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Sample records for calcium oxalate stone

  1. Effect of dietary oxalate and calcium on urinary oxalate and risk of formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, L K; Roman-Smith, H; Sutton, R A

    1993-08-01

    Dietary restriction of oxalate intake has been used as therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Although urinary oxalate is derived predominantly from endogenous synthesis, it may also be affected by dietary intake of oxalate and calcium. The risk of increasing urinary oxalate excretion by excessive consumption of dietary oxalate is greatest in individuals with a high rate of oxalate absorption, both with and without overt intestinal disease. Although oxalate-rich foods enhanced excretion of urinary oxalate in normal volunteers, the increase was not proportional to the oxalate content of the food. Only eight foods--spinach, rhubarb, beets, nuts, chocolate, tea, wheat bran, and strawberries--caused a significant increase in urinary oxalate excretion. Restriction of dietary calcium enhances oxalate absorption and excretion, whereas an increase in calcium intake may reduce urinary oxalate excretion by binding more oxalate in the gut. This review of the literature indicates that initial dietary therapy for stone-forming individuals can be limited to the restriction of foods definitely shown to increase urinary oxalate. The effects of oxalate-restricted diets on urinary oxalate should be evaluated by means of laboratory analyses of urine composition. Subsequent long-term therapy can be recommended if beneficial results are obtained from oxalate restriction at an appropriate calcium intake. PMID:8335871

  2. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny

  3. Aggregation of Calcium Phosphate and Oxalate Phases in the Formation of Renal Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Baoquan; Halter, Timothy J.; Borah, Ballav M.; Nancollas, George H.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of human kidney stones are comprised of multiple calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals encasing a calcium phosphate nucleus. The physiochemical mechanism of nephrolithiasis has not been well determined on the molecular level; this is crucial to the control and prevention of renal stone formation. This work investigates the role of phosphate ions on the formation of calcium oxalate stones; recent work has identified amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) as a rapidly forming initi...

  4. A Comparative Study on Several Models of Experimental Renal Calcium Oxalate Stones Formation in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jihong; CAO Zhenggno; ZHANG Zhaohui; ZHOU Siwei; YE Zhangqun

    2007-01-01

    In order to compare the effects of several experimental renal calcium oxalate stones formation models in rats and to find a simple and convenient model with significant effect of calcium oxalate crystals deposition in the kidney, several rat models of renal calcium oxalate stones formation were induced by some crystal-inducing drugs (CID) including ethylene glycol (EG), ammonium chloride (AC), vitamin D3 [1α(OH)VitD3, alfacalcidol], calcium gluconate, ammonium oxalate, gentamicin sulfate, L-hydroxyproline. The rats were fed with drugs given singly or unitedly. At the end of experiment, 24-h urines were collected and the serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), the extents of calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the renal tissue, urinary calcium and oxalate excretion were measured. The serum Cr levels in the stone-forming groups were significantly higher than those in the control group except for the group EG+L-hydroxyproline, group calcium gluconate and group oxalate. Blood BUN concentration was significantly higher in rats fed with CID than that in control group except for group EG+L-hydroxyproline and group ammonium oxalate plus calcium gluconate. In the group of rats administered with EG plus Vitamin D3, the deposition of calcium oxalate crystal in the renal tissue and urinary calcium excretion were significantly greater than other model groups. The effect of the model induced by EG plus AC was similar to that in the group induced by EG plus Vitamin D3. EG plus Vitamin D3 or EG plus AC could stably and significantly induced the rat model of renal calcium oxalate stones formation.

  5. The variability and dietary dependence of urinary oxalate excretion in recurrent calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J M; Stratmann, G; Cowley, D M; Mottram, B M; Chalmers, A H

    1987-07-01

    Twenty-two recurrent calcium stone formers had 24-h urinary oxalate excretions on their home diets which were significantly greater than those of 30 normal subjects (0.48 +/- 0.23 mmol/d; mean +/- SD compared with 0.31 +/- 0.11; P less than 0.01). The stone formers also demonstrated marked day to day variability in oxalate excretion indicating that a single normal urinary oxalate measurement did not exclude significant hyperoxaluria at other times. On a hospital diet containing 1000 mg calcium per day, urinary oxalate excretion fell significantly from 0.48 +/- 0.23 mmol/d to 0.32 +/- 0.12; P less than 0.01. As the urinary calcium excretion in and out of hospital was similar, it seems unlikely that low calcium intake at home was responsible for the hyperoxaluria. All patients had recurrent symptomatic stone disease and had been advised to avoid foods rich in oxalate. Whilst poor compliance is a possible explanation for the variability in oxalate excretion, we believe it is more likely that there is an inadvertent intake of oxalogenic precursors in their diet. As normal subjects do not demonstrate hyperoxaluria on similar home diets, stone formers may have a metabolic defect in the handling of these precursors. PMID:3662388

  6. Antilithic effects of extracts from Urtica dentata hand on calcium oxalate urinary stones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Shasha; Lu, Jingli; Li, Lulu; Hou, Wenrui; Xie, Mingxing; Zeng, Ying

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the potential antilithic effects of a traditional Chinese medicine Urtica dentata Hand (UDH) in experimental rats and screened the optimal extract of UDH as a possible therapeutic agent for kidney stones. The rat model of urinary calcium oxalate stones was induced by intragastric (i.g.) administration of 2 mL of 1.25% ethylene glycol (EG) and 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for 28 days and was confirmed by Color Doppler ultrasound imaging. The rats in different experimental groups were then intragastrically given petroleum ether extract (PEE), N-butanol extract (NBE), aqueous extract (AqE) of UDH, Jieshitong (positive control drug), and saline, respectively. Treatment with NBE significantly reduced the elevated levels of urinary calcium, uric acid, phosphate, as well as increased urinary output. Accordingly, the increased calcium, oxalate levels and the number of calcium oxalate crystals deposits were remarkably reverted in the renal tissue of NBE-treated rats. In addition, NBE also prevented the impairment of renal function to decrease the contents of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. Taken together, these data suggest that NBE of UDH has a beneficial effect on calcium oxalate urinary stones in rats by flushing the stones out and protecting renal function. PMID:22038359

  7. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

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    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  8. Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vaitheeswari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model.Materials and Methods:The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4 on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques.Results:The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4.Conclusion:Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O32-and SO42- moiety produced by the test compounds.

  9. Evidence for net renal tubule oxalate secretion in patients with calcium kidney stones

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsland, Kristin J.; Zisman, Anna L.; Asplin, John R.; Worcester, Elaine M.; Coe, Fredric L.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the renal handling of oxalate in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH). To explore the role of tubular oxalate handling in IH and to evaluate whether differences exist between IH and normal controls, we studied 19 IH subjects, 8 normal subjects, and 2 bariatric stone formers (BSF) during a 1-day General Clinical Research Center protocol utilizing a low-oxalate diet. Urine and blood samples were collected at 30- to 60-min intervals while subjects were fasting and a...

  10. Peeping into human renal calcium oxalate stone matrix: characterization of novel proteins involved in the intricate mechanism of urolithiasis.

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    Kanu Priya Aggarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients suffering from urolithiasis represents one of the major challenges which nephrologists face worldwide today. For enhancing therapeutic outcomes of this disease, the pathogenic basis for the formation of renal stones is the need of hour. Proteins are found as major component in human renal stone matrix and are considered to have a potential role in crystal-membrane interaction, crystal growth and stone formation but their role in urolithiasis still remains obscure. METHODS: Proteins were isolated from the matrix of human CaOx containing kidney stones. Proteins having MW>3 kDa were subjected to anion exchange chromatography followed by molecular-sieve chromatography. The effect of these purified proteins was tested against CaOx nucleation and growth and on oxalate injured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK renal epithelial cells for their activity. Proteins were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server. In silico molecular interaction studies with CaOx crystals were also investigated. RESULTS: Five proteins were identified from the matrix of calcium oxalate kidney stones by MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server with the competence to control the stone formation process. Out of which two proteins were promoters, two were inhibitors and one protein had a dual activity of both inhibition and promotion towards CaOx nucleation and growth. Further molecular modelling calculations revealed the mode of interaction of these proteins with CaOx at the molecular level. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and characterized Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein, UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 2, RIMS-binding protein 3A, Macrophage-capping protein as novel proteins from the matrix of human calcium oxalate stone which play a critical role in kidney stone

  11. Herbal preparations affect the kinetic factors of calcium oxalate crystallization in synthetic urine: implications for kidney stone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Allen L; Webber, Dawn; Ramsout, Ronica; Gohel, Mayur Danny I

    2014-06-01

    Herbal remedies are increasingly being considered as suitable long-term treatments for renal dysfunction. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of some herbal extracts, all previously identified in published studies as influencing kidney stone formation, on the crystallization characteristics of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in synthetic urine (SU). Five herbal extracts were selected for the study: Folium pyrrosiae, Desmodium styracifolium, Phyllanthus niruri, Orthosiphon stamineus and Cystone(®). Concentrated stock solutions of each herbal extract were prepared and were tested at their recommended dosages in in vitro crystallization studies in SU. CaOx crystallization experiments were performed in which the metastable limit (MSL), average particle size, and nucleation and growth rates were determined. The CaOx MSL of SU was unaltered by the five herbal extracts. Three of the herbs (Desmodium styracifolium, Orthosiphon stamineus and Cystone(®)) significantly reduced the average particle size of precipitated crystals relative to undosed SU. All of the extracts increased the rate of nucleation and decreased the rate of growth significantly in SU. Cystone(®) showed the greatest effect on the measured risk factors. It is concluded that all of the herbs have the potential to serve as inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone formation and warrant investigation in clinical trials. PMID:24648109

  12. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Kargar; Rouhi Afkari; Sadegh Ghorbani-Dalini

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a tota...

  13. The effect of seed crystals of hydroxyapatite and brushite on the crystallization of calcium oxalate in undiluted human urine in vitro: implications for urinary stone pathogenesis.

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    Grover, Phulwinder K.; Kim, Dong-Sun; Ryall, Rosemary Lyons

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether crystals of hydroxyapatite (HA) or brushite (BR) formed in urine promote the epitaxial deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) from undiluted human urine in vitro and thereby explain the occurrence of phosphate in the core of urinary stones consisting predominantly of CaOx. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crystals of HA, BR, and CaOx were generated from human urine and their identity confirmed by X-ray analysis. Standard quantities of each crystal were then added to separate aliquots of pooled undiluted human urine and CaOx crystallization was induced by the addition of identical loads of sodium oxalate. Crystallization was monitored by Coulter Counter and (14) C-oxalate analysis and the precipitated crystals were examined by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: In comparison with the control to which no seeds were added, addition of CaOx crystals increased the deposition of (14) C-oxalate by 23%. On the other hand, seeds of HA and BR had no effect. These findings were supported by Coulter Counter analysis, which showed that the average modal sizes of crystal particles precipitated in the presence of HA and BR seeds were indistinguishable from those in the control, whereas those deposited in the presence of CaOx were significantly larger. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed these results, demonstrating that large aggregates of CaOx dihydrates were formed in the presence of CaOx seeds, whereas BR and to a lesser extent HA seeds were scattered free on the filtration membrane and attached like barnacles on the surface of the freshly precipitated CaOx crystals. CONCLUSION: Seed crystals of HA or BR do not promote CaOx deposition in urine in vitro and are therefore unlikely to influence CaOx crystal formation under physiologic conditions. However, binding of HA and BR crystals to, and their subsequent enclosure within, actively growing CaOx crystals might occur in vivo, thereby explaining the occurrence of mixed

  14. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

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    Mohammad Kargar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a total of 200 subjects divided in two equal groups. They were selected from the patients with urinary tract stones, visiting urologist, and also normal people. The level of calcium, oxalate, and citrate in the urinary samples, parathyroid and calcium in the serum samples, and degrading activity of fecal lactobacillus strains of all the subjects were evaluated. Then, data analysis was carried out using SPSS-11.5, χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that the patients had higher urinary level of oxalate and calcium, as well as higher serum level of parathyroid hormone than normal people. In contrast, urinary level of citrate was higher in normal people. In addition, there was a significant difference between the oxalate-degrading capacities of lactobacillus isolated from the patients and their normal peers.Conclusion: Reduction of digestive lactobacillus-related oxalate-degrading capacity and increased serum level of parathyroid hormone can cause elevated urinary level of oxalate and calcium in people with kidney stone.

  15. The osteopontin-controlled switching of calcium oxalate monohydrate morphologies in artificial urine provides insights into the formation of papillary kidney stones.

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    Langdon, Aaron; Grohe, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    The protein osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) kidney stones. To gain insight into these mechanisms, crystallization was induced by addition of human kidney OPN to artificial urine (ionic strength comparable to urine; without citrate), and the OPN-COM interaction studied using a combination of scanning electron (SEM) and confocal microscopy. By SEM, we found that increasing OPN concentrations formed large monoclinic penetration twins (no protein added) and, at higher concentrations (1-, 2μg/ml OPN), super and hyper twins with crystal habits not found in previous studies. For instance, the hyper twins indicate well-facetted gearwheel-like habits with "teeth" developed in all crystallographic directions. At OPN concentrations ≥2μg/ml, a switching to small dumbbell-shaped COM habits with fine-textured surfaces occurred. Confocal microscopy of these dumbbells indicates protein incorporation in almost the entire crystal structure (in contrast to facetted COM), proposing a threshold concentration of ∼2μg/ml OPN for the facetted to the non-facetted habit transformation. Both the gearwheel-like and the dumbbell-shaped habit are again found side-by-side (presumably triggered by OPN concentration gradients within the sample) in in-vitro formed conglomerates, which resemble cross-sections of papillary kidney stones. The abrupt transformation from facetted to non-facetted habits and the unique compliance of the two in-vitro formed habits with the two main morphologies found in papillary kidney stones propose that OPN is a main effector in direct stone-forming processes. Moreover, stone structures which exhibit these two morphologies side-by-side might serve as a novel indicator for OPN concentrations surrounding those structures. PMID:27362921

  16. Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Nano- and Microsized Crystals in the Urine of Calcium Oxalate Stone Patients and Control Subjects

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    Jie Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the properties of different sizes of urinary crystallites between calcium oxalate (CaOx calculi patients and healthy controls. Methods. We studied the average particle size, size distribution, intensity-autocorrelation curve, zeta potential (ζ, conductivity, mobility, aggregation state, and stability of different sizes of urinary crystallites by nanoparticle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy after filtration through a microporous membrane with an aperture size from 0.22 μm to 0.45, 1.2, 3, and 10 μm. Results. The urinary crystallites of the CaOx calculi patients were uneven and much easy to aggregate than those of controls. The number of large-sized crystallites of the patients was significantly more than that of the controls. The main components of the nanosized urinary crystallites in patients were CaOx monohydrate (COM, uric acid, and β-calcium phosphate, and these components were basically similar to those of the microsized urinary crystallites. The urinary crystallites of the calculi patients were easier to aggregate than that of the controls, and the small-sized urinary crystallites were much easier to agglomerate. Conclusions. The urinary system of CaOx calculi patients is unstable and highly susceptible to urinary crystallite aggregation. The rapid aggregation of urinary crystallites may be the key factor affecting urolithiasis formation.

  17. Postprandial hyperoxaluria and intestinal oxalate absorption in idiopathic renal stone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium and oxalate were studied in daily, fasting and postprandial urine specimens from healthy subjects and patients with idiopathic renal calcium stones in response to a test meal free of oxalate, and supplemented with calcium and 14carbon-oxalic acid. The data showed that the amount of oxalate in fasting urine of patients with stones did not differ from that in controls. Generally, patients with stones had considerable postprandial hyperoxaluria in terms of excretion and concentration, associated with a significantly higher degree of supersaturation with regard to calcium oxalate compared to controls. These findings were paralleled by decreased intestinal absorption of 14carbon-oxalate and by unchanged 24-hour urinary oxalate. Although the source of increased postprandial oxalate in patients with stones is not clear the possibility of enhanced de novo synthesis from oxalate precursors is discussed. In patients with different types of calciuria the 2 main risk factors (hyperoxaluria and hypercalciuria) for the process of stone formation are recognizable more readily in the postprandial urine specimens than in fasting or daily urine specimens

  18. Influence of nutrition on feline calcium oxalate urolithiasis with emphasis on endogenous oxalate synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Plantinga, E.A.; Baal, van J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths detected in cats with lower urinary tract disease has shown a sharp increase over the last decades with a concomitant reciprocal decrease in the occurrence of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) uroliths. CaOx stone-preventative diets are availab

  19. Experimental determination of multiple thermodynamic and kinetic risk factors for nephrolithiasis in the urine of healthy controls and calcium oxalate stone formers: does a universal discriminator exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A L; Webber, D; Hibberd, B

    2015-11-01

    Nephrolithiasis is thought to be governed by urinary thermodynamic and kinetic risk factors. However, identification of one or more of these factors which consistently and unambiguously differentiates between healthy subjects (N) and calcium oxalate (CaOx) renal stone patients (SF) remains elusive. The present study addresses this challenge. 24 h urines were collected from 15 N and 10 SF. Urine compositions were used to compute thermodynamic risk indices including urinary ratios, quotients and supersaturation (SS) values, while CaOx metastable limits (MSL) were determined experimentally. Crystallisation kinetics was determined by measuring rates of particle formation (number, volume, size) using a Coulter counter multisizer (CC) and a Coulter flow cytometer (FC). Particle shapes were qualitatively differentiated by FC and were viewed directly by scanning electron microscopy. Several urinary composition ratios and risk quotients were significantly different between the groups. However, there were no significant differences between CaOx MSL or SS values. Using transformed FC data, the rate of CaOx crystallisation in SF was significantly greater than in N. This was not supported by CC measurements. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to particle size or CaOx crystal growth rates. Single and aggregated CaOx dihydrate crystals were observed in both groups with equal frequency and there were no differences in the kinetic properties of these deposits. A few CaOx monohydrate crystals were observed in SF. Although several risk factors were found to be significantly different between the groups, none of them were consistently robust when compared to other cognate factors. Arguments were readily invoked which demonstrated inter-factor inconsistencies and conflicts. We suspect that a unique discriminatory factor, such as any of those which we investigated in the present study, may not exist. PMID:26198547

  20. Reactive oxygen species, inflammation and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Saeed R.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones are formed attached to Randall’s plaques (RPs) or Randall’s plugs. Mechanisms involved in the formation and growth are poorly understood. It is our hypothesis that stone formation is a form of pathological biomineralization or ectopic calcification. Pathological calcification and plaque formation in the body is triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the development of oxidative stress (OS). This review explores clinical and experimental data in sup...

  1. Engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many plants accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate. Just how these crystals form remains unknown. To gain insight into the mechanisms regulating calcium oxalate crystal formation, a crystal engineering approach was initiated utilizing the non-crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis. The success of t...

  2. Influence of nutrition on feline calcium oxalate urolithiasis with emphasis on endogenous oxalate synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Dijcker, J.C.; Plantinga, E.A.; Baal, van, G.C.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths detected in cats with lower urinary tract disease has shown a sharp increase over the last decades with a concomitant reciprocal decrease in the occurrence of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) uroliths. CaOx stone-preventative diets are available nowadays, but seem to be marginally effective, as CaOx urolith recurrence occurs in patients fed these diets. In order to improve the preventative measures against CaOx urolithiasis, it is impor...

  3. Influence of nutrition on feline calcium oxalate urolithiasis with emphasis on endogenous oxalate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijcker, J C; Plantinga, E A; van Baal, J; Hendriks, W H

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths detected in cats with lower urinary tract disease has shown a sharp increase over the last decades with a concomitant reciprocal decrease in the occurrence of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) uroliths. CaOx stone-preventative diets are available nowadays, but seem to be marginally effective, as CaOx urolith recurrence occurs in patients fed these diets. In order to improve the preventative measures against CaOx urolithiasis, it is important to understand its aetiopathogenesis. The main research focus in CaOx formation in cats has been on the role of Ca, whereas little research effort has been directed towards the role and origin of urinary oxalates. As in man, the exogenous origin of urinary oxalates in cats is thought to be of minor importance, although the precise contribution of dietary oxalates remains unclear. The generally accepted dietary risk factors for CaOx urolithiasis in cats are discussed and a model for the biosynthetic pathways of oxalate in feline liver is provided. Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) in endogenous oxalate metabolism is a liver-specific enzyme targeted in the mitochondria in cats, and allows for efficient conversion of glyoxylate to glycine when fed a carnivorous diet. The low peroxisomal activity of AGT1 in cat liver is compatible with the view that felids utilised a low-carbohydrate diet throughout evolution. Future research should focus on understanding de novo biosynthesis of oxalate in cats and their adaptation(s) in oxalate metabolism, and on dietary oxalate intake and absorption by cats. PMID:21338551

  4. Inhibition of the Crystal Growth and Aggregation of Calcium Oxalate by Algae Sulfated Polysaccharide In-vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Mei WU; Jian Ming OUYANG; Sui Ping DENG; Ying Zhou CEN

    2006-01-01

    The influence of sulfated polysaccharide (SPS) isolated from marine algae Sargassum fusiforme on the morphology and phase compositions of urinary crystal calcium oxalate was investigated in vitro by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. SPS maybe is a potential inhibitor to CaOxa urinary stones by inhibiting the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), preventing the aggregation of COM, and inducing the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals.

  5. Experimental Study on Prevention of Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones of Total Flavonoids of Herba Lysimachiae%金钱草总黄酮预防草酸钙肾结石的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋强; 吴希庆; 萨音白刚

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究金钱草总黄酮对大鼠肾草酸钙结石形成的影响。方法:采用1%乙二醇和2%氯化铵造成大鼠草酸钙结石模型,应用金钱草总黄酮不同剂量作为干预因素。统计实验组大鼠不同时间的尿量,采用生化全自动分析仪检测各组大鼠不同时间的尿生化大鼠尿草酸的含量,造模28d结束后生化仪检测血生化。取大鼠肾脏通过大鼠丙二醛试剂盒,硫代巴比妥酸法检测丙二醛(MDA);以及通过大鼠超氧化物歧化酶试剂盒,黄嘌呤氧化酶法检测超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)。结果:与结石结石组比较,金钱草总黄酮组大鼠的24小时尿中肌酐、草酸、尿Ca2+含量,血 BUN、Cr含量,有显著差异(P<0.05);尿量各组间差异无统计学意义;氧化损伤测定得出高、中、低剂量组相比肾脏SOD水平有递减趋势,肾脏MDA水平有递增趋势。结论:–金钱草总黄酮可抑制肾脏草酸钙结石的形成,并有一定的量效关系;其作用机制是通过抗氧化反应,减少自由基对肾组织的损伤,从而减少高草酸尿对肾小管上皮细胞的凋亡。%Objective:To investigate the influence of total flavonoid extracted from Desmodium Styracifolium on oxalic acid calcium oxalate stones in rats. Method:The rat model of renal calcium oxalate stones formation was induced by administering 1%ethylene glycol and 2%ammonium chloride with the intervention factor of using different dose of flavonoid extracted from Desmodium Styracifolium.When forming stones, Statistics urine of rats in the experimental group at different times, the biochemistry and volume of urine in different groups and time was determined on automatic biochemical analyzer,and the content of oxalic acid in urine was determined by paired ion high performance liquid chromatography.28 days later,the biochemistry of blood was tested by biochemical analyzer.The MDA content was detected through Lipid

  6. Reactive oxygen species, inflammation and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed R

    2014-09-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones are formed attached to Randall's plaques (RPs) or Randall's plugs. Mechanisms involved in the formation and growth are poorly understood. It is our hypothesis that stone formation is a form of pathological biomineralization or ectopic calcification. Pathological calcification and plaque formation in the body is triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the development of oxidative stress (OS). This review explores clinical and experimental data in support of ROS involvement in the formation of CaOx kidney stones. Under normal conditions the production of ROS is tightly controlled, increasing when and where needed. Results of clinical and experimental studies show that renal epithelial exposure to high oxalate and crystals of CaOx/calcium phosphate (CaP) generates excess ROS, causing injury and inflammation. Major markers of OS and inflammation are detectable in urine of stone patients as well as rats with experimentally induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. Antioxidant treatments reduce crystal and oxalate induced injury in tissue culture and animal models. Significantly lower serum levels of antioxidants, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthine have been found in individuals with a history of kidney stones. A diet rich in antioxidants has been shown to reduce stone episodes. ROS regulate crystal formation, growth and retention through the timely production of crystallization modulators. In the presence of abnormal calcium, citrate, oxalate, and/or phosphate, however, there is an overproduction of ROS and a decrease in the antioxidant capacity resulting in OS, renal injury and inflammation. Cellular degradation products in the urine promote crystallization in the tubular lumen at a faster rate thus blocking the tubule and plugging the tubular openings at the papillary tips forming Randall's plugs. Renal epithelial cells lining the loops of Henle/collecting ducts may become osteogenic, producing membrane vesicles at

  7. Effects of magnesium deficiency on intratubular calcium oxalate formation and crystalluria in hyperoxaluric rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, H G; Spector, M

    1982-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that magnesium deficiency accelerates renal tubular calcium oxalate monohydrate deposition in rats on chronic hyperoxaluric, lithogenic protocols. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnesium deficiency on intratubular calcium oxalate formation in rats from the 1st day of administration of a hyperoxaluric agent. The objectives were to delineate early ultrastructural features of the formation, mechanisms of retention, and development of renal tubular crystal deposits and to characterize the crystalluria in rats on the hyperoxaluric/hypomagnesuric protocol. Intratubular calcium oxalate monohydrate deposits were found in magnesium deficient rats after only 24 hours of ad libitum administration of 1 per cent ethylene glycol drinking water. Animals on regular food diet did not display renal tubular deposition after 11 days of ethylene glycol administration. Strand- and sheet-like organic material emanating from the luminal wall of the tubules was adherent to the crystals, thereby serving to immobilize them within the tubule. Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals predominated in the urines of hyperoxaluric/hypomagnesuric animals with intratubular deposits while dihydrate crystals were the primary constituent of urines from rats administered ethylene glycol alone (no intratubular deposition). The results support the supposition that under certain conditions magnesium deficiency is a significant risk factor for intrarenal calcium oxalate deposition and stone formation. Furthermore the identification of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystalluria may be an important indicator of the propensity toward intranephronic calcium oxalate formation and urolithiasis. PMID:7062446

  8. Lack of evidence for the association of ornithine decarboxylase (+316 G>A), spermidine/spermine acetyl transferase (-1415 T>C) gene polymorphisms with calcium oxalate stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker-Gürkan, Ajda; Arisan, Serdar; Arisan, Elif Damla; Unsal, Narçin Palavan

    2014-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a complex and multifactorial disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the urinary tract. Urea cycle is an important process involved in disease progression. L-ornithine is a key amino acid in the urea cycle and is converted to putrescine by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are natural polyamines that are catabolized by a specific enzyme, spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the intron region of ODC (+316 G>A) and promoter region of SSAT (-1415 T>C) genes have been found to be associated with the polyamines expression levels. The aim of this study was to examine whether the ODC (+316 G>A) intron 1 region gene polymorphism and SAT-1 promoter region (-1415 T>C) gene polymorphisms are potential genetic markers for susceptibility to urolithiasis. A control group of 104 healthy subjects and a group of 65 patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium oxalate stone disease were enrolled into this study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction analysis was performed for the ODC intron 1 (+316 G>A) region and SAT-1 (-1415 T>C) promoter gene polymorphisms by PstI and MspI restriction enzyme digestion, respectively. The genotype distribution of polymorphisms studied in the ODC intron 1 region (+316 G>A) and SAT-1 -1415 T>C promoter region did not reveal a significant difference between urolithiasis and the control groups (P=0.713 and 0.853), respectively. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between the control and patient groups for ODC +316 G>A and SAT-1 -1415 T>C allele frequencies (P=0.877 and 0.644), respectively. In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that ODC + 316 G>A and SAT-1 -1415 T>C gene polymorphisms might not be a risk factor for urolithiasis. PMID:24649071

  9. 排石冲剂对大鼠草酸钙结石生成的干预效果及其机制研究%Effects and Mechanism of Paishi Granule on Renal Calcium Oxalate Stone Formation in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秋实; 巴元明; 罗俊华; 王洁钰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects and possible mechanism of Paishi granule on renal calcium oxalate stone formation in rats,and provide the basis for the clinical therapy for urinary calculi. Methods A total of 48 SPF level healthy male Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups by random number table method,including normal group,model group,Potassium citrate - treated group,and Paishi granule - treated group(n = 12 for each). The rat model of renal calcium oxalate stone was induced by intragastrically administrated 2% ammonium chloride( AC),together with 1% ethylene glycol( EG)for free drink. At the same time,each group was treated with corresponding drug. Individual weight and urine volume were recorded;24 h urine was collected for the evaluations of urinary oxalate( Ox),calcium( Ca2 + ),phosphate( P3 + )and magnesium (Mg2 + ) levels. The serum urea nitrogen( BUN),creatinine( Cr),Ca2 + ,P3 + ,Mg2 + levels were determined in each animal. The paraffin sections of kidney were prepared for observing the calcium oxalate deposit and pathological changes under the microscope. Results The 24 h urine volumes in Potassium citrate - treated group and Paishi granule - treated group were significantly higher than those in normal group and model group( P 0. 05). The levels of 24 h urinary oxalate,Ca2 + and P3 + showed significant differences between any two groups from the four groups(P 0. 05). The serum BUN and Ca2 + levels in the two treated groups were significantly higher than those in normal group,but lower than in model group(P 0. 05). The serum Cr level demonstrated significant difference between any two groups(P < 0. 05). The scores of calcium oxalate crystallization in the two treated groups were significantly higher than in normal group,conversely,lower than model group( P < 0. 05). Furthermore,the score in Paishi granule - treated group was lower than in Potassium citrate - treated group(P < 0. 05). Conclusion The Paishi granule can significantly decrease the

  10. INHIBITION OF CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALLIZATION IN-VITRO BY VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS (L.) POIT.

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal Kumkum; Varma Ranjana

    2012-01-01

    Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit. commonly known as Vilayati tulsi, belongs to the Mint family Lamiaceae. The inhibition of in-vitro calcium-oxalate crystal (a major component of most urinary stones) formation by various extracts of Hyptis was investigated by titrimetric method. The inhibitor potency of alcohol extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit was found to be comparable to that of cystone (a proprietary drug for dissolving kidney stones). Thus alcohol extract could be further analyzed in viv...

  11. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  12. Nanoscale observations of the effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.

    2016-04-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4ṡxH2O) minerals are naturally occurring minerals found in fossils, plants, kidney stones and is a by-product in some processes such as paper, food and beverage production [1,2]. In particular, calcium oxalate monohydrate phase (COM) also known as whewellite (CaC2O4ṡH2O), is the most frequently reported mineral phase found in urinary and kidney stones together with phosphates. Organic additives are well known to play a key role in the formation of minerals in both biotic and abiotic systems, either facilitating their precipitation or hindering it. In this regard, recent studies have provided direct evidence demonstrating that citrate species could enhance dissolution of COM and inhibit their precipitation. [3,4] The present work aims at evauate the influence of pH, citrate and oxalic acid concentrations in calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces (Island Spar, Chihuahua, Mexico) through in-situ nanoscale observation using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, Multimode, Bruker) in flow-through experiments. Changes in calcium oxalate morphologies and precipitated phases were observed, as well as the inhibitory effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation, which also lead to stabilization an the amorphous calcium oxalate phase. [1] K.D. Demadis, M. Öner, Inhibitory effects of "green"additives on the crystal growth of sparingly soluble salts, in: J.T. Pearlman (Ed.), Green Chemistry Research Trends, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 265-287. [2] M. Masár, M. Zuborová, D. Kaniansky, B. Stanislawski, Determination of oxalate in beer by zone electrophoresis on a chip with conductivity detection, J. Sep. Sci. 26 (2003) 647-652. [3] Chutipongtanate S, Chaiyarit S, Thongboonkerd V. Citrate, not phosphate, can dissolve calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and detach these crystals from renal tubular cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;689:219-25. [4] Weaver ML, Qiu SR, Hoyer JR, Casey WH, Nancollas GH, De Yoreo JJ

  13. Treatment of renal calcium stone disease with the synthetic glycosaminoglycan pentosan polysulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellström, B; Backman, U; Danielson, B; Wikström, B

    1994-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are potent inhibitors of calcium oxalate growth and aggregation. The synthetic GAG pentosan polysulphate (PPS) was used in the treatment of patients with renal calcium stone disease. Altogether, 121 patients were included in an open trial over a 3-year-period. The average stone episode rate and the stone operation rate were no different during treatment and in the pretreatment period. Altogether 48% of the patients were entirely stone-free during follow-up, whereas 29/56 patients who continued to form stones reported smaller stones that were more easily passed. It is concluded that there may be a role for PPS in the treatment of recurrent renal calcium stone disease, but a controlled study may be needed. PMID:7516780

  14. Trace element studies in urolithiasis; preliminary investigation on mixed calcium oxalate-struvite urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the levels of the trace elements copper , zinc, lead, iron, aluminum, nickel, chromium along with magnesium, sodium and potassium were estimated in fifteen mixed calcium oxalate-struvite (CaOx/STR) urinary stones. The mean values of the combined results were, copper 4.24, zinc 1302, zinc 1302.10, lead 23.25, iron 36.83,nickel 0.69, chromium 1.93, magnesium 4530441, sodium 54.13 and potassium 5.93 ng mg/sup -1/. It was observed that zinc, aluminum and potassium levels were higher than in calcium oxalate(CaOx) calculi 0.05>P>0.02 and potassium levels were higher than in mixed calcium oxalate-hydroxy appetite (CaOx/APA) calculi, P<0.01. A combination of all the results was also compared with similar data from South Africa, Turkey, Austria, India, U.S.A and Japan. (author)

  15. Experimental models of renal calcium stones in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbault, Héloïse; Haymann, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    In human nephrolithiasis, most stones are containing calcium and are located within urinary cavities; they may contain monohydrate calcium oxalate, dihydrate calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphates in various proportion. Nephrolithiasis may also be associated with nephrocalcinosis, i.e., crystal depositions in tubular lumen and/or interstitium, an entity which suggests specific pathological processes. Several rodents models have been developed in order to study the pathophysiology of intrarenal crystal formation. We review here calcium rodent models classified upon the presence of nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. As rodents are not prone to nephrolithiasis, models require the induction of a long standing hypercalciuria or hyperoxaluria (thus explaining the very few studies reported), conversely to nephrocalcinosis which may occur within hours or days. Whereas a nephrotoxicity leading to tubular injury and regeneration appears as a critical event for crystal retention in nephrocalcinosis models, surprisingly very little is known about the physiopathology of crystal attachment to urothelium in nephrolithiasis. Creating new models of nephrolithiasis especially in different genetic mice strains appears an important challenge in order to unravel the early mechanisms of urinary stone formation in papilla and fornices. PMID:26981444

  16. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsland, Kristin J; Coe, Fredric L; White, Mark D; Erhard, Michael J; DeFoor, William R; Mahan, John D; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Asplin, John R

    2012-06-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence, treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone-forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-h urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone-forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones, all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH, and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones. PMID:22358148

  17. Inhibitory effect of rutin and curcumin on experimentally-induced calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Ghodasara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal epithelial cell injury by reactive oxygen species is pre-requisite step in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis. Rutin and curcumin are polyphenolic compounds known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, but their effect on urolithiasis is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of rutin and curcumin on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in Wistar albino rats. Methods: Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced experimentally by administration of 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol with 1% w/v ammonium chloride in drinking water for three days followed by only 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol for 25 days. Rutin (20 mg/kg body weight and curcumin (60 mg/kg body weight were given once daily for 28 days by oral route. After treatment period, calcium and oxalate levels in urine and kidney tissue homogenate were measured. Kidney was also used for histopathological examination. Results: Stone-induction with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride resulted in elevated levels of calcium and oxalate in the urine and kidney sample, whereas supplementation of rutin and curcumin restored it near to normal. Histopathological study revealed minimum tissue damage and less number of calcium oxalate deposits in kidney of animal treated with rutin and curcumin as compared to calculi-induced animal. Conclusion: The data suggest that the rutin and curcumin inhibits calcium oxalate urolithiasis. This effect is mediated possibly through a lowering of urinary concentration of stone forming constituents, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

  18. Calcium Channels are Involved in Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Specialized Cells of Pistia stratiotes L.

    OpenAIRE

    VOLK, GAYLE M.; GOSS, LENORA J.; FRANCESCHI, VINCENT R.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Pistia stratiotes produces large amounts of calcium (Ca) oxalate crystals in specialized cells called crystal idioblasts. The potential involvement of Ca2+ channels in Ca oxalate crystal formation by crystal idioblasts was investigated.

  19. Etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and management of canine calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium oxalate uroliths are commonly called metabolic uroliths because they are sequelae of a variety of metabolic abnormalities that alter the composition of body fluids and urine. Factors incriminated in the etiopathogenesis of calcium oxalate urolithiasis include hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, and hyperuricosuria. The predominant type of calcium oxalate urolith encountered in dogs is the monohydrate form; however, the dihydrate form may also occur. Male dogs have been more frequently affected than female dogs. Medical therapy should be formulated with the goal of reducing urine concentration of calculogenic substances

  20. Heterogeneous nucleation of calcium oxalate on native oxide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aqueous deposition of calcium oxalate onto colloidal oxides has been studied as a model system for understanding heterogeneous nucleation processes of importance in biomimetic synthesis of ceramic thin films. Calcium oxalate nucleation has been monitored by measuring induction times for nucleation using Constant Composition techniques and by measuring nucleation densities on extended oxide surfaces using an atomic force microscope. Results show that the dependence of calcium oxalate nucleation on solution supersaturation fits the functional form predicted by classical nucleation theories. Anionic surfaces appear to promote nucleation better than cationic surfaces, lowering the effective energy barrier to heterogeneous nucleation

  1. INHIBITION OF CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALLIZATION IN-VITRO BY VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS (L. POIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Kumkum

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis suaveolens (L Poit. commonly known as Vilayati tulsi, belongs to the Mint family Lamiaceae. The inhibition of in-vitro calcium-oxalate crystal (a major component of most urinary stones formation by various extracts of Hyptis was investigated by titrimetric method. The inhibitor potency of alcohol extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit was found to be comparable to that of cystone (a proprietary drug for dissolving kidney stones. Thus alcohol extract could be further analyzed in vivo and further characterization of its active compound could lead to the discovery of a new candidate drug for the patients with urolithiasis.

  2. Changes in calcium oxalate crystal morphology as a function of supersaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the changes in calcium oxalate crystal morphology induced by different levels of supersaturation (SS in human urine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four hours urine samples from 5 normal men were collected. Each specimen was centrifuged and filtered. About 200 mL of each sample was dialyzed overnight. Aliquots of 2 mL of urine was then added to a 24-wells tissue culture plate and checked for crystal absence. Calcium oxalate crystals were precipitated from each sample by adding sodium oxalate and calcium chloride in sufficient quantities to induce spontaneous crystallization. Finally, each plate hole was examined with an inverted polarized microscope (X500 magnification. Initial SS of each sample relative to calcium oxalate was calculated using an iterative computer program. RESULTS: Crystal formation was connecte to relative calcium oxalate (CaOx SS. At SS of 10, small crystals of similar shape were formed, mainly CaOx dihydrate morphology. At SS of 30, there was an enormous increase in the number of crystals, that kept the same size. SS greater than 50 produced larger crystals with different shapes and multiple crystalline aggregates. Urine was able to tolerate, i.e., to avoid crystal formation, until SS ratios of approximately 10. CONCLUSIONS: Relative CaOx SS and the concentration ratio of calcium to oxalate are important determinanting factors of crystal morphology. Non-dialyzable urinary proteins can act as inhibitors and influence the structure of formed crystals. Additional studies from patients with kidney stones are needed in order to establish whether crystal size and habit distribution are different from crystals in normal urine.

  3. Effects of temperature and sodium carboxylate additives on mineralization of calcium oxalate in silica gel systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Jianming; DENG; Suiping; LI; Xiangping; TAN; Yanh

    2004-01-01

    [1]Ouyang, J. M., Yao, X. Q., Su, Z. X. et al., Simulation of calcium oxalate stone in Vitro, Science in China, Ser. B, 2003, 46(3):234-242.[2]Xu, S. H., Chen, J. Q., Zhou, H., Nepidemiological study of renal calculus in Shenshen region, Chin. J. Urol. (in Chinese), 1999,20(11): 655-657.[3]Bretherton, T., Rodgers, A., Crystallization of calcium oxalate in minimally diluted urine, J. Crystal Growth, 1998, 192: 448-455.[4]Grover, P. K., Ryall, R. L., Effect of seed crystals of uric acid and monosodium urate on the crystallization of CaOxa in undiluted human urine in vitro, Clin. Sci., 1997, 92: 205-213.[5]Laube, N., Mohr, B., Hesse, A., Laser-probe-based investigation of the evolution of particle size distributions of calcium oxalate particles formed in artificial urines, J. Crystal Growth, 2001, 233:367-374.[6]Tunik, L., Fueredi-Milhofer, H., Garti, N., Adsorption of sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate onto calcium oxalate crystals, Langmuir,1998, 14: 3351-3355.[7]Cody, A. M., Cody, R. D., Calcium oxalate trihydrate phase control by structurally-specific carboxylic acids, J. Cryst. Growth,1994, 135: 234-245.[8]Ouyang, J. M., Duan, L., Tieke, B., Effects of carboxylic acids on the crystal growth of calcium oxalate nanoparticles in lecithin-water liposome systems, Langmuir, 2003, 19: 8980-8985.[9]Guo, S., Ward, M. D., Wesson, J. A., Direct visualization of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization and dissolution with atomic force microscopy and the role of polymeric additives,Langmuir, 2002, 18:4284-4291.[10]Yasui, T., Sato, M., Fujita, K., Effects of citrate on renal stone formation and osteopontin expression in a rat urolithiasis model,Urol. Res., 2001,29: 50-56.[11]Ouyang, J. M., Deng, S. P., Controlled and uncontrolled crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of citric acid, Dalton Transactions, 2003, (14): 2846-2851.[12]Khan, S. R., Whalen, P. O., Glenton, P. A., Heterogeneous nucleation of

  4. Mediation of calcium oxalate crystal growth on human kidney epithelial cells with different degrees of injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study examined the role of injured human kidney tubular epithelial cell (HKC) in the mediation of formation of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals by means of scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. HKC was injured using different concentrations of H2O2. Cell injury resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration and an increase in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and expression of osteopontin (OPN). Injured cells not only promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals, but also induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals that strongly adhere to cells. These results imply that injured HKCs promote stone formation by providing more nucleating sites for crystals, promoting the aggregation of crystals, and inducing the formation of COM crystals. - Graphical abstract: Injured cells promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals, induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Highlights: ► A direct nucleation and growth of CaOxa crystals on both normal and injured cells. ► Stronger green fluorescence, i.e. OPN expression, was seen on the injury cell surface ► Injured cells promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals. ► Injured cells induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. ► H2O2 decrease cell viability in a dose-dependent manner at 0.1–1 mmol/L.

  5. The construction of an oxalate-degrading intestinal stem cell population in mice: a potential new treatment option for patients with calcium oxalate calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Liu, Guanlin; Ye, Zhangqun; Kong, Debo; Yao, Lingfang; Guo, Hui; Yang, Weimin; Yu, Xiao

    2012-04-01

    About 80% of all urological stones are calcium oxalate, mainly caused by idiopathic hyperoxaluria (IH). The increased absorption of oxalate from the intestine is the major factor underlying IH. The continuous self-renewal of the intestinal epithelium is due to the vigorous proliferation and differentiation of intestinal stem cells. If the intestinal stem cell population can acquire the ability to metabolize calcium oxalate by means of oxc and frc transgenes, this will prove a promising new therapy option for IH. In our research, the oxalate-degrading genes of Oxalobacter formigenes (Oxf)-the frc gene and oxc gene-were cloned and transfected into a cultured mouse-derived intestinal SC population to give the latter an oxalate-degrading function. Oxf was isolated and cultivated and the oxalate-degrading genes-frc and oxc-were cloned. The dicistronic eukaryotic expression vector pIRES-oxc-frc was constructed and transferred into the mouse stem cell population. After selection with G418, the expression of the genes was identified. The oxalate-degrading function of transfected cells was determined by transfection into the intestinal stem cell population of the mouse. The change in oxalate concentration was determined with an ion chromatograph. The recombinant plasmid containing oxc and frc genes was transfected into the stem cell population of the mouse and the expression of the genes found normal. The cell population had acquired an oxalate-degrading function. The oxc and frc genes could be transfected into the intestinal stem cell population of the mouse and the cells acquired an oxalate-degrading function. PMID:21892601

  6. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  7. [Oxalobacter formigenes--characteristics and role in development of calcium oxalate urolithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torzewska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are one of the important factors for urinary calculi formation. While urease-positive bacteria and nanobacteria contribute to stone formation, Oxalobacter formigenes rods play a protective role against the development of urolithiasis. Proteus mirabilis alkaline environment of the urinary tract and cause crystallization mainly of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate). However, nanobacteria, due to the possibility of apatite deposition on the surface of their cells, have long been considered as an etiological factor of urinary calculi consisting of calcium phosphates. O. formigenes is an anaerobe using oxalate as the main source of carbon and energy and occurs as natural gastrointestinal microflora of humans and animals. These bacteria control the amount of oxalate excretion degrading oxalates and regulating their transport by intestinal epithelium. Lower colonization of the human colon by O. formigenes can cause increased oxalate excretion and lead to the development of oxalate urolithiasis. Due to the positive influence of O. formigenes, there is ongoing research into the use of this microorganism as a probiotic in the prophylaxis or treatment of hyperoxaluria, both secondary and primary. The results of these studies are very promising, but they still require continuation. Future studies focus on the exact characteristics of O. formigenes including their metabolism and the development of methods for applying as a therapeutic agent the bacteria or their enzymes degrading the oxalate. PMID:24379255

  8. Influence of calcium oxalate crystal accumulation on the calcium content of seeds from Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Paul A

    2012-04-01

    Crystals of calcium oxalate often form in cells adjacent to the vascular bundles in the tissues along the xylem stream. This spatial crystal pattern suggests a role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport and partitioning to edible organs such as seeds. To investigate this potential role, microscopic and biochemical comparisons were conducted on the different tissues of Medicago truncatula wild-type and the calcium oxalate defective (cod) 5 which lacks the ability to accumulate prismatic crystals in the cells adjacent to the vascular bundles. Calcium measurements showed that cod5 seeds had more calcium and cod5 pods contained less calcium than the corresponding wild-type tissues. Roots, stems, and leaves from cod5 and wild-type had similar calcium content. Although cod5 was devoid of prismatic crystals, cod5 pods were observed to form druse crystals of calcium oxalate not found in wild-type pods. Taken together these findings suggest a functional role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport to the seeds. Regulating calcium uptake at the roots also appeared to be another point of control in determining seed calcium content. Overall, regulating the long distance transport and partitioning of calcium to the seeds appears to be a complex process with multiple points of control. PMID:22325887

  9. Reinjury risk of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals on injured renal epithelial cells: aggravation of crystal adhesion and aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan QZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Qiong-Zhi Gan,1,2 Xin-Yuan Sun,1,2 Poonam Bhadja,1,2 Xiu-Qiong Yao,1,2 Jian-Ming Ouyang1,2 1Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Renal epithelial cell injury facilitates crystal adhesion to cell surface and serves as a key step in renal stone formation. However, the effects of cell injury on the adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate crystals and the nano-crystal-induced reinjury risk of injured cells remain unclear.Methods: African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero cells were injured with H2O2 to establish a cell injury model. Cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, malonaldehyde (MDA content, propidium iodide staining, hematoxylin–eosin staining, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm were determined to examine cell injury during adhesion. Changes in the surface structure of H2O2-injured cells were assessed through atomic force microscopy. The altered expression of hyaluronan during adhesion was examined through laser scanning confocal microscopy. The adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD crystals to Vero cells was observed through scanning electron microscopy. Nano-COM and COD binding was quantitatively determined through inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry.Results: The expression of hyaluronan on the cell surface was increased during wound healing because of Vero cell injury. The structure and function of the cell membrane were also altered by cell injury; thus, nano-crystal adhesion occurred. The ability of nano-COM to adhere to the injured Vero cells was higher than that of nano-COD crystals. The cell viability, SOD activity, and ΔΨm decreased when nano-crystals attached to the cell surface. By contrast, the MDA content, reactive oxygen species production

  10. Calcium oxalate contribution to calcium cycling in forests of contrasting nutrient status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (Ca oxalate) is an insoluble biomineral that forms in plants and fungi, and occurs in soils across many types of ecosystems. Assessing how Ca oxalate may shape ecosystem Ca cycling requires information on the distribution of Ca oxalate among plant biomass, detritus, and mineral soil, and how it varies with ecosystem Ca status. We compared two Douglas-fir forests of contrasting ecosystem Ca availability, and found that Ca oxalate was partitioned similarly among plant biomass, detritus and mineral soil major ecosystem compartments at both sites, and total pools of Ca oxalate were greater in the high-Ca forest. However, the proportional importance of Ca oxalate was greater in the low-Ca than high-Ca forest (18% versus 4% of actively cycling ecosystem Ca, respectively). And calcium oxalate in mineral soil, which is of particular interest as a potential long-term Ca reservoir, was a larger portion of total available Ca (exchangeable Ca plus Ca oxalate Ca) in the low-Ca site than the high-Ca site (9% versus 1% of available soil Ca, respectively). Calcium oxalate was the dominant form of Ca returned from plants to soil as leaf litterfall at the high-Ca site, yet calcium oxalate disappeared rapidly from decomposing litter (0.28 yr−1 or faster) at both sites. We conclude that accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest ecosystems appears most closely related to overall Ca supply for live biomass pools, and that the accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest floor and mineral soil is limited by rapid microbial degradation of putatively unavailable Ca oxalate.

