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Sample records for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis

  1. Wu-Ling-San formula prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wu-Ling-San (WLS) formula has been proved to prevent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial of WLS in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis prevention. All patients who enrolled were asked to drink enough fluid to urinate at least 2 L ...

  2. Mucin 4 Gene Silencing Reduces Oxidative Stress and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Through the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Pathway in Nephrolithiasis Rat Model

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    Ling Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nephrolithiasis plagues a great number of patients all over the world. Increasing evidence shows that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathway and renal tubular epithelial cell (RTEC dysfunction and attrition are central to the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. Mucin 4 (MUC4 is reported as an activator of ERK signaling pathway in epithelial cells. In this study, using rat models of calcium oxalate (CaOx nephrolithiasis, the present study aims to define the roles of MUC4 and ERK signaling pathway as contributors to oxidative stress and CaOx crystal formation in RTEC. Methods: Data sets of nephrolithiasis were searched using GEO database and a heat flow map was drawn. Then MUC4 function was predicted. Wistar rats were prepared for the purpose of model establishment of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. In order to assess the detailed regulatory mechanism of MUC4 silencing on the ERK signaling pathway and RTEC, we used recombinant plasmid to downregulate MUC4 expression in Wistar rat-based models. Samples from rat urine, serum and kidney tissues were reviewed to identify oxalic acid and calcium contents, BUN, Cr, Ca2+ and P3+ levels, calcium crystal formation in renal tubules and MUC4 positive expression rate. Finally, RT-qPCR, Western blot analysis, and ELISA were employed to access oxidative stress state and CaOx crystal formation in RTEC. Results: Initially, MUC4 was found to have an influence on the process of nephrolithiasis. MUC4 was upregulated in the CaOx nephrolithiasis model rats. We proved that the silencing of MUC4 triggered the inactivation of ERK signaling pathway. Following the silencing of MUC4 or the inhibition of ERK signaling pathway, the oxalic acid and calcium contents in rat urine, BUN, Cr, Ca2+ and P3+ levels in rat serum, p-ERK1/2, MCP-1 and OPN expressions in RTEC and H2O2 and MDA levels in the cultured supernatant were downregulated, but the GSH

  3. Calcium oxalate stone and gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil

    2009-12-01

    Gout is well known to be produced by increased uric acid level in blood. The objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between gout and calcium oxalate stone formation in the humans. 48 patients with combination of gout and calcium oxalate stone problem were included. The biochemical values of this group were compared with 38 randomly selected uric acid stone patients with gout, 43 stone patients with gout alone, 100 calcium oxalate stone patients without gout and 30 controls, making a total of 259 patients. Various biochemical parameters, namely serum calcium, phosphorus and uric acid and 24-h urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, citrate and magnesium were analysed. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range tests were performed to assess statistical significance of the variations. The promoters of stone formation, namely serum calcium (P stone patients and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients compared to the non-gouty patients and controls. Urine oxalate (P stones patients. The inhibitor urine citrate (P stone gouty patients, followed by the gouty uric acid stone formers and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients. The high values of promoters, namely uric acid and calcium in the gouty stone patients indicate the tendency for urinary stone formation in the gouty stone patients. There is probably a correlation between gout and calcium oxalate urinary stone. We presume this mechanism is achieved through the uric acid metabolism. The findings point to the summation effect of metabolic changes in development of stone disease.

  4. Sobresaturacion urinaria del Oxalato de Calcio más alla de la Nefrolitiasis: La relación con el daño tubulointersticial Urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation beyond nephrolithiasis: Relationship with tubulointerstitial damage

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    J. E. Toblli

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos estudios han demostrado que el producto de la actividad iónica (PAI de oxalato de calcio (OxCa en la orina, como indicador de sobresaturación (SS urinaria, es mayor en pacientes formadores de cálculos que en sujetos normales. Más allá de la relación entre SS urinaria del OxCa y litogénesis, la exposición de OxCa al epitelio tubular puede ocasionar lesiones en la célula tubular y en el intersticio renal. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la posible relación entre SS urinaria de OxCa y el daño tubulointersticial (TI en un modelo animal de hiperoxaluria. Durante cuatro semanas, ratas Sprague-Dawley machos, divididas en dos grupos recibieron: grupo 1 Control [G1], (n= 8 agua, grupo 2 [G2], (n = 8 etilenglicol (ETG al 1% en el agua de beber. La SS urinaria de OxCa se valoró mediante el PAI del OxCa. Las lesiones TI se analizaron al finalizar el estudio por microscopía óptica e inmunohistoquímica. El G2 (ETG presentó valores mayores (pA number of studies have demonstrated that the urinary ion activity product (IAP of calcium oxalate (CaOx, as an index of urinary CaOx supersaturation (SS, is higher in renal stone formers than in normal subjects. Besides, the relation between CaOx SS and lithogenesis, crystal CaOx exposition can produce tubular cell as well as renal interstitial lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible relationship between CaOx SS and tubulointerstitial (TI damage in an animal model of hyperoxaluria. During four weeks, male Sprague-Dawley rats received: G1 (n=8 control regular water, and G2 (n= 8 1% ethylene glycol (ETG (precursor for oxalates in drinking water. In order to evaluate urinary CaOx SS, IAP assessed by Tisselius formula was performed. At the end of the study, renal lesions were evaluated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Animals from G2 (ETG presented higher (p< 0.01 values of: a urinary oxalate excretion; b urinary CaOx SS; c crystalluria score; d proteinuria; and lower (p

  5. Oxalate: Effect on calcium absorbability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaney, R.P.; Weaver, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Absorption of calcium from intrinsically labeled Ca oxalate was measured in 18 normal women and compared with absorption of Ca from milk in these same subjects, both when the test substances were ingested in separate meals and when ingested together. Fractional Ca absorption from oxalate averaged 0.100 +/- 0.043 when ingested alone and 0.140 +/- 0.063 when ingested together with milk. Absorption was, as expected, substantially lower than absorption from milk (0.358 +/- 0.113). Nevertheless Ca oxalate absorbability in these women was higher than we had previously found for spinach Ca. When milk and Ca oxalate were ingested together, there was no interference of oxalate in milk Ca absorption and no evidence of tracer exchange between the two labeled Ca species

  6. Plasma oxalic acid and calcium levels in oxalate poisoning

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    Zarembski, P. M.; Hodgkinson, A.

    1967-01-01

    Observations are reported on five cases of suicide or attempted suicide by poisoning with oxalic acid or ethylene glycol. Elevated oxalic acid levels were observed in the plasma, stomach contents, and a number of tissues. Raised oxalic acid levels in plasma were associated with reduced total and ultrafilterable calcium levels. It is suggested that the reduction in plasma total calcium level is due mainly to the deposition of calcium oxalate in the soft tissues, but inhibition of the parathyroid glands may be a contributory factor. Microscopic examination of various tissues indicated that oxalic acid is deposited in the tissues in two forms: (1) crystalline calcium oxalate dihydrate in the kidney and (2) a non-crystalline complex of calcium oxalate and lipid in liver and other tissues. PMID:5602563

  7. Hyperoxaluria in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis--what are the limits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The object of this study was to investigate the role for measurement of 24-h renal oxalate excretion in the evaluation of idiopathic calcium stone formers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Renal excretion rates of oxalate and creatinine were measured in 24-h urines in 46 consecutive male recurrent...

  8. Oxalic acid decreases calcium absorption in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.M.; Martin, B.R.; Ebner, J.S.; Krueger, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium absorption from salts and foods intrinsically labeled with 45 Ca was determined in the rat model. Calcium bioavailability was nearly 10 times greater for low oxalate kale, CaCO 3 and CaCl 2 than from CaC 2 O 4 (calcium oxalate) and spinach (high in oxalates). Extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of calcium bioavailability from kale but not from spinach

  9. Laterality of Symptomatic Recurrent Calcium Nephrolithiasis | Ketata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Although it is presumed that both kidneys excrete similar urinary constituents, it is a general observation that the majority of patients present with unilateral stone disease. The aim of this work was to study the laterality of recurrence in calcium stone formers. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective study of 154 ...

  10. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

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    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  11. Dietary habits in women with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis

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    Meschi Tiziana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition has been widely recognized to influence the risk of kidney stone formation. Therefore the aim of our study was to assess: a whether usual diet of women with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis (ICN living in Parma (Northern-Italy is different compared to healthy controls, b how their diet differs from Italian National guidelines and c whether it is related to nephrolithiasis clinical course. Methods 143 women with recurrent ICN (mean age 43 ± 13 ys and 170 healthy women (mean age 42 ± 11 ys were enrolled. All women completed a food frequency questionnaire for the last 60-days and a 3-day dietary diary analysed with a dedicated software. Results Stone formers showed a higher consumption of sausages, ham, meat and sweets than healthy controls (43.1% vs 11.1%, 29.4% vs 13.9%, 21.6% vs 4.2%, 66.7% vs 18.1%, p 40 years, the differences described above were amplified in the class ≤30 years, where nephrolithiasis presented a more serious course (shorter recurrence interval, greater stone-rate. In this age group the intake of fruit and vegetables was notably lower than guideline recommendations. Conclusions We conclude that the usual diet of women with recurrent ICN is different from controls and characterized by low intake of fruits and vegetables and higher consumption of simple sugars and foods with high protein and salt content. This dietary imbalance could play a role in the ICN pathogenesis, especially in younger women. This work was financed by grants from Italian Ministry of University and Research as part of a larger project about the prevention of kidney stones (PRIN 2005063822 and by Fondazione per la Ricerca Scientifica Termale (FoRST. No potential conflict of interest relevant to this paper was reported.

  12. Short communication: Urinary oxalate and calcium excretion by dogs and cats diagnosed with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Kummeling, A.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urine concentrations of oxalate and calcium play an important role in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation in dogs and cats, with high excretions of both substances increasing the chance of CaOx urolithiasis. In 17 CaOx-forming dogs, urine calcium:creatinine ratio (Ca:Cr) was found

  13. Inhibition of crystallization of calcium oxalate by the extraction of Tamarix gallica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensatal, Ahmed; Ouahrani, M R

    2008-12-01

    The main objective is to study the inhibitor effect of acid fraction of the extract of Tamarix gallica L on the crystallization of calcium oxalate. The extract of Tamarix gallica L is very rich by acid compounds that are used as an inhibitor of nephrolithiasis (calcium oxalate). Our study of the calcium oxalate crystallization is based on the model of turbidimetry by means of a spectrophotometer. The calcium oxalate formation is induced by the addition of oxalate solutions of sodium and of calcium chloride. The addition of inhibitor with various concentrations enabled us to give information on the percentage of inhibition. The comparison between the turbidimetric slopes with and without inhibitor gives the effectiveness of inhibitor for the acid fraction. By comparing the photographs of with and without inhibitor, we concluded that the extract of Tamarix gallica L acts at the stage of growth. The acid fraction of the extract of Tamarix gallica L gives an activity remarkable in the formation of urinary lithiasis (calcium oxalate); this effectiveness is due to the presence of functions of acid.

  14. Pediatric Nephrolithiasis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Tayaba; Kamat, Deepak

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis is on the rise. The composition of kidney stones in children is different than in adults, as most stones in children have a composition of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate mixed with a small amount of uric acid. The symptoms of pediatric nephrolithiasis are nonspecific. Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard for diagnosis; however, because of radiation exposure associated with a CT scan, ultrasonography is also an accepted modality for the diagnosis. Extensive metabolic evaluation is important to rule out an underlying metabolic disorder. Urinary decompression, medical expulsion therapy, and surgical interventions such as ureteroscopy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy are some of the options available for treating pediatric nephrolithiasis. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(6):e242-e244.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Calcium-sensing receptor gene polymorphism (rs7652589) is associated with calcium nephrolithiasis in the population of Yi nationality in Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Jianhua; Long, Jiang; Shi, Jiarun; Luo, Yuhui

    2018-04-16

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene plays an important role in regulating the Ca 2+ balance and reducing the risk for calcium stones. In this study, we evaluated the association of CaSR polymorphisms with calcium nephrolithiasis in the population of Yi nationality in Southwestern China. Biochemical variables were evaluated in 624 calcium nephrolithiasis patients and 470 age-matched healthy controls without a history of nephrolithiasis. CaSR polymorphisms rs7652589, rs1501899, rs1801725 (Ala986Ser), rs1042636 (Arg990Gly) and rs1801726 (Gln1011Glu) were investigated between the calcium nephrolithiasis patients and healthy controls, using direct sequencing. Compared with the healthy controls, serum creatinine and 24-hour urine calcium levels were significantly higher in calcium nephrolithiasis patients. Among these five polymorphisms, the genotypic and allelic frequency distributions of rs7652589 SNP was significantly associated with the risk of calcium nephrolithiasis. However, there were no genotypic or allelic distribution differences for rs1501899, rs1801725, rs1042636, and rs1801726 polymorphisms between calcium nephrolithiasis patients and healthy controls. Moreover, the association between rs7652589 SNP genotypes and the biochemical variables was not found. Our study showed that CaSR rs7652589 polymorphism had a significant effect on the risk of developing calcium nephrolithiasis in the population of Yi nationality in Southwestern China. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  16. Role of cellular oxalate in oxalate clearance of patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stone formation and normal controls.

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    Oehlschläger, Sven; Fuessel, Susanne; Meye, Axel; Herrmann, Jana; Froehner, Michael; Albrecht, Steffen; Wirth, Manfred P

    2009-03-01

    To examine the cellular, plasma, and urinary oxalate and erythrocyte oxalate flux in patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stone formation vs normal controls. Pathologic oxalate clearance in humans is mostly integrated in calcium oxalate stone formation. An underlying cause of deficient oxalate clearance could be defective transmembrane oxalate transport, which, in many tissues, is regulated by an anion exchanger (SLC26). We studied 2 groups: 40 normal controls and 41 patients with COM stone formation. Red blood cells were divided for cellular oxalate measurement and for resuspension in a buffered solution (pH 7.40); 0.1 mmol/L oxalate was added. The supernatant was measured for oxalate immediately and 1 hour after incubation. The plasma and urinary oxalate were analyzed in parallel. The mean cellular oxalate concentrations were significantly greater in the normal controls (5.25 +/- 0.47 micromol/L) than in those with COM stone formation (2.36 +/- 0.28 micromol/L; P stone formation (0.31 +/- 0.02 mmol/L) than in the controls (0.24 +/- 0.02 mmol/L; P r = 0.49-0.63; P r = -0.29-0.41; P r = -0.30; P r = 0.25; P stone formation. Our data implicate the presence of a cellular oxalate buffer to stabilize plasma and urinary oxalate concentrations in normal controls.

  17. Update on probiotics for the treatment of calcium oxalate stones

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    Di ZHANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is one of the common diseases in urinary system, among which calcium oxalate stone is the most common one with a high recurrence rate. An important pathological factor for the formation of calcium oxalate stone is the increased absorption of oxalate from intestine, which leads to a high urine oxalate concentration. Intestinal bacteria known to be able to degrade oxalate includes Oxalobacter formigenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Eubacterium lentum, Providencia rettgeri, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, etc. Among those, Oxalobacter formigenes is the first oxalate-degrading obligate anaerobe found in human, while the rest are just conditioned bacteria with the function to degrade intestinal oxalate. There are three kinds of enzymes in Oxalobacter formigenes involved in the metabolism of oxalate, namely oxalate-formate antiporter (OxlT, formyl-CoA transferase (Frc and oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase (Oxc. Animal experiments have verified that Oxalobacter formigenes could reduce intestinal oxalate absorption by promoting the secretion of oxalate and degradation as well, thus decrease the excretion of urine oxalate. The present review will focus on the research progress of probiotics treatment for the calcium oxalate stones so as to provide reference for further research and development. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.08.16

  18. Probable functions of calcium oxalate crystals in different tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Representatives of seven major edible aroid accessions were screened for calcium oxalate using standard histochemical methods. All the accessions were noted to contain calcium oxalate in the forms of raphide bundles and intra-amylar crystals. The crystals were widely present in all parts of the plants including spongy ...

  19. Unusual calcium oxalate crystals in ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Meagher, E P; Sanders, H D; Frohlich, J

    1980-06-01

    A patient poisoned with ethylene glycol exhibited the symptoms of (1) hysteria, (2) metabolic acidosis with both a large anion gap and osmolal gap, and (3) crystalluria. However, the shape of the urinary crystals was prismatic and resembled hippurate rather than the expected dipyramidal calcium oxalate dihydrate. X-ray crystallography positively identified them as calcium oxalate monohydrate.

  20. Addition of calcium compounds to reduce soluble oxalate in a high oxalate food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Wen-Chun; Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2017-04-15

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is often used as a base vegetable to make green juices that are promoted as healthy dietary alternatives. Spinach is known to contain significant amounts of oxalates, which are toxic and, if consumed regularly, can lead to the development of kidney stones. This research investigates adding 50-500mg increments of calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium citrate and calcium sulphate to 100g of raw homogenates of spinach to determine whether calcium would combine with the soluble oxalate present in the spinach. Calcium chloride was the most effective additive while calcium carbonate was the least effective. The formation of insoluble oxalate after incubation at 25°C for 30min is a simple practical step that can be incorporated into the juicing process. This would make the juice considerably safer to consume on a regular basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heterogeneous nucleation of calcium oxalate on native oxide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, L.; Pattillo, M.J.; Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    The aqueous deposition of calcium oxalate onto colloidal oxides has been studied as a model system for understanding heterogeneous nucleation processes of importance in biomimetic synthesis of ceramic thin films. Calcium oxalate nucleation has been monitored by measuring induction times for nucleation using Constant Composition techniques and by measuring nucleation densities on extended oxide surfaces using an atomic force microscope. Results show that the dependence of calcium oxalate nucleation on solution supersaturation fits the functional form predicted by classical nucleation theories. Anionic surfaces appear to promote nucleation better than cationic surfaces, lowering the effective energy barrier to heterogeneous nucleation

  2. Role of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin in calcium oxalate crystallization

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    Carvalho M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the defenses against nephrolithiasis is provided by macromolecules that modulate the nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention of crystals in the kidneys. The aim of the present study was to determine the behavior of two of these proteins, Tamm-Horsfall and uromodulin, in calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro. We studied a group of 10 male stone formers who had formed at least one kidney stone composed of calcium oxalate. They were classified as having idiopathic nephrolithiasis and had no well-known metabolic risk factors involved in kidney stone pathogenesis. Ten normal men were used as controls, as was a group consisting of five normal women and another consisting of five pregnant women. Crystallization was induced by a fixed supersaturation of calcium oxalate and measured with a Coulter Counter. All findings were confirmed by light and scanning electron microscopy. The number of particulate material deposited from patients with Tamm-Horsfall protein was higher than that of the controls (P<0.001. However, Tamm-Horsfall protein decreased the particle diameter of the stone formers when analyzed by the mode of the volume distribution curve (P<0.002 (5.64 ± 0.55 µm compared to 11.41 ± 0.48 µm of uromodulin; 15.94 ± 3.93 µm and 12.45 ± 0.97 µm of normal men Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively; 8.17 ± 1.57 µm and 9.82 ± 0.95 µm of normal women Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively; 12.17 ± 1.41 µm and 12.99 ± 0.51 µm of pregnant Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively. Uromodulin produced fewer particles than Tamm-Horsfall protein in all groups. Nonetheless, the total volume of the crystals produced by uromodulin was higher than that produced by Tamm-Horsfall protein. Our results indicate a different effect of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin. This dual behavior suggests different functions. Tamm-Horsfall protein may act on nucleation and inhibit crystal aggregation, while

  3. MRP-1 and BCRP Promote the Externalization of Phosphatidylserine in Oxalate-treated Renal Epithelial Cells: Implications for Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, YiFu; Yu, ShiLiang; Gan, XiuGuo; Zhang, Ze; Wang, Yan; Wang, YingWei; An, RuiHua

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the possible involvement of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in the oxalate-induced redistribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) in renal epithelial cell membranes. A western blot analysis was used to examine the MRP-1 and BCRP expression levels. Surface-expressed PS was detected by the annexin V-binding assay. The cell-permeable fluorogenic probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate was used to measure the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. A rat model of hyperoxaluria was obtained using 0.5% ethylene glycol and 1.0% ammonium chloride. In addition, certain animals received verapamil (50 mg/kg body weight), which is a common inhibitor of MRP-1 and BCRP. The degree of nephrolithiasis was assessed histomorphometrically using sections stained by Pizzolato method and by measuring the calcium oxalate crystal content in the renal tissue. Oxalate produced a concentration-dependent increase in the synthesis of MRP-1 and BCRP. Treatment with MK571 and Ko143 (MRP-1- and BCRP-specific inhibitors, respectively) significantly attenuated the oxalate-induced PS externalization. Adding the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine significantly reduced MRP-1 and BCRP expression. In vivo, markedly decreased nephrocalcinosis was observed compared with that in the rat model of hyperoxaluria without verapamil treatment. Oxalate induces the upregulation of MRP-1 and BCRP, which act as phospholipid floppases causing PS externalization in the renal epithelial cell membrane. The process is mediated by intracellular ROS production. The ROS-mediated increase in the synthesis of MRP-1 and BCRP can play an important role in hyperoxaluria-promoted calcium oxalate urolithiasis by facilitating phosphatidylserine redistribution in renal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

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    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  5. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  6. Calcium oxalate contribution to calcium cycling in forests of contrasting nutrient status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (Ca oxalate) is an insoluble biomineral that forms in plants and fungi, and occurs in soils across many types of ecosystems. Assessing how Ca oxalate may shape ecosystem Ca cycling requires information on the distribution of Ca oxalate among plant biomass, detritus, and mineral soil, and how it varies with ecosystem Ca status. We compared two Douglas-fir forests of contrasting ecosystem Ca availability, and found that Ca oxalate was partitioned similarly among plant biomass, detritus and mineral soil major ecosystem compartments at both sites, and total pools of Ca oxalate were greater in the high-Ca forest. However, the proportional importance of Ca oxalate was greater in the low-Ca than high-Ca forest (18% versus 4% of actively cycling ecosystem Ca, respectively). And calcium oxalate in mineral soil, which is of particular interest as a potential long-term Ca reservoir, was a larger portion of total available Ca (exchangeable Ca plus Ca oxalate Ca) in the low-Ca site than the high-Ca site (9% versus 1% of available soil Ca, respectively). Calcium oxalate was the dominant form of Ca returned from plants to soil as leaf litterfall at the high-Ca site, yet calcium oxalate disappeared rapidly from decomposing litter (0.28 yr−1 or faster) at both sites. We conclude that accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest ecosystems appears most closely related to overall Ca supply for live biomass pools, and that the accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest floor and mineral soil is limited by rapid microbial degradation of putatively unavailable Ca oxalate.

  7. Characterization of calcium oxalate biominerals in Pereskia species (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2009-01-01

    Calcium oxalate druses were isolated from the stems and leaves of six Pereskioideae family members and investigated by infrared spectroscopy, showing that in all samples the biomineral was present in the form of whewellite, CaC2O4 x H2O. As Pereskia is thought to represent the "ancestral" condition of the leafless stem-succulent cacti, these results suggest that the biomineralization of calcium oxalate in Cactaceae represents a primitive characteristic of the group and also support a close genetic relationship between Pereskia and Opuntia.

  8. Influence of nutrition on feline calcium oxalate urolithiasis with emphasis on endogenous oxalate synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Plantinga, E.A.; Baal, van J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths detected in cats with lower urinary tract disease has shown a sharp increase over the last decades with a concomitant reciprocal decrease in the occurrence of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) uroliths. CaOx stone-preventative diets are

  9. Crystallization of calcium oxalate in minimally diluted urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, T.; Rodgers, A.

    1998-09-01

    Crystallization of calcium oxalate was studied in minimally diluted (92%) urine using a mixed suspension mixed product crystallizer in series with a Malvern particle sizer. The crystallization was initiated by constant flow of aqueous sodium oxalate and urine into the reaction vessel via two independent feed lines. Because the Malvern cell was in series with the reaction vessel, noninvasive measurement of particle sizes could be effected. In addition, aliquots of the mixed suspension were withdrawn and transferred to a Coulter counter for crystal counting and sizing. Steady-state particle size distributions were used to determine nucleation and growth kinetics while scanning electron microscopy was used to examine deposited crystals. Two sets of experiments were performed. In the first, the effect of the concentration of the exogenous sodium oxalate was investigated while in the second, the effect of temperature was studied. Calcium oxalate nucleation and growth rates were found to be dependent on supersaturation levels inside the crystallizer. However, while growth rate increased with increasing temperature, nucleation rates decreased. The favored phases were the trihydrate at 18°C, the dihydrate at 38° and the monohydrate at 58°C. The results of both experiments are in agreement with those obtained in other studies that have been conducted in synthetic and in maximally diluted urine and which have employed invasive crystal counting and sizing techniques. As such, the present study lends confidence to the models of urinary calcium oxalate crystallization processes which currently prevail in the literature.

  10. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs4236480 in TRPV5 Calcium Channel Gene Is Associated with Stone Multiplicity in Calcium Nephrolithiasis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Khaleel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is characterized by calcification of stones in the kidneys from an unknown cause. Animal models demonstrated the functional roles of the transient receptor potential vanilloid member 5 (TRPV5 gene in calcium renal reabsorption and hypercalciuria. Therefore, TRPV5 was suggested to be involved in calcium homeostasis. However, whether genetic polymorphisms of TRPV5 are associated with kidney stone multiplicity or recurrence is unclear. In this study, 365 Taiwanese kidney-stone patients were recruited. Both biochemical data and DNA samples were collected. Genotyping was performed by a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. We found that a TRPV5 polymorphism (rs4236480 was observed to be associated with stone multiplicity of calcium nephrolithiasis, as the risk of stone multiplicity was higher in patients with the TT+CT genotype than in patients with the CC genotype (p=0.0271. In summary, despite the complexity of nephrolithiasis and the potential association of numerous calcium homeostatic absorption/reabsorption factors, TRPV5 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis.

