The mandibular teeth were collected for ash determination and for linear measurements. The ash content of the growing incisors was only slightly reduced in Group A, while the reduction in Group B was 27%. Linear measurements demonstrated that the outer dimensions of the incisors were not affected by the calcium-depriving regimen in either group, while the inner dimensions (pulp cavity) were considerably increased in Group B due to reduced thickness of the dentin mantle. The daily dentin apposition in Group A did not deviate much from the control values, while in Group B it was severely reduced. The thickness of incisor enamel was unaffected by the calcium-depriving regimen. The ash content of the molars was normal in Group A, but slightly reduced in Group B.

  3. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 containing an artificial oxalate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin secretes oxalic acid and solubilizes rock phosphate in acidic alfisols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Yadav

    Full Text Available Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah, Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2 transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4 secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2 transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2 containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil.

  4. Open stone surgery: a still-in-use approach for complex stone burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakici, Özer Ural; Ener, Kemal; Keske, Murat; Altinova, Serkan; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Aldemir, Mustafa; Ardicoglu, Arslan

    2017-06-30

    Urinary stone disease is a major urological condition. Endourologic techniques have influenced the clinical approach and outcomes. Open surgery holds a historic importance in the management of most conditions. However, complex kidney stone burden may be amenable to successful results with open stone surgery. In this article, we report our eighteen cases of complex urinary stone disease who underwent open stone removal. A total of 1701 patients have undergone surgical treatment for urinary stone disease in our clinic between July 2012 and July 2016, comprising eighteen patients who underwent open stone surgery. Patients' demographic data, stone analysis results, postoperative clinical data, and stone status were evaluated retrospectively. The choice of surgical approach is mostly dependent on the surgeon's preference. In two patients, open surgery was undertaken because of perioperative complications. We did not observe any Clavien-Dindo grade 4 or 5 complications. Three patients were managed with a course of antibiotics due to postoperative fever. One patient had postoperative pleurisy, one patient had urinoma, and two patients had postoperative ileus. Mean operation time was 84 (57-124) minutes and mean hospitalization time was 5.5 (3-8) days. Stone-free status was achieved in 15 patients (83.3%). Endourologic approaches are the first options for treatment of urinary stone disease. However, open stone surgery holds its indispensable position in complicated cases and in complex stone burden. Open stone surgery is also a valid alternative to endourologic techniques in all situations.

  5. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  6. Dietary intake of fiber, fruit and vegetables decreases the risk of incident kidney stones in women: a Women's Health Initiative report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Mathew D; Hsi, Ryan S; Chi, Thomas; Shara, Nawar; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Kahn, Arnold J; Wang, Hong; Hou, Lifang; Stoller, Marshall L

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between dietary fiber, fruit and vegetable intake, and the risk of kidney stone formation. Overall 83,922 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative observational study were included in the analysis and followed prospectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between total dietary fiber, fruit and vegetable intake, and the risk of incident kidney stone formation, adjusting for nephrolithiasis risk factors (age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, diabetes mellitus, calcium supplementation, hormone therapy use, body mass index and calibrated caloric intake; and dietary water, sodium, animal protein and calcium intake). Women with a history of kidney stones (3,471) were analyzed separately. Mean age of the women was 64±7 years, 85% were white and 2,937 (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone in a median followup of 8 years. In women with no history of kidney stones higher total dietary fiber (6% to 26% decreased risk, p vegetable intake (9% to 22% decreased risk, p=0.002) were associated with a decreased risk of incident kidney stone formation in separate adjusted models. In women with a history of stones there were no significant protective effects of fiber, fruit or vegetable intake on the risk of kidney stone recurrence. Greater dietary intake of fiber, fruits and vegetables was associated with a reduced risk of incident kidney stones in postmenopausal women. The protective effects were independent of other known risk factors for kidney stones. In contrast, there was no reduction in risk in women with a history of stones. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The utilization of oil palm fronds in producing oxalic acid through oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulina, Seri; Rahmadi, Ihwan

    2017-08-01

    As one of the solid waste generated by palm oil plantations, Oil Palm Fronds have the potential to be further processed into useful products since the presence of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Hence, the objective of this study was to utilize oil palm fronds in producing oxalic acid through oxidation process using. To achieve the objective, this study assessed conversion of cellulose, yield and quality of oxalic acid produced. Two stages are carried out, namely oxidation and crystallization. Assays on raw materials revealed the cellulose content of 29.2 percent. The largest yield of oxalic acid was 43.31 percent, the highest conversion of cellulose was 58.86 percent. FTIR and melting point analysis were employed in this study. These analyses indicated that the functional groups have reached the standard of oxalic acid with a melting point of 102.1 °C, which showed that the oxalic acid obtained was oxalic acid dehydrate.