  11. Reinjury risk of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals on injured renal epithelial cells: aggravation of crystal adhesion and aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Bhadja, Poonam; Yao, Xiu-Qiong; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal epithelial cell injury facilitates crystal adhesion to cell surface and serves as a key step in renal stone formation. However, the effects of cell injury on the adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate crystals and the nano-crystal-induced reinjury risk of injured cells remain unclear. Methods African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells were injured with H2O2 to establish a cell injury model. Cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, propidium iodide staining, hematoxylin–eosin staining, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were determined to examine cell injury during adhesion. Changes in the surface structure of H2O2-injured cells were assessed through atomic force microscopy. The altered expression of hyaluronan during adhesion was examined through laser scanning confocal microscopy. The adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals to Vero cells was observed through scanning electron microscopy. Nano-COM and COD binding was quantitatively determined through inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. Results The expression of hyaluronan on the cell surface was increased during wound healing because of Vero cell injury. The structure and function of the cell membrane were also altered by cell injury; thus, nano-crystal adhesion occurred. The ability of nano-COM to adhere to the injured Vero cells was higher than that of nano-COD crystals. The cell viability, SOD activity, and Δψm decreased when nano-crystals attached to the cell surface. By contrast, the MDA content, reactive oxygen species production, and cell death rate increased. Conclusion Cell injury contributes to crystal adhesion to Vero cell surface. The attached nano-COM and COD crystals can aggravate Vero cell injury. As a consequence, crystal adhesion and aggregation are enhanced. These findings provide further insights into kidney stone

  12. On thorium and plutonium cocrystallization with calcium oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of possibility of 239Pu and 234Th concentration from bone ashe (calcium phosphate) hydrochloric acid solutions by coprecipitation with nonisotopic medium (CaC2O4) for their further radiometry or alpha-spectrometry is carried out. Thorium and plutonium distribution coefficients in calcium oxalate precipitate - solution system, as well as coefficients of Th and Pu cocrystallization with CaC2O4 and cocrystallization type are determined. Possibility of Pu and Th concentration from bone tissue solutions is demonstrated on small oxalate amount containing 25% of Ca total amount in bone tissue

  13. Role of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin in calcium oxalate crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the defenses against nephrolithiasis is provided by macromolecules that modulate the nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention of crystals in the kidneys. The aim of the present study was to determine the behavior of two of these proteins, Tamm-Horsfall and uromodulin, in calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro. We studied a group of 10 male stone formers who had formed at least one kidney stone composed of calcium oxalate. They were classified as having idiopathic nephrolithiasis and had no well-known metabolic risk factors involved in kidney stone pathogenesis. Ten normal men were used as controls, as was a group consisting of five normal women and another consisting of five pregnant women. Crystallization was induced by a fixed supersaturation of calcium oxalate and measured with a Coulter Counter. All findings were confirmed by light and scanning electron microscopy. The number of particulate material deposited from patients with Tamm-Horsfall protein was higher than that of the controls (P<0.001. However, Tamm-Horsfall protein decreased the particle diameter of the stone formers when analyzed by the mode of the volume distribution curve (P<0.002 (5.64 ± 0.55 µm compared to 11.41 ± 0.48 µm of uromodulin; 15.94 ± 3.93 µm and 12.45 ± 0.97 µm of normal men Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively; 8.17 ± 1.57 µm and 9.82 ± 0.95 µm of normal women Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively; 12.17 ± 1.41 µm and 12.99 ± 0.51 µm of pregnant Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively. Uromodulin produced fewer particles than Tamm-Horsfall protein in all groups. Nonetheless, the total volume of the crystals produced by uromodulin was higher than that produced by Tamm-Horsfall protein. Our results indicate a different effect of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin. This dual behavior suggests different functions. Tamm-Horsfall protein may act on nucleation and inhibit crystal aggregation, while

  14. Arthritis associated with calcium oxalate crystals in an anephric patient treated with peritoneal dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a case of calcium oxalate arthropathy in a woman undergoing intermittent peritoneal dialysis who was not receiving pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid. She developed acute arthritis, with calcium oxalate crystals in Heberden's and Bouchard's nodes, a phenomenon previously described in gout. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis may be less efficient than hemodialysis in clearing oxalate, and physicians should now consider calcium oxalate-associated arthritis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis who are not receiving large doses of ascorbic acid

  15. Secretion of Biologically Active Heterologous Oxalate Decarboxylase (OxdC) in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Using Homologous Signal Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnusamy Sasikumar; Sivasamy Gomathi; Kolandaswamy Anbazhagan; Govindan Sadasivam Selvam

    2013-01-01

    Current treatment options for patients with hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate stone diseases are limited and do not always lead to sufficient reduction in urinary oxalate excretion. Oxalate degrading bacteria have been suggested for degrading intestinal oxalate for the prevention of calcium oxalate stone. Here, we reported a recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 (L. plantarum) secreting heterologous oxalate decarboxylase (OxdC) that may provide possible therapeutic approach by degrading i...

  16. Papillary and Nonpapillary Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Renal Calculi: Comparative Study of Etiologic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pieras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM renal calculi can be classified into two groups: papillary and nonpapillary. In this paper, a comparative study between etiologic factors of COM papillary and nonpapillary calculi is performed. The study included 40 patients with COM renal calculi. The urine of these individuals was analyzed. Case history, lifestyle, and dietetic habits were obtained.No significant differences between urinary biochemical data of both groups were observed; 50% of COM papillary stone formers and 40% of COM nonpapillary stone formers had urolithiasis family history. A low consumption of phytate-rich products was observed for both groups. A relationship between profession with occupational exposure to cytotoxic products and COM papillary renal lithiasis was detected.The results suggest that COM papillary calculi would be associated to papillary epithelium alterations together with a crystallization inhibitors deficit, whereas COM nonpapillary calculi would be associated to the presence of heterogeneous nucleants and a crystallization inhibitors deficit.

  17. Studies on calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization: influence of inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, F; Kroupa, M; Costa-Bauzá, A

    1994-01-01

    A simple model to study calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallization on different substrates is presented and the action of different potential inhibitors is evaluated and discussed. COM heterogeneous nucleation was assayed on solid surfaces as calcium phosphate, mixtures of mucin with calcium phosphate, and wax. In the presence of a non-protected non-renewed solid surface in contact with normal urine, COM crystal formation could be detected at short intervals (3 h). The most active heterogeneous nucleation capacity corresponded to calcium phosphate. In the presence of 10% mucin, owing to the renewal of the surface layer no COM crystal were detected on the pellet's surface. The study of citrate and pentosan polysulphate (a semisynthetic polysaccharide) on COM heterogeneous nucleation demonstrated some important inhibitory effects when concentration increased and time decreased. Maximum effects were selectively manifested on calcium phosphate surfaces. Only phytic acid at adequate concentration exhibited a total inhibitory capacity of COM formation, even during longer intervals (15 h). PMID:7521089

  18. Natural Abundance 43Ca NMR as a Tool for Exploring Calcium Biomineralization: Renal Stone Formation and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

    2011-12-07

    Renal stone diseases are a global health issue with little effective therapeutic recourse aside from surgery and shock-wave lithotripsy, primarily because the fundamental chemical mechanisms behind calcium biomineralization are poorly understood. In this work, we show that natural abundance 43Ca NMR at 21.1 T is an effective means to probe the molecular-level Ca2+ structure in oxalate-based kidney stones. We find that the 43Ca NMR resonance of an authentic oxalate-based kidney stone cannot be explained by a single pure phase of any common Ca2+-bearing stone mineral. Combined with XRD results, our findings suggest an altered calcium oxalate monohydrate-like Ca2+ coordination environment for some fraction of Ca2+ in our sample. The evidence is consistent with existing literature hypothesizing that nonoxalate organic material interacts directly with Ca2+ at stone surfaces and is the primary driver of renal stone aggregation and growth. Our findings show that 43Ca NMR spectroscopy may provide unique and crucial insight into the fundamental chemistry of kidney stone formation, growth, and the role organic molecules play in these processes.

  19. Research the mechanism of N-acetyl cysteine inhibiting renal calcium oxalate stone formation in rats%N-乙酰半胱氨酸抑制大鼠肾草酸钙结石形成机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雍偲; 刘春

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨N-乙酰半胱氨酸(NAC)对大鼠肾草酸钙结石形成的影响及机制,为临床预防尿路结石提供理论依据.方法:将30只健康清洁成年雄性Wistar大鼠先在相同环境下适应性喂养1周,然后随机分为3组:A组(空白对照组)、B组(单纯诱石组)、C组(诱石+ NAC干预组).A组饮去离子水,B组饮1%乙二醇的去离子水,C组饮1%乙二醇去离子水,并给予NAC 100 mg/(kg·d)灌胃.第4周处死大鼠,取出双肾,左肾纵向剖开,用10%甲醛固定,HE染色石蜡切片,在100、400倍光镜下观察肾组织草酸钙结晶沉积情况,并进行分级及评分.右肾皮质制成10%的匀浆,检测丙二醛(MDA)及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD).全部实验数据通过SPSS17.0统计软件分析处理.结果:①肾脏结晶沉积情况分级及评分结果:与B组相比,C组的肾脏结晶沉积评分明显降低(P<0.05).②MDA检测结果:与B组相比,C组的MDA含量降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).③SOD检测结果:与B组相比,C组的SOD含量增高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).④A、B、C三组肾组织结晶等级评分与SOD含量的相关系数为-0.499(P<0.01),结晶评分与MDA含量的相关系数为0.592(P<0.01).结论:NAC可以通过其抗氧化作用抑制大鼠肾草酸钙结石的形成.%Objective:To study the effect and mechanism of N-acetyl cysteine(NAC) on renal calcium oxalate stone formation in rats, For clinical prevention urinary stones provide theoretical basis. Methods: At first, 30 health clean adult male Wistar rats adaptability feeding 1 week in the same environment,then randomly divided into 3 groups(n = 10) : group A(Blank control group), group BCstone forming group), group CXstone forming + NAC intervention group), group A drink deionized water, group B drink 1% glycol in deionized water, group C drink 1% glycol in deionized water, and to give NAC100 mg/(kg ? d) by lavage. After feeding for 4 weeks, remove double kidney, left renal opened

  20. Calcium oxalate crystals in eucalypt ectomycorrhizae: morphochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylro, Victor Satler; de Freitas, André Luiz Moreira; Otoni, Wagner Campos; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems, benefitting plants principally by increasing the uptake of water and nutrients such as calcium from the soil. Previous work has demonstrated accumulation of crystallites in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, but detailed morphological and chemical characterization of these crystals has not been performed. In this work, cross sections of acetic acid-treated and cleared ectomycorrhizal fragments were visualized by polarized light microscopy to evaluate the location of crystals within cortical root cells. Ectomycorrhizal sections were also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) microprobe analysis. The predominant forms of crystals were crystal sand (granules) and concretions. Calcium, carbon and oxygen were detected by EDS as constituent elements and similar elemental profiles were observed between both crystal morphologies. All analyzed crystalline structures were characterized as calcium oxalate crystals. This is the first report of the stoichiometry and morphology of crystals occurring in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas in tropical soils. The data corroborates the role of ectomycorrhizae in the uptake and accumulation of calcium in the form of calcium oxalate crystals in hybrid eucalypt plants. PMID:23844062

  1. Calcium oxalate crystals in eucalypt ectomycorrhizae: morphochemical characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Satler Pylro

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems, benefitting plants principally by increasing the uptake of water and nutrients such as calcium from the soil. Previous work has demonstrated accumulation of crystallites in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, but detailed morphological and chemical characterization of these crystals has not been performed. In this work, cross sections of acetic acid-treated and cleared ectomycorrhizal fragments were visualized by polarized light microscopy to evaluate the location of crystals within cortical root cells. Ectomycorrhizal sections were also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (EDS microprobe analysis. The predominant forms of crystals were crystal sand (granules and concretions. Calcium, carbon and oxygen were detected by EDS as constituent elements and similar elemental profiles were observed between both crystal morphologies. All analyzed crystalline structures were characterized as calcium oxalate crystals. This is the first report of the stoichiometry and morphology of crystals occurring in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas in tropical soils. The data corroborates the role of ectomycorrhizae in the uptake and accumulation of calcium in the form of calcium oxalate crystals in hybrid eucalypt plants.

  2. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cailleau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa, has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the acidic conditions in these types of soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. In addition, a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues contributes to the carbonate flux and is identified as a direct consequence of wood feeding by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter, and an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting agents (mainly termites, saprophytic fungi, and bacteria release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition, some of these agents are themselves producers of oxalate (e.g. fungi. Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can then start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate

  3. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cailleau

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa, has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the theoretical acidic conditions of these soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. Regarding the carbonate flux, another direct consequence of wood feeding is a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues, which is not consumed by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter. Therefore, an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting gents (mainly termites, fungi, and bacteria release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition some of these gents are themselves producers of oxalate (fungi. Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate-carbonate pathway. The solution is pumped

  4. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleau, G.; Braissant, O.; Verrecchia, E. P.

    2011-07-01

    An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa), has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the acidic conditions in these types of soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. In addition, a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues contributes to the carbonate flux and is identified as a direct consequence of wood feeding by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter, and an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting agents (mainly termites, saprophytic fungi, and bacteria) release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition, some of these agents are themselves producers of oxalate (e.g. fungi). Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can then start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate-carbonate pathway. The solution is

  5. ANALYZE AND DIFFERENTIATE URIC ACID STONES AND CALCIUM STONES FROM IMAGES USING STATISTICAL PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Nasira; M. Ranjitha

    2015-01-01

    Image analysis plays a vital role in medical diagnostics. Analysing texture is a major source of discrimination in image analysis. In this paper, we have worked on and analysed images of kidney stones to differentiate between the chemical compositions of different types of stone. The most common types of stones are Calcium and Uric acid stone, hence our study focuses on these two categories. Identifying chemical composition is very crucial as it helps the patients to keep a control on their d...

  6. Sulfate and thiosulfate inhibit oxalate transport via a dPrestin (Slc26a6)-dependent mechanism in an insect model of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Greg M; Hirata, Taku; Anderson, Jacob B; Cabrero, Pablo; Gallo, Christopher J R; Dow, Julian A T; Romero, Michael F

    2016-01-15

    Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract disorders, with the majority of kidney stones composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx). Given its prevalence (US occurrence 10%), it is still poorly understood, lacking progress in identifying new therapies because of its complex etiology. Drosophila melanogaster (fruitfly) is a recently developed model of CaOx nephrolithiasis. Effects of sulfate and thiosulfate on crystal formation were investigated using the Drosophila model, as well as electrophysiological effects on both Drosophila (Slc26a5/6; dPrestin) and mouse (mSlc26a6) oxalate transporters utilizing the Xenopus laevis oocyte heterologous expression system. Results indicate that both transport thiosulfate with a much higher affinity than sulfate Additionally, both compounds were effective at decreasing CaOx crystallization when added to the diet. However, these results were not observed when compounds were applied to Malpighian tubules ex vivo. Neither compound affected CaOx crystallization in dPrestin knockdown animals, indicating a role for principal cell-specific dPrestin in luminal oxalate transport. Furthermore, thiosulfate has a higher affinity for dPrestin and mSlc26a6 compared with oxalate These data indicate that thiosulfate's ability to act as a competitive inhibitor of oxalate via dPrestin, can explain the decrease in CaOx crystallization seen in the presence of thiosulfate, but not sulfate. Overall, our findings predict that thiosulfate or oxalate-mimics may be effective as therapeutic competitive inhibitors of CaOx crystallization. PMID:26538444

  7. Does the Use of Chitosan Contribute to Oxalate Kidney Stone Formation?

    OpenAIRE

    Moacir Fernandes Queiroz; Karoline Rachel Teodosio Melo; Diego Araujo Sabry; Guilherme Lanzi Sassaki; Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan is widely used in the biomedical field due its chemical and pharmacological properties. However, intake of chitosan results in renal tissue accumulation of chitosan and promotes an increase in calcium excretion. On the other hand, the effect of chitosan on the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) has not been described. In this work, we evaluated the antioxidant capacity of chitosan and its interference in the formation of CaOx crystals in vitro. Here, the chitosan obtained c...

  8. Antilithiatic Activity of phlorotannin rich extract of Sarghassum Wightii on Calcium Oxalate Urolithiais – In Vitro and In VivoEvaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sujatha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Urolithiasis is a common urological disorder responsible for serious human affliction and cost to the society with a high recurrence rate. The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluate the phlorotannin rich extract of Sargassum wightii using suitable in vitro and in vivo models to provide scientific evidence for its antilithiatic activity.Materials and Methods:To explore the effect of Sargassum wightii on calcium oxalate crystallization, in vitro assays like crystal nucleation, aggregation and crystal growth were performed. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced in male Sprague dawley rats using a combination of gentamicin and calculi producing diet (5% ammonium oxalate and rat pellet feed. The biochemical parameters like calcium, oxalate, magnesium, phosphate, sodium and potassium were evaluated in urine, serum and kidney homogenates. Histopathological studies were also done to confirm the biochemical findings.Results:The yield of Sargassum wightii extract was found to be 74.5 gm/kg and confirmed by quantitative analysis. In vitro experiments with Sargassum wightii showed concentration dependent inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation, aggregation and growth supported by SEM analysis. In the in vivo model, Sargassum wightiireduced both calcium and oxalate supersaturation in urine, serum and deposition in the kidney. The biochemical results were supported by histopathological studies.Conclusion:The findings of the present study suggest that Sargassum wightii has the ability to prevent nucleation, aggregation and growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Sargassum wightii has better preventive effect on calcium oxalate stone formation indicating its strong potential to develop as a therapeutic option to prevent recurrence of urolithiasis.

  9. Lack of evidence for the association of ornithine decarboxylase (+316 G>A), spermidine/spermine acetyl transferase (−1415 T>C) gene polymorphisms with calcium oxalate stone disease

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOKER-GÜRKAN, AJDA; Arisan, Serdar; ARISAN, ELIF DAMLA; ÜNSAL, NARÇIN PALAVAN

    2013-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a complex and multifactorial disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the urinary tract. Urea cycle is an important process involved in disease progression. L-ornithine is a key amino acid in the urea cycle and is converted to putrescine by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are natural polyamines that are catabolized by a specific enzyme, spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ...

  10. Raman spectroscopy study of calcium oxalate extracted from cacti stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frausto-Reyes, Claudio; Loza-Cornejo, Sofia; Terrazas, Teresa; Terrazas, Tania; Miranda-Beltrán, María de la Luz; Aparicio-Fernández, Xóchitl; López-Macías, Brenda M; Morales-Martínez, Sandra E; Ortiz-Morales, Martín

    2014-01-01

    To find markers that distinguish the different Cactaceae species, by using near infrared Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we studied the occurrence, in the stem, of solid deposits in five Cactaceae species (Coryphantha clavata, Ferocactus latispinus, Opuntia ficus-indica, O. robusta, and O. strepthacantha) collected from their natural habitats from a region of México. The deposits in the tissues usually occurred as spheroidal aggregates, druses, or prismatic crystals. From the Raman spectra, the crystals were identified either as calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaC2O4·H2O) or calcium oxalate dihydrate (CaC2O4·2H2O). Opuntia species (subfamily Opuntioideae) showed the presence of CaC2O4·H2O, and the deposition of CaC2O4·2H2O was present in C. clavata and F. latispinus (subfamily Cactoideae, Cacteae tribe). As a punctual technique, Raman spectroscopy seems to be a useful tool to identify crystal composition. In addition to allowing the analysis of crystal morphology, this spectroscopic technique can be used to identify Cactaceae species and their chemotaxonomy. PMID:25280368

  11. In vitro effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum) extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekkoum, Khaled; Cheriti, Abdelkrim; Taleb, Safia

    2011-10-01

    Urolithiasis can lead to the loss of renal function in some cases. In this study, we tested the inhibiting effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum L) extract on calcium oxalate crystallization in a turbidimetric model, by FTIR spectroscopy, and polarized microscopy. The results show that this plant extract has a major inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization. PMID:22164778

  12. Herbal extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata inhibit growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, V. S.; Parekh, B. B.; Joshi, M. J.; Vaidya, A. B.

    2005-02-01

    A large number of people in this world are suffering from urinary stone problem. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) containing stones (calculi) are commonly found. In the present study, COM crystals were grown by a double diffusion gel growth technique using U-tubes. The gel was prepared from hydrated sodium metasilicate solution. The gel framework acts like a three-dimensional crucible in which the crystal nuclei are delicately held in the position of their formation, and nutrients are supplied for the growth. This technique can be utilized as a simplified screening static model to study the growth, inhibition and dissolution of urinary stones in vitro. The action of putative litholytic medicinal plants, Tribulus terrestris Linn. ( T.t) and Bergenia ligulata Linn. ( B.l.), has been studied in the growth of COM crystals. Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata are commonly used as herbal medicines for urinary calculi in India. To verify the inhibitive effect, aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata were added along with the supernatant solutions. The growth was measured and compared, with and without the aqueous extracts. Inhibition of COM crystal growth was observed in the herbal extracts. Maximum inhibition was observed in Bergenia ligulata followed by Tribulus terrestris. The results are discussed.

  13. Effect of Concentration of Structurally-Different Carboxylic Acids on Growth and Aggregation of Calcium Oxalate in Gel Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG,Sui-Ping; OUYANG,Jian-Ming

    2007-01-01

    The effect of concentration of structurally-different carboxylic acids such as ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (H4edta), citric acid (H3cit), tartaric acid (H2tart), and acetic acid (HOAc) on growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) in gel systems was comparatively investigated. H2tart and H3cit could change the morphology of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and induce the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD). H4edta could induce the formation of COD at a lower concentration of 0.33 mmol/L and have the strongest ability to inhibit aggregation of COM. HOAc inhibited COM aggregation only at a higher concentration than 500 mmol/L. With increasing the number of carboxylic groups in an acid or increasing the concentration of carboxylic acid, the capacity of this acid to induce COD formation and to inhibit growth and aggregation of COM crystals increased. That is, this capacity followed the order: H4edta>H3cit>H2tart>>HOAc. The result in this work suggested that the presence of H3cit and H2tart in urine played a role in the natural defense against stone formation.

  14. Acidic polyanion poly(acrylic acid) prevents calcium oxalate crystal deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinman, Jack G.; Alatalo, Laura J.; Beshensky, Ann M.; Wesson, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic macromolecules inhibit calcium oxalate nucleation, growth, aggregation and attachment to cells in vitro. To test for such an effect in vivo we used osmotic minipumps to continuously infuse several doses of the 5.1 kDa poly(acrylic acid) (pAA5.1) into rats fed a diet which causes renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition. Although kidneys of rats receiving the saline control contained calcium oxalate crystals, measured by polarized light microscopy, those of animals given pAA5.1 had sign...

  15. Modulation of Tartrates with Various Counterions on the Phases of Calcium Oxalate in Gelatinous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ming OUYANG; Xiang Ping LI

    2005-01-01

    Effect of various counterions of tartrate on the crystallization of calcium oxalate in gel system was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various tartrates with hydrogen (H2tart), sodium (Na2tart), potassium (K2tart), ammonium ((NH4)2tart), and a mixture of sodium and potassium cations (NaKtart) were considered. For H2tart, Na2tart, and (NH4)2tart, calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) was induced. However, for K2tart and NaKtart,calcium oxalate trihydrate (COT) was obtained.

  16. Modulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by citrate through selective binding to atomic steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, S R; Wierzbicki, A; Salter, E A; Zepeda, S; Orme, C A; Hoyer, J R; Nancollas, G H; Cody, A M; De Yoreo, J J

    2004-10-19

    The majority of human kidney stones are composed primarily of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Thus, determining the molecular mechanisms by which urinary constituents modulate calcium oxalate crystallization is crucial for understanding and controlling urolithiassis in humans. A comprehensive molecular-scale view of COM shape modification by citrate, a common urinary constituent, obtained through a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling is now presented. We show that citrate strongly influences the growth morphology and kinetics on the (-101) face but has much lower effect on the (010) face. Moreover, binding energy calculations show that the strength of the citrate-COM interaction is much greater at steps than on terraces and is highly step-specific. The maximum binding energy, -166.5 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, occurs for the [101] step on the (-101) face. In contrast, the value is only -56.9 kJ {center_dot} mol-1 for the [012] step on the (010) face. The binding energies on the (-101) and (010) terraces are also much smaller, -65.4 and -48.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} respectively. All other binding energies lie between these extremes. This high selectivity leads to preferential binding of citrate to the acute [101] atomic steps on the (-101) face. The strong citrate-step interactions on this face leads to pinning of all steps, but the anisotropy in interaction strength results in anisotropic reductions in step kinetics. These anisotropic changes in step kinetics are, in turn, responsible for changes in the shape of macroscopic COM crystals. Thus, the molecular scale growth morphology and the bulk crystal habit in the presence of citrate are similar, and the predictions of molecular simulations are fully consistent with the experimental observations.

  17. ANALYZE AND DIFFERENTIATE URIC ACID STONES AND CALCIUM STONES FROM IMAGES USING STATISTICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Nasira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Image analysis plays a vital role in medical diagnostics. Analysing texture is a major source of discrimination in image analysis. In this paper, we have worked on and analysed images of kidney stones to differentiate between the chemical compositions of different types of stone. The most common types of stones are Calcium and Uric acid stone, hence our study focuses on these two categories. Identifying chemical composition is very crucial as it helps the patients to keep a control on their diet. A statistical comparison is made between these two categories and we have observed significant difference in various classic parameters. A new approach is presented that uses only selected statistical parameters and hence it differs from all previous approaches that differentiates the different types of stones from images without clinical interference.

  18. Effect of Calcium on the Vanadium Extraction from High Calcium Type Stone Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Shenxu; LIANG Liang; ZHANG Yimin; HAN Shihua; HU Yangjia

    2015-01-01

    The high calcium type stone coal from Hubei province was leached by water and dilute acid separately after being roasted with different dosage of NaCl. The water leaching rate of vanadium (WLRV) was low and only 26.8%of vanadium can be leached by water when 4%NaCl was added, but the acid leaching rate of vanadium (ALRV) was relatively high. Calcium in the high calcium type stone coal is greatly superfluous relative to vanadium, hence, the calcium reacts with vanadium to form Ca(VO3)2, Ca2V2O7 and Ca3(VO4)2 orderly during the stone coal roasting process and high temperature is beneficial to the reactions between calcium and vanadium, which was validated by simulated reactions between pure calcium carbonate and vanadium pentoxide. These calcium vanadates are all water insoluble but acid soluble and this causes the low WLRV and relatively high ALRV. After calcium removal by HCl, the WLRV is highly enhanced and reaches about 50%when only 2%NaCl was added. If the HCl content is too high, the stone coal is easily sintered and the formed glass structure can enwrap vanadium, which leads the WLRV to decline. Single water leaching process is not appropriate to extract vanadium from high calcium type stone coal.

  19. Intracrystalline Proteins Promote Dissolution of Urinary Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Cultured Renal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Phulwinder K.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Fleming, David E.; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm; Ryall, Rosemary L.

    2007-04-01

    We have proposed that internalized calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals containing intracrystalline proteins would be vulnerable to intracellular dissolution. The aims of this study were (1) to measure non-uniform strain and crystallite size in CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystals containing increasing amounts of intracrystalline crystal matrix extract (CME) and (2) to compare the rates of crystal dissolution in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) cells. CME was isolated by demineralization of COM crystals generated from human urine. Cold and 14C-oxalate-labelled COM crystals were precipitated from ultrafiltered urine containing CME at final concentrations of 0-5mg/L. Non-uniform strain and crystallite size were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with Rietveld whole-pattern peak fitting and profile analysis, and the protein content of the crystals was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting for prothrombin fragment 1. Radiolabeled crystals were added to MDCKII cells and dissolution was expressed as radioactive label released into the medium relative to that in the crystals at zero time. Non-uniform strain increased and crystallite size decreased proportionally with rising CME concentration, reaching saturation between approximately 1 and 5 mg/L, and demonstrating unequivocally the inclusion of increasing quantities of proteins in the crystals. This was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Crystal dissolution also followed saturation kinetics. These findings were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), which showed that the degree of crystal degradation increased relative to CME concentration. We conclude that intracrystalline proteins enhance intracellular dissolution of CaOx crystals and thus may provide a natural defense against stone pathogenesis.

  20. EGCG decreases binding of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals onto renal tubular cells via decreased surface expression of alpha-enolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Singhto, Nilubon; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-06-01

    Crystal retention on tubular cell surface inside renal tubules is considered as the earliest and crucial step for kidney stone formation. Therapeutics targeting this step would cease the development of kidney stone. This study thus aimed to investigate the potential role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major antioxidant found in green tea leaves, in the reduction of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal binding onto renal tubular cells. Pretreatment of the cells with EGCG for up to 6 h significantly diminished crystal-binding capability in a dose-dependent manner. Indirect immunofluorescence assay without and with cell permeabilization followed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy revealed that EGCG significantly reduced surface expression of alpha-enolase, whereas its intracellular level was increased. Western blot analysis confirmed such contradictory changes in membrane and cytosolic fractions of EGCG-treated cells, whereas the total level in whole cell lysate remained unchanged. Moreover, overexpression of surface alpha-enolase and enhancement of cell-crystal adhesion induced by 10 mM sodium oxalate were completely abolished by EGCG. Taken together, these data indicate that EGCG decreases binding of COM crystals onto renal tubular cells by decreasing the surface expression of alpha-enolase via re-localization or inhibition of alpha-enolase shuttling from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. These findings may also explain the effects of EGCG in reducing COM crystal deposition in previous animal models of kidney stone disease. Thus, EGCG may be useful for the prevention of new or recurrent stone formation. PMID:26898643

  1. Oxalate in grain amaranth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélinas, Bruce; Seguin, Philippe

    2007-06-13

    Grain amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) is a widely adaptable C4 pseudo-cereal crop that has interesting nutritional characteristics including high protein and calcium concentrations and a lack of gluten. To date, no antinutrient has been found at problematic levels in grain amaranth; however, oxalate has not been thoroughly studied. Dietary oxalate is a potential risk factor for kidney stone development, and its presence in food lowers calcium and magnesium availability. Oxalate concentration and forms and calcium and magnesium concentrations were determined in 30 field-grown grain amaranth genotypes from the species A. cruentus, A. hybrid, and A. hypochondriacus. The effects of seeding date and fertilization with calcium ammonium nitrate were evaluated in field experiments conducted in multiple environments; the effects of cooking were also evaluated. Mean total oxalate concentration in the 30 genotypes analyzed was 229 mg/100 g, with values ranging between 178 and 278 mg/100 g, the greatest proportion being insoluble (average of 80%). Calcium concentration averaged 186 mg/100 g and ranged between 134 and 370 mg/100 g, whereas magnesium averaged 280 mg/100 g and ranged between 230 and 387 mg/100 g. Fertilization only marginally increased total oxalate concentration and had no effects on other variables. Seeding date had no effects on any of the variables studied. Boiling increased the proportion of soluble oxalate but did not affect total oxalate concentration. Grain amaranth can be considered a high oxalate source, however, as most is in insoluble form, and due to its high calcium and magnesium concentrations, oxalate absorbability could be low. This should be confirmed by bioavailability studies. PMID:17511467

  2. Inhibition efficiency of urine towards stone forming minerals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Seema Jawalekar,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Urine specimens were collected from 100 normal individuals and 100 kidney stone patients and analysed spectrophotometrically for common stone promoters like oxalate, calcium, uric acid and phosphate and stone inhibitors like citrate and magnesium. Inhibition efficiency by these inhibitors exiting in urine samples towards the mineralisation of urinary stone forming minerals like calcium oxalate ,phosphate or carbonate has been studied in an experimental model. The results were presented as mean ± SD, student’s t test was used for statistical analysis. Hypocitraturia and hyperoxaluria were the common bnormalities in the stone formers. Kidney stone patients had significantly higher urinary oxalate, calcium and uric acid and lower phosphate than normal individuals. The efficiency is markedly higher for phosphate, carbonate and urates by healthy urine samples.For the stubborn mineral oxalate has low inhibition efficiency. The urine of stone formers show very little inhibition. This implies that inhibition of crystal growth is proportional to the concentration of inhibitory factor present.

  3. Metabolism of Fructose to Oxalate and Glycolate

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, J.; Assimos, D. G.; EASTER, L.; Holmes, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    Much attention has been recently directed at fructose consumption because of its association with obesity and subsequent development of chronic diseases. It was recently reported that an increased fructose intake increases the risk of forming kidney stones. It was postulated that fructose consumption may increase urinary oxalate, a risk factor for calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. However, conflicting results have been obtained in human studies examining the relationship between fructose ...

  4. In vitro inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization and crystal adherence to renal tubular epithelial cells by Terminalia arjuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, A; Tandon, S; Singla, S K; Tandon, C

    2016-04-01

    Urolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and remains a public health problem around the world. Of all types of renal stones, calcium oxalate (CaOx) is the most common composition formed in the urinary system of the patients with urolithiasis. The present study is aimed at evaluating the antiurolithiatic properties of the Tris-Cl extract (TE) of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna). The antilithiatic activity of TE of T. arjuna was investigated on nucleation, aggregation, and growth of the CaOx crystals, as well as its protective potency was tested on oxalate-induced cell injury of NRK-52E renal epithelial cells. Also, in vitro antioxidant activity of TE T. arjuna bark was also determined. The TE of T. arjuna exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of nucleation and growth of CaOx crystals. Inhibition of aggregation of CaOx crystals remains constant. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 48 h, the TE prevented the cells from injury and CaOx crystal adherence resulting in increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The TE also scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals with an IC50 at 51.72 µg/mL. The results indicated that T. arjuna is a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis as it attains the ability to inhibit CaOx crystallization and scavenge DPPH free radicals in vitro along with a cytoprotective role. PMID:26424092

  5. Concave Urinary Crystallines: Direct Evidence of Calcium Oxalate Crystals Dissolution by Citrate In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Feng Shang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in urinary crystal properties in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx calculi after oral administration of potassium citrate (K3cit were investigated via atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD, and zeta potential analyzer. The AFM and SEM results showed that the surface of urinary crystals became concave, the edges and corners of crystals became blunt, the average size of urinary crystallines decreased significantly, and aggregation of urinary crystals was reduced. These changes were attributed to the significant increase in concentration of excreted citrate to  mg/L after K3cit intake from  mg/L before K3cit intake. After the amount of urinary citrate was increased, it complexed with Ca2+ ions on urinary crystals, which dissolved these crystals. Thus, the appearance of concave urinary crystals was a direct evidence of CaOx dissolution by citrate in vivo. The XRD results showed that the quantities and species of urinary crystals decreased after K3cit intake. The mechanism of inhibition of formation of CaOx stones by K3cit was possibly due to the complexation of Ca2+ with citrate, increase in urine pH, concentration of urinary inhibitor glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, and the absolute value of zeta potential after K3cit intake.

  6. Structural enzymology of oxalate degradation in Oxalobacter formigenes

    OpenAIRE

    Berthold, Catrine L.

    2008-01-01

    Oxalic acid, as one of nature's most highly oxidised compounds, is toxic to most organisms. It is introduced in the human body in the diet but also as a waste product of cellular metabolism. Mammals do not posses the ability to degrade oxalate and must excrete it in the urine or through the intestine. Accumulation of oxalate may lead to a number of pathological conditions in humans and a majority of all kidney stones are formed by calcium oxalate. Fortunately, the anaerobic ...

  7. Developing precipitation modes for preventing the calcium-oxalate contamination of sugar beet pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoming; Meng, Hecheng; Zhu, Siming; Tang, Qiang; Pan, Runquan; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-09-01

    Effects of precipitation modes on the co-precipitation of insoluble oxalates particles during the purification of sugar beet pectins (SBP) from the extract were investigated. It was observed that soluble oxalate ions formed insoluble oxalate salts with calcium and precipitated with pectins during ethanol precipitation as pH of the medium increased and the solvent changed from water to ethanol-water mixture. Comparison among the employed precipitation methods revealed that both the dialysis-ethanol-precipitation and metal precipitation effectively prevented the calcium-oxalate contamination of SBP. Emulsifying properties of DEPP, EPP and MPP were also studied. It was observed that DEPP performed better than the remainder with respect to emulsifying ability. Based on these results, we concluded that the dialysis-ethanolic-precipitation can be a suitable method for improving the purity as well as emulsifying properties of the resulting pectins. PMID:25842309

  8. Circular patterns of calcium oxalate monohydrate induced by defective Langmuir-Blodgett film on quartz substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The defective Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on quartz injured by potassium oxalate (K2C2O4) was used as a model system to induce growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that circular defective domains with a diameter of 1-200 μm existed in the LB film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed circular patterns of aggregated calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallites were induced by these defective domains. It was ascribed to that the interaction between the negatively-charged oxalate ions and the phosphatidyl groups in DPPC headgroups makes the phospholipid molecules rearranged and exist in an out-of-order state in the LB film, especially at the boundaries of liquid-condensed (LC)/liquid-expanded (LE) phases, which provide much more nucleating sites for COM crystals

  9. Association of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with Calcium Oxalate Calcul us Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少刚; 刘继红; 胡少群; 叶章群

    2003-01-01

    To study the relationship between polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (VDR) allele with formation of calcium oxalate calculus and find the predisposing genes of calcium oxalate calculus, we screened out 150 patients who suffered from calcium oxalate calculus. 36 of them had idiopathic hypercalciuria according to analysis of calculus component and assay of urine calcium. The polymorphisms of VDR gene Taq1, Apa1 and Fok1 were detected using PCR-RFLP technique and the correlation were analyzed between the polymorphism and urinary calculus or between the polymorphism and hypercalciuria. The difference in each genotypic frequency of the allele of promoter Fok1 between calculus group and healthy group or between idiopathic hypercalciuria calculus group and health group was significant. The content of 24-h urine calcium of those who had genotype ff was obviously higher than that of those who have other genotypes in the same group. There was no significant difference in the polymorphism of gene Apa1 and Taq1 between each two groups. It is concluded that hypercalciuria and calcium oxalate calculus were related to the polymorphism of VDR gene's promoter Fok1 allele, but it had nothing to do with the polymorphism of gene Apa1 and Taq1. The genotype ff was a candidate heredity marker of calcium calculus disease.

  10. Effect of water-soluble oxalates in Amaranthus spp. leaves on the absorption of milk calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingle, U; Ramasastri, B V

    1978-11-01

    1. Amaranthus spp. leaves contain high amounts of oxalates which affect the calcium absorption. This study was done to determine whether removal of the water-soluble oxalates from the leaves by cooking would reduce this deleterious effect. 2. Experimental work done with two types of basal diets on six adult male subjects has shown that the milk Ca absorption was low when leaves cooked without draining away the water were included in the diet. However when the soluble oxalates were removed by throwing away the water after cooking the leaves, the absorption of milk Ca was unaffected. PMID:568935

  11. Oxalate content of cereals and cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Roswitha; Hönow, Ruth; Voss, Susanne; Seidler, Ana; Hesse, Albrecht

    2006-04-19

    Detailed knowledge of food oxalate content is of essential importance for dietary treatment of recurrent calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Dietary oxalate can contribute considerably to the amount of urinary oxalate excretion. Because cereal foods play an important role in daily nutrition, the soluble and total oxalate contents of various types of cereal grains, milling products, bread, pastries, and pasta were analyzed using an HPLC-enzyme-reactor method. A high total oxalate content (>50 mg/100 g) was found in whole grain wheat species Triticum durum (76.6 mg/100 g), Triticum sativum (71.2 mg/100 g), and Triticum aestivum (53.3 mg/100 g). Total oxalate content was comparably high in whole grain products of T. aestivum, that is, wheat flakes and flour, as well as in whole grain products of T. durum, that is, couscous, bulgur, and pasta. The highest oxalate content was demonstrated for wheat bran (457.4 mg/100 g). The higher oxalate content in whole grain than in refined grain cereals suggests that oxalic acid is primarily located in the outer layers of cereal grains. Cereals and cereal products contribute to the daily oxalate intake to a considerable extent. Vegetarian diets may contain high amounts of oxalate when whole grain wheat and wheat products are ingested. Recommendations for prevention of recurrence of calcium oxalate stone disease have to take into account the oxalate content of these foodstuffs. PMID:16608223

  12. Mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate endocytosis by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Campos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals adhere to and are internalized by tubular renal cells and it seems that this interaction is related (positively or negatively to the appearance of urinary calculi. The present study analyzes a series of mechanisms possibly involved in CaOx uptake by Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. CaOx crystals were added to MDCK cell cultures and endocytosis was evaluated by polarized light microscopy. This process was inhibited by an increase in intracellular calcium by means of ionomycin (100 nM; N = 6; 43.9% inhibition; P<0.001 or thapsigargin (1 µM; N = 6; 33.3% inhibition; P<0.005 administration, and via blockade of cytoskeleton assembly by the addition of colchicine (10 µM; N = 8; 46.1% inhibition; P<0.001 or cytochalasin B (10 µM; N = 8; 34.2% inhibition; P<0.001. Furthermore, CaOx uptake was reduced when the activity of protein kinase C was inhibited by staurosporine (10 nM; N = 6; 44% inhibition; P<0.01, or that of cyclo-oxygenase by indomethacin (3 µM; N = 12; 17.2% inhibition; P<0.05; however, the uptake was unaffected by modulation of potassium channel activity with glibenclamide (3 µM; N = 6, tetraethylammonium (1 mM; N = 6 or cromakalim (1 µM; N = 6. Taken together, these data indicate that the process of CaOx internalization by renal tubular cells is similar to the endocytosis reported for other systems. These findings may be relevant to cellular phenomena involved in early stages of the formation of renal stones.

  13. [In vitro effect of Hordeum vulgare on the crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaroud, Samira; Harrache, Djamila; Amar, Amina

    2012-01-01

    The recommended conservative treatment of hyperoxaluria is mainly based on hyperhydration and ingestion of inhibitors of crystallization. In accordance with this context, the aim of this study was to determine the in vitro effect of Hordeum vulgare on calcium oxalate crystallization oxalo-dependent. The crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate in supersaturated aqueous solution at 37 °C, was followed in a model turbidimetric continuous in a closed system. The proposed model is very good reproducibility (CV < 10%), crystallization was monitored continuously in the presence of Hordeum vulgare at different concentrations (0.0625 to 1 g/L). The comparison of turbidimetric parameters, that characterize the growth stage of monohydrated oxalate calcium crystals and observation of the crystals obtained at the end of crystallization into scanning electron microscopy, have been able to demonstrate the inducing effect of Hordeum vulgare to 0.0625 g/L and a slight inhibitory effect at the others concentrations. PMID:23207820

  14. Decreased renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase activity in calcium oxalate calculi patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊汇; 刘继红; 章咏裳; 叶章群; 王少刚

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the activity of vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis compared with healthy individuals and to assess its relationship to the renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Methods Renal parenchymas were harvested from urolithic patients and renal tumor patients undergoing nephrectomy. The renal carboxylase activity was evaluated as the radioactivity of [14C] labeled sodium bicarbonate in carboxylic reactions in vitro using β-liquid scintillation counting. Results Significantly reduced activity of renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase was observed in the urolithic group as compared with normal controls (P<0.01). Conclusion It suggests that the reduced carboxylase activity observed in the urolithic patients may play an important role in the course of renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

  15. Sulfate but not thiosulfate reduces calculated and measured urinary ionized calcium and supersaturation: implications for the treatment of calcium renal stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Rodgers

    Full Text Available Urinary sulfate (SO4(2- and thiosulfate (S2O3(2- can potentially bind with calcium and decrease kidney stone risk. We modeled the effects of these species on the concentration of ionized calcium (iCa and on supersaturation (SS of calcium oxalate (CaOx and calcium phosphate (CaP, and measured their in vitro effects on iCa and the upper limit of stability (ULM of these salts.Urine data from 4 different types of stone patients were obtained from the Mayo Nephrology Clinic (Model 1. A second data set was obtained from healthy controls and hypercalciuric stone formers in the literature who had been treated with sodium thiosulfate (STS (Model 2. The Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS was used to calculate iCa and SS. In Model 1, these parameters were calculated as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations. In Model 2, data from pre- and post STS urines were analyzed. ULM and iCa were determined in human urine as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations.Calculated iCa and SS values for all calcium salts decreased with increasing sulfate concentration. Thiosulfate had no effect on these parameters. In Model 2, calculated iCa and CaOx SS increased after STS treatment, but CaP SS decreased, perhaps due to a decrease in pH after STS treatment. In confirmatory in vitro experiments supplemental sulfate, but not thiosulfate, significantly increased the calcium needed to achieve the ULM of CaP and tended to increase the oxalate needed to reach the ULM of CaOx. Sulfate also significantly decreased iCa in human urine, while thiosulfate had no effect.Increasing urinary sulfate could theoretically reduce CaOx and CaP stone risk. Although STS may reduce CaP stone risk by decreasing urinary pH, it might also paradoxically increase iCa and CaOx SS. As such, STS may not be a viable treatment option for stone disease.

  16. Influence of sodium pentosan polysulphate and certain inhibitors on calcium oxalate crystal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, D; Subha, K; Saravanan, N; Varalakshmi, P

    1996-03-01

    Calcium oxalate crystal growth and aggregation leads to the formation of renal calculi. It is known to be inhibited by several compounds both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The present study highlights the inhibitory potential of sodium pentosan polysulphate (SPP), a semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan (GAG) on calcium oxalate crystal growth in vitro. Its efficacy was compared with those of known inhibitors like pyrophosphate, heparin and chondroitin-4-sulphate. Of the above compounds pyrophosphate was found to be the most potent inhibitor. Among the GAGs, SPP exhibited 80% inhibitory activity as compared to heparin. A lesser degree of inhibition was observed with chondroitin-4-sulphate. PMID:8709973

  17. Separation of plutonium from sulphate bearing analytical waste by co-precipitation with calcium oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple approach for separation of Plutonium from sulfate bearing Analytical waste is presented here. The analytical waste is generated during analysis of plutonium using the Drummond-Grand potentiometric method mainly contains sulphate ions. The removal and recovery of plutonium from this waste is important due to radio toxicity associated with it as well as its strategic importance. Plutonium is co-precipitated with calcium oxalate by calcium nitrate and potassium oxalate mixture. The recovery is almost complete (99.96%). This method is adapted for routine use in our laboratory. (author)

  18. Leaf calcium oxalate crystal structure and its role in defense against a chewing insect in Medicago truncatula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystals of calcium oxalate are common in plants and widely distributed among many plant families. These hard and largely insoluble crystals take on many shapes and sizes depending on the tissue and species. In Medicago truncatula, calcium oxalate crystals are abundant in leaves and accumulate in sh...

  19. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    OpenAIRE

    Basri Cakıroglu; Akif Nuri Dogan; Tuncay Tas; Ramazan Gozukucuk; Bekir Sami Uyanik

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. Howeve...

  20. Role of intermediary cells in Peltodon radicans (Lamiaceae) in the transfer of calcium and formation of calcium oxalate crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Elder Antônio Sousa Paiva; Silvia Rodrigues Machado

    2005-01-01

    With the objective of studying the connection between calcium oxalate crystals formation and the phloem, fragments of leaves of Peltodon radicans Pohl (Lamiaceae) were fixed and processed, for light and electron-transmission microscopes. It was observed that the crystals occurred in the cells of the bundle sheath, juxtaposed in relation to the phloem. Intermediary cells established a connection between the sieve element and crystal-bearing sheath cells. Calcium was present abundantly in the c...

  1. Formation of ring calcium oxalate patterns induced by domains in DPPC Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ming Liu; Sui Ping Deng; Hui Zheng; Jian Ming Ouyang

    2007-01-01

    The ring patterns of calcium oxalate crystals were induced by domains in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of dipalmitoylpho-sphatidylcholine (DPPC). The result was explained by the defects at the ring boundaries of liquid condensed (LC) and liquid expanded (LE) phases of LB film. These boundaries could provide less free energy and much more nucleating sites for COM crystals.

  2. Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image. (note)

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidney stone samples of the types calcium oxalate, uric acid, and xanthine were analyzed for their elemental contents by neutron activation analysis to study both the elemental correlation and influence of element on stone precipitation processes. Elements, such as Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe,H, I, K, Mg, Na, Sb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were determined quantitatively. Calcium oxalate stones contained higher concentration of all the elements analyzed compared to uric acid or xanthine stones. The concentrations of Cl, Fe, K, Na, Sr, and Zn were relatively higher than Au, Co, Cr, and Sb. A positive correlation exists between Ca and Zn, whereas a negative correlation exists between Sr and Ca. Zinc may play an important role in the formation of calcium oxalate stone

  4. Targeted cellular ionic calcium chelation by oxalates: Implications for the treatment of tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embi Abraham

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In malignant melanoma, it has been published that up to 40% of cancer patients will suffer from brain metastasis. The prognosis for these patients is poor, with a life expectancy of 4 to 6 months. Calcium exchange is involved in numerous cell functions. Recently, three types of cellular calcium sequestration have been reported in the medical literature. The first describes a transgenic mouse model in which an increase of aberrant calcium channels triggers hypertrophy and apoptosis. The second provides a protective mechanism whereby astrocytes in the brain inhibit apoptosis of tumor cells by moving ionic calcium out of the tumor cells thru gap junctions. The third is via calcium chelation, which causes cell apoptosis by converting ionic calcium into a calcium salt. This process has been shown to operate in atrial myocardial cells, thus not allowing the intracellular calcium stores to flow through the myocytes intercalated discs. Ideally chemotherapeutic agents would be those that initiate apoptosis in tumor cells. Presentation of the Hypothesis We hypothesize that the recent reported intracellular calcium sequestration by oxalate chelation, due to its chemical process of converting ionic calcium into a calcium salt, may inhibit the protective effect of astrocytes on brain tumor metastasized melanoma cells by not allowing free calcium to leave the metastatic cells, simultaneously apoptosis of tumor and some healthy adjacent cells could occur. This hypothesis could be extended to include other cancerous tumors such as skin cancers amongst others. Testing the hypothesis Using the experimental model showing the protective mechanism of co-cultured reactive astrocytes and tumor cells treated with oxalates could be used to test this hypothesis in vitro. The calcium specific von Kossa technique could be used to confirm the presence of chelated intracellular calcium architecture of the metastatic cells (which is a sign of apoptosis

  5. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    G. Cailleau; Braissant, O; E. P. Verrecchia

    2011-01-01

    An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa), has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the theoretical acidic conditions of these soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from fi...

  6. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    G. Cailleau; Braissant, O; E. P. Verrecchia

    2011-01-01

    An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa), has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the acidic conditions in these types of soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and e...

  7. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    G. Cailleau; Braissant, O.; Verrecchia, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa), has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the acidic conditions in these types of soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and ev...

  8. Effect of dietary calcium and magnesium on experimental renal tubular deposition of calcium oxalate crystal induced by ethylene glycol administration and its prevention with phytin and citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisuno, S; Morimoto, S; Yoshida, T; Fukatani, T; Yasukawa, S; Ohkawa, T

    1987-01-01

    Oral administration of ethylene glycol to rats, and the resultant intratubular depositions of microcrystals of calcium oxalate were studied investigating the influences of dietary calcium or magnesium and assessing the protective efficacies against the crystallizations by treatment with phytin and sodium citrate. With increase of calcium intake and consequent increase of urinary calcium excretion there was a marked increase in the amount of tubular deposit of calcium oxalate crystal and in the calcium content of renal tissue. Although magnesium deficiency accelerated renal tubular calcium oxalate deposition, the protection against the crystal formation was not observed with excessive dietary magnesium. When rats were fed a high-calcium diet supplemented with phytin, a significant inhibition of the intratubular crystallization was observed. It appeared obvious that a hypocalciuric action of phytin was attributed to the effect of the prevention. There was vigorous protection of crystal formation by treatment with sodium citrate, which correlated with the level of citrate concentration in the drinking water. PMID:3433579

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate and effects on soluble oxalate concentration in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israr, Beenish; Frazier, Richard A; Gordon, Michael H

    2017-01-01

    Soluble oxalate in foods is major concern for kidney stone formers due to its tendency to increase urinary oxalate concentration. Phytate forms complexes with cations, which increases soluble oxalate by making cations unavailable to precipitate oxalate. Thus, in order to reduce soluble oxalate, bran samples (wheat, oat and barley) and bean samples (red kidney bean and white bean) were treated with phytase. Release of phosphate after phytate degradation and its association with calcium was determined. Phosphate concentration increased after application of phytase in all samples, but effect on soluble oxalate concentration varied. Wheat and oat bran showed significant reduction (P<0.05) in soluble oxalate compared to bean samples. Wheat bran, oat bran and white bean had a lower calcium:phosphate ratio than barley bran and red kidney beans. Correlation of the calcium:phosphate molar ratio with release of phosphate depends on concentration of calcium ions and this influences soluble oxalate concentration. PMID:27507467

  10. NEW FRONTIERS ON NEPHROLITHIASIS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF KIDNEY STONES

    OpenAIRE

    Malan Rajat; Walia Anu; Gupta Sumeet,

    2011-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis (also known as kidney stones, renal stones, urinary stones, urolithiasis, and renal calculi) affects a great number of patients worldwide. These can be of different types like calcium-oxalate, struvite, uric acid, cysteine. Larger stones in the urinary tract can cause extreme pain in the lower back or side. Urinary tract infections, kidney disorders and certain metabolic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism are also linked to stone formation. Cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, Hyperc...