  11. Arthritis associated with calcium oxalate crystals in an anephric patient treated with peritoneal dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, A.; Ryan, L.M.; McCarty, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report a case of calcium oxalate arthropathy in a woman undergoing intermittent peritoneal dialysis who was not receiving pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid. She developed acute arthritis, with calcium oxalate crystals in Heberden's and Bouchard's nodes, a phenomenon previously described in gout. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis may be less efficient than hemodialysis in clearing oxalate, and physicians should now consider calcium oxalate-associated arthritis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis who are not receiving large doses of ascorbic acid

  12. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison

    2009-01-01

    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  13. Drosophila Melanogaster as an Emerging Translational Model of Human Nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joe; Chi, Thomas; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kim, Man Su; Hirata, Taku; Romero, Michael F.; Dow, Julian A.T.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The limitations imposed by human clinical studies and mammalian models of nephrolithiasis have hampered the development of effective medical treatments and preventative measures for decades. The simple but elegant Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as a powerful translational model of human disease, including nephrolithiasis and may provide important information essential to our understanding of stone formation. We present the current state of research using D. melanogaster as a model of human nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods A comprehensive review of the English language literature was performed using PUBMED. When necessary, authoritative texts on relevant subtopics were consulted. Results The genetic composition, anatomic structure and physiologic function of Drosophila Malpighian tubules are remarkably similar to those of the human nephron. The direct effects of dietary manipulation, environmental alteration, and genetic variation on stone formation can be observed and quantified in a matter of days. Several Drosophila models of human nephrolithiasis, including genetically linked and environmentally induced stones, have been developed. A model of calcium oxalate stone formation is among the most recent fly models of human nephrolithiasis. Conclusions The ability to readily manipulate and quantify stone formation in D. melanogaster models of human nephrolithiasis presents the urologic community with a unique opportunity to increase our understanding of this enigmatic disease. PMID:23500641

  14. Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.

  15. Effect of animal and vegetable protein intake on oxalate excretion in idiopathic calcium stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangella, M; Bianco, O; Martini, C; Petrarulo, M; Vitale, C; Linari, F

    1989-04-01

    Oxalate excretion was measured in healthy subjects and idiopathic calcium stone-formers on dietary regimens which differed in the type and amount of protein allowed; 24-h urine collections were obtained from 41 practising vegetarians and 40 normal persons on a free, mixed, "mediterranean" diet. Twenty idiopathic calcium stone-formers were also studied while on two low calcium, low oxalate diets which differed in that animal protein was high in one and restricted in the other. Vegetarians had higher urinary oxalate levels than controls and although the calcium levels were markedly lower, urinary saturation with calcium/oxalate was significantly higher. This mild hypercalciuria was interpreted as being secondary to both a higher intake and increased fractional intestinal absorption of oxalate. Changing calcium stone-formers from a high to a low animal protein intake produced a significant decrease in calcium excretion but there was no variation in urinary oxalate. As a result, the decrease in calcium oxalate saturation was only marginal and not significant. It was concluded that dietary animal protein has a minimal effect on oxalate excretion. Mild hyperoxaluria of idiopathic calcium stone disease is likely to be intestinal in origin. Calcium stone-formers should be advised to avoid an excess of animal protein but the risks of a vegetable-rich diet should also be borne in mind.

  16. Aspects of calcium oxalate crystallization: theory, in vitro studies, and in vivo implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A

    1999-11-01

    There are three main approaches to urolithiasis research: theory, basic science, and clinical implementation. Although each approach has yielded meaningful results, there does not appear to be complete synergy between them. This article examines these approaches as they pertain to urinary calcium oxalate crystallization processes. Theoretical calculations were performed to examine the role of oxalate concentration on calcium oxalate supersaturation. The effects of magnesium, citrate, and combinations thereof on calcium oxalate crystallization kinetics were examined in a mixed suspension, mixed product removal crystallizer. Finally, male volunteers were given supplements of calcium alone and binary combinations of calcium, magnesium, and citrate to investigate their effects on the urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate. Calculations showed that oxalate is 23 times more potent than calcium in its effect on the supersaturation of calcium oxalate. In the in vitro experiments, magnesium and citrate reduced the growth and nucleation kinetics as well as the supersaturation. In combination, these two components were more effective than the individual components in reducing the growth rate and the supersaturation. All of the supplements favorably altered the kinetic and thermodynamic risk factors. Calcium was the most effective in reducing the urinary excretion of oxalate. Articulation of these three approaches is essential for the meaningful investigation and understanding of urolithiasis.

  17. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlaga, Brian R.; Williams, James C. Jr.; Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-01-01

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny

  18. Protective Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. fruit extract against calcium oxalate monohydrate induced proximal tubular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraft-Bahloul, Nassima; Husson, Cécile; Ourtioualous, Meriam; Sinaeve, Sébastien; Atmani, Djebbar; Stévigny, Caroline; Nortier, Joëlle L; Antoine, Marie-Hélène

    2017-09-14

    The world prevalence of kidney stones is increasing and plants are frequently used to treat urolithiasis. Pistacia lentiscus L, a plant which freely grows around the Mediterranean basin areas, is widely used for various pathologies. P. lentiscus has an important impact as it has economical value on top of its pharmacological interest. Decoctions of its aerial parts and/or resin are used to treat kidney stones. To in vitro assess the potential nephroprotective effect of Pistacia lentiscus ethanolic fruit extract (PLEF) on proximal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Human Kidney [HK]-2 cells were incubated with and without COM in the presence or absence of PLEF. Cell viability was measured by the resazurin assay. The expression of E-cadherin was analyzed by PCR. The extracellular production of H 2 O 2 was measured by Amplex® Red H 2 O 2 Assay. The numbers of detached or non-adherent COM crystals in the presence of PLEF were microscopically captured and counted using ImageJ software. The interaction of PLEF with COM and the effect of PLEF on crystal size were analyzed by flow cytometry. The spectrophotometric measurement of turbidity was performed for assessing the COM concentration. PLEF incubated with COM was able to increase the cell viability. The decrease of E-cadherin expression after incubation with COM was counteracted by PLEF. Overproduction of H 2 O 2 induced by COM was also inhibited by PLEF. Observations using flow cytometry showed that interactions between PLEF and the COM crystals occurred. PLEF was also effective in reducing the particles size and in lowering COM concentration. Our data show that COM tubulotoxicity can be significantly reversed by PLEF -at least in part- via an inhibition of COM crystals adhesion onto the apical membrane. This early beneficial effect of PLEF needs to be further investigated as a useful strategy in nephrolithiasis prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  19. Epidemiology and economics of nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B. Ziemba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a disease common in both the Western and non-Western world. Several population based studies have dem-onstrated a rising prevalence and incidence of the disease over the last several decades. Recurrence occurs frequently after an initial stone event. The influence of diet on the risk of nephrolithiasis is important, particularly dietary calcium and fluid intake. An increasing intake of dietary calcium and fluid are consistently associated with a reduced risk of incident nephrolithiasis in both men and women. Increasing evidence suggests that nephrolithiasis is associated with systemic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Nephrolithiasis places a significant burden on the health care system, which is likely to increase with time.

  20. Availability of calcium from chemically pure potassium oxalate to the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sudarshan; Sareen, V.K.; Marwah, S.R.; Sharma, K.C.; Bhatia, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the true dige'stibility of calcium in the buffalo calves fed chemically pure potassium oxalate. In each experiments 6 calves were divided into two groups, viz. control and oxalate-fed. The control group was given basal ration consisting of wheat straw, mustard-cake and maize grains. The oxalate-fed group was fed the basal ration supplemented with 60, 100 and 140 g potassium oxalate per day in experiments 1,2, and 3 respectively. The percent true digestibility of calcium was 51.7 and 52.5 in experiment 1, 60.5 and 44.1 in experiment 2, and 59.3 and 44.1 in experiment 3 in the control and oxalate-fed groups respectively. In all the experiments the oxalate was completely broken down in the rumen. The volume of water intake and urine excretion was more in the oxalate-fed groups. The daily alkali output in the urine in terms of N-acid was 0.7 and 1.3 in experiment 1, 1.5 and 2.5 in experiment 2, and 2.1 and 3.8 in experiment 3 in control and oxalate-fed groups respectively. The daily bicarbonate concentration in the urine (in g) was 26.5 and 53.4 in experiment 1, 83.2 and 146.2 in experiment 2, and 132.6 and 222.8 in experiment 3 in control and oxalate-fed groups respectively. Likewise the excretion of oxalate in the urine was more in oxalate-fed groups. On the basis of the results obtained, the reason for the somewhat low true digestibility of calcium in the calves consuming more than 60 g of potassium oxalate/day are discussed. Isotope-dilution technique using 45 CaCl 2 was employed in the study. (auth.)

  1. Nanoscale observations of the effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.

    2016-04-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4ṡxH2O) minerals are naturally occurring minerals found in fossils, plants, kidney stones and is a by-product in some processes such as paper, food and beverage production [1,2]. In particular, calcium oxalate monohydrate phase (COM) also known as whewellite (CaC2O4ṡH2O), is the most frequently reported mineral phase found in urinary and kidney stones together with phosphates. Organic additives are well known to play a key role in the formation of minerals in both biotic and abiotic systems, either facilitating their precipitation or hindering it. In this regard, recent studies have provided direct evidence demonstrating that citrate species could enhance dissolution of COM and inhibit their precipitation. [3,4] The present work aims at evauate the influence of pH, citrate and oxalic acid concentrations in calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces (Island Spar, Chihuahua, Mexico) through in-situ nanoscale observation using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, Multimode, Bruker) in flow-through experiments. Changes in calcium oxalate morphologies and precipitated phases were observed, as well as the inhibitory effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation, which also lead to stabilization an the amorphous calcium oxalate phase. [1] K.D. Demadis, M. Öner, Inhibitory effects of "green"additives on the crystal growth of sparingly soluble salts, in: J.T. Pearlman (Ed.), Green Chemistry Research Trends, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 265-287. [2] M. Masár, M. Zuborová, D. Kaniansky, B. Stanislawski, Determination of oxalate in beer by zone electrophoresis on a chip with conductivity detection, J. Sep. Sci. 26 (2003) 647-652. [3] Chutipongtanate S, Chaiyarit S, Thongboonkerd V. Citrate, not phosphate, can dissolve calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and detach these crystals from renal tubular cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;689:219-25. [4] Weaver ML, Qiu SR, Hoyer JR, Casey WH, Nancollas GH, De Yoreo JJ

  2. Synthesis of CaTiO 3 from calcium titanyl oxalate hexahydrate (CTO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Calcium titanate, CaTiO3, an important microwave dielectric material and one of major phases in synroc (synthetic rock), a titanate ceramic with potential application for fixation of high level nuclear waste was synthesized from calcium titanyl oxalate [CaTiO (C2O4)2.6H2O] (CTO) by employing microwave heating technique.

  3. Studies on Pu(IV)/(III)-oxalate precipitation from nitric acid containing high concentration of calcium and fluoride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, P.K.; Pawar, S.M.; Ghadse, D.R.; Joshi, A.R.; Ramakrishna, V.V.; Vaidya, V.N.; Venugopal, V.

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium (IV)/(III) oxalate precipitation from nitric acid solution, containing large amount of calcium and fluoride ions was investigated. It was observed that direct precipitation of Pu (IV) oxalate from nitric acid containing large amount of calcium and fluoride ions did not give good decontamination of Pu from calcium and fluoride impurities. However, incorporation of hydroxide precipitation using ammonium hydroxide prior to Pu (IV) oxalate precipitation results into PuO 2 with much less calcium and fluoride impurities. Whereas, good decontamination from calcium and fluoride impurities could be obtained by employing Pu (III) oxalate precipitation directly from nitric acid containing large amount of calcium and fluoride ions. A method was also developed to recover Pu from the oxalate waste containing calcium and fluoride ions. (author)

  4. Circular patterns of calcium oxalate monohydrate induced by defective Langmuir-Blodgett film on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jieyu [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang Jianming [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn

    2009-01-01

    The defective Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on quartz injured by potassium oxalate (K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was used as a model system to induce growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that circular defective domains with a diameter of 1-200 {mu}m existed in the LB film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed circular patterns of aggregated calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallites were induced by these defective domains. It was ascribed to that the interaction between the negatively-charged oxalate ions and the phosphatidyl groups in DPPC headgroups makes the phospholipid molecules rearranged and exist in an out-of-order state in the LB film, especially at the boundaries of liquid-condensed (LC)/liquid-expanded (LE) phases, which provide much more nucleating sites for COM crystals.

  5. Morphological control of calcium oxalate particles in the presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiaguo; Tang Hua; Cheng Bei; Zhao Xiujian

    2004-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) particles exhibiting different shapes and phase structures were fabricated by a simple precipitation reaction of sodium oxalate with calcium chloride in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA) as a crystal modifier at room temperature. The as-obtained products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of reaction conditions including pH, [Ca 2+ ]/[C 2 O 4 2- ] ratio and concentration of PSMA and CaC 2 O 4 on the crystal forms and morphologies of the as-obtained calcium oxalate were investigated. The results show that various crystal morphologies of calcium oxalate, such as parallelograms, plates, spheres, bipyramids etc. can be obtained depending on the experimental conditions. Higher polymer concentration favors formation of the metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. Lower pH is beneficial to the formation of plate-like CaOx crystals. Especially, the monodispersed parallelogram-like CaOx crystals can be produced by PSMA as an additive at pH 2. PSMA may act as a good inhibitor for urolithiasis since it induces the formation of COD and reduces the particle size of CaOx. This research may provide new insight into the morphological control of CaOx particles and the prevention of urolithiasis

  6. Substituting milk for apple juice does not increase kidney stone risk in most normocalciuric adults who form calcium oxalate stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, L K; Kynast-Gales, S A

    1998-03-01

    Increasing intake of dietary calcium from less than 400 mg to 800 mg daily may decrease the absorption of dietary oxalate, which in turn would decrease urinary oxalate excretion. The effect of substituting milk for apple juice on urine composition and risk of calcium oxalate precipitability was studied. Twenty-one normocalciuric adults with a history of at least 1 calcium oxalate stone and urinary oxalate excretion exceeding 275 micromol/day on their self-selected diet. Randomized crossover trial. Each participant consumed two moderate-oxalate (2,011 micromol/day) study diets, which were identical except that one contained 360 mL milk and the other contained 540 mL apple juice as the beverage with meals. Four days free-living then 2 days in the metabolic unit of a university nutrition department. Tiselius risk index for calcium oxalate precipitability calculated from urine composition. Paired t tests. Twenty-four hour urinary oxalate excretion was 18% lower (Pjuice diet: 423 vs 514 micromol, respectively. Calcium excretion was 17% higher (Pjuice diet: 4.7 vs 3.9 mmol, respectively. Urinary magnesium and citrate excretion, volume, and Tiselius risk index did not differ between diets. Substituting 360 mL milk daily for apple juice with meals in a diet containing moderate amounts of dietary oxalate from whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables does not increase the risk index of calcium oxalate precipitability in most normocalciuric adults who form stones.

  7. Trace element studies in urolithiasis; preliminary investigation on mixed calcium oxalate-struvite urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, A.M.; Qadiruddin, M.; Shirin, K.; Manser, W.W.T.

    1999-01-01

    In this study the levels of the trace elements copper , zinc, lead, iron, aluminum, nickel, chromium along with magnesium, sodium and potassium were estimated in fifteen mixed calcium oxalate-struvite (CaOx/STR) urinary stones. The mean values of the combined results were, copper 4.24, zinc 1302, zinc 1302.10, lead 23.25, iron 36.83,nickel 0.69, chromium 1.93, magnesium 4530441, sodium 54.13 and potassium 5.93 ng mg/sup -1/. It was observed that zinc, aluminum and potassium levels were higher than in calcium oxalate(CaOx) calculi 0.05>P>0.02 and potassium levels were higher than in mixed calcium oxalate-hydroxy appetite (CaOx/APA) calculi, P<0.01. A combination of all the results was also compared with similar data from South Africa, Turkey, Austria, India, U.S.A and Japan. (author)

  8. Smad signaling pathway in pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the involvement of Smad signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats to provide a reference for clinical treatment. Methods: Clean SD rats were randomly divided into 3 group, namely the control group, model group and pirfenidone group. Ethylene glycol + αhydroxy vitamin D3 was used as a stone-inducing agent to replicate the renal calcium oxalate stone model. Rats in the pirfenidone group were treated with pirfenidone intragastric administration. The serum Cr, BUN and 24-hour oxalate and calcium in renal tissues were assayed. The expressions of Bax/ Bcl2 protein, Caspase3 protein, TGFβ, Smad1, Smad2 and Smad3 proteins were detected by the fluorescent quantitation PCR method. Results: Compared with the rats of the control group, the results showed that the levels of serum BUN, Cr and 24-hour oxalate in rats of the model group were increased greatly, Bax and Caspase3 mRNA also increased while the level of Bcl2 decreased significantly, and the expressions of TGFβ, Smad1, Smad2 and Smad3 proteins increased distinctly as well (P<0.01. These abnormal parameters could be normalized effectively by pirfenidone. Conclusions: Activated TGFβ/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats.

  9. Oxalate secretion by ectomycorrhizal Paxillus involutus is mineral-specific and controls calcium weathering from minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalenberger, A.; Duran, A. L.; Bray, A. W.; Bridge, J.; Bonneville, S.; Benning, L. G.; Romero-Gonzalez, M. E.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Trees and their associated rhizosphere organisms play a major role in mineral weathering driving calcium fluxes from the continents to the oceans that ultimately control long-term atmospheric CO2 and climate through the geochemical carbon cycle. Photosynthate allocation to tree roots and their mycorrhizal fungi is hypothesized to fuel the active secretion of protons and organic chelators that enhance calcium dissolution at fungal-mineral interfaces. This was tested using 14CO2 supplied to shoots of Pinus sylvestris ectomycorrhizal with the widespread fungus Paxillus involutus in monoxenic microcosms, revealing preferential allocation by the fungus of plant photoassimilate to weather grains of limestone and silicates each with a combined calcium and magnesium content of over 10 wt.%. Hyphae had acidic surfaces and linear accumulation of weathered calcium with secreted oxalate, increasing significantly in sequence: quartz, granite mineral-specific oxalate exudation in ectomycorrhizal weathering to dissolve calcium bearing minerals, thus contributing to the geochemical carbon cycle. PMID:26197714

  10. Characterization of calcium oxalate biominerals in some (non-Cactaceae) succulent plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2010-01-01

    The water-accumulating leaves of crassulacean acid metabolism plants belonging to five different families were investigated for the presence of biominerals by infrared spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. Spectroscopic results revealed that the mineral present in succulent species of Agavaceae, Aizoaceae, and Asphodelaceae was calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite, CaC2O4 x H2O). Crystals were predominantly found as raphides or solitary crystals of various morphologies. However, representative Crassulaceae members and a succulent species of Asteraceae did not show the presence of biominerals. Overall, these results suggest no correlation between calcium oxalate generation and crassulacean acid metabolism in succulent plants.

  11. Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L M; Mackenzie, A; Dance, D R; Young, K C

    2013-04-07

    Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image.

  12. Fasting urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios in dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis and breed-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrow, E; Patterson, E E; Armstrong, P J; Osborne, C A; Lulich, J P

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria are risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis, but breed-specific reports of urinary metabolites and their relationship with stone status are lacking. To compare urinary metabolites (calcium and oxalate) and blood ionized calcium (iCa) concentrations between CaOx stone formers and breed-matched stone-free controls for the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. Forty-seven Miniature Schnauzers (23 cases and 24 controls), 27 Bichons Frise (14 cases and 13 controls), and 15 Shih Tzus (7 cases and 8 controls). Prospective study. Fasting spot urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios (UCa/Cr and UOx/Cr, respectively) and blood iCa concentrations were measured and compared between cases and controls within and across breeds. Regression models were used to test the effect of patient and environmental factors on these variables. UCa/Cr was higher in cases than controls for each of the 3 breeds. In addition to stone status, being on a therapeutic food designed to prevent CaOx stone recurrence was associated with higher UCa/Cr. UOx/Cr did not differ between cases and controls for any of the breeds. Blood iCa was higher in cases than controls in the Miniature Schnauzer and Bichon Frise breeds and had a moderate correlation with UCa/Cr. Hypercalciuria is associated with CaOx stone status in the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. UOx/Cr did not correlate with stone status in these 3 breeds. These findings may influence breed-specific stone prevention recommendations. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Preventive treatment of calcium oxalate crystal deposition with immortal flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Onaran, Metin; Şen, İlker; Işık Gönül, İpek; Aslan, Mustafa

    2015-04-02

    A number of medicinal plants are used for their diuretic, urolithiatic and anti-inflammatory effects on urinary system problems in Turkey and the most common traditional remedy for kidney stones is the tea of immortal flowers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the preventive effect of infusions prepared from capitulums of Helichrysum graveolens (M.Bieb.) Sweet (HG) and Helichrysum stoechas ssp. barellieri (Ten.) Nyman (HS) on formation of kidney stones. Sodium oxalate (Ox-70mg/kg intraperitoneally) was used to induce kidney stones on Wistar albino rats. At the same time, two different doses of the plant extracts (HG: 62.5 and 125mg/kg; HS: 78 and 156mg/kg) were dissolved in the drinking water and administered to animals for 5 days. Potassium citrate was used as positive control in the experiments. During the experiment, water intake, urine volume and body weights of the animals were recorded. At the end of the experiments, liver, kidney and body weights of the animals were determined; biochemical analysis were conducted on urine, blood and plasma samples. Histopathological changes in kidney tissues were examined and statistical analysis were evaluated. HS extract showed the highest preventive effect at 156mg/kg dose (stone formation score: 1.16), whereas a number of kidney stones were maximum in sodium oxalate group (stone formation score: 2.66). Helichrysum extracts decreased urine oxalate and uric acid levels and increased citrate levels significantly. In addition, Helichrysum extracts regulated the negative changes in biochemical and hematological parameters occurred after Ox injection. We conclude that Helichrysum extracts could reduce the formation and growth of kidney stones in Ox-induced urolithiasis and can be beneficial for patients with recurrent stones. In addition, this is the first study on the preventive effect of immortal flowers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrastructural and biochemical studies on formation of calcium oxalate in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmottaleb, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Plant calcium oxalate crystals occur within cells called crystal idioblasts. Important aspects of this calcification phenomenon have not been characterized. This dissertation examines some of the aspects of this ubiquitous type of calcification including (1) characterization of ultrastructural features of developing crystal idioblasts, (2) determination of the relationship of specialized ultrastructural features of the idioblasts to transport of compounds and mechanisms of crystal deposition, and (3) the biochemical relationship between ascorbic acid metabolism and production of oxalic acid used for crystal formation. Structural and cytochemical studies revealed that crystal idioblasts have dense cytoplasm, modified plastids, enlarged nuclei, extensive endoplasmic reticulum, numerous dictyosomes and vesicles, and a bundle of raphide crystals in their vacuoles. A mechanism for Ca transport and crystal precipitation is proposed, based on these results. There is a strong and dynamic relationship between Ca concentration and oxalic acid produced for crystal formation, where increasing Ca level in the growth medium lead to increased total and insoluble oxalate in the plant. Calmodulin antagonists reduced oxalic acid production

  15. Reevaluation of the plant "gemstones": Calcium oxalate crystals sustain photosynthesis under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooulakou, Georgia; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Orkoula, Malvina G; Kontoyannis, Christos G; Fasseas, Costas; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Klapa, Maria I; Karabourniotis, George

    2016-09-01

    Land plants face the perpetual dilemma of using atmospheric carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and losing water vapors, or saving water and reducing photosynthesis and thus growth. The reason behind this dilemma is that this simultaneous exchange of gases is accomplished through the same minute pores on leaf surfaces, called stomata. In a recent study we provided evidence that pigweed, an aggressive weed, attenuates this problem exploiting large crystals of calcium oxalate as dynamic carbon pools. This plant is able to photosynthesize even under drought conditions, when stomata are closed and water losses are limited, using carbon dioxide from crystal decomposition instead from the atmosphere. Abscisic acid, an alarm signal that causes stomatal closure seems to be implicated in this function and for this reason we named this path "alarm photosynthesis." The so-far "enigmatic," but highly conserved and widespread among plant species calcium oxalate crystals seem to play a crucial role in the survival of plants.