  8. Acute oxalate poisoning attributable to ingestion of curly dock (Rumex crispus) in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, R J; Martin, T; Burrows, G E; Taylor, D S; Rice, L E

    1990-06-15

    Ten of 100 mature ewes were afflicted with acute oxalate toxicosis within 40 hours after being temporarily penned in a lot that contained considerable growing Rumex crispus (curly dock). Clinical signs of toxicosis included excess salivation, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency. Affected ewes were markedly hypocalcemic and azotemic. Oxalate crystals were not observed in urine. Gross postmortem lesions were minimal and nondiagnostic in 2 ewes that died peracutely, but perirenal edema and renal tubular degeneration were clearly observable in ewes euthanatized on the third day of toxicosis. Diagnosis of oxalate toxicosis was confirmed by histopathologic findings. Samples of Rumex spp contained 6.6 to 11.1% oxalic acid on a dry-weight basis, a concentration comparable with that in other oxalate-containing plants that have caused acute oxalate toxicosis.

  9. Effect of acute acid loading on acid-base and calcium metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, Palle J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acid-base and calcium metabolic responses to acute non-carbonic acid loading in idiopathic calcium stone-formers and healthy males using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h ammonium chloride loading studies were performed in 12...... male recurrent idiopathic calcium stone-formers and 12 matched healthy men using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Arterialized capillary blood, serum and urine were collected hourly for measurement of electrolytes, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and acid-base...... status. Concentrations of non-metabolizable base (NB) and acid (NA) were calculated from measured concentrations of non-metabolizable ions. RESULTS: The extracellular acid-base status in the stone-formers during basal conditions and acid loading was comparable to the levels in the healthy controls...

  10. A Novel Method for Fabricating Double Layers Porous Anodic Alumina in Phosphoric/Oxalic Acid Solution and Oxalic Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for fabricating ordered double layers porous anodic alumina (DL-PAA with controllable nanopore size was presented. Highly ordered large pore layer with interpore distance of 480 nm was fabricated in phosphoric acid solution with oxalic acid addition at the potential of 195 V and the small pore layer was fabricated in oxalic acid solution at the potential from 60 to 100 V. Experimental results show that the thickness of large pore layer is linearly correlative with anodizing time, and pore diameter is linearly correlative with pore widening time. When the anodizing potential in oxalic acid solution was adjusted from 60 to 100 V, the small pore layers with continuously tunable interpore distance from 142 to 241 nm and pore density from 1.94×109 to 4.89×109 cm−2 were obtained. And the interpore distance and the pore density of small pore layers are closely correlative with the anodizing potential. The fabricated DL-PAA templates can be widely utilized for fabrication of ordered nanomaterials, such as superhydrophobic or gecko-inspired adhesive materials and metal or semiconductor nanowires.

  11. Guideline of guidelines: kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Justin B; Matlaga, Brian R

    2015-08-01

    Several professional organizations have developed evidence-based guidelines for the initial evaluation, diagnostic imaging selection, symptomatic management, surgical treatment, medical therapy, and prevention of recurrence for both ureteric and renal stones. The purpose of this article is to summarize these guidelines with reference to the strength of evidence. All guidelines endorse an initial evaluation to exclude concomitant infection, imaging with a non-contrast computed tomography scan, and consideration of medical expulsive therapy or surgical intervention depending on stone size and location. Recommends for metabolic evaluation vary by guideline, but all endorse increasing fluid intake to reduce the risk of recurrence. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Renal stone disease in the 1990s: the powder keg and tinderbox theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, P

    1992-10-01

    Abnormal dietary habits that lead to hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypereruricosuria, and hypocitraturia do not always result in nephrolithiasis. A concept is emerging according to which, to account for renal stone formation in the face of the aforementioned biochemical disorders, one must search for underlying conditions in patients with the disease. Work carried out over the past few years and reviewed herein definitely supports this idea and includes the following processes: 1) interleukin-1 production by monocytes to augment the impact of dietary hypercalciuria; 2) disturbed activation of pyridoxine to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate to aggravate dietary hyperoxaluria; 3) abnormal intestinal transport of citrate to aggravate dietary hypocitraturia; 4) molecular abnormalities of glycoprotein inhibitors to aggravate the promotive effect of the diet on urinary crystallization; and 5) renal tubular lesions to favor particle retention and stone formation. This article reviews the most recent literature and discusses the author's "powder keg and tinderbox" theory of idiopathic calcium stone disease.