  11. Ultrastructural and biochemical studies on formation of calcium oxalate in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant calcium oxalate crystals occur within cells called crystal idioblasts. Important aspects of this calcification phenomenon have not been characterized. This dissertation examines some of the aspects of this ubiquitous type of calcification including (1) characterization of ultrastructural features of developing crystal idioblasts, (2) determination of the relationship of specialized ultrastructural features of the idioblasts to transport of compounds and mechanisms of crystal deposition, and (3) the biochemical relationship between ascorbic acid metabolism and production of oxalic acid used for crystal formation. Structural and cytochemical studies revealed that crystal idioblasts have dense cytoplasm, modified plastids, enlarged nuclei, extensive endoplasmic reticulum, numerous dictyosomes and vesicles, and a bundle of raphide crystals in their vacuoles. A mechanism for Ca transport and crystal precipitation is proposed, based on these results. There is a strong and dynamic relationship between Ca concentration and oxalic acid produced for crystal formation, where increasing Ca level in the growth medium lead to increased total and insoluble oxalate in the plant. Calmodulin antagonists reduced oxalic acid production

  12. Alarm Photosynthesis: Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Internal CO2 Source in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooulakou, Georgia; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Orkoula, Malvina G; Kontoyannis, Christos G; Fasseas, Costas; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Klapa, Maria I; Karabourniotis, George

    2016-08-01

    Calcium oxalate crystals are widespread among animals and plants. In land plants, crystals often reach high amounts, up to 80% of dry biomass. They are formed within specific cells, and their accumulation constitutes a normal activity rather than a pathological symptom, as occurs in animals. Despite their ubiquity, our knowledge on the formation and the possible role(s) of these crystals remains limited. We show that the mesophyll crystals of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) exhibit diurnal volume changes with a gradual decrease during daytime and a total recovery during the night. Moreover, stable carbon isotope composition indicated that crystals are of nonatmospheric origin. Stomatal closure (under drought conditions or exogenous application of abscisic acid) was accompanied by crystal decomposition and by increased activity of oxalate oxidase that converts oxalate into CO2 Similar results were also observed under drought stress in Dianthus chinensis, Pelargonium peltatum, and Portulacaria afra Moreover, in A. hybridus, despite closed stomata, the leaf metabolic profiles combined with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements indicated active photosynthetic metabolism. In combination, calcium oxalate crystals in leaves can act as a biochemical reservoir that collects nonatmospheric carbon, mainly during the night. During the day, crystal degradation provides subsidiary carbon for photosynthetic assimilation, especially under drought conditions. This new photosynthetic path, with the suggested name "alarm photosynthesis," seems to provide a number of adaptive advantages, such as water economy, limitation of carbon losses to the atmosphere, and a lower risk of photoinhibition, roles that justify its vast presence in plants. PMID:27261065

  13. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  14. Mimicking the growth of a pathologic biomineral: shape development and structures of calcium oxalate dihydrate in the presence of polyacrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Annu; Rosseeva, Elena; Hochrein, Oliver; Carrillo-Cabrera, Wilder; Simon, Paul; Duchstein, Patrick; Zahn, Dirk; Kniep, Rüdiger

    2012-03-26

    The morphogenesis of calcium oxalate hydrates in aqueous solutions was investigated by varying the pH, oxalate concentration, and the concentration of the sodium salt of polyacrylate (PAA). With increasing amounts of PAA in solution, the shape of tetragonal calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) changes from bipyramidal through elongated bipyramidal prisms to dumbbells and finally reverts to rodlike tetragonal bipyramidal prisms. PAA is incorporated into the prismatic zones of the growing COD crystals, thereby reducing the growth rate of the {100} faces along the direction. Dumbbells start to develop through "non-crystallographic" branching from the prism faces and the formation of "multiple head" crystals. Adsorption of PAA on the rough surfaces of the splitting individuals supports the selection of new subindividuals and leads to the formation of core-shell patterns. The various shapes and structures of the biomimetic COD/PAA crystals and aggregates are closely related to the well-known "pathologic" individuals observed in the urine of patients with urinary disease (including urinary stones). PMID:22354632

  15. Papillary and Nonpapillary Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Renal Calculi: Comparative Study of Etiologic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Pieras; Antonia Costa-Bauz; Margarita Ramis; Felix Grases

    2006-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) renal calculi can be classified into two groups: papillary and nonpapillary. In this paper, a comparative study between etiologic factors of COM papillary and nonpapillary calculi is performed. The study included 40 patients with COM renal calculi. The urine of these individuals was analyzed. Case history, lifestyle, and dietetic habits were obtained.No significant differences between urinary biochemical data of both groups were observed; 50% of COM papillary...

  16. Degradation of sulfated polysaccharide extracted from algal Laminaria japonica and its modulation on calcium oxalate crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang Jianming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang Miao; Lu Peng; Tan Jin [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-08-30

    Sulfated polysaccharide (LPS) extracted from alga Laminaria japonica was degraded by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The average molecular weight of LPS was apparently decreased from 172,000 to 9550 after degradation, while the proportion of sulfate groups (-OSO{sub 3}{sup -}) and carboxylic groups (-COO{sup -}) in the molecular chains of LPS were slightly decreased from 4.5% and 5.20% to 3.9% and 4.64%, respectively. The effects of degraded and natural LPS on formation of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals were investigated in vitro using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta-potential, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. LPS could increase the concentration of soluble Ca{sup 2+} ions in the solution, decrease the weight of precipitated CaOxa, and increase the negative value of zeta-potential of CaOxa crystals. LPS also inhibits the formation of thermodynamically stable calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, while inducing and stabilizing metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. These results suggested that both degraded and natural LPS could decrease CaOxa crystallization, but the inhibition efficiency of the degraded LPS was clearly superior to that of the natural LPS. We expected this investigation would provide encouragement for further exploration into new drugs for the prevention and treatment of urolithiasis.

  17. Degradation of sulfated polysaccharide extracted from algal Laminaria japonica and its modulation on calcium oxalate crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfated polysaccharide (LPS) extracted from alga Laminaria japonica was degraded by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The average molecular weight of LPS was apparently decreased from 172,000 to 9550 after degradation, while the proportion of sulfate groups (-OSO3-) and carboxylic groups (-COO-) in the molecular chains of LPS were slightly decreased from 4.5% and 5.20% to 3.9% and 4.64%, respectively. The effects of degraded and natural LPS on formation of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals were investigated in vitro using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta-potential, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. LPS could increase the concentration of soluble Ca2+ ions in the solution, decrease the weight of precipitated CaOxa, and increase the negative value of zeta-potential of CaOxa crystals. LPS also inhibits the formation of thermodynamically stable calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, while inducing and stabilizing metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. These results suggested that both degraded and natural LPS could decrease CaOxa crystallization, but the inhibition efficiency of the degraded LPS was clearly superior to that of the natural LPS. We expected this investigation would provide encouragement for further exploration into new drugs for the prevention and treatment of urolithiasis.

  18. Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Eucalypt Ectomycorrhizae: Morphochemical Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Pylro, Victor Satler; de Freitas, André Luiz Moreira; Otoni, Wagner Campos; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems, benefitting plants principally by increasing the uptake of water and nutrients such as calcium from the soil. Previous work has demonstrated accumulation of crystallites in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, but detailed morphological and chemical characterization of these crystals has not been performed. In this work, cross sections of acetic acid-treated and cleared ectomycorrhizal fragments were visualized by polarized light microscopy to e...

  19. Stone formation and management after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarplin, Sarah; Ganesan, Vishnu; Monga, Manoj

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a significant health concern and is associated with an increased risk of nephrolithiasis, particularly in women. The underlying pathophysiology of stone formation in obese patients is thought to be related to insulin resistance, dietary factors, and a lithogenic urinary profile. Uric acid stones and calcium oxalate stones are common in these patients. Use of surgical procedures for obesity (bariatric surgery) has risen over the past two decades. Although such procedures effectively manage obesity-dependent comorbidities, several large, controlled studies have revealed that modern bariatric surgeries increase the risk of nephrolithiasis by approximately twofold. In patients who have undergone bariatric surgery, fat malabsorption leads to hyperabsorption of oxalate, which is exacerbated by an increased permeability of the gut to oxalate. Patients who have undergone bariatric surgery show characteristic 24 h urine parameters including low urine volume, low urinary pH, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria and hyperuricosuria. Prevention of stones with dietary limitation of oxalate and sodium and a high intake of fluids is critical, and calcium supplementation with calcium citrate is typically required. Potassium citrate is valuable for treating the common metabolic derangements as it raises urinary pH, enhances the activity of stone inhibitors, reduces the supersaturation of calcium oxalate, and corrects hypokalaemia. Both pyridoxine and probiotics have been shown in small studies to reduce hyperoxaluria, but further study is necessary to clarify their effects on stone morbidity in the bariatric surgery population. PMID:25850790

  20. Analysis of urinary stone composition in Eastern India by X-ray diffraction crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Jindal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stones in the urinary system are common in our country. This study was done to assess the composition of the urinary stones in eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done over a period of thirty months. A total of 90 stones were analyzed in this time period by using X-ray diffraction crystallography. Results: Of the 90 stones analyzed, 77 were renal stones, 12 were ureteric stones and one was a bladder stone. Six stones (all renal did not have properties to be represented by X-ray diffraction crystallography. The overall prevalence of the oxalate containing stones was 85.7% with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM being the major constituent. Calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD was the next most common constituent. Struvite stones constituted 9.5% of the stones analyzed. Pure calcium phosphate stones were found in 4.7% of the cases. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the stone composition in the eastern part of India is different from that in other parts of the country. We have a comparatively lower prevalence of oxalate stones while a higher prevalence of phosphate and struvite stones.

  1. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  2. Environmental factors affect calcium oxalate crystals formation in tradescantia pallida (commelinaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tradescantia pallida has major types of calcium oxalate crystals i.e., raphide, prismatic, and druse that are widely distributed within collenchmya, cortical and vascular parenchyma in the stem. However, mechanisms involved in crystal formation in response to stress conditions are not properly understood. In order to evaluate formation of these crystals in response to heavy metals i.e., mercury, sections of control (untreated) and mercury treated plants were prepared, stained with toluidine blue and photographed (infinity software). Mercuric chloride at high doses increased all types of crystals as compared with low doses; suggesting that mercury stress increases metabolic activities of Tradescantia that produce crystals may be, in order to defend themselves. So in T. pallida, crystal formation is influenced by mercury stress that increased raphide and prismatic crystals in the treated plants. However, biochemical aspects involved in oxalic acid formation and release of Ca by Hg need to be explored more. (author)

  3. Isolation of a crystal matrix protein associated with calcium oxalate precipitation in vacuoles of specialized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxiang; Zhang, Dianzhong; Lynch-Holm, Valerie J; Okita, Thomas W; Franceschi, Vincent R

    2003-10-01

    The formation of calcium (Ca) oxalate crystals is considered to be a high-capacity mechanism for regulating Ca in many plants. Ca oxalate precipitation is not a stochastic process, suggesting the involvement of specific biochemical and cellular mechanisms. Microautoradiography of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) tissue exposed to 3H-glutamate showed incorporation into developing crystals, indicating potential acidic proteins associated with the crystals. Dissolution of crystals leaves behind a crystal-shaped matrix "ghost" that is capable of precipitation of Ca oxalate in the original crystal morphology. To assess whether this matrix has a protein component, purified crystals were isolated and analyzed for internal protein. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of one major polypeptide of about 55 kD and two minor species of 60 and 63 kD. Amino acid analysis indicates the matrix protein is relatively high in acidic amino acids, a feature consistent with its solubility in formic acid but not at neutral pH. 45Ca-binding assays demonstrated the matrix protein has a strong affinity for Ca. Immunocytochemical localization using antibody raised to the isolated protein showed that the matrix protein is specific to crystal-forming cells. Within the vacuole, the surface and internal structures of two morphologically distinct Ca oxalate crystals, raphide and druse, were labeled by the antimatrix protein serum, as were the surfaces of isolated crystals. These results demonstrate that a specific Ca-binding protein exists as an integral component of Ca oxalate crystals, which holds important implications with respect to regulation of crystal formation. PMID:14555781

  4. Interactions between calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells: endocytosis and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohjimoto, Y; Ebisuno, S; Tamura, M; Ohkawa, T

    1996-01-01

    The present investigation was designed to study the biological responses in cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells exposed to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the most common type of urinary crystals. The addition of COM crystals significantly accelerated the multiplication of MDCK cells and significantly activated the cell viability. After exposure of MDCK cells to COM crystals, scanning electron microscopy revealed that some crystals adhered to the plasma membrane and others were endocytosed by the cell. This cellular uptake of crystals was time dependent from 1 to 8 h and showed a specificity according to crystal type. However, the endocytosis of aggregated COM crystals was less marked than that of non-aggregated crystals. Pre-treatment with each of the glycosaminoglycans (sodium pentosan polysulphate, heparin, and chondroitin sulphate C) produced a significant reduction of the cellular uptake of COM crystals, suggesting that these glycosaminoglycans may play some critical roles in preventing the cellular uptake of crystals. Although investigation in further detail is necessary, we speculate that these crystal-cell interactions, that is, the cellular uptake of crystals and cell proliferation, may be among the earliest processes in the formation of kidney stones. PMID:8873377

  5. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D and found that (A + B are more abundant than (C + D in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine of kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p < 0.005. Dissociation constants toward calcium oxalate monohydrate were 10-fold different, with Beagles' isoforms being 10 times stronger inhibitors compare to those of Mini-Schnauzers'. Isoforms C + D of NC were the main isoforms isolated in stone-forming dogs. CONCLUSION: NC of these two species of dogs differently affects calcium oxalate crystallization and might have a role in determining ulterior urinary stone formation.

  6. Approach to the Patient with Nephrolithiasis; The Stone Quiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Assadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of stones in patients with idiopathic nephrolithiasis. A calcium phosphate stones are more typical of patients with renal tubular acidosis, chronic urinary tract infection and primary hyperparathyroidism. A non-contrast enhanced helical computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen is the diagnostic procedure of choice with superior sensitivity and specificity of almost 100% compared to the KUB and abdominal ultrasound. Patients should be instructed to strain their urine and bring in any stone that passes for analysis. Stone identification enables better planning of subsequent therapy. The likelihood of stone passage is 95% for stones up to 5 mm in size. Stones larger than 5 mm in diameter that do not pass in several days merit referral to an urologist for lithotripsy, or lithotomy. No specific work-up or drug therapy is typically provided for patients who have passed a single stone. Long term management of patients who have passed their first stone includes recommendations to avoid a diet high in salt or animal protein and maintenance of a fluid intake greater than 2 liters per day. A low calcium diet is also an important risk factor for calcium nephrolithiasis. A low dietary calcium intake reduces the concentration of calcium in the intestinal lumen which can lead to increase in gastrointestinal absorption and urinary excretion of oxalate. Patient with recurrent disease should receive a complete evaluation to treat the identified risk factors and prevent stone formation.

  7. Oxalobacter formigenes Colonization and Oxalate Dynamics in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingsheng; Ellis, Melissa L; Knight, John

    2015-08-01

    Animal and human studies have provided compelling evidence that colonization of the intestine with Oxalobacter formigenes reduces urinary oxalate excretion and lowers the risk of forming calcium oxalate kidney stones. The mechanism providing protection appears to be related to the unique ability of O. formigenes to rely on oxalate as a major source of carbon and energy for growth. However, much is not known about the factors that influence colonization and host-bacterium interactions. We have colonized mice with O. formigenes OxCC13 and systematically investigated the impacts of diets with different levels of calcium and oxalate on O. formigenes intestinal densities and urinary and intestinal oxalate levels. Measurement of intestinal oxalate levels in mice colonized or not colonized with O. formigenes demonstrated the highly efficient degradation of soluble oxalate by O. formigenes relative to other microbiota. The ratio of calcium to oxalate in diets was important in determining colonization densities and conditions where urinary oxalate and fecal oxalate excretion were modified, and the results were consistent with those from studies we have performed with colonized and noncolonized humans. The use of low-oxalate purified diets showed that 80% of animals retained O. formigenes colonization after a 1-week dietary oxalate deprivation. Animals not colonized with O. formigenes excreted two times more oxalate in feces than they had ingested. This nondietary source of oxalate may play an important role in the survival of O. formigenes during periods of dietary oxalate deprivation. These studies suggest that the mouse will be a useful model to further characterize interactions between O. formigenes and the host and factors that impact colonization. PMID:25979889

  8. Can Hounsfield Unit Value Predict Type of Urinary Stones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Gok

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of this study is to determine the role of Hounsfield unit (HU in predicting results of stone analysis. Material and Method: This study included 199 patients to whom percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL procedures were applied between January 2008 and May 2011 in our clinic. Before the procedure HU values of kidney stones were measured using non-contrast computed tomography. After the operation, obtained stone samples were analysed using X-ray diffraction technique. HU values were compared with stone analysis results. Results: Stone analysis revealed eight different stone types. Distribution of stone types and HU value ranges were as follows: 85% calcium oxalate monohydrate, 730-1130 HU; 38% calcium oxalate dihydrate, 510-810 HU; 21% uric acid, 320-550 HU; 23% struvite, 614-870 HU; 7% calcium hydrogene phosphate, 1100-1365 HU; 3% cystine, 630-674 HU; 15% mixed uric acid plus calcium oxalate, 499-840 HU; and 7% mixed cystine plus calcium phosphate, 430-520 HU. HU values of all stone types ranged between 320 and 1365. There was a statistically significant relation between HU values of uric acid and non uric acid stones (p

  9. Algorithm for definition of stones components at kidney-stones illness using two-energetic digital roentgen-graphic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper presents the algorithm for definition of stone composition in case of kidney-stones using two-energy digital X-ray photography. One calculated the values of p information parameter for the main types of stones within 40-150 keV energy range. It was shown that p parameter dependence on energy was not essential one (maximum 3.5% deviation), p value for various chemical compositions of kidney stones ranged from 15% (calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate) up to 70% (calcium lactate and calcium oxalate). The conducted studies enable to make a conclusion about the possibility to define material representing the heart of kidney stones using two-energy digital X-ray photography. Paper includes recommendations on selection of the optimal energy values

  10. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, Guido; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in crossover design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related factor

  11. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J. C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E. A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, G.; Kema, I. P.; Hendriks, W. H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related facto

  12. Hyperoxaluria in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis--what are the limits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J

    1999-01-01

    , and the syndrome of mild hyperoxaluric calcium nephrolithiasis could not be identified in our population of idiopathic stone formers. Hence, a limit of abnormal oxalate excretion that distinguishes an idiopathic stone former from a non-stone former could not be defined in our population. Therefore...

  13. In vitro effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. on calcium oxalate crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajij Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. is widely used in the management of urolithiasis in Unani system of medicine. Aim: To evaluate the effect of the hydro alcoholic extract of A. capillus-veneris Linn. on calcium oxalate crystallisation by in vitro study. Materials and Methods: The study includes crystallization, nucleation and aggregation assay. Crystallization was induced by addition of 50 μl of 0.1 M sodium oxalate in whole urine in the absence and the presence of extract at different concentrations (0.50 mg, 0.75 mg and 1 mg. The nucleation and aggregation rates were followed at 620 nm after mixing calcium chloride and sodium oxalate solution and in a buffered solution containing calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals, respectively. The rate was evaluated by comparing the slope of turbidity in the presence of extract with that of control using the spectrophotometer. Crystals in the urine were also analysed by light microscopy. Results and Conclusion: Extract of the test drug inhibited the crystallization in solution; less and smaller particles were observed in the presence of extract. These results were further confirmed in the nucleation assay, though the rate of nucleation was not inhibited but number of crystals was found to be decreased. The test drug also inhibited crystal aggregation. It can be concluded therefore, that the test drug possesses significant antilithiasic activity.

  14. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aggarwal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as “gokhru” which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals as well as on oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells. RESULTS: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  15. Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis: effect of renal crystal deposition on the cellular composition of the renal interstitium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Water, R; Noordermeer, C; van der Kwast, T H; Nizze, H; Boevé, E R; Kok, D J; Schröder, F H

    1999-04-01

    Urinary calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals and crystal agglomerates are normally harmlessly excreted, but in nephrolithiasis they are retained by tubular epithelial cells and shifted into the renal interstitium. This crystalline material induces an inflammatory response consisting of an increase in the number of interstitial cells and an expansion of the extracellular matrix. The newly arrived cells either derive from the blood or the connective tissue or they are formed by local proliferation. Identification of the cells that surround the interstitial crystals is a first step in investigating the question of whether the interstitial cells could remove the crystalline material. Therefore, we performed an immunohistochemical study on the kidneys of rats made hyperoxaluric by ethylene glycol (EG) and ammonium chloride (AC). Attention was paid to expression of the leukocyte common antigen (LCA), which identifies all types of leukocytes, the ED1 antigen, which is specific for monocytes and macrophages, and the major histocompatibility class II antigen (MHC II), which is present on dendritic cells, B lymphocytes, and activated macrophages. The results obtained were compared with those seen in two human kidney specimens with acute and chronic oxalosis. In both rat and humans, macrophages and multinucleated giant cells are the major cells that encapsulate the interstitial crystals. This similarity in response underlines the relevance of the rat nephrolithiasis model. The rat experiments showed, furthermore, that the number of interstitial crystals and the amount of biochemically measured kidney-associated oxalate both decrease with time, if the nephrolithiatic agents EG and AC are omitted from the drinking water. Further studies must clarify whether macrophages and multinucleated giant cells are able to remove the interstitial crystals and how these cells are recruited at the inflammatory site. PMID:10196021

  16. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakıroglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca. The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics.

  17. Metabolomics analysis for hydroxy-L-proline-induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Songyan; Yang, Rui; Peng, Zhongjiang; Lu, Hongtao; Li, Na; Ding, Jiarong; Cui, Xingang; Chen, Wei; Dong, Xin

    2016-01-01

    About 80% of kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx) with variable amounts of calcium phosphate, and hyperoxaluria is considered as an important factor of CaOx nephrolithiasis. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms of CaOx nephrolithiasis remain undefined. In this study, we successfully developed a rat model with hydroxy-L-proline (HLP) -induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. Rats were continuously orally administrated with HLP for 28 days. Urine and blood samples were collected from the rats treated with or without HLP at four different time points. UPLC-Q-TOF/MS was applied to profile the abundances of metabolites. To obtain more comprehensive analysis of metabolic profiling spectrum, combination of RP-LC and HILIC were applied. We identify 42 significant differential metabolites in the urine, and 13 significant differential metabolites in the blood. Pathway analysis revealed that the pathways involved in amino acid metabolism, taurine metabolism, bile acid synthesis, energy metabolism, TCA cycle, purine metabolism, vitamin metabolism, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide metabolism have been modulated by HLP treatment. This study suggested that a number of metabolic pathways are dysfunctional in the HLP induced crystal kidney injury, and further studies on those pathways are warranted to better understand the metabolic mechanism of CaOx nephrolithiasis. PMID:27443631

  18. Correlation between the degree of air pollution and the distribution of calcium oxalate crystals in the gingko leaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K.; Hozumi, K.

    1972-12-01

    It is now found that the leaves of the gingko tree, Gingko biloba Linn, start to change color prematurely (in July) and are frequently shed considerably in advance of their normal release due to exposure to automotive exhaust. A comparison was made between leaves taken from clean locations free from exhaust fumes and others from high traffic intersections in urban areas. There were noticeable changes in the distribution of inorganic crystals, calcium oxalate, which suggested a biochemical synthesis in the leaf of oxalic acid from inspired carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water, with subsequent neutralization by calcium ion. Results showed significant differences in the size and shape of the crystals, and in their original sites in the leaf. An effect of air pollution from automobile exhaust fumes upon the metabolism of the gingko tree is thus strikingly evident. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Renal papillary calcification and the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal calculi: a case series study

    OpenAIRE

    Grases, Fèlix; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Rafel M. Prieto; Conte, Antonio; Servera, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to determine in a case series (four patients) how calcified deposits in renal papillae are associated with the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi. Methods From the recently collected papillary calculi, we evaluated retrospectively patients, subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy, with COM papillary lithiasis. Results The COM papillary calculi were found to result from subepithelial injury. Many of these lesions underwent ...

  20. Calcium hydroxide based consolidation of lime mortars and stone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    Lisabon : LNEC, 2008 - (kk, k.), s. 299-308 ISBN 978-972-49-2135-8. [Stone consolidation in cultural heritage. Lisabon (PT), 06.05.2008-07.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/06/1609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : lime water * lime mortar consolidation * nanotechnology Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  1. Studies of kidney stones using INAA, EDXRF and XRD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kidney stones collected from patients being treated in the Advance Urology Centre of PGIMR, Chandigarh were characterized using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. For INAA, samples were irradiated in tray rod facility of Dhruva reactor, Mumbai and pneumatic fast transfer system of KAMINI reactor, IGCAR, Kalpakkam. Radioactive assay was carried out using HPGe detector coupled to 8k channel analyzer. Elements determined in the samples by INAA are Zn, Sr, Co, Fe, Cr, Sc, Se, Na and Mn. EDXRF was used for the quantification of Ca. XRD patterns showed that three of the kidney stones are calcium oxalate stone and the other one is uric acid stone. The concentrations of trace elements in general were found to be higher in calcium oxalate stones and positive correlation was observed in the concentrations of Ca with Sr and Zn. (author)

  2. Kidney stones in anorexia nervosa: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonat, L M; Birmingham, C L

    2003-12-01

    Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) is a recognized complication of anorexia nervosa (AN). We present the case of a 41-year-old woman with a 25-year history of AN. Between 1978 and 1986, she had two episodes of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Proper management of kidney stones in AN requires collection of the stone, laboratory analysis of the stone to determine its composition, and laboratory evaluation of the urine and blood to determine what treatment is necessary to prevent recurrent kidney stone formation. PMID:15018386

  3. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  4. Surface heat shock protein 90 serves as a potential receptor for calcium oxalate crystal on apical membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong-Ngern, Kedsarin; Sueksakit, Kanyarat; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-07-01

    Adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals on renal tubular epithelial cells is a crucial step in kidney stone formation. Finding potential crystal receptors on the apical membrane of the cells may lead to a novel approach to prevent kidney stone disease. Our previous study identified a large number of crystal-binding proteins on the apical membrane of MDCK cells. However, their functional role as potential crystal receptors had not been validated. The present study aimed to address the potential role of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) as a COM crystal receptor. The apical membrane was isolated from polarized MDCK cells by the peeling method and recovered proteins were incubated with COM crystals. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of HSP90 in the apical membrane and the crystal-bound fraction. Immunofluorescence staining without permeabilization and laser-scanning confocal microscopy confirmed the surface HSP90 expression on the apical membrane of the intact cells. Crystal adhesion assay showed that blocking surface HSP90 by specific anti-HSP90 antibody and knockdown of HSP90 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) dramatically reduced crystal binding on the apical surface of MDCK cells (by approximately 1/2 and 2/3, respectively). Additionally, crystal internalization assay revealed the presence of HSP90 on the membrane of endocytic vesicle containing the internalized COM crystal. Moreover, pretreatment of MDCK cells with anti-HSP90 antibody significantly reduced crystal internalization (by approximately 1/3). Taken together, our data indicate that HSP90 serves as a potential receptor for COM crystals on the apical membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells and is involved in endocytosis/internalization of the crystals into the cells. PMID:27115409

  5. Secretion of Biologically Active Heterologous Oxalate Decarboxylase (OxdC in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Using Homologous Signal Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnusamy Sasikumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current treatment options for patients with hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate stone diseases are limited and do not always lead to sufficient reduction in urinary oxalate excretion. Oxalate degrading bacteria have been suggested for degrading intestinal oxalate for the prevention of calcium oxalate stone. Here, we reported a recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 (L. plantarum secreting heterologous oxalate decarboxylase (OxdC that may provide possible therapeutic approach by degrading intestinal oxalate. The results showed secretion and functional expression of OxdC protein in L. plantarum driven by signal peptides Lp_0373 and Lp_3050. Supernatant of the recombinant strain containing pLp_0373sOxdC and pLp_3050sOxdC showed OxdC activity of 0.05 U/mg and 0.02 U/mg protein, while the purified OxdC from the supernatant showed specific activity of 18.3 U/mg and 17.5 U/mg protein, respectively. The concentration of OxdC protein in the supernatant was 8–12 μg/mL. The recombinant strain showed up to 50% oxalate reduction in medium containing 10 mM oxalate. In conclusion, the recombinant L. plantarum harboring pLp_0373sOxdC and pLp_3050sOxdC can express and secrete functional OxdC and degrade oxalate up to 50% and 30%, respectively.

  6. The composition of urinary stones in central sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine chemical analysis of urinary stones of central sindh. Study design: Prospective and randomized study. Setting: Department of Surgery and Pathology of Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences Nawabshah. Duration of study: Three years from May 2008 to May 2011. Material and Methods: Total 106 urolith patients who underwent open stone surgery were included in the study. EDTA Titration used for determination of calcium ions and determination of oxalate, phosphate, magnesium, ammonia, uric acid and cystine stones was carried out using spectrophotometer. These patients were asked to fill out a proforma with parameters of age, sex, radiological location of stone and chemical composition of surgically recovered stones. The stone analysis findings were reviewed and compared with other reported series Results: In this study 75(70.75%) patients were male and 31 (29.25%) female. Male to female ratio was of 2.41:1. The age ranged from 1 to 70 years with the mean of 22.69 years. The peak incidence of upper urinary tract stone in 20-30 years and lower urinary tract stones in both sexes was under 10 years. Anatomical location of stone showed 48(45.29%) renal, 13(12.26%) ureteric and 45(42.45%) bladder calculi. Chemical analysis revealed 56(52.8%) calcium oxalate, 7(6.6%) calcium phosphate, 11(10.3%) ammonium urate, 18(16.9%) uric acid, 13(12.2%) Sturvite and 1(0.9%) cystine calculi. Conclusion: It was concluded that urolithiasis is predominantly male disease. No age group was spared to stone disease. Calcium oxalate, uric acid, ammonium urate and mixed calculi are the main types in our study due to poor nutritional status, poverty and inadequate health facilities. Considering that knowledge of stone composition is of utmost importance to modify the incidence of urolithiasis. (author)

  7. Pathophysiology of incomplete renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers: evidence of disturbed calcium, bone and citrate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Bollerslev, Jens; Hansen, A B;

    1993-01-01

    Urinary acidification, bone metabolism and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 recurrent stone formers with incomplete renal tubular acidosis (iRTA), 10 recurrent stone formers with normal urinary acidification (NUA) and 10 normal controls (NC). Patients with iRTA had......-carbonic acidosis during fasting may be a pathophysilogical factor of both nephrolithiasis and disturbed bone metabolism in stone formers with iRTA....... significantly increased in iRTA compared with NUA and NC (P <0.01), indicating increased bone turnover in stone formers with iRTA. Stone formers with iRTA thus presented with disturbed calcium, bone and citrate metabolism--the same metabolic abnormalities which characterize classic type 1 RTA. Mild non...

  8. Correlation between air pollution and crystal pattern of calcium oxalate in plant leaves of street trees in Itami City. [Ginkgo biloba; Salix babylonica; Aphananthe aspera; Robinia pseudoacacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K.; Tatsumi, S.

    1975-01-01

    A characteristic difference in calcium oxalate crystal patterns in leaves of roadside trees planted in relatively unpolluted northern parts of Itami City and in parts of the city polluted by automobile exhaust was discovered. The species of trees examined were Ginkgo biloba, Salix babylonica, Aphananthe aspera, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Poplar. The leaves of trees grown in relatively less air polluted areas displayed crystal aggregates of calcium oxalate (50-80 micron) that were arranged in rows on both sides of the central vein; some scattered crystal aggregates between veins were observed. Trees grown in air polluted areas showed irregular crystal patterns and more scattering of the crystals between veins. The cause of the observed differences in the pattern of crystal aggregates was attributed to the difference in metabolism of trees under different environmental conditions. Air pollutants disturb the normal metabolism of the tree and cause hyperproduction of calcium oxalate.

  9. Synthesis of CaTiO3 from calcium titanyl oxalate hexahydrate (CTO) as precursor employing microwave heating technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B M Patil; R S Srinivasa; S R Dharwadkar

    2007-06-01

    Calcium titanate, CaTiO3, an important microwave dielectric material and one of major phases in synroc (synthetic rock), a titanate ceramic with potential application for fixation of high level nuclear waste was synthesized from calcium titanyl oxalate [CaTiO (C2O4)2.6H2O] (CTO) by employing microwave heating technique. CTO heated in microwave heating system in air at 500°C for 1 h gave a perovskite, CaTiO3. The product obtained by heating of CTO in the same system at 700°C for the same duration was however, much more crystalline. CaTiO3 obtained by the present method was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET surface area measurement.

  10. Do teas rich in antioxidants reduce the physicochemical and peroxidative risk factors for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in humans? Pilot studies with Rooibos herbal tea and Japanese green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A; Mokoena, M; Durbach, I; Lazarus, J; de Jager, S; Ackermann, H; Breytenbach, I; Okada, A; Usami, M; Hirose, Y; Ando, R; Yasui, T; Kohri, K

    2016-08-01

    Several experimental and animal studies have demonstrated that substances rich in antioxidants can reduce the physicochemical and peroxidative risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) renal stone formation in urine and blood. However, there are very few such investigations in humans. In the present pilot study, two varieties of tea, a green one from Japan (JGT) and a herbal one from South Africa (Rooibos) (RT), both rich in antioxidants, were administered to a group of CaOx stone formers (SF) (n = 8) for 30 days. Both teas were analysed for polyphenols by high-performance liquid chromatography and for minerals by plasma atomic and optical emission spectroscopy. 24 h urines (baseline and day 30) were analysed for lithogenic factors. CaOx metastable limits and crystal nucleation and growth kinetics were also determined in each urine sample. Deposited crystals were inspected by scanning electron microscopy. Blood samples were collected (baseline and day 30). Biomarkers of oxidative stress including plasma and urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) were also determined. Urinary physicochemical risk factors were also investigated after ingestion of RT for 30 days in two control groups (CG1 and CG2), the latter one of which consisted of habitual JGT drinkers. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank tests and Mann-Whitney tests for paired and independent measurements, respectively. Several flavonoids and catechins were quantified in RT and JGT, respectively, confirming that both teas are rich sources of antioxidants. Mineral content was found to be far below dietary reference intakes. There were no significant changes in any of the urinary physicochemical or peroxidative risk factors in the control groups or in SF, except for the supersaturation (SS) of brushite (Bru) which decreased in the latter group after ingestion of JGT. Crystal morphology showed a tendency to change from

  11. The effect of intracrystalline and surface-bound osteopontin on the attachment of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals to Mandin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in ultrafiltered human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurgood, Lauren A.; Sørensen, Esben Skipper; Ryall, Rosemary L.

    2012-01-01

    Osteopontin has been shown to both promote and inhibit the attachment of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals to cultured renal epithelial cells in aqueous media. In this study we examined the role of OPN on the growth and attachment of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals, to which it more readily...

  12. Introduction: Kidney Stone Research, Lessons From Human Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Fredric L.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, the prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and calcium phosphate; 10% of struvite; 9% of uric acid; and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stone. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. In this introduction, I have outlined our current thinking of the possible mechanisms involved in stone formation based on our biopsy data collected from a series of human kidney stone formers. In addition, I have presented a set of questions as a means of focusing future research in this field.

  13. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs4236480 in TRPV5 Calcium Channel Gene Is Associated with Stone Multiplicity in Calcium Nephrolithiasis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Khaleel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is characterized by calcification of stones in the kidneys from an unknown cause. Animal models demonstrated the functional roles of the transient receptor potential vanilloid member 5 (TRPV5 gene in calcium renal reabsorption and hypercalciuria. Therefore, TRPV5 was suggested to be involved in calcium homeostasis. However, whether genetic polymorphisms of TRPV5 are associated with kidney stone multiplicity or recurrence is unclear. In this study, 365 Taiwanese kidney-stone patients were recruited. Both biochemical data and DNA samples were collected. Genotyping was performed by a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. We found that a TRPV5 polymorphism (rs4236480 was observed to be associated with stone multiplicity of calcium nephrolithiasis, as the risk of stone multiplicity was higher in patients with the TT+CT genotype than in patients with the CC genotype (p=0.0271. In summary, despite the complexity of nephrolithiasis and the potential association of numerous calcium homeostatic absorption/reabsorption factors, TRPV5 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis.

  14. Estimation of urinary stone composition by automated processing of CT images

    CERN Document Server

    Chevreau, Grégoire; Conort, Pierre; Renard-Penna, Raphaëlle; Mallet, Alain; Daudon, Michel; Mozer, Pierre; 10.1007/s00240-009-0195-3

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article was developing an automated tool for routine clinical practice to estimate urinary stone composition from CT images based on the density of all constituent voxels. A total of 118 stones for which the composition had been determined by infrared spectroscopy were placed in a helical CT scanner. A standard acquisition, low-dose and high-dose acquisitions were performed. All voxels constituting each stone were automatically selected. A dissimilarity index evaluating variations of density around each voxel was created in order to minimize partial volume effects: stone composition was established on the basis of voxel density of homogeneous zones. Stone composition was determined in 52% of cases. Sensitivities for each compound were: uric acid: 65%, struvite: 19%, cystine: 78%, carbapatite: 33.5%, calcium oxalate dihydrate: 57%, calcium oxalate monohydrate: 66.5%, brushite: 75%. Low-dose acquisition did not lower the performances (P < 0.05). This entirely automated approach eliminat...

  15. Evaluation of biochemical urinary stone composition and its relationship to tap water hardness in Qom province, central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslemi MK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Kazem Moslemi1, Hossein Saghafi2, Seyed Mohammad Amin Joorabchin31Department of Urology, Kamkar Hospital, 2Department of Nephrology, Kamkar Hospital, School of Medicine, 3School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IranPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical stone composition in general population of Qom province, central Iran, and its relationship with high tap water hardness.Materials and methods: In a prospective study, from March 2008 to July 2011, biochemical analysis of urinary stones in patients living in Qom province for at least 5 years was performed. Stones were retrieved by spontaneous passage, endoscopic or open surgery, and after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Demographic findings and the drinking water supply of patients were evaluated and compared with biochemical stone analysis.Results: Stone analysis was performed in 255 patients. The most dominant composition of urinary stones was calcium oxalate (73%, followed by uric acid (24%, ammonium urate (2%, and cystine (1%. The peak incidence of urinary stone was in patients in their forties. Overall male to female ratio was 4.93:1.Conclusion: The dominant stone composition in inhabitants of central Iran, where tap water hardness is high, was calcium oxalate stones. On the basis of this study, biochemical urinary stone composition of Qom does not differ from other regions of Iran with lower water hardness.Keywords: stone analysis, water hardness, urinary stones, stone composition

  16. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary stone risk profile is uncertain. Sports beverage do not affect the urinary stone risk profile. Hyperoxaluria: A diet low in oxalate and/or a calcium intake normal to high (800-1200 mg/day for adults reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, conversely a diet rich in oxalates and/or a diet low in calcium increase urinary oxalate. A restriction in protein intake may reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate although a vegetarian diet may lead to an increase in urinary oxalate. Adding bran to a diet low in oxalate cancels its effect of reducing urinary oxalate. Conversely, the addition of supplements of fruit and vegetables to a mixed diet does not involve an increased excretion of oxalate in the urine. The intake of pyridoxine reduces the excretion of oxalate. Hyperuricosuria: In patients with renal calcium stones the decrease of the urinary excretion of uric acid after restriction of dietary protein and purine is suggested although not clearly demonstrated. Hypocitraturia: The administration of alkaline-citrates salts is recommended for the medical treatment of renal stone-formers with hypocitraturia, although compliance to this treatment is limited by gastrointestinal side effects and costs. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables (excluding those with high oxalate content increases citrate excretion and involves a significant protection against the risk of stone formation. Citrus (lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and lime and non citrus fruits (melon are natural sources of dietary citrate, and several studies have shown the potential of these fruits and/or their juices in raising urine citrate levels. Children: There are enought basis to advice an adequate fluid intake also in children. Moderate dietary salt restriction and implementation of potassium intake are useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion whereas dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for children with nephrolithiasis. It seems

  17. In vivo oxalate degradation by liposome encapsulated oxalate oxidase in rat model of hyperoxaluria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: EMA-oxalate oxidase encapsulated liposome caused oxalate degradation in experimental hyperoxaluria indicating that the enzyme could be used as a therapeutic agent in hyperoxaluria leading to urinary stones.

  18. A genetic polymorphism (rs17251221 in the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR is associated with stone multiplicity in calcium nephrolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii-Her Chou

    Full Text Available Calcium nephrolithiasis is one of the most common causes of renal stones. While the prevalence of this disease has increased steadily over the last 3 decades, its pathogenesis is still unclear. Previous studies have indicated that a genetic polymorphism (rs17251221 in the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR is associated with the total serum calcium levels. In this study, we collected DNA samples from 480 Taiwanese subjects (189 calcium nephrolithiasis patients and 291 controls for genotyping the CASR gene. Our results indicated no significant association between the CASR polymorphism (rs17251221 and the susceptibility of calcium nephrolithiasis. However, we found a significant association between rs17251221 and stone multiplicity. The risk of stone multiplicity was higher in patients with the GG+GA genotype than in those with the AA genotype (chi-square test: P = 0.008; odds ratio  =  4.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-15.92; Yates' correction for chi-square test: P = 0.013. In conclusion, our results provide evidence supporting the genetic effects of CASR on the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis.

  19. Osteopontin knockdown in the kidneys of hyperoxaluric rats leads to reduction in renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hidenori; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Nozawa, Masahiro; Umekawa, Tohru; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; De Velasco, Marco A; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Khan, Saeed R

    2014-06-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) expression is increased in kidneys of rats with ethylene glycol (EG) induced hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of OPN knockdown by in vivo transfection of OPN siRNA on deposition of CaOx crystals in the kidneys. Hyperoxaluria was induced in 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by administering 1.5% EG in drinking water for 2 weeks. Four groups of six rats each were studied: Group A, untreated animals (tap water); Group B, administering 1.5% EG; Group C, 1.5% EG with in vivo transfection of OPN siRNA; Group D, 1.5% EG with in vivo transfection of negative control siRNA. OPN siRNA transfections were performed on day 1 and 8 by renal sub-capsular injection. Rats were killed at day 15 and kidneys were removed. Extent of crystal deposition was determined by measuring renal calcium concentrations and counting renal crystal deposits. OPN siRNA transfection resulted in significant reduction in expression of OPN mRNA as well as protein in group C compared to group B. Reduction in OPN expression was associated with significant decrease in crystal deposition in group C compared to group B. Specific suppression of OPN mRNA expression in kidneys of hyperoxaluric rats leads to a decrease in OPN production and simultaneously inhibits renal crystal deposition. PMID:24619192

  20. Urinary tract stone occurrence in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized clinical trial of calcium and vitamin D supplements123

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Robert B; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Larson, Joseph C.; Cochrane, Barbara; Gass, Margery; Masaki, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized clinical trial (RCT) of calcium plus vitamin D (CaD) supplements found a 17% excess in urinary tract stone incidence in the supplemented group. This study evaluated whether this risk is modified by participant characteristics.

  1. A new compound in kidney stones? Powder X-ray diffraction study of calcium glycinate trihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, Armel; Daudon, Michel; Bazin, Dominique

    2013-07-01

    The present identification of a new compound in kidney stones is relevant in clinical practice. Here, poly[[di-μ-aqua-bis(glycinato-κ(2)N,O)calcium(II)] monohydrate], {[Ca(C2H4NO2)2(H2O)2]·H2O}n, has been identified in a possible kidney concretion, although it could be a 'false calculus' associated with Munchausen syndrome. The crystal packing is characterized by an infinite zigzag chain of Ca atoms in [Ca(OW)4O2N2] (OW is a water O atom) square antiprisms, sharing edges formed by water molecules. An uncoordinated water molecule interconnects the parallel chains in a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding scheme. Similarities between the trihydrate and the monohydrate are described. PMID:23832032

  2. Inhibition of Glycolate Oxidase With Dicer-substrate siRNA Reduces Calcium Oxalate Deposition in a Mouse Model of Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Chaitali; Avitahl-Curtis, Nicole; Pursell, Natalie; Larsson Cohen, Marita; Holmes, Benjamin; Diwanji, Rohan; Zhou, Wei; Apponi, Luciano; Koser, Martin; Ying, Bo; Chen, Dongyu; Shui, Xue; Saxena, Utsav; Cyr, Wendy A; Shah, Anee; Nazef, Naim; Wang, Weimin; Abrams, Marc; Dudek, Henryk; Salido, Eduardo; Brown, Bob D; Lai, Chengjung

    2016-04-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an autosomal recessive, metabolic disorder caused by mutations of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), a key hepatic enzyme in the detoxification of glyoxylate arising from multiple normal metabolic pathways to glycine. Accumulation of glyoxylate, a precursor of oxalate, leads to the overproduction of oxalate in the liver, which accumulates to high levels in kidneys and urine. Crystalization of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the kidney ultimately results in renal failure. Currently, the only treatment effective in reduction of oxalate production in patients who do not respond to high-dose vitamin B6 therapy is a combined liver/kidney transplant. We explored an alternative approach to prevent glyoxylate production using Dicer-substrate small interfering RNAs (DsiRNAs) targeting hydroxyacid oxidase 1 (HAO1) mRNA which encodes glycolate oxidase (GO), to reduce the hepatic conversion of glycolate to glyoxylate. This approach efficiently reduces GO mRNA and protein in the livers of mice and nonhuman primates. Reduction of hepatic GO leads to normalization of urine oxalate levels and reduces CaOx deposition in a preclinical mouse model of PH1. Our results support the use of DsiRNA to reduce liver GO levels as a potential therapeutic approach to treat PH1. PMID:26758691

  3. Experimental nephrolithiasis in rats: the effect of ethylene glycol and vitamin D3 on the induction of renal calcium oxalate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Water, R; Boevé, E R; van Miert, P P; Deng, G; Cao, L C; Stijnen, T; de Bruijn, W C; Schröder, F H

    1996-01-01

    Using ethylene glycol (EG) and vitamin D3 as crystal-inducing diet (CID) in rats, we investigated the effect of the dosage of EG on the generation of chronic calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis. We collected weekly 24 hour urines and measured herein the amount of oxalate, calcium, glycosaminoglycans (GAG's), creatinine, protein, alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG). The potential of these urines to inhibit crystal growth and agglomeration was also evaluated. After four weeks, the kidneys were screened by histology and radiography for the presence of CaOx crystals and the amount of kidney-associated oxalate was biochemically measured. Using 0.5 vol.% EG, only a part of the rats showed CaOx deposition in the renal cortex and/or medulla, without obvious differences between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. If a dietary EG concentration of 0.75, 1.0, or 1.5 vol.% was used, the amount of kidney-associated oxalate was proportionally higher and CaOx crystal formation was consistently found in all rats. Most crystals were encountered in the cortex, whereas in the medulla and the papillary region, crystals were only occasionally detected. From these data, we conclude that in the chronic rat model, based on EG and vitamin D3, a consistent deposition of CaOx crystals is obtained using a EG concentration of at least 0.75%. PMID:9813634

  4. Structural characterization and vibrational studies of human urinary stones from Istanbul, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocademir, Mustafa; Baykal, Abdulhadi; Kumru, Mustafa; Tahmaz, M. Lutfu

    2016-05-01

    Seven human urinary stones were collected from urinary bladders of patients hailing from Istanbul, Turkey. Their XRD, EDX, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra as well as SEM images have been recorded to determine their chemical compositions, morphologies, crystal structures, and crystallite sizes. XRD and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) analyses indicate that six out of the seven stones have identical contents. The ratios of organic and inorganic contents of the stones have been determined by their thermogravimetric analyses. The stones have been found to contain calcium oxalate monohydrate and apatite as the major components.

  5. Twinkling artifact on color doppler ultrasound: Comparison among various composition of stones and various central frequencies of transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Chul Ho [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Deagu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Sik [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To evaluate the relationship between the degree of twinkling artifact generated on color Doppler sonography and the biochemical composition of renal stones and different central frequencies of transducers. Three types of renal stones (A=90% calcium oxalate +10% calcium hydrogen phosphate, B=50% calcium oxalate +5% calcium hydrogen phosphate +45% ammonium urate, and C=55% urate 35% calcium oxalate +5% ammonium urater +5% calcium hydrogen phosphate) removed from the subjects and one artificially made plastic-ball (D) were examined in vitro with color Doppler ultrasonography. Four transducers (C4-5, C7-4, L7-4, L10-5 MHz) were used. All stones were placed in a depth of between 3 and 4 cm in an agar plate. Grading of twinkling artifact was done: 0=absent, 1=present but occupying less than half of a stone, 3=occupying the entire stone and 2=between 1 and 3. Color Doppler gain was set to the point just below the threshold for color noise. Each artifact was graded by two independent observers, and if there was interobserver difference, the consensus was reached. The size of stones ranged from 6 to 10 mm (mean=8 mm). Type A stone produced grade 1 artifact on C4-2, grade 2 on C7-4 and grade 3 on L7-4 and L10-5. Type B stone produced grade 1 artifact on all transducers; type C stone produced grade 0 artifact on C4-2, grade 2 on C7-4, and grade 1 on L7-4, and L10-5. The plastic ball produced grade 1 artifact on L10-5, and grade 0 on other transducers. Different grades of twinkling artifact on color Doppler ultrasonography were evoked depending on the biochemical composition of renal stones and different central frequencies of transducers. The major limitation of our study was that the number of the subjects were small.

  6. Ozone-Induced Responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): Metabolic Cross-Talk between Volatile Organic Compounds and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Poliana Cardoso-Gustavson; Vanessa Palermo Bolsoni; Debora Pinheiro de Oliveira; Maria Tereza Gromboni Guaratini; Marcos Pereira Marinho Aidar; Mauro Alexandre Marabesi; Edenise Segala Alves; Silvia Ribeiro de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morph...