  16. In vitro dissolution of calcium oxalate stones with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and snake venom thrombin-like enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-Jun; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Ci; Xu, Chang-Geng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using snake venom thrombin-like enzyme (SVTLE) and/or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to dissolve calcium oxalate stones in vitro. Seven calcium oxalate stones were incubated with various chemolytic agents [EDTA, Tris-HCl/EDTA (TE) buffer or SVTLE diluted in TE buffer]. The pH, calcium concentration, stone weight and stone surface integrity were recorded, as well as related pathological changes to bladder mucosae. Compared to all other solutions, those containing SVTLE and buffered EDTA had higher concentrations of mobilized calcium and caused significantly more stone weight loss, stone fragility and gaps in the calcium crystals. Also, there were no adverse pathological effects on rabbit bladder mucosae from any of the solutions. The data indicate that buffered EDTA and SVTLE can be used to dissolve calcium oxalate stones and, at the concentrations used here, do not damage tissue. 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Degradation of sulfated polysaccharide extracted from algal Laminaria japonica and its modulation on calcium oxalate crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang Jianming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang Miao; Lu Peng; Tan Jin [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-08-30

    Sulfated polysaccharide (LPS) extracted from alga Laminaria japonica was degraded by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The average molecular weight of LPS was apparently decreased from 172,000 to 9550 after degradation, while the proportion of sulfate groups (-OSO{sub 3}{sup -}) and carboxylic groups (-COO{sup -}) in the molecular chains of LPS were slightly decreased from 4.5% and 5.20% to 3.9% and 4.64%, respectively. The effects of degraded and natural LPS on formation of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals were investigated in vitro using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta-potential, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. LPS could increase the concentration of soluble Ca{sup 2+} ions in the solution, decrease the weight of precipitated CaOxa, and increase the negative value of zeta-potential of CaOxa crystals. LPS also inhibits the formation of thermodynamically stable calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, while inducing and stabilizing metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. These results suggested that both degraded and natural LPS could decrease CaOxa crystallization, but the inhibition efficiency of the degraded LPS was clearly superior to that of the natural LPS. We expected this investigation would provide encouragement for further exploration into new drugs for the prevention and treatment of urolithiasis.

  18. Calcium oxalate druses affect leaf optical properties in selenium-treated Fagopyrum tataricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Aleksandra; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Kreft, Ivan; Hočevar, Anja; Gaberščik, Alenka; Germ, Mateja

    2018-03-01

    Plants of the genus Fagopyrum contain high levels of crystalline calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposits, or druses, that can affect the leaf optical properties. As selenium has been shown to modify the uptake and accumulation of metabolically important elements such as calcium, we hypothesised that the numbers of druses can be altered by selenium treatment, and this would affect the leaf optical properties. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) was grown outdoors in an experimental field. At the beginning of flowering, plants were foliarly sprayed with sodium selenate solution at 10 mg selenium L -1 or only with water. Plant morphological, biochemical, physiological and optical properties were examined, along with leaf elemental composition and content. Se spraying did not affect leaf biochemical and functional properties. However, it increased leaf thickness and the contents of Se in the leaves, and decreased the density of calcium oxalate druses in the leaves. Except Se content, Se spraying did not affect contents of other elements in leaves, including total calcium per dry mass of leaf tissue. Redundancy analysis showed that of all parameters tested, only the calcium oxalate druses parameters were significant in explaining the variability of the leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra. The density of CaOx druses positively correlated with the reflectance in the blue, green, yellow and UV-B regions of the spectrum, while the area of CaOx druses per mm 2 of leaf transection area positively correlated with the transmittance in the green and yellow regions of the spectrum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of dietary interventions on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kıraç

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary factors on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones. A total of 108 of idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones were included in the study. A 24-hour urinalysis was performed and metabolic abnormalities were measured for all of the patients. All of the patients were given specialized diets for their 24-hour urine abnormalities. At the end of first month, the same parameters were examined in another 24-hour urinalysis. Hyperoxaluria, hypernatruria, and hypercalciuria were found in 84 (77%, 43 (39.8%, and 38 (35.5% of the patients, respectively. The differences between the oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate parameters before and after the dietary intervention were significant (p < 0.05. The calcium parameters were not significantly different before and after the intervention. We found that oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate—but not calcium—abnormalities in patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones can be corrected by diet. The metabolic profiles of idiopathic calcium oxalate stone patients should be evaluated and the appropriate dietary interventions should be implemented to decrease stone recurrence.

  20. Understanding the gut-kidney axis in nephrolithiasis: an analysis of the gut microbiota composition and functionality of stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Milani, Christian; Guerra, Angela; Allegri, Franca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Turroni, Francesca; Duranti, Sabrina; Mangifesta, Marta; Viappiani, Alice; Ferrario, Chiara; Dodi, Rossella; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Del Rio, Daniele; Ventura, Marco; Meschi, Tiziana

    2018-04-28

    The involvement of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis has been hypothesised since the discovery of the oxalate-degrading activity of Oxalobacter formigenes , but never comprehensively studied with metagenomics. The aim of this case-control study was to compare the faecal microbiota composition and functionality between recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers (SFs) and controls. Faecal samples were collected from 52 SFs and 48 controls (mean age 48±11). The microbiota composition was analysed through 16S rRNA microbial profiling approach. Ten samples (five SFs, five controls) were also analysed with deep shotgun metagenomics sequencing, with focus on oxalate-degrading microbial metabolic pathways. Dietary habits, assessed through a food-frequency questionnaire, and 24-hour urinary excretion of prolithogenic and antilithogenic factors, including calcium and oxalate, were compared between SFs and controls, and considered as covariates in the comparison of microbiota profiles. SFs exhibited lower faecal microbial diversity than controls (Chao1 index 1460±363vs 1658±297, fully adjusted p=0.02 with stepwise backward regression analysis). At multivariate analyses, three taxa ( Faecalibacterium , Enterobacter , Dorea ) were significantly less represented in faecal samples of SFs. The Oxalobacter abundance was not different between groups. Faecal samples from SFs exhibited a significantly lower bacterial representation of genes involved in oxalate degradation, with inverse correlation with 24-hour oxalate excretion (r=-0.87, p=0.002). The oxalate-degrading genes were represented in several bacterial species, whose cumulative abundance was inversely correlated with oxaluria (r=-0.85, p=0.02). Idiopathic calcium SFs exhibited altered gut microbiota composition and functionality that could contribute to nephrolithiasis physiopathology. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All

  1. The influence of freezer storage of urine samples on the BONN-Risk-Index for calcium oxalate crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Norbert; Zimmermann, Diana J

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to quantify the effect of a 1-week freezer storage of urine on its calcium oxalate crystallization risk. Calcium oxalate is the most common urinary stone material observed in urolithiasis patients in western and affluent countries. The BONN-Risk-Index of calcium oxalate crystallization risk in human urine is determined from a crystallization experiment performed on untreated native urine samples. We tested the influence of a 1-week freezing on the BONN-Risk-Index value as well as the effect of the sample freezing on the urinary osmolality. In vitro crystallization experiments in 49 native urine samples from stone-forming and non-stone forming individuals were performed in order to determine their calcium oxalate crystallization risk according to the BONN-Risk-Index approach. Comparison of the results derived from original sample investigations with those obtained from the thawed aliquots by statistical evaluation shows that i) no significant deviation from linearity between both results exists and ii) both results are identical by statistical means. This is valid for both, the BONN-Risk-Index and the osmolality data. The differences in the BONN-Risk-Index results of both procedures of BONN-Risk-Index determination, however, exceed the clinically acceptable difference. Thus, determination of the urinary calcium oxalate crystallization risk from thawed urine samples cannot be recommended.

  2. Calcium oxalate crystals: an integral component of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum/Brassica carinata pathosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret B Uloth

    Full Text Available Oxalic acid is an important virulence factor for disease caused by the fungal necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, yet calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals have not been widely reported. B. carinata stems were infected with S. sclerotiorum and observed using light microscopy. Six hours post inoculation (hpi, CaOx crystals were evident on 46% of stem sections and by 72 hpi on 100%, demonstrating that the secretion of oxalic acid by S. sclerotiorum commences before hyphal penetration. This is the first time CaOx crystals have been reported on B. carinata infected with S. sclerotiorum. The shape of crystals varied as infection progressed. Long tetragonal rods were dominant 12 hpi (68% of crystal-containing samples, but by 72 hpi, 50% of stems displayed bipyramidal crystals, and only 23% had long rods. Scanning electron microscopy from 24 hpi revealed CaOx crystals in all samples, ranging from tiny irregular crystals (< 0.5 μm to large (up to 40 μm highly organized arrangements. Crystal morphology encompassed various forms, including tetragonal prisms, oval plates, crystal sand, and druses. Large conglomerates of CaOx crystals were observed in the hyphal mass 72 hpi and these are proposed as a strategy of the fungus to hold and detoxify Ca2+ions. The range of crystal morphologies suggests that S. sclerotiorum growth and infection controls the form taken by CaOx crystals.

  3. Nephrolithiasis as a common urinary system manifestation of inflammatory bowel diseases; a clinical review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji-Arjenaki, Mahboube; Nasri, Hamid; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    The extra-intestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are common and involve other organs or systems for example; urinary system. For this review, we used a variety of sources by searching through Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and directory of open access journals (DOAJ). Urinary complications may occur in up to 22% of patients and nephrolithiasis or renal/kidney stones have been suggested to be a common manifestation of disease in forms of uric acid, calcium phosphate or calcium oxalate. We performed a meta-analysis on five clinical trials and reported that correlation between IBD and formation of stone in renal system is positive and significant (Fix-effect model; CI: 95%, P <0.001, and randomeffect model; CI: 95%, P = 0.03). Based on the reports of the clinical trials, calcium oxalate is more prevalent in Crohn's disease (CD) than in ulcerative colitis (UC).

  4. An Assessment of Engineered Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation on Plant Growth and Development as a Step toward Evaluating Its Use to Enhance Plant Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Nakata

    Full Text Available The establishment of new approaches to control chewing insects has been sought not only for direct use in reducing crop loss but also in managing resistance to the pesticides already in use. Engineered formation of calcium oxalate crystals is a potential strategy that could be developed to fulfill both these needs. As a step toward this development, this study investigates the effects of transforming a non-calcium oxalate crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, into a crystal accumulating plant. Calcium oxalate crystal accumulating A. thaliana lines were generated by ectopic expression of a single bacterial gene encoding an oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme. Biochemical and cellular studies suggested that the engineered A. thaliana lines formed crystals of calcium oxalate in a manner similar to naturally occurring crystal accumulating plants. The amount of calcium oxalate accumulated in leaves also reached levels similar to those measured in the leaves of Medicago truncatula in which the crystals are known to play a defensive role. Visual inspection of the different engineered lines, however, suggested a phenotypic consequence on plant growth and development with higher calcium oxalate concentrations. The restoration of a near wild-type plant phenotype through an enzymatic reduction of tissue oxalate supported this observation. Overall, this study is a first to provide initial insight into the potential consequences of engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in non-crystal accumulating plants.

  5. Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vaitheeswari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model.Materials and Methods:The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4 on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques.Results:The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4.Conclusion:Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O32-and SO42- moiety produced by the test compounds.

  6. Quantitative Mineralogical Composition of Calculi and Urine Abnormalities for Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers: A Single-Center Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustov, Andrey V; Strelnikov, Alexander I

    2017-12-26

    The paper focuses on the relationship of risk factors and metabolic disorders with mineralogical composition of calculi, age and gender of calcium oxalate stone formers. Stone mineralogical composition, 24 hour biochemistry and pH-profile of urine were examined for sixty four stone formers using powder X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometric and potentiometric techniques. The analysis indicated that 44 % of calculi were composed of pure calcium oxalate monohydrate, whereas other 56 % contained both monohydrate and dihydrate or usually their mixtures with hydroxyl apatite. Hypocitraturia, hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria were identified as the most frequent disorders. Patients with pure calcium oxalate stones and calcium oxalate mixed with apatite revealed different patterns including age, acid-base balance of urine, calcium, citrate excretion etc. Our results demonstrate that most patients simultaneously reveal several risk factors. The special attention should be paid to normalize the daily citrate, calcium and urate excretion. High risk patients, such as postmenopausal females or stone formers with a high apatite content require a specific metabolic evaluation towards in highlighting abnormalities associated with stone formation.

  7. Reevaluation of the plant “gemstones”: Calcium oxalate crystals sustain photosynthesis under drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooulakou, Georgia; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Orkoula, Malvina G.; Kontoyannis, Christos G.; Fasseas, Costas; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Klapa, Maria I.; Karabourniotis, George

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Land plants face the perpetual dilemma of using atmospheric carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and losing water vapors, or saving water and reducing photosynthesis and thus growth. The reason behind this dilemma is that this simultaneous exchange of gases is accomplished through the same minute pores on leaf surfaces, called stomata. In a recent study we provided evidence that pigweed, an aggressive weed, attenuates this problem exploiting large crystals of calcium oxalate as dynamic carbon pools. This plant is able to photosynthesize even under drought conditions, when stomata are closed and water losses are limited, using carbon dioxide from crystal decomposition instead from the atmosphere. Abscisic acid, an alarm signal that causes stomatal closure seems to be implicated in this function and for this reason we named this path “alarm photosynthesis.” The so-far “enigmatic,” but highly conserved and widespread among plant species calcium oxalate crystals seem to play a crucial role in the survival of plants. PMID:27471886

  8. Characterization of metabolic network of oxalic acid biosynthesis through RNA seq data analysis of developing spikes of finger millet (Eleusine coracana): Deciphering the role of key genes involved in oxalate formation in relation to grain calcium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Naved; Gupta, Supriya; Tiwari, Apoorv; Singh, K P; Kumar, Anil

    2018-04-05

    In the present study, we identified seven major genes of oxalic acid biosynthesis pathway (SGAT, GGAT, ICL, GLO, MHAR, APO and OXO) from developing spike transcriptome of finger millet using rice as a reference. Sequence alignment of identified genes showed high similarity with their respective homolog in rice except for OXO and GLO. Transcript abundance (FPKM) reflects the higher accumulation of identified genes in GP-1 (low calcium genotype) as compared to GP-45 (high calcium genotype) which was further confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis, indicating differential oxalate formation in both genotypes. Determination of oxalic acid and tartaric acid content in developing spikes explain that higher oxalic acid content in GP-1 however, tartaric acid content was more in GP-45. Higher calcium content in GP-45 and lower oxalate accumulation may be due to the diversion of more ascorbic acid into tartaric acid and may correspond to less formation of calcium oxalate. Our results suggest that more than one pathway for oxalic acid biosynthesis might be present in finger millet with probable predominance of ascorbate-tartarate pathway rather than glyoxalate-oxalate conversion. Thus, finger millet can be use as an excellent model system for understanding more specific role of nutrients-antinutrients interactions, as evident from the present study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Medicago truncatula-derived calcium oxalate crystals have a negative impact on chewing insect performance via their physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant structural traits often act as defenses against herbivorous insects, causing them to avoid feeding on a given plant or tissue. Mineral crystals of calcium oxalate in Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (Fabaceae) leaves have previously been shown to be effective deterrents of lepidopteran insect feedi...

  10. Physical characteristics of calcium oxalate crystals as determinants in structural defense against chewing insects in Medicago truncatula

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to the numerous chemical defenses that plants employ to fend off insect herbivores, simple structural components can also play important roles in effective protection. Our investigations have shown that plant crystals of calcium oxalate can function in insect defense. The isolation of ca...

  11. Extraction and estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate crystals in the foliage of conifer and hardwood trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Bradley Chamberlain; Stephanie Long; Swathi A. Turlapati; Gloria. Quigley

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop a method for the extraction and indirect estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the foliage of trees. Foliar tissue was collected from a single tree of each species (five conifers and five hardwoods) for comparison of extractions in different solvents using 10 replicates per species from the same pool of...

  12. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, G.; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  13. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, Guido; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in crossover design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  14. Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal deposition on kidneys of urolithiatic rats by Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laikangbam, Reena; Damayanti Devi, M

    2012-06-01

    The present study aims at systematic evaluation of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa to establish its scientific validity for anti-urolithiatic property using ethylene glycol-induced hyperoxaluria model in male albino rats. Administration of a mixture of 0.75% ethylene glycol and 2% ammonium chloride resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. The decrease in the serum calcium concentration indicates an increased calcium oxalate formation. Supplementation of aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa at different doses (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight) significantly lowered the deposition of stone-forming constituents in the kidneys and serum of urolithiatic rats. These findings have been confirmed through histological investigations. Results of in vivo genotoxicity testing showed no significant chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells of ethylene glycol-induced rats. The plant extracts at the doses investigated induced neither toxic nor lethal effects and are safe. It can be concluded that the calyces of H. sabdariffa are endowed with anti-urolithiatic activity and do not have genotoxic effects. Thus, it can be introduced in clinical practices and medicine in the form of orally administered syrup after further investigations and clinical trials.

  15. Kidney stone matrix proteins ameliorate calcium oxalate monohydrate induced apoptotic injury to renal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Shifa; Tandon, Simran; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2016-11-01

    Kidney stone formation is a highly prevalent disease, affecting 8-10% of the human population worldwide. Proteins are the major constituents of human kidney stone's organic matrix and considered to play critical role in the pathogenesis of disease but their mechanism of modulation still needs to be explicated. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effect of human kidney stone matrix proteins on the calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) mediated cellular injury. The renal epithelial cells (MDCK) were exposed to 200μg/ml COM crystals to induce injury. The effect of proteins isolated from human kidney stone was studied on COM injured cells. The alterations in cell-crystal interactions were examined by phase contrast, polarizing, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, its effect on the extent of COM induced cell injury, was quantified by flow cytometric analysis. Our study indicated the antilithiatic potential of human kidney stone proteins on COM injured MDCK cells. Flow cytometric analysis and fluorescence imaging ascertained that matrix proteins decreased the extent of apoptotic injury caused by COM crystals on MDCK cells. Moreover, the electron microscopic studies of MDCK cells revealed that matrix proteins caused significant dissolution of COM crystals, indicating cytoprotection against the impact of calcium oxalate injury. The present study gives insights into the mechanism implied by urinary proteins to restrain the pathogenesis of kidney stone disease. This will provide a better understanding of the formation of kidney stones which can be useful for the proper management of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cooperation of phosphates and carboxylates controls calcium oxalate crystallization in ultrafiltered urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohe, Bernd; Chan, Brian P H; Sørensen, Esben S; Lajoie, Gilles; Goldberg, Harvey A; Hunter, Graeme K

    2011-10-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is one of a group of proteins found in urine that are believed to limit the formation of kidney stones. In the present study, we investigate the roles of phosphate and carboxylate groups in the OPN-mediated modulation of calcium oxalate (CaOx), the principal mineral phase found in kidney stones. To this end, crystallization was induced by addition of CaOx solution to ultrafiltered human urine containing either human kidney OPN (kOPN; 7 consecutive carboxylates, 8 phosphates) or synthesized peptides corresponding to residues 65-80 (pSHDHMDDDDDDDDDGD; pOPAR) or 220-235 (pSHEpSTEQSDAIDpSAEK; P3) of rat bone OPN. Sequence 65-80 was also synthesized without the phosphate group (OPAR). Effects on calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) formation were studied by scanning electron microscopy. We found that controls form large, partly intergrown COM platelets; COD was never observed. Adding any of the polyelectrolytes was sufficient to prevent intergrowth of COM platelets entirely, inhibiting formation of these platelets strongly, and inducing formation of the COD phase. Strongest effects on COM formation were found for pOPAR and OPAR followed by kOPN and then P3, showing that acidity and hydrophilicity are crucial in polyelectrolyte-affected COM crystallization. At higher concentrations, OPAR also inhibited COD formation, while P3, kOPN and, in particular, pOPAR promoted COD, a difference explainable by the variations of carboxylate and phosphate groups present in the molecules. Thus, we conclude that carboxylate groups play a primary role in inhibiting COM formation, but phosphate and carboxylate groups are both important in initiating and promoting COD formation.

  17. Effect of Postharvest Oxalic Acid and Calcium Chloride on Quality Attributes of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    M. Safa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruits and vegetables have special importance as a very important part of the human food supply. And from the beginnings of life, man has used these products to supply a part of his food. Nowadays, horticultural products are widely used in the diet. Cherry is one of the deciduous trees in the temperate regions, which is potassium rich. Use of Oxalic acid significantly reduces frost injury in pomegranate fruits during storage at a temperature of 2° C. In fruit trees, the importance of calcium is due to a delay in fruit ripening process and this way products have better portability. Materials and Methods: Firmness test was measured using the FT011 model of penetrometer. For determination of titratable acidity, the 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH titration method was used. Total Soluble solids content (SSC of fruit was measured by a digital refractometer (PAL-1. For determination of vitamin C in fruit juices, titration method with the indicator, 2,6-di-chlorophenolindophenol was used. Fruit juice pH was measured using pH meter model HI 9811.In order to investigate the effect of postharvest soaking treatment with Oxalic acid on the qualitative specifications and storage life of single grain sweet cherry fruit a research was conducted. This experience was conducted in a completely randomized design with 3 replications separately for the two materials. In this experiment Oxalic acid, in four levels (0,4,6 and 8 mM and Calcium chloride in four levels (0, 40, 55 and 70 mM were applied on the single grain sweet cherry fruit in the form of soaking and sampleswith7-day intervals for a period of 28 days from the fridge out and quanti tate and qualitative traits such as stiffness, weight loss, Titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C and pH were measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that compared with control ones all of the concentrations of Oxalic acid and Calcium chloride caused significant differences in the amount

  18. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris

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    A. Aggarwal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as “gokhru” which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals as well as on oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells. RESULTS: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  19. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris.

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    Aggarwal, A; Tandon, S; Singla, S K; Tandon, C

    2010-01-01

    Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as "gokhru" which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals as well as on oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells. Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  20. Effects of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on risk factors for urinary calcium oxalate stones in rats.

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    Woottisin, Surachet; Hossain, Rayhan Zubair; Yachantha, Chatchai; Sriboonlue, Pote; Ogawa, Yoshihide; Saito, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the antilithic effect of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on known risk factors for calcium oxalate stones in rats. We divided 30 male Wistar rats into 5 equal groups. Controls were fed a standard diet and the remaining groups received a 3% glycolate diet for 4 weeks to induce hyperoxaluria. One glycolate fed group served as the untreated group and the others were given oral extracts of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa or Phyllanthus amarus at a dose of 3.5 mg daily. We collected 24-hour urine and blood samples. Kidneys were harvested for histological examination. We measured the renal tissue content of calcium and oxalate. The Hibiscus sabdariffa group showed significantly decreased serum oxalate and glycolate, and higher oxalate urinary excretion. The Phyllanthus amarus group showed significantly increased urinary citrate vs the untreated group. Histological examination revealed less CaOx crystal deposition in the kidneys of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus treated rats than in untreated rats. Those rats also had significantly lower renal tissue calcium content than untreated rats. All parameters in the Orthosiphon grandiflorus treated group were comparable to those in the untreated group. Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus decreased calcium crystal deposition in the kidneys. The antilithic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa may be related to decreased oxalate retention in the kidney and more excretion into urine while that of Phyllanthus amarus may depend on increased urinary citrate. In contrast, administering Orthosiphon grandiflorus had no antilithic effect. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mimicking the biomolecular control of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth: effect of contiguous glutamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohe, Bernd; Hug, Susanna; Langdon, Aaron; Jalkanen, Jari; Rogers, Kem A; Goldberg, Harvey A; Karttunen, Mikko; Hunter, Graeme K

    2012-08-21

    Scanning confocal interference microscopy (SCIM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to investigate the adsorption of the synthetic polypeptide poly(l-glutamic acid) (poly-glu) to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals and its effect on COM formation. At low concentrations (1 μg/mL), poly-glu inhibits growth most effectively in ⟨001⟩ directions, indicating strong interactions of the polypeptide with {121} crystal faces. Growth in directions was inhibited only marginally by 1 μg/mL poly-glu, while growth in directions did not appear to be affected. This suggests that, at low concentrations, poly-glu inhibits lattice-ion addition to the faces of COM in the order {121} > {010} ≥ {100}. At high concentrations (6 μg/mL), poly-glu resulted in the formation of dumbbell-shaped crystals featuring concave troughs on the {100} faces. The effects on crystal growth indicate that, at high concentrations, poly-glu interacts with the faces of COM in the order {100} > {121} > {010}. This mirrors MD simulations, which predicted that poly-glu will adsorb to a {100} terrace plane (most calcium-rich) in preference to a {121} (oblique) riser plane but will adsorb to {121} riser plane in preference to an {010} terrace plane (least calcium-rich). The effects of different poly-glu concentration on COM growth (1-6 μg/mL) may be due to variations between the faces in terms of growth mechanism and/or (nano)roughness, which can affect surface energy. In addition, 1 μg/mL might not be adequate to reach the critical concentration for poly-glu to significantly pin step movement on {100} and {010} faces. Understanding the mechanisms involved in these processes is essential for the development of agents to reduce recurrence of kidney stone disease.

  2. Relevance of Mediterranean diet and glucose metabolism for nephrolithiasis in obese subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nephrolithiasis is more frequent and severe in obese patients from different western nations. This may be supported by higher calcium, urate, oxalate excretion in obese stone formers. Except these parameters, clinical characteristics of obese stone formers were not extensively explored. Aims In the present paper we studied the relationship between obesity and its metabolic correlates and nephrolithiasis. Materials and methods We studied 478 Caucasian subjects having BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. The presence of nephrolithiasis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were noted. They underwent measurements of anthropometry (BMI and waist circumference, body composition), serum variables (fasting glucose, serum lipids and serum enzymes) and Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) nutritional questionnaire. Results 45 (9.4%) participants were stone formers. Subjects with high serum concentrations of triglycerides (≥150 mg/dl), fasting glucose (> 100 mg/dl) and AST (>30 U/I in F or >40 U/I in M) were more frequent among stone formers than non-stone formers. Multinomial logistic regression confirmed that kidney stone production was associated with high fasting glucose (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.2, P = 0.011), AST (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.1-16.7, P = 0.033) and triglycerides (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.7, P = 0.01). MedDiet score was not different in stone formers and non-stone formers. However, stone formers had a lower consumption frequency of olive oil and nuts, and higher consumption frequency of wine compared with non-stone formers. Conclusions Overweight and obese stone formers may have a defect in glucose metabolism and a potential liver damage. Some foods typical of Mediterranean diet may protect against nephrolithiasis. PMID:24502605

  3. Defining and systematic analyses of aggregation indices to evaluate degree of calcium oxalate crystal aggregation

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    Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2017-12-01

    Crystal aggregation is one of the most crucial steps in kidney stone pathogenesis. However, previous studies of crystal aggregation were rarely done and quantitative analysis of aggregation degree was handicapped by a lack of the standard measurement. We thus performed an in vitro assay to generate aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with various concentrations (25-800 µg/ml) in saturated aggregation buffer. The crystal aggregates were analyzed by microscopic examination, UV-visible spectrophotometry, and GraphPad Prism6 software to define a total of 12 aggregation indices (including number of aggregates, aggregated mass index, optical density, aggregation coefficient, span, number of aggregates at plateau time-point, aggregated area index, aggregated diameter index, aggregated symmetry index, time constant, half-life, and rate constant). The data showed linear correlation between crystal concentration and almost all of these indices, except only for rate constant. Among these, number of aggregates provided the greatest regression coefficient (r=0.997; pr=0.993; pr=‑0.993; pr=0.991; p<0.001 for both). These five indices are thus recommended as the most appropriate indices for quantitative analysis of COM crystal aggregation in vitro.