  13. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  14. Calcium content of different compositions of gallstones and pathogenesis of calcium carbonate gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Kuen; Pan, Huichin; Huang, Shing-Moo; Huang, Nan-Lan; Yao, Chung-Chin; Hsiao, Kuang-Ming; Wu, Chew-Wun

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the calcium content of different gallstone compositions and the pathogenic mechanisms of calcium carbonate gallstones. Between August 2001 and July 2007, gallstones from 481 patients, including 68 calcium carbonate gallstones, were analyzed for total calcium content. Gallbladder bile samples from 33 cases and six controls were analyzed for pH, carbonate anion level, free-ionized calcium concentration and saturation index for calcium carbonate. Total calcium content averaged 75.6 %, 11.8 %, and 4.2 % for calcium carbonate, calcium bilirubinate and cholesterol gallstones. In 29.4 % of patients, chronic and/or intermittent cystic duct obstructions were caused by polypoid lesions in the neck region and 70.6 % were caused by stones. A total of 82 % of patients had chronic low-grade inflammation of the gallbladder wall and 18.0 % had acute inflammatory exacerbations. In the bile, we found the mean pH, mean carbonate anion, free-ionized calcium concentrations, and mean saturation index for calcium carbonate to be elevated in comparison to controls. From our study, we found chronic and/or intermittent cystic duct obstructions and low-grade GB wall inflammation lead to GB epithelium hydrogen secretion dysfunction. Increased calcium ion efflux into the GB lumen combined with increased carbonate anion presence increases SI_CaCO(3) from 1 to 22.4. Thus, in an alkaline milieu with pH 7.8, calcium carbonate begins to aggregate and precipitate. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrol, Nitin; Kekre, Nitin S

    2015-01-01

    Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc.) are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at improving results of intervention for stone disease. Purpose of this review is to discuss development of this technology and its potential clinical applications. Pubmed search was made using key words "Focused ultrasound" and "kidney stone". All English language articles were reviewed by title. Relevant studies describing development and application of focused ultrasound in renal stones were selected for review. Focused ultrasound has proven its efficacy in successfully relocating up to 8 mm stone fragments in vitro and in pigs. Relocation is independent of stone composition. The latest model allows imaging and therapy with a single handheld probe facilitating its use by single operator. The acoustic energy delivered by the new prototype is even less than that used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therapeutic exposure has not caused thermal injury in pig kidneys. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of stones is feasible. Though it is safe in application in pigs, technology is awaiting approval for clinical testing in human beings. This technology has many potential clinical applications in the management of stone disease.

  16. Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Abrol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc. are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at improving results of intervention for stone disease. Purpose of this review is to discuss development of this technology and its potential clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Pubmed search was made using key words "Focused ultrasound" and "kidney stone." All English language articles were reviewed by title. Relevant studies describing development and application of focused ultrasound in renal stones were selected for review. Results: Focused ultrasound has proven its efficacy in successfully relocating up to 8 mm stone fragments in vitro and in pigs. Relocation is independent of stone composition. The latest model allows imaging and therapy with a single handheld probe facilitating its use by single operator. The acoustic energy delivered by the new prototype is even less than that used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therapeutic exposure has not caused thermal injury in pig kidneys. Conclusion: Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of stones is feasible. Though it is safe in application in pigs, technology is awaiting approval for clinical testing in human beings. This technology has many potential clinical applications in the management of stone disease.

  17. Dilation-assisted stone extraction: an alternative method for removal of common bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guodong; Pang, Qiuping; Zhang, Xiujuan; Dong, Haiyan; Guo, Rong; Zhai, Hailan; Dong, Yanchun; Jia, Xinyong

    2014-04-01

    Dilation-assisted stone extraction, also termed small endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) plus endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation, is more efficient than EST alone for removal of large common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, whether this technique can be used for all stones is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and complications of dilation-assisted stone extraction for CBD stones. A total of 462 patients with CBD stones were randomized to undergo either dilation-assisted stone extraction (group A) or EST (group B). The efficacy and complications of the two techniques were compared. Groups A and B showed similar outcomes in terms of stone removal. The short-term and 1-year complication rates were also similar between the two groups. However, the first-session stone removal rate in group A was significantly higher than that in group B. Mechanical lithotripsy was required significantly more often in group B than in group A. The total procedure time and total fluoroscopy time in group A were significantly shorter than those in group B. Dilation-assisted stone extraction and EST are safe and effective techniques for the treatment of CBD stones. Dilation-assisted stone extraction has high efficiency. This technique is an alternative method for removal of CBD stones.