  7. 加味健脾益肾方对草酸钙肾结石患者术后尿骨桥蛋白的影响%Effects of Modified Jianpi Yishen Decoction on Urinary Osteopontin of Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis Patients After Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炎; 林峰; 翁雪云; 许旭敏; 余绍龙; 陈智锋; 温志鹏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of modified Jianpi Yishen Decoction on urinary osteopontin (OPN) in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis patients after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) or ureteroscope lithotomy (URL);To clarify the mechanism of modified Jianpi Yishen Decoction on the prevention of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Methods Totally 116 calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis patients were randomly divided into trial group (62 cases) and control group (54 cases). The trial group took modified Jianpi Yishen Decoction every other day, while the control group took potassium sodium hydrogen citrate granules three times a day. The concentrations of OPN, urinary calcium and urinary oxalic acid of the patients in the two groups were observed before treatment and 2 weeks and 4 weeks of treatment. Results The concentration of urinary OPN of 2 weeks and 4 weeks of the treatment in the trial group was significantly increased compared with before treatment (P0.05). The differences in the concentrations of urinary calcium and urinary oxalic acid of the two groups between before and after treatment were not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion Modified Jianpi Yishen Decoction can effectively restrain the formation of the calcium oxalate stones by increasing the level of urinary OPN, which demonstrates effective prevention in the calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis patients after PCNL or URL.%目的:观察加味健脾益肾方对草酸钙肾结石患者经皮肾镜碎石取石或输尿管镜碎石取石术后尿骨桥蛋白(OPN)的影响,探讨加味健脾益肾方预防草酸钙肾结石的作用机制。方法将116例草酸钙肾结石术后患者随机分为试验组62例和对照组54例。试验组服用加味健脾益肾方,隔日1次;对照组口服枸橼酸氢钾钠颗粒,每日3次。观察2组患者服药前及服药2、4周时尿OPN、尿钙、尿草酸含量。结果治疗组治疗2、4周时患者尿OPN含量与治疗前比较显著上升(P<0.05),且与对

  8. Calcium oxalate is the main toxic component in clinical presentations of alocasis macrorrhiza (L) Schott and Endl poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T J; Hung, D Z; Hu, W H; Yang, D Y; Wu, T C; Deng, J F

    1998-04-01

    Alocasia macrorrhiza (L) Schott and Endl is called Hai Yu, Tien Ho, Shan Yu, Kuan Yin Lien, Tu Chiao lien, Lao Hu Yu and Lang Du in Chinese. Its common English name is Giant Elephant's Ear. The toxic effects of A macrorrhiza arise from sapotoxin and include gastroenteritis and paralysis of the nerve centers. From 1985 to 1993 all individuals who called the Poison Control Center asking for information regarding macrorrhiza were included in this retrospective study. A questionnaire filled out by the Poison Control Center staff collected the demographic data of the victim, the reason for consumption, the prescribed part, clinical symptoms and signs of the victim, and medical outcome of poisonings. Among 27 cases of A macrorrhiza poisoning, the age was 1.5 to 68 y with 12 females and 15 males. One had skin contact and 1 had eye contact. In the 25 cases that consumed the plant leaf or tuber either raw or cooked, the primary symptom was in injected sore throat and the secondary symptom was numbness of the oral cavity. Some patients had salivation, dysphonia, abdominal pain, ulcers of the oral cavity, difficulty in swallowing, thoracodynia, chest tightness and swollen lips. We believe the presence of sapotoxin alone is not sufficient to explain the injected swollen and ulcerative lesions. Calcium oxalate is reported distributed in the entire plant and results in inflammation of the oral cavity and mucous membranes just as our patients had. PMID:9554063

  9. Proteomic analysis of renal calculi indicates an important role for inflammatory processes in calcium stone formation

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, Michael L.; Cummins, Timothy D.; Wilkey, Daniel W.; Salyer, Sarah A.; Powell, David W.; Klein, Jon B.; Eleanor D. Lederer

    2008-01-01

    Even though renal stones/calculi occur in ∼10% of individuals, they are an enormous economic burden to the entire US health system. While the relative metabolic composition of renal calculi is generally known, there is no clear understanding of the genetics of renal stone formation, nor are there clear prognostic indicators of renal stone formation. The application of proteomics to the analysis of renal calculi axiomatically holds that insight into renal stone pathobiology can be gained by a ...

  10. Kidney stone composition in overweight and obese patients: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosli HA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hisham A Mosli,1 Hala H Mosli,2 Wissam K Kamal11Department of Urology, 2Department of Internal Medicine (Endocrinology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To report preliminary information on urinary stone composition in patients who are either overweight or obese with kidney stone disease.Methods: A cohort of patients (n = 138 with nephrolithiasis were prospectively followed from January 2011 for 18 months. Of those, 64 (46% were found to be overweight with body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 and 74 (54% were obese with body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2. Stone characteristics including size, location, and composition were studied in detail, and patients' age, weight, height, and gender were all documented. The stone size and location were studied radiologically while semiquantitative stone analysis was carried out using the DiaSys method, which involves titrimetric determination of calcium, colorimetric determination/visual assessment of oxalate, phosphate, magnesium, ammonium, uric acid, and cystine, and qualitative determination of carbonate.Results: Eighteen stones were collected from overweight and obese patients. Those obtained were either spontaneously passed (n = 2, fragments passed following shockwave lithotripsy (n = 11, extracted ureteroscopically (n = 2, or extracted by percutaneous nephrolithotomy (n = 3. About 95% of the stones contained calcium oxalate and more than half contained uric acid.Conclusion: This report confirms that kidney stones are mainly composed of calcium oxalate and uric acid in overweight and obese patients with nephrolithiasis.Keywords: urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis, obesity, renal stone, body mass index (BMI, calculus, stone composition, analysis

  11. Calcium oxalate biomineralization in plants%植物体内草酸钙的生物矿化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀丽; 张文君; 鲁剑巍; 王荔军

    2012-01-01

    草酸钙晶体在特化的植物晶异细胞内的形成是一种基本的、重要的生理代谢过程.不同植物草酸钙晶体在形态/结构上存在多样性和种间专一性,它们具有特定的尺寸和形貌,并且成核后晶体的生长和特化细胞的发育间存在显著的协同作用,这表明草酸钙的生物合成不是一种简单的化学结晶过程,而是受遗传和生物大分子的精确调控.被塑造的矿化相在特定的膜包覆空间内经历了各自不同的生物化学途径,最终形成热力学稳定相.草酸钙晶体赋予植物许多不同的功能,主要包括对高容量钙的调节和植物自我保护作用,从而间接地反映出植物在不同生境中进化的印迹.本文介绍了草酸钙晶体在植物体内合成的草酸代谢途径、钙的吸收和累积,主要讨论晶体生长过程的植物调节机制以及体外模拟生物分子对草酸钙结晶动力学过程的调控等,以期揭示植物体内草酸钙的生物矿化机制,并为仿生材料合成和人类病理结石的抑制等提供重要线索.%Calium oxalate (CaOx) biomineralization with diverse and species-specific morphologies and structures formed in specialized cells (idioblast) is a basic and important process in many plant families. During their formation there exist the synergetic interactions between cell growth/expansion and crystal nucleation/growth, indicating that the mineralization process is precisely controlled by biomacromolecules through the exquisite bio-regulation mechanisms rather than a simple chemical precipitation reaction. The mineralized phases and the final mature products formed inside cells are shaped and thermodynamically stabilized by various biomacromolecules expressed and synthesized in corresponding bio-pathways. CaOx crystals in plants fulfill a variety of crucial functions, including the high-capacity calcium regulation and self-protection of plants against herbivory by large animals as well as insects

  12. Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Indicator of Plant Stress in Conifers at two elevations on Mount Moosilauke, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. N.; Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Graham, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The research presented was conducted as part of Watershed Watch, a two-week hands-on summer program for undeclared entry-level undergraduates, designed to recruit and retain students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. The research was conducted on needles of red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) at the University of New Hampshire. The presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) in the cell walls of spruce mesophyll cells has been reported as an indicator of environmental stress. To assess this, first and third year needles of both species were collected from Mt. Moosilauke (Woodstock, NH) at two elevations (790m and 960m). Needles were analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Estimates of chlorophyll and water were made using the Red Edge Inflection Point and the Moisture Stress Index. These were compared to SEM images of needle sections to visually correlate the amount of CaOx with the reflectance indices. Balsam fir from 790m have a higher occurrence of CaOx in their first and third year needles than from the 960m site, while spectroscopy results indicated less stress (i.e., higher chlorophyll and more water) at the lower site. This does not support a correlation between CaOx and stress factors in balsam fir. In red spruce, those needles with fewest CaOx had higher estimates of chlorophyll and water, supporting the correlation. Based on these results, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between CaOx and plant stress in different species of conifers.

  13. Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation

  14. Effect of Hydrophilic Extract of Allium Jesdianum on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Stone in Male Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    R Vahdani; S Mehrabi; J Malekzadeh; R Jannesar; H Sadeghi; A Shafaeifar

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aim: Considering the evidence which show the effect of herbal medicine on renal stone treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allium Jesdianum on prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stone in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, forty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (each group 11 rats) and then studied for 30 days. The Healthy control group only received normal water and a regular diet. The negative...

  15. Frequency of metabolic abnormalities in urinary stones patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Pansota, Mudassar Saeed; Tariq, Muhammad; Tabassum, Shafqat Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of metabolic abnormalities in the serum and urine of patients with urinary stones disease. Methods: Two hundred patients with either multiple or recurrent urolithiasis diagnosed on ultrasonography and intravenous urography were included in this study. 24 hour urine sample were collected from each patient and sent for PH, specific gravity, Creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate and magnesium. In addition, blood sample of each patient w...

  16. Surface Aggregation of Urinary Proteins and Aspartic Acid-Rich Peptides on the Faces of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Investigated by In Situ Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), osteopontin, and the 27-residue synthetic peptides (DDDS)6DDD and (DDDG)6DDD (D = aspartic acid, S = serine, and G = glycine) was investigated via in situ atomic force microscopy. The results show that these four growth modulators create extensive deposits on the crystal faces. Depending on the modulator and crystal face, these deposits can occur as discrete aggregates, filamentary structures, or uniform...

  17. The effects of the calcium-restricted diet of urolithiasis patients with absorptive hypercalciuria type II on risk factors for kidney stones and osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, A. van; Ploeg, E.M.C. van der; Habets, H.M.L.; Meer, R. van der; Hermus, R.J.J.; Janknegt, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The calcium (Ca)-restricted diet of urolithiasis patients with absorptive hypercalciuria type II may decrease Ca excretion but increase biochemical markers of risk for osteopenia. We randomly allocated 25 patients from six hospitals into an experimental group (Ca restriction to 500 mg/day, oxalate-r

  18. Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elaine M.

    2007-04-01

    Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

  19. A pilot study of the effect of sodium thiosulfate on urinary lithogenicity and associated metabolic acid load in non-stone formers and stone formers with hypercalciuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyeka W Okonkwo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sodium thiosulfate (STS reduced calcium stone formation in both humans and genetic hypercalciuric stone forming (GHS rats. We sought to measure urine chemistry changes resulting from STS administration in people. DESIGN SETTING PARTICIPANTS MEASUREMENTS: STS was given to healthy and hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Five normal non-stone forming adults (mean age 33 years, and 5 people with idiopathic hypercalciuria and calcium kidney stones (mean age 66 years participated. Two baseline 24-hour urine collections were performed on days 2 and 3 of 3 days of self-selected diets. Subjects then drank STS 10 mmol twice a day for 7 days and did urine collections while repeating the self-selected diet. Results were compared by non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. The primary outcome was the resulting change in urine chemistry. RESULTS: STS administration did not cause a significant change in urinary calcium excretion in either group. In both groups, 24 hour urinary ammonium (P = 0.005 and sulfate excretion (P = 0.007 increased, and urinary pH fell (P = 0.005; citrate excretion fell (P<0.05 in hypercalciuric participants but not in non-stone formers. Among stone formers with hypercalciuria, 3 of 5 patients had measurement of serum HCO3 concentration after the STS period: it did not change. The net effect was an increase in supersaturation of uric acid, and no change in supersaturation of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. CONCLUSIONS: The basis for studies demonstrating that STS prevented stones in rats and people was not reflected by the changes in urine chemistry reported here. Although serum HCO3 did not change, urine tests suggested an acid load in both non-stone forming and hypercalciuric stone-forming participants. The long term safety of STS needs to be determined before the drug can be tested in humans for long-term prevention of stone recurrence.

  20. Kidney Stones in Children and Teenagers in the Central Coast Region of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fadhel Najjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since 1980s, the clinical and biological characteristics of urolithiasis in Tunisian children have continuously evolved. This retrospective study defines the current status of urolithiasis among children and adolescents in Tunisia.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 310 children and adolescents (age: 3 months - 19 yearsbetween 2003 and 2010, holding urolithiasis. A first-line metabolic, urine and plasma work-up was performed in all patients. Physical and chemical analysis of the stones was performed respectively by stereomicroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Statistical analysis of the results was performed with SPSS 11.0 software. The Chisquare test was used for comparison of percentages.Findings: Our study shows a male predominance of urolithiasis with a sex ratio of 1.5. Stones were located in the upper urinary tract in 70.7% of cases. Calcium oxalate was the predominant constituent in 52.6% of stones. There was an increasing prevalence of calcium oxalate stones according to age in both genders (48.6%in infants vs 68.5% in teenagers (P<0.01. Struvite was more frequent in patients aged 2-9 years (P<0.02and significantly more prevalent in boys than in girls (P<0.001. Ammonium urate stones were observed in 14.2% and were more frequent in infants.Conclusion: Our results emphasize a high percentage of calcium oxalate stones and a low percentage of struvite stones. The persistence of urate stones reflects the particular eating habits and the infectious risk factors. The patient’s age is an important factor that must be taken into account during etiopathogenic workup.

  1. Effect of supersaturation ratio and Khella extract on nucleation and morphology of kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, E. A.; Daosukho, S.; El-Shall, H.

    2009-04-01

    Induction times in supersaturated calcium oxalate (CaOx)-the major component of most kidney stones-solutions were determined at 37 °C using UV-vis spectrometry with and without Khella extract. The slope of the light absorbance measurement curve indicated the inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation with Khella extract. The induction time was estimated from the time vs. absorbance curve. Khella seeds were obtained from two sources, one in Turkey and one in Egypt. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed that only Turkish Khella extract contained khellin and visnagin that are believed to be the active components of the herb. Both extracts contained calcium, magnesium, and oxalate. It was found that both Khella extracts reduced the induction time at every supersaturation ratio. Using an equation that relates induction times and supersaturation ratios, free energy barrier, and critical nuclei radius were calculated. The results revealed that decrease of free energy barrier and critical nuclei radius as supersaturation ratio increased. In addition, the calculated surface energy of calcium oxalate crystals was decreased from 9.01 to 6.79 and 6.40 mJ/m2 with Egyptian Khella extract and Turkish Khella extract, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs showed that the control supersaturated CaOx solutions produced CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystals. With the addition of Khella extract, the resulting crystals were modified to calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) form.

  2. 不同类型尿石的XRD,FTIR和热释光谱分析%XRD, FTIR and Thermoluminescence Spectra of Different Types of Urinary Stones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锦; 何节玉; 欧阳健明

    2011-01-01

    Using thermoluminescence spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the chemical compositions of four types of kidney stones were investigated. They are calcium oxalate, uric acid, calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi(struvite). Experimental results showed that in the 305 cases of stones, calculi oxalate stones were found to account for 63%, uric acid stones 22%, calcium phosphate stones 8%, struvite 5%, and the stones with other compositions 2%. There were significant differences in the thermoluminescence spectra among the 4 types of urinary stones, which can provide an important basis for the clinic diagnosis of urinary stone types.%采用热释光谱仪(TLD)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)和红外光谱仪(FTIR)研究了四类不同类型肾结石的化学组分,它们分别是:草酸钙、尿酸、磷酸钙和磷酸铵镁结石.实验结果表明,在所研究的305例尿石中,草酸钙为主要组分的占63%,尿酸22%,磷酸钙8%,磷酸铵镁5%,其他组分2%.四类肾结石的热释光谱存在显著差异,可为临床上诊断肾结石的类型提供启示.

  3. Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Wadamori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW. Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW. The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate.

  4. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  5. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

  6. Pathophysiology of the Hypercalciuria in the Genetic Hypercalciuric Stone-Forming Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushinsky, David A.

    2007-04-01

    Given evidence for a genetic cause of hypercalciuria, we screened adult male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for hypercalciuria and used those with the highest urinary calcium excretion to breed the next generation, followed by subsequent selection and inbreeding of their most hypercalciuric progeny. By the 30th generation, and continuing to the present, the GHS rats (for Genetic Hypercalciuric Stone-forming rats) excrete 8-10 times as much calcium as simultaneously studied control rats The GHS rats were found to have defects in calcium transport in the intestine, kidneys and bone, similar to abnormalities found in many patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. The GHS rats also form kidney stones. By the conclusion of an 18 wk study, all of the GHS rats formed stones, while there was no stone formation in similarly treated SD controls. The GHS rats, when fed a standard 1.2% calcium diet, form only poorly crystalline apatite stones. However, when 5% hydroxyproline is added to the diet of the GHS rats, they form only calcium oxalate stones.

  7. Rapid vaporization of kidney stones, ex vivo, using a Thulium fiber laser at pulse rates up to 500 Hz with a stone basket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2014-03-01

    The Holmium:YAG laser (λ = 2120 nm) is currently the preferred laser for fragmenting kidney stones in the clinic. However, this laser has some limitations, including operation at low pulse rates and a multimode spatial beam profile which prohibits its use with smaller, more flexible optical fibers. Our laboratory is studying the Thulium fiber laser (λ = 1908 nm) as an alternative lithotripter. The TFL has several advantages, including lower stone ablation thresholds, use with smaller and more flexible fibers, and operation at arbitrary pulse lengths and pulse rates. Previous studies have reported increased stone ablation rates with TFL operation at higher pulse rates, however, stone retropulsion remains an obstacle to even more efficient stone ablation. This study explores TFL operation at high pulse rates in combination with a stone stabilization device (e.g. stone basket) for improved efficiency. A TFL beam with pulse energy of 35 mJ, pulse duration of 500-μs, and pulse rates of 10-500 Hz was coupled into 100-μm-core, low-OH, silica fibers, in contact mode with uric acid and calcium oxalate monohydrate stones, ex vivo. TFL operation at 500 Hz produced UA and COM stone ablation rates up to 5.0 mg/s and 1.3 mg/s, respectively. High TFL pulse rates produced increased stone ablation rates sufficient for use in the clinic.

  8. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  9. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  10. The increased risk of urinary stone disease in betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Siân E; Singh, Sadmeet; Robertson, William G

    2006-08-01

    The chewing of betel quid is a common practice in many countries of the world, particularly in Southeast Asia. The quid consists of a preparation of areca nut, betel leaf and calcium hydroxide "lime" paste ("chuna"). For the first time, we present a study that links its use to urinary stone disease. Eight patients (seven male and one female) who presented to our Stone Unit with recurrent urinary stones were included in the study. All were from the Indian subcontinent and were found to regularly chew betel. The patients underwent metabolic screening including blood, random urine and 24-h urine tests, quantitative chemical analysis of their calculi (where possible) and each completed a 7-day Diet Diary on his/her free, home diet. The study demonstrated a high incidence of hypercalciuria, a tendency to pass an alkaline urine and low urinary citrate excretion among the patients. Together these urinary risk factors increase the probability of developing both calcium phosphate-containing and calcium oxalate-containing stones. In support of this hypothesis, the patients were found to form stones consisting mainly of calcium phosphate but mixed with calcium oxalate. It is concluded that the use of calcium hydroxide "chuna" in the betel quid is the major contributor to the cause of urinary stones in its users. Moreover, the development of urinary lithiasis in such patients may be a precursor to milk-alkali syndrome in those individuals whose chewing habit is more extensive than in the patients in this study and who do not seek to decrease their habit over the long term. PMID:16534642

  11. NEW FRONTIERS ON NEPHROLITHIASIS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF KIDNEY STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malan Rajat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis (also known as kidney stones, renal stones, urinary stones, urolithiasis, and renal calculi affects a great number of patients worldwide. These can be of different types like calcium-oxalate, struvite, uric acid, cysteine. Larger stones in the urinary tract can cause extreme pain in the lower back or side. Urinary tract infections, kidney disorders and certain metabolic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism are also linked to stone formation. Cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, Hypercalciuria, drinking less water, consuming more salty food can cause stone formation in urinary tract. Various precautions and treatment are available includes life style changing (drinking more water or more fluid intake and reducing calcium rich diet intake, avoid junk food, Medical therapy (use of diuretics and other medicines, the over use of synthetic drugs which results in higher incidence of adverse drug reaction has motivated humans to return to nature for safe remedies and surgical treatment The present article revealed the update knowledge about remedy and treatment of nephrolithiasis for all those peoples who is having renal colic pain.

  12. Influence of Substrate Mineralogy on Bacterial Mineralization of Calcium Carbonate: Implications for Stone Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Jroundi, Fadwa; Schiro, Mara; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; González-Muñoz, María Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The influence of mineral substrate composition and structure on bacterial calcium carbonate productivity and polymorph selection was studied. Bacterial calcium carbonate precipitation occurred on calcitic (Iceland spar single crystals, marble, and porous limestone) and silicate (glass coverslips, porous sintered glass, and quartz sandstone) substrates following culturing in liquid medium (M-3P) inoculated with different types of bacteria (Myxococcus xanthus, Brevundimonas diminuta, and a carb...

  13. Sobresaturacion urinaria del Oxalato de Calcio más alla de la Nefrolitiasis: La relación con el daño tubulointersticial Urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation beyond nephrolithiasis: Relationship with tubulointerstitial damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Toblli

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos estudios han demostrado que el producto de la actividad iónica (PAI de oxalato de calcio (OxCa en la orina, como indicador de sobresaturación (SS urinaria, es mayor en pacientes formadores de cálculos que en sujetos normales. Más allá de la relación entre SS urinaria del OxCa y litogénesis, la exposición de OxCa al epitelio tubular puede ocasionar lesiones en la célula tubular y en el intersticio renal. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la posible relación entre SS urinaria de OxCa y el daño tubulointersticial (TI en un modelo animal de hiperoxaluria. Durante cuatro semanas, ratas Sprague-Dawley machos, divididas en dos grupos recibieron: grupo 1 Control [G1], (n= 8 agua, grupo 2 [G2], (n = 8 etilenglicol (ETG al 1% en el agua de beber. La SS urinaria de OxCa se valoró mediante el PAI del OxCa. Las lesiones TI se analizaron al finalizar el estudio por microscopía óptica e inmunohistoquímica. El G2 (ETG presentó valores mayores (pA number of studies have demonstrated that the urinary ion activity product (IAP of calcium oxalate (CaOx, as an index of urinary CaOx supersaturation (SS, is higher in renal stone formers than in normal subjects. Besides, the relation between CaOx SS and lithogenesis, crystal CaOx exposition can produce tubular cell as well as renal interstitial lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible relationship between CaOx SS and tubulointerstitial (TI damage in an animal model of hyperoxaluria. During four weeks, male Sprague-Dawley rats received: G1 (n=8 control regular water, and G2 (n= 8 1% ethylene glycol (ETG (precursor for oxalates in drinking water. In order to evaluate urinary CaOx SS, IAP assessed by Tisselius formula was performed. At the end of the study, renal lesions were evaluated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Animals from G2 (ETG presented higher (p< 0.01 values of: a urinary oxalate excretion; b urinary CaOx SS; c crystalluria score; d proteinuria; and lower (p

  14. Theoretical modeling of the urinary supersaturation of calcium salts in healthy individuals and kidney stone patients: Precursors, speciation and therapeutic protocols for decreasing its value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Jackson, Graham E.; Durbach, Ian

    2013-11-01

    BackgroundSupersaturation (SS) of urinary salts has been extensively invoked for assessing the risk of renal stone formation, but precursors have often been ignored. Our objectives were to establish by computer modeling, which urinary components are essential for calculating reliable SS values, to investigate whether unique equilibrium processes occur in the urine of stone formers (SF) which might account for their higher SS levels relative to healthy controls (N), to determine the relative efficacies of three different, widely-used protocols for lowering urinary SS of calcium salts and to examine the influence of precursors.

  15. Ozone-induced responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae: metabolic cross-talk between volatile organic compounds and calcium oxalate crystal formation.

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    Poliana Cardoso-Gustavson

    Full Text Available Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC, specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA, mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC in the defence against ozone (O3 oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3 that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3.

  16. Ozone-induced responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): metabolic cross-talk between volatile organic compounds and calcium oxalate crystal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3. PMID:25165889

  17. Effect of Hydrophilic Extract of Allium Jesdianum on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Stone in Male Wistar Rats

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    R Vahdani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Considering the evidence which show the effect of herbal medicine on renal stone treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allium Jesdianum on prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stone in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, forty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (each group 11 rats and then studied for 30 days. The Healthy control group only received normal water and a regular diet. The negative control group received 1% ethylene glycol in water during the study. The low dose and high dose preventive groups received 750 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg of Allium Jesdianum with 1% ethylene glycol every day. The 24-hour urine samples of rats were collected on days 1, 15 and 30 of the study. Then, under anesthesia, blood samples were taken directly from the heart. All rats were then killed and pathology of kidneys was checked for crystals of calcium oxalates in renal tubules. Data analysis was done by the SPSS software using One-way ANOVA. Results: The number of calcium oxalate crystals in the negative control group (18.7 ±26.1, the low dose preventive group (5.3±8.2 and high dose preventive group (80.6±82.8 in comparison to the healthy control group were increased and this difference in the high dose preventive group and healthy control group was significant (p <0.05 . Urinary oxalate in the 30th day was more in both preventive groups and negative control group in comparison to healthy control group and this diference was statistically significant (p <0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that Allium Jesdianum doesn't have a preventive effect on the formation of renal stones, and it also increases calcium oxalate crystals in kidney of male wistar rats that need more studies.

  18. Fibrinogen Alpha Chain Precursor and Apolipoprotein A-I in Urine as Biomarkers for Noninvasive Diagnosis of Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis: A Proteomics Study

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    Wei Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis is the most common urological disease, but noninvasive and convenient methods of diagnosis are rarely available. Objective. The present study aimed to identify potential urine biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis of CaOx nephrolithiasis. Methodology. Urine samples from 72 patients with CaOx nephrolithiasis and 30 healthy controls were collected and proteomics analysis was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS. Results. Thirteen proteins/peptides displayed statistically significant differences. The peptides of m/z 1207.23 and 2773.86 were selected by the genetic algorithm (GA to build a possible diagnostic model. The area under the curve of m/z 1207.23 and 2773.86 was 0.936 and 0.987, respectively. The diagnostic model in distinguishing patients and healthy subjects showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. The peak at m/z 2773.86 was identified as fibrinogen alpha chain (FGA with the sequence G.EGDFLAEGGGVR.G, and the peak at m/z 2773.86 was identified as apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I with the sequence L.PVLESFKVSFLSALEEYTKKLNTQ. Conclusion. The study results strongly suggested that urinary FGA and apoA-I are highly sensitive and specific biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis of CaOx nephrolithiasis.

  19. Surface aggregation of urinary proteins and aspartic acid-rich peptides on the faces of calcium oxalate monohydrate investigated by in situ force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, M L; Qiu, S R; Hoyer, J R; Casey, W H; Nancollas, G H; De Yoreo, J J

    2008-05-28

    The growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), osteopontin (OPN), and the 27-residue synthetic peptides (DDDS){sub 6}DDD and (DDDG){sub 6}DDD [where D = aspartic acid and X = S (serine) or G (glycine)] was investigated via in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that these three growth modulators create extensive deposits on the crystal faces. Depending on the modulator and crystal face, these deposits can occur as discrete aggregates, filamentary structures, or uniform coatings. These proteinaceous films can lead to either the inhibition or increase of the step speeds (with respect to the impurity-free system) depending on a range of factors that include peptide or protein concentration, supersaturation and ionic strength. While THP and the linear peptides act, respectively, to exclusively increase and inhibit growth on the (-101) face, both exhibit dual functionality on the (010) face, inhibiting growth at low supersaturation or high modulator concentration and accelerating growth at high supersaturation or low modulator concentration. Based on analyses of growth morphologies and dependencies of step speeds on supersaturation and protein or peptide concentration, we argue for a picture of growth modulation that accounts for the observations in terms of the strength of binding to the surfaces and steps and the interplay of electrostatic and solvent-induced forces at crystal surface.

  20. Prophylaxis and therapeutic effects of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) on renal stone formation in Balb/c mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ghalayini, Ibrahim F.; Mohammed A. Al-Ghazo; Mohammad N. A. Harfeil

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prophylactic potential of herbal decoction from Rubus idaeus, a medicinal plant widely used in the Middle East to treat kidney stones, by assessing the effect of administration in experimentally induced calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was based on administration of glyoxylate and/or herbal treatments simultaneously for 12 days, followed by histological and biochemical tests. Group I was used as a negative control. Grou...

  1. Investigation of kidney stones by X-ray diffraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muakthong, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of 39 male kidney stone samples and 11 female kidney stone samples obtained from Songklanakarind Hospital, Hat Yai, Songkhla was carried out. Most samples were obtained from patients ages over 40 years. By means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, kidney stones can be classified according to their structure and composition into 3 groups is 1. uric acid (C5H4N4O3 and ammonium acid urate (C5H7N5O3 2. oxalates; whewelite (C2CaO4!H2O CaC2O4!H2O and weddellite (C2CaO4!2H2O 3. phosphates; struvite (NH4MgPO4!6H2O and calcium phosphate hydrate (Ca3(PO42!xH2O. External and internal environments such as occupation, dietary habits, lack of water-drinking etc. are the major factors for kidney stone formation. Results from this study are very useful for the patients to prevent recrystallization of kidney stones by avoiding some elements or some organic compounds which are main components of kidney stones formed in the human urinary system.

  2. Analysis of Bone Density in Patients with Urolithiasis; Role of Hypercalciuria in Bone Loss: Do These Patients Need a Low-Calcium Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Asghar Yarmohammadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kidney stone is a common urologic complaint. In this study, bone density in stone formers was compared with that of a control group; bone density of stone formers was also analyzed based on age, sex and stone configuration. Methods: In a group of 85 patients with upper urinary calcium stones and 85 healthy people, variables such as age, height, weight, BMI, T-score and Z-score results of bone densitometry of lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4 and femoral neck were recorded. The serum levels of uric acid, calcium, potassium, sodium, phosphor, alkaline phosphates and parathyroid hormone were also analyzed and recorded. Furthermore, all patients, 24-hour urine was studied for levels of cr, oxalate, citrate, uric acid calcium, urea and the total volume. Results: Lumbar and femoral bone mineral density (BMD was significantly lower in patients suffering from renal stone. This difference was also significant when the study and control groups were classified into hypercalciuric and normocalciuric ones. Based on the densimetric results of lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck, BMD reduction among menopause women was significantly greater. Conclusion: Noting the lack of relationship between hypercalciuria and bone loss, and noting that a low-calcium diet not only has no proved role in renal stone prevention, but also it leads to calcium imbalance and finally bone loss, low-calcium diets are not suggested for renal stone formers

  3. Oxalates in some Indian green leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radek, M; Savage, G P

    2008-05-01

    The soluble and total oxalate contents of 11 leafy vegetables grown in India were determined. Spinach, purple and green amaranth and colocasia contained high levels of total oxalates, which ranged from 5,138.0 +/- 37.6 mg/100 g dry matter up to 12,576.1 +/- 107.9 mg/100 g dry matter. Seven other leafy vegetables (curry, drumstick, shepu, fenugreek, coriander, radish and onion stalks) contained only insoluble oxalate, which ranged from 209.0 +/- 5.0 mg/100 g dry matter to 2,774.9 +/-18.4 mg/100 g dry matter. In vitro digestion of the samples showed that the gastric available oxalate was 10% lower than the values obtained from acid extraction and that intestinal available oxalate was 20% lower than the values obtained following hot water extraction. The percentage calcium bound in the insoluble oxalate fraction of the dried leafy vegetables ranged from 3.3% to 86.7% of the total calcium. Addition of four different sources of calcium (low fat milk, whole milk, calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate) resulted in a range of 32-100% reductions of intestinal available oxalate in the mixture. PMID:18335334

  4. Helicobacter pylori and urinary system stones: endoluminal damage as sub-hypothesis to support the current stone theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verit, Ayhan; Güner, Numan Dogu

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a atypical gram-negative bacteria preferring gastric mucosa which also have bizarre multisystem effects extended to some malignancies, hematologic and vascular disorders through some not well defined pathophysiologic pathways. Our pioneer data was pointing that the urinary system stone existence was seemed to be high in the group of H. pylori+cases. While the explanation of the reason of the coincidence of renal-gall bladder stones, it was previously suggested that there may be a shift mechanism of intestinal microbial flora, from Oxalobacter formigenes that may reduce the risk of renal stone by consuming intestinal oxalate, to H. pylori which is known to induce gallstone by unknown mechanism. This hypothesis is an indirect one and highly controversial for the effect of H. pylori in the renal stone formation because intestinal absorption of oxalate is not significant when it is compared with the endogen oxalate. The present preliminary unique data in connection with our hypothesis claimed that a possible relation between H. pylori and renal stones. We think that this detrimental effect is due to the possible systemic influence such as vascular and/or endoluminal sickness due to the H. pylori other than directs bacteriologic colonization. There is strong evidence that H. pylori have some role in the atherosclerotic procedure. The vascular theory of Randall plaque formation at renal papilla and subsequent calcium oxalate stone development that suggests microvascular injury of renal papilla in an atherosclerotic-like fashion results in calcification near vessel walls that eventually erodes as a calculus format into the urinary system. Briefly, theories of stone and atherosclerosis seemed to be overlap and H. pylori is one of the factor of both processes. In addition to our hypothesis, we claimed that H. pylori might have same detrimental effect on endoluminal surfaces of urinary and genital systems and resulting in some special

  5. Incomplete renal tubular acidosis as a predisposing factor for calcium phosphate stones in neuropathic bladder: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul M.; Watson, Ian D; Singh, Gurpreet; Peter L. Hughes; Mansour, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We present a male tetraplegic patient, who developed stones in neuropathic bladder six times within a span of three years. Unusual features of this case are: (1) This patient started developing stones in urinary bladder thirteen years after sustaining spinal cord injury. (2) He was performing intermittent catheterisation and did not have an indwelling catheter. (3) The presenting symptom of vesical lithiasis was abdominal spasms and not urine infection. (4) The major component of the stones w...

  6. Bacteriological study and structural composition of staghorn stones removed by the anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedure

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    Hamid Shafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the composition of staghorn stones and to assess the proportion of infected stones as well as the correlation between infection in the stones and bacteria grown in urine. Samples of 45 consecutive stones removed through anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedures were taken from the operation site and samples of urine were obtained by simultaneous bladder catheterization. The frequency of infection in the stones and correlation between infection of stone and urine samples were determined with respect to the composition of the stones. Twenty-two males and 23 females, with respective mean ages of 48.3 ± 15.6 years and 51 ± 7.4 years, were studied. The stone and urine cultures yielded positive results in ten and 16 patients, respectively, of a total of 45 patients (22.2% and 35.5%, respectively. Calcium oxalate was the main constituent of staghorn stones, seen in 31 patients (68.8%, uric acid in 12 patients (26.6% and struvite and/or calcium phosphate in 11 patients (24.4%. In seven of ten stones with bacterial growth, bacteria were isolated from urine cultures as well, which accounted for a concordance rate of 70%. The bacteria grown in the stone were the cause of urinary tract infection (UTI in 43.5% of the cases. Stone infection was significantly associated with UTI (OR = 6.47; 95% CI 1.43-31.7, P = 0.021 and presence of phosphate in the stones (OR = 18, 95% CI 3.28-99.6, P = 0.0006. E. coli was the most common bacteria grown from the stones, and was isolated in 50% of the cases; Ureaplasma urealyticum was the most common organism causing UTI, grown in 62.5% of the urine samples. There was a high concordance rate between bacteria in the stones and urine. These findings indicate that the urine culture can provide information for selection of an appropriate anti-microbial agent for stone sterilization. In addition, preventing re-growth or recurrence of stones and treatment of post-surgical infections would be

  7. Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease

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    Ricardo Miyaoka

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described according to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine. Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya, inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium, inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan. In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events is needed.

  8. Enrofloxacinium oxalate

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    Thammarse S. Yamuna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, 2C19H23FN3O3+·C2O42− {systematic name: bis-[4-(3-carboxy-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinolin-7-yl-1-ethylpiperazin-1-ium] oxalate}, crystallizes with two independent monocations (A and B and an oxalate dianion (C in the asymmetric unit. The piperazinium ring in both the cations adopts a slightly disordered chair conformation. The dihedral angles between the mean planes of the cyclopropyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring are 50.6 (5° (A and 62.2 (5° (B. In each of the cations, a single O—H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal, the oxalate anions interact with the cations through N—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O interactions, forming R22(8 graph-set ring motifs. Weak C—H...F interactions along with further C—H...O interactions are observed between the cations, forming zigzag chains along [001]. In addition, π–π stacking interactions are observed with centroid–centroid distances of 3.5089 (13, 3.5583 (13, 3.7900 (13 and 3.7991 (13 Å.

  9. Origin of Urinary Oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2007-04-01

    Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

  10. Characterization of kidney stones using INAA, EDXRF and XRD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kidney stone samples collected from patients being treated in the Advance Urology Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh were characterized using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. For INAA, samples were irradiated in Tray rod facility of Dhruva reactor, Mumbai and pneumatic fast transfer system (PFTS) of KAMINI reactor, Kalpakkam. Radioactive assay was carried out using high purity germanium detector coupled to 8k channel analyzer. Elements determined in the samples by INAA are Zn, Sr, Co, Fe, Cr, Sc, Se, Na and Mn. ED-XRF was used for quantification of Ca. Concentrations of trace elements were found to be higher in calcium oxalate stones and significant correlation was observed in the concentrations of Ca with Sr and Zn. (author)

  11. Kaleidoscopic Views in the Bone Marrow: Oxalate Crystals in a Patient Presenting with Bicytopenia

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    Yelda Dere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancytopenia associated with BM infiltration of different deposits is a rare condition mostly associated with amyloidosis or the accumulation of iron. One of the rarest deposits in the BM is oxalate crystals due to hyperoxaluria [1,2,3]. Primary hyperoxaluria, a genetic disorder due to mutation in the alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase gene, located on chromosome 2q37.3 and resulting in the conversion of glyoxylate to oxalate, is characterized by increased production of oxalic acid because of the specific liver enzyme deficiency and generally presents with renal stones, renal or liver failure, and oxalosis [4]. Calcium oxalate may even be deposited into various tissues such as those of the retina, peripheral nerves, arterial media, and heart [4,5]. The medical history of nephrolithiasis at early ages, characteristic appearance of birefringent crystals forming rosettes in the BM, and the envelope-like forms in the BM aspirates seen in our case supported the diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria, which is best confirmed by genetic studies and treated with liver transplantation because of the location of the abnormal enzymes in the hepatocytes.

  12. Extraction and concentration of biogenic calcium oxalate from plant leaves Extração e concentração de oxalato de cálcio biogênico de folhas de plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Liovando Marciano da Costa; Jairo Tronto; Vera Regina Leopoldo Constantino; Marilane Kalyetta Almeida Fonseca; Alessandra Pacobahyba de Oliveira; Marcelo Rocha da Costa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to extract and concentrate calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals from plant leaves that form the above mentioned crystals. The chemical and physical studies of CaOx from plant to be performed depend on an adequate amount of the crystals. The plant used in this study was croton (Codiaeum variegatum). The leaves were ground in a heavy duty blender and sieved through a 0.20 mm sieve. The suspension obtained was suspended in distilled water. The crystals were concentrate...

  13. In vitro studies of calcium mixed minerals growth in different growth faces and semiconductor laser induced suppression of nuclei strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Kanchana; P Sundaramoorthi

    2008-12-01

    Kidney stone consists of various organic, inorganic and semi organic compounds. Mineral oxalate monohydrate and di-hydrate are the main organic constituents of kidney stones. However, mechanisms leading to the formation of mineral oxalate kidney stones are not clearly understood. The effect of some urinary stone constituents such as ammonium oxalate, calcium citrate, proteins and trace elements were reported by us. The calcium magnesium hydrogen phosphate (CaMHP) crystals were grown in SMS gel medium which provides the necessary kidney stimuli growth medium. The growth processes were done by single diffusion method for different physical and chemical parameters. The pH range in which HPO$^{2-}_{4}$ ions dominates were considered which in turn is necessary for the growth of CaMHP crystals. In the present study, calcium magnesium hydrogen phosphate (CaMHP) crystals are grown in three different growth faces to attain the total nucleation reduction. As an extension of this research, many characterization studies have been carried out like XRD, FTIR, TGA, SEM and etching and the results are reported.

  14. Analysis of urinary stone constituents using powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pragnya A Bhatt; Parimal Paul

    2008-03-01

    Constituents of urinary stones obtained from various patients from western part of India, which is a highly urinary stone disease-prone area, have been analysed. Eight stones from four patients were collected through urologists and have been analysed using powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image of selected samples were also carried out. The analysis revealed that calcium oxalate monohydrate, which is also known as whewellite, is the common constituent of all of the stones, particularly at the initial stage of stone formation. However, multi phases viz. whewellite phase, and hydroxyl and carbonate apatite phases are also detected in the case of third and fourth patients, from where multiple stones were obtained. Interestingly, in these mixed phase stones the concentration of whewellite decreases with increasing the concentration of apatite phases. Thermal behaviour of the whewellite phase was studied by TGA and variable temperature XRD analysis. Morphology of the whewellite and apatite phases, examined by SEM image, has also been reported.

  15. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 220C, 450C, and 600C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  16. Thickness of calcium carbonate coats on stones of the Heishanxia terraces of the Yellow River and dating of coarse clastic sedimentary geomorphic surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The calcium carbonate coats on stones developed in soil on the geomorphic surfaces of coarse clastic sediments in arid-semiarid regions contain evident information of age. The thickness of coats can be used not only as a good age indicator for the geomorphic surfaces but also coats themselves can be directly used as dating materials in the ESR method. Through measuring the thickness of carbonate coats on stones in soils on the alluvial terraces in the mouth of the Heishanxia gorge of the Yellow River and ESR dating of layers separated from the carbonate coats, the average of accumulation rates of the thickness of carbonate coats on stones since 1.57 Ma was calculated to be 0.10 mm/ka in the studied area, and a regression equation between carbonate coat thickness and age was also generated. From these research results, ages of T2-T11 terraces of the Yellow River in the studied area were systematically determined, and their values are in turn 18 ka, 94 ka, 139 ka, 215 ka, 305 ka, 410 ka, 495 ka, 742 ka, 1072 ka and 1570 ka. The reliability of all these age data is confirmed by the obtained 14C, OSL ages (T2, T3 and T4) and ESR ages of neighbor terraces, and they are completely consistent with the geological epochs estimated by geological and geomorphologic comparison and analysis.

  17. The Relation between Bone and Stone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Nancy S.; Bushinsky, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Hypercalciuria is the most common metabolic abnormality found in patients with calcium-containing kidney stones. Patients with hypercalciuria often excrete more calcium than they absorb, indicating a net loss of total body calcium. The source of this additional urine calcium is almost certainly the skeleton, the largest repository of calcium in the body. Hypercalciuric stone formers exhibit decreased bone mineral density (BMD) which is correlated with the increase in urine calcium excretion. ...

  18. Use of the probability of stone formation (PSF score to assess stone forming risk and treatment response in a cohort of Brazilian stone formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Turney

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim was to confirm that PSF (probability of stone formation changed appropriately following medical therapy on recurrent stone formers. Materials and Methods Data were collected on 26 Brazilian stone-formers. A baseline 24-hour urine collection was performed prior to treatment. Details of the medical treatment initiated for stone-disease were recorded. A PSF calculation was performed on the 24 hour urine sample using the 7 urinary parameters required: voided volume, oxalate, calcium, urate, pH, citrate and magnesium. A repeat 24-hour urine sample was performed for PSF calculation after treatment. Comparison was made between the PSF scores before and during treatment. Results At baseline, 20 of the 26 patients (77% had a high PSF score (> 0.5. Of the 26 patients, 17 (65% showed an overall reduction in their PSF profiles with a medical treatment regimen. Eleven patients (42% changed from a high risk (PSF > 0.5 to a low risk (PSF 0.5 during both assessments. Conclusions The PSF score reduced following medical treatment in the majority of patients in this cohort.

  19. 姜黄素干预对乙二醇诱导的大鼠肾草酸钙结石形成的影响%Effects of curcumin intervention on ethylene glycol-induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢锋; 张士青

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of curcumin intervention on ethylene glycol-induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats. Methods Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into single nephrolithiasis induction group (calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis induced by 1% ethylene glycol drinking), nephrolithiasis induction + curcumin intervention group (1% ethylene glycol drinking + intragastric administration of 20 mg o kg-1 o d-1 curcumin), single curcumin group (deionized water drinking + intragastric administration of 20 mg o kg-1 o d-1 curcumin) and blank control group (deionized water drinking), with 8 rats in each group. Before and after the experiment (4 weeks after treatment), serum and urine concentrations of ionized calcium and magnesium, urine oxalic acid, urine citric acid and serum concentration of creatinine were measured in rats. Rats were sacrificed, renal tissues were obtained, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) in renal tissues were determined, the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tissues was observed with HE staining, and the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells was detected by TUNEL method. Results Compared with blank control group, the urine oxalic acid, apoptosis index of renal tubular epithelial cells, content of MDA in renal tissues and serum concentration of creatinine were moderately higher, and the urine concentration of ionized magnesium, urine content of citric acid and activity of T-SOD in renal tissues were moderately lower in single curcumin group. Compared with single nephrolithiasis induction group, the urine oxalic acid, apoptosis index of renal tubular epithelial cells and content of MDA in renal tissues were significantly decreased, and the Urine concentration of ionized magnesium, urine content of citric acid and activity of T-SOD in renal tissues were significantly increased in nephrolithiasis induction + curcumin intervention group ( P < 0. 05

  20. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  1. Effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder on sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats

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    Rahul V Takawale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of advances in the present practice of medicine, the formation and growth of calculi continues to trouble mankind, as there is no satisfactory drug to treat kidney stones. In India, many indigenous drugs are in use for the treatment of urinary calculus disease. Objective: The present study was intended to determine anti-urolithiatic effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder (LSFP against sodium oxalate (NaOx induced urolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were grouped as Vehicle Group (received vehicle gum acacia 2% w/v 1 mL/kg/p.o., NaOx Group(Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg,i.p., LSFP Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. LSFP suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg, Cystone Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. Cystone suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg. Result: The increased severity of microscopic calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals deposition along with increased concentration in the kidney was seen after 7 days of NaOx (70 mg/kg, i.p. pre-treatment. LSFP (500 mg/kg, p.o. and standard marketed formulation Cystone (500 mg/kg, p.o. caused a significant reversal of NaOx-induced changes in ion excretion and urinary CaOx concentration in 7 days treatment. Conclusion: From the results, it was concluded that LSFP showed beneficial effect against urolithiasis by decreasing CaOx excretion and preventing crystal deposition in the kidney tubules.

  2. Mode of Action: Oxalate Crystal-Induced Renal Tubule Degeneration and Glycolic Acid-Induced Dysmorphogenesis—Renal and Developmental Effects of Ethylene Glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Rick A.; Meek, M E.; Carney, E W.

    2005-10-01

    Ethylene glycol can cause both renal and developmental toxicity, with metabolism playing a key role in the mode of action (MOA) for each form of toxicity. Renal toxicity is ascribed to the terminal metabolite oxalic acid, which precipitates in the kidney in the form of calcium oxalate crystals and is believed to cause physical damage to the renal tubules. The human relevance of the renal toxicity of ethylene glycol is indicated by the similarity between animals and humans of metabolic pathways, the observation of renal oxalate crystals in toxicity studies in experimental animals and human poisonings, and cases of human kidney and bladder stones related to dietary oxalates and oxalate precursors. High-dose gavage exposures to ethylene glycol also cause axial skeletal defects in rodents (but not rabbits), with the intermediary metabolite, glycolic acid, identified as the causative agent. However, the mechanism by which glycolic acid perturbs development has not been investigated sufficiently to develop a plausible hypothesis of mode of action, nor have any cases of ethylene glycol-induced developmental effects been reported in humans. Given this, and the variations in sensitivity between animal species in response, the relevance to humans of ethylene glycol-induced developmental toxicity in animals is unknown at this time.

  3. Efficiency and resistance of the artificial oxalate protection treatment on marble against chemical weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Pamplona, M. [Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica do Instituto Superior Tecnico Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Selvaggi, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Miliani, C. [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)]. E-mail: miliani@thch.unipg.it; Matteini, M. [CNR Istituto, Conservazione e Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali (ICVBC), Via Madonna del Piano, 10, Edifico C-50019, Florence (Italy); Sgamellotti, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Brunetti, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-03-15

    The artificial oxalate protection method was analyzed in laboratory experiments in order to achieve an optimum treatment application and concentration giving rise to its most effective protective nature. Spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared, Micro-Raman and UV-vis colorimetry), microscopic (scanning electron microscope) and contact-angle analyses were carried out to characterize Carrara marble samples before and after application of the treatment to validate its efficiency. The resistance effects against chemical weathering were subsequently observed in a lab-controlled weak acid rain experiment. An acid spray at pH 5.5, representative of normal rain was used to provoke degrade of natural marble, marble treated with the artificial oxalate protective at concentrations of 0.4 and 5% and marble treated with a commercial organic silicon product. Run-off solutions sampled at timely intervals were tested for any change in pH followed by ion chromatography measurements for the presence of calcium ions in solution. The chromatography results of the oxalate treatment applied at a 5% concentration are analogous to an organic commercial product indicating its validity as a method for the conservation of carbonate substrates conferring protection to stone materials against acid environments.