  4. Specificity in calcium oxalate adherence to papillary epithelial cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riese, R.J.; Riese, J.W.; Kleinman, J.G.; Wiessner, J.H.; Mandel, G.S.; Mandel, N.S.

    1988-01-01

    Attachment of microcystallites to cellular membranes may be an important component of the pathophysiology of many diseases including urolithiasis. This study attempts to characterize the interaction of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals and apatite (AP) crystals with renal papillary collecting tubule (RPCT) cells in primary culture. Primary cultures of RPCT cells showed the characteristic monolayer growth with sporadically interspersed clumped cells. Cultures were incubated with [ 14 C]CaOx crystals, and the crystals that bound were quantified by microscopy and adherent radioactivity. Per unit of cross-sectional area, 32 times more CaOx crystals were bound to the clumps than to the monolayer. CaOx adherence demonstrated concentration-dependent saturation with a β value (fraction of cell culture area binding CaOx crystals) of 0.179 and a 1/α ox value of 287 μg/cm 2 . On incubation with AP crystals, CaOx binding demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition with a 1/α AP value of 93 μg/cm 2 . Microcystallite adherence to RPCT cells demonstrates selectivity for cellular clumps, saturation, and inhibition. These features suggest specific binding

  5. Crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate at dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers in the presence of chondroitin sulfate A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Deng, Sui-Ping; Zhong, Jiu-Ping; Tieke, Bernd; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2004-10-01

    The growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals beneath dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers in the presence of chondroitin sulfate A (C4S) was systematically examined under different surface pressure. The results indicated that the addition of C4S can inhibit the crystal growth and prevent the aggregation of COM crystals. Under a DPPC monolayer, well-defined three-dimensional hexagonal prisms and three-dimensional rhombus prisms with sharply angled tips were obtained. The DPPC monolayer at a surface pressure of 10 mN/m can match the Ca2+ distance of the (1 bar 0 1) face of COM better than at 20 mN/m. The addition of C4S could cooperatively modulate the interaction strength between the monolayer (or itself) with the specific morphology determining faces such as (1 bar 0 1) and (0 2 0), and thus results in remarkable stabilization of the (1 bar 0 1) faces. The dramatic changes in morphological details were due to the strong electrostatic interactions between the Ca2+-rich (1 bar 0 1) crystal faces of COM and the polyanionic polysaccharide C4S together with the negatively charged sites of the zwitterionic DPPC monolayers. The increase of the concentration of C4S can further enhance the stabilization of the (1 bar 0 1) face.

  6. Distribution of calcium oxalate crystals in floral organs of Araceae in relation to pollination strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Gary G; Gibernau, Marc

    2012-07-01

    Many flowers are pollinated by potentially hungry insects, yet flowers also contain gametes and embryos which must be protected from predation. Microscopic calcium oxalate crystals in plant tissues have been proposed to protect against herbivory. Aroids, which have an unusual diversity of such crystals, also exhibit diverse pollination strategies. Many species have pollinators that do not feed while visiting the flowers, while other species, especially those pollinated by beetles, offer sterile staminodia as food rewards. We examined flowers of 21 aroid species with various pollination strategies to test the hypothesis that crystals protect vital gametes and embryos while allowing consumption of food bribes. Aroid inflorescences collected from the field or from greenhouse material were sectioned, cleared, and examined by bright field and polarization microscopy. All species examined, regardless of pollination strategy, arrayed crystals around unshed pollen and ovules. Less vital tissues, such as odoriferous appendages, had few crystals. Staminodia offered as food to beetle pollinators, however, differed greatly between species in their crystal contents. Some had minimal crystals; some had crystals in patterns suggesting they limit beetle feeding; still others had abundant crystals in no obvious pattern. The results are consistent with crystals protecting against insect predation of gametes and embryos. However, the role of crystals in food-bribe staminodia is unclear. They may limit and direct feeding by beetles in some species, while in others they might have no protective role.

  7. Associations of diet and breed with recurrence of calcium oxalate cystic calculi in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heidi S; Swecker, William S; Becvarova, Iveta; Weeth, Lisa P; Werre, Stephen R

    2015-05-15

    To evaluate the long-term risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) cystic calculi in dogs of various breeds fed 1 of 2 therapeutic diets. Retrospective cohort study. Animals-135 dogs with a history of CaOx cystic calculi. Medical records for 4 referral hospitals were searched to identify dogs that had had CaOx cystic calculi removed. Owners were contacted and medical records evaluated to obtain information on postoperative diet, recurrence of signs of lower urinary tract disease, and recurrence of cystic calculi. Dogs were grouped on the basis of breed (high-risk breeds, low-risk breeds, and Miniature Schnauzers) and diet fed after removal of cystic calculi (diet A, diet B, and any other diet [diet C], with diets A and B being therapeutic diets formulated to prevent recurrence of CaOx calculi). Breed group was a significant predictor of calculi recurrence (as determined by abdominal radiography or ultrasonography), with Miniature Schnauzers having 3 times the risk of recurrence as did dogs of other breeds. Dogs in diet group A had a lower prevalence of recurrence than did dogs in diet group C, but this difference was not significant in multivariable analysis. Results indicated that Miniature Schnauzers had a higher risk of CaOx cystic calculi recurrence than did dogs of other breeds. In addition, findings suggested that diet may play a role in decreasing recurrence, but future prospective studies are needed to validate these observations.

  8. A Study of Biomolecules as Growth Modifiers of Calcium Oxalate Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Junha John

    Crystallization processes are ubiquitous in nature, science, and technology. Controlling crystal growth is pivotal in many industries as material properties and functions can be tailored by tuning crystal habits (e.g. size, shape, phase). In biomineralization, organisms exert excellent control over bottom-up synthesis and assembly of inorganic-organic structures (e.g. bones, teeth, exoskeletons). This is made possible by growth modifiers that range from small molecules to macromolecules, such as proteins. Molecular recognition of the mineral phase allows proteins to function as nucleation templates, matrices, and growth inhibitors or promoters. We are interested in taking a biomimetic approach to control crystallization via biomolecular growth modifiers. We investigated calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), found in plants and kidney stones, as a model system of crystallization. We studied the effects of four common proteins on COM crystallization: bovine serum albumin (BSA), transferrin, lactoferrin, and lysozyme. Through kinetic studies of COM crystallization, we classified BSA and lysozyme as COM growth inhibitor and promoter respectively. Their inhibition and promotion effects were also evident in the macroscopic crystal habit. Through adsorption and microscopy experiments, we showed that BSA exhibits binding specificity for the apical surfaces of macroscopic COM crystals. Lysozyme, on the other, functions via a non-binding mechanism at the surface to accelerate the growth of the apical surfaces. We also synthesized and studied peptides derived from the protein primary sequences to identify putative domains responsible for these inhibition and promotion effects. Collectively, our study of physiologically relevant biomolecules suggests potential roles of COM modifiers in pathological crystallization and helps to develop guidelines for rational design of biomolecular growth modifiers for applications in crystal engineering.

  9. Effect of feeding various forms of oxalate on the rumen metabolism and the fate of calcium in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddi, L.K.; Ahuja, S.P.; Sareen, V.K.; Singh, Sudarshan; Bhatia, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    The degradation of 45 Ca oxalate in the rumen and the absorption of 45 Ca released (experiment 2), the production of bicarbonates and TVFA in the rumen, and the rumen pH value (experiment 1) were studied in male buffalo calves consuming paddy straw (group 1), wheat straw supplemented with calcium oxalate (group 2) and wheat straw supplemented with calcium oxalate plus potassium oxalate (group 3). The radioactivity 1n the blood appeared with 1 hr in all the animals. Maximum 45 Ca specific activity in the blood was observed at 18,24 and 36 hr in groups 1 to 3, respectively, after intraruminal infusion of 15 mCi 45 Ca oxalate. Paddy-straw feeding caused polyurea. In all the animals the very first micturition showed the presence of radioactivity, and maximum 45 Ca specific activity in the urine and feaces was obtained around 31 and 25 hr, respectively, after infusion. However, during the following 5 days, the decline in 45 Ca specific activity in the feaces was sharper in group 1 than in the other groups indicating less absorption of calcium in group 1. Higher bicarbonates contents and pH of the rumen fluid were observed in group 3. The results indicated a slow and continuous release of oxalates from paddy straw. The ruminal TVFA concentration was lower and pH was relatively higher in group 3. Group 1 showed uniformly higher amounts of TVFA. (auth.)

  10. Can Randall's plug composed of calcium oxalate form via the free particle mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, F; Söhnel, O

    2017-09-08

    The likelihood of a Randall's plug composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) forming by the free particle mechanism in a model of kidney with a structure recently described by Robertson was examined at the most favourable conditions for the considered mechanism. The Robertson model of the kidney is used in the following development. The classical theory of crystallization was used for calculations. Initial COM nuclei were assumed to form at the beginning of the ascending loop of Henle where the supersaturation with respect to COM has been shown to reach the threshold level for spontaneous nucleation. Nucleation proceeds by a heterogeneous mechanism. The formed particles are transported in the nephron by a laminar flow of liquid with a parabolic velocity profile. Particles travel with a velocity dependent on their position in the cross-section of the nephron assumed to be straight tubule with smooth walls and without any sharp bends and kinks. These particles move faster with time as they grow as a result of being surrounded by the supersaturated liquid. Individual COM particles (crystals) can reach maximum diameter of 5.2 × 10 -6  m, i.e. 5.2 μm, at the opening of the CD and would thus always be washed out of the CD into the calyx regardless of the orientation of the CD. Agglomeration of COM crystals forms a fractal object with an apparent density lower than the density of solid COM. The agglomerate that can block the beginning of the CD is composed of more crystals than are available even during crystaluria. Moreover the settling velocity of agglomerate blocking the opening of the CD is lower than the liquid flow and thus such agglomerate would be washed out even from upward-draining CD. The free particle mechanism may be responsible for the formation of a Randall's plug composed by COM only in specific infrequent cases such as an abnormal structure of kidney. Majority of incidences of Randall's plug development by COM are caused by mechanism different

  11. Peeping into human renal calcium oxalate stone matrix: characterization of novel proteins involved in the intricate mechanism of urolithiasis.

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    Kanu Priya Aggarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients suffering from urolithiasis represents one of the major challenges which nephrologists face worldwide today. For enhancing therapeutic outcomes of this disease, the pathogenic basis for the formation of renal stones is the need of hour. Proteins are found as major component in human renal stone matrix and are considered to have a potential role in crystal-membrane interaction, crystal growth and stone formation but their role in urolithiasis still remains obscure. METHODS: Proteins were isolated from the matrix of human CaOx containing kidney stones. Proteins having MW>3 kDa were subjected to anion exchange chromatography followed by molecular-sieve chromatography. The effect of these purified proteins was tested against CaOx nucleation and growth and on oxalate injured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK renal epithelial cells for their activity. Proteins were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server. In silico molecular interaction studies with CaOx crystals were also investigated. RESULTS: Five proteins were identified from the matrix of calcium oxalate kidney stones by MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server with the competence to control the stone formation process. Out of which two proteins were promoters, two were inhibitors and one protein had a dual activity of both inhibition and promotion towards CaOx nucleation and growth. Further molecular modelling calculations revealed the mode of interaction of these proteins with CaOx at the molecular level. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and characterized Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein, UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 2, RIMS-binding protein 3A, Macrophage-capping protein as novel proteins from the matrix of human calcium oxalate stone which play a critical role in kidney stone

  12. The study of the inhibitory effect of calcium oxalate monohydrate's crystallization by two medicinal and aromatic plants: Ammi visnaga and Punica granatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachkoul, R; Sqalli Houssaini, T; Miyah, Y; Mohim, M; El Habbani, R; Lahrichi, A

    2018-03-01

    Urinary lithiasis is a recurrent disease defined by the presence of calculi in the urinary tract. Most urinary calculi have as a major component calcium oxalate which occurs mainly in two crystalline forms: Calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (weddellite). The target behind, this work is to study the inhibiting effect of the calcium oxalate's crystallization by the extract of the Ammi visnaga and the Punica granatum. The inhibition of crystallization has been studied in vitro with both the absence and the presence of the different concentrations of the extracts of the two plants. This study consists in measurement, with the UV-Visible spectrophotometer, the temporal evolution of the optical density at λ equal to 620nm corresponding to the formation of the crystals due to the mixing of metastable solutions of calcium and oxalate. The characterization of the crystals is carried out in parallel by both the Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and the observation of the crystals with the help of an optical microscope. In this respect, the inhibition percentages were calculated from the turbidity slopes in the presence and absence of the extract. The results obtained were more effective, especially for Punica granatum with percentages of 97.8±0.12 and 83.46±1.34% against nucleation and aggregation, respectively, the order of Ammi visnaga was as follow: 73.25±0.81 and 59.44±3.3%. Thus, all correlation coefficients are greater than 0.95 and all coefficients of variation are less than 10%. The prevention and treatment of urinary lithiasis and especially in the case of recurrence by plants remains an alternative choice for medical methods. This study justified the efficacy of the plants Ammi visnaga and in particular Punica granatum against the crystallization of calcium oxalate. 3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Association Study of Klotho Gene Polymorphism With Calcium Oxalate Stones in The Uyghur Population of Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdusamat; Tursun, Halmurat; Talat, Alim; Abla, Akpar; Muhtar, Erpan; Zhang, Tao; Mahmut, Murat

    2017-01-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between Klotho gene polymorphisms andcalcium oxalate stones in Xinjiang Uyghur people. We compared 128 patients with calcium oxalate stones (case group) and 94 healthypeople (control group), detected the genotype and allele distributions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)of the Klotho gene (rs3752472, rs650439, and rs1207568) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The distributions of the genotype and allele frequencies of the SNPs were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the two groups. There were statistically significant differences between the genotype andallele distributions of rs3752472 between the case and control groups; the allele frequencies in the case/controlgroups were C = 240 (93.7%)/151 (80.3%) and T = 16 (6.3%)/37 (19.7%). There was no statistically significantdifference in the genotype distribution of rs650439 between the case and control groups, but there was a differencein the allele distribution; the allele frequencies in the case/control groups were A = 202 (78.9%)/143 (57.2%) andT = 54 (21.1%)/107 (42.8%). There were no statistically significant differences in genotype and allele distributionsbetween the case and control groups of rs1207568; the allele frequencies in the case/control groups were C = 194(71.3%)/145 (77.1%) and T = 78 (28.7%)/43 (22.9%). In rs3752472, the risk for patients with the C and A allelesincreased by 3.675 and 2.799 times, respectively. The rs3752472 and rs650439 SNPs are related to the risk of calcium oxalate stones in Xinjiang Uyghurpeople, and might be one of the risk factors.

  14. Herbal extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata inhibit growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, V. S.; Parekh, B. B.; Joshi, M. J.; Vaidya, A. B.

    2005-02-01

    A large number of people in this world are suffering from urinary stone problem. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) containing stones (calculi) are commonly found. In the present study, COM crystals were grown by a double diffusion gel growth technique using U-tubes. The gel was prepared from hydrated sodium metasilicate solution. The gel framework acts like a three-dimensional crucible in which the crystal nuclei are delicately held in the position of their formation, and nutrients are supplied for the growth. This technique can be utilized as a simplified screening static model to study the growth, inhibition and dissolution of urinary stones in vitro. The action of putative litholytic medicinal plants, Tribulus terrestris Linn. ( T.t) and Bergenia ligulata Linn. ( B.l.), has been studied in the growth of COM crystals. Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata are commonly used as herbal medicines for urinary calculi in India. To verify the inhibitive effect, aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata were added along with the supernatant solutions. The growth was measured and compared, with and without the aqueous extracts. Inhibition of COM crystal growth was observed in the herbal extracts. Maximum inhibition was observed in Bergenia ligulata followed by Tribulus terrestris. The results are discussed.

  15. Study of interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium copper, lead nitrates solutions with sodium oxalate solution with the aim of HTSC synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, V.P.; Krasnobaeva, O.N.; Nosova, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of developing a new technique for HTSC oxides synthesis on the base of combined sedimentation of hydroxy salts and their heat treatment is studied interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium, copper and lead nitrates with alkali solution of sodium oxalate. Conditions for total sedimentation of all five metals from the solution are found. The phase composition of interaction products is determined. It is established that they are high-dispersed homogeneous mixture of three phases of variable composition: twin hydroxalate of copper-bismuth, lead hydroxalate and twin oxalate of strontium-calcium. After heat treatment of the phases are obtained the HTSC oxides

  16. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of selected oxalate-degrading probiotic bacteria: potential applications in the prevention and treatment of hyperoxaluria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, Silvana; Scilironi, Cristina; Michelotti, Angela; Samuele, Alberta; Borella, Fabio; Daglia, Maria; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-03-01

    Oxalate (Ox) is a very common component of the human diet, capable to collect in the renal tissue and bind calcium to form calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. A supersaturation of CaOx crystal may cause nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The inflammation derived from the CaOx crystal accumulation, together with innate or secondary renal alterations, could strongly affect the renal function. In this case a consumption of probiotics with either oxalate-degrading activity at intestinal level and systemic anti-inflammatory activity could be an alternative approach to treat the subjects with excess of urinary oxalate excretion. 11 strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria), already included in the list of bacteria safe for the human use, were investigated for their capability to degrade oxalate by mean of RP-HPLC-UV method and modulate inflammation in an in vitro model system based on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Four promising bacterial strains (Lactobacillus plantarum PBS067, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-14, Bifidobacterium breve PBS077, Bifidobacterium longum PBS078) were identified as innovative biological tools for the prevention and the therapeutic treatment of hyperoxaluria and the inflammatory events associated to the Ox accumulation. The oxalate-degrading activity of some probiotics and their capability to modulate the release of inflammation mediators could be exploited as a new nutraceutical and therapeutic approach for the treatment of oxalate accumulation and the related inflammatory state. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Evaluation of oxalate decarboxylase and oxalate oxidase for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassland, Pierre; Sjöde, Anders; Winestrand, Sandra; Jönsson, Leif J; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    2010-05-01

    Increased recirculation of process water has given rise to problems with formation of calcium oxalate incrusts (scaling) in the pulp and paper industry and in forest biorefineries. The potential in using oxalate decarboxylase from Aspergillus niger for oxalic acid removal in industrial bleaching plant filtrates containing oxalic acid was examined and compared with barley oxalate oxidase. Ten different filtrates from chemical pulping were selected for the evaluation. Oxalate decarboxylase degraded oxalic acid faster than oxalate oxidase in eight of the filtrates, while oxalate oxidase performed better in one filtrate. One of the filtrates inhibited both enzymes. The potential inhibitory effect of selected compounds on the enzymatic activity was tested. Oxalate decarboxylase was more sensitive than oxalate oxidase to hydrogen peroxide. Oxalate decarboxylase was not as sensitive to chlorate and chlorite as oxalate oxidase. Up to 4 mM chlorate ions, the highest concentration tested, had no inhibitory effect on oxalate decarboxylase. Analysis of the filtrates suggests that high concentrations of chlorate present in some of the filtrates were responsible for the higher sensitivity of oxalate oxidase in these filtrates. Oxalate decarboxylase was thus a better choice than oxalate oxidase for treatment of filtrates from chlorine dioxide bleaching.

  18. Kinetic isotope effect in dehydration of ionic solids. II. The kinetics of dehydration of calcium oxalate monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manche, E.P.; Carroll, B.

    1977-01-01

    The kinetics of the isothermal dehydration of the protonated and deuterated monohydrate of calcium oxalate has been investigated at 120, 150, and 170 0 C. The rate of dehydration for these salts was found to be k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.025 +- 0.012. This result rules out the enormous kinetic isotope effect as given in the literature. An isotope effect of a few percent is not ruled out; this magnitude is in keeping with that found by Heinzinger in other dehydration processes. An estimated difference of about 150 cal/mol between the heat of desorption for H 2 O and D 2 O should have led to a ratio, k/sub h//k/sub D/ = 1.20. The smaller observed ratio has been explained on the basis of a compensation effect and may be considered an example of the Barclay--Butler correlation

  19. Correlation between the development of calcium oxalate stones and polymorphisms in the fibronectin gene in the Uighur population of the Xinjiang region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, M; Aekeper, A; Yuan, L Y; Alim, T; Du, G J; Abdusamat, A; Wu, G W; Aniwer, Y

    2015-10-29

    Here, we have investigated the correlation between calcium oxalate stone formation and Fn gene polymorphisms in urinary calculi patients among the Uighur population (Xinjiang region). In this case control study, genomic DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of 129 patients with calcium oxalate stones (patient group) and 94 normal people (control group) was used to genotype polymorphisms in the rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 sites of the Fn gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subsequently, the association between different genotypes and susceptibility to calcium oxalate stone formation was compared among the patient and control groups. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 sites of the Fn gene among the patient and control groups. The genotype distributions of the three loci complied with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The results of allele frequencies of the patient/control group for polymorphisms in the rs6725958 site of the Fn gene were C = 179 (69.92%)/119 (63.30%) and A = 77 (30.08%)/69 (36.70%), in the rs10202709 site were C = 245 (95.70%)/176 (93.63%) and T = 11 (4.30%)/12 (6.38%), and in the rs35343655 site of the Fn gene were A = 139 (54.30%)/87 (46.28%) and G = 117 (45.70%)/101 (53.72%). We observed no significant differences between the three SNPs and development of calcium oxalate stones. Polymorphisms in rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 of the Fn gene had no obvious effect on the susceptibility to the development of calcium oxalate stones in the Uighur population, residing in the Xinjiang region of China.

  20. Renal Epithelial Cell Injury Induced by Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Depends on their Structural Features: Size, Surface, and Crystalline Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Liu, Ai-Jie

    2016-11-01

    Urinary crystals in normal and kidney stone patients often differ in crystal sizes and surface structures, but the effects of different crystal properties on renal tubular epithelial cells remain unclear. This study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of micron/nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with sizes of 50 nm, 200 nm, 1 μm, 3 μm, and 10 μm to African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells, to reveal the effect of crystal size and surface structure on cell injury, and to investigate the pathological mechanism of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Cell viability, cellular biochemical parameters, and internalized crystal amount in Vero cells were closely associated with the size of COM crystals. At the same concentration (200 μg/mL), COM-1 μm induced the most serious injury to Vero cells and caused the most significant change to cellular biochemical parameters, which were related to the specific porous structure and highest internalized amount in Vero cells. By contrast, COM-50 nm and COM-200 nm crystals lost their small size effect because of serious aggregation and weakened their toxicity to cells. COM-3 μm and COM-10 μm crystals were too large for cells to completely internalize; these crystals also exhibited a low specific surface area and thus weakened their toxicity. The excessive expression of intracellular ROS and reduction of the free-radical scavenger SOD were the main reasons for cell injury and eventually caused necrotic cell death. Crystal size, surface structure, aggregation, and internalization amount were closely related to the cytotoxicity of COM crystals.

  1. Biosynthesis of l-Ascorbic Acid and Conversion of Carbons 1 and 2 of l-Ascorbic Acid to Oxalic Acid Occurs within Individual Calcium Oxalate Crystal Idioblasts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostman, Todd A.; Tarlyn, Nathan M.; Loewus, Frank A.; Franceschi, Vincent R.