  18. Dietary and Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated with Incident Kidney Stones in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Taylor, Eric N; Gambaro, Giovanni; Curhan, Gary C

    2017-10-01

    Several dietary and lifestyle factors are associated with a higher risk of kidney stones. We estimated the population attributable fraction and the number needed to prevent for modifiable risk factors, including body mass index, fluid intake, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) style diet, dietary calcium intake and sugar sweetened beverage intake. We used data on the HPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study) cohort and the NHS (Nurses' Health Study) I and II cohorts. Information was obtained from validated questionnaires. Poisson regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate the association of each risk factor with the development of incident kidney stones and calculate the population attributable fraction and the number needed to prevent. The study included 192,126 participants who contributed a total of 3,259,313 person-years of followup, during which an incident kidney stone developed in 6,449 participants. All modifiable risk factors were independently associated with incident stones in each cohort. The population attributable fraction ranged from 4.4% for a higher intake of sugar sweetened beverages to 26.0% for a lower fluid intake. The population attributable fraction for all 5 risk factors combined was 57.0% in HPFS, 55.2% in NHS I and 55.1% in NHS II. The number needed to prevent during 10 years ranged from 67 for lower fluid intake to 556 for lower dietary calcium intake. Five modifiable risk factors accounted for more than 50% of incident kidney stones in 3 large prospective cohorts. Assuming a causal relation, our estimates suggest that preventive measures aimed at reducing those factors could substantially decrease the burden of kidney stones in the general population. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic trimethyltin chloride exposure and the development of kidney stones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuefeng; Wu, Xin; Sui, Gang; Gong, Zhihong; Yawson, Emmanuel; Wu, Banghua; Lai, Guanchao; Ruan, Xiaolin; Gao, Hongbin; Zhou, Feng; Su, Bing; Olson, James R; Tang, Xiaojiang

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that occupational exposure to trimethyltin (TMT) is a risk factor for developing kidney stones. To further examine the association between TMT exposure and the formation of kidney stones, we conducted a 180-day animal study and exposed the randomly grouped Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to TMT in the drinking water at doses of 0, 8.2, 32.8 and 131.3 µg kg(-1) day(-1). Transient behavioral changes were observed in the high-dose group during the first 2 weeks of exposure. TMT exposure led to a significant dose-dependent inhibition of renal H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and an increase in urinary pH. In comparison to no kidney stones being identified in the control and the lowest dose group, 1 rat in the 32.8 µg kg(-1) day(-1) dose group and 3 out of 9 rats in the 131.3 µg kg(-1) day(-1) dose group were found to have stones in the kidney/urinary tract. Pathological analysis showed that more wide spread calcium disposition was observed in kidneys of rats with TMT exposure compared with the rats in the control group. However, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis found that the kidney stones were mainly composed of struvite with the formula: NH4MgPO4 6H2O, while calcium-containing components were also detected. Together, this study further demonstrates through animal studies that chronic exposure to a relatively low level of TMT induces nephrotoxicity and increases the risk for developing kidney stones. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Microbial monitoring in treated stone at the Royal Chapel of Granada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jroundi, Fadwa; Pinar, Guadalupe; González-Muñoz, Maria Theresa; Sterflinger, Katja

    2014-05-01

    Biomineralization processes have been applied in situ to protect and consolidate decayed ornamental stone of the Royal Chapel in Granada (Spain). In few years, this conservation treatment has gained worth attention as environmentally friendly methodology for protection and consolidation of limestone because of the compatibilities shown between the new calcium carbonate cement and the original stone substrate. Moreover, the success of this approach may be related to the diversity of the microbiota inhabiting the stone and activated upon the biotreatment application and throughout the time. González-Muñoz et al. (2008) proposed a nutritional solution that activate among the bacteria inhabiting the stone those with carbonatogenic activity. In this study, a long-term (one, two and three years) monitoring of the microbiota present on the treated and untreated stones was done using a molecular strategy, including total DNA extraction, PCR amplification of 16S rRNA sequences, construction of clone libraries and fingerprinting by DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) analysis. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA revealed the dominant occurrence of members of Actinobacteria (44.20%), Gamma-proteobacteria (30.24%) and Chloroflexi (25.56%) after one year of the biotreatment. Whereas after two years, members of Cyanobacteria (22.10%) appeared and three years after, the microbiota consisted of only Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria with approximately the same percentage in comparison with the untreated stones, dominated exclusively by Actinobacteria (100%). Fungal diversity followed the same dynamic as bacterial diversity being Ascomicota the predominant order before treatment. After one year, members of Basidiomycota and Viridiplantae appeared on the stone while two years after, the Viridiplantae dominated with a percentage of 84.77%. Finally, three years after the treatment, fungi population started to stabilize again and Ascomicota predominated next to 16.67% of