  4. STUDY OF URINE PH, HYPERCALCIURIA, URINARY TRACT INFECTION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH STONE COMPOSITION IN BHOPAL REGION

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    Mahendra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This prospective case control study is an attempt to study the importance and significance of urinary pH, urinary tract infection (Urinary Culture and hypercalciuria and its correlation with stone composition in patients of urolithiasis. METHODS: This prospective cases control study is done at the Department of Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal (M.P. India from October 2013 to October 2014. We have included 25 healthy persons as control group for the comparison of study group i.e. patients of urolithiasis. RESULTS: Total (43.5% persons were having stones in upper urinary tract. The mean age (+/-SD of the study group was 31.5 for the males and 34.5 for the females. In control group it was 30.4 males and 30.2 for the females. The overall ratio of M/F was 1.5:1.0 in stone former (Study group group and 2.1:1.0 in control group. Most (82.5% of stone former persons were in lower and middle socioeconomic group. 65.2% persons in stone former group were taking water less than 2 liters per day while in normal control group it was 48%. Milk and milk products consumption was very high in stone formers i.e. 34/46(73.9%. Pain in the flanks is the first symptom of upper urinary tract calculi. Haematuria and burning during micturition were present in 75% and 50% patients respectively. Pain during micturition was in 75% of the stone formers. Urinary pH was mostly acidic in stone formers. The pH of urine in stone formers was 5.40±0.05 whereas in control group it was 6.34±0.08. In our study we found that most of the stones formed in normal acidic urine pH were composed of mainly calcium oxalate as dominant component while in alkaline urine at pH 6 to 8 triple phosphate is the major stone component. Uric acid is mainly present in stones formed in acidic urine. 24 Hours urine volume was significantly low in stone formers (750±156ml than in normal individuals (1250±250ml. S. Calcium level was also raised marginally

  5. Metabolic evaluation in first-time renal stone formers in north India: A single center study

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    Akhil Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of stone recurrence in first-time stone formers (FTSF varies from 26% to 53%. There is no consensus regarding metabolic evaluation in these individuals. We evaluated the metabolic abnormalities in first-time renal stone forming patients in North India. Thirty-nine patients, (29 males and 10 females with mean age 39.3 ± 12.9 years who presented with nephrolithiasis for the first time were evaluated. We evaluated the calcium homeostasis [serum corrected total calcium, phosphorous, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, parathormone (iPTH, 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25(OHD 3 , 1-25 di-hydroxy cholecalciferol (1,25(OH 2 D 3 ] and performed the calcium load test also. Two 24-h urine collections were taken for citrate, oxalate, calcium and uric acid. Ammonium chloride loading test for diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis was performed in all patients. For each of the diagnostic categories, descriptive statistics were computed for all biochemical variables. A two-tailed P-value <0.05 was regarded as significant. Metabolic abnormalities were detected in 92.3% of the patients (n = 39 studied. Of them, almost 60% had two or more metabolic abnormalities. The most common metabolic abnormality was hypo-citraturia (82%, followed by hyper-oxaluria (56% and hyper-calciuria (41%. Five percent of the patients had incomplete renal tubular acidosis, signifying the importance of the ammonium chloride loading test in patients with renal stones. None of the study patients were detected to have primary hyperparathyroidism. In three patients, the etiology could not be detected. Our findings suggest that an underlying disorder is present in majority of first-time renal stone formers. Intervention with appropriate treatment can prevent recurrences. Hence, comprehensive metabolic evaluation is recommended in all FTSF.

  6. Oxalic acid has an additional, detoxifying function in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum pathogenesis.

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    Annerose Heller

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the diseases caused by the necrotroph plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is not well understood. To investigate the role of oxalic acid during infection high resolution, light-, scanning-, transmission electron microscopy and various histochemical staining methods were used. Our inoculation method allowed us to follow degradation of host plant tissue around single hyphae and to observe the reaction of host cells in direct contact with single invading hyphae. After penetration the outer epidermal cell wall matrix appeared degraded around subcuticular hyphae (12-24 hpi. Calcium oxalate crystals were detected in advanced (36-48 hpi and late (72 hpi infection stages, but not in early stages. In early infection stages, surprisingly, no toxic effect of oxalic acid eventually secreted by S. sclerotiorum was observed. As oxalic acid is a common metabolite in plants, we propose that attacked host cells are able to metabolize oxalic acid in the early infection stage and translocate it to their vacuoles where it is stored as calcium oxalate. The effects, observed on healthy tissue upon external application of oxalic acid to non-infected, living tissue and cell wall degradation of dead host cells starting at the inner side of the walls support this idea. The results indicate that oxalic acid concentrations in the early stage of infection stay below the toxic level. In plant and fungi oxalic acid/calcium oxalate plays an important role in calcium regulation. Oxalic acid likely could quench calcium ions released during cell wall breakdown to protect growing hyphae from toxic calcium concentrations in the infection area. As calcium antimonate-precipitates were found in vesicles of young hyphae, we propose that calcium is translocated to the older parts of hyphae and detoxified by building non-toxic, stable oxalate crystals. We propose an infection model where oxalic acid plays a detoxifying role in late infection stages.

  7. Recovery of oxalate from scrubbing solution containing rare earths and iron produced during uranium recovery from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a method has been described to recover oxalate from oxalic acid containing iron. The process involves the adjusting the pH of the solution, adding calcium chloride 100% excess than stoichiometric amount and digesting the slurry for 2 hours followed by filtration. The calcium oxalate is decomposed with sulphuric acid to obtain gypsum and oxalic acid. The acid is recycled for scrubbing of iron

  8. Nephrolithiasis, stone composition, meteorology, and seasons in Malta: Is there any connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Jesmar; Attard, Stephanie; Carachi, Alexander; Galea, Ruth; Fava, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Context: The effect of seasons and meteorology on the incidence of nephrolithiasis has been studied in various regions around the globe, but seldom in the Mediterranean. Aims: This retrospective analysis aims at investigating these putative effects in the Maltese Islands, whose climate is typically Mediterranean, followed by a systematic review of the literature. Materials and Methods: Submission rate and chemical composition of all kidney stones after spontaneous passage or surgical removal between January 2009 and December 2011 were analyzed according to seasons and corresponding meteorology. Results: A total of 389 stones were analyzed. A higher stone submission rate was observed in summer compared to winter (31.6% vs. 20.8%, P = 0.0008) and in the warm period compared to the cold period (57.1% vs. 42.9%, P = 0.0001). Significant correlation was established between the monthly number of stones and mean monthly maximum temperature (r = 0.50, P = 0.002), mean monthly temperature (r = 0.49, P = 0.003) and mean monthly Humidex (r = 0.49, P = 0.007). Humidex was found to be an independent predictor for stone submission (β = 0.49, P = 0.007). The majority of stones contained calcium (83.3%), combined with oxalate (77.6%), phosphate (14.7%), and carbonate (2.8%). Some stones (11.8%) contained a mixture of >1 negatively charged molecules. Urate (11.6%), cysteine (4.6%), and ammonium-magnesium-phosphate (0.5%) constituted the rest. There was no association between chemical composition and seasons. Literature review included 25 articles. Higher ambient temperature and warm seasons were the most commonly encountered risk factors for both presentation and etiology of nephrolithiasis. Conclusions: A significant positive correlation was noted between ambient temperature and stone submission rate, which was significantly higher during the warm months in Malta.

  9. Spectral CT imaging in the evaluation of composition of kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of determining the chemical composition of kidney stones using gemstone spectral imaging (GSI). Methods: One hundred and sixty eight extracted human kidney stones immersed in a 10 cm deep water tank underwent CT (Discovery CT750 HD) scans with GSI mode and conventional polychromatic imaging (CPI, 120 kVp) mode. All GSI data were transferred to Workstation AW 4.4 to acquire monochromatic images of 50 keV, effective atomic number (Zeff) mapping images, water (calcium) -based images and calcium (Water) -based images with GSI Viewer. CT numbers of stones were measured and compared at 50 keV monochromatic images and 120 kVp polychromatic images, the mean Zeff, calcium density and water density were measured at Zeff mapping images, Calcium (Water) - based images and Water (Calcium)-based images, respectively. The mean Zeff, spectral HU curve slope and calcium water ratio (CWR) were compared with ANOVA and Wilcoxon test. The composition of kidney stones was determined by infrared spectrometer after CT examination. According to the result of stone composition determined by infrared spectroscopy, 108 pure kidney stones were divided into five groups: Uric acid stones (UA, n=13), struvite stones (STR, n=24), cystine stones (CYS, n=14), calcium phosphate stones (CaP, n=18), and calcium oxalate stones (COX, n=39). Results: The mean Zeff, CWR, the mean CT numbers at 50 keV images, 120 kVp images and spectral HU curve slope of each group were listed as the following: UA [7.4±0.4, 0.0085±0.0021, (503±168) HU, (495±106) HU and -0.77]; STR [11.8±0.9, 0.1743±0.0677, (1056±290) HU, (799±165) HU and 18.72]; CYS [11.2±0.6, 0.1253 ±0.0297, (740±172) HU, (565±129) HU and 12.79]; CaP [16.0±0.4, 0.6781±0.0952, (2567± 178) HU, (1602±200) HU and 37.14]; COX [15.4±0.4, 0.5683±0.0759, (2267±385) HU, (1489± 284) HU and 36.36], there were significant differences among groups (P<0.01). The differences in the mean Zeff, CRW, spectral HU

  10. Biochemical Risk Factors for Stone Formation in Healthy School Children

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    Maasumeh Mohkam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of urolithiasis in childhood is increasing. The wide geographic variation in the incidence of lithiasis in childhood is related to climatic, dietary, and socioeconomic factors. Many children with stone disease have a metabolic abnormality. In Southeast Asia, urinary calculi are endemic and are related to dietary factors. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of renal stone, urine metabolic abnormality, control of blood pressure and demographic character in elementary school children of Qom. A cross sectional study was performed on 110 primary school children (56 girls and 54 boys aged 7 to 11 years old. Demographic data such as age, height, weight were gathered, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Urine analysis and culture, urinary levels of calcium, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, uric acid, cystine, citrate, oxalate, protein and sonographic findings were evaluated. The mean (±SD of age was 8.85±1.51 years. Only one child had renal stone (1%, but the prevalence of abnormal renal sonography was 7%. The most prevalent urine metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria (23% and hypocitraturia (100%. 11.2% of children had positive urine culture that all were female. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 7.1% for girls and 11.1% for boys. The prevalence of renal stone in children in this study was 1%, which means the accurate judgment about the prevalence of renal stone in Qom city needs more comprehensive studies. Similar to other studies in Iran this study shows that the prevalence of hypercalciuria is significantly higher comparing to other countries, it may be associated with excessive intake of sodium.

  11. Isolation and characterizations of oxalate-binding proteins in the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The first large-scale characterizations of oxalate-binding kidney proteins. ► The recently developed oxalate-conjugated EAH Sepharose 4B beads were applied. ► 38 forms of 26 unique oxalate-binding kidney proteins were identified. ► 25/26 (96%) of identified proteins had “L-x(3,5)-R-x(2)-[AGILPV]” domain. -- Abstract: Oxalate-binding proteins are thought to serve as potential modulators of kidney stone formation. However, only few oxalate-binding proteins have been identified from previous studies. Our present study, therefore, aimed for large-scale identification of oxalate-binding proteins in porcine kidney using an oxalate-affinity column containing oxalate-conjugated EAH Sepharose 4B beads for purification followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to resolve the recovered proteins. Comparing with those obtained from the controlled column containing uncoupled EAH-Sepharose 4B (to subtract the background of non-specific bindings), a total of 38 protein spots were defined as oxalate-binding proteins. These protein spots were successfully identified by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) and/or tandem MS (MS/MS) as 26 unique proteins, including several nuclear proteins, mitochondrial proteins, oxidative stress regulatory proteins, metabolic enzymes and others. Identification of oxalate-binding domain using the PRATT tool revealed “L-x(3,5)-R-x(2)-[AGILPV]” as a functional domain responsible for oxalate-binding in 25 of 26 (96%) unique identified proteins. We report herein, for the first time, large-scale identification and characterizations of oxalate-binding proteins in the kidney. The presence of positively charged arginine residue in the middle of this functional domain suggested its significance for binding to the negatively charged oxalate. These data will enhance future stone research, particularly on stone modulators.

  12. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation. PMID:22492273

  13. Extraction and concentration of biogenic calcium oxalate from plant leaves Extração e concentração de oxalato de cálcio biogênico de folhas de plantas

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    Liovando Marciano da Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to extract and concentrate calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals from plant leaves that form the above mentioned crystals. The chemical and physical studies of CaOx from plant to be performed depend on an adequate amount of the crystals. The plant used in this study was croton (Codiaeum variegatum. The leaves were ground in a heavy duty blender and sieved through a 0.20 mm sieve. The suspension obtained was suspended in distilled water. The crystals were concentrated at the bottom of a test tube. The supernatant must be washed until it is free of plant pigments and other organic substances. Biogenic CaOx crystals have well-defined and sharp peaks, indicating very high crystallinity. Moreover, the CaOx crystals were not damaged during the extraction procedure, as can be seen on the scanning electron microscope images. The porposed method can be considered efficient to extract and concentrate biogenic calcium oxalate.O objetivo deste estudo foi extrair e concentrar cristais de oxalato de cálcio (CaOx a partir de folhas de plantas que formam os cristais mencionados. Os estudos químicos e físicos de CaOx de plantas a serem realizados demandam uma massa adequada dos cristais. A planta usada neste estudo foi o cróton (Codiaeum variegatum. As folhas foram trituradas por um liquidificador industrial e peneiradas em peneira de 0,20 mm. Ao suco obtido foi adicionada água destilada. Os cristais foram concentrados no fundo da proveta. É necessário manter a lavagem dos cristais até que o sobrenadante fique livre de pigmentos de plantas e outras substâncias orgânicas. Os cristais de CaOx apresentaram picos bem formados e estreitos, indicando que sua cristalinidade é muito alta; além disso, esses cristais não foram danificados durante o procedimento de extração, o que pode ser visto observando-se as fotos obtidas pelo microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O método apresentado pode ser considerado eficiente para extrair

  14. Oxalate-Degrading Activity in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis: Impact of Acidic Conditions on the Transcriptional Levels of the Oxalyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Decarboxylase and Formyl-CoA Transferase Genes ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Turroni, Silvia; Bendazzoli, Claudia; Dipalo, Samuele C. F.; Candela, Marco; Vitali, Beatrice; Gotti, Roberto; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Oxalic acid occurs extensively in nature and plays diverse roles, especially in pathological processes. Due to its highly oxidizing effects, hyperabsorption or abnormal synthesis of oxalate can cause serious acute disorders in mammals and can be lethal in extreme cases. Intestinal oxalate-degrading bacteria could therefore be pivotal in maintaining oxalate homeostasis and reducing the risk of kidney stone development. In this study, the oxalate-degrading activities of 14 bifidobacterial strai...

  15. Quantificação do stone clinic effect em pacientes com nefrolitíase Quantification of the stone clinic effect in patients with nephrolithiasis

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    Maurício Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O termo stone clinic effect refere-se ao efeito do aumento da ingestão hídrica e aconselhamento dietético na evolução clínica da doença calculosa renal. OBJETIVO: O nosso objetivo foi quantificar esta variável em pacientes portadores de nefrolitíase. MÉTODOS: Vinte e cinco pacientes (11 mulheres e 14 homens; 47,64±10,55 anos com nefrolitíase recorrente foram acompanhados com consultas trimestrais por um ano. Orientações sobre aumento da ingestão hídrica, diminuição do consumo de sal e proteína foram rotineiramente fornecidas. Nenhum paciente foi submetido à terapia farmacológica. Foram coletados no início (S1 e no final do seguimento (S2 os seguintes parâmetros: atividade clínica e radiológica da doença litiásica, urina de 24 horas com dosagem de creatinina, cálcio, sódio, ácido úrico, citrato, oxalato e magnésio. A supersaturação (SS para o oxalato de cálcio foi calculada pelo índice de Tiselius. RESULTADOS: Onze (44% pacientes apresentaram hipocitratúria, nove (36% hipercalciúria e cinco (20% hiperuricosúria. Houve aumento do volume urinário (1903±811 vs 2381±919 ml/dia, pBACKGROUND: The ''stone clinic effect'' refers to the effect of encouraging a high intake of fluid and diet counseling in the clinical evolution of kidney stone disease. Objective: Our objective was to determine the extent of this variable in patients with nephrolithiasis. METHODS: Twenty-five patients (11 female and 14 male; 47.64±10.55 years old with recurrent nephrolithiasis were prospectively followed for one year, with 3-month interval medical evaluation. Patients were advised to increase the fluid intake, and to limit the intake of salt and protein. No patient was submitted to pharmacological therapy. Two 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline (S1 and in the end of follow-up (S2 for the measurement of creatinine, calcium, sodium, uric acid, citrate, oxalate and magnesium. Metabolic and radiological activity was also

  16. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  17. Probabilistic Modeling of the Renal Stone Formation Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lauren M.; Myers, Jerry G.; Goodenow, Debra A.; McRae, Michael P.; Jackson, Travis C.

    2013-01-01

    randomly sampling the probability distributions of the electrolyte concentrations and system parameters that are inputs into the deterministic model. The total urine chemistry concentrations are used to determine the urine chemistry activity using the Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS), a biochemistry model. Information used from JESS is then fed into the deterministic growth model. Outputs from JESS and the deterministic model are passed back to the probabilistic model where a multivariate regression is used to assess the likelihood of a stone forming and the likelihood of a stone requiring clinical intervention. The parameters used to determine to quantify these risks include: relative supersaturation (RS) of calcium oxalate, citrate/calcium ratio, crystal number density, total urine volume, pH, magnesium excretion, maximum stone width, and ureteral location. Methods and Validation: The RSFM is designed to perform a Monte Carlo simulation to generate probability distributions of clinically significant renal stones, as well as provide an associated uncertainty in the estimate. Initially, early versions will be used to test integration of the components and assess component validation and verification (V&V), with later versions used to address questions regarding design reference mission scenarios. Once integrated with the deterministic component, the credibility assessment of the integrated model will follow NASA STD 7009 requirements.

  18. Mineralogical Composition of the Urinary Stones from Different Provinces in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan H. Afaj

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For this study, 25 samples of urinary stones were chosen from different provinces in Iraq as representative sampling localities. These samples of urinary stones were collected to represent kidney, urate, and bladder stones. The main objectives of this study are to try to shed some light on the possibilities of tracking down the effective environmental factors that determine the mineralogical and chemical composition of these stones. The stones were examined using several techniques, the most important of which was the use of the X-ray diffraction (XRD technique to determine the mineralogical composition of these stones. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM test was conducted to determine the crystallographic forms and structures for the minerals forming these stones. Optical properties of these minerals were studied using a polarizing microscope. All these techniques revealed that the calcium oxalate, represented in Whewellite mineral, is the most dominant type of these stones, in addition to other minerals such as Hydroxy apatite, Struvite, and Uricite. Dittmarite was pointed out for the first time ever in some samples. This mineral has not been determined in any previous study worldwide.Considering the results of mineralogical and chemical examinations of the urinary stones in question, and the statistical information gathered from the Iraqi Health Ministry, statistical analyses were applied. The ratio of male-female cases in this study happened to be 4:1, which was higher than the ratio in the years 1988––1989 and 1993–1994, 2:1; 3:1 respectively. The highest percentage of the cases was in the 15–50 age group, which is considered as the most productive years of human lifetime. This study showed that one of the most significant factors was that the mineralogical variation of urinary stones in some Iraqi provinces was due to geographical differences, which reflect the variation in lithogenic factors and also climatological factors. Other

  19. Frequency of Metabolic Risk Factors in Children with Urinary Tract Stones Referred to Hamadan Pediatric Nephrology Clinic

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    H.E. Momtaz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Urinary stones are among the most common complaints referred to nephrologist and urologists. Although incidence of urolithiasis is low in children compared to adults and only 7% of all urinary stones are diagnosed before the age of 16 but stones are detected more frequently in pediatric age group in recent years. Metabolic derangements, infection, neurogenic bladder and urinary obstruction are major risk factors of urolithiasis. Common metabolic risk factors of urolithiasis in children are hypercalciuria, uricosuria, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria, metabolic acidosis and cystinuria. There are many clinical studies about the frequency of these metabolic risk factors with different results reflecting difference in diet, geographic area and genetics in study populations. In this study we tried to evaluate the frequency of metabolic causes of urinary stones in children referred to Hamadan pediatric nephrology clinic.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional-descriptive study 156 patients referred due to urinary stones to pediatric nephrology clinic underwent thorough metabolic evaluations including: serum calcium,phosphorus, uric acid, creatinine and non fasting random urine sample for calcium, creatinine , uric acid , oxalate, citrate and cystine . urine solute: creatinine ratios were calculated and compared with normative data.Results: Of 156 patients 136(87.2% had metabolic derangements including: hyperuricosuria in 71 (45.5%, hypercalciuria in 41(26.3%, hypocitraturia in 26 (16.7%, hyperoxaluria in 16(10.3%,cystinuria in 1(0.6% and metabolic acidosis in 39 (25%.Conclusion: High rate of metabolic derangement in pediatric urinary stone patients mandates proper metabolic evaluation in all of them. hyperuricosuria was the most common metbolic finding instead of hypercalciuria in this study. This could be due to differences in diet, geographic area and genetic background in various populations.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci

  20. Oxalate metal complexes in aerosol particles: implications for the hygroscopicity of oxalate-containing particles

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    T. Furukawa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols have both a direct and an indirect cooling effect that influences the radiative balance at the Earth's surface. It has been estimated that the degree of cooling is large enough to weaken the warming effect of carbon dioxide. Among the cooling factors, secondary organic aerosols (SOA play an important role in the solar radiation balance in the troposphere as SOA can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and extend the lifespan of clouds because of their high hygroscopic and water soluble nature. Oxalic acid is an important component of SOA, and is produced via several formation pathways in the atmosphere. However, it is not certain whether oxalic acid exists as free oxalic acid or as metal oxalate complexes in aerosols, although there is a marked difference in their solubility in water and their hygroscopicity. We employed X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to characterize the calcium (Ca and zinc (Zn in aerosols collected at Tsukuba in Japan. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected for this purpose using an impactor aerosol sampler. It was shown that 10–60% and 20–100% of the total Ca and Zn in the finer particles (<2.1 μm were present as Ca and Zn oxalate complexes, respectively. Oxalic acid is hygroscopic and can thus increase the CCN activity of aerosol particles, while complexes with various polyvalent metal ions such as Ca and Zn are not hygroscopic, which cannot contribute to the increase of the CCN activity of aerosols. Based on the concentrations of noncomplexed and metal-complexed oxalate species, we found that most of the oxalic acid is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, suggesting that oxalic acid does not always increase the hygroscopicity of aerosols in the atmosphere. Similar results are expected for other dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic and succinic acids. Thus, it is advisable that the cooling effect of organic aerosols should be estimated by including the

  1. Uranyl Oxalate Solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility of uranyl oxalate was determined at ambient temperature by precipitation in oxalic-nitric solutions, using an initial uranyl concentration of 0.1 mol/L. Oxalic concentration varied from 0.075 to 0.3 mol/L while nitric concentration ranged between 0.75 and 3 mol/L. Dissolution tests, using complementary oxalic-nitric media, were carried out for 550 hours in order to study the kinetic to reach thermodynamic equilibrium. Similar solubility values were reached by dissolution and precipitation. Using the results, it was possible to draw the solubility surface versus oxalic and nitric concentrations and to determine both the apparent solubility constant of UO2C2O4, 3H2O (Ks) and the apparent formation constant of the first uranyl-oxalate complex UO2C2O4 (log β1), for ionic strengths varying between 1 and 3 mol/L. Ks and log β1 values were found to vary from 1.9 10-8 to 9.2 10-9 and from 5.95 to 6.06, respectively, when ionic strength varied from 1 to 3 mol/L. A second model may fit our data obtained at an ionic strength of 3 mol/L suggesting as reported by Moskvin et al. (1959) that no complexes are formed for [H+] at 3 M. The Ks value would then be 1.3 10-8. (authors)

  2. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ‘Averrhoa bilimbi’ fruit juice ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; A Mathew; Rajesh, R; Kurien, G.; J. RAJESH; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.

    2013-01-01

    Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patien...

  3. Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU: pathophysiology evaluated in light of oxidative metabolism, without and with variation of several biomarkers in fasting urine and plasma - a comparison of stone-free and -bearing male patients, emphasizing mineral, acid-base, blood pressure and protein status*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwilie PO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IRCU is traditionally considered as lifestyle disease (associations with, among others, overweight, obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, arising from excess, in 24 h urine, of calcium (Ca salts (calcium oxalate (CaOx, calcium phosphate (CaPi, supersaturation of, and crystallization in, tubular fluid and urine, causing crystal-induced epithelial cell damage, proteinuria, crystal aggregation and uroliths. Methods Another picture emerges from the present uncontrolled study of 154 male adult IRCU patients (75 stone-bearing (SB and 79 age-matched stone-free (SF, in whom stone-forming and other parameters in fasting urine and plasma were contrasted with five biomarkers (see footnote of oxidative metabolism (OM, without and with variation of markers. Results 1 In SB vs. SF unstratified OM biomarkers were statistically unchanged, but the majority of patients was overweight; despite, in SB vs. SF urine pH, total and non-albumin protein concentration were elevated, fractional urinary uric acid excretion and blood bicarbonate decreased, whereas urine volume, sodium, supersaturation with CaOx and CaPi (as hydroxyapatite were unchanged; 2 upon variation of OM markers (strata below and above median numerous stone parameters differed significant!', among others urine volume, total protein, Ca/Pi ratio, pH, sodium, potassium, plasma Ca/Pi ratio and parathyroid hormone, blood pressure, renal excretion of non-albumin protein and other substances; 3 a significant shift from SF to SB patients occurred with increase of urine pH, decrease of blood bicarbonate, and increase of diastolic blood pressure, whereas increase of plasma uric acid impacted only marginally; 4 in both SF and SB patients a strong curvilinear relationship links a rise of urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, but in SB urine Ca/Pi failed to correlate significantly with urine hydroxyapatite supersaturation; 5 also in SB, plasma Ca/Pi and urinary nitrate were

  4. Microbial Community Transplant Results in Increased and Long-Term Oxalate Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron W; Oakeson, Kelly F; Dale, Colin; Dearing, M Denise

    2016-08-01

    Gut microbes are essential for the degradation of dietary oxalate, and this function may play a role in decreasing the incidence of kidney stones. However, many oxalate-degrading bacteria are susceptible to antibiotics and the use of oxalate-degrading probiotics has only led to an ephemeral reduction in urinary oxalate. The objective of the current study was to determine the efficacy of using whole-community microbial transplants from a wild mammalian herbivore, Neotoma albigula, to increase oxalate degradation over the long term in the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus. We quantified the change in total oxalate degradation in lab rats immediately after microbial transplants and at 2- and 9-month intervals following microbial transplants. Additionally, we tracked the fecal microbiota of the lab rats, with and without microbial transplants, using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of a hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial transplants resulted in a significant increase in oxalate degradation, an effect that persisted 9 months after the initial transplants. Functional persistence was corroborated by the transfer, and persistence of a group of bacteria previously correlated with oxalate consumption in N. albigula, including an anaerobic bacterium from the genus Oxalobacter known for its ability to use oxalate as a sole carbon source. The results of this study indicate that whole-community microbial transplants are an effective means for the persistent colonization of oxalate-degrading bacteria in the mammalian gut. PMID:27312892

  5. Can the manipulation of urinary pH by beverages assist with the prevention of stone recurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Roswitha

    2016-02-01

    The formation of various types of stones in the urinary tract is strongly influenced by urinary pH. An acidic urinary pH promotes the crystallization of uric acid and cystine, respectively. Moreover, changes in systemic acid-base homeostasis alter urinary excretion of citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium oxalate stone formation. The effect of beverages on urinary pH and citrate excretion is mainly determined by the presence of bicarbonate and citrate. The bicarbonate content of mineral water can replace alkalization therapy with potassium citrate and contribute to urine inhibitory power by increasing urinary pH and citrate excretion. Citrus juices are rich sources of citrate. Oral citrate is absorbed in the intestine and nearly completely metabolized to bicarbonate, providing an alkali load, which in turn increases urinary pH and citrate excretion. However, data from observational and interventional studies on the effect of different types of citrus juices on the risk of urinary stone formation are conflicting. In conclusion, favourable changes in urinary pH and citrate excretion can be attained by various beverages. However, the long-term efficacy of certain beverages for the recurrence prevention of different types of stones has yet to be determined. PMID:26614113

  6. Percutaneous renal biopsy specimens in stone formers.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, D.J.; Inglis, J A; Tolley, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    A series of renal biopsy specimens taken at the time of percutaneous nephrolithotomy were investigated for the presence and location of foci of microcalcification. Calcium was found in 18 of 25 (72%) of biopsy specimens from stone formers and in only seven of 30 (23%) of control biopsy specimens. This may indicate defective intrarenal handling of calcium as plasma calcium concentration was normal and 40% had a raised 24 hour urinary calcium excretion.

  7. Ornamental Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Harrell, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The ornamental stones of ancient Egypt comprise a large and diverse group of rocks. Their attractive colors and patterns, and ability to take a good polish, made them sought after for decorative applications in art and architecture. At least 48 varieties of ornamental stone were used by the Egyptians and these come from 45 known ancient quarries, two in northern Sudan and the rest in Egypt.  

  8. The potential role of salt abuse on the risk for kidney stone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Harvey, J. A.; Padalino, P. K.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The kidney stone-forming risk of a high sodium diet was evaluated by assessing the effect of such a diet on the crystallization of stone-forming salts in urine. Fourteen normal subjects participated in 2 phases of study of 10 days duration each, comprising a low sodium phase (basal metabolic diet containing 50 mmol. sodium per day) and a high sodium phase (basal diet plus 250 mmol. sodium chloride per day). The high sodium intake significantly increased urinary sodium (34 +/- 12 to 267 +/- 56 mmol. per day), calcium (2.73 +/- 1.03 to 3.93 +/- 1.51 mmol. per day) and pH (5.79 +/- 0.44 to 6.15 +/- 0.25), and significantly decreased urinary citrate (3.14 +/- 1.19 to 2.52 +/- 0.83 mmol. per day). Arterialized venous blood bicarbonate and total serum carbon dioxide concentrations decreased significantly during the high sodium diet, whereas serum chloride concentration increased. However, no change in arterialized venous pH was detected. Thus, a high sodium intake not only increased calcium excretion, but also increased urinary pH and decreased citrate excretion. The latter effects are probably due to sodium-induced bicarbonaturia and a significant decrease in serum bicarbonate concentration, respectively. Commensurate with these changes, the urinary saturation of calcium phosphate (brushite) and monosodium urate increased, and the inhibitor activity against calcium oxalate crystallization (formation product) decreased. The net effect of a high sodium diet was an increased propensity for the crystallization of calcium salts in urine.

  9. Persistence of 1,25D-induced hypercalciuria in alendronate-treated genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats fed a low-calcium diet

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, Kevin K; Asplin, John R.; Culbertson, Christopher D.; Granja, Ignacio; Krieger, Nancy S.; Bushinsky, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats demonstrate increased intestinal Ca absorption, increased bone resorption, and reduced renal tubular Ca reabsorption leading to hypercalciuria and all form kidney stones. GHS have increased vitamin D receptors (VDR) at these sites of Ca transport. Injection of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D) leads to a greater increase in urine (u)Ca in GHS than in control Sprague-Dawley (SD), possibly due to the additional VDR. In GHS the increased uCa persists on a low-Ca...

  10. Protocol-based metabolic evaluation in high-risk patients with renal stones in North India

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    Sandeep Julka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Renal calculus disease has a lifetime recurrence rate of 80%. Protocol-based metabolic evaluation in high-risk subjects for recurrent renal stones reveals abnormalities in a large subset of subjects. However, such information is not available in Indian subjects. Aims: To evaluate the abnormalities by a protocol-based metabolic evaluation in patients at a high risk for recurrent renal stones. Settings and Design: Prospective, academic tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Fifty North Indian patients (38 males and 12 females; mean age 38 ± 10.2 years with recurrent or bilateral renal stones were evaluated. All subjects underwent a protocol-based evaluation involving estimation of serum total calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, albumin, iPTH, 25(OHD 3 , 1,25(OH 2 D 3 , and a calcium load test. Estimation of daily urinary excretion of volume, oxalate, calcium, uric acid, and citrate, and urinary acidification studies were performed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics and t-test. Results: An underlying disorder was detected in 48 (96% patients. Almost half had two or more metabolic abnormalities. The metabolic abnormalities detected were: Hypercalciuria 26 (52% patients, renal hypercalciuria 16 (32%, absorptive hypercalciuria 6 (12%, unclassified hypercalciuria 4 (8%, hyperoxaluria 27 (54%, hyperuricosuria 9 (18%, distal renal tubular acidosis 4 (8%; 2 complete and 2 partial, primary hyperparathyroidism 3 (6%, and hypocitraturia 14 (n=18, 77%. In two patients, the etiology could not be detected. Conclusions: Protocol-based metabolic evaluation reveals metabolic abnormalities in majority of patients with nephrolithiasis. The spectrums of metabolic abnormalities are different in Indian subjects as compared to the western population.

  11. Multiple bilateral stones as a cause of acute renal failure: Three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ozturk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex renal stones are staghorn calculi stones >2 cm and most calculus are calcium stones. In patients found with obstruction may need an emergency intervention. Three patients with multiple stones causing bilateral renal obstruction were operated.

  12. Multiple bilateral stones as a cause of acute renal failure: Three case reports

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Complex renal stones are staghorn calculi stones >2 cm and most calculus are calcium stones. In patients found with obstruction may need an emergency intervention. Three patients with multiple stones causing bilateral renal obstruction were operated.

  13. Acúmulo de ácido oxálico e cristais de cálcio em ectomicorrizas de eucalipto.: II- formação de cristais de oxalato de cálcio induzida por fungos ectomicorrízicos em raízes laterais finas Accumulation of oxalic acid and calcium crystals in ectomycorrhizas of eucalypt.: II- calcium oxalate crystal formation induced by ectomicorrhizal fungi in fine lateral roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Alexander Zambrano Gonzalez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O eucalipto é eficiente na aquisição de Ca do solo, mas pouco se sabe sobre a participação das ectomicorrizas e dos ácidos orgânicos nesse processo em campo. O acúmulo de cristais de Ca (CaOx foi avaliado em, aproximadamente, 2.100 raízes laterais finas e ectomicorrizas do híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, cultivado por 2,5 anos em área com topografia típica em meia laranja, com vertente côncavo-convexa, na região de Viçosa, MG. Técnicas de microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura foram usadas para a visualização dos CaOx. Em 73,7 % das raízes, ocorreu abundante acúmulo de drusas e grânulos de CaOx nas células do córtex. A presença conspícua de CaOx foi observada em 56,2 % das ectomicorrizas e em 17,5 % das raízes laterais finas não colonizadas, evidenciando o papel das micorrizas no acúmulo de Ca em eucalipto. A forma predominante dos CaOx foram as drusas nas ectomicorrizas e os grânulos cristalinos nas raízes. Os dez morfotipos de ectomicorrizas observados na área diferiram quanto à presença e à morfologia dos CaOx, o que pode representar distintas capacidades dos fungos ectomicorrízicos em fornecer Ca para a planta hospedeira. A análise da superfície do manto das ectomicorrizas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura não evidenciou a presença de CaOx nessa estrutura, confirmando que, nas condições avaliadas, o acúmulo de cristais limita-se ao córtex radicular. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de CaOx em ectomicorrizas de eucalipto no Brasil, com dados que comprovam que há mecanismos de armazenamento de Ca nas ectomicorrizas em áreas com baixa disponibilidade do elemento.Eucalypt is efficient at taking up Ca from the soil, however little is known about the contribution of ectomycorrhizas and organic acids to this process under field conditions. The accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx was evaluated in, approximately, 2,100 fine lateral roots

  14. Composition of common bile duct stones in Chinese patients during and after endoscopic sphincterotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Lun Tsai; Kwok-Hung Lai; Chiun-Ku Lin; Hoi-Hung Chan; Ching-Chu Lo; Ping-I Hsu; Wen-Chi Chen; Jin-Shiung Cheng; Gin-Ho Lo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is a well-established therapeutic modality for the removal of common bile duct (CBD) stones. After ES there are still around 10% of patients that experience recurrent CBD stones. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of CBD stones before and after ES and its clinical significance in Chinese patients.METHODS: From January 1996 to December 2003, 735Veterans General Hospital and stone specimens from 266patients were sent for analysis. Seventy-five patients had recurrent CBD stones and stone specimens from 44patients were sent for analysis. The composition of the stones was analyzed by infrared (IR) spectrometry and they were classified as cholesterol or bilirubinate stones according to the predominant composition. Clinical data were analyzed.RESULTS: In the initial 266 stone samples, 217 (82%)were bilirubinate stones, 42 (16%) were cholesterol stones,3 were calcium carbonate stones, 4 were mixed cholesterol and bilirubinate stones. Patients with bilirubinate stones were significantly older than patients with cholesterol stones (66±13 years vs 56±17 years, P= 0.001). In the 44 recurrent stone samples, 38 (86%) were bilirubinate stones, 3 (7%) were cholesterol stones, and 3 were mixed cholesterol and bilirubinate stones. In 27 patients, bothinitial and recurrent stone specimens can be obtained,23 patients had bilirubinate stones initially and 2 became cholesterol stones in the recurrent attack. In the four patients with initial cholesterol stones, three patients had bilirubinate stones and one patient had a cholesterol stone in the recurrent attack.CONCLUSION: Bilirubinate stone is the predominant composition of initial or recurrent CBD stone in Chinese patients. The composition of CBD stones may be different from initial stones after ES.

  15. Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts

  16. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  17. Stone vessels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková Vlčková, Petra

    Prague : Charles University in Prague, 2010 - (Bárta, M.; Coppens, F.; Vymazalová, H.), s. 108-149 ISBN 978-80-7308-325-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : stone vessels * Abusir South * Early Dynastic period * Old Kingdom * non-royal funerary architecture Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  18. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  19. Acute management of stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Osther, Palle J S

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stone management is often conservative due to a high spontaneous stone passage rate or non-symptomatic calyceal stones that do not necessarily require active treatment. However, stone disease may cause symptoms and complications requiring urgent intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: In this review, we update latest research and current recommendations regarding acute management of stones, with particular focus on imaging, pain management, active stone interventions, medical expulsive therapy, and urolithiasis in pregnancy and childhood. RESULTS: Acute stone management should be planned...

  20. Geographical trends of carbon and sulphur isotope abundances in human kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    delta13C values and delta34S values in human kidney stones range from -24 to -10 and -10 to +20 per mille, respectively, and depend upon geographical location. Although the distributions overlap, the mean delta13C values in oxalate stones from North America become less negative with decreasing latitude. For Mexico and Hawaii, the distributions appear to be bimodal. Uric acid stones are generally enriched in 13C by up to 7 per mille in comparison to oxalates from the same location, whereas cystine stones tend to span the ranges of both stone types. The geographical trends can be explained by the relative proportions of dietary carbon derived ultimately from plants undergoing various established photosynthetic mechanisms. The differences among the various major stone types may reflect isotope fractionation during biochemical conversions. Exogenic oxalates and uric acid are considered to have little role in precipitating the respective minerals. Whereas, the currently available C isotope data support this contention, more data are desirable, particularly for ingested oxalates. In contrast, S isotope data provide strong evidence that cystine stones are derived from ingested organo-S compounds. In turn, these organo-S compounds were probably derived from sulphate in the hydrosphere at lower levels in the food chain. (author)

  1. Stone bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    Prague : Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Drdácký, M.; Binda, L.; Hennen, I.; Kőpp, C.; Lanza, L.), s. 122-129 ISBN 978-80-86246-37-6 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood * stone bridge * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  2. Tetraphenylphosphonium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. W. Dean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H20P+·C2HO4−, two symmetry-independent ion pairs are present. The cations aggregate into puckered sheets via zigzag infinite chains of sixfold phenyl embraces and parallel fourfold phenyl embraces, while the anions form hydrogen-bonded chains between the sheets of cations. In the two independent oxalate anions, the angles between the normals to the two least-squares carboxylate COO planes are unusually large, viz. 72.5 (1 and 82.1 (1°.

  3. Opisthorchiasis-associated biliary stones:Light and scanning electron microscopic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Banchob Sripa; Pipatphong Kanla; Poonsiri Sinawat; Melissa R. Haswell-Elkins

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Biliary stones are frequentty encountered in areas endemic for opisthorchiasis in Thailand. The present study was to describe the prevalence and pathogenesis of these stones.METHODS: Gallstones and/or common bile duct stones and bile specimens from 113 consecutive cholecystectomies were included. Bile samples, including sludge and/or microcalculi, were examined for Opisthorchis viverrini eggs,calcium and bilirubin. The stones were also processed for scanning electron microscopic (SEM) study.RESULTS: Of the 113 cases, 82 had pigment stones, while one had cholesterol stones. The other 30 cases had no stones. Most of the stone cases (76%, 63/83) had multiple stones, while the remainder had a single stone. Stones were more frequently observed in females. Bile examination was positive for O. viverrini eggs in 50% of the cases studied. Aggregates of calcium bilirubinate precipitates were observed in all cases with sludge. Deposition of calcium bilirubinate on the eggshell was visualized by special staining. A SEM study demonstrated the presence of the parasite eggs in the stones. Numerous crystals,morphologically consistent with calcium derivatives and cholesterol precipitates, were seen.CONCLUSION: Northeast Thailand has a high prevalence of pigment stones, as observed at the cholecystectomy, and liver fluke infestation seems involved in the pathogenesis of stone formation.

  4. Is Every Stone Urinary Stone? A Rare Case of Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gunes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary vaginal stones in children are extremely rare medical condition but important because they are often mistaken for urinary stones. Here, we present the case of an 11-year-old girl with multiple vaginal stones.

  5. Holmium:YAG (λ=2120nm) vs. Thulium fiber laser (λ=1908nm) ablation of kidney stones: thresholds, rates, and retropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Richard L.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2011-03-01

    The Holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser lithotriptor is capable of operating at high pulse energies, but its efficient operation is limited to relatively low pulse rates (~10 Hz) during lithotripsy. On the contrary, the Thulium Fiber Laser (TFL) is limited to low pulse energies, but can operate at very high pulse rates (up to 1000 Hz). This study compares stone ablation threshold, ablation rate, and retropulsion effects for different Ho:YAG and TFL operation modes. The TFL (λ=1908 nm) was operated with pulse energies of 5-35 mJ, 500-μs pulse duration, and pulse rates of 10-400 Hz. The Ho:YAG laser (λ=2120 nm) was operated with pulse energies of 30-550 mJ, 350-μs pulse duration, and pulse rate of 10 Hz. Laser energy was delivered through small-core (200-270-μm) optical fibers in contact mode with human calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones for ablation studies and plaster-of-Paris stone phantoms for retropulsion studies. The COM stone ablation threshold for Ho:YAG and TFL measured 82.6 J/cm2and 20.8 J/cm2, respectively. Stone retropulsion with Ho:YAG laser increased linearly with pulse energy. Retropulsion with TFL was minimal at pulse rates stone retropulsion, Ho:YAG operation at pulse energies < 175 mJ at 10 Hz, and TFL operation at 35 mJ at 100 Hz is recommended, with both lasers producing comparable ablation rates. Further development of a TFL operating with both high pulse energies (e.g. 100-200 mJ) and high pulse rates (100-150 Hz) may also provide higher ablation rates, when retropulsion is not the primary concern.

  6. Persistence of 1,25D-induced hypercalciuria in alendronate-treated genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats fed a low-calcium diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Kevin K; Asplin, John R; Culbertson, Christopher D; Granja, Ignacio; Krieger, Nancy S; Bushinsky, David A

    2014-05-01

    Genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats demonstrate increased intestinal Ca absorption, increased bone resorption, and reduced renal tubular Ca reabsorption leading to hypercalciuria and all form kidney stones. GHS have increased vitamin D receptors (VDR) at these sites of Ca transport. Injection of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D) leads to a greater increase in urine (u)Ca in GHS than in control Sprague-Dawley (SD), possibly due to the additional VDR. In GHS the increased uCa persists on a low-Ca diet (LCD) suggesting enhanced bone resorption. We tested the hypothesis that LCD, coupled to inhibition of bone resorption by alendronate (alen), would eliminate the enhanced 1,25D-induced hypercalciuria in GHS. SD and GHS were fed LCD and half were injected daily with 1,25D. After 8 days all were also given alen until euthanasia at day 16. At 8 days, 1,25D increased uCa in SD and to a greater extent in GHS. At 16 days, alen eliminated the 1,25D-induced increase in uCa in SD. However, in GHS alen decreased, but did not eliminate, the 1,25D-induced hypercalciuria, suggesting maximal alen cannot completely prevent the 1,25D-induced bone resorption in GHS, perhaps due to increased VDR. There was no consistent effect on mRNA expression of renal transcellular or paracellular Ca transporters. Urine CaP and CaOx supersaturation (SS) increased with 1,25D alone in both SD and GHS. Alen eliminated the increase in CaP SS in SD but not in GHS. If these results are confirmed in humans with IH, the use of bisphosphonates, such as alen, may not prevent the decreased bone density observed in these patients. PMID:24573387

  7. Effect of potassium oxalate on liver function and kidney tissue of dogs (beagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamaden Walaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate crystalluria is a problem of growing concern in dogs. A few reports have discussed acute kidney injury by oxalates in dogs, describing ultrastructural findings in particular. We evaluated the possibility of deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tissue and its probable consequences. Six dogs were intravenously injected with 0.5 M potassium oxalate (KOx for seven consecutive days. By the end of the experiment, ultrasonography revealed a significant increase in the renal mass and renal parenchymal echogenicity. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were gradually increased. The histopathological features of the kidneys were assessed by both light and electron microscopy, which showed CaOx crystal deposition accompanied by morphological changes in the renal tissue of KOx injected dogs. Canine renal oxalosis provides a good model to study the biological and pathological changes induced upon damage of renal tissue by KOx injection.

  8. Allylammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Dziuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated molecular salt, C3H8N+·C2HO4−·0.5H2O, the water O atom lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. The C=C—C—N torsion angle in the cation is 2.8 (3° and the dihedral angle between the CO2 and CO2H planes in the anion is 1.0 (4°. In the crystal, the hydrogen oxalate ions are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating [010] chains. The allylammonium cations bond to the chains through N—H...O and N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds. The water molecule accepts two N—H...O hydrogen bonds and makes two O—H...O hydrogen bonds. Together, the hydrogen bonds generate (100 sheets.

  9. Extraction and recovery of Pu from oxalate bearing waste solutions using CMPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixture of octyl (phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl carbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) and tri butyl phosphate (TBP) in dodecane has been deployed for the extraction and recovery of Pu from solutions containing various Pu, oxalic acid and nitric acid concentrations. Pu could be efficiently extracted from such solutions. It could be almost quantitatively recovered from the organic phase by precipitating with oxalic acid containing calcium nitrate as the carrier. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ‘Averrhoa bilimbi’ fruit juice ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurien, G.; Rajesh, J.; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.

    2013-01-01

    Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

  11. Homogeneous oxalate precipitation of Pu(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on homogeneous oxalate precipitation using diethyl oxalate which was compared to precipitating Pu(III) oxalate with solid oxalic acid. The diethyl oxalate technique at 75 degrees C is better because it gives 50% less plutonium in the filtrate with a reasonable filtering time. Also, the procedure for the homogeneous precipitation is easier to automate because the liquid diethyl oxalate is simpler to introduce into the precipitator than solid oxalic acid. It also provides flexibility because the hydrolysis rate and therefore the precipitation rate can be controlled by varying the temperature

  12. Metal complexation inhibits the effect of oxalic acid in aerosols as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Furukawa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols have both a direct and an indirect cooling effect that influences the radiative balance at the Earth's surface. It has been estimated that the degree of cooling is large enough to cancel the warming effect of carbon dioxide. Among the cooling factors, secondary organic aerosols (SOA play a key role in the solar radiation balance in the troposphere as SOA can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and extend the lifespan of clouds because of their high hygroscopic and water soluble nature. Oxalic acid is one of the major components of SOA, and is produced via several formation pathways in the atmosphere. However, it is not certain whether oxalic acid exists as free oxalic acid or as metal oxalate complexes in aerosols, although there is a marked difference in their solubility in water and their hygroscopicity. We employed X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to characterize the calcium (Ca and zinc (Zn in aerosols collected at Tsukuba in Japan with fractionation based on particle size using an impactor aerosol sampler. It was shown that 10–60% and 20–100% of the total Ca and Zn in the finer particles (<2.1 μm were present as Ca and Zn oxalate complexes, respectively. Oxalic acid can act as CCN because of its hygroscopic properties, while metal complexes are not hygroscopic, and so cannot be CCN. Based on the concentration of noncomplexed and metal-complexed oxalate species, we found that most of the oxalic acid is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, suggesting that oxalic acid does not act as CCN in the atmosphere. Similar results are expected for other dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic and succinic acids. Thus, it is possible that the cooling effect of organic aerosols assumed in various climate modeling studies is overestimated because of the lack of information on metal oxalate complexes in aerosols.

  13. The constituents of bladder stones and the factors contributing to the composition:a study of 120 cases%120例膀胱结石成分分析及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁坚红; 陈雪莲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the constituents of bladder stones as well as the factors that lead to the composition of the stones so as to work out solutions to the disease.Method 120 cases of bladder calculi were examined for the constituents and then the general data of the patients were reviewed for the possible factors resulting in the composition of the stones.Finding s Bladder stones were found to exist in two types: stones of single constituent and stones of multiple constituents.Stones of single constituents include those of calcium oxalate monohydrate (90%), carbonate apatite (80.33%), and anhydrous uric acid (70%).Stones of multiple constituents include those of calcium oxalate monohydrate+carbonate apatite (90.83%) and monohydrate calcium carbonate apatite +two water calcium oxalate (93.33%).The factors leading to the disease include BMI ( OR =7.452), complications ( OR =3.987), gender ( OR =3.599), education (OR =3.112), age (OR =2.599), genetic (OR =2.098), and the amount of water in-take (OR =2.045) (P <0.01).All of these factors bear statistical significance.Conclusion Bladder calculi composition tend to occur in male patients in the age bracket of 25 ~50 years, especially in those with obesity.%目的:分析膀胱结石患者的结石成分,研究膀胱结石形成的影响因素,为防治膀胱结石提供依据。方法分析120例膀胱结石患者的膀胱结石成分,并根据患者的一般资料分析膀胱结石形成的影响因素。结果膀胱结石有单一和多种复合混合等形式,主要是以多种混合形式存在;各单一成分主要有一水草酸钙(90.00%)、碳酸磷灰石(80.33%)、无水尿酸(70.00%),多种混合形式主要有一水草酸钙+碳酸磷灰石(90.83%)、一水草酸钙+碳酸磷灰石+二水草酸钙(93.33%)。患者膀胱结石的影响因素有 BMI(OR =7.452)、并发症(OR =3.987)、性别(OR=3.599)、学历(OR =3.112

  14. Pyrolysis of nickel zirconyl oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, V.B.; Mehrotra, P.N.

    1982-06-30

    Nickel zirconyl oxalate hexahydrate (NiZrOx) is delta prepared and characterised by I.R. spectral and chemical analysis. Its thermal decomposition has been investigated by employing TG, DTG, DTA and chemical analysis. End product was identified by X-ray diffraction studies. The decomposition proceeds through four steps i) dehydration of NiZrOx in two steps, ii) partial decomposition of oxalate to give an oxalate carbonate intermediate, iii) decomposition of oxalate to give a non-stoichiometric carbonate and iv) decomposition of this non-stoichiometric carbonate to give the end product a mixture of NiO + ZrO/sub 2/. On the basis of the results obtained, a tentative scheme for the decomposition of NiZrOx is proposed.

  15. Metabolic evaluation and medical management of upper urinary tract stone disease. Guidelines from the Scandinavian Cooperative Group for Urinary Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Grenabo, L; Haraldsson, G;

    1999-01-01

    underlying disease. Having excluded/diagnosed MIAF urolithiasis, patients with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis remain, and in this group, which comprises approximately 85% of the total stone population in the Scandinavian region, only those with a complicated stone disease are subjected to additional...

  16. OrnamentalRocks & Stones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ORNAMENTALrocksandstonesareasbeautifulandvaluableastheyaredurable.Suchrocksandstonesareusuallynamedafterplaceswheretheyarefound.ExamplesincludeLingbi,Taihu,KunshanandDan(marble)stones.Heipan,aLingbistone,ispitchblack,shiny,andhasturtleveinsonitssurfa...