    2001-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid (AsA) and its metabolic precursors give rise to oxalic acid (OxA) found in calcium oxalate crystals in specialized crystal idioblast cells in plants; however, it is not known if AsA and OxA are synthesized within the crystal idioblast cell or transported in from surrounding mesophyll cells. Isolated developing crystal idioblasts from Pistia stratiotes were used to study the pathway of OxA biosynthesis and to determine if idioblasts contain the entire path and are essentially independent in OxA synthesis. Idioblasts were supplied with various 14C-labeled compounds and examined by micro-autoradiography for incorporation of 14C into calcium oxalate crystals. [14C]OxA gave heavy labeling of crystals, indicating the isolated idioblasts are functional in crystal formation. Incubation with [1-14C]AsA also gave heavy labeling of crystals, whereas [6-14C]AsA gave no labeling. Labeled precursors of AsA (l-[1-14C]galactose; d-[1-14C]mannose) also resulted in crystal labeling, as did the ascorbic acid analog, d-[1-14C]erythorbic acid. Intensity of labeling of isolated idioblasts followed the pattern OxA > AsA (erythorbic acid) > l-galactose > d-mannose. Our results demonstrate that P. stratiotes crystal idioblasts synthesize the OxA used for crystal formation, the OxA is derived from the number 1 and 2 carbons of AsA, and the proposed pathway of ascorbic acid synthesis via d-mannose and l-galactose is operational in individual P. stratiotes crystal idioblasts. These results are discussed with respect to fine control of calcium oxalate precipitation and the concept of crystal idioblasts as independent physiological compartments. PMID:11161021

  2. Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Nano- and Microsized Crystals in the Urine of Calcium Oxalate Stone Patients and Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the properties of different sizes of urinary crystallites between calcium oxalate (CaOx calculi patients and healthy controls. Methods. We studied the average particle size, size distribution, intensity-autocorrelation curve, zeta potential (ζ, conductivity, mobility, aggregation state, and stability of different sizes of urinary crystallites by nanoparticle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy after filtration through a microporous membrane with an aperture size from 0.22 μm to 0.45, 1.2, 3, and 10 μm. Results. The urinary crystallites of the CaOx calculi patients were uneven and much easy to aggregate than those of controls. The number of large-sized crystallites of the patients was significantly more than that of the controls. The main components of the nanosized urinary crystallites in patients were CaOx monohydrate (COM, uric acid, and β-calcium phosphate, and these components were basically similar to those of the microsized urinary crystallites. The urinary crystallites of the calculi patients were easier to aggregate than that of the controls, and the small-sized urinary crystallites were much easier to agglomerate. Conclusions. The urinary system of CaOx calculi patients is unstable and highly susceptible to urinary crystallite aggregation. The rapid aggregation of urinary crystallites may be the key factor affecting urolithiasis formation.

  3. Improving nutritional quality and fungal tolerance in soya bean and grass pea by expressing an oxalate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Ghosh, Sumit; Irfan, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, β-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme. © 2016 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Infusum Daun Alpukat Sebagai Inhibitor Kristalisasi Kalsium Oksalat pada Ginjal (THE AVOCADO LEAVES INFUSUM AS INHIBITOR ON RENAL CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Madyastuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine crystal is a crystal nucleus which tend to form urine stone. The case of urine stone seems to beincreased every year. Crystallization could induce acute tubular necrosis which impact on renal dysfunction.The signs of this condition are high level of urea, creatinine and decrease glomerulus filtration rate. Theobjective of this research was to evaluate the effects of infusum Persea americana Mill as an inhibitorcrystallization which induced by ethylene glycol on white male rats. 20 male rats were divided into 4groups; K1 as negative group received only distilled water ad libitum, K2 as positive group receiveddistilled water containing ethylene glycol, K3 (dose 5% and K4 (dose 10% as treatment groups receivedwater containing ethylene glycol and avocado leaves infusion. Phytochemsitry screening of infusion avocadoleaves consisted of flavonoid, saponin, tanine and quinone. Result of analysis showed that the level ofureum and creatinine on K2 was higher than K3 and K4 group. The increased level could be inhibited byinfusion avocado leaves. The measurement of glomerular filtration rate in treatment groups wassignificantly different (p<0.05. Descriptive histopathology observation showed that renal lesio in grouptreatment (K3 and K4 were declined. Large crystal calcium oxalate on K2 group was observed by usingpolarized microscope, whereas small crystal calcium oxalate were seen in the infusion of avocado leavesgroups. These result showed the ability of infusion of avocado leaves as an inhibitor on the growth ofcrystallization calcium oxalate

  5. Renal papillary calcification and the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal calculi: a case series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to determine in a case series (four patients) how calcified deposits in renal papillae are associated with the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi. Methods From the recently collected papillary calculi, we evaluated retrospectively patients, subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy, with COM papillary lithiasis. Results The COM papillary calculi were found to result from subepithelial injury. Many of these lesions underwent calcification by hydroxyapatite (HAP), with calculus morphology and the amount of HAP in the concave zone dependent on the location of the calcified injury. Most of these HAP deposits grew, eroding the epithelium covering the renal papillae, coming into contact with urine and starting the development of COM calculi. Subepithelial HAP plaques may alter the epithelium covering the papillae, resulting in the deposit of COM crystals directly onto the epithelium. Tissue calcification depends on a pre-existing injury, the continuation of this process is due to modulators and/or crystallization inhibitors deficiency. Conclusions Since calculus morphology and the amount of detected HAP are dependent on the location and widespread of calcified injury, all types of papillary COM calculi can be found in the same patient. All patients had subepithelial calcifications, with fewer papillary calculi, demonstrating that some subepithelial calcifications did not further evolve and were reabsorbed. A high number of subepithelial calcifications increases the likelihood that some will be transformed into COM papillary calculi. PMID:23497010

  6. Renal papillary calcification and the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal calculi: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Fèlix; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Prieto, Rafel M; Conte, Antonio; Servera, Antonio

    2013-03-11

    The objective of this study is to determine in a case series (four patients) how calcified deposits in renal papillae are associated with the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi. From the recently collected papillary calculi, we evaluated retrospectively patients, subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy, with COM papillary lithiasis. The COM papillary calculi were found to result from subepithelial injury. Many of these lesions underwent calcification by hydroxyapatite (HAP), with calculus morphology and the amount of HAP in the concave zone dependent on the location of the calcified injury. Most of these HAP deposits grew, eroding the epithelium covering the renal papillae, coming into contact with urine and starting the development of COM calculi. Subepithelial HAP plaques may alter the epithelium covering the papillae, resulting in the deposit of COM crystals directly onto the epithelium. Tissue calcification depends on a pre-existing injury, the continuation of this process is due to modulators and/or crystallization inhibitors deficiency. Since calculus morphology and the amount of detected HAP are dependent on the location and widespread of calcified injury, all types of papillary COM calculi can be found in the same patient. All patients had subepithelial calcifications, with fewer papillary calculi, demonstrating that some subepithelial calcifications did not further evolve and were reabsorbed. A high number of subepithelial calcifications increases the likelihood that some will be transformed into COM papillary calculi.

  7. Dose Optimization of Calcusol™ and Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM on Primary Renal Epithelial Cells Cultures of Mice ( Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Soni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kidney stones are one of the urologic diseases that have plagued mankind for centuries. The main constituents of stones in the kidney are calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals. Nowadays, there are varieties of drugs and treatments that can be made to minimize the grievances due to kidney stone disease. The treatment can be done either by using chemicals or traditional medicine. Calcusol™ is one of the popular herbal products that have been used by Indonesian people in curing the kidney stone disease. The main constituent that was contained in Calcusol™ is an extract of the tempuyung leaves (Sonchus arvensis L., which is expected could cure the kidney stone disease. This study used primary cultured renal epithelial cells of mice to determine the optimal dose of Calcusol™ and the optimal dose of COM. The primary Kidney epithelial cell were treated with Calcusol™ and COM at various doses. The analysis of the cell death either by necrosis or apoptosis pathways was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. The results that were obtained is the percentage of cell death that is then analyzed by using a complete randomized design (CRD One Way Anova. Based on the results that were obtained, it is known that the optimal dose of Calcusol™ in vitro were ranging from 75 ppm to 100 ppm, whereas the optimal dose of COM suggested for 500 ppm.

  8. Occurrence and characterisation of calcium oxalate crystals in stems and fruits of Hylocereus costaricensis and Selenicereus megalanthus (Cactaceae: Hylocereeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, María; Jiménez, Víctor M

    2016-10-01

    Detailed description about occurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals in the edible vine cactus species Hylocereus costaricensis and Selenicereus megalanthus is scarce. Therefore, we evaluated and characterized the presence, morphology and composition of CaOx crystals in both species. Crystals were isolated from greenhouse and in vitro vegetative stems, and from ripe fruit peels and pulp by enzymatic digestion and density centrifugation and quantified with a haemocytometer. Morphologies were studied using scanning electron microscopy, elemental composition with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and salt composition with X-ray powder diffraction. Analyses conducted confirmed that isolated crystals were exclusively composed by CaOx, both mono- and dihydrated. Highest crystal contents were measured in greenhouse stems, followed by the fruit peels. While very few crystals were quantified in in vitro plants, they were not detected in the fruit pulp at all, which is of advantage for its human consumption and could be linked to mechanisms of seed dispersal through animals. Different crystal morphologies were observed, sometimes varying between genotypes and tissues analysed. This is the first work known to the authors with a detailed characterization of CaOx crystals in vine cacti. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nephrolithiasis-induced end stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ounissi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available M Ounissi¹, T Gargueh², M Mahfoudhi¹, K Boubaker¹, H Hedri¹, R Goucha¹, E Abderrahim¹, F Ben Hamida¹, T Ben Abdallah¹, F El Younsi¹, H Ben Maiz³, A Kheder¹1Internal Medicine Department, 2Pediatric Department, 3Laboratory of Kidney Diseases, Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, TunisiaIntroduction: Nephrolithiasis still remains a too frequent and underappreciated cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD.Methods and patients: Of the entire cohort of 7128 consecutive patients who started maintenance dialysis in our nephrology department between January 1992 and December 2006, a total of 45 patients (26 women, 19 men had renal stone disease as the cause of ESRD. The type of nephrolithiasis was determined in 45 cases and etiology in 42. The treatment and evolution of stone disease and patient’s survival were studied.Results: The overall proportion of nephrolithiasis related ESRD was 0.63%. The mean age was 48.4 years. Infection stones (struvite accounted for 40%, calcium stones, 26.67% (primary hyperparathyroidism:15.56%; familial hypercalciuria: 4.44%, unknown etiology: 6.66%, primary hyperoxaluria type 1, 17.78% and uric acid lithiasis in 15.56% of cases. The mean delay of the evolution of the stone renal disease to chronic renal failure was 85.8 months. The feminine gender, obesity and elevated alkaline phosphatases >128 IU/L were significantly correlated with fast evolution of ESRD. The median evolution to ESRD was 12 months. The normal body mass index (BMI, medical treatment of stone and primary hyperoxaluria type 1 were correlated with fast evolution to ESRD. All patients were treated by hemodialysis during a mean evolution of 60 months. Sixteen patients died. The patient's survival rate at 1, 3 and 5 years was 97.6, 92.8 and 69% respectively. Hypocalcemia, cardiopathy and normal calcium-phosphate product were significantly correlated with lower survival rate.Conclusion: Severe forms of nephrolithiasis remain an underestimated cause of

  10. Nephrolithiasis, stone composition, meteorology, and seasons in Malta: Is there any connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Jesmar; Attard, Stephanie; Carachi, Alexander; Galea, Ruth; Fava, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of seasons and meteorology on the incidence of nephrolithiasis has been studied in various regions around the globe, but seldom in the Mediterranean. This retrospective analysis aims at investigating these putative effects in the Maltese Islands, whose climate is typically Mediterranean, followed by a systematic review of the literature. Submission rate and chemical composition of all kidney stones after spontaneous passage or surgical removal between January 2009 and December 2011 were analyzed according to seasons and corresponding meteorology. A total of 389 stones were analyzed. A higher stone submission rate was observed in summer compared to winter (31.6% vs. 20.8%, P = 0.0008) and in the warm period compared to the cold period (57.1% vs. 42.9%, P = 0.0001). Significant correlation was established between the monthly number of stones and mean monthly maximum temperature (r = 0.50, P = 0.002), mean monthly temperature (r = 0.49, P = 0.003) and mean monthly Humidex (r = 0.49, P = 0.007). Humidex was found to be an independent predictor for stone submission (β = 0.49, P = 0.007). The majority of stones contained calcium (83.3%), combined with oxalate (77.6%), phosphate (14.7%), and carbonate (2.8%). Some stones (11.8%) contained a mixture of >1 negatively charged molecules. Urate (11.6%), cysteine (4.6%), and ammonium-magnesium-phosphate (0.5%) constituted the rest. There was no association between chemical composition and seasons. Literature review included 25 articles. Higher ambient temperature and warm seasons were the most commonly encountered risk factors for both presentation and etiology of nephrolithiasis. A significant positive correlation was noted between ambient temperature and stone submission rate, which was significantly higher during the warm months in Malta.

  11. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  12. Cynodon dactylon extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmani, F; Sadki, C; Aziz, M; Mimouni, M; Hacht, B

    2009-04-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae family) decoction was used in the treatment of kidney stones. However, no scientific study was undertaken so far to demonstrate the beneficial effect of the plant. Thus, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of Cynodon aqueous extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Ethylene glycol (EG) was used in the experiment to induce calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition into kidneys. In preventive protocol, Cynodon decoction was administered in the same day with EG to evaluate the ability of the extract to prevent crystal deposition. However, in curative protocol, rats were first rendered nephrolithiasic and then the extract was administered to assess the ability of the plant to eliminate the pre-existing crystal deposition. In both protocols, urinary biochemical and other variables were measured during the course of the study. Crystalluria and renal histology were examined as well. The results showed that, in both protocols, all measured variables were similar for both the rat groups. Nevertheless, urinary biochemical analysis was apparently unaffected by the extract except oxalate in preventive protocol, and calcium, sodium, and potassium in curative protocol which were significantly highly excreted in treated rats compared to untreated animals. Crystalluria was characterized mostly by the presence of large quantities of CaOx monohydrate and CaOx dihydrate particles in untreated rats. However, crystalluria was mainly dominated by the presence of CaOx dihydrate particles with reduced size. The most apparent beneficial effect of Cynodon extract was seen in kidney tissues where reduced levels of CaOx deposition have been noticed especially in medullary and papillary sections from treated rats. We concluded that C. dactylon extract has beneficial effect in preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition into kidneys. Such findings provide a scientific explanation for its use in the

  13. Kaleidoscopic Views in the Bone Marrow: Oxalate Crystals in a Patient Presenting with Bicytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Dere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancytopenia associated with BM infiltration of different deposits is a rare condition mostly associated with amyloidosis or the accumulation of iron. One of the rarest deposits in the BM is oxalate crystals due to hyperoxaluria [1,2,3]. Primary hyperoxaluria, a genetic disorder due to mutation in the alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase gene, located on chromosome 2q37.3 and resulting in the conversion of glyoxylate to oxalate, is characterized by increased production of oxalic acid because of the specific liver enzyme deficiency and generally presents with renal stones, renal or liver failure, and oxalosis [4]. Calcium oxalate may even be deposited into various tissues such as those of the retina, peripheral nerves, arterial media, and heart [4,5]. The medical history of nephrolithiasis at early ages, characteristic appearance of birefringent crystals forming rosettes in the BM, and the envelope-like forms in the BM aspirates seen in our case supported the diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria, which is best confirmed by genetic studies and treated with liver transplantation because of the location of the abnormal enzymes in the hepatocytes.

  14. Use of cinacalcet in nephrolithiasis associated with normocalcemic or hypercalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism: results of a prospective randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Brardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate, by means of a prospective randomized study, the efficacy of cinacalcet in the forms of nephrolithiasis associated with primary hyperparathyroidism in both the hypercalcemic and normocalcemic variant. Materials and Methods: Ten patients suffering from active nephrolithiasis associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (4 hypercalcemics and 6 normocalcemics, equally divided between males and females, were randomly but not blindly addressed to treatment with potassium citrate and allopurinol, or to the same therapeutic regimen in combination with cinacalcet. The dosage of cinacalcet was optimized for each patient in order to obtain a reduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH within normal limits while enabling the maintenance of adequate calcemic values. All study participants were given the same diet based on a reduction in sodium intake, oxalate-rich foods and animal protein with standardized intake of calcium and an increase in hydration. After a follow up period of 10 months , cinacalcet was associated to standard therapy and diet in patients who were not taken it, conversely cinacalcet was withdrawn in the remaining patients who remained on standard therapeutic regimen and diet. Follow up was continued for a second period of observation of the same duration of the first. Results: At the end of the period of treatment with cinacalcet, for both variants of hyperparathyroidism, a statistically significant reduction in the overall number and in the diameter of renal stones was found. Conclusions: This prospective randomized study shows the effectiveness of cinacalcet used in combination with a diet with normalized calcium intake, in reducing the number and size of urinary stones in hypercalemic and normocalcemic forms of primary hyperparathyroidism.

  15. Modulation of Calcium Oxalate Crystallization by Proteins and Small Molecules Investigated by In Situ Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, R.; Orme, C.; Cody, A. M.; Wierzbicki, A.; Hoyer, J.; Nancollas, G.; de Yoreo, J.

    2002-12-01

    Understanding the physical mechanisms by which biological inhibitors control nucleation and growth of inorganic crystals is a major focus of biomineral research. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), which plays a functional role in plant physiology, is also a source of pathogenesis in humans where it causes kidney stone disease. Although a great deal of research has been carried out on the modulation COM by proteins and small molecules, the basic mechanism has not yet been understood. However, because the proteins that play a role in COM growth have been identified and sequenced, COM provides an excellent model system for research into biomineral growth. In this study, in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor the COM surface under controlled growth conditions both from pure solutions and those doped with citrate and osteopontin (OPN) in order to determine their effects on surface morphology and growth dynamics at the molecular level. As with other solution-grown crystals such as calcite, COM grows on complex dislocation hillocks. In pure solution, while growth on the (010) face is isotropic, hillocks on the (-101) face exhibit anisotropic step kinetics. Steps of [-10-1] and orientation are clearly delineated with the [-10-1] being the fast growing direction. When citrate is added to the solution, both growth rate and morphology are drastically changed on (-101) face, especially along the [-10-1] direction. This results in isotropic disc-shaped hillocks a shape that is then reflected in the macroscopic growth habit. In contrast, no large growth changes were observed on the (010) facet. At the same time, molecular modeling predicts an excellent fit of the citrate ion into the (-101) plane and a poor fit to the (010) face. Here we propose a model that reconciles the step-specific interactions implied by the AFM results with the face-specific predictions of the calculations. Finally, we present the results of doping with aspartic acid as well as OPN, an

  16. Incidence of nephrolithiasis in relation to environmental exposure to lead and cadmium in a population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Azusa; Yang, Wen-Yi; Petit, Thibault; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Gu, Yu-Mei; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Odili, Augustine N. [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences University of Abuja (Nigeria); Thijs, Lutgarde [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Nawrot, Tim S. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Hasselt (Belgium); Staessen, Jan A., E-mail: jan.staessen@med.kuleuven.be [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); R& D Group VitaK, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Whether environmental exposure to nephrotoxic agents that potentially interfere with calcium homeostasis, such as lead and cadmium, contribute to the incidence of nephrolithiasis needs further clarification. We investigated the relation between nephrolithiasis incidence and environmental lead and cadmium exposure in a general population. In 1302 participants randomly recruited from a Flemish population (50.9% women; mean age, 47.9 years), we obtained baseline measurements (1985–2005) of blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), 24-h urinary cadmium (UCd) and covariables. We monitored the incidence of kidney stones until October 6, 2014. We used Cox regression to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for nephrolithiasis. At baseline, geometric mean BPb, BCd and UCd was 0.29 µmol/L, 9.0 nmol/L, and 8.5 nmol per 24 h, respectively. Over 11.5 years (median), nephrolithiasis occurred in 40 people. Contrasting the low and top tertiles of the distributions, the sex- and age-standardized rates of nephrolithiasis expressed as events per 1000 person-years were 0.68 vs. 3.36 (p=0.0016) for BPb, 1.80 vs. 3.28 (p=0.11) for BCd, and 1.65 vs. 2.95 (p=0.28) for UCd. In continuous analysis, with adjustments applied for sex, age, serum magnesium, and 24-h urinary volume and calcium, the hazard ratios expressing the risk associated with a doubling of the exposure biomarkers were 1.35 (p=0.015) for BPb, 1.13 (p=0.22) for BCd, and 1.23 (p=0.070) for UCd. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental lead exposure is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis in the general population. - Highlights: • Prevalence and incidence rates of nephrolithiasis are increasing worldwide. • Lead and cadmium interfere with calcium homeostasis and might cause nephrolithiasis. • Environmental exposure to lead, not cadmium, predicts nephrolithiasis in the population. • Safety standards for environmental lead exposure need to account for nephrolithiasis. • Reducing environmental

  17. Response surface methodology based extraction of Tribulus terrestris leads to an upsurge of antilithiatic potential by inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Jyoti; Tandon, Simran; Gupta, Varun; Nayyar, Jasamrit; Singla, Surinder Kumar; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2017-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris has significant antilithiatic efficacy established via both in vitro as well as in vivo studies and is used in numerous anti-urolithiatic herbal formulations viz. Cystone, Uriflow, Uritone and Neeri. However, to fully utilize its antilithiatic potential, the influence of different extraction parameters on antilithiatic ability of T. terrestris aqueous extract needs elucidation. Thus, the current study was undertaken using statistically optimized extraction conditions for aqueous extract preparation. Response surface methodology was employed to observe the influence of three variables i.e. temperature (°C), time (h) and solid: liquid ratio (S: L) on the extraction yield (%) and protein content (mg/g) of T. terrestris aqueous extract. RSM results revealed that the high S:L ratio, low temperature and reduced incubation time were optimal conditions for aqueous extraction. Under such extraction conditions the protein content reached the value of 26.6±1.22 mg/g and the obtained extraction yield was 27.32±1.62%. The assessment of antilithiatic activity of 4 selected extracts (AE1-4), revealed enhanced nucleation and aggregation inhibition of calcium oxalate crystals with AE1 and AE2, which in addition significantly altered the size and morphology of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals compared to AE3 and AE4. In vitro cell culture based studies on renal epithelial cells (MDCK, NRK-52E and PK 15) proved that the AE1 showed higher cytoprotective potency by increasing cell viability as compared to the oxalate treated group. The free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract lowered the reactive oxygen specie’s induced damage and potentially reduced the signals of programmed cell death due to oxalate injury. In addition, modulation of the COM crystal morphology was enhanced by AE1 as compared to AE2. The FTIR and GC-MS analysis of AE1, showed the presence of biomolecules which could aid in the attenuation of lithiatic process. In the light

  18. Response surface methodology based extraction of Tribulus terrestris leads to an upsurge of antilithiatic potential by inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Jyoti; Tandon, Simran; Gupta, Varun; Nayyar, Jasamrit; Singla, Surinder Kumar; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2017-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris has significant antilithiatic efficacy established via both in vitro as well as in vivo studies and is used in numerous anti-urolithiatic herbal formulations viz. Cystone, Uriflow, Uritone and Neeri. However, to fully utilize its antilithiatic potential, the influence of different extraction parameters on antilithiatic ability of T. terrestris aqueous extract needs elucidation. Thus, the current study was undertaken using statistically optimized extraction conditions for aqueous extract preparation. Response surface methodology was employed to observe the influence of three variables i.e. temperature (°C), time (h) and solid: liquid ratio (S: L) on the extraction yield (%) and protein content (mg/g) of T. terrestris aqueous extract. RSM results revealed that the high S:L ratio, low temperature and reduced incubation time were optimal conditions for aqueous extraction. Under such extraction conditions the protein content reached the value of 26.6±1.22 mg/g and the obtained extraction yield was 27.32±1.62%. The assessment of antilithiatic activity of 4 selected extracts (AE1-4), revealed enhanced nucleation and aggregation inhibition of calcium oxalate crystals with AE1 and AE2, which in addition significantly altered the size and morphology of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals compared to AE3 and AE4. In vitro cell culture based studies on renal epithelial cells (MDCK, NRK-52E and PK 15) proved that the AE1 showed higher cytoprotective potency by increasing cell viability as compared to the oxalate treated group. The free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract lowered the reactive oxygen specie's induced damage and potentially reduced the signals of programmed cell death due to oxalate injury. In addition, modulation of the COM crystal morphology was enhanced by AE1 as compared to AE2. The FTIR and GC-MS analysis of AE1, showed the presence of biomolecules which could aid in the attenuation of lithiatic process. In the light

  19. Response surface methodology based extraction of Tribulus terrestris leads to an upsurge of antilithiatic potential by inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kaushik

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris has significant antilithiatic efficacy established via both in vitro as well as in vivo studies and is used in numerous anti-urolithiatic herbal formulations viz. Cystone, Uriflow, Uritone and Neeri. However, to fully utilize its antilithiatic potential, the influence of different extraction parameters on antilithiatic ability of T. terrestris aqueous extract needs elucidation. Thus, the current study was undertaken using statistically optimized extraction conditions for aqueous extract preparation. Response surface methodology was employed to observe the influence of three variables i.e. temperature (°C, time (h and solid: liquid ratio (S: L on the extraction yield (% and protein content (mg/g of T. terrestris aqueous extract. RSM results revealed that the high S:L ratio, low temperature and reduced incubation time were optimal conditions for aqueous extraction. Under such extraction conditions the protein content reached the value of 26.6±1.22 mg/g and the obtained extraction yield was 27.32±1.62%. The assessment of antilithiatic activity of 4 selected extracts (AE1-4, revealed enhanced nucleation and aggregation inhibition of calcium oxalate crystals with AE1 and AE2, which in addition significantly altered the size and morphology of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals compared to AE3 and AE4. In vitro cell culture based studies on renal epithelial cells (MDCK, NRK-52E and PK 15 proved that the AE1 showed higher cytoprotective potency by increasing cell viability as compared to the oxalate treated group. The free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract lowered the reactive oxygen specie's induced damage and potentially reduced the signals of programmed cell death due to oxalate injury. In addition, modulation of the COM crystal morphology was enhanced by AE1 as compared to AE2. The FTIR and GC-MS analysis of AE1, showed the presence of biomolecules which could aid in the attenuation of lithiatic process. In

  20. Irritant contact dermatitis caused by needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, in Agave tequilana among workers in tequila distilleries and agave plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, M L; Ogura, T; Soffchi, L

    2001-02-01

    It was found that needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, are found abundantly in all tissues of Agave tequilana plants; thus, 1 droplet (0.03 ml) of juice pressed from leaves contains 100-150 crystals, 30-500 microm in length, sharpened at both ends. In tequila distilleries, 5/6 of the workers who handle the agave stems have experienced the characteristic irritation. In contrast, only 1/3 of workers in agave plantations who harvest agave plants, complain of the irritation. It is confirmed that all the irritation suffered in both distilleries and plantations takes place at bodily locations where the plants come into contact with the worker's skin in the course of their work.