  1. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, F. [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: hameed@ati.ac.at; Schillinger, B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, FRM II and Physics Department E21, Garching (Germany); Rohatsch, A. [Institute for Engineering Geology, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H. [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-06-21

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  2. Definition and Facts for Kidney Stones in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Definition & Facts for Kidney Stones What are kidney stones? Kidney stones are hard, pebble-like pieces of ... stone may get stuck along the way. Do kidney stones have another name? The scientific name for a ...

  3. Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Abrol; Kekre, Nitin S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc.) are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at impr...

  4. The influence of ouabain and alpha angelica lactone on calcium metabolism of dog cardiac microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entman, Mark L.; Cook, Joseph W.; Bressler, Rubin

    1969-01-01

    The influence of ouabain and alpha angelica lactone on 45calcium accumulation in cardiac microsomes was studied. Calcium binding (accumulation in the absence of excess oxalate or phosphate) was augmented by both ouabain and alpha angelica lactone in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) but unaffected in its absence. Calcium turnover (defined as the change in 45Ca++ bound to the microsomes after the specific activity is changed) was studied to determine if the augmented bound pool was freely exchangeable at equilibrium. Ouabain and alpha angelica lactone augmented calcium turnover in both the presence and absence of ATP. Calcium-stimulated ATPase was increased by both agents. It is proposed that these two unsaturated lactones, with known cardiotonic activity, may exert their effects by providing an increased contraction-dependent calcium pool to be released upon systolic depolarization. PMID:4236805

  5. Building stones can be of geoheritage significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    Building stones have generally been assigned values according to their cultural, aesthetic, and rarity significance, amongst other criteria, but they also may have geoheritage significance. This is akin to the geoheritage significance ascribed to minerals and fossils housed as ex situ specimens in museums. We proffer the notion that building stones can be of geoheritage value particularly where they comprise permanent buildings, they illustrate significant windows into the history of the Earth, and they can be visited as an ex situ museum locality (e.g., the "Blue Granite" of Iceland) for education as part of building-stone tours. For some rocks the quarries that supplied the building stone are no longer in existence and hence the building stones provide the only record of that type of material; for other rocks, the building stone may illustrate features in the lithology no longer present in the quarry itself (e.g., rare and large xenoliths). Building stones are particularly significant as they are often polished and manifest structures, fabrics, and textures not evident in outcrop. We illustrate here examples of building stone of geoheritage significance using Australian and International examples. Australian designated stones could include the "Sydney Sandstone" or "Victorian Bluestone". For international examples, there is the famous "Carrara Marble" in Italy and the widely known "Portland Limestone" from southern England, the latter having been utilized for St Pauls Cathedral in London and the UN building in New York City.

  6. Novel Peptide with Specific Calcium-Binding Capacity from Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and Calcium Bioavailability in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Cai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptide-calcium can probably be a suitable supplement to improve calcium absorption in the human body. In this study, a specific peptide Phe-Tyr (FY with calcium-binding capacity was purified from Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. The calcium-binding capacity of FY reached 128.77 ± 2.57 μg/mg. Results of ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy showed that carboxyl groups, amino groups, and amido groups were the major chelating sites. FY-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which were beneficial to be absorbed and transported in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the calcium bioavailability in Caco-2 cells showed that FY-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency by more than three times when compared with CaCl2, and protect calcium ions against dietary inhibitors, such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate, and Zn2+. Our findings further the progress of algae-based peptide-calcium, suggesting that FY-Ca has the potential to be developed as functionally nutraceutical additives.

  7. A London experience 1995-2012: demographic, dietary and biochemical characteristics of a large adult cohort of patients with renal stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, P M; Robertson, W G; Johri, N; Nair, A; Gambaro, G; Shavit, L; Moochhala, S H; Unwin, R J

    2015-07-01

    Kidney stone disease has an estimated preva