  17. Analytical Study of Oxalates Coprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana MARTA

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the establishing of the oxalates coprecipitation conditions in view of the synthesis of superconducting systems. A systematic analytical study of the oxalates precipitation conditions has been performed, for obtaining superconducting materials, in the Bi Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. For this purpose, the formulae of the precipitates solubility as a function of pH and oxalate excess were established. The possible formation of hydroxo-complexes and soluble oxalato-complexes was taken into account. A BASIC program was used for tracing the precipitation curves. The curves of the solubility versus pH for different oxalate excess have plotted for the four oxalates, using a logaritmic scale. The optimal conditions for the quantitative oxalate coprecipitation have been deduced from the diagrams. The theoretical curves were confirmed by experimental results. From the precursors obtained by this method, the BSCCO superconducting phases were obtained by an appropriate thermal treatment. The formation of the superconducting phases was identified by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  18. Kidney stone ablation times and peak saline temperatures during Holmium:YAG and Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy, in vitro, in a ureteral model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-02-01

    Using a validated in vitro ureter model for laser lithotripsy, the performance of an experimental Thulium fiber laser (TFL) was studied and compared to clinical gold standard Holmium:YAG laser. The Holmium laser (λ = 2120 nm) was operated with standard parameters of 600 mJ, 350 μs, 6 Hz, and 270-μm-core optical fiber. TFL (λ = 1908 nm) was operated with 35 mJ, 500 μs, 150-500 Hz, and 100-μm-core fiber. Urinary stones (60% calcium oxalate monohydrate / 40% calcium phosphate), of uniform mass and diameter (4-5 mm) were laser ablated with fibers through a flexible video-ureteroscope under saline irrigation with flow rates of 22.7 ml/min and 13.7 ml/min for the TFL and Holmium laser, respectively. The temperature 3 mm from tube's center and 1 mm above mesh sieve was measured by a thermocouple and recorded during experiments. Total laser and operation times were recorded once all stone fragments passed through a 1.5-mm sieve. Holmium laser time measured 167 +/- 41 s (n = 12). TFL times measured 111 +/- 49 s, 39 +/- 11 s, and 23 +/- 4 s, for pulse rates of 150, 300, and 500 Hz (n = 12 each). Mean peak saline irrigation temperatures reached 24 +/- 1 °C for Holmium, and 33 +/- 3 °C, 33 +/- 7 °C, and 39 +/- 6 °C, for TFL at pulse rates of 150, 300, and 500 Hz. To avoid thermal buildup and provide a sufficient safety margin, TFL lithotripsy should be performed with pulse rates below 500 Hz and/or increased saline irrigation rates. The TFL rapidly fragmented kidney stones due in part to its high pulse rate, high power density, high average power, and reduced stone retropulsion, and may provide a clinical alternative to the conventional Holmium laser for lithotripsy.

  19. Stone risk after bladder substitution with the ileal-urethral Kock reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Poulsen, A L; Steven, K

    2000-01-01

    seems to be the main risk factor for calcium stone formation in non-infected Kock reservoir patients, and citrate supplementation appears to be the most obvious choice for stone prophylaxis in patients with intestinal urinary diversion and recurrent renal stone formation....

  20. Twenty-four-hour urine constituents in stone formers: A study from the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence world-wide, probably more common in industrialized countries. The metabolic evaluation of 24-h urine collection has been considered as part of the management of urinary stone patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine constituents in stone formers and its relation to demographic data in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and six patients were recruited in this study from two hospitals in the same geographical region; 96 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and an informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The 24-h urine was collected in sterile bottles with a preservative agent and calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium and phosphate were tested using commercial kits on a Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer. The age (mean ± SD of 96 patients was 56.45 ± 13.43 years and 82.3% of the patients were male while 17.7% were female. The 24-h urine abnormalities were hypercalciuria (14.5%, hyperoxaluria (61.4%, hypocitraturia (57.2%, hyperuricouria (19.7%, hypomagnesuria (59.3% and hyperphosphaturia (12.5%. Hyperoxaluria (61.4% was the most common abnormality detected during the analysis of 24-h urine constituents in contradiction to industrial countries, where hypercalciuria was the most common finding. The high frequencies of hypomagnesuria and hypocitraturia reflect the important role of magnesium and citrate in stone formation and their prophylactic role in the treatment of urinary stone disease in the given population.

  1. Thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones using a 50-μm-core silica optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Richard L.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Our laboratory is currently studying the experimental thulium fiber laser (TFL) as a potential alternative laser lithotripter to the gold standard, clinical Holmium:YAG laser. We have previously demonstrated the efficient coupling of TFL energy into fibers as small as 100-μm-core-diameter without damage to the proximal end. Although smaller fibers have a greater tendency to degrade at the distal tip during lithotripsy, fiber diameters (≤200 μm) have been shown to increase the saline irrigation rates through the working channel of a flexible ureteroscope, to maximize the ureteroscope deflection, and to reduce the stone retropulsion during laser lithotripsy. In this study, a 50-μm-core-diameter, 85-μm-outer-diameter, low-OH silica fiber is characterized for TFL ablation of human calcium oxalate monohydrate urinary stones, ex vivo. The 50-μm-core fiber consumes approximately 30 times less cross-sectional area inside the single working channel of a ureteroscope than the standard 270-μm-core fiber currently used in the clinic. The ureteroscope working channel flow rate, including the 50-μm fiber, decreased by only 10% with no impairment of ureteroscope deflection. The fiber delivered up to 15.4±5.9 W under extreme bending (5-mm-radius) conditions. The stone ablation rate measured 70±22 μg/s for 35-mJ-pulse-energy, 500-μs-pulse-duration, and 50-Hz-pulse-rate. Stone retropulsion and fiber burnback averaged 201±336 and 3000±2600 μm, respectively, after 2 min. With further development, thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using ultra-small, 50-μm-core fibers may introduce new integration and miniaturization possibilities and potentially provide an alternative to conventional Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy using larger fibers.

  2. The oxalate-carbonate pathway: at the interface between biology and geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junier, P.; Cailleau, G.; Martin, G.; Guggiari, M.; Bravo, D.; Clerc, M.; Aragno, M.; Job, D.; Verrecchia, E.

    2012-04-01

    The formation of calcite in otherwise carbonate-free acidic soils through the biological degradation of oxalate is a mechanism termed oxalate-carbonate pathway. This pathway lies at the interface between biological and geological systems and constitutes an important, although underestimated, soil mineral carbon sink. In this case, atmospheric CO2 is fixed by the photosynthetic activity of oxalogenic plants, which is partly destined to the production of oxalate used for the chelation of metals, and particularly, calcium. Fungi are also able to produce oxalate to cope with elevated concentrations of metals. In spite of its abundance as a substrate, oxalate is a very stable organic anion that can be metabolized only by a group of bacteria that use it as carbon and energy sources. These bacteria close the biological cycle by degrading calcium oxalate, releasing Ca2+ and inducing a change in local soil pH. If parameters are favourable, the geological part of the pathway begins, because this change in pH will indirectly lead to the precipitation of secondary calcium carbonate (calcite) in unexpected geological conditions. Due to the initial acidic soil conditions, and the absence of geological carbonate in the basement, it is unexpected to find C in the form of calcite. The activity of the oxalate-carbonate pathway has now been demonstrated in several places around the world, suggesting that its importance can be even greater than expected. In addition, new roles for each of the biological players of the pathway have been revealed recently forcing us to reconsider a global biogeochemical model for oxalate cycling.

  3. Aluminum-activated Oxalate Secretion does not Associate with Internal Content among Some Oxalate Accumulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Li Yang; Lei Zhang; Shao Jian Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Although aluminum (AI)-activated secretion of oxalate has been considered to be an Important AI-exclusion mechanism,whether it is a general response in oxalate accumulators and related to oxalate content in roots are still not clear.Here,we examined the oxalate secretion and oxalate content in some oxalate accumulators,and investigated the role of oxalate secretion in AI resistance.When oxalate content in amaranth roots was decreased by about 50% with the increased ratio of NH4+-N to NO3——N in nutrient solution,the amount of AI-activated oxalate secretion still remained constant.There was no relationship between the content of the water soluble oxalate in four species of oxalate accumulators and the amount of the AI-activated oxalate secretion in roots.Furthermore,oxalate secretion is poorly associated with AI resistance among these species.Based on the above results,we concluded that although all of the oxalate accumulators tested could secrete oxalate rapidly,the density of anion channels in plasma membrane may play a more important role in AI-activated oxalate secretion.Key words: aluminum toxicity; Amaranthus; anion channel; oxalate accumulator; oxalate secretion.

  4. Importance of oxalate precursors for oxalate metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Miyazato, T; Hatano, T

    1999-11-01

    Three metabolic precursors of oxalate were compared after intravenous administration to rats by measuring the urinary excretion of oxalate and related substances using capillary electrophoresis. Urine specimens were collected hourly from eight male Wistar rats (approximately 200 g) in each group. Glyoxylate (2 mg), glycolate (10 mg), and hydroxypyruvate (100 mg) were almost equally oxalogenic based on urinary oxalate excretion, with 22.0, 6.1, and 0.4% of the respective doses being converted into oxalate, 3, 8.9, and 0.2% into glycolate, and 1, 0.1, and 0.003% into glyoxylate. The mean urinary excretion of oxalate peaked between 1 and 2 h, while that of glycolate peaked at 1 h. The baseline urinary excretion of glycolate and glyoxylate was 0.11 to 0.24 micromol/h and 0.0 to 8.3 nmol/h, respectively, and all three agents caused a significant increase of urinary glycolate excretion for 2 to 3 h. Only glyoxylate administration increased urinary glyoxylate excretion at 1 h. Hydroxypyruvate administration significantly increased urinary hydroxypyruvate, glycerate, and citrate excretion at 1 to 2 h. The increase of urinary citrate excretion remains to be explained. PMID:10541259

  5. Low-frequency magnetic field effect on solubility of oxalate type human organominerals in water in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PopkovV.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine low-frequency AMF effect on dissolution of urinary stone material in vitro in water with human urinary stones (oxalate type. Materials and Methods. The structural changes in aqueous solutions may occur when exposed to low-frequency alternating magnetic fields (AMF. It depends on chemical composition of the solutions under the study. Results. Organic components (63.1 %, leading to the density decrease of the solution, urea (18.8%, leading to its increase, and oxalic acid (19.7% have been determined in stone composition. The decrease of transmittance T (% by the time of oxalate dissolution has indicated increase in concentration of dissolved sample. The sample has been exposed to AMF of 2-9 Hz on the background of the control sample. The growth of this dependence with AMF increasing of 11-22 Hz has established less concentration of dissolved sample in the test solution than in the control one. Conclusion. The main task has been to determine the influence of AMF of 2-22 Hz on solubility of urinary stones placed in water for an hour. The article is to conclude that maximal solubility of oxalate mineral sample by AMF of 2-22 Hz has been reached. It is 14% more than in the control solution. The effectiveness of AMF influence on solubility of organomineral decreases with frequency increasing. It has been confirmed by photometric and areometric measurements.

  6. Effective atomic number accuracy for kidney stone characterization using spectral CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M.; Langan, D. A.; Sahani, D. S.; Kambadakone, A.; Aluri, S.; Procknow, K.; Wu, X.; Bhotika, R.; Okerlund, D.; Kulkarni, N.; Xu, D.

    2010-04-01

    The clinical application of Gemstone Spectral ImagingTM, a fast kV switching dual energy acquisition, is explored in the context of noninvasive kidney stone characterization. Utilizing projection-based material decomposition, effective atomic number and monochromatic images are generated for kidney stone characterization. Analytical and experimental measurements are reported and contrasted. Phantoms were constructed using stone specimens extracted from patients. This allowed for imaging of the different stone types under similar conditions. The stone specimens comprised of Uric Acid, Cystine, Struvite and Calcium-based compositions. Collectively, these stone types span an effective atomic number range of approximately 7 to 14. While Uric Acid and Calcium based stones are generally distinguishable in conventional CT, stone compositions like Cystine and Struvite are difficult to distinguish resulting in treatment uncertainty. Experimental phantom measurements, made under increasingly complex imaging conditions, illustrate the impact of various factors on measurement accuracy. Preliminary clinical studies are reported.

  7. Miniature ball-tip optical fibers for use in thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher R.; Hardy, Luke A.; Kennedy, Joshua D.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Optical fibers, consisting of 240-μm-core trunk fibers with rounded, 450-μm-diameter ball tips, are currently used during Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy to reduce mechanical damage to the inner lining of the ureteroscope working channel during fiber insertion and prolong ureteroscope lifetime. Similarly, this study tests a smaller, 100-μm-core fiber with 300-μm-diameter ball tip during thulium fiber laser (TFL) lithotripsy. TFL was operated at a wavelength of 1908 nm, with 35-mJ pulse energy, 500-μs pulse duration, and 300-Hz pulse rate. Calcium oxalate/phosphate stone samples were weighed, laser procedure times were measured, and ablation rates were calculated for ball tip fibers, with comparison to bare tip fibers. Photographs of ball tips were taken before and after each procedure to track ball tip degradation and determine number of procedures completed before need for replacement. A high speed camera also recorded the cavitation bubble dynamics during TFL lithotripsy. Additionally, saline irrigation rates and ureteroscope deflection were measured with and without the presence of TFL fiber. There was no statistical difference (P>0.05) between stone ablation rates for single-use ball tip fiber (1.3±0.4 mg/s) (n=10), multiple-use ball tip fiber (1.3±0.5 mg/s) (n=44), and conventional single-use bare tip fibers (1.3±0.2 mg/s) (n=10). Ball tip durability varied widely, but fibers averaged greater than four stone procedures before failure, defined by rapid decline in stone ablation rates. Mechanical damage at the front surface of the ball tip was the limiting factor in fiber lifetime. The small fiber diameter did not significantly impact ureteroscope deflection or saline flow rates. The miniature ball tip fiber may provide a cost-effective design for safe fiber insertion through the ureteroscope working channel and into the ureter without risk of instrument damage or tissue perforation, and without compromising stone ablation efficiency during TFL lithotripsy.

  8. Shoushan Carved Stone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Shoushan stone carving is a culture unto itself. The fine and closely-textured stones are found in the Shoushan Mountain in the southeastern part of the Fujian Province. Featuring great variety in colors and veins, the Shoushan stones are divided into several categories according to the place they are found, the mining caves where they are produced, or their colors. The stones come in yellow, red, green. white and purple. Tianhuang Stone is the best of all. The history of working with the stones dates back to more than 1,500 years ago.Artisans make

  9. Preliminary chelation and dissolution effects of oxalic acid and disodium oxalate on polymeric 123-superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polymeric 123-superconductor material was selectively etched by exposure to aqueous solutions of oxalic acid and disodium oxalate. Superconductivity decreased with time. XPS, AES, FTIR and ATF show that the amount of copper at the surface is decreased, shows the presence of bound oxalate and shows a decrease in peaks associated with superconductivity for the sample treated with oxalate

  10. Diet and Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of kidney stone is a uric acid stone. Red meat and shellfish have high concentrations of a natural ... cut down on high-purine foods such as red meat, organ meats, and shellfish, and follow a healthy ...

  11. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: What is a ... the ureters. [ Top ] Are kidney stones common in children? No exact information about the incidence of kidney ...

  12. Lower pole stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanguedolce, Francesco; Breda, Alberto; Millan, Felix; Brehmer, Marianne; Knoll, Thomas; Liatsikos, Evangelos; Osther, Palle; Traxer, Olivier; Scoffone, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess efficacy and safety of prone- and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of lower pole kidney stones. METHODS: Data from patients affected by lower pole kidney stones and treated with PCNL between December 2005 and August 2010 were collected retrospectively...... by seven referral centres. Variables analysed included patient demographics, clinical and surgical characteristics, stone-free rates (SFR) and complications. Statistical analysis was conducted to compare the differences for SFRs and complication rates between prone- and supine PCNL. RESULTS: One...... hundred seventeen patients underwent PCNL (mean stone size: 19.5 mm) for stones harboured only in the lower renal pole (single stone: 53.6 %; multiple stones: 46.4 %). A higher proportion of patients with ASA score ≥ 3 and harbouring multiple lower pole stones were treated with supine PCNL (5.8 vs. 23...

  13. Dual-source dual-energy CT for the differentiation of urinary stone composition: preliminary study%双源CT双能量成像对泌尿系统结石成分分析的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琪放; 严景民; 张挽时; 孟利民; 时惠平; 王东; 毕永民; 李相生; 方红; 郭和清

    2011-01-01

    氨酸结石、混合尿酸结石与其他类型结石.%Objective To evaluate dual-source dual-energy CT(DSCT) for the differentiation of urinary stone composition in vitro. Methods Ninety-seven urinary stones were obtained by endoscopic lithotripsy and scanned using dual-source dual-energy CT. The stones were divided into six groups according to infrared spectroscopy stone analysis: uric acid ( UA ) stones ( n = 10 ), cystine stones ( n = 5 ), struvite stones( n = 6), calcium oxalate ( CaOx ) stones ( n = 22 ), mixed UA stones ( n=7 ) and mixed calcium stones(n=47). Hounsfield units (HU) of each stone were recorded for the 80 kV and the 140 kV datasets by hand-drawing method. HU difference, HU ratio and dual energy index ( DEI ) were calculated and compared among the stone groups with one-way ANOVA. Using dual energy software to determine the composition of all stones, results were compared to infrared spectroscopy analysis. Results There were statistical differences in HU difference [(-17±13), (229±34),(309 ±45), (512 ±97), (201±64)and (530±71) HU respectively], in HU ratio (0.96±0.03, 1.34 ±0.04, 1.41 ±0.03, 1.47 ±0.03,1.30±0.07, and 1.49 ±0.03 respectively), and DEI( -0.006 ±0.004, 0.064 ±0.007, 0.080 ±0. 007, 0. 108±0.011 ,0. 055 ±0.014 and 0. 112 ±0.008 respectively ) among different stone groups(F=124. 894,407.028, 322. 864 respectively, P <0. 01 ). There were statistical differences in HU difference,HU ratio and DE1 between UA stones and the other groups( P < 0. 01 ). There were statistical differences in HU difference, HU ratio and DEI between CaOx or mixed calcium stones and the other four groups (P<0. 01 ). There was statistical difference in HU ratio between cystine and struvite stones ( P < 0. 01 ). There were statistical differences in HU difference, HU ratio and DEI between struvite and mixed UA stones (P<0. 05 ). Dual energy software correctly characterized 10 UA stones, 4 cystine stones, 22 CaOx stones and 6 mixed UA

  14. Chemical Component Analysis of Urinary stones and Its Clinical Application in JIEYANG%揭阳地区尿路结石成分分析及临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑长征; 卢勇; 陈晓生; 黄沛东; 杨少东; 王彦波

    2012-01-01

      Objective:To analyze the chemical composition of urinary stones and provide the preventivemeasure of urinary stones formation. Method:A total of 316 subjects were included in this study were selected and randomly divided into two groups:intervention group and nonintervention group. Chemical analysis was carried out on 316 random urinary stones samples. The chemical constituents of stones were analyzed with the clinical data.The intervention group were gave the patients dietaryinstruction according to their respective stone ingredient. Result:The upper system stones were more frequently found than the lower system stones. The most common component of the urinary stones are mixed stones(77.53%), which are mainly composed of calcium oxalate and phosphate stones(59.18%). The single stones are mainly composed of calcium oxalate(71.83%).87.03% of urinary stones had a high content of calcium oxalate.Stones obtained from the kidney and ureter usually had a highercontent of calcium and phosphate. Urate stone were usually found in the bladder. Recurrence rate of the intervention group was 3.14%;and the nonintervention group 7.01%. The difference in the recurrence rate of intervention group and nonintervention group was significant.Conclusion:With the knowledge on the chemical composition of Urinary stones, the formation of stones may be prevented by controlling the diets.%  目的:探讨揭阳地区尿路结石成分构成情况,并根据尿路结石成分构成指导尿路结石饮食及生活习惯,减少尿路结石的复发.方法:收集揭阳市人民医院住院患者尿路结石标本316例,随机分为干预组与非干预组,采用化学滴定法对尿路结石化学成分进行定性分析,干预组根据尿路结石分析成分结果对患者饮食及生活习惯进行指导,非干预组未对患者饮食及生活习惯进行干预,比较两组患者尿路结石的复发率.结果:本地区尿路结石主要为上尿路结石,下

  15. 4-Methoxybenzamidinium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Irrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The title hydrated salt, C8H11N2O+·C2HO4−·H2O, was synthesized by a reaction of 4-methoxybenzamidine (4-amidinoanisole and oxalic acid in water solution. In the cation, the amidinium group forms a dihedral angle of 15.60 (6° with the mean plane of the benzene ring. In the crystal, each amidinium unit is bound to three acetate anions and one water molecule by six distinct N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The ion pairs of the asymmetric unit are joined by two N—H...O hydrogen bonds into ionic dimers in which the carbonyl O atom of the semi-oxalate anion acts as a bifurcated acceptor, thus generating an R12(6 motif. These subunits are then joined through the remaining N—H...O hydrogen bonds to adjacent semi-oxalate anions into linear tetrameric chains running approximately along the b axis. The structure is stabilized by N—H...O and O—H...O intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The water molecule plays an important role in the cohesion and the stability of the crystal structure being involved in three hydrogen bonds connecting two semi-oxalate anions as donor and a benzamidinium cation as acceptor.

  16. Analysis of stone components urinary stone patients with different BMI%不同体质指数尿路结石患者结石化学成分分析(附850例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石泉; 章璟; 王国增; 杨佳伟; 顾燕; 杨芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察不同体质指数( BMI)尿路结石患者结石化学成分.方法 根据我国BMI标准,将850例尿路结石患者分为正常组( BMI <24)245例、超重组(BMI 24 ~27)327例、肥胖组(BMI≥28) 278例.采用傅立叶红外光谱法分析其结石化学成分.结果 850例中,结石成分为草酸钙、磷酸钙、尿酸、磷酸镁铵者分别为645(75.9%)、128( 15.1%)、52(6.1%)、25(2.9%)例.其中尿酸结石患者平均年龄均高于其他结石成分患者(P<0.05),男性比例显著高于女性(P<0.05);磷酸铵镁结石男性比例低于女性(P<0.01).正常组、超重组、肥胖组中,草酸钙结石者分别为70.2%、78.0%、78.4% (P <0.05),尿酸结石者分别为2.9%、7.0%、7.9%(P<0.05),磷酸镁铵结石者分别为7.3%、1.2%、1.1%(P<0.01),三组磷酸钙结石比例相近(P>0.05).结论 BMI对结石成分有一定的影响;超重及肥胖的结石患者中,尿酸、草酸钙结石比例显著高于BMI正常的结石患者;尿酸、草酸钙结石患者应注意控制体质量.%Objective To study urinary stone components in urinary stone patients with different body mass index (BMI). Methods In 850 urinary stone patients, 245 were normal weight group ( BMI 0.05). Conclusions The prevalence of urinary stone disease is found to be associated with BMI. The percentages of uric acid and calcium oxalate stones are higher in overweight and obese group than in normal one. Uric acid and calcium oxalate stone patients are suggested to keep body weight in normal range.

  17. 氟化钙参与石煤提钒过程的浸出行为研究%Acid-Leaching of Vanadium from Stone Coal with Calcium Fluoride Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王非; 张一敏; 黄晶; 刘涛; 赵杰; 张国斌

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of leaching vanadium from stone coal with calcium fluoride was researched under the conditions of 95 ℃,4 h,1 ml·g-1,15% (volume fraction) H2SO4 and 5% (mass fraction) calcium fluoride.The leaching rate of vanadium could reach 92.39%.Through the analyses of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES),valence state vanadium and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for the raw ore of stone coal,ICP-AES,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and 19F liquid nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the leachate,and XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the leaching residue,the whole leaching process could be summarized that calcium fluoride reacted with sulfuric acid to generate hydrofluoric acid and the hydrofluoric acid solution (HF) could enhance the leaching process owing to its strong destructiveness to vanadium-bearing minerals; calcite consumed part of acid to generate CaSO4 and CO2 ; chlorite and vanadium-bearing phlogopite were thoroughly broken down and released V,Al,K,Mg,Si etc.[AlF5] 2-and [SiF6] 2-were generated and left in the leachate after F-reacted with other elements in the vanadium leaching.In the process of intense stir,the released Ⅴ(Ⅲ) was oxidized into VO2+ by O2 from air to exist in leachate.Part of the released Al existed in leachate as Al3 + and others combined with F to generate [AlF5] 2-.Part of the released Si existed in residue as SiO2,and the rest combined with F to generate [SiF6] 2-.It was because the bond energies of Al-F and Si-F were bigger than that of Al-O and Si-O,and the generation of [AlF5] 2-and [SiF6] 2-made the leaching system more stable and facilitated leaching vanadium.%研究了氟化钙参与石煤提钒过程的浸出行为,浸出条件为95℃,4h,1ml·g-1,15%(体积分数)硫酸和5%(质量分数)氟化钙.在此条件下钒的浸出率可达到92.39%.通过对石煤原矿进行电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱分析(ICP-AES)、钒价态分析和X射线衍射(XRD

  18. ROLE OF THE MICROFLORA IN DISTAL INTESTINAL TRACT BY MAINTAINING OXALATE HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osolodchenko T.P.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal microflora is part of the human body and performs numerous function. Considerable research interest is in the field of probiotics for the prevention of kidney stones, which is one of the most common urological diseases.Urolithiasis is one of the most common urological diseases. This is polyetiological disease congenital and acquired character with complex physical and chemical processes that occur not only in the urinary system, but also the whole body. None of the treatments does not guarantee full recovery of the patient and often leads to relapse. The open methods of removal stones yield news minimally invasive the technologys. Development of stone formation depends on the presence of many factors, metabolic disorders, chronic urinary tract infections, genetic disorders and more. Most have the following metabolic disorders as hypercalciuria, hiperurikuria, hipotsytraturia , hyperoxaluria and hipomahniuria. Among all types of urolithiasis kaltsiyoksalatnyy ranked first in the prevalence rate - about 75.0 - 85.0 % of cases. Dietary restriction by oxalates іs the unreliable method of preventing disease. Although there is evidence for the growth inhibition normobiocenosis representatives, which in turn enhances the absorption of salts of oxalic acid oxalate in the application of sodium , magnesium and cobalt in their intragastric administration. Recently published many papers on the impact on the level of oxalate intestinal microflora. The first publications appeared on the influence of gram-negative obligate anaerobes O. formigenes the concentration of oxalate in the urine. This anaerobic bacteria living in the colon, its prevalence - 46.0 % - 77.0 % of the adult population. O. formigenes reveals the symbiotic interaction with the human body by reducing absorption of oxalate in the intestinal cavity with subsequent decrease in their concentration in plasma and urine. O. formigenes has two key enzymes - oksalyl

  19. Urinary Stones in Neonates: Dilemma Between Urolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Narter; Fehmi Narter; Kemal Sarıca

    2015-01-01

    Urinary stones are extremely rare in the neonatal population. Most of the urinary stones in the neonate contain calcium. Nephrolithiasis in the neonate may be as urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. The incidence of nephrocalcinosis is not yet clear and can be differ in many researches due to the etiology. On the other hand, the incidence of urolithiasis in childhood is almost 10% of that in adults. Especially in the first decade, it is more common in boys. It may occur wit...

  20. Stone Tool Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hikade, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In ancient Egypt, flint or chert was used for knapped stone tools from the Lower Palaeolithic down to the Pharaonic Period. The raw material was available in abundance on the desert surface, or it could be mined from the limestone formations along the Nile Valley. While the earliest lithic industries of Prehistoric Egypt resemble the stone tool assemblages from other parts of Africa, as well as Asia and Europe, the later Prehistoric stone industries in Egypt had very specific characteristics,...

  1. Genome wide analysis of differentially expressed genes in HK-2 cells, a line of human kidney epithelial cells in response to oxalate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweaty Koul

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a multi-factorial disease which, in the majority of cases, involves the renal deposition of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted primarily by the kidney. Previous studies have shown that elevated levels of oxalate are detrimental to the renal epithelial cells; however, oxalate renal epithelial cell interactions are not completely understood. In this study, we utilized an unbiased approach of gene expression profiling using Affymetrix HG_U133_plus2 gene chips to understand the global gene expression changes in human renal epithelial cells [HK-2] after exposure to oxalate. We analyzed the expression of 47,000 transcripts and variants, including 38,500 well characterized human genes, in the HK2 cells after 4 hours and 24 hours of oxalate exposure. Gene expression was compared among replicates as per the Affymetrix statistical program. Gene expression among various groups was compared using various analytical tools, and differentially expressed genes were classified according to the Gene Ontology Functional Category. The results from this study show that oxalate exposure induces significant expression changes in many genes. We show for the first time that oxalate exposure induces as well as shuts off genes differentially. We found 750 up-regulated and 2276 down-regulated genes which have not been reported before. Our results also show that renal cells exposed to oxalate results in the regulation of genes that are associated with specific molecular function, biological processes, and other cellular components. In addition we have identified a set of 20 genes that is differentially regulated by oxalate irrespective of duration of exposure and may be useful in monitoring oxalate nephrotoxicity. Taken together our studies profile global gene expression changes and provide a unique insight into oxalate renal cell interactions and oxalate nephrotoxicity.

  2. Thermal behaviour of rare-earth mixed single crystals of neodymium copper oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the oxalate crystals are insoluble in water and decompose before melting. The gel method is useful for the growth of crystals that decompose at temperatures below their melting point and also for those for which there are no suitable solvents for recrystallization. The method is also efficient for the growth of crystals. Mixed crystals like calcium strontium tartarate, ammonium nickel sulphate, potassium nickel sulphate, ammonium alum and potash alum have been grown in silica hydrogel. Here the thermal behaviour of single crystal of neodymium copper oxalate grown by gel method is described. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs

  3. In vivo determination of renal stone composition with dual-energy computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-Henry Corbett

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composition of renal stones influences management of patients with renal stone disease. Currently stone composition can only be analysed ex vivo after stone extraction or passage, but recent introduction of dual-energy computed tomography (CT to clinical practice has raised interest in the ability of this technology to determine composition of renal stones in vivo.Objectives: To determine renal stone composition in patients using single-source dual-energy rapid-peak kilovolt (kVp switching CT.Method: Nineteen patients with renal stones for percutaneous nephrolithotomy were evaluated with single-source dual-energy computed tomography on a Discovery CT 750HD. The Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI effective atomic number (Zeff and attenuation at 70 keV monochromatic energy were used to predict the stone composition. Infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction of stones after extraction served as the reference standard.Results: Two (10.5% of the 19 stones had uric acid as major component. The other 17 (89.5% were calcium-based stones. No statistically significant difference between the GSI Zeff and calculated effective atomic number (Z for stone compounds was found. The GSI Zeff and attenuation could differentiate between uric acid and non-uric acid stones. No differentiation between different calcium stones could be made.Conclusion: Uric acid and non-uric acid renal stones can be differentiated with single-source dual-energy in vivo. The GSI Zeff reflects the dominant material in polycrystalline stones.

  4. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei

    2004-01-01

    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  5. Characterization of Dimension Stone Sawing Sludge in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. El-Hinnawi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to determine the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of dimension stone sawing sludge in Egypt. Particle size, XRD, SEM and XRF analysis were carried out on representative samples of marble (limestone and granite sludge. The marble sludge was found to mainly compose of calcium carbonate whereas the granite sludge varies in composition according to the mineralogy of the parent stone processed. The mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the dimension stone sludge are important factors in the determination of the most appropriate recycling options of this waste into different applications.

  6. Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... year-old white gentleman who's got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having ... patient with Lithotripsy. Now the stones -- there are three stones here in the pelvis of the kidney, ...

  7. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

  8. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  9. Chlorthalidone Improves Vertebral Bone Quality in Genetic Hypercalciuric Stone-Forming Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bushinsky, David A.; Willett, Thomas; Asplin, John R.; Culbertson, Christopher; Che, Sara P. Y.; Grynpas, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We have bred a strain of rats to maximize urine (U) calcium (Ca) excretion and model hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis. These genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats excrete more UCa than control Sprague-Dawley rats, uniformly form kidney stones and, similar to patients, demonstrate lower bone mineral density. Clinically thiazide diuretics reduce UCa and prevent stone formation; however, whether they benefit bone is not clear. We used GHS rats to test the hypothesis that the thiazide diu...

  10. Potassium aquaterbium(III oxalate sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Guang Sun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of KTb(C2O4(SO4(H2O, potassium aquaterbium(III oxalate sulfate, were obtained under hydrothermal conditions. In the crystal structure, the Tb(III atom is coordinated by four O atoms from two oxalate anions, three O atoms from three sulfate anions and one O atom from a water molecule within a TbO8 distorted square antiprismatic coordination. The potassium and terbium(III atoms are bridged by the oxalate and sulfate groups, forming a three-dimensional structure. The coordination mode of the oxalate has not yet been reported. O—H...O hydrogen bonding between the water molecules and the oxygen atoms of oxalate and sulfate anions is also observed.

  11. DURABILITY OF DIMENSION STONE

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    Branko Crnković

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a survey of the possible origins of the strain and deformation of stone. A range of origins which can be influenced is suggested, from those occurring under natural conditions in the deposit to those resulting from technologies applied in quarrying, stone processing and dressing, including environment with natural and technogenic factors. No new information can be given on the behavior of the stone processed and used in building according to the most recent technologies, because the time-span of its exposure to the influence of natural and technogenic factors has been too short.

  12. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmipathi Khandrika

    Full Text Available Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria.

  13. Crystal structure of dimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2+·HC2O4−·0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH22C2O4 salt and Sn(CH33Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a dimethylammonium cation (Me2NH2+, an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4−, and half a molecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4 situated about an inversion center. From a supramolecular point of view, the three components interact together via hydrogen bonding. The Me2NH2+ cations and the HC2O4− anions are in close proximity through bifurcated N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds, while the HC2O4− anions are organized into infinite chains via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, propagating along the a-axis direction. In addition, the oxalic acid (H2C2O4 molecules play the role of connectors between these chains. Both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of each diacid are involved in four intermolecular interactions with two Me2NH2+ and two HC2O4− ions of four distinct polymeric chains, via two N—H...O and two O—H...O hydrogen bonds, respectively. The resulting molecular assembly can be viewed as a two-dimensional bilayer-like arrangement lying parallel to (010, and reinforced by a C—H...O hydrogen bond.

  14. Acúmulo de ácido oxálico e cristais de cálcio em ectomicorrizas de eucalipto.: I- produção de ácido oxálico e concentração de nutrientes em raízes laterais finas colonizadas por fungos ectomicorrízicos Accumulation of oxalic acid and calcium crystals in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas.: I- oxalic acid production and nutrient concentration in fine lateral roots colonized with ectomicorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Alexander Zambrano Gonzalez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O eucalipto apresenta ótimo crescimento em solo com baixa fertilidade, mas pouco se sabe sobre a participação das ectomicorrizas e de ácidos orgânicos na aquisição e no acúmulo de nutrientes pela planta em campo. A produção de ácido oxálico e sua relação com as concentrações de P, Ca, Mg e K foram avaliadas em ectomicorrizas e raízes laterais finas de híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, de 2,5 anos de idade, na região de Viçosa, MG. A área de estudo apresenta topografia típica em meia laranja, de vertente côncavo-convexa. Foram também avaliadas as concentrações desse composto no solo rizosférico, não rizosférico e ectomicorrizosférico. As maiores percentagens de colonização micorrízica foram observadas na área de encosta, onde havia limitada disponibilidade de nutrientes e alta saturação de Al. As concentrações de ácido oxálico + oxalato corresponderam, em mg kg-1: folhas, 324,6; ectomicorrizas, 208,3; raízes laterais finas não colonizadas, 183,1. Já no solo, as concentrações foram maiores no solo ectomicorrizosférico, com 183,7 mg kg-1, seguido pelo solo rizosférico, com 134,3 mg kg-1, e pelo solo não rizosférico, com 76,0 mg kg-1. As maiores concentrações de ácido oxálico e P (p Eucalypt is highly efficient at growing in nutrient-poor soils, but little is known about the role of ectomycorrhizas and organic acids in nutrient uptake and storage under field conditions. Oxalic acid production and its relationships with Ca, P, K, and Mg concentrations were evaluated in the ectomycorrhizas and fine lateral roots of a 2.5 year-old Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid grown in a mountainous area at Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Oxalic acid concentrations were also evaluated in rhizospheric, non-rhizospheric, and ectomycorhizospheric soil. Mycorrhizal colonization was highest in a slope area with limited nutrient availability and high Al saturation. The oxalic acid concentration

  15. Chemical and morphological analysis of kidney stones: a double-blind comparative study Análise química e morfológica de cálculos renais: estudo comparativo duplo-cego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fernandes Ribeiro da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare chemical to morphological kidney stone composition analysis based on a sample of 50 stones retrieved from patients at a nephrology service. METHODS: The chemical analysis was performed with a Bioclin® kit, while a 10-mm magnifying glass (10x; Prolabo, Paris, France was employed in the morphological analysis. Findings obtained with the two methods were compared and classified as concordant (100% agreement, partly concordant (concordant for major components, discordant for minor components or discordant (discordant for major components. RESULTS: In the chemical analysis, the most commonly observed major component was calcium (70%, followed by oxalate (66%, ammonium (56%, urate (28% and carbonate (24%. In the morphological analysis, the most commonly observed major components were calcium phosphate and magnesium (32% each, followed by calcium oxalate monohydrate (24%, uric acid and urates (20% each, calcium oxalate dihydrate (18% and cystine (6%. Infectious kidney stones were identified in 34% and 24% of cases by morphological and chemical analysis, respectively. Thirty-eight percent of the samples were classified as concordant, 52% were partly concordant and 10% were discordant. CONCLUSION: We suggest kidney stones be routinely submitted to both types of analysis for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in lithogenesis.OBJETIVO: Comparar a análise química com a análise morfológica de 50 cálculos urinários provenientes de pacientes em um serviço de nefrologia. MÉTODOS: A análise química foi realizada utilizando o kit da Bioclin®, enquanto que a morfológica foi realizada com auxílio de uma lupa de 10mm (Prolabo, Paris, France. A comparação entre as técnicas foi classificada em concordante (100% de concordância, parcialmente concordante (componentes majoritários concordantes e minoritários discordantes e discordante (discordância nos componentes majoritários. RESULTADOS: Na análise química os

  16. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking the wrong types of fluids, such as soft drinks or drinks with caffeine, may cause substances in ... such as chocolate, peanut butter, and dark-colored soft drinks. Children who form uric acid or cystine stones ...

  17. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospital emergency room. To make a diagnosis of kidney stones, the doctor will ask about the symptoms and how long they've been going on; your child's diet; factors that could be causing dehydration; any family ...

  18. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Shrivastava; Kailash

    2004-08-01

    The presence of kidney stone in the kidney causes discomfort to patients. Hence, removal of such stones is important which is commonly done these days, non-destructively, with lithotripters without surgery. Commercially, lithotripters like extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripters (ESWL) made by Siemens etc are in routine use. These methods are very cumbersome and expensive. Treatment of the patients also takes comparatively more time because of more number of sittings. Some delicate nerves and fibres in the surrounding areas of the stones present in the kidney are also damaged by high ultrasonic intensity used in such systems. In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavitation bubbles are found to implode faster, with more disintegration efficiency of the lithotripters, which give better treatment to the patients.

  19. Investigating selective stone crushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igumentsev, Yu.V.; Kolesnikov, A.L.

    1984-03-01

    The URK-6 stone crusher developed by UkrNIIproekt is described. Experimental units of the URK-6 crusher were successfully tested in the Ehkibastuz surface coal mines. The crusher is used on the SRs/k/-470 bucket wheel excavators for crushing oversize stone and coal. It is driven by 2 electric motors each with a rated power of 55 kW. The URK-6 crushes stones with size to 0.9 m and compression strength coefficient on the Protod'yakonov scale to 10 degrees. After crushing, size of stones and coal does not exceed 0.3 m. The URK-6 is a selective crusher. Service life of beaters ranges from 6 to 8 months. The system weighs 7500 kg. Design, specifications and performance of the URK-6 crusher are evaluated.

  20. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  1. Kidney Stones in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also help prevent kidney stones, such as orange juice or lemonade. Talk with your health care ... perform a physical exam and take a medical history. The health care provider may perform urine, blood, ...

  2. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of intrahepatic stones with piezoelectric lithotriptor: in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to investigate effectiveness of fragmentation during lithotripsy using 103 intrahepatic stones collected from 10 patients, who had previously undergone biliary surgery. The size of each stone was measured and sonography was performed for the evaluation of the sonographic type of the stones. In vitro lithotripsy was performed on individual stones using piezoelectric lithotriptor to evaluate the fragmentation rate and average number of shock waves for fragmentation. Chemical analysis of each stone was done to determine chemical composition including calcium, bilirubin, and cholesterol. The size of the stones was from 5 mm to 20 mm in diameter. Sonographic type I (echo of whole stone with posterior acoustic shadow) was 68, and type II (are-like strong surface echo of stone with clear posterior acoustic shadow) was 35 in number. The majority (78%) of stones in group I (5-9 mm in diameter) showed sonographic type I characteristics, and 62% of stones in group 3 (larger than 15 mm in diameter) showed sonographic type II characteristics. There was a positive correlation between the size and sonographic type of stones. Fragmentation rates of stones were 100% in group I, 71.9% in group 2 (10-15 mm in diameter), 43.8% in group 3, respectively. Fragmentation rates of stones with sonographic type I and II were 91.2%, 65.7%, respectively. The average number of shock waves for partial and complete fragmentation was 2753 ± 4937 and 6219 ± 10133, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the number of shock waves for fragmentation and diameter of stones (r = 0.618, ρ < 0.05). There was no correlation between the number of shock waves for fragmentation and chemical composition of stones. In conclusion, the most important variable determining the degree of fragmentation of intrahepatic stones using ESWL is not their chemical composition but their size and sonographic characteristics

  3. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted ...

  4. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    OpenAIRE

    Hjalmar S Kühl; Kalan, Ammie K.; Mimi Arandjelovic; Floris Aubert; Lucy D’Auvergne; Annemarie Goedmakers; Sorrel Jones; Laura Kehoe; Sebastien Regnaut; Alexander Tickle; Els Ton; Joost van Schijndel; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Samuel Angedakin; Anthony Agbor

    2016-01-01

    The authors would like to thank the Max Planck Society and Krekeler Foundation for generous funding of the Pan African Programme. The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behav...

  5. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Rafel M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine is discussed.

  6. Automated homogeneous oxalate precipitation of Pu(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogeneous oxalate precipitation using diethyl oxalate was compared to precipitating Pu(III) oxalate with solid oxalic acid. The diethyl oxalate technique at 75 degree C is better because it gives 50% less plutonium in the filtrate with a reasonable filtering time. Also, the procedure for the homogeneous precipitation is easier to automate because the liquid diethyl oxalate is simpler to introduce into the precipitator than solid oxalic acid. It also provides flexibility because the hydrolysis rate and therefore the precipitation rate can be controlled by varying the temperature. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Urinary Stones in Neonates: Dilemma Between Urolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Narter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary stones are extremely rare in the neonatal population. Most of the urinary stones in the neonate contain calcium. Nephrolithiasis in the neonate may be as urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. The incidence of nephrocalcinosis is not yet clear and can be differ in many researches due to the etiology. On the other hand, the incidence of urolithiasis in childhood is almost 10% of that in adults. Especially in the first decade, it is more common in boys. It may occur with inherited metabolic changes such as hypercalciuria, primary hyperoxaluria or cystinuria. Stone formation can be effected by iatrogenic causes such as hyperalimentation (parenteral nutrition, diuretic therapy (furosemide, acetazolamide that is especially in the bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The stone formation may occur due to anatomic or functional obstructions and infections of urinary system. Most of the urinary stones in the neonatal period are diagnosed as a nephrocalcinosis. However there aren’t any exact differences between nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. Some authors suggested nephrocalcinosis is the initial step of urinary stone formation. On the other hand, the others purposed that both of them are different pathologies. In this review, we tried to summarized differences and similarities, in the context of urinary stones and the nephrocalcinosis in the neonates.

  8. Artificial photosynthesis of oxalate and oxalate-based polymer by a photovoltaic reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Nong, Guangzai; Chen, Shan; Xu, Yuanjin; Huang, Lijie; Zou, Qingsong; Li, Shiqiang; Mo, Haitao; Zhu, Pingchuan; Cen, Weijian; Wang, Shuangfei

    2014-01-01

    A photovoltaic reactor was designed for artificial photosynthesis, based on the reactions involved in high energy hydrogen atoms, which were produced from water electrolysis. Water and CO2, under the conditions studied, were converted to oxalate (H2C2O4) and a polymer. This was the first time that the oxalates and oxalate-based polymer were produced from the artificial photosynthesis process.

  9. Measurement of calcium content of gallstones by computed tomography and the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Masashi; Tamasawa, Naoki; Takebe, Kazuo (Hirosaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Makino, Isao; Sakuraba, Kiyoshi; Tamura, Toyokazu

    1990-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones, we studied gallbladder contractility by oral cholecystography, the computed tomography (CT) number of stones for 30 gallstone patients, calcium content of 13 stones operatively extirpated, and the degree of inflammatory change in 13 surgical gallbladder specimens. There was significant correlation between the calcium content and CT numbers of stones, and 1% of the calcium content of gallstone was approximately equal to 40 Hounsfield Units (HU) of the CT number. The calcium content of stones in patients with normal gallbladder contractility was extrapolated to be below 1.5%, while that with poor contractility ranged from 0% to 21%. Additionally there is a possibility that calcium content increases, related to the inflammatory change of gallbladder. Hence our results suggested that measurement of the CT number of stones is useful to evaluate the calcium content of gallstones, and that the gallbladder contractility could be one of the factors to influence calcification of stones. (author).

  10. Diagnosis of rare inherited glyoxalate metabolic disorders through in-situ analysis of renal stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, D. E.; Grohe, B.; Hoppe, B.; Beck, B. B.; Tessadri, R.

    2012-04-01

    The primary hyperoxalurias type I - III constitute rare autosomal-recessive inherited disorders of the human glyoxylate metabolism. By mechanisms that are ill understood progressive nephrocalcinosis and recurrent urolithiasis (kidney stone formation) often starting in early childhood, along with their secondary complications results in loss of nephron mass which progresses to end-stage renal failure over time. In the most frequent form, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the rule and combined liver/kidney transplantation respectively pre-emptive liver transplantation are the only causative treatment today. Hence, this contributes significantly to healthcare costs and early diagnosis is extremely important for a positive outcome for the patient. We are developing a stone-based diagnostic method by in-detail multi-methods investigation of the crystalline moiety in concert with urine and stone proteomics. Stone analysis will allow faster analysis at low-impact for the patients in the early stages of the disease. First results from combined spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR)and geochemical micro-analyses (Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation ICP-MS) are presented here that show significant differences between stones from hyperoxaluria patients and those formed by patients without this disorder (idiopathic stones). Major differences exist in chemistry as well as in morphology and phase composition of the stones. Ca/P ratios and Mg contents differentiate between oxalate-stones from hyperoxaluria patients and idiopathic stones. Results show that also within the different subtypes of primary hyperoxaluria significant differences can be found in stone composition. These imply differences in stone formation which could be exploited for new therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, the results provide important feedback for suspected but yet unconfirmed cases of primary hyperoxaluria when used in concert with the genetic methods routinely applied.

  11. Improving nutritional quality and fungal tolerance in soya bean and grass pea by expressing an oxalate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Ghosh, Sumit; Irfan, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, β-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme. PMID:26798990

  12. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  13. Fasting and urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  14. On complexe oxalates of plutonium(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium compounds of general composition MPu(C2O4)2xnH2O, where M=Li, Na, NH4, K, Cs and n=0.5-3.5, have been separated from solutions of alkali metal and ammonium oxalates and identified using the methods of X-ray diffraction and chemical analyses. The behaviour of plutonium (3) differs from that of americium (3) in solutions of lithium- and sodium oxalates, but the difference decreases with the increase in the monovalent cation radius, so that in the cesium oxalate solution plutonium (3) behaves in the same manner as americium (3). The reaction of the compounds NH4Pu(C2O4)2xH2O and CsPu(C2O4)2x0.5H2O to heating is studied. Ammonium salt of plutonium oxalate begins to rapidly decompose at 250 deg C. At approximately 350 deg C the formation of PuO2 completes. Rapid decomposition of cesium salt of plutonium oxalate is observed above 300 deg C. The study of the IR spectra of double plutonium (3) with ammonium-or-cesium oxalates permitted to draw certain conclusions on the nature of chemical bonds in the compounds

  15. Urinary pH as a Risk Factor for Stone Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2007-04-01

    A high urinary pH is main risk factor for the calcium phosphate stone formation; however, its pathophysiologic mechanism has not been fully understood. The introduction of Topiramate in the treatment of various neurological disorders has been complicated by metabolic acidosis, significant hypocitraturia, elevated urinary pH, and calcium phosphate stone formation. This model provides a probe to investigate the pathophysiologic mechanism of calcium phosphate stone formation and perhaps to develop appropriate countermeasures in the future. On the other hand an unduly acidic urine predisposes one to uric acid nephrolithiasis. Our recent investigation linking low urinary pH, and defective renal ammoniagenesis to insulin resistance provides new knowledge to unfold the pathophysiology of uric acid nephrolithiasis. The metabolic profile leading to uric acid stone may emerge as one of the components of metabolic syndrome.

  16. Fragmentation of kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Fragmentation, i.e. the breaking of particulate materials into smaller pieces is abundant in nature and underlies several industrial processes, which attracted a continuous interest in scientific and engineering research over the past decades. In industrial applications, fragmentation processes are mostly used for the comminution of ores in various types of mills. Kidney stone is a well known human dis- ease which embitters the life of many people (in a country like the USA about 106 cases are registered yearly). In order to extract large kidney stones (diameter ≥ 1 cm) from the human body without operation, one of the most efficient treatment is the fragmentation of kidney stones by the so-called extracorporal shock wave lithography method: a shock wave penetrating the human body is generated by an electric pulse. The repeated application of the shock wave gradually fragments the stones into pieces of size ≤ 2 mm which then leave the body through the urine system. Recently, a novel type of lithographic method has been suggested by using widely focused shock waves which fragment the stones by a squeezing mechanism. Laboratory experiments showed that the widely focused squeezing waves achieve a higher fragmentation efficiency than the frequently used shock waves of sharp focus. Based on this method a novel medical treatment can be introduced which is less demanding for the patients. Before the application of the method in the clinical practice a detailed understanding of the fragmentation mechanism of kidney stones due to shock waves is required. Since analytic theoretical methods have serious limitations in this field, we develop a realistic model of the mechanical behavior of kidney stones and a simulation code which makes possible to study the mechanism of breakup under various external conditions. Computer simulations in two dimensions have revealed a peculiar way of crack formation, i.e. the crack which finally breaks

  17. The application of p3tm neutron generator in activity determination of sengkuang (oleacharis dulcis) kidney stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengkuang (oleocharis dulcis) as a solvent for kidney stone has been know. To investigate the solubility of calcium stone in the extract of oleacharis dulcis by neutron generator in determining the activity of oleacharis dulcis extract as a solvent for kidney stone. The extract activity was based ons it ability in dissolving of calcium kidney stone. The solvability of each extract determined using neutron generator. To each ten milliliters extracts of oleacharis dulcis in water and in ethyl acetate was added respectively 150 mg calcium kidney stone and incubated for 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours. Then 0.5 ml of each extract and standard solution (solution with certain concentration of calcium) was transferred to a polyethylene tube respectively in irradiated for ten minutes in neutron generator. Concentration of calcium was calculated using relative method by comparing the count values of each extract with that of the standard solution. The result obtained show that calcium could be detected in ethyl acetate within two hours incubation time, while for argon was at various incubation found in both extracts and its maximum concentration at 4 and 5 hours incubation time in ethyl acetate and water fraction respectively. Based on the data above, it can be concluded that the solvability was influenced by type of extracting solvent and length of incubation time. Key words : olecharis dulcis, kidney stone, calcium

  18. Challenging Case: Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Mark S; Ziemba, Justin B; Matlaga, Brian R; Monga, Manoj

    2016-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman presents to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident, and a CT scan revealed no injuries but incidentally notes three non-obstructing stones in the left kidney of 3, 4, and 5 mm in size. She is completely asymptomatic and has no history of urolithiasis. PMID:27566646

  19. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Leisner, T.