  1. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

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    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  2. Reference values for urinary oxalate, calcium, citrate, uric acid, phosphate, magnesium, sulphate and sodium in biochemistry students at Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina

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    Verónica Fernández

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urolithiasis (UL is a common disease whose incidence increased in the last quarter of the twentieth century. Metabolic evaluation is necessary for diagnosis, which requires the establishment of reference values (RV for the population in question. Objective: To determine the RV for calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, phosphate, magnesium, sulphate and sodium in 24-hour urine belonging to students from the School of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences at Universidad Nacional del Litoral, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Once RV were established, a frequency of alterations was determined and then compared with literature data. Methods: The NCCLSC28-A3 guideline (2008 was used. The study group included 69 students. The enzymatic colorimetric method, a Metrolab 1600 plus spectrophotometer and a DIESTRO ionselective electrode were also employed. Results: The RV found (95 % CI were the following: oxalate, 1.96-45.08; calcium, 20.65-250.74; citrate, 112.78-666.01; uric acid, 58.73-782.17; phosphate, 238.37-1051.44; magnesium, 28.7-146.67, all these values expressed as mg/24h; sulphate, 3.15-25.18 mmol/24h, and sodium, 42.81-285.3 mEq/24h. These findings emerged as well: hyperoxaluria, 3 %; hypercalciuria 12 %; hypocitraturia, 3 %; hyperuricosuria, 6 %; hyperphosphaturia, 6 %; hypomagnesuria, 6 %; hypernatriuria, 7 %, and hypersulphaturia, 0 %. When RV were compared, some analyte levels were similar and others showed a considerable difference. Conclusions: The diagnosis of UL through the study of metabolic changes is different according to the reference value used. Applying reference values established for other populations, including those of commercial kits manufacturers, may lead to a diagnosis which does not match the clinical condition of the patient.

  3. Preparation of calcium oxalate-bromopyrogallol red inclusion sorbent and application to treatment of cationic dye and heavy metal wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Gao, Hong-Wen

    2009-05-01

    Dye pollutants are a major class of environmental contaminants. Over 100,000 dyes have been synthesized worldwide and more than 700,000 tons are produced annually and over 5% are discharged into aquatic environments. The adsorption or sorption is one of the most efficient methods to remove dye and heavy metal pollutants from wastewater. However, most of the present sorbents often bear some disadvantages, e.g. low sorption capacity, difficult separation of spoil, complex reproduction, or secondary pollution. Development of novel sorbents that can overcome these limitations is desirable. On the basis of the chemical coprecipitation of calcium oxalate (CaC(2)O(4)), bromopyrogallol red (BPR) was embedded during the growing of CaC(2)O(4) particles. The ternary C(2)O(4) (2-)-BPR-Ca(2+) sorbent was yielded by the centrifugation. Its composition was determined by spectrophotometry and AAS, and its structure and morphology were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particle-size analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption of ethyl violet (EV) and heavy metals, e.g. Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II) were carried out and their removal rate determined by spectrophotometry and ICP-OES. The adsorption performance of the sorbent was compared with powder activated carbon. The Langmuir isothermal model was applied to fit the embedment of BPR and adsorption of EV. The saturation number of BPR binding to CaC(2)O(4) reached 0.0105 mol/mol and the adsorption constant of the complex was 4.70 x 10(5) M(-1). Over 80% of the sorbent particles are between 0.7 and 1.02 microm, formed by the aggregation of the global CaC(2)O(4)/BPR inclusion grains of 30-50 nm size. Such a material was found to adsorb cationic dyes selectively and sensitively. Ethyl violet (EV) was used to investigate the adsorption mechanism of the material. One BPR molecule may just bind with one EV molecule. The CaC(2)O(4)/BPR inclusion material adsorbed EV over two times more

  4. Nephrolithiasis and Osteomalacia associated with adefovir-induced Fanconi syndrome in a patient with hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jueying; Zhuo, Yufeng; Zhang, Dongdong

    2017-08-29

    An increasing number of case reports suggest that acquired renal Fanconi syndrome may be associated with prolonged use of adefovir against hepatitis B virus. Renal Fanconi syndrome is an uncommon disease, and its complication with nephrolithiasis is quite rare. Herein, we report a rare coexistence of nephrolithiasis and acquired renal Fanconi syndrome in a chronic hepatitis B-positive patient with prolonged adefovir therapy. The patient presented with osteomalacia and nephrolithiasis. Consequently, extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and left double-J ureteral stent insertion were considered for obstructive nephropathy, which was caused by nephrolithiasis. However, osteomalacia had been misdiagnosed as osteoporosis before admission to our hospital. On admission, a complexity of multiple fractures, hypophosphataemia, glycosuria without hyperglycaemia and non-anion-gap metabolic acidosis indicated a diagnosis of acquired renal Fanconi syndrome induced by adefovir. After switching from adefovir to entecavir, the patient's symptoms and laboratory findings improved significantly. The mechanism responsible for nephrolithiasis in renal Fanconi syndrome is still unclear. We recommend regularly monitoring renal function and serum calcium and serum phosphate to prevent renal Fanconi syndrome during the prolonged use of adefovir for hepatitis B virus.

  5. Anti-Transforming Growth Factor β IgG Elicits a Dual Effect on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization and Progressive Nephrocalcinosis-Related Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Stefanie; Grill, Julia Felicitas; Ma, Qiuyue; Bäuerle, Tobias; Jordan, Jutta; Smolle, Michaela; Böhland, Claudia; Lech, Maciej; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Crystallopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by intrinsic or environmental microparticles or crystals, promoting tissue inflammation and scarring. Certain proteins interfere with crystal formation and growth, e.g., with intrarenal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal formation, a common cause of kidney stone disease or nephrocalcinosis-related chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that immunoglobulins can modulate CaOx microcrystal formation and crystal growth and that therefore, biological IgG-based drugs designed to specifically target disease modifying proteins would elicit a dual effect on the outcome of CaOx-related crystallopathies. Indeed, both the anti-transforming growth factor (TGF)β IgG and control IgG1 antibody impaired CaOx crystallization in vitro , and decreased intrarenal CaOx crystal deposition and subsequent CKD in mice on an oxalate-rich diet compared to oxalate-fed control mice. However, the TGFβ-specific IgG antibody showed nephroprotective effects beyond those of control IgG1 and substantially reduced interstitial fibrosis as indicated by magnetic resonance imaging, silver and α-smooth muscle actin staining, RT-qPCR, and flow cytometry for pro-fibrotic macrophages. Suppressing interstitial fibrosis slowed the decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to treatment with control IgG1 [slope of m  = -8.9 vs. m  = -14.5 μl/min/100 g body weight (BW)/day, Δ = 38.3%], an increased GFR at the end of the study (120.4 vs. 42.6 μl/min/100 g BW, Δ = 64.6%), and prolonged end stage renal disease (ESRD)-free renal survival by 10 days (Δ = 38.5%). Delayed onset of anti-TGFβ IgG from day 7 was no longer effective. Our results suggest that biological drugs can elicit dual therapeutic effects on intrinsic crystallopathies, such as anti-TGFβ IgG antibody treatment inhibits CaOx crystallization as well as interstitial fibrosis in nephrocalcinosis-related CKD.

  6. Anti-Transforming Growth Factor β IgG Elicits a Dual Effect on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization and Progressive Nephrocalcinosis-Related Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Steiger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystallopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by intrinsic or environmental microparticles or crystals, promoting tissue inflammation and scarring. Certain proteins interfere with crystal formation and growth, e.g., with intrarenal calcium oxalate (CaOx crystal formation, a common cause of kidney stone disease or nephrocalcinosis-related chronic kidney disease (CKD. We hypothesized that immunoglobulins can modulate CaOx microcrystal formation and crystal growth and that therefore, biological IgG-based drugs designed to specifically target disease modifying proteins would elicit a dual effect on the outcome of CaOx-related crystallopathies. Indeed, both the anti-transforming growth factor (TGFβ IgG and control IgG1 antibody impaired CaOx crystallization in vitro, and decreased intrarenal CaOx crystal deposition and subsequent CKD in mice on an oxalate-rich diet compared to oxalate-fed control mice. However, the TGFβ-specific IgG antibody showed nephroprotective effects beyond those of control IgG1 and substantially reduced interstitial fibrosis as indicated by magnetic resonance imaging, silver and α-smooth muscle actin staining, RT-qPCR, and flow cytometry for pro-fibrotic macrophages. Suppressing interstitial fibrosis slowed the decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR compared to treatment with control IgG1 [slope of m = −8.9 vs. m = −14.5 μl/min/100 g body weight (BW/day, Δ = 38.3%], an increased GFR at the end of the study (120.4 vs. 42.6 μl/min/100 g BW, Δ = 64.6%, and prolonged end stage renal disease (ESRD-free renal survival by 10 days (Δ = 38.5%. Delayed onset of anti-TGFβ IgG from day 7 was no longer effective. Our results suggest that biological drugs can elicit dual therapeutic effects on intrinsic crystallopathies, such as anti-TGFβ IgG antibody treatment inhibits CaOx crystallization as well as interstitial fibrosis in nephrocalcinosis-related CKD.

  7. The genetic framework for development of nephrolithiasis

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    Vinaya Vasudevan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 1%–15% of the population worldwide is affected by nephrolithiasis, which remains the most common and costly disease that urologists manage today. Identification of at-risk individuals remains a theoretical and technological challenge. The search for monogenic causes of stone disease has been largely unfruitful and a technological challenge; however, several candidate genes have been implicated in the development of nephrolithiasis. In this review, we will review current data on the genetic inheritance of stone disease, as well as investigate the evolving role of genetic analysis and counseling in the management of nephrolithiasis.

  8. Nephrolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis From Topiramate Therapy in Children With Epilepsy

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    Sarah M. Barnett

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adults treated with topiramate may develop nephrolithiasis, but its frequency in children on topiramate is unknown. Topiramate inhibits renal carbonic anhydrase, which can lead to renal tubular acidosis and hypercalciuria. We studied 40 consecutive children who initiated topiramate therapy for seizures between January 1997 and February 2003, followed for a mean of 36 months. Methods: Serum electrolytes, urinary calcium/creatinine ratios, and renal ultrasonography were performed before topiramate and every 6 months thereafter. Results: Four children developed nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis, which resolved on discontinuation of topiramate. In 40 patients, the mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio increased over time (P 0.21 were compared with the 14 children with baseline normal urinary calcium excretion. A greater increase in urinary calcium/creatinine ratios occurred in hypercalciuric children (P < 0.001 and a greater decrease in serum bicarbonate levels occurred in the hypercalciuric children (P < 0.05 compared with children with baseline normal calcium excretion. Greater urinary calcium excretion was associated with increasing doses of topiramate (P = 0.039. Conclusion: Our study shows that long-term therapy with topiramate in children is associated with persistent hypercalciuria and metabolic acidosis, which can lead to nephrocalcinosis and/or nephrolithiasis. All children initiating topiramate therapy should have baseline and follow-up urinary calcium/creatinine studies, serum electrolytes, and periodic renal ultrasonography, if the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio increases to a level above normal for age. Keywords: hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, topiramate

  9. Extensive characterizations of bacteria isolated from catheterized urine and stone matrices in patients with nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree; Prasongwattana, Vitoon; Sungkeeree, Seksit; Saisud, Phitsamai; Sribenjalux, Pipat; Pimratana, Chaowat; Bovornpadungkitti, Sombat; Sriboonlue, Pote; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2012-11-01

    Urinary tract infections are generally known to be associated with nephrolithiasis, particularly struvite stone, in which the most common microbe found is urea-splitting bacterium, i.e. Proteus mirabilis. However, our observation indicated that it might not be the case of stone formers in Thailand. We therefore extensively characterized microorganisms associated with all types of kidney stones. A total of 100 kidney stone formers (59 males and 41 females) admitted for elective percutaneous nephrolithotomy were recruited and microorganisms isolated from catheterized urine and cortex and nidus of their stones were analyzed. From 100 stone formers recruited, 36 cases had a total of 45 bacterial isolates cultivated from their catheterized urine and/or stone matrices. Among these 36 cases, chemical analysis by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy revealed that 8 had the previously classified 'infection-induced stones', whereas the other 28 cases had the previously classified 'metabolic stones'. Calcium oxalate (in either pure or mixed form) was the most common and found in 64 and 75% of the stone formers with and without bacterial isolates, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium (approximately one-third of all bacterial isolates) found in urine and stone matrices (both nidus and periphery). Linear regression analysis showed significant correlation (r = 0.860, P stone matrices. Multidrug resistance was frequently found in these isolated bacteria. Moreover, urea test revealed that only 31% were urea-splitting bacteria, whereas the majority (69%) had negative urea test. Our data indicate that microorganisms are associated with almost all chemical types of kidney stones and urea-splitting bacteria are not the major causative microorganisms found in urine and stone matrices of the stone formers in Thailand. These data may lead to rethinking and a new roadmap for future research regarding the role of microorganisms in kidney stone formation.

  10. Trichoderma koningii as a biomineralizing fungous agent of calcium oxalate crystals in typical Argiudolls of the Los Padres Lake natural reserve (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarbide, F; Osterrieth, M L; Cabello, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study, performed on typical Argiudolls in a natural reserve with little or no anthropic impact, was to characterize the fungous biomineralizing process of calcium oxalate crystals in organic horizons of the soil. The chosen sites possessed different plant cover, identified as acacia woods and grassy meadows with particular micro environmental conditions that have differing effects in the process of biomineralization. The contribution of the plant material in the soil is a key factor since 1) it generates the particular composition of the organic horizons, 2) it determines the nature of decomposing organisms, and 3) it affects the presence, composition and development of biominerals. According to the results obtained, the acacia woods prove to be a site comparatively more favorable to the fungous biomineralizing process. This makes itself manifest in the greater abundance and development of crystals in the organic horizons of the soil, resulting in whewellite (CaC2O4.H2O) and weddellite (CaC2O4.(2+x) H2O) regarding biomineral species developed, the latter being the major component. The observation of both species of biominerals is noteworthy since it represents the first cited in the country. The isolated fungous organisms were Trichoderma koningii, and Absidia corymbifera. T. koningii was identified as the most active biomineralizing organism thus constituting the first reference to indicate this species as a biomineral producing agent.

  11. Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Incidence of Nephrolithiasis in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Follow-up (SUN) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Bertoli, Simona; Battezzati, Alberto; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2017-12-01

    Diet plays an important role in the pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis. Limited data are available to investigate the association between a Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk for nephrolithiasis. Prospective cohort study. 16,094 men and women without a history of nephrolithiasis who participated in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Follow-up (SUN) Project. A validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern that is high in fruits, vegetables, nuts, fish, and legumes, but moderate in alcohol and low in meats, saturated fats, and sugars. A Mediterranean dietary pattern score was calculated and categorized into 3 groups (0-3, 4-6, and 7-9 points). Additional factors included in statistical models were sex, age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, time spent watching television, following a medical nutritional therapy, water and energy intake, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and history of hypertension or diabetes. Incidence of nephrolithiasis. Participants were classified as having incident nephrolithiasis if they reported a physician-made diagnosis of nephrolithiasis during follow-up. After a mean follow-up of 9.6 years, 735 new cases of nephrolithiasis were identified. The multivariable HRs of nephrolithiasis for the 2 highest categories of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern, using the lowest category as the reference, were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.79-1.09) and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.48-0.87); P for trend=0.01. The risk for nephrolithiasis was lower with greater consumption of dairy products and vegetables and greater with higher monounsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid ratio. No information for kidney stone composition. Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with reduced risk for incident nephrolithiasis. Additional longitudinal studies are needed. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Uric acid nephrolithiasis: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerello, Elisa

    2018-04-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis appears to increase in prevalence. While a relationship between uric acid stones and low urinary pH has been for long known, additional association with various metabolic conditions and pathophysiological basis has recently been elucidated. Some conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome disease, excessive dietary intake, and increased endogenous uric acid production and/or defect in ammoniagenesis are associated with low urinary pH. In addition, the phenomenon of global warming could result in an increase in areas with greater climate risk for uric acid stone formation. There are three therapeutic steps to be taken for management of uric acid stones: identification of urinary pH profiles, assessment of urinary volume status, and identification of disorders leading to excessive uric acid production. However, the most important factor for uric acid stone formation is acid urinary pH, which is a prerequisite for uric acid precipitation. This article reviews recent insights into the pathophysiology of uric acid stones and their management.

  13. Oxalates in oca (New Zealand yam) (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A B; Savage, G P; Martin, R J; Vanhanen, L

    1999-12-01

    Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) or New Zealand yam, in common with other members of this genus, contains oxalate, an antinutritive factor. Twelve South American and two New Zealand cultivars of oca were analyzed for total and soluble oxalate contents of the tubers. The range of total oxalate levels was 92-221 mg/100 g of fresh weight. Levels of soluble and total oxalate extracted from the tubers were not significantly different, suggesting that no calcium oxalate is formed in the tubers. The oxalate concentrations obtained in this study for oca suggest that previously reported values are too low and that oca is a moderately high oxalate-containing food. This is the first report of a tuber crop containing moderate to high levels of soluble oxalates in the tubers and no insoluble oxalates.

  14. The bioavailability of oxalate from Oca (Oxalis tuberosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albihn, P B; Savage, G P

    2001-08-01

    It is believed that soluble oxalate has higher bioavailability than insoluble oxalate. Oca (Oxalis tuberosa) is moderately high in oxalate and contains oxalate in soluble form only. We estimated the bioavailability of oxalate in oca based on the urinary excretion of oxalate after oxalate loading with oca to estimate the bioavailability of oxalate in oca. We also clarified whether bioavailability differs in various oxalate loads from the same food source and studied the effect of an additional calcium source on the bioavailability of oxalate from oca. Four men and 4 women ingested 50, 100 and 150 gm. oca as well as 100 gm. oca with 100 gm. sour cream. Oxalate was measured in a 6-hour urine sample from each volunteer. The mean bioavailability of oxalate from oca plus or minus standard deviation was 1.44% +/- 1.31% during the 6-hour period after intake. There was no significant difference in oxalate bioavailability among oxalate intake levels in this study, although oca consumption with sour cream significantly decreased the uptake of oxalate (p oca appears to be similar to that in spinach. However, bioavailability varies among individuals and depends on other constituents of a combined meal.

  15. Calcium oxalate crystals induces tight junction disruption in distal renal tubular epithelial cells by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Gan, Xiuguo; Liu, Xukun; An, Ruihua

    2017-11-01

    Tight junction plays important roles in regulating paracellular transports and maintaining cell polarity. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the major crystalline composition of kidney stones, have been demonstrated to be able to cause tight junction disruption to accelerate renal cell injury. However, the cellular signaling involved in COM crystal-induced tight junction disruption remains largely to be investigated. In the present study, we proved that COM crystals induced tight junction disruption by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK pathway. Treating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with COM crystals induced a substantial increasing of ROS generation and activation of Akt that triggered subsequential activation of ASK1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Western blot revealed a significantly decreased expression of ZO-1 and occludin, two important structural proteins of tight junction. Besides, redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were observed by COM crystals treatment. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) attenuated the activation of Akt, ASK1, p38 MAPK, and down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin. The redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were also alleviated by NAC treatment. These results indicated that ROS were involved in the regulation of tight junction disruption induced by COM crystals. In addition, the down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin, the phosphorylation of ASK1 and p38 MAPK were also attenuated by MK-2206, an inhibitor of Akt kinase, implying Akt was involved in the disruption of tight junction upstream of p38 MAPK. Thus, these results suggested that ROS-Akt-p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated in COM crystal-induced disruption of tight junction in MDCK cells.

  16. Antioxidants inhibition of high plasma androgenic markers in the pathogenesis of ethylene glycol (EG)-induced nephrolithiasis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, Mahmood; Hedayati, Mehdi; Khalagi, Kazem

    2014-04-01

    The association between serum gonadal steroids and urolithiasis in males received only limited attention. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is induced by administration of ethylene glycol in drinking water. It appears that the administration of natural antioxidants has been used to protect against nephrolithiasis in human and experimental animals. The purpose is to study the potential role of antioxidants as inhibitors of high plasma androgenic markers or hyperandrogenicity in the pathogenesis of ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were studied in 4-week period. Group 1 (control) was fed a standard commercial diet. Group 2 received the same diet with 0.5 % of ethylene glycol. Group 3 received EG plus the diet and water added with antioxidant nutrients and lime juice as the dietary source of citrate. Group 4 and Group 5 were treated similar to Group 2 and Group 3 with 0.75 % of ethylene glycol. For antioxidant supplementation, the standard diet enriched with 4,000.0 μg vitamin E and 1,500.0 IU vitamin A for each rat per day added to the diet once a week, and provided daily with 5.0 mg vitamin C, 400.0 μg vitamin B6, 20.0 μg selenium, 12.0 mg zinc, and 2.0 mg boron for each rat per day in their drinking water. After treatment period, collection of blood was performed and kidneys were removed and used for histopathological examination. The results based on various assays, measuring size of crystal deposition, and histological examinations showed that high concentration of androgens acts as promoter for the formation of renal calculi due to ethylene glycol consumption and the inhibitory role of antioxidant complex in the formation of renal calculi disease. Data revealed that the size and the mean number of crystal deposits determined in EG 0.75 % treated groups (G4) were significantly higher than the EG-treated groups, added with antioxidant nutrients and lime juice (G5). The mean concentration of androgens in Group 4 increased after

  17. Origin of Urinary Oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2007-04-01

    Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

  18. Primary Hyperaldosteronism As A Risk Factor For Recurrent Nephrolithiasis

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    Ekamol Tantisattamo

    2012-06-01

    Hyperaldosteronism can cause hypercalciuria, phosphaturia, and hypocitraturia, all of which are risk factors for nephrolithiasis. Additionally, hyperaldosteronism and deoxycorticosterone mediated hypertension have been associated with hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Our case augments earlier literature suggesting increased risk for nephrolithiasis in patients with hyperaldosteronism and suggests that hyperaldosteronism should be considered as a risk factor for patient with nephrolithiasis. It remains unclear if both primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism increase the relative risk for nephrolithiasis and the role of aldosterone receptor antagonist therapy for recurrent nephrolithiasis associated with hyperaldosteronism.

  19. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22 0 C, 45 0 C, and 60 0 C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  20. Quantificação do stone clinic effect em pacientes com nefrolitíase Quantification of the stone clinic effect in patients with nephrolithiasis

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    Maurício Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O termo stone clinic effect refere-se ao efeito do aumento da ingestão hídrica e aconselhamento dietético na evolução clínica da doença calculosa renal. OBJETIVO: O nosso objetivo foi quantificar esta variável em pacientes portadores de nefrolitíase. MÉTODOS: Vinte e cinco pacientes (11 mulheres e 14 homens; 47,64±10,55 anos com nefrolitíase recorrente foram acompanhados com consultas trimestrais por um ano. Orientações sobre aumento da ingestão hídrica, diminuição do consumo de sal e proteína foram rotineiramente fornecidas. Nenhum paciente foi submetido à terapia farmacológica. Foram coletados no início (S1 e no final do seguimento (S2 os seguintes parâmetros: atividade clínica e radiológica da doença litiásica, urina de 24 horas com dosagem de creatinina, cálcio, sódio, ácido úrico, citrato, oxalato e magnésio. A supersaturação (SS para o oxalato de cálcio foi calculada pelo índice de Tiselius. RESULTADOS: Onze (44% pacientes apresentaram hipocitratúria, nove (36% hipercalciúria e cinco (20% hiperuricosúria. Houve aumento do volume urinário (1903±811 vs 2381±919 ml/dia, pBACKGROUND: The ''stone clinic effect'' refers to the effect of encouraging a high intake of fluid and diet counseling in the clinical evolution of kidney stone disease. Objective: Our objective was to determine the extent of this variable in patients with nephrolithiasis. METHODS: Twenty-five patients (11 female and 14 male; 47.64±10.55 years old with recurrent nephrolithiasis were prospectively followed for one year, with 3-month interval medical evaluation. Patients were advised to increase the fluid intake, and to limit the intake of salt and protein. No patient was submitted to pharmacological therapy. Two 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline (S1 and in the end of follow-up (S2 for the measurement of creatinine, calcium, sodium, uric acid, citrate, oxalate and magnesium. Metabolic and radiological activity was also

  1. Oxalate Content of Taro Leaves Grown in Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Thanh, Hang; Phan Vu, Hai; Vu Van, Hai; Le Duc, Ngoan; Le Minh, Tuan; Savage, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Leaves were harvested from four different cultivars of Colocasia esculenta and three cultivars of Alocasia odora that were growing on nine different farms in central Vietnam. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Total calcium determinations were also carried out on the same samples. The total oxalate content of the leaves ranged from 433.8 to 856.1 mg/100 g wet matter (WM) while the soluble oxalate ranged from 147.8 to 339.7 mg/100 g WM. The proportion of soluble oxalate ranged from 28% to 41% (overall mean 35%) of the total oxalate content of the leaves. The equivalent insoluble oxalate proportion ranged from 59% to 72% of the total (overall mean 65%). There was little difference between the Colocasia esculenta and Alocasia odora taro cultivars, although the total oxalate content was significantly higher in Alocasia odora cultivars. The overall mean total calcium content was 279.5 mg/100 WM and the percentage of insoluble calcium bound as calcium oxalate ranged from 31.7% to 57.3% of the total calcium content (overall mean 47.1%). The oxalate content in taro leaves is a major factor to consider when different cultivars of taro are recommended for human or animal consumption. PMID:28231080

  2. Oxalate Content of Taro Leaves Grown in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Du Thanh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves were harvested from four different cultivars of Colocasia esculenta and three cultivars of Alocasia odora that were growing on nine different farms in central Vietnam. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Total calcium determinations were also carried out on the same samples. The total oxalate content of the leaves ranged from 433.8 to 856.1 mg/100 g wet matter (WM while the soluble oxalate ranged from 147.8 to 339.7 mg/100 g WM. The proportion of soluble oxalate ranged from 28% to 41% (overall mean 35% of the total oxalate content of the leaves. The equivalent insoluble oxalate proportion ranged from 59% to 72% of the total (overall mean 65%. There was little difference between the Colocasia esculenta and Alocasia odora taro cultivars, although the total oxalate content was significantly higher in Alocasia odora cultivars. The overall mean total calcium content was 279.5 mg/100 WM and the percentage of insoluble calcium bound as calcium oxalate ranged from 31.7% to 57.3% of the total calcium content (overall mean 47.1%. The oxalate content in taro leaves is a major factor to consider when different cultivars of taro are recommended for human or animal consumption.

  3. Citrate, malate and alkali content in commonly consumed diet sodas: implications for nephrolithiasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Brian H; Asplin, John R; Goldfarb, David S; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Stoller, Marshall L

    2010-06-01

    Citrate is a known inhibitor of calcium stone formation. Dietary citrate and alkali intake may have an effect on citraturia. Increasing alkali intake also increases urine pH, which can help prevent uric acid stones. We determined citrate, malate and total alkali concentrations in commonly consumed diet sodas to help direct dietary recommendations in patients with hypocitraturic calcium or uric acid nephrolithiasis. Citrate and malate were measured in a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis and in 15 diet sodas. Anions were measured by ion chromatography. The pH of each beverage was measured to allow calculation of the unprotonated anion concentration using the known pK of citric and malic acid. Total alkali equivalents were calculated for each beverage. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Several sodas contained an amount of citrate equal to or greater than that of alkali and total alkali as a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis (6.30 mEq/l citrate as alkali and 6.30 as total alkali). These sodas were Diet Sunkist Orange, Diet 7Up, Sprite Zero, Diet Canada Dry Ginger Ale, Sierra Mist Free, Diet Orange Crush, Fresca and Diet Mountain Dew. Colas, including Caffeine Free Diet Coke, Coke Zero, Caffeine Free Diet Pepsi and Diet Coke with Lime, had the lowest total alkali (less than 1.0 mEq/l). There was no significant correlation between beverage pH and total alkali content. Several commonly consumed diet sodas contain moderate amounts of citrate as alkali and total alkali. This information is helpful for dietary recommendations in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis, specifically those with hypocitraturia. It may also be useful in patients with low urine pH and uric acid stones. Beverage malate content is also important since malate ingestion increases the total alkali delivered, which in turn augments citraturia and increases urine pH. Copyright

  4. Diuretics and disorders of calcium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieff, Marvin; Bushinsky, David A

    2011-11-01

    Diuretics commonly are administered in disorders of sodium balance. Loop diuretics inhibit the Na-K-2Cl transporter and also increase calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of hypercalcemia. Thiazide diuretics block the thiazide-sensitive NaCl transporter in the distal convoluted tubule, and can decrease calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of nephrolithiasis. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease bicarbonate absorption and the resultant metabolic acidosis can increase calcium excretion. Their use can promote nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. This review will address the use of diuretics on disorders of calcium homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in patients with solitary pure calcium oxalate stones smaller than 1.0 cm in the proximal ureter, with special reference to monohydrate and dihydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyanagi, Osamu; Nagaoka, Akira; Izumi, Takuji; Kawamura, Yuko; Tsukigi, Masaaki; Ishii, Tatsuya; Ohji, Hiroshi; Kato, Tomoyuki; Tomita, Yoshihiko

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess stone-free rates following extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of pure calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones in the proximal ureter. The investigators retrospectively examined 53 patients with 5-10 mm pure CaOx stones in the proximal ureter from the medical archives of 593 consecutive patients treated with ESWL. The compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) in a given stone were determined by infrared spectrometry. Stone size, attenuation number and stone-to-skin distance (SSD) were measured using plain radiography and computed tomography (CT). ESWL success was evaluated by stone-free status after the first single session. On average, calculi were 8.0 × 5.3 mm in size, with an SSD of 11.0 cm. The mean CT attenuation value was 740.1 HU. Attenuation numbers correlated significantly with stone diameter (r = 0.49), but had no correlation with the stone content of COM or COD. A negative correlation was observed between COM and COD content (r = -0.925). With regard to patients' physical characteristics and COM and COD content, no differences were found between study subgroups with stone-free and residual status (n = 38 and 15, respectively). There were also no differences in clinical features between patient subgroups with COM- or COD-predominant stones (n = 22 and 31, respectively). The findings indicated that the differences in COM and COD content of CaOx stones had no impact on stone clearance after ESWL and that a favorable stone-free rate of the stones treated with ESWL may be achieved independently of CaOx hydration.

  6. Nephrolithiasis in identical twins: the impact of nature vs nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleblian, George E; Cantor, David A; Sur, Roger L; Assimos, Dean G; Preminger, Glenn M

    2007-09-01

    To assess possible underlying metabolic abnormalities in three sets of monozygotic twins, to evaluate the interplay among the factors of kidney stone formation, a complex multifactorial process influenced by environmental, genetic and anatomical factors. Three sets of identical twins with either cystine or calcium oxalate stones were identified. Demographic data, medical histories and the results of 24-h urine testing, with samples collected on self-selected diets, were reviewed and analysed. The cystinuric twins had very similar cystine excretion rates, while stone activity was significantly more pronounced in one. Metabolic abnormalities were concordant in one set of twins with calcium oxalate stones, both being hypercalciuric and hyperuricosuric. However, metabolic abnormalities were discordant in the other pair, one twin with hypercalciuria and the other with hypocitraturia. Two of the three pairs had low urinary volume. These results support previous observations that environmental, genetic and potentially, anatomical factors play roles in kidney-stone formation. Additional controlled studies of monozygotic stone-forming twins might help to define the interplay between environmental and genetic factors, and allow the identification of susceptibility genes involved in stone generation.

  7. Oxalic acid has an additional, detoxifying function in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annerose Heller

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the diseases caused by the necrotroph plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is not well understood. To investigate the role of oxalic acid during infection high resolution, light-, scanning-, transmission electron microscopy and various histochemical staining methods were used. Our inoculation method allowed us to follow degradation of host plant tissue around single hyphae and to observe the reaction of host cells in direct contact with single invading hyphae. After penetration the outer epidermal cell wall matrix appeared degraded around subcuticular hyphae (12-24 hpi. Calcium oxalate crystals were detected in advanced (36-48 hpi and late (72 hpi infection stages, but not in early stages. In early infection stages, surprisingly, no toxic effect of oxalic acid eventually secreted by S. sclerotiorum was observed. As oxalic acid is a common metabolite in plants, we propose that attacked host cells are able to metabolize oxalic acid in the early infection stage and translocate it to their vacuoles where it is stored as calcium oxalate. The effects, observed on healthy tissue upon external application of oxalic acid to non-infected, living tissue and cell wall degradation of dead host cells starting at the inner side of the walls support this idea. The results indicate that oxalic acid concentrations in the early stage of infection stay below the toxic level. In plant and fungi oxalic acid/calcium oxalate plays an important role in calcium regulation. Oxalic acid likely could quench calcium ions released during cell wall breakdown to protect growing hyphae from toxic calcium concentrations in the infection area. As calcium antimonate-precipitates were found in vesicles of young hyphae, we propose that calcium is translocated to the older parts of hyphae and detoxified by building non-toxic, stable oxalate crystals. We propose an infection model where oxalic acid plays a detoxifying role in late infection stages.

  8. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  9. Acute oxalate nephropathy caused by ethylene glycol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Woong Seo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol (EG is a sweet-tasting, odorless organic solvent found in many agents, such as anti-freeze. EG is composed of four organic acids: glycoaldehyde, glycolic acid, glyoxylic acid and oxalic acid in vivo. These metabolites are cellular toxins that can cause cardio-pulmonary failure, life-threatening metabolic acidosis, central nervous system depression, and kidney injury. Oxalic acid is the end product of EG, which can precipitate to crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the tubular lumen and has been linked to acute kidney injury. We report a case of EG-induced oxalate nephropathy, with the diagnosis confirmed by kidney biopsy, which showed acute tubular injury of the kidneys with extensive intracellular and intraluminal calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal depositions.

  10. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get decent amounts of calcium from baked beans, navy beans, white beans, and others. Canned fish. You're in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. Working Calcium Into Your ...

  11. Nephrolithiasis, kidney failure and bone disorders in Dent disease patients with and without CLCN5 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglani, Franca; D'Angelo, Angela; Bertizzolo, Luisa Maria; Tosetto, Enrica; Ceol, Monica; Cremasco, Daniela; Bonfante, Luciana; Addis, Maria Antonietta; Del Prete, Dorella

    2015-01-01

    Dent disease (DD) is a rare X-linked recessive renal tubulopathy characterised by low-molecular-weight proteinuria (LMWP), hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis and/or nephrolithiasis. DD is caused by mutations in both the CLCN5 and OCRL genes. CLCN5 encodes the electrogenic chloride/proton exchanger ClC-5 which is involved in the tubular reabsorption of albumin and LMW proteins, OCRL encodes the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, and was initially associated with Lowe syndrome. In approximately 25 % of patients, no CLCN5 and OCRL mutations were detected. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether calcium phosphate metabolism disorders and their clinical complications are differently distributed among DD patients with and without CLCN5 mutations. Sixty-four male subjects were studied and classified into three groups: Group I (with CLCN5 mutations), Group II (without CLCN5 mutations) and Group III (family members with the same CLCN5 mutation). LMWP, hypercalciuria and phosphaturic tubulopathy and the consequent clinical complications nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, bone disorders, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) were considered present or absent in each patient. We found that the distribution of nephrolithiasis, bone disorders and CKD differs among patients with and without CLCN5 mutations. Only in patients harbouring CLCN5 mutations was age-independent nephrolithiasis associated with hypercalciuria, suggesting that nephrolithiasis is linked to altered proximal tubular function caused by a loss of ClC-5 function, in agreement with ClC-5 KO animal models. Similarly, only in patients harbouring CLCN5 mutations was age-independent kidney failure associated with nephrocalcinosis, suggesting that kidney failure is the consequence of a ClC-5 dysfunction, as in ClC-5 KO animal models. Bone disorders are a relevant feature of DD phenotype, as patients were mainly young males and this complication occurred independently of age. The triad of symptoms, LMWP

  12. Conservation of Monuments by a Three-Layered Compatible Treatment of TEOS-Nano-Calcium Oxalate Consolidant and TEOS-PDMS-TiO2 Hydrophobic/Photoactive Hybrid Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysi Kapridaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the conservation of monuments, research on innovative nanocomposites with strengthening, hydrophobic and self-cleaning properties have attracted the interest of the scientific community and promising results have been obtained as a result. In this study, stemming from the need for the compatibility of treatments in terms of nanocomposite/substrate, a three-layered compatible treatment providing strengthening, hydrophobic, and self-cleaning properties is proposed. This conservation approach was implemented treating lithotypes and mortars of different porosity and petrographic characteristics with a three-layered treatment comprising: (a a consolidant, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS-nano-Calcium Oxalate; (b a hydrophobic layer of TEOS-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS; and (c a self-cleaning layer of TiO2 nanoparticles from titanium tetra-isopropoxide with oxalic acid as hole-scavenger. After the three-layered treatment, the surface hydrophobicity was improved due to PDMS and nano-TiO2 in the interface substrate/atmosphere, as proven by the homogeneity and the Si–O–Ti hetero-linkages of the blend protective/self-cleaning layers observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. The aesthetic, microstructural, mechanical and permeabile compatibility of the majority of treated substrates ranged within acceptability limits. The improved photocatalytic activity, as proven by the total discoloration of methylene blue in the majority of cases, was attributed to the anchorage of TiO2, through the Si–O–Ti bonds to SiO2, in the interface with the atmosphere, thus enhancing photoactivation.

  13. Hydroxyproline Metabolism and Oxalate Synthesis in Primary Hyperoxaluria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargue, Sonia; Milliner, Dawn S; Knight, John; Olson, Julie B; Lowther, W Todd; Holmes, Ross P

    2018-06-01

    Background Endogenous oxalate synthesis contributes to calcium oxalate stone disease and is markedly increased in the inherited primary hyperoxaluria (PH) disorders. The incomplete knowledge regarding oxalate synthesis complicates discovery of new treatments. Hydroxyproline (Hyp) metabolism results in the formation of oxalate and glycolate. However, the relative contribution of Hyp metabolism to endogenous oxalate and glycolate synthesis is not known. Methods To define this contribution, we performed primed, continuous, intravenous infusions of the stable isotope [ 15 N, 13 C 5 ]-Hyp in nine healthy subjects and 19 individuals with PH and quantified the levels of urinary 13 C 2 -oxalate and 13 C 2 -glycolate formed using ion chromatography coupled to mass detection. Results The total urinary oxalate-to-creatinine ratio during the infusion was 73.1, 70.8, 47.0, and 10.6 mg oxalate/g creatinine in subjects with PH1, PH2, and PH3 and controls, respectively. Hyp metabolism accounted for 12.8, 32.9, and 14.8 mg oxalate/g creatinine in subjects with PH1, PH2, and PH3, respectively, compared with 1.6 mg oxalate/g creatinine in controls. The contribution of Hyp to urinary oxalate was 15% in controls and 18%, 47%, and 33% in subjects with PH1, PH2, and PH3, respectively. The contribution of Hyp to urinary glycolate was 57% in controls, 30% in subjects with PH1, and synthesis in individuals with PH2 and PH3. In patients with PH1, who have the highest urinary excretion of oxalate, the major sources of oxalate remain to be identified. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  15. Analytical precision of the Urolizer for the determination of the BONN-Risk-Index (BRI) for calcium oxalate urolithiasis and evaluation of the influence of 24-h urine storage at moderate temperatures on BRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Wolfgang; Bechler, Robin; Laube, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Since its first publication in 2000, the BONN-Risk-Index (BRI) has been successfully used to determine the calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization risk from urine samples. To date, a BRI-measuring device, the "Urolizer", has been developed, operating automatically and requiring only a minimum of preparation. Two major objectives were pursued: determination of Urolizer precision, and determination of the influence of 24-h urine storage at moderate temperatures on BRI. 24-h urine samples from 52 CaOx stone-formers were collected. A total of 37 urine samples were used for the investigation of Urolizer precision by performing six independent BRI determinations in series. In total, 30 samples were taken for additional investigation of urine storability. Each sample was measured thrice: directly after collection, after 24-h storage at T=21 degrees C, and after 24-h cooling at T=4 degrees C. Outcomes were statistically tested for identity with regard to the immediately obtained results. Repeat measurements for evaluation of Urolizer precision revealed statistical identity of data (p-0.05). 24-h storage of urine at both tested temperatures did not significantly affect BRI (p-0.05). The pilot-run Urolizer shows high analytical reliability. The innovative analysis device may be especially suited for urologists specializing in urolithiasis treatment. The possibility for urine storage at moderate temperatures without loss of analysis quality further demonstrates the applicability of the BRI method.

  16. Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: A Systemic Metabolic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Orson W.

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis is characteristically a manifestation of a systemic metabolic disorder. It has a prevalence of about 10% among all stone formers, the third most common type of kidney stone in the industrialized world. Uric acid stones form primarily due to an unduly acid urine; less deciding factors are hyperuricosuria and a low urine volume. The vast majority of uric acid stone formers have the metabolic syndrome, and not infrequently, clinical gout is present as well. A universal finding is a low baseline urine pH plus insufficient production of urinary ammonium buffer. Persons with gastrointestinal disorders, in particular chronic diarrhea or ostomies, and patients with malignancies with a large tumor mass and high cell turnover comprise a less common but nevertheless important subset. Pure uric acid stones are radiolucent but well visualized on renal ultrasound. A 24 h urine collection for stone risk analysis provides essential insight into the pathophysiology of stone formation and may guide therapy. Management includes a liberal fluid intake and dietary modification. Potassium citrate to alkalinize the urine to a goal pH between 6 and 6.5 is essential, as undissociated uric acid deprotonates into its much more soluble urate form. PMID:25045326

  17. Pathology and Epidemiology of Oxalate Nephrosis in Cheetahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Emily P; Church, Molly E; Nemser, Sarah M; Yakes, Betsy Jean; Evans, Eric R; Reimschuessel, Renate; Lemberger, Karin; Thompson, Peter N; Terio, Karen A

    2017-11-01

    To investigate cases of acute oxalate nephrosis without evidence of ethylene glycol exposure, archived data and tissues from cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus) from North America ( n = 297), southern Africa ( n = 257), and France ( n = 40) were evaluated. Renal and gastrointestinal tract lesions were characterized in a subset of animals with ( n = 100) and without ( n = 165) oxalate crystals at death. Crystals were confirmed as calcium oxalate by Raman spectroscopy in 45 of 47 cheetahs tested. Crystals were present in cheetahs from 3.7 months to 15.9 years old. Cheetahs younger than 1.5 years were less likely to have oxalates than older cheetahs ( P = .034), but young cheetahs with oxalates had more oxalate crystals than older cheetahs ( P Cheetahs with oxalate crystals were more likely to have renal amyloidosis, interstitial nephritis, or colitis and less likely to have glomerular loop thickening or gastritis than those without oxalates. Crystal number was positively associated with renal tubular necrosis ( P ≤ .001), regeneration ( P = .015), and casts ( P ≤ .001) but inversely associated with glomerulosclerosis, renal amyloidosis, and interstitial nephritis. Crystal number was unrelated to the presence or absence of colitis and was lower in southern African than American and European animals ( P = .01). This study found no evidence that coexisting chronic renal disease (amyloidosis, interstitial nephritis, or glomerulosclerosis), veno-occlusive disease, gastritis, or enterocolitis contributed significantly to oxalate nephrosis. Oxalate-related renal disease should be considered as a potential cause of acute renal failure, especially in young captive cheetahs. The role of location, diet, stress, and genetic predisposition in the pathogenesis of oxalate nephrosis in cheetahs warrants further study.

  18. Oxalate metal complexes in aerosol particles: implications for the hygroscopicity of oxalate-containing particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Furukawa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols have both a direct and an indirect cooling effect that influences the radiative balance at the Earth's surface. It has been estimated that the degree of cooling is large enough to weaken the warming effect of carbon dioxide. Among the cooling factors, secondary organic aerosols (SOA play an important role in the solar radiation balance in the troposphere as SOA can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and extend the lifespan of clouds because of their high hygroscopic and water soluble nature. Oxalic acid is an important component of SOA, and is produced via several formation pathways in the atmosphere. However, it is not certain whether oxalic acid exists as free oxalic acid or as metal oxalate complexes in aerosols, although there is a marked difference in their solubility in water and their hygroscopicity. We employed X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to characterize the calcium (Ca and zinc (Zn in aerosols collected at Tsukuba in Japan. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected for this purpose using an impactor aerosol sampler. It was shown that 10–60% and 20–100% of the total Ca and Zn in the finer particles (<2.1 μm were present as Ca and Zn oxalate complexes, respectively. Oxalic acid is hygroscopic and can thus increase the CCN activity of aerosol particles, while complexes with various polyvalent metal ions such as Ca and Zn are not hygroscopic, which cannot contribute to the increase of the CCN activity of aerosols. Based on the concentrations of noncomplexed and metal-complexed oxalate species, we found that most of the oxalic acid is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, suggesting that oxalic acid does not always increase the hygroscopicity of aerosols in the atmosphere. Similar results are expected for other dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic and succinic acids. Thus, it is advisable that the cooling effect of organic aerosols should be estimated by including the

  19. Nephrobronchial fistula complicating neglected nephrolithiasis and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu B Dubey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrobronchial fistula is a rare complication seen in association with renal infections, trauma or stone disease. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP is an infectious disease with a potential for fistulization to lung, skin, colon and other organs. We present a case of nephrolithiasis complicated by obstruction leading to pyonephrosis and nephrobronchial fistula, treated successfully by nephrectomy and excision of fistulous tracts. Nephrobronchial fistula, although a rare complication of longstanding renal stone, should be considered when a patient presents with perirenal suppurative process. This clinical case illustrates the natural history of nephro-bronchial fistula and the relevance of early treatment of nephrolithiasis.

  20. On the americium oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakolupin, S.A.; Korablin, Eh.V.

    1977-01-01

    The americium oxalate solubility at different nitric (0.0-1 M) and oxalic (0.0-0.4 M) acid concentrations was investigated in the temperature range from 14 to 60 deg C. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was determined. Increasing oxalic acid concentration was found to reduce the americium oxalate solubility. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was noted to be a minimum at low acidity (0.1-0.3 M nitric acid). This is most likely due to Am(C 2 O 4 ) + , Am(C 2 O 4 ) 2 - and Am(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- complex ion formation which have different unstability constants. On the basis of the data obtained, a preliminary estimate was carried out for the product of americium oxalate solubility in nitric acid medium (10 -29 -10 -31 ) and of the one in water (6.4x10 -20 )

  1. Uranyl Oxalate Solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leturcq, G.; Costenoble, S.; Grandjean, S. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCA - BP17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The solubility of uranyl oxalate was determined at ambient temperature by precipitation in oxalic-nitric solutions, using an initial uranyl concentration of 0.1 mol/L. Oxalic concentration varied from 0.075 to 0.3 mol/L while nitric concentration ranged between 0.75 and 3 mol/L. Dissolution tests, using complementary oxalic-nitric media, were carried out for 550 hours in order to study the kinetic to reach thermodynamic equilibrium. Similar solubility values were reached by dissolution and precipitation. Using the results, it was possible to draw the solubility surface versus oxalic and nitric concentrations and to determine both the apparent solubility constant of UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 3H{sub 2}O (Ks) and the apparent formation constant of the first uranyl-oxalate complex UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} (log {beta}1), for ionic strengths varying between 1 and 3 mol/L. Ks and log {beta}1 values were found to vary from 1.9 10{sup -8} to 9.2 10{sup -9} and from 5.95 to 6.06, respectively, when ionic strength varied from 1 to 3 mol/L. A second model may fit our data obtained at an ionic strength of 3 mol/L suggesting as reported by Moskvin et al. (1959) that no complexes are formed for [H{sup +}] at 3 M. The Ks value would then be 1.3 10{sup -8}. (authors)

  2. Cerium oxalate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.

    1987-02-01

    Cerium, a nonradioactive, common stand-in for plutonium in development work, has been used to simulate several plutonium precipitation processes at the Savannah River Laboratory. There are similarities between the plutonium trifluoride and the cerium oxalate precipitations in particle size and extent of plating, but not particle morphology. The equilibrium solubility, precipitation kinetics, particle size, extent of plating, and dissolution characteristics of cerium oxalate have been investigated. Interpretations of particle size and plating based on precipitation kinetics (i.e., nucleation and crystal growth) are presented. 16 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Effect of processing and cooking on total and soluble oxalate content in frozen root vegetables prepared for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. LISIEWSKA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxalate content of beetroot, carrot, celeriac and parsnip after freezing by traditional and modified methods (the latter resulting in a convenience food product, and after the preparation of frozen products for consumption was evaluated. The highest content of total and soluble oxalates (105 and 82 mg 100 g-1 fresh matter was found in beetroot. The lowest proportion (55% of soluble oxalates was noted in celeriac; this proportion was higher in the remaining vegetables, being broadly similar for each of them. Blanching brought about a significant decrease in total and soluble oxalates in fresh vegetables. Cooking resulted in a higher loss of oxalates. The level of oxalates in products prepared for consumption directly after freezing approximated that before freezing. Compared with the content before freezing, vegetables prepared for consumption by cooking after frozen storage contained less oxalates, except for total oxalates in parsnip and soluble oxalates in beetroot and celeriac. The highest ratio of oxalates to calcium was found in raw beetroot; it was two times lower in raw carrot; five times lower in raw celeriac; and eight times lower in raw parsnip. These ratios were lower after technological and culinary processing. The percentage of oxalate bound calcium depended on the species; this parameter was not significantly affected by the procedures applied. The true retention of oxalates according to Judprasong et al. (2006 was lower than retention calculated taking its content in 100 g fresh matter into account.;

  4. Thorium oxalate solubility and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.; Hall, R.

    1981-10-01

    Thorium was used as a stand-in for studying the solubility and precipitation of neptunium and plutonium oxalates. Thorium oxalate solubility was determined over a range of 0.001 to 10.0 in the concentration parameter [H 2 C 2 O 4 ]/[HNO 3 ] 2 . Morphology of thorium oxide made from the oxalate precipitates was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The different morphologies found for oxalate-lean and oxalate-rich precipitations were in agreement with predictions based on precipitation theory

  5. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad; Rafi Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi; Zainab Awaen Al-Ebady; Thulfuqar Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy...