    2010-08-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario that coating layers

  20. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario

  1. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario

  2. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration

  3. Urinary stone disease in Kano, North Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Aji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary stone disease is the third most common affliction of the urinary tract after urinary tract infection and pathologic conditions of the prostate. Although the disease is commoner in the developed countries, the incidence is also increasing in the developing countries. In this study, we sought to determine the pattern and treatment given for patients with urinary stones in our institution. Patients and Method: A 5 year retrospective study of patients treated for urolithiasis was conducted in a Teaching Hospital in North-western Nigeria. The age, sex, clinical presentations, investigations and treatment offered to the patients were reviewed. Results: A total of seventy six patients were treated for urinary stones during the study period. 58(76.3% were males and 18(23.7% females. Majority of patients 39(51.3% presented with loin pain as the main presenting symptom. The diagnosis of stones was by plain abdominal Xray(KUB in 68 patients and abdominal ultrasound scan in 46 cases. Urine culture was positive in 27 patients with E. coli as the predominant organism. All had normal serum calcium, phosphate and uric acid. 56(73.7% patients had stones in the upper urinary tract and 20 (26.3% in the lower urinary tract. Thirty four (44.7% patients were found to have predisposing factors. Most of the patients 50(65.7% were treated by open surgery and 26(34.2% by endoscopic removal/lithotripsy. Conclusion: Urinary stone disease is common in this environment. Majority of the stones are radio-opaque on plain xrays. Significant number of patients had a predisposing factor and majority of the stones were found in the upper tract. Most of the patients were treated by open surgery while a significant number were treated with endoscopic removal/lithotripsy.

  4. Analysis of mineral composition & bacterial flora in 4 tonsillolith stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir M Naik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/ objectives; Large tonsillolith is a rare entity although small calcifications in the tonsillar tissue are a common clinical finding in adults. Thesepatients usually present with bad breath odor, pain during swallowing or foreign body sensation in the throat.Design: K V G Medical College, Department of ENT, Head & Neck Surgery.Intervention: Tonsillectomy was done in all the cases & tonsillar specimen sent for histopathological analysis & tonsillolith for mineral & bacterial flora analysis.Result: Normal tonsillar lymphoid tissue was seen on histopathology in all the 4 cases. Calcium carbonate & phosphate was seen in all with magnesium phosphate in one. Fusobacterium an oral anaerobic commensal were isolated from 2 stones.Conclusion: Tonsilloliths are sometimes incidental findings in X-ray neck & nasopharynx. Treatment includes surgical removal for superficial stones & tonsillectomy for larger & deeper stones.

  5. Characterization of kidney stones using NAA and other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six kidney stone samples were collected from patients treated in the Advance Urology Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh. The samples were characterized using neutron activation analysis (NAA), Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. For NAA, samples were irradiated in Tray rod facility of Dhruva reactor, Mumbai. Radioactive assay was carried out using high purity germanium detector coupled to 8k channel analyzer. The elements determined in the samples by NAA are Zn, Sr, Co, Fe, Cr, Sc, Se and Th. ED-XRF was used for quantification of Ca. The concentrations of trace elements like Zn, Sr, Fe and Cr were found to be lower in uric acid composite stones as compared to calcium based stones. (author)

  6. Diet: from food to stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Justin I; Antonelli, Jodi A; Pearle, Margaret S

    2015-02-01

    Dietary factors have been shown to influence urine composition and modulate the risk of kidney stone disease. With the rising prevalence of stone disease in many industrialized nations, dietary modification as therapy to improve lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained appeal, as it is both relatively inexpensive and safe. While some dietary measures, such as a high fluid intake, have been shown in long-term randomized clinical trials to have durable effectiveness, other dietary factors have been subjected to only short-term clinical or metabolic studies and their efficacy has been inferred. Herein, we review the current literature regarding the role of diet in stone formation, focusing on both the effect on urinary stone risk factors and the effect on stone recurrence. PMID:24938177

  7. Medical management of renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Monica S C; Pearle, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing in industrialized nations, resulting in a corresponding rise in economic burden. Nephrolithiasis is now recognized as both a chronic and systemic condition, which further underscores the impact of the disease. Diet and environment play an important role in stone disease, presumably by modulating urine composition. Dietary modification as a preventive treatment to decrease lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained interest because of its potential to be safer and more economical than drug treatment. However, not all abnormalities are likely to be amenable to dietary therapy, and in some cases drugs are necessary to reduce the risk of stone formation. Unfortunately, no new drugs have been developed for stone prevention since the 1980s when potassium citrate was introduced, perhaps because the long observation period needed to demonstrate efficacy discourages investigators from embarking on clinical trials. Nonetheless, effective established treatment regimens are currently available for stone prevention. PMID:26977089

  8. Calcium supplements: do they help or harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joann E; Bassuk, Shari S

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations for calcium intake call for 1,000 mg per day for women ages 19-50 and 1,200 mg per day for women over age 50 to ensure bone health. Given recent concerns that calcium supplements may raise risk for cardiovascular disease and kidney stones, women should aim to meet this recommendation primarily by eating a calcium-rich diet and taking calcium supplements only if needed to reach the RDA goal (often only approximately 500 mg per day in supplements is required). PMID:23880796

  9. Renal Stone Associated with the Ketogenic Diet in a 5-Year Old Girl with Intractable Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ji Na; Song, Ji Eun; Shin, Jae Il; Kim, Heung Dong; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Jae Seung

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a 5-year-old girl who developed a renal stone while following the ketogenic diet to treat refractory seizure disorder. Three months after initiating the ketogenic diet, she developed severe abdominal pain and vomiting. The spot urine calcium-to-creatinine (Ca/Cr) ratio and 24-hour urine evaluation showed hypercalciuria. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed a stone in the right ureteropelvic junction, resulting in hydronephrosis of the right kidney. The renal s...

  10. Advances in percutaneous stone surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hartman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of large renal stones has changed considerably in recent years. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis has mandated that urologists perform more surgeries for large renal calculi than before, and this has been met with improvements in percutaneous stone surgery. In this review paper, we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, exit strategies, and post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis.

  11. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  12. Characteristics of plant calcium fractions for 25 species in Tengger Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to plant calcium fractions in the desert.To address the characteristic of the calcium fractions of desert plants,we collected 25 plant species in Tengger Desert,observed the calcium crystals using an optical microscope and determined water soluble calcium,acetic acid soluble calcium,and hydrochloric acid soluble calcium.To do so,we used sequential fractionation procedures to probe the relationships among different functional groups,different growth forms,or different successional stages.The results showed that the psammophyte,the late successional plants,and the drought-resistant shrub and semi-shrub all held considerable calcium oxalate crystal compared to the grassland plants,the early successional plants,and the perennial herb.With the proceeding succession,the acetic acid soluble calcium decreased gradually,and the hydrochloric acid soluble calcium increased gradually.The perennial herb had more water soluble calcium,while shrub held greater hydrochloric acid soluble calcium.The grassland plants held more water soluble calcium,while psammophyte had greater hydrochloric acid soluble calcium.This implies that the plants that are relatively sensitive to drought hold more calcium ion,while the drought-resistance plants hold more calcium oxalate.Thus,the plant calcium components are in close relation to plant drought-resistance,and of important significance in plant physiology of the desert.

  13. Persistence of the X-ray-transparent matrix of vanishing pancreatic stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present three observations of patients with chronic calcifying pancreatitis with multiple pancreatic caculi visible on X-ray films of the abdomen. These patients were studied with plain films and sonography. On X-ray films, visible calcifications disappeared. In contrast, sonography and computerized tomography showed that the X-ray-transparent material of stones persisted. It is known that these stones are composed of different insoluble residues of PSP-S2-5, the secretory calcium stabilizer of pancreatic juice. This shows that the spontaneous or drug-induced disappearance of pancreatic stones on radiologic films is not sufficient for healing chronic calcifying pancreatitis. 12 refs., 3 figs

  14. Persistence of the X-ray-transparent matrix of vanishing pancreatic stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastid, C.; Sarles, H. (Hospital St. Marguerite, Marseille (France))

    1991-01-01

    The authors present three observations of patients with chronic calcifying pancreatitis with multiple pancreatic caculi visible on X-ray films of the abdomen. These patients were studied with plain films and sonography. On X-ray films, visible calcifications disappeared. In contrast, sonography and computerized tomography showed that the X-ray-transparent material of stones persisted. It is known that these stones are composed of different insoluble residues of PSP-S2-5, the secretory calcium stabilizer of pancreatic juice. This shows that the spontaneous or drug-induced disappearance of pancreatic stones on radiologic films is not sufficient for healing chronic calcifying pancreatitis. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Econophysics of precious stones

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, A.; Uchida, N; N. Kikuchi

    2006-01-01

    The importance of the power law has been well realized in econophysics over the last decade. For instance, the distribution of the rate of stock price variation and of personal assets show the power law. While these results reveal the striking scale invariance of financial markets, the behaviour of price in real economy is less known in spite of its extreme importance. As an example of markets in real economy, here we take up the price of precious stones which increases with size while the am...

  16. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  17. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  18. Determination of cadmium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, and chromium in concentrated solutions of calcium chloride by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure is developed for the direct determination of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Ni in concentrated solutions of calcium chloride by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Ascorbic and oxalic acids and magnesium nitrate were examined as chemical modifiers. Oxalic acid was found to be the best modifier. Although an atomic absorption spectrometer with a background correction system of relatively low efficiency (deuterium lamp) was used, elements under study can be reliably determined in the presence of oxalic acid at concentrations of calcium chloride in the solution up to 6%. Because cadmium is evaporated before the major part of the given matrix, it can be determined without modifier

  19. Renal stone disease: Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, C.Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiologic considerations; Physiochemistry of urinary stone formations; Nutritional aspects of stone disease; Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis; Struvite stones; and Contemporary approaches to removal of renal and ureteral calculi.

  20. Renal stone disease: Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiologic considerations; Physiochemistry of urinary stone formations; Nutritional aspects of stone disease; Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis; Struvite stones; and Contemporary approaches to removal of renal and ureteral calculi

  1. Calcium Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium signaling results from a complex interplay between activation and inactivation of intracellular and extracellular calcium permeable channels. This complexity is obvious from the pattern of calcium signals observed with modest, physiological concentrations of calcium-mobilizing agonists, which typically present as sequential regenerative discharges of stored calcium, a process referred to as calcium oscillations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the underlyin...

  2. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... product is more than 3.2 grams: “Ask a doctor before use if you have 1 kidney stones a calcium-restricted diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c), 201.71(c), and 201.72(c) may be combined, if applicable, provided the ingredients are listed in alphabetical order, e.g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1...

  3. Econophysics of precious stones

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, A; Uchida, N

    2006-01-01

    The importance of the power law has been well realized in econophysics over the last decade. For instance, the distribution of the rate of stock price variation and of personal assets show the power law. While these results reveal the striking scale invariance of financial markets, the behaviour of price in real economy is less known in spite of its extreme importance. As an example of markets in real economy, here we take up the price of precious stones which increases with size while the amount of their production rapidly decreases with size. We show for the first time that the price of natural precious stones (quartz crystal ball, gemstones such as diamond, emerald, and sapphire) as a function of weight obeys the power law. This indicates that the price is determined by the same evaluation measure for different sizes. Our results demonstrate that not only the distribution of an economical observable but also the price itself obeys the power law. We anticipate our findings to be a starting point for the qua...

  4. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and preventing all types of kidney stones. Staying hydrated (having enough fluid in your body) will keep your urine diluted, which makes it harder for stones to form. Water is best. You can also drink ginger ale, lemon-lime sodas, and fruit juices. Drink enough liquids throughout ...

  5. X-ray diffraction and SEM study of kidney stones in Israel: quantitative analysis, crystallite size determination, and statistical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, Vladimir; Popov, Inna; Shapur, Nandakishore; Abdin, Tamer; Gofrit, Ofer N; Pode, Dov; Duvdevani, Mordechai

    2011-12-01

    Urinary calculi have been recognized as one of the most painful medical disorders. Tenable knowledge of the phase composition of the stones is very important to elucidate an underlying etiology of the stone disease. We report here the results of quantitative X-ray diffraction phase analysis performed on 278 kidney stones from the 275 patients treated at the Department of Urology of Hadassah Hebrew University Hospital (Jerusalem, Israel). Quantification of biominerals in multicomponent samples was performed using the normalized reference intensity ratio method. According to the observed phase compositions, all the tested stones were classified into five chemical groups: oxalates (43.2%), phosphates (7.7%), urates (10.3%), cystines (2.9%), and stones composed of a mixture of different minerals (35.9%). A detailed analysis of each allocated chemical group is presented along with the crystallite size calculations for all the observed crystalline phases. The obtained results have been compared with the published data originated from different geographical regions. Morphology and spatial distribution of the phases identified in the kidney stones were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). This type of detailed study of phase composition and structural characteristics of the kidney stones was performed in Israel for the first time. PMID:21308400

  6. 尿路结石与尿路感染的相关性研究%Correlation between urinary stones and urinary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沛林; 张立国; 孟斌

    2014-01-01

    .6%). Numbers of urine abnormalities,urine positivities,positive intraoperative cotton swabs and urinary tract infections in patients in the group with infected stones,were significantly higher than in the group without infected stones and the differences were statistically significant(χ2=8.203,73.99,178.9,24.26,P<0.05). The incidence rates of hexahydrate magnesium ammonium phosphate, carbonate apatite and hydroxyapatite stones in the group with infected stones were significantly higher than those in the non-infected-rock group while the incidence rates of calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were found significantly lower than those in the non-infected-stone group,with differences statistically significant (χ2=167.6,21.00,8.586,73.17,48.79,P<0.05). Conclusion Bacteria could cause urinary tract stones,and infected stones were always associated with urinary tract infections. Bacteria detection in patients with urinary calculi was particularly important to avoid the urinary tract infections.

  7. The exposome for kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, David S

    2016-02-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities. PMID:26615595

  8. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  9. Study of oxalate compounds of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ni(NO3)2-M2C2O4-H2O(M=L+-Cs+, NH4+) in aqueous solutions at 25 deg C and molar relation C2O42-:Ni2+=0.5-8.0 are studied by the method of residual concentrations. It is established that the NiC2O4x2H2O(1) compound is formed in all systems in a solid phase, and Cs(Ni(C2O4)2)x4H2O(2) - in the system with cesium oxalate. Complex 2, unlike compound 1, dissolves well in water and does not dissolve in the cesium oxalate excess. At 150 deg C complex 2 losses crystallization water and in 310-500 deg C interval it decomposes with Cs2NiO2 formation

  10. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning In Tank 6F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

  11. Study of renal stones complications in 200 patients in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Noshad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary stones are the third most common disease of the urinary. Renal stones may lead to some preventable complications. This study was designed to investigation and prediction of these complications. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 patients with kidney stones were enrolled. Kidney stone was confirmed and proven in all patients referred to Sina and Shaikh Al-Rais clinics. Their demographic characteristics like gender, age, stone number, stone type, renal failure and bio-chemistry data were evaluated. Results: Of 200 patients, 130 cases (65.0% were male and 70 cases (35.0% were female. The mean age of patients was 41.30 ± 16.06 years. Type of stone was (when evaluation was possible was mixed (11.5%. However, the type of stone was not analyzed in 112 cases (56.0%. Among complications, recurrent infection was seen (16.0%, and staghorn stones were seen in 2.5% of patients. Dialysis was positive in 3 patients (1.5%. History of surgery was positive in 3 patients (1.5%. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL history was positive in 8%. In evaluated patients, the mean level of calcium was 8.83 ± 0.27, phosphorus was 4.60 ± 0.33, parathyroid hormone (PTH was 35.20 ± 14.22, uric acid was 4.98 ± 1.57, creatinine was 1.38 ± 1.02 and blood urea nitrogen level was 16.69 ± 11.54 mg/dl. Staghorn stones are significantly associated with progression to renal failure and subsequent complications such as hemodialysis (P = 0.001, surgery (P = 0.001. Recurrent infection was more frequent in calcium-containing stones (P = 0.001 and ESWL undergoing patients (P = 0.030. Stone numbers were more than 3 in hemodialyzed (HD patients (P = 0.001. Uric acid stones were more seen in HD patients (P = 0.170. Conclusion: According to results hemodialysis and recurrent infections are seen in patients with renal stones, and they may be detected in earlier with close periodic follow-up.

  12. 2-Amino-3-nitropyridinium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Akriche

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the non-centrosymetric title compound, C5H6N3O2+·C2HO4−, the hydrogen oxalate anions form corrugated chains parallel to the c axis, linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The 2-amino-3-nitropyridinium cations are anchored between theses chains by N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds and van der Waals and electrostatic interactions, creating a three-dimensional network.

  13. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  14. Stone cladding engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa Camposinhos, Rui de

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents new methodologies for the design of dimension stone based on the concepts of structural design while preserving the excellence of stonemasonry practice in façade engineering. Straightforward formulae are provided for computing action on cladding, with special emphasis on the effect of seismic forces, including an extensive general methodology applied to non-structural elements. Based on the Load and Resistance Factor Design Format (LRDF), minimum slab thickness formulae are presented that take into consideration stress concentrations analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the most commonly used modern anchorage systems. Calculation examples allow designers to solve several anchorage engineering problems in a detailed and objective manner, underlining the key parameters. The design of the anchorage metal parts, either in stainless steel or aluminum, is also presented.

  15. The oxalic acid: 2-chloroacetamide crystallization: A new revelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, R.; Choudhury, R. R.; Capet, Frederic; Roussel, Pascal

    2013-02-01

    The OH of COOH can acts as both donor and acceptor of hydrogen bond. OH of COOH as an acceptor was primarily observed in Oxalic acid Amide complexes. In order to further understand the packing in these complexes, oxalic acid was complexed with 2-tricholoroacetamide. This crystallization resulted in the formation of ammonium tetraoxalate dehydrate. A result similar to what was observed in complexation of oxalic acid with amide containing amino acids (asparagine and glutamine). Interestingly in all these cases, the amide bond is broken, to form the ammonium ion when trying to complex with oxalic acid.

  16. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Randhawa; Kamaljeet Sweety

    2000-08-01

    For preparing calcium ferrite, calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III) precursor was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of iron(III) maleate, calcium maleate and maleic acid. Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to 900°C and ferrite formation. Three consecutive decomposition steps leading to the formation of -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate have been observed at various stages of thermolysis. In the final stage the ferrite, Ca2Fe2O5, is obtained as a result of solid state reaction between -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate at 788°C, a temperature much lower than for ceramic method. The results have been compared with those of the oxalate precursor.

  17. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Kidney Stones In most children and teens, kidney stones are due to the diet and/or amount of fluid the child drinks. ... prevent new stones from forming. All children with kidney stones should: Drink a lot ... the salt in their diet Limit the amount of soda or soft drinks ...

  18. Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for large ureteric stones

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Al-Sayyad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for management of large proximal ureteric stones. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for proximal ureteral stones ≥2 cm were reviewed retrospectively. Patients′ characteristics, stone characteristics, perioperative and follow-up data were studied. Patients with stones

  19. Giant ureteral stone: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davut Akın

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Calculi of urinary system may be detected in ureter, bladder, and urethra. Calculi of ureter are commonly solitary and smaller than 2 cm in length. Giant ureteral stone is rare. We present our case of giant ureteral stone with imaging findings. An approximately 10 cm long stone was detected on direct urinary system graphy and intravenous urography of 28 year-old male admitted with left colic pain. The stone was extracted by open ureterolithotomy. The stone was 10 cm in length. Imaging methods are important to localize the stone, evaluate renal function, stage of hydronephrosis, differentiate acute from chronic, and diagnose predisposing factors in cases with giant ureteral stones.

  20. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy rabbits were allocated to two groups. Two hours before induction of nephrocalcinosis, one group received water and the other received aqueous extract of corn silk and continued feeding for ten days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis before induction and in the fifth and tenth post-induction day. Urine samples were taken to estimate urinary ca+2 levels and crystals. The histopathological examination was carried to check for crystal deposits in renal tissues. Results: Corn silk aqueous extract produced a significant reduction of blood urea nitrogen(5.2+/-0.08 vs 7.3+/-0.2 mmol/l, serum creatinine (85.9+/-0.2 vs 97.3+/-0.5 mmol/l and serum Na+ levels (137+/-0.2 vs 142.16+/-0.7 mmol/l with non-significant reduction in serum K+ (4.0+/-0.02 vs 4.2+/-0.05. There is a significant reduction in calcium deposition in renal parenchyma in comparison to the control group after ten days of treatment. Conclusion: Corn silk had a significant diuretic effect that accelerates the excretion of urinary calcium. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 75-78

  1. Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with a left Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy. The patient is a 68-year-old white gentleman who's ... He's been stone free up until recently. The patient, as I say, has been having pain so ...

  2. Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 11, 2011 I'm Dr. Paul Tachi and we're going ... stone free up until recently. The patient, as I say, has been having pain so we will ...

  3. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... soups and vegetables processed frozen foods luncheon meats fast food People who are trying to limit their sodium ... form uric acid stones should limit their meat consumption to 6 ounces each day. Animal protein may ...

  4. Inorganic treatments for the consolidation and protection of stone artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Matteini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation and protection are two of the principal kinds of treatments through which the decay of old statues, stone facades, plasters and mural paintings caused by both natural atmospheric agents and, above all in the last five decades, by atmospheric pollution, is faced. The most traditional approach has been and is mainly based on the use of organic polymeric materials. They offer the advantage of easy application procedures and the possibility to obtain, at short times, very satisfying results. Different is their behaviour at long times. Some drawbacks come out over time both under the esthetical point of view as well as to the durability, compatibility and efficacy. Particularly critical is the situation when porous materials and soluble salts - gypsum above all - are simultaneously present. In such a situation inorganic treatments demonstrate to be much more appropriate. They assure durable and compatible results. In the present paper two of the most efficient and appropriate inorganic methods are reviewed in detail: the barium hydroxide method, both as desulfating and consolidating agent, and the ammonium oxalate method as passivating agent, consolidant and as a treatment capable of improving the natural colour contrast of the stone, when it is lost due to decay processes.

  5. Intrahepatic Stones: The Percutaneous Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhaus, Horst

    1999-01-01

    Intrahepatic stones are prevalent in the Far East, whereas they are infrequently seen in Western countries. Hepatolithiasis can cause recurrent attacks of cholangitis, with a risk of liver abscesses, sepsis or hepatic failure. Immediate biliary decompression can usually be achieved by endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic drainage. Definitive treatment should aim for complete elimination of bile stasis and removal of all stones. Hepatic resection promises the best long term results when the...

  6. Crystal structure of (ferrocenylmethyldimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Ndiaye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title salt, [Fe(C5H5(C8H13N](HC2O4, consists of discrete (ferrocenylmethyldimethylammonium cations and hydrogen oxalate anions. The anions are connected through a strong O—H...O hydrogen bond, forming linear chains running parallel to [100]. The cations are linked to the anions through bifurcated N—H...(O,O′ hydrogen bonds. Weak C—H...π interactions between neighbouring ferrocenyl moieties are also observed.

  7. Cross-sectional study of kidney stones by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V K; Rai, A K; Rai, P K; Jindal, P K

    2009-09-01

    We performed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the in situ quantitative estimation of elemental constituents distributed in different parts of kidney stones obtained directly from patients by surgery. We did this by focusing the laser light directly on the center, shell, and surface of the stones to find the spatial distribution of the elements inside the stone. The elements detected in the stones were calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper, iron, zinc, strontium, sodium, potassium, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine (Cl), etc. We optimized the LIBS signals by varying the laser energy from 10 mJ to 40 mJ to obtain the best signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios. We estimated the quantities of different elements in the stones by drawing calibration curves, plotting graphs of the analyte signal versus the absolute concentration of the elements in standard samples. The detection limits of the calibration curves were discussed. The concentrations of the different elements were found to be widely different in different stones found in different age groups of patients. It was observed that stones containing higher amounts of copper also possessed higher amounts of zinc. In general, the concentrations of trace elements present in the kidney stones decreased as we moved from center to shell and surface. Our results also revealed that the concentrations of elements present in the stones increased with the age of the patients. The results obtained from the calibration curves were compared with results from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We also used the intensity ratios of different elemental lines to find the spatial distribution of different elements inside the kidney stones. PMID:19104906

  8. Calsequestrinlike calcium-binding protein is expressed in calcium-accumulating cells of Pistia stratiotes.

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschi, V R; Li, X; Zhang, D.(Department of Physics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America); Okita, T W

    1993-01-01

    To contend with high calcium (Ca) levels in the environment, many plant species contain crystal idioblasts, specialized cells which accumulate large amounts of Ca as oxalate crystals. The biochemical processes involved in the accumulation of Ca in crystal idioblasts are unknown, as these cells constitute only a minor proportion of the total plant tissue. To address how crystal idioblasts buffer cytosolic Ca during crystal formation, we purified these cells from water lettuce and assessed thei...

  9. X-ray fluorescence in Member States: Italy. Analyses on stone monuments availing of EDXRF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important part of the world's cultural heritage is represented by stone monuments. A very dangerous weathering process which deteriorates stone monuments is caused by air pollution resulting from human activity. One of the worst pollutants for stone monuments is associated with sulphur compounds and, when all is said and done, with gypsum. Gypsum is a rather soluble compound that may be washed away by rain. It leaves the surface of the stone clean but eroded and open to new corrosive processes. The element effectively measured for these analyses is sulphur connected with the transformation process of the calcium carbonate in gypsum. With the aim of calibration standards it is possible to quantify the presence of sulphur and therefore of gypsum on the surface of the statues. In recent years in Italy different campaigns with transportable EDXRF instruments have been conducted in situ for investigation, mapping, registration and evaluation of stone-degradation phenomena related to sulphate formation on stone and stone-like materials by quantifying sulphur concentrations directly associated with the presence of gypsum. The aim of the campaigns is to carry out in situ non-destructive analyses in order to create spatial and temporal maps of the evolution of the sulphurisation of marble surfaces

  10. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciudin, Alexandru; Luque Galvez, Maria Pilar; Franco de Castro, Agustin; Garcia-Cruz, Eduardo; Alcover Garcia, Juan; Alvarez-Vijande Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Alcaraz Asensio, Antonio [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Urology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Salvador Izquierdo, Rafael; Nicolau, Carlos [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm{sup 2} and 0.1 cm{sup 2} over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  11. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm2 and 0.1 cm2 over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  12. Oxalate Synthesis and Pyrolysis: A Colorful Introduction to Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Michael W.; Richards-Babb, Michelle; Sweeney, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxalate synthesis and pyrolysis provides an opportunity for students to (i) learn stoichiometry, (ii) experience the consequences of proper stoichiometric calculations and experimental techniques, and (iii) be introduced to the relevance of chemistry by highlighting oxalates in context, for example, usages and health effects. At our…

  13. Synthesis and structural characterization of actinide oxalate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxalic acid is a well-known reagent to recover actinides thanks to the very low solubility of An(IV) and An(III) oxalate compounds in acidic solution. Therefore, considering mixed-oxide fuel or considering minor actinides incorporation in ceramic fuel materials for transmutation, oxalic co-conversion is convenient to synthesize mixed oxalate compounds, precursors of oxide solid solutions. As the existing oxalate single crystal syntheses are not adaptable to the actinide-oxalate chemistry or to their manipulation constrains in gloves box, several original crystal growth methods were developed. They were first validate and optimized on lanthanides and uranium before the application to transuranium elements. The advanced investigations allow to better understand the syntheses and to define optimized chemical conditions to promote crystal growth. These new crystal growth methods were then applied to a large number of mixed An1(IV)-An2(III) or An1(IV)-An2(IV) systems and lead to the formation of the first original mixed An1(IV)-An2(III) and An1(IV)-An2(IV) oxalate single crystals. Finally thanks to the first thorough structural characterizations of these compounds, single crystal X-ray diffraction, EXAFS or micro-RAMAN, the particularly weak oxalate-actinide compounds structural database is enriched, which is essential for future studied nuclear fuel cycles. (author)

  14. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  15. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Calcium Nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Orson W.; Fuster, Daniel G.; Xie, Xiao-Song

    2008-09-01

    Calcium stones are commonly encountered in patients with congenital distal renal tubular acidosis, a disease of renal acidification caused by mutations in either the vacuolar H+-ATPase (B1 or a4 subunit), anion exchanger-1, or carbonic anhydrase II. Based on the existing database, we present two hypotheses. First, heterozygotes with mutations in B1 subunit of H+-ATPase are not normal but may harbor biochemical abnormalities such as renal acidification defects, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia which can predispose them to kidney stone formation. Second, we propose at least two mechanisms by which mutant B1 subunit can impair H+-ATPase: defective pump assembly and defective pump activity.

  16. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    Tyndall Stone is a distinctively mottled and highly fossiliferous dolomitic limestone that belongs to the Selkirk Member of the Red River Formation, of Late Ordovician (Katian) age. It has been quarried at Garson, Manitoba, 37 km northeast of Winnipeg, since 1895, although other quarries in the area go back to 1832. Tyndall Stone, so named because it was shipped by rail from nearby Tyndall, is currently produced by Gillis Quarries Limited. It has various uses as a dimension stone. Large slabs, most often cut parallel to bedding, face the exterior or interior of many important buildings such as the Parliament Buildings and the Canadian Museum of Civilization in the Ottawa area, the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the provincial legislatures in Winnipeg and Regina, as well as many commercial buildings especially in the Canadian prairies. At the quarries, the stone is cut vertically, using eight foot (2.44 m) diameter saws mounted on one hundred foot (30.5 m) tracks, then split into 6-8 tonne blocks that are moved using front-end loaders. Gillis Quarries operates a large finishing plant with an area of about 4000 m2. Stone is processed along advanced cutting lines that feature eight primary saws and six gantry saw stations, allowing it to be made into a variety of sizes, shapes, and finishes. The Selkirk Member is 43 m thick and the stone is extracted from a 6-8 m thick interval within the lower part. The upper beds tend to be more buff-coloured than the grey lower beds due to weathering by groundwater. The stone is massive, but extracted blocks are less than ~1m thick due to splitting along stylolites. Consisting of bioturbated wackestone to packstone, the Tyndall Stone was deposited in a shallow-marine environment within the photic zone, in the central part of the vast equatorial epicontinental sea that covered much of Laurentia. Scattered thin, bioclastic grainstone lenses record brief, low-energy storm events. The distinctive mottles are formed by dolomitized

  17. Electrolysis of oxalic acid in simulative mother liquor generated from plutonium (IV) oxalate precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclic voltammetry and linear voltammetry methods were used to study the characteristics of electrochemical behavior of oxalic acid (OA) and plutonium at platinum anode in simulative mother liquor (OW) generated from Pu (IV) oxalate precipitation step. The cyclic voltammograms show that the oxidation of OA on Pt anode is an irreversible reaction. An electrolytic method was described for the destruction of the OA in OW. 0.002-0.1 g/L Pu has no obvious effect on the destruction velocity of OA. Under a constant current density, OA can be destroyed to below 0.001 mol/L after a certain time, which can satisfy the requirements of the technical process. (authors)

  18. New indium selenite-oxalate and indium oxalate with two- and three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new indium(III) compounds with extended structures, [In2(SeO3)2(C2O4)(H2O)2].2H2O (I) and [NH3(CH2)2NH3][In(C2O4)2]2.5H2O (II), have been prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Compound I crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P-1, with a=5.2596(11) A, b=6.8649(14) A, c=9.3289(19) A, α=101.78(3)o, β=102.03(3)o, γ=104.52(3)o, while compound II crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Fdd2, with a=15.856(3) A, b=31.183(6) A, c=8.6688(17) A. In compound I, indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form two-dimensional (2D) In2(SeO3)2C2O4 layers, separated by non-coordinating water molecules. In compound II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered channels. - Graphical abstract: Two new indium(III) compounds have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. In I, the indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form 2D In2(SeO3)2C2O4 layers. In II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered ring channels

  19. [Diet therapy and life guidance to prevent calcium stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Manabu T

    2011-10-01

    Urolithiasis patients have a low continuation rate with regard to visiting the hospital and undergoing periodic check-ups following therapy. The increased Westernization of diets has played a major role in its onset, and it is believed to be a lifestyle disease. Therefore, the prevention of relapse is difficult without improving the patients' lifestyle and eating habits, and it has been defined as a disease with an extremely high relapse rate. On the other hand, it is believed that the opportunity for periodic visits to the hospital and check-ups can be assured by continuously performing careful dietary interventions appropriate for each patient and by educating patients about the disease, thereby contributing to the prevention of relapses of urolithiasis. PMID:21960239

  20. A new polymorph of magnesium oxalate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-An Chen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, catena-poly[[diaquamagnesium(II]-μ-oxalato], [Mg(C2O4(H2O2]n, there is one Mg atom in an octahedral coordination with site symmetry 222, a unique C atom of the oxalate anion lying on a twofold axis, an O atom of the anion in a general position and a water O atom at a site with imposed twofold rotation symmetry. The Mg2+ ions are ligated by water molecules and bridged by the anions to form chains that are held together by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The structure of the title compound has already been reported in a different space group [Lagier, Pezerat & Dubernat (1969. Rev. Chim. Miner. 6, 1081–1093; Levy, Perrotey & Visser (1971. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. pp. 757–761].

  1. Bioreceptivity of building stones: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A Z; Sanmartín, P; Pereira-Pardo, L; Dionísio, A; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Macedo, M F; Prieto, B

    2012-06-01

    In 1995, Guillitte defined bioreceptivity, a new term in ecology, as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. Information about the bioreceptivity of stone is of great importance since it will help us to understand the material properties which influence the development of biological colonization in the built environment, and will also provide useful information as regards selecting stones for the conservation of heritage monuments and construction of new buildings. Studies of the bioreceptivity of stone materials are reviewed here with the aim of providing a clear set of conclusions on the topic. Definitions of bioreceptivity are given, stone bioreceptivity experiments are described, and finally the stone properties related to bioreceptivity are discussed. We suggest that a standardized laboratory protocol for evaluating stone bioreceptivity and definition of a stone bioreceptivity index are required to enable creation of a database on the primary bioreceptivity of stone materials. PMID:22534363

  2. Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for large ureteric stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Sayyad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a safe and effective approach for selected patients with large proximal ureteric stones with reduced postoperative pain and short hospital stay, and should be considered as a treatment option for such stones.

  3. Luserna Stone: A nomination for "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavori, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Luserna Stone (Pietra di Luserna) is the commercial name of a grey-greenish leucogranitic orthogneiss, probably from the Lower Permian Age, that outcrops in the Luserna-Infernotto basin (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy) on the border between the Turin and Cuneo provinces. Geologically speaking, it pertains to the Dora-Maira Massif that represents a part of the ancient European margin annexed to the Cottian Alps during the Alpine orogenesis; from a petrographic point of view, it is the metamorphic result of a late-Ercinian leucogranitic rock transformation. Lithological features and building applications allow the recognition of two main varieties: 1) a micro-augen gneiss with very regular schistosity planes with centimetric spacing and easy split workability, known as Splittable facies; 2) a micro-Augen gneiss characterized by lower schistosity and poor split, suitable for blocks cutting machines (diamond wires, gang-saws, traditional saws), known as Massive facies. A third, rare, white variety also exists, called "Bianchetta". Luserna stone extends over an area of approximately 50 km2, where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. The stone is quarried and processed since almost the Middle Age, and currently represents one of the three most important siliceous production cluster in Italy (together with the Ossola and Sardegna Island granites). Some characteristics of this stone - such as the relevant physical-mechanical properties, an intrinsic versatility and its peculiar splittability - have made it one of the most widely used stone materials in Italy and in the countries surrounding the North Western border of Italy. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Luserna Stone are considered to be of relevant importance for its designation as a Global Heritage Stone Resource, such as the distinctive mark on

  4. Estudio exploratorio-ecológico sobre las concentraciones de sales de calcio en el agua para consumo humano y la litiasis renal en Costa Rica Exploratory-ecological study on the relationship between the concentration of calcium salts in water for human consumption and the incidence of renal stones in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darner A Mora Alvarado

    2007-12-01

    approximately 6000 cases per year of kidney stones in Costa Rica which implies an average rate of 1.7 cases per 1000 inhabitants; this pathology involves the formation of hard concretions resembling rock in any part of the urinary system. Etiology is multifactorial and involves anatomic, genetic, infectious as well as environmental factors such as the frequent intake of water with excess calcium salts also known as hard water. We carried out a county-based exploratory study of the ecologic type for the years 2001 to 2003 whereby a relationship was sought between the ingestion of calcium carbonate content in water for human consumption (which we abbreviate as (ACH and the incidence of renal calculi. With this objective in mind, we used on the one hand, data on county-based, average water-hardness from the National Water Laboratory (LNA from 4,000 water sources and, on the other, hospital discharges with the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis from 29 hospitals in the Costa Rican Social Security System. Statistical analysis was based on the Standardized Morbidity Index (which we abbreviate as IME adjusted by the indirect method as well as the Pearson correlation coefficient taken to a 95% degree of confidence. To present the data, county maps of water hardness and IME of renal calculi were used. The results indicate an ecological association between the two variables; in other words, when there is greater consumption of hard water, there exists a greater risk of renal calculi in the population with an excess risk of 27% in those places having high levels of water hardness and a Pearson coefficient for the ecological correlation of r=0,25. On the other hand, in the areas where the water predominantly is not hard, the risk is inferior to the national average. The results obtained open up new questions regarding the relationship between water hardness as well as its consumption and the incidence of kidney stones which should be answered by future studies.

  5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal stones

    OpenAIRE

    Nerli, Rajendra; Jali, Mallikarjuna; Guntaka, Ajay Kumar; Patne, Pravin; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Murigendra Basayya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of urinary stone disease has shown a steep rise in recent decades along with marked modifications in dietary habits and life- style. There has been an increased prevalence of urinary stone disease in patients with diabetes. We took up this study to determine the association of diabetes mellitus with kidney stones in patients undergoing surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with renal stones for surgical management formed the study group. Body...

  6. Compressive tests of multiplyleaf stone masonry walls

    OpenAIRE

    Korpič, Janez

    2012-01-01

    In the thesis overview of different types of stone masonry and the construction techniques are presented. There are also presented stonecutting tools and different types of stone masonry units in dependence from the extend of dressing. Stone is the oldest building material for building masonry structures. Thus all the masonry techniques developed from the history of building with stone. The main purpose of the investigation was to determine the influence of masonry bond on the com...

  7. Potassium aqua­terbium(III) oxalate sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Guang Sun; Mei-yan Guo; Gang Xiong; Bing Jiang; Lei Wang

    2009-01-01

    Single crystals of KTb(C2O4)(SO4)(H2O), potassium aquaterbium(III) oxalate sulfate, were obtained under hydrothermal conditions. In the crystal structure, the Tb(III) atom is coordinated by four O atoms from two oxalate anions, three O atoms from three sulfate anions and one O atom from a water molecule within a TbO8 distorted square antiprismatic coordination. The potassium and terbium(III) atoms are bridged by the oxalate and sulfate groups, forming a three-dimensional structure. The coordi...

  8. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy

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    Akif Diri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL.

  9. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diri, Akif; Karakan, Tolga; Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Germiyanoglu, Cankon

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL. PMID:25641455

  10. Keep Your Kidneys Clear: Kicking Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Kidneys Clear Keep Your Kidneys Clear Kicking Kidney Stones Some say that passing a kidney stone is like delivering a baby made of razor ... is that, although they can be excruciatingly painful, kidney stones rarely cause permanent damage, and you may be ...

  11. What is the Incidence of Kidney Stones after Chemotherapy in Patients with Lymphoproliferative or Myeloproliferative Disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein S. Mirheydar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study describes the incidence and risk factors of de novo nephrolithiasis among patients with lymphoproliferative or myeloproliferative diseases who have undergone chemotherapy. Materials and Methods From 2001 to 2011, patients with lymphoproliferative or myeloproliferative disorders treated with chemotherapy were retrospectively identified. The incidence of image proven nephrolithiasis after chemotherapy was determined. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded. Patients with a history of nephrolithiasis prior to chemotherapy were excluded. The primary outcome was incidence of nephrolithiasis, and secondary outcomes were risk factors predictive of de novo stone. Comparative statistics were used to compare demographic and disease specific variables for patients who developed de novo stones versus those who did not. Results A total of 1,316 patients were identified and the incidence of de novo nephrolithiasis was 5.5% (72/1316; symptomatic stones 1.8% 24/1316. Among patients with nephrolithiasis, 72.2% had lymphoproliferative disorders, 27.8% had myeloproliferative disorders, and 25% utilized allopurinol. The median urinary pH was 5.5, and the mean serum uric acid, calcium, potassium and phosphorus levels were 7.5, 9.6, 4.3, and 3.8 mg/dL, respectively. In univariate analysis, mean uric acid (p=0.013, calcium (p<0.001, and potassium (p=0.039 levels were higher in stone formers. Diabetes mellitus (p<0.001, hypertension (p=0.003, and hyperlipidemia (p<0.001 were more common in stone formers. In multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia, and hypercalcemia predicted stone. Conclusions We report the incidence of de novo nephrolithiasis in patients who have undergone chemotherapy. Diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia, and hypercalcemia are patient-specific risk factors that increase the odds of developing an upper tract stone following chemotherapy.

  12. Determination of chemical composition of gall bladder stones:Basis for treatment strategies in patients from Yaounde, Cameroon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fru F. Angwafo Ⅲ; Samuel Takongmo; Donald Griffith

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Gallstone disease is increasing in sub-saharan Africa (SSA).In the west, the majority of stones can be dissolved with bile salts, since the major component is cholesterol. This medical therapy is expensive and not readily accessible to poor populations of SSA. It was therefore necessary to analyze the chemical composition of biliary stones in a group of patients,so as to make the case for introducing bile salt therapy in SSA.METHODS: All patients with symptomatic gallstones were recruited in the study. All stones removed during cholecystectomy were sent to Houston for x-ray diffraction analysis. Data on age, sex, serum cholesterol, and the percentage by weight of cholesterol, calcium carbonate, and amorphous material in each stone was entered into a pre-established proforma. Frequencies of the major components of the stones were determined.RESULTS: Sixteen women and ten men aged between 27 and 73 (mean 44.9) years provided stones for the study.The majority of patients (65.38%) had stones with less than 25% of cholesterol. Amorphous material made up more than 50% and 100% of stones from 16 (61.53%) and 9 (34.61%)patients respectively.CONCLUSION: Cholesterol is present in small amounts in a minority of gallstones in Yaounde. Dissolution of gallstones with bile salts is unlikely to be successful.

  13. Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Stone Detection and Early Detection of Kidney Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. P.R. Tamilselvi; Dr.P.THANGARAJ

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Most of the previous study in diagnosis of kidney stone identifies a mere presence or absence of the stones in the kidney. However proposal in our study even present an early detection of kidney stones which helps to change the diet conditions and prevent the formation of stones. Approach: The study presented a scheme for ultrasound kidney image diagnosis for stone and its early detection based on improved seeded region growing based segmentation and cla...

  14. Stone Bracelet Production in Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Garin Carmagnani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the manufacture of stone bangles in Neolithic France, we visited the Hombori region of Mali, to study the last surviving generation of makers of stone bangles there. From our field observations and from many interviews with various artisans, we obtained a considerable amount of information about a tradition of manufacture that has, until recently, been largely unknown. The details gathered cover every stage of the manufacturing process, from the way in which outcrops of the raw material are selected, to the manner in which the calcareous stone is worked in the manufacture of the bracelets. We documented the various phases involved in the chaîne opératoire and the ways in which the finished products are dispersed from their place of manufacture. Much still remains to be discovered, notably about the past history of bangle manufacture in Hombori, and the ways in which the finished bracelets were perceived by the people who acquired and used them. Nevertheless, we have been able to develop models that help us to understand the societies in post-Linearbandkeramik Europe that adopted the practice of wearing stone bracelets.

  15. Post-renal acute renal failure due to a huge bladder stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcun Celik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year old male was referred to our emergency unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum renal function tests levels, blood urea nitrogen (BUN/creatinine, were 63 mmol/L/848 μmol/L. CT (Computarised Tomography scan showed a huge bladder stone (5 cm x 6 cm x 5 cm with increased bladder wall thickness. Post-renal acute renal failure due to bilateral ureterohydronephrosis was diagnosed. The huge bladder stone was considered to be the cause of ureterohydronephrosis and renal failure. The patient was catheterised and received haemodialysis immediately. He received haemodialysis four times during ten days of hospitalization and the level of serum renal function tests levels (BUN/ creatinine decreased 18 mmol/L/123 μmol/L. After improvement of renal function, we performed cystoscopy that demonstrated normal prostatic urethra and bladder neck and bilaterally normal ureteral orifices. Bladder wall was roughly trabeculated and Bladder outlet was completely obstructed by a huge bladder stone. After cystoscopy open, cystolithotomy was performed to remove calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate stone weighing 200 g removed. Four days after operation the patient was discharged uneventfully and urethral catheter was removed on the seventh day. Post-renal acute renal failure due to large bladder stones is rare in literature. According to the our knowledge; early diagnosis of the stone avoid growth to large size and prevent renal failure.

  16. Stones used in Milan architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folli, Luisa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Milan lies in a plain with clayey soil well suited to brick-making, but no stone deposits. An ample supply of stone is available, however, in the surrounding hills and mountains, which are connected to the city via both natural and artificial waterways. The types of stone used since Roman times include: granite, marble and gneiss from Ossola Valley; dolomite from Lake Maggiore; detrital limestone from Ceresio Valley; sandstone from the Brianza Hills; black limestone and marble from Lake Como; and conglomerate and sandstone from the Adda River basin. Traditionally, the chief uses have been dimension stone (all stones, column shafts (granite, slabs (marble, moulding (dolomite, limestone and ornamental (marble, dolomite, limestone.La ciudad de Milán se encuentra en una llanura de suelo arcilloso adecuado para la fabricación de ladrillos pero en la cual no hay yacimientos de rocas. No obstante, en las colinas y montañas circundantes, que están comunicadas con la ciudad mediante vías navegables naturales y artificiales, sí existe una abundante cantidad de piedra. Entre los tipos de piedra utilizados desde la época de los romanos se encuentran granitos, mármoles y gneises del valle de Ossola, dolomías del lago Mayor, calizas detríticas del valle de Ceresio (Lugano, areniscas de las colinas de la Brianza, calizas negras y mármoles del lago Como y conglomerados y areniscas de la cuenca del río Adda. Tradicionalmente, los principales usos han sido la piedra de fábrica (todas ellas, fustes de columnas (granito, losas (mármol, molduras (dolomía, caliza y ornamental (mármol, dolomía, caliza.

  17. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.L.; Hammelman, J.E.; Borgonovi, G.M.

    1977-11-01

    In support of LLL material safeguards program, a dynamic process model was developed which simulates the performance of a plutonium (IV) oxalate precipitator. The plutonium oxalate precipitator is a component in the plutonium oxalate process for making plutonium oxide powder from plutonium nitrate. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization descriptive equations, the parameters of which are quantified through the use of batch experimental data. The dynamic model predicts performance very similar to general Hanford oxalate process experience. The utilization of such a process model in an actual plant operation could promote both process control and material safeguards control by serving as a baseline predictor which could give early warning of process upsets or material diversion. The model has been incorporated into a FORTRAN computer program and is also compatible with the DYNSYS 2 computer code which is being used at LLL for process modeling efforts.

  18. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of LLL material safeguards program, a dynamic process model was developed which simulates the performance of a plutonium (IV) oxalate precipitator. The plutonium oxalate precipitator is a component in the plutonium oxalate process for making plutonium oxide powder from plutonium nitrate. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization descriptive equations, the parameters of which are quantified through the use of batch experimental data. The dynamic model predicts performance very similar to general Hanford oxalate process experience. The utilization of such a process model in an actual plant operation could promote both process control and material safeguards control by serving as a baseline predictor which could give early warning of process upsets or material diversion. The model has been incorporated into a FORTRAN computer program and is also compatible with the DYNSYS 2 computer code which is being used at LLL for process modeling efforts

  19. The enzymes of oxalate metabolism: unexpected structures and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedruzić, Drazenka; Jónsson, Stefán; Toyota, Cory G; Reinhardt, Laurie A; Ricagno, Stefano; Lindqvist, Ylva; Richards, Nigel G J

    2005-01-01

    Oxalate degrading enzymes have a number of potential applications, including medical diagnosis and treatments for hyperoxaluria and other oxalate-related diseases, the production of transgenic plants for human consumption, and bioremediation of the environment. This review seeks to provide a brief overview of current knowledge regarding the major classes of enzymes and related proteins that are employed in plants, fungi, and bacteria to convert oxalate into CO(2) and/or formate. Not only do these enzymes employ intriguing chemical strategies for cleaving the chemically unreactive C-C bond in oxalate, but they also offer the prospect of providing new insights into the molecular processes that underpin the evolution of biological catalysts. PMID:15581576

  20. Variation in oxalate and oxalate decarboxylase production by six species of brown and white rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Oliver, Jason; Howell, Caitlin;

    cell lumen where it quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions and oxalate, resulting in a pH decrease of the environment, and oxalate-cation complexes. Generally, brown rot fungi accumulate larger quantities of oxalic acid in the wood than white rot fungi. The amount of oxalic acid has been shown to vary...... significantly among strains of brown rot fungi and within strains in response to differing environmental conditions (Green and Clausen; Hastrup et al., 2006).  This variation is in part believed to be due to the level of oxalate decarboxylase (ODC). The enzyme breaks down oxalate into stoichiometric quantities...... of formic acid and CO2 (Makela et al., 2002). So far only a few species of brown rot fungi have been shown to accumulate this enzyme (Micales, 1995, Howell and Jellison, 2006).   The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the levels of soluble oxalate and total oxalate, in...

  1. 3.2.1. Synthesis, crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ1-oxalic acid-µ3-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kovalchukova*, Sergey Aldoshin, Andrey Utenyshev, Konstantin Bogenko, Valeriy Tkachev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ- oxalic acid-µ-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I was detected by X-Ray analysis. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with a(Å 6.2378(12; b(Å 7,1115(14; c(Å 10.489(2; α(° 94.65(3; β(° 100.12(3; γ(° 97.78(3. The sodium cation in the title compound is eight coordinated and forms a square antiprism. It is surrounded by two molecules of oxalic acid, one hydrogen oxalate anion and one water molecule. Both oxalic acid and hydrogen oxalate anion act as polydentate bridging ligands. Centrosymmetric sodium cations are bounded by hydrogen oxalate anions through a system of H bonds involving the molecules of oxalic acid. In the lattice, the 3D structure stabilized by H bonds is formed.

  2. Metamagnetism and Weak Ferromagnetism in Nickel (II) oxalate crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, E.; Mendoza, ME; Escudero, R.

    2012-01-01

    Microcrystals of orthorhombic nickel (II) oxalate dihydrate were synthesized through a precipitation reaction of aqueous solutions of nickel chloride and oxalic acid. Magnetic susceptibility exhibits a sharp peak at 3.3 K and a broadrounded maximum near 43 K. We associated the lower maximum with a metamagnetic transition that occurs when the magnetic field is about \\geq 3.5 T. The maximum at 43 K is the typical of 1D antiferromagnets, whereas weak ferromagnetism behavior was observed in the r...

  3. Two-stage precipitation of neptunium (IV) oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neptunium (IV) oxalate was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. Process variables tested were input concentrations, solubility conditions in the first stage precipitator, precipitation temperatures, and residence time in the first stage precipitator. A procedure has been demonstrated that produces neptunium (IV) oxalate particles that filter well and readily calcine to the oxide

  4. Production and degradation of oxalic acid by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted 14C-labeled oxalic acid to CO2 during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized 14C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize 14C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi

  5. Putative Aspergillus niger-induced oxalate nephrosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, C J; Truter, M; Bredell, T; Lange, L; Mülders, M S G

    2009-03-01

    A sheep farmer provided a maize-based brewer's grain (mieliemaroek) and bales of Eragrostis curvula hay to ewes and their lambs, kept on zero-grazing in pens. The 'mieliemaroek' was visibly mouldy. After 14 days in the feedlot, clinical signs, including generalised weakness, ataxia of the hind limbs, tremors and recumbency, were noticed. Six ewes died within a period of 7 days. A post mortem examination was performed on 1 ewe. The carcass appeared to be cachectic with mild effusions into the body cavities; mild lung congestion and pallor of the kidneys were observed. Microscopical evaluation revealed nephrosis and birefringent oxalate crystals in the renal tubules when viewed under polarised light. A provisional diagnosis of oxalate nephrosis with subsequent kidney failure was made. Amongst other fungi, Aspergillus niger was isolated from 'mieliemaroek' samples submitted for fungal culture and identification. As A. niger is known to synthesise oxalates, a qualitative screen to detect oxalic acid in the mieliemaroek and purified A. niger isolates was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Oxalic acid was detected, which supported a diagnosis of soluble oxalate-induced nephropathy. PMID:19653520

  6. (Dimethylphosphorylmethanaminium hydrogen oxalate–oxalic acid (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bialek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of (dimethylphosphorylmethanamine (dpma with oxalic acid in ethanol yielded the title solvated salt, C3H11NOP+·C2HO4−·0.5C2H2O4. Its asymmetric unit consists of one dpmaH+ cation, one hydrogen oxalate anion and a half-molecule of oxalic acid located around a twofold rotation axis. The H atom of the hydrogen oxalate anion is statistically disordered over two positions that are trans to each other. The hydrogen oxalate monoanion is not planar (bend angle ∼16° whereas the oxalic acid molecule shows a significantly smaller bend angle (∼7°. In the crystal, the components are connected by strong O—H...O and much weaker N—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of layers extending parallel to (001. The structure was refined from a racemically twinned crystal with twin components in an approximate 1:1 ratio.

  7. A new method for the homogeneous precipitative separation of trace level lanthanides as oxalates: application to different types of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxalate precipitation of lanthanides in acidic medium is a widely used selective group separation method at percentage to trace level in different types of geological samples. Most of the procedures are based on the heterogeneous oxalate precipitation of lanthanides using calcium as carrier. In the heterogeneous precipitation, the co-precipitated impurities from the matrix elements are more, besides if the pH at the time of precipitation is not monitored carefully there is a chance of losing some of the lanthanides. In this report, we present a new homogeneous oxalate precipitation of trace level lanthanides from different types of geological samples using calcium as carrier. In the present method pH is getting adjusted (pH ∼1) on its own, after the hydrolysis of urea added to the sample solution. This acidic pH is essential for the complete precipitation of the lanthanides. Therefore, no critical parameter adjustment for the precipitation is involved in the proposed method. The oxalate precipitate obtained was in crystalline nature which facilitates the fast settlement, easy filtration; besides the co-precipitated matrix elements are very less as compared to normal heterogeneous oxalate precipitation of lanthanides. Another advantage is more quantity of the sample can be taken for the separation of lanthanides which is a limitation for other separation methods reported. Accuracy of the method was checked by analyzing nine international reference materials comprising different types of geological samples obtained from Canadian Certified Reference Project Materials such as syenite samples SY-2, SY-3 and SY-4; gabro sample MRG-1; soil samples SO-1 and SO-2; iron formation sample FeR-2; lake sediments LKSD-2 and LKSD-4. The values of the lanthanides obtained for these reference materials are comparable with recommended values, indicating that the method is accurate. The reproducibility is characterized by a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1 to 6% (n=4). (author)

  8. Gomphrena claussenii, a novel metal-hypertolerant bioindicator species, sequesters cadmium, but not zinc, in vacuolar oxalate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafort Carvalho, Mina T; Pongrac, Paula; Mumm, Roland; van Arkel, Jeroen; van Aelst, Adriaan; Jeromel, Luka; Vavpetič, Primož; Pelicon, Primož; Aarts, Mark G M

    2015-11-01

    Gomphrena claussenii is a recently described zinc (Zn)- and cadmium (Cd)-hypertolerant Amaranthaceae species displaying a metal bioindicator Zn/Cd accumulation response. We investigated the Zn and Cd distribution in stem and leaf tissues of G. claussenii at the cellular level, and determined metabolite profiles to investigate metabolite involvement in Zn and Cd sequestration. Gomphrena claussenii plants exposed to high Zn and Cd supply were analysed by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) and micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). In addition, gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) was used to determine metabolite profiles on high Zn and Cd exposure. Stem and leaf tissues of G. claussenii plants exposed to control and high Cd conditions showed the abundant presence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals, but on high Zn exposure, their abundance was strongly reduced. Ca and Cd co-localized to the CaOx crystals in Cd-exposed plants. Citrate, malate and oxalate levels were all higher in shoot tissues of metal-exposed plants, with oxalate levels induced 2.6-fold on Zn exposure and 6.4-fold on Cd exposure. Sequestration of Cd in vacuolar CaOx crystals of G. claussenii is found to be a novel mechanism to deal with Cd accumulation and tolerance. PMID:26083742

  9. Analysis of Bone Density in Patients with Urolithiasis; Role of Hypercalciuria in Bone Loss: Do These Patients Need a Low-Calcium Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Ali-Asghar Yarmohammadi; Mahmood Molaei; Samira Yaghoobi; Fateme Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Kidney stone is a common urologic complaint. In this study, bone density in stone formers was compared with that of a control group; bone density of stone formers was also analyzed based on age, sex and stone configuration. Methods: In a group of 85 patients with upper urinary calcium stones and 85 healthy people, variables such as age, height, weight, BMI, T-score and Z-score results of bone densitometry of lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) and femoral neck were recorded. The serum leve...

  10. Sacrificial stone knives from Abusir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šajnerová, A.; Svoboda, Jiří

    Oxford: Archaeopress, 2008 - (Longo, L.; Skakun, N.), s. 327-330. (British Archaeological Reports International Series. 1783). ISBN 978-1-4073-0271-3. [Prehistoric technology 40 years later: Functional studies and the Russian legacy. Verona (IT), 20.04.2005-23.04.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Traseology * technology * stone knives * Abusir * Egypt Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  12. The Matariki Stone of Rapanui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

  13. Urinary tract stones in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, S K; Heilman, R L; Eversman, W G

    1995-02-01

    The presence of stones during an otherwise uneventful pregnancy is a dramatic and potentially serious issue for the mother, the fetus, and the treating physicians alike. The incidence and predisposing factors are generally the same as in nonpregnant, sexually active, childbearing women. Unique metabolic effects in pregnancy such as hyperuricuria and hypercalciuria, changes in inhibitors of lithiasis formation, stasis, relative dehydration, and the presence of infection all have an impact on stone formation. The anatomic changes and physiologic hydronephrosis of pregnancy make the diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Presenting signs and symptoms include colic, flank pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, irritative voiding, fever, premature onset or cessation of labor, and pre-eclampsia. The initial evaluation and treatment are again similar to those used for the nonpregnant population. The most appropriate first-line test is renal ultrasonography, which may, by itself, allow the diagnosis to be made and provide enough information for treatment. Radiographic studies, including an appropriately performed excretory urogram, give specific information as to size and location of the stones, location of the kidneys, and differential renal function and can be used safely, but the ionizing radiation risks should be considered. All forms of treatment with the exception of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and some medical procedures are appropriate in the pregnant patient. Close coordination by the urologist, the obstetrician, the pediatrician, the anesthesiologist, and the radiologist is required for the appropriate care of these patients. PMID:7855714

  14. Complex pathogenesis of hyperoxaluria after jejunoileal bypass surgery. Oxalogenic substances in diet contribute to urinary oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A F; Laker, M F; Dharmsathaphorn, K; Sherr, H P; Lorenzo, D

    1983-02-01

    Balance studies and oxalate loading tests were carried out in order to define the pathogenesis of hyperoxaluria in 8 patients with jejunoileal bypass surgery for severe obesity; two healthy volunteers were also studied. In the bypass patients, urinary oxalate was markedly elevated (118 +/- 43 mg/day, mean +/- SD) when they were on a high oxalate diet (252 mg/day). Hyperabsorption of dietary oxalate was confirmed by the markedly increased urinary recovery of [14C]oxalate given in a test meal. In addition, the oxalate radioactivity was excreted in urine far more slowly than in healthy volunteers, suggesting that the colon was a major site of oxalate absorption. Elevated urinary oxalate excretion persisted, averaging 38 +/- 12 mg/day, despite ingestion of a very low oxalate diet (approximately 6 mg/day), suggesting that the diet contained "oxalogenic" substances other than preformed dietary oxalate which also contributed to dietary oxalate in these patients. Urinary oxalate decreased in 7 of 8 patients, however, when protein-rich foods were removed from the diet, suggesting that at least one dietary factor was digestive products of protein or creatinine. These results confirm the current view that in patients with hyperoxaluria secondary to jejunoileal bypass, the majority of urinary oxalate derives from dietary oxalate that is absorbed from the colon. Tissue or bacterial production of oxalate or an oxalate precursor from dietary constituents associated with protein, however, also appears to contribute to urinary oxalate. The results provide an explanation for the reported difficulty of eliminating secondary hyperoxaluria by restriction of dietary oxalate alone. PMID:6848409

  15. Effect of acute acid loading on acid-base and calcium metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, Palle J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acid-base and calcium metabolic responses to acute non-carbonic acid loading in idiopathic calcium stone-formers and healthy males using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h ammonium chloride loading studies were performed in 12...... male recurrent idiopathic calcium stone-formers and 12 matched healthy men using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Arterialized capillary blood, serum and urine were collected hourly for measurement of electrolytes, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and acid-base...... status. Concentrations of non-metabolizable base (NB) and acid (NA) were calculated from measured concentrations of non-metabolizable ions. RESULTS: The extracellular acid-base status in the stone-formers during basal conditions and acid loading was comparable to the levels in the healthy controls...

  16. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  17. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p<0.0001) or...

  18. Calcium Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latvia - Lebanon - Libya - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Macedonia, Republic of - Malaysia - Malta - Mexico - Moldova - Morocco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Nigeria - ... and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What is Osteoporosis? The Board Introduction to Bone ...

  19. Oxalate content of some common foods: determination by an enzymatic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasidas, G P; Rose, G A

    1980-08-01

    A specific enzymatic method was used to determine the oxalate content of some common foods. No preliminary isolation of oxalate was required and recoveries ranging from 95-110 per cent were obtained. Spinach, rhubarb, peanuts, chocolates, parsley and tea were found to contain high levels of oxalate as previously described by others. On the other hand the oxalate content of beetroot was found to be five times as high as previously reported, but coca-cola and beer were almost free from oxalate. Cereals and meat were either low or deficient in oxalate. PMID:7410821

  20. Microbial monitoring in treated stone at the Royal Chapel of Granada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jroundi, Fadwa; Pinar, Guadalupe; González-Muñoz, Maria Theresa; Sterflinger, Katja

    2014-05-01

    Biomineralization processes have been applied in situ to protect and consolidate decayed ornamental stone of the Royal Chapel in Granada (Spain). In few years, this conservation treatment has gained worth attention as environmentally friendly methodology for protection and consolidation of limestone because of the compatibilities shown between the new calcium carbonate cement and the original stone substrate. Moreover, the success of this approach may be related to the diversity of the microbiota inhabiting the stone and activated upon the biotreatment application and throughout the time. González-Muñoz et al. (2008) proposed a nutritional solution that activate among the bacteria inhabiting the stone those with carbonatogenic activity. In this study, a long-term (one, two and three years) monitoring of the microbiota present on the treated and untreated stones was done using a molecular strategy, including total DNA extraction, PCR amplification of 16S rRNA sequences, construction of clone libraries and fingerprinting by DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) analysis. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA revealed the dominant occurrence of members of Actinobacteria (44.20%), Gamma-proteobacteria (30.24%) and Chloroflexi (25.56%) after one year of the biotreatment. Whereas after two years, members of Cyanobacteria (22.10%) appeared and three years after, the microbiota consisted of only Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria with approximately the same percentage in comparison with the untreated stones, dominated exclusively by Actinobacteria (100%). Fungal diversity followed the same dynamic as bacterial diversity being Ascomicota the predominant order before treatment. After one year, members of Basidiomycota and Viridiplantae appeared on the stone while two years after, the Viridiplantae dominated with a percentage of 84.77%. Finally, three years after the treatment, fungi population started to stabilize again and Ascomicota predominated next to 16.67% of

  1. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, F. [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: hameed@ati.ac.at; Schillinger, B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, FRM II and Physics Department E21, Garching (Germany); Rohatsch, A. [Institute for Engineering Geology, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H. [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-06-21

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  2. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  3. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, F.; Schillinger, B.; Rohatsch, A.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

    2009-06-01

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  4. Precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and calcination to plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plutonium based fuel fabrication requires the conversion of the plutonium nitrate solution from nuclear fuel reprocessing into pure PuO2. The conversion method based on the precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and subsequent calcination has been studied in detail. In this procedure, plutonium (III) oxalate is precipitated, at room temperature, by the slow addition of 1M oxalic acid to the feed solution, containing from 5-100 g/l of plutonium in 1M nitric acid. Before precipitation, the plutonium is adjusted to trivalent state by addition of 1M ascorbic acid in the presence of an oxidation inhibitor such as hydrazine. Finally, the precipitate is calcinated at 700 deg C to obtain PuO2. A flowsheet is proposed in this paper including: a) A study about the conditions to adjust the plutonium valence. b) Solubility data of plutonium (III) oxalate and measurements of plutonium losses to the filtrate and wash solution. c) Characterization of the obtained products. Plutonium (III) oxalate has several potential advantages over similar conversion processes. These include: 1) Formation of small particle sizes powder with good pellets fabrication characteristics. 2) The process is rather insensitive to most process variables, except nitric acid concentration. 3) Ambient temperature operations. 4) The losses of plutonium to the filtrate are less than in other conversion processes. (Author)

  5. Computational and experimental studies on oxalic acid imprinted polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kiran Kumar Tadi; R V Motghare

    2013-03-01

    Computational approach plays an important role to pre-evaluate the interactions between template and functional monomer, so that to choose functional monomer having stronger interactions with template during synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). Hence template-monomer interactions in pre-polymerization were mainly focused. In this paper, computational chemistry was applied to screen the number of mol of functional monomer that interacts with one mol of template. Intermolecular interactions between oxalic acid and acrylamide have been investigated. The binding energies Ebind were calculated by DFT (B3LYP) level of theory with the 6−31+G(d,p) basis set. It was found that four mol of acrylamide were sufficient to interact with one mol of oxalic acid in the pre-polymerization mixture. Four possible conformations and frequency calculations were performed to locate minima. Oxalic acid specific bulk polymer was obtained by the thermal initiated free radical co-polymerization of acrylamide and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate with oxalic acid as template and acetonitrile as porogen. The synthesized MIP efficiently adsorbed oxalic acid from aqueous solutions. The binding parameters ofMIP and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) were compared by Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms.

  6. CT diagnosis of gall stone ileus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of gall stone ileus in which only small bowel obstruction was seen on the conventional abdominal film and the diagnosis was made by computed tomography (CT). With the availability of CT and its increasing use in the investigation of the acute abdomen, CT examination will occasionally be performed on gall stone ileus patients. Awareness of the CT findings in gall stone ileus will result in early diagnosis leading to a reduction in the mortality rate. (orig.)

  7. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    OpenAIRE

    Kadyan, B.; V Sabale; D Mane; V Satav; A Mulay; Thakur, N.; Kankalia, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Ideal treatment modality for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial. We compared laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy (Lap-TPUL) and semirigid ureteroscopy for large proximal ureteric stones to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Patients and Methods: From November 2012 to December 2014, we enrolled 122 patients with large (≥1.5 cm) proximal ureteral stone in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A...

  8. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    OpenAIRE

    Kadyan, B.; V Sabale; D Mane; V Satav; A Mulay; Thakur, N.; Kankalia, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Ideal treatment modality for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial. We compared laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy (Lap-TPUL) and semirigid ureteroscopy for large proximal ureteric stones to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Patients and Methods: From November 2012 to December 2014, we enrolled 122 patients with large (≥1.5 cm) proximal ureteral stone in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Grou...

  9. How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Chan Sup

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracor...

  10. Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Stone Detection and Early Detection of Kidney Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. P.R. Tamilselvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most of the previous study in diagnosis of kidney stone identifies a mere presence or absence of the stones in the kidney. However proposal in our study even present an early detection of kidney stones which helps to change the diet conditions and prevent the formation of stones. Approach: The study presented a scheme for ultrasound kidney image diagnosis for stone and its early detection based on improved seeded region growing based segmentation and classification of kidney images with stone sizes. With segmented portions of the images the intensity threshold variation helps in identifying multiple classes to classify the images as normal, stone and early stone stages. The improved semiautomatic Seeded Region Growing (SRG based image segmentation process homogeneous region depends on the image granularity features, where the interested structures with dimensions comparable to the speckle size are extracted. The shape and size of the growing regions depend on this look up table entries. The region merging after the region growing also suppresses the high frequency artifacts. The diagnosis process is done based on the intensity threshold variation obtained from the segmented portions of the image and size of the portions compared to that of the standard stone sizes (less than 2 mm absence of stone, 2-4 mm early stages and 5mm and above presence of kidney stones. Results: The parameters of texture values, intensity threshold variation and stones sizes are evaluated with experimentation of various Ultrasound kidney image samples taken from the clinical laboratory. The texture extracted from the segmented portion of the kidney images presented in our study precisely estimate the size of the stones and the position of the stones in the kidney which was not done in the earlier studies. Conclusion: The integrated improved SRG and classification mechanisms presented in this study diagnosis the kidney stones presence

  11. Natural Building Cut Stones of North Cyprus: Meluşa and Karpaz Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Eren, Özgür; Marar, Khaled; Çelik, Tahir

    2006-01-01

    -Natural building cut stones are being used for ages all over the World to build masonry structures. Although these cut stones are low cost construction materials, they are not widely used in these days. This study was done in order to bring more technical information about these stones for Engineers in Cyprus. Two quarries were selected and samples obtained were tested for some physical and mechanical properties. From the results obtained it can be said that Meluşa stone behaved bette...

  12. A Review of Porcelain Gallbladder Mimicking a Gallbladder Stone on Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyun Sun [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Cheju National University College of Medicine, Cheju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hong Rayang; Lim, Chung Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Porcelain gallbladder is a rare disorder by deposition of calcium in the wall of gallbladder. The chronic cholecystitis is reported to produce mural calcification and obstruction to the cystic duct by stone. Since porcelain gallbladder is commonly associated with gallbladder cancer, cholecystectomy is performed to prevent it. We report here a case of a patient with porcelain gallbladder. This case showed the typical ultrasonographic, computer tomographic and radiographic findings of the disease.

  13. Computational stoning method for surface defect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ninshu; Zhu, Xinhai

    2013-12-01

    Surface defects on outer panels of automotive bodies must be controlled in order to improve the surface quality. The detection and quantitative evaluation of surface defects are quite difficult because the deflection of surface defects is very small. One of detecting methods for surface defects used in factories is a stoning method in which a stone block is moved on the surface of a stamped panel. The computational stoning method was developed to detect surface low defect by authors based on a geometry contact algorithm between a stone block and a stamped panel. If the surface is convex, the stone block always contacts with the convex surface of a stamped panel and the contact gap between them is zero. If there is a surface low, the stone block does not contact to the surface and the contact gap can be computed based on contact algorithm. The convex surface defect can also be detected by applying computational stoning method to the back surface of a stamped panel. By performing two way stoning computations from both the normal surface and the back surface, not only the depth of surface low defect but also the height of convex surface defect can be detected. The surface low defect and convex surface defect can also be detected through multi-directions. Surface defects on the handle emboss of outer panels were accurately detected using the computational stoning method and compared with the real shape. A very good accuracy was obtained.

  14. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Register (73 FR 76677) on December 17, 2008. For more about the initial process and the history of this... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife...

  15. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the goals of research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone surfaces is to define the incremental impact of acidic deposition relative to natural weathering processes on the rate of carbonate stone erosion. If rain that impacts carbonate stone surfaces is resident on the surface long enough to approach chemical equilibrium, the incremental effect of hydrogen ion is expected to be small (i.e., 6% for a rain of pH 4.0). Under nonequilibrium (i.e., high flow rate) conditions, kinetic considerations suggest that the incremental effect of hydrogen ion deposition could be quite significant. Field run-off experiments involving the chemical analysis of rain collected from inclined stone slabs have been used to evaluate stone dissolution processes under ambient conditions of wet and dry deposition of acidic species. The stoichiometry of the reaction of stone with hydrogen ion is difficult to define from the field data due to scatter in the data attributed to hydrodynamic effects. Laboratory run-off experiments show that the stoichiometry is best defined by a reaction with H+ in which CO2 is released from the system. The baseline effect caused by water in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is identical in the field and in laboratory simulation. The experiments show that the solutions are close enough to equilibrium for the incremental effect of hydrogen ion to be minor (i.e., 24% for marble for a rain of pH 4.0) relative to dissolution due to water and carbonic acid reactions. Stone erosion rates based on physical measurement are approximately double the recession rates that are due to dissolution (estimated from the observed calcium content of the run-off solutions). The difference may reflect the loss of granular material not included in recession estimates based on the run-off data. Neither the field nor the laboratory run-off experiments indicate a pH dependence for the grain-removal process.

  16. Spin waves in antiferromagnetically coupled bimetallic oxalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Peter L; Fishman, Randy S

    2009-01-01

    Bimetallic oxalates are molecule-based magnets with transition-metal ions M(II) and M(')(III) arranged on an open honeycomb lattice. Performing a Holstein-Primakoff expansion, we obtain the spin-wave spectrum of antiferromagnetically coupled bimetallic oxalates as a function of the crystal-field angular momentum L(2) and L(3) on the M(II) and M(')(III) sites. Our results are applied to the Fe(II)Mn(III), Ni(II)Mn(III) and V(II)V(III) bimetallic oxalates, where the spin-wave gap varies from 0 meV for quenched angular momentum to as high as 15 meV. The presence or absence of magnetic compensation appears to have no effect on the spin-wave gap. PMID:21817242

  17. Titrimetric determination of uranium(VI) with oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method developed uses oxalic acid as titrant and has been tested for the analysis of relatively pure uranyl nitrate solutions having 1 to 25 mg uranium in sample volumes up to 2 ml with an accuracy and precision of +-1%. In the method, the uranium bearing aliquot is taken in 1:1 iso-propyl alcohol - ethyl alcohol mixture and after adjusting the pH to 2.5, the solution is titrated with oxalic acid which has been prestandardized with a standard uranyl nitrate solution. The end point is detected with arsenazo-I as indicator and the colour change at the end point is from bluish green to light pink. The uranyl oxalate complex formed under these conditions corresponds to 1:1 mole ratio. (author)

  18. Characterization of wheat germin (oxalate oxidase) expressed by Pichia pastoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level secretory expression of wheat (Triticum aestivum) germin/oxalate oxidase was achieved in Pichia pastoris fermentation cultures as an α-mating factor signal peptide fusion, based on the native wheat cDNA coding sequence. The oxalate oxidase activity of the recombinant enzyme is substantially increased (7-fold) by treatment with sodium periodate, followed by ascorbate reduction. Using these methods, approximately 1 g (4 x 104 U) of purified, activated enzyme was obtained following eight days of induction of a high density Pichia fermentation culture, demonstrating suitability for large-scale production of oxalate oxidase for biotechnological applications. Characterization of the recombinant protein shows that it is glycosylated, with N-linked glycan attached at Asn47. For potential biomedical applications, a nonglycosylated (S49A) variant was also prepared which retains essentially full enzyme activity, but exhibits altered protein-protein interactions

  19. Effects of acid deposition on dissolution of carbonate stone during summer storms in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, 1987-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, S.I.

    1994-01-01

    This study is part of a long-term research program designed to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone. Acidic deposition accelerates the dissolution of carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. Sequential sampling of runoff from carbonate-stone (marble) and glass (reference) microcatchments in the Adirondack Mountains in New York State provided a detailed record of the episodic fluctuations in rain rate and runoff chemistry during individual summer storms. Rain rate and chemical concentrations from carbonate-stone and glass runoff fluctuated three to tenfold during storms. Net calcium-ion concentrations from the carbonatestone runoff, a measure of stone dissolution, typically fluctuated twofold during these storms. High net sulfate and net calcium concentrations in the first effective runoff at the start of a storm indicated that atmospheric pollutants deposited on the stone surface during dry periods formed calcium sulfate minerals, an important process in carbonate stone dissolution. Dissolution of the carbonate stone generally increased up to twofold during coincident episodes of low rain rate (less than 5 millimeters per hour) and decreased rainfall (glass runoff) pH (less than 4.0); episodes of high rain rate (cloudbursts) were coincident with a rapid increase in rainfall pH and also a rapid decrease in the dissolution of carbonate-stone. During a storm, it seems the most important factors causing increased dissolution of carbonate stone are coincident periods of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. Dissolution of the carbonate stone decreased slightly as the rain rate exceeded about 5 millimeters per hour, probably in response to rapidly increasing rainfall pH during episodes of high rain rate and shorter contact time between the runoff and the stone surface. High runoff rates resulting from cloudbursts remove calcium sulfate minerals formed during dry periods prior to storms and also remove dissolution products formed in large

  20. Idiopathic Calcium Nephrolithiasis And Hypercalciuria: The Role Of Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaro, Giovanni; Abaterusso, Cataldo

    2007-04-01

    Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria are multifactorial disease conditions, the pathogenesis of which involves the interaction of environmental and individual factors. Data support a strong role of genes in the pathogenesis of these two conditions. Findings obtained in monogenic disorders characterized by renal calcium stones, and/or hypercalciuria, and/or nephrocalcinosis have proposed a number of genes as candidate genes in the pathogenesis of the common idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria. The physiological role of these genes, and findings in monogenic disorders and idiopathic, multifactorial disorders will be presented.

  1. Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

    2013-04-01

    Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global

  2. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease; CPPD disease; Acute CPPD arthritis; Pseudogout ... Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis is caused by the collection of salt called calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The buildup ...

  3. Mourning in Bits and Stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    We mourn our dead, publicly and privately, online and offline. Cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites make up parts of todays intricately weaved and interrelated network of death, grief and memorialization practices [1]–[5]. Whether cut in stone or made of bits, graves, cemeteries...... such as space, artifacts, situations or sensuous representations. In this paper we build upon present research on grief-work and propose a methodological contribution to the study of progressions of digital mourning and remembrance practices [6]–[8]. We present a generalized structure of online...

  4. A Lion of a Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm. This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

  5. Feasibility of magnetic stirring for continuous actinide oxalate precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methodology in vogue for conversion of actinide nitrate to its oxide is through a batch oxalate precipitation in a long reactor with a propeller type stirrer inserted from the top of the reactor. Use of electromagnetic stirrer as an alternate for the propeller type stirrer will lower the cost as well as minimize down time due to maintenance. Since continuous precipitation process can be achieved with smaller reactors, a possibility of magnetic stirring during oxalate precipitation is explored. Results of initial batch experiments with cerium nitrate as a surrogate for actinide nitrate is presented here. (author)

  6. Metamagnetism and weak ferromagnetism in nickel (II) oxalate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Tela, E.; Mendoza, M. E.; Escudero, R.

    2012-05-01

    Microcrystals of orthorhombic nickel (II) oxalate dihydrate were synthesized through a precipitation reaction of aqueous solutions of nickel chloride and oxalic acid. Magnetic susceptibility exhibits a sharp peak at 3.3 K and a broad rounded maximum near 43 K. We associated the lower maximum with a metamagnetic transition that occurs when the magnetic field is about ≥ 3.5 T. The maximum at 43 K is typical of 1D antiferromagnets, whereas weak ferromagnetism behavior was observed in the range of 3.3-43 K.

  7. Metamagnetism and weak ferromagnetism in nickel (II) oxalate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microcrystals of orthorhombic nickel (II) oxalate dihydrate were synthesized through a precipitation reaction of aqueous solutions of nickel chloride and oxalic acid. Magnetic susceptibility exhibits a sharp peak at 3.3 K and a broad rounded maximum near 43 K. We associated the lower maximum with a metamagnetic transition that occurs when the magnetic field is about ≥ 3.5 T. The maximum at 43 K is typical of 1D antiferromagnets, whereas weak ferromagnetism behavior was observed in the range of 3.3-43 K. (paper)

  8. Kinetics of thermal decomposition of barium zirconyl oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of the thermal decomposition of anhydrous barium zirconyl oxalate and a carbonate intermediate have been studied. Decomposition of the anhydrous oxalate, though it could be explained based on a contracting-cube model, is quite complex. Kinetics of decomposition of the intermediate carbonate Ba2Zr2O5CO3 is greatly influenced by thermal effects during its formation. (α-t) curves are sigmoidal and obey a power law equation followed by first order decay. Presence of carbon in the vacuum-prepared carbonate has a strong deactivating effect. Decomposition of the carbonate is accompanied by growth in particle size of the product barium zirconate. (Author)

  9. Research on Oxalate Oxidase and Its Genes in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; WANG Xiao-li; LIU jia; YI Zhi-gang; DONG Zhi-min

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the discovery, composition and structure of oxalate oxidase, as well as illustrates the biological functions of this enzyme. With a comprehensive introduction upon previous researches upon gene cloning and heredity transformation of this enzyme, it indicates that heredity transformation can increase the content of oxalate oxidase within the plants and also enhance their resistance. The paper also points out the problems such as lack of gene resources and difficulty in the transformation of heterologous genes, and the focus in later researches should be laid upon the exploration of plant resources relative to this enzyme and selection of resistant species.

  10. PREPARATION OF OXALATES OF METALS OF ATOMIC NUMBER GREATER THAN 88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for the preparation of oxalates of metals of atomic number greater than 88. A solid peroxide of the heavy metal is contacted with an aqueous oxalic acid solution ai a temperature of about 50 C for a period of time sufficient to form the insoluble metal oxalate which is subsequentiy recovered as a pures crystalline compound.

  11. Stone Formation in the Infected Pediatric Enterocystoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Proteus mirabilis is one of the most frequent bacterial agents that can induce infection stone formation by urease production. In recent years the influence of Proteus mirabilis on stone formation in enterocystoplasties has been primarily related to the presence of ure

  12. STONE CORBELLED SHELTERS AT KRAS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Zupančič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the southern part of Slovenia can be found stone shelters, named hiska, this area in Slovenia has special name - Kras. This rocky plain has some unique properties as: caves, intermittent lakes and underground rivers. Landscape of Kras is mixture of stones, pine forests and rare fields edged by stone walling and groups of bushes. Settlements could be interpreted as flock of sheep; houses are gathered close together to battle against dry and cold wind burja. Stone is main material of housing of settlements in the region. Kras could be understood as rocky relief with many holes where resources of water are scarce.Some hundred years ago the areas close to settlements were used for pasture (especially sheep and for agriculture. Field were cleaned and stones found were used to construct walls and small very modest shelters for shephards. When describing construction of hiska at Kras I should point out that stones were piled up by shepherds with no special knowledge of corbelled constructions. Many shelters documented in this area are constructed as corbelled vault lean against the bigger rock. Using characteristics of relief and logic they have erected small modest shelter. Later with more experiences they have built independent shelters using corbelling false dome to cover roof span. TAny of he various stone shelters found in this area haves different realization using but use a common material – nearby stone pieces from the vicinity - and the technique – corbelling.

  13. Modeling of the Calcium/Phosphorus Mass ratio for Breast Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, N.; Koukou, V.; Michail, C.; Sotiropoulou, P.; Kalyvas, N.; Kandarakis, I.; Nikiforidis, G.; Fountos, G.

    2015-09-01

    Breast microcalcifications are mainly composed of calcite (CaCO3), calcium oxalate (CaC2O4) and apatite (a calcium-phosphate mineral form). Any pathologic alteration (carcinogenesis) of the breast may produce apatite. In the present simulation study, an analytical model was implemented in order to distinguish malignant and non-malignant lesions. The Calcium/Phosphorus (Ca/P) mass ratio and the standard deviation (SD) of the calcifications were calculated. The size of the calcifications ranged from 100 to 1000 μm, in 50 μm increments. The simulation was performed for hydroxyapatite, calcite and calcium oxalate calcifications. The optimum pair of energies for all calcifications was 22keV and 50keV. Hydroxyapatite and calcite calcifications were sufficiently characterized through their distinct confidence interval (99.7%, 3SD) values for calcifications sizes above 500 μm, while the corresponding sizes for hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate characterization were found above 250 μm. Initial computer simulation results indicate that the proposed method can be used in breast cancer diagnosis, reducing the need for invasive methods, such as biopsies.

  14. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  15. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  16. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  17. Aromatase deficiency causes altered expression of molecules critical for calcium reabsorption in the kidneys of female mice *.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oz, O.K.; Hajibeigi, A.; Howard, K.; Cummins, C.L.; Abel, M. van; Bindels, R.J.M.; Word, R.A.; Kuro-o, M.; Pak, C.Y.; Zerwekh, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Kidney stones increase after menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. ArKO mice have hypercalciuria and lower levels of calcium transport proteins, whereas levels of the klotho protein are elevated. Thus, estrogen deficiency is sufficient to cause altered renal calcium handling. INTRODU

  18. Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2016-05-17

    An active electrode material for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries includes a lithium transition metal oxide which is free of sodium and sulfur contaminants. The lithium transition metal oxide is prepared by calcining a mixture of a lithium precursor and a transition metal oxalate. Electrochemical devices use such active electrodes.

  19. Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate by photoacoustics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sivabarathy; S Natarajan; S K Ramakrishnan; K Ramachandran

    2004-10-01

    Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate is studied by using TG, DTA and photoacoustic spectroscopy. A sharp transition at 378 K by photoacoustics is observed whereas at the same temperature the endothermic energy change observed by TG and DTA is not very sharp. This is discussed in detail with reference to the other known data for the organic crystals.

  20. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

  1. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.

    2012-02-22

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. For 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 10.5 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2 g/L and 0.25 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}.

  2. Protactinium(V) complexation by oxalic and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is devoted to complexation of Pa(V) with oxalic acid and DTPA. Structural data on the limiting complex have been collected by combining X-ray absorption Spectroscopy, Capillary Electrophoresis (CE-ICP-MS) and DFT calculations. Thermodynamic data have been deduced from solvent extraction experiments. XAS data registered on samples of Pa(V) in oxalic acid have revealed the presence of one single Pa-O oxo bond and 3 oxalate in a bidentate mode in the complex of maximum order. The structure optimization, performed through DFT calculations indicate that 2 oxalate lie in the equatorial plane of the Pa=O bond, whereas one oxygen of the third oxalate goes in the prolongation of the oxo bond. Stability constants of the three successive complexes were determined by solvent extraction in the TTA/toluene/H2O/Pa(V)/NaClO4/HClO4/H2C2O4 system at different temperatures and 3M ionic strength. The stability of the complexes was proved to increase with their order. CE-ICP-MS measurements on Pa/DTPA samples have indicated the formation of a neutral (1:1)limiting complex. This complex can therefore be written as Pa(DTPA). The optimized structure determined by DFT calculations allowed one to conclude that all eight donor atoms (5 O and 3 N) of the DTPA ligand are involved in the coordination of protactinium. The formation constant of this complex has been determined for different values of ionic strength and temperature. The complexation reaction of Pa(V) with DTPA was proved to be entropy controlled. (author)

  3. Clinical experience with EDAP LT-01+ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for radiolucent stones; a report of 27 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between February 1990 and February 1993, Radiolucent stones of 27 renal units in 22 patients were treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using the EDAP LT-01+. Intravenous urography was done in all patients for the diagnosis of radiolucent stones. Retrograde pyelography, ultrasonography and/or computed tomography was done, if needed. The locations of stones were kidney in 11(40.7 %), upper ureter in 8(29.6 %), lower ureter in 6(22.2 %), bladder in 1(3.7 %), ureteropelvic junction in 1(3.7 %). The average stone size was 10.9mm with a range of 5 to 32mm in maximum diameter. The average numbers of treatment were 2.7 sessions and average storage required was 34.8 in one session. The average treatment time was 40.4 minutes. All the patients showed complete removal of all calculous materials. Of 17 urinary stones analysed by chemical method, 8(47.1 %) were composed of uric acid, 5(29.4 %) of uric acid and calcium, 3 of phosphate and 1 of carbonate and phosphate. Therefore, we conclude that ESWL with EDAP LT-01+ lithotriptor is considered to be an effective noninvasive procedure for treatment of radiolucent stones. (Author)

  4. Effect of chemical mixing state on the hygroscopicity and cloud nucleation properties of calcium mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sullivan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mineral dust particles can alter cloud properties and thus climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN that form cloud droplets. The CCN activation properties of various calcium mineral dust particles were studied experimentally to investigate the consequences of field observations showing the segregation of sulphate from nitrate and chloride between individual aged Asian dust particles, and the enrichment of oxalic acid in Asian dust. Each mineral's observed apparent hygroscopicity was primarily controlled by its solubility, which determines the degree to which the mineral's intrinsic hygroscopicity can be expressed. The significant increase in hygroscopicity caused by mixing soluble hygroscopic material with insoluble mineral particles is also presented. Insoluble minerals including calcium carbonate, representing fresh unprocessed dust, and calcium sulphate, representing atmospherically processed dust, had similarly small apparent hygroscopicities. Their activation is accurately described by a deliquescence limit following the Kelvin effect and corresponded to an apparent single-hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of ~0.001. Soluble calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, representing atmospherically processed mineral dust particles, were much more hygroscopic, activating similar to ammonium sulphate with κ~0.5. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (κ=0.05 was significantly less CCN-active than oxalic acid (κ=0.3, but not as inactive as its low solubility would predict. These results indicate that the common assumption that all mineral dust particles become more hygroscopic and CCN-active after atmospheric processing should be revisited. Calcium sulphate and calcium oxalate are two realistic proxies for aged mineral dust that remain non-hygroscopic. The dust's apparent hygroscopicity will be controlled by its chemical mixing state, which is determined by its mineralogy and the chemical reaction pathways it experiences

  5. Effect of chemical mixing state on the hygroscopicity and cloud nucleation properties of calcium mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sullivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mineral dust particles can alter cloud properties and thus climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN that form cloud droplets. The CCN activation properties of various calcium mineral dust particles were studied experimentally to investigate the consequences of field observations showing the segregation of sulfate from nitrate and chloride between individual aged Asian dust particles, and the enrichment of oxalic acid in Asian dust. Each mineral's observed apparent hygroscopicity was primarily controlled by its solubility, which determines the degree to which the mineral's intrinsic hygroscopicity can be expressed. The significant increase in hygroscopicity caused by mixing soluble hygroscopic material with insoluble mineral particles is also presented. Insoluble minerals including calcium carbonate, representing fresh unprocessed dust, and calcium sulfate, representing atmospherically processed dust, had similarly small apparent hygroscopicities. Their activation is accurately described by a deliquescence limit following the Kelvin effect and corresponded to an apparent single-hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of ~0.001. Soluble calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, representing atmospherically processed mineral dust particles, were much more hygroscopic, activating similar to ammonium sulfate with κ~0.5. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (κ=0.05 was significantly less CCN-active than oxalic acid (κ=0.3, but not as inactive as its low solubility would predict. These results indicate that the common assumption that all mineral dust particles become more hygroscopic and CCN-active after atmospheric processing should be revisited. Calcium sulfate and calcium oxalate are two realistic proxies for aged mineral dust that remain non-hygroscopic. The dust's apparent hygroscopicity will be controlled by its chemical mixing state, which is determined by its mineralogy and the chemical reaction pathways it experiences during

  6. Polarographic studies on mixed ligand complexes involving amino acids : ternary systems, Cd-α-alanine-oxalate and Cd-β-alanine-oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternary complexes of cadmium(II) with oxalate as primary ligand and α- and β-alanines as secondary ligands have been studied polarographically. Formation of three mixed complex species, [Cd(amino acid) (oxalate)], [Cd(amino acid) (oxalate)2] and [Cd(anino acid)2(oxalate)], is observed in each case. The reduction is reversible and diffusion-controlled. The stability constants have been evaluated usino the method of McMasters. The α-alanine complexes are found to be more stable than the corresponding β-alanine complexes. (author)

  7. Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, E. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

  8. Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Ureteral Stones: Evaluation of Patient and Stone Related Predictive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Yazici

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the patient and stone related factors which may influence the final outcome of SWL in the management of ureteral stones.Materials and Methods:Between October 2011 and October 2013, a total of 204 adult patients undergoing SWL for single ureteral stone sizing 5 to 15 mm were included into the study program. The impact of both patient (age, sex, BMI, and stone related factors (laterality, location, longest diameter and density as CT HU along with BUN and lastly SSD (skin to stone distance on fragmentation were analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Stone free rates for proximal and distal ureteral stones were 68.8% and 72.7%, respectively with no statistically significant difference between two groups (p=0.7. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, while higher BMI (mean: 26.8 and 28.1, p=0.048 and stone density values (mean: 702 HU and 930 HU, p<0.0001 were detected as statistically significant independent predictors of treatment failure for proximal ureteral stones, the only statistically significant predicting parameter for the success rates of SWL in distal ureteral stones was the higher SSD value (median: 114 and 90, p=0.012.Conclusions:Our findings have clearly shown that while higher BMI and increased stone attenuation values detected by NCCT were significant factors influencing the final outcome of SWL treatment in proximal ureteral stones; opposite to the literature, high SSD was the only independent predictor of success for the SWL treatment of distal ureteral stones.

  9. Translocation and bonding of calcium (45Ca) in two-year-old seedlings of spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the project ''Effect of liming and magnesium fertilization on the uptake, transport, and chemical bonding form of calcium and magnesium in conifers'', experiments regarding the calcium budget of two-year-old spruce and pine seedlings under conditions of controlled nutrition in a gravel culture were carried out. Two variants of calcium nutrition demonstrated which of the mechanisms in the calcium metabolism of trees are dependent on changes in element availability. Root labelling using the radioactive tracer 45Ca permitted aimed investigation of the uptake and translocation of calcium during shoot formation in May. The functional importance of the investigated nutritive element was characterized by breaking up the total calcium contents (45Ca) into the three essential chemical bonding forms (water-soluble Ca, Ca-pectate, Ca-oxalate) for the different tree fractions.- The culture experiments led to the conclusion that the root tips are most important as sites of calcium uptake. Translocation within the roots to the shoot took place via diffusion and exchange displacement as a function of calcium supply in the nutritive solution. There is no clue to support the assumption of a regulation of calcium uptake in spruces; in pines, by contrast, it cannot be excluded.- From a nutrition-physiological viewpoint, a total calcium content of 2 mg per gramme of dry mass is to be considered as sufficient. As this target is always attained, even where calcium supply is scarce, it is not appropriate to equate increased calcium availability with enhanced nutrient supply. Rather, the results discussed seem to support the theory that the trees now need to detoxicate excessively high calcium concentrations, which are liable to endanger the physiological cell metabolism, by a reaction with oxalic acid resulting in the formation of calcium oxalate. (orig.)

  10. Real-Time kinetic studies of Bacillus subtilis oxalate decarboxylase and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora oxalate oxidase using a luminescent oxygen sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC, an enzyme of the bicupinsuperfamily, catalyzes the decomposition of oxalate into carbondioxide and formate at an optimal pH of 4.3 in the presence ofoxygen. However, about 0.2% of all reactions occur through anoxidase mechanism that consumes oxygen while producing twoequivalents of carbon dioxide and one equivalent of hydrogenperoxide. The kinetics of oxidase activity were studied bymeasuring the consumption of dissolved oxygen over time using a luminescent oxygen sensor. We describe the implementation of and improvements to the oxygen consumption assay. The oxidase activity of wild type OxDC was compared to that of the T165V OxDC mutant, which contains an impaired flexible loop covering the active site. The effects of various carboxylic acid-based buffers on the rate of oxidase activity were also studied. These results were compared to the oxidase activity of oxalate oxidase (OxOx, a similar bicupin enzyme that only carries out oxalate oxidation. Thetemperature dependence of oxidase activity was analyzed, andpreliminary results offer an estimate for the overall activationenergy of the oxidase reaction within OxDC. The data reported here thus provide insights into the mechanism of the oxidase activity of OxDC.

  11. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  12. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  13. Dependence of bisphenol A photodegradation on the initial concentration of oxalate in the lepidocrocite-oxalate complex system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Jun; LI Fang-bai; LAN Chong-yu; LIU Cheng-shuai; LI Xiao-min; LUAN Tian-gang

    2006-01-01

    To understand the degradation of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in natural environment with existence of iron oxides and carboxylic acids, the dependence ofbisphenol A (BPA) photodegradation on the initial concentration ofoxalate (Cox) in lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) aqueous suspension was investigated under both UV and visible lights in this study. Lepidocrocite powder was home-prepared by a hydrothermal process. It was found that BPA degradation was promoted greatly in the presence of oxalate owing to the formation of lepidocrocite-oxalate complex. And there was an optimal Cox, which was 2.0 and 2.4 mmol/L, under UV and visible lights, respectively. The first-order kinetic constant, k value increased 38 times from 0.17 × 10-2 min-1 in the absence of oxalate to 6.39 × 10-2 min-1 in the presence ofoxalate with an optimal Cox (2.0 mmol/L) under UV irradiation, and almost 306 times from 0.02 × 10-2 min-1 in the absence ofoxalate to 6.11 × 10-2 min-1 in the presence of oxalate with an optimal Cox (2.4 mmol/L) under visible irradiation. The BPA degradation rate increased and the first-order kinetic constants decreased with the increase in BPA initial concentration. The dependence of the variation of pH value, total-Fe and Fe2+ during the photoreaction on Cox was also investigated.The pH value increased obviously with the reaction time. Total-Fe increased dramatically at the first 5 min and then decreased quickly under UV irradiation and slowly under visible irradiation. The initial concentration of oxalate is a main factor to affect BPA photodegradation in aqueous suspension under both UV and visible lights.

  14. [Salivary stones: aetiology, composition and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, S; Brand, H S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones or sialoliths, are calcified concrements which are most frequently located in the submandibular glands and their ducts. Their size and weight show considerable variation. The aetiology is unknown. It has been suggested that salivary stones could be related to an altered saliva composition, the anatomy of the ducts of the salivary gland and/or the fusion of microsialoliths. Salivary stones consist mainly of anorganic material such as hydroxyapatite, whitlockite and calciumphosphate, but they also contain organic components such as proteins and lipids. Treatment can consist of salivary gland massage combined with an acid diet, ultrasonic pulverisation, and surgical or sialendoscopical removal. PMID:26188478

  15. Famous building stones of our Nation's capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

  16. Computed tomography after percutaneous renal stone extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty patients were examined with computed tomography (CT) of the kidney and the retroperitoneal space after percutaneous stone extraction. Most examinations were done within a week after the operation. The morphologic changes were usually small or none. In 7 patients minor renal or perirenal fluid collections were found. Their operations had been complicated by bleeding or leakage. In 66 patients CT was compared with conventional radiographs. Residual stones were more often detected by CT. They were usually small. Percutaneous renal stone extraction is considered a safe and efficient method. (orig.)

  17. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R. A.

    2012-03-12

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 °C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. At 25 °C, for 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 11 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2.5 g/L and 0.8 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The solubility of Gd in 4 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate at 10 °C is about 1.5 g/L. For 6 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate, the solubility of Gd at 10

  18. MİDYAT STONE AND STONE WORK: NATURAL AND CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemalettin ŞAHİN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Midyat (Mardin extracted from the town of Midyat stone natural and cultural environment interaction, application areas and problems are examined. Therefore, in July of 2010 trip to the region, observation and research were made. In addition, workers' and employers engaged in face-to-face interviews were carried out stonework, questionnaire. The Middle - Upper Eocene aged Midyat Formation is the source of the stone. The main lithological characteristics of the rock, environmental temperature, to the texture and porous is that easy processing. Extraction and processing of stone is effective in seasonal weather types in the region. There are active four stone quarries in the town of Midyat. Covering easily processed due to the nature of the stone facade buildings, walls, doors and windows are widely used in decoration. Today, stone extraction, processing, marketing problems are experienced; local architecture and contribution to the economy is declining with each passing year.

  19. Usefulness of computed tomography in recurrent nephrolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For five cases of recurrent stone formers we performed Computed Tomography, which revealed non-visualized small stones on KUB and uric acid stones. Case 1 was primary hyperparathyroidism. Case 2 had several episodes of spontaneous stone passage without any stone shadow on routine X-ray examination. Case 3 had single ureteral stone on X-ray film. Case 4 had several episodes of spontaneous passage of mixed stones (uric acid and calcium oxalate). Case 5 had bilateral radiolucent large renal stones. We emphasized the superiority of Computed Tomography in search and prophylactic therapy of the stone formation. (author)

  20. Retrograde intrarenal stone surgery for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy-resistant kidney stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Nørby, Bettina; Osther, Palle Jörn

    2006-01-01

    extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)-resistant kidney stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 38 consecutive patients (18 males, 20 females) participated in the study. All patients had undergone ESWL prior to RIRS without success. In all cases the stones could be reached with the endoscope. Calculi...... ranged in size from 3 to 20 mm (mean 9 mm). In 32 cases the stones were fragmented using a holmium YAG laser and in six the stones could be extracted using zero-tip Dormia baskets without fragmentation. Sixteen patients had lower calyceal calculi and eight had an abnormal anatomy of the upper urinary...