  6. An 11-Year-Old Child with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Who Presented with Nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Firinci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease become symptomatic and are diagnosed usually at adulthood. The rate of nephrolithiasis in these patients is 5–10 times the rate in the general population, and both anatomic and metabolic abnormalities play role in the formation of renal stones. However, nephrolithiasis is rare in childhood age group. In this paper, an 11-year-old child with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease presenting with nephrolithiasis is discussed.

  7. Acúmulo de ácido oxálico e cristais de cálcio em ectomicorrizas de eucalipto.: II- formação de cristais de oxalato de cálcio induzida por fungos ectomicorrízicos em raízes laterais finas Accumulation of oxalic acid and calcium crystals in ectomycorrhizas of eucalypt.: II- calcium oxalate crystal formation induced by ectomicorrhizal fungi in fine lateral roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Alexander Zambrano Gonzalez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O eucalipto é eficiente na aquisição de Ca do solo, mas pouco se sabe sobre a participação das ectomicorrizas e dos ácidos orgânicos nesse processo em campo. O acúmulo de cristais de Ca (CaOx foi avaliado em, aproximadamente, 2.100 raízes laterais finas e ectomicorrizas do híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, cultivado por 2,5 anos em área com topografia típica em meia laranja, com vertente côncavo-convexa, na região de Viçosa, MG. Técnicas de microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura foram usadas para a visualização dos CaOx. Em 73,7 % das raízes, ocorreu abundante acúmulo de drusas e grânulos de CaOx nas células do córtex. A presença conspícua de CaOx foi observada em 56,2 % das ectomicorrizas e em 17,5 % das raízes laterais finas não colonizadas, evidenciando o papel das micorrizas no acúmulo de Ca em eucalipto. A forma predominante dos CaOx foram as drusas nas ectomicorrizas e os grânulos cristalinos nas raízes. Os dez morfotipos de ectomicorrizas observados na área diferiram quanto à presença e à morfologia dos CaOx, o que pode representar distintas capacidades dos fungos ectomicorrízicos em fornecer Ca para a planta hospedeira. A análise da superfície do manto das ectomicorrizas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura não evidenciou a presença de CaOx nessa estrutura, confirmando que, nas condições avaliadas, o acúmulo de cristais limita-se ao córtex radicular. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de CaOx em ectomicorrizas de eucalipto no Brasil, com dados que comprovam que há mecanismos de armazenamento de Ca nas ectomicorrizas em áreas com baixa disponibilidade do elemento.Eucalypt is efficient at taking up Ca from the soil, however little is known about the contribution of ectomycorrhizas and organic acids to this process under field conditions. The accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx was evaluated in, approximately, 2,100 fine lateral roots

  8. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  9. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  10. Tetraphenylphosphonium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. W. Dean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H20P+·C2HO4−, two symmetry-independent ion pairs are present. The cations aggregate into puckered sheets via zigzag infinite chains of sixfold phenyl embraces and parallel fourfold phenyl embraces, while the anions form hydrogen-bonded chains between the sheets of cations. In the two independent oxalate anions, the angles between the normals to the two least-squares carboxylate COO planes are unusually large, viz. 72.5 (1 and 82.1 (1°.

  11. Functional characterization of the oxaloacetase encoding gene and elimination of oxalate formation in the ?-lactam producer Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daran, J.M.; Pronk, J.T.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Nijland, J.G.; Lamboo, F.; Puig-Martinez, M.; Veiga, T.; Gombert, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is widely used as an industrial antibiotic producer, in particular in the synthesis of ß-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. In industrial processes, oxalic acid formation leads to reduced product yields. Moreover, precipitation of calcium oxalate

  12. Functional characterization of the oxaloacetase encoding gene and elimination of oxalate formation in the beta-lactam producer Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gombert, A. K.; Veiga, T.; Puig-Martinez, M.; Lamboo, F.; Nijland, J. G.; Driessen, A. J. M.; Pronk, J. T.; Daran, J. M.

    Penicillium chrysogenum is widely used as an industrial antibiotic producer, in particular in the synthesis of g-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. In industrial processes, oxalic acid formation leads to reduced product yields. Moreover, precipitation of calcium oxalate

  13. Non-psychogenic polydipsia in 45-year-old man with primary hyperparathyroidism and recurrent bilateral nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Cahyanur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-psychogenic polydipsia with hyponatremia is a rare clinical presentation. Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium, phosphate, and bone metabolism caused by increased level of parathyroid hormone (PTH. It is estimated the incidence of primary hyperparathyroidism are 21.6 per 100,000 person a year. This case report describe a 45-year-old man presented with non-psychogenic polydipsia. This patient drank a lot of water out of the fear of recurrent kidney stones. He had history of recurrent nephrolithiasis with hypercalcemia. We investigate further the cause of hypercalcemia and we diagnosed primary hyperparathryoidism as the cause. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:230-4Keywords: Hyponatremia, non-psychogenic polydipsia, primary hyperparathyroidism

  14. Significant association between RGS14 rs12654812 and nephrolithiasis risk among Guangxi population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jun; Chen, Yang; Lin, Haisong; Liao, Ming; Li, Tianyu; Tong, Lei; Wei, Suchun; Xian, Xiaoying; Zhu, Jia; Chen, Jianxin; Tian, Jiarong; Wang, Qiuyan; Mo, Zengnan

    2018-03-26

    Nephrolithiasis is a worldwide health problem that affects almost all populations. This study aimed to evaluate the association between rs12654812 of regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) gene and nephrolithiasis in the Chinese population. A total of 1541 participators including 830 cases and 711 controls were included from Guangxi area in China. Age, sex, BMI, smoking status, drinking status, creatinine, uric acid, and urea nitrogen were analyzed between the case group and control group. We found that the G/A+A/A genotypes of rs12654812 had a significantly increased nephrolithiasis risk after adjusting age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, and hypertension, compared with G/G genotype (OR = 1.361, 95% CI = 1.033-1.794, P = .029). This hazardous effect was more pronounced in subgroup of age < 50, ever smoking, ever drinking, creatinine normal, and high uric acid. The G/A genotype of rs12654812 also had a significantly increased nephrolithiasis risk compared with G/G genotype. The A allele of rs12654812 significantly increased the risk of nephrolithiasis compared with the G allele after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking and hypertension (OR = 1.277, 95% CI = 1.013-1.609, P = .038). Our results suggest that the RGS14 polymorphism is involved in the etiology of nephrolithiasis and thus may be a genetic marker for nephrolithiasis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Recent advances in managing and understanding nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Gambaro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary stone disease is a very common disease whose prevalence is still increasing. Stone formation is frequently associated with other diseases of affluence such as hypertension, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance. The increasing concentration of lithogenic solutes along the different segments of the nephron involves supersaturation conditions leading to the formation, growth, and aggregation of crystals. Crystalline aggregates can grow free in the tubular lumen or coated on the wall of the renal tubule. Plugs of crystalline material have been highlighted in the tubular lumen in some patients, but crystalline growth starting from plaques of calcium phosphate within the renal papillae has been demonstrated in others. Urinary supersaturation is the result of a complex interaction between predisposing genetic features and environmental factors. Dietary intake is certainly the most important environmental risk factor. In particular, an insufficient intake of dietary calcium (<600 mg/day can increase the intestinal absorption of oxalate and the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation. Other possible risk factors that have been identified include excessive intake of salt and proteins. The potential role of dietary acid load seems to play an important role in causing a state of subclinical chronic acidosis; therefore, the intake of vegetables is encouraged in stone-forming patients. Consumption of sugar-sweetened soda and punch is associated with a higher risk of stone formation, whereas consumption of coffee, tea, beer, wine, and orange juice is associated with a lower risk. A high fluid intake is widely recognized as the cornerstone of prevention of all forms of stones. The effectiveness of protein and salt restriction has been evaluated in some studies that still do not allow definitive conclusions to be made. Calcium stone formation can be prevented by the use of different drugs with different

  16. Influence of nutritional status, laboratory parameters and dietary patterns upon urinary acid excretion in calcium stone formers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolini Zanette Warmling Tessaro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (MS are associated with low urinary pH and represent risk factors for nephrolithiasis, especially composed by uric acid. Acidogenic diets may also contribute to a reduction of urinary pH. Propensity for calcium oxalate precipitation has been shown to be higher with increasing features of the MS. Objective: A retrospective evaluation of anthropometric and body composition parameters, MS criteria and the dietary patterns of overweight and obese calcium stone formers and their impact upon urinary pH and other lithogenic parameters was performed. Methods: Data regarding anthropometry, body composition, serum and urinary parameters and 3-days dietary records were obtained from medical records of 102(34M/68F calcium stone formers. Results: A negative correlation was found between urinary pH, waist circumference and serum uric acid levels (males. The endogenous production of organic acids (OA was positively correlated with triglycerides levels and number of features of MS (males, and with glucose, uric acid and triglycerides serum levels, and number of features of MS (females. No significant correlations were detected between Net Acid Excretion (NAE or Potential Renal Acid Load of the diet with any of the assessed parameters. A multivariate analysis showed a negative association between OA and urinary pH. Conclusion: The endogenous production of OA and not an acidogenic diet were found to be independently predictive factors for lower urinary pH levels in calcium stone formers. Hypercalciuric and/or hyperuricosuric patients presented higher OA levels and lower levels of urinary pH.

  17. Effect of the Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. Leaf Extract on the Ethylene Glycol-Induced Nephrolithiasis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Barbosa de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the Copaifera langsdorffii leaves extract to prevent stone formation was analyzed by means of an ethylene glycol (EG animal model of nephrolithiasis and an in vitro crystallization assay. Different doses of the C. langsdorffii leaves extract were administered to rats treated with EG. Urine biochemical parameters were quantified. CaOx deposits count and analysis of osteopontin expression were conducted on kidneys fixed in formalin. The in vitro assay was performed by turbidimetry. Phytochemical analyses of the extract were accomplished by HPLC-UV-DAD, and several compounds were isolated. C. langsdorffii leaf extract was able to avoid stone formation. The number of deposits was 50.30±31.29 at the higher extract dose, compared to the value of 179.5±45.96 achieved with the EG control. Significantly lower oxalate levels and OPN expression and increased citrate levels were observed after extract administration. In the in vitro assay, the extract diluted the formed crystals. Phytochemical analyses showed that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds that are capable of preventing stone formation. Thus, on the basis of our results, we suggest that the C. langsdorffii leaf extract has potential application in the prevention of kidney stone formation.

  18. Electrolytic destruction of oxalate ions in plutonium oxalate supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, K.M.; Talnikar, S.G.; Jambunathan, U.; Kapoor, S.C.; Ramanujam, A.; Venkataraman, N.

    1996-01-01

    A simple and efficient electrolytic method is described for the destruction of the oxalate ions present in plutonium oxalate supernatant. Using platinum electrode and very little KMnO 4 , in situ generation of Mn 3+ ions is achieved which in turn destroys the oxalate. The use of lower current density helps in achieving maximum current efficiency. The end point is easily detectable by the pink colour of permanganate. By reversing the current, this slight excess of permanganate can be destroyed, thus avoiding the use of hydrogen peroxide. By this simple electrolytic method, the corrosive oxalate ion is completely destroyed and the salt content of the waste solution is considerably reduced. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  19. Destruction of oxalate by reaction with hydrogen peroxide. [Hydrazine oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.; Arwood, P.C.

    1981-09-01

    The destruction of oxalate by oxidation to carbon dioxide using hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative method for the disposal of oxalate in connection with the possible use of an aqueous hydrazine oxalate solution as a scrubbing agent for solvent cleanup in processes for the recovery of uranium, plutonium, and thorium by solvent extraction. The rate of oxidation of oxalate by hydrogen peroxide in acid solution at the reflux temperature was adequate for process application; reaction half-times at 100/sup 0/C were less than one hour when the hydrogen peroxide concentration was greater than 0.5 M. The reaction was first order with respect to both the oxalate and hydrogen peroxide concentrations and had an activation energy of 58.7 kJ/g-mol. The rate increased with the hydrogen ion concentration as (H/sup +/)/sup 0/ /sup 3/ but was not significantly affected by the presence of 100 ppM of uranium or copper in solution. In the near-neutral hydrazine oxalate solutions, the reaction of either component with hydrogen peroxide was too slow for process application.

  20. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  1. Plasma biochemistry and urinalysis variables of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with and without oxalate nephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K Natasha; Haynes, Julie I; Boardman, Wayne; Breed, William G; Taggart, David A; Rich, Brian; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    Oxalate nephrosis is a highly prevalent disease in the Mount Lofty Ranges koala population in South Australia, but associated clinicopathologic findings remain undescribed. The aims of this study were to determine plasma biochemical and urinalysis variables, particularly for renal function and urinary crystal morphology and composition, in koalas with oxalate nephrosis. Blood and urine samples from Mount Lofty Ranges koalas with oxalate nephrosis were compared with those unaffected by renal oxalate crystal deposition from Mount Lofty and Kangaroo Island, South Australia and Moggill, Queensland. Plasma and urine biochemistry variables were analyzed using a Cobas Bio analyzer, and urinary oxalate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Urinary crystal composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Azotemia (urea > 6.6 mmol/L, creatinine > 150 μmol/L) was found in 93% of koalas with oxalate nephrosis (n = 15). All azotemic animals had renal insufficiency (urine specific gravity [USG] < 1.035), and in 83%, USG was < 1.030. Koalas with oxalate nephrosis were hyperoxaluric compared with Queensland koalas (P < .01). Urinary crystals from koalas with oxalate nephrosis had atypical morphology and were composed of calcium oxalate. Mount Lofty Ranges koalas unaffected by renal oxalate crystal deposition had renal insufficiency (43%), although only 14% had USG < 1.030 (n = 7). Unaffected Mount Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island koalas were hyperoxaluric compared with Queensland koalas (P < .01). Koalas with oxalate nephrosis from the Mount Lofty Ranges had renal insufficiency, hyperoxaluria, and pathognomonic urinary crystals. The findings of this study will aid veterinary diagnosis of this disease. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  2. Pathological features of oxalate nephrosis in a population of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K N; Boardman, W; Breed, W G; Taggart, D A; Woolford, L; Haynes, J I

    2013-03-01

    The wild and captive koala population of the Mt Lofty Ranges in South Australia has a high level of renal dysfunction in which crystals consistent with calcium oxalate have been observed in the kidneys. This study aimed to describe the pathological features of the renal disease in this population, confirm the composition of renal crystals as calcium oxalate, and determine whether any age or sex predispositions exist for this disease. A total of 51 koalas (28 wild rescues, 23 captive) were examined at necropsy, of which 28 (55%) were found to have gross and/or histological evidence of oxalate nephrosis. Histopathological features included intratubular and interstitial inflammation, tubule dilation, glomerular atrophy, tubule loss, and cortical fibrosis. Calcium oxalate crystals were demonstrated using a combination of polarization microscopy, alizarin red S staining, infrared spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis with scanning electron microscopy. Uric acid and phosphate deposits were also shown to be present but were associated with minimal histopathological changes. No significant differences were found between the numbers of affected captive and wild rescued koalas; also, there were no sex or age predispositions identified, but it was found that oxalate nephrosis may affect koalas <2 years of age. The findings of this study suggest that oxalate nephrosis is a leading disease in this koala population. Possible causes of this disease are currently under investigation.

  3. Hygroscopic properties of oxalic acid and atmospherically relevant oxalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong; Liu, Chang

    2013-04-01

    Oxalic acid and oxalates represent an important fraction of atmospheric organic aerosols, however, little knowledge about the hygroscopic behavior of these particles is known. In this study, the hygroscopic behavior of oxalic acid and atmospherically relevant oxalates (H2C2O4, (NH4)2C2O4, CaC2O4, and FeC2O4) were studied by Raman spectrometry and vapor sorption analyzer. Under ambient relative humidity (RH) of 10-90%, oxalic acid and these oxalates hardly deliquesce and exhibit low hygroscopicity, however, transformation between anhydrous and hydrated particles was observed during the humidifying and dehumidifying processes. During the water adsorption process, conversion of anhydrous H2C2O4, (NH4)2C2O4, CaC2O4, and FeC2O4 to their hydrated particles (i.e., H2C2O4·2H2O, (NH4)2C2O4·H2O, CaC2O4·H2O, and FeC2O4·2H2O) occurred at about 20% RH, 55% RH, 10% RH, and 75% RH, respectively. Uptake of water on hydrated Ca-oxalate and Fe-oxalate particles can be described by a multilayer adsorption isotherm. During the dehumidifying process, dehydration of H2C2O4·2H2O and (NH4)2C2O4·H2O occurred at 5% RH while CaC2O4·H2O and FeC2O4·2H2O did not undergo dehydration. These results implied that hydrated particles represent the most stable state of oxalic acid and oxalates in the atmosphere. In addition, the assignments of Raman shift bands in the range of 1610-1650 cm-1 were discussed according to the hygroscopic behavior measurement results.

  4. Analytical Study of Oxalates Coprecipitation

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    Liana MARTA

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the establishing of the oxalates coprecipitation conditions in view of the synthesis of superconducting systems. A systematic analytical study of the oxalates precipitation conditions has been performed, for obtaining superconducting materials, in the Bi Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. For this purpose, the formulae of the precipitates solubility as a function of pH and oxalate excess were established. The possible formation of hydroxo-complexes and soluble oxalato-complexes was taken into account. A BASIC program was used for tracing the precipitation curves. The curves of the solubility versus pH for different oxalate excess have plotted for the four oxalates, using a logaritmic scale. The optimal conditions for the quantitative oxalate coprecipitation have been deduced from the diagrams. The theoretical curves were confirmed by experimental results. From the precursors obtained by this method, the BSCCO superconducting phases were obtained by an appropriate thermal treatment. The formation of the superconducting phases was identified by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  5. Successful treatment of sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis with Helichrysum flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaran, Metin; Orhan, Nilüfer; Farahvash, Amirali; Ekin, Hasya Nazlı; Kocabıyık, Murat; Gönül, İpek Işık; Şen, İlker; Aslan, Mustafa

    2016-06-20

    Helichrysum (Asteraceae) flowers, known as "altın otu, yayla çiçeği, kudama çiçeği" , are widely used to remove kidney stones and for their diuretic properties in Turkey. To determine the curative effect of infusions prepared from capitulums of Helichrysum graveolens (M. Bieb.) Sweet (HG) and H. stoechas ssp. barellieri (Ten.) Nyman (HS) on sodium oxalate induced kidney stones. Infusions prepared from the capitulums of HG and HS were tested for their curative effect on calcium oxalate deposition induced by sodium oxalate (70mg/kg i.p.). Following the injection of sodium oxalate for 5 days, plant extracts were administered to rats at two different doses. Potassium citrate was used as positive control. Water intake, urine volume, body, liver and kidney weights were measured; biochemical and hematological analyses were conducted on urine and blood samples. Additionally, histopathological examinations were done on kidney samples. H. stoechas extract showed prominent effect at 156mg/kg dose (stone formation score: 0.33), whereas number of kidney stones was maximum in sodium oxalate group (stone formation score: 2.33). The reduction in the uric acid and oxalate levels of urine samples and the elevation in the urine citrate levels are significant and promising in extract groups. Some hematological, biochemical and enzymatic markers are also ameliorated by the extracts. This is the first report on the curative effect of immortal flowers. Our preliminary study indicated that Helichrysum extracts may be used for treatment of urolithiasis and Helichrysum extracts are an alternative therapy to potassium citrate for patients suffering from kidney stones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

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    G. Cailleau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa, has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the acidic conditions in these types of soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. In addition, a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues contributes to the carbonate flux and is identified as a direct consequence of wood feeding by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter, and an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting agents (mainly termites, saprophytic fungi, and bacteria release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition, some of these agents are themselves producers of oxalate (e.g. fungi. Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can then start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate

  7. Structural variability in neptunium(V) oxalate compounds: synthesis and structural characterization of Na2NpO2(C2O4)OH.H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Amanda C; Garcia, Eduardo; Scott, Brian L; Runde, Wolfgang

    2004-10-04

    Reaction of a (237)Np(V) stock solution in the presence of oxalic acid, calcium chloride, and sodium hydroxide under hydrothermal conditions produces single crystals of a neptunium(V) oxalate, Na(2)NpO(2)(C(2)O(4))OH.H(2)O. The structure consists of one-dimensional chains running down the a axis and is the first example of a neptunium(V) oxalate compound containing hydroxide anions.

  8. Urinary oxalate excretion, as determined by isotope dilution and indirect colorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenen, J.A.C.; Boer, P.; Leersum, L. van; Oldenburg, S.J.; Endeman, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and reliable method for the determination of urinary oxalate excretion is described. Urinary oxalate is precipitated with calcium chloride, and the oxalate content of the precipitate is measured by an indirect colorimetric method developed by Neas and Guyon in 1972. For single urine samples, a correction is made for the incompleteness of the precipitation of calcium oxalate by isotope dilution. The range of normal values (5% limits) determined in 52 normal subjects was 0.121-0.325 mmol.24 h - 1 .m - 2 for a 1-day collection period and 0.145-0.301 mmol. 24 h - 1 .m - 2 for a 3-day collection period. The within-assay CV of a control urine with a low oxalate concentration was 9% (n=7) and the between-assay CV for the same control urine was 12% (n=6). When the values obtained for oxalate excretion were normalized to body surface area, there was no significant difference between males and females; the main source of variation was the intra-individual variation. (Auth.)

  9. Hyperoxaluria, Hypocitraturia, Hypomagnesiuria, and Lack of Intestinal Colonization by Oxalobacter formigenes in a Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Patient with Suprapubic Cystostomy, Short Bowel, and Nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although urolithiasis is common in spinal cord injury patients, it is presumed that the predisposing factors for urinary stones in spinal cord injury patients are immobilization-induced hypercalciuria in the initial period after spinal injury and, in later stages, urine infection by urease-producing micro-organisms, e.g., Proteus sp., which cause struvite stones. We describe a patient who sustained C-7 complete tetraplegia in a road traffic accident in 1970, when he was 16 years old. Left ureterolithotomy was performed in 1971 followed by left nephrectomy in 1972. Probably due to adhesions, this patient developed volvulus of the intestine in 1974. As he had complete tetraplegia, he did not feel pain in the abdomen and there was a delay in the diagnosis of volvulus, which led to ischemia of a large segment of the small bowel. All but 1 ft of jejunum and 1 ft of ileum were resected leaving the large bowel intact. In 1998, suprapubic cystostomy was performed. In 2004, this patient developed calculus in the solitary right kidney. Complete stone clearance was achieved by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Stone analysis: calcium oxalate 60% and calcium phosphate 40%. Metabolic evaluation revealed hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, and hypomagnesiuria. Since this patient had hyperoxaluria, the stool was tested for Oxalobacter formigenes, a specific oxalate-degrading, anerobic bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans; absence of this bacterium appears to be a risk factor for development of hyperoxaluria and, subsequently, calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. DNA from the stool was extracted using the QIAamp DNA stool Mini Kit (Qiagen, Chatsworth, CA. The genomic DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers for oxc gene (developed by Sidhu and associates. The stool sample tested negative for O. formigenes. The patient was prescribed potassium citrate mixture; he was advised to avoid oxalate-rich food, maintain

  10. Association between Nephrolithiasis, Hypertension and Obesity in Polycystic Kidney Disease

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    Valbona Bajrami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We aim to define the correlations between nephrolithiasis, hypertension, age and obesity in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD in Albania. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 100 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney from 2011 to 2014. The patients underwent X-ray and renal ultrasonography. We performed the metabolic evaluation of blood and urine. RESULTS: The patients with renal stones had a higher level of mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with patients without stones (155 ± 12 mmHg vs. 145 ± 8 mmHg, and 105 ± 0.9 mmHg vs. 92 ± 1.28 mmHg, respectively. Patients with renal stones were older (47 ± 15 vs. 38 ± 5 years, had a higher prevalence of obesity [body mass index (BMI: 28 ± 2.4 vs. 25.7 ± 0.6], had higher levels of total cholesterol level (220 ± 5 mg/dl vs. 203 ± 4 mg/dl as well as triglyceride levels (160 ± 9 mg/dl vs. 126 ± 4 mg/dl, compared with no renal stone individuals. CONCLUSION: ADPKD patients with renal stones in our study had a higher mean level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI and cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with individuals without renal stones.

  11. Reaction of hydrazine hydrate with oxalic acid: synthesis and crystal structure of dihydrazinium oxalate

    OpenAIRE

    Selvakumar, Rajendran; Premkumar, Thathan; Manivannan, Vadivelu; Saravanan, Kaliannan; Govindarajan, Subbiah

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of oxalic acid with hydrazine hydrate (in appropriate mole ratio) forms the dihydrazinium oxalate under specific experimental condition. The title compound is a molecular salt containing two discrete hydrazinium cations and an oxalate anion. The oxalate anion is perfectly planar and there is a crystallographic centre of symmetry in the middle of the C-C bond. The C-O bond distances are almost equal indicating the presence of resonance in the oxalate ion. The crystal packing is st...

  12. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... self-care; Nephrolithiasis and self-care; Stones and kidney - self-care; Calcium stones and self-care; Oxalate ... provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care ...

  13. 4-Methoxybenzamidinium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate

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    Simona Irrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The title hydrated salt, C8H11N2O+·C2HO4−·H2O, was synthesized by a reaction of 4-methoxybenzamidine (4-amidinoanisole and oxalic acid in water solution. In the cation, the amidinium group forms a dihedral angle of 15.60 (6° with the mean plane of the benzene ring. In the crystal, each amidinium unit is bound to three acetate anions and one water molecule by six distinct N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The ion pairs of the asymmetric unit are joined by two N—H...O hydrogen bonds into ionic dimers in which the carbonyl O atom of the semi-oxalate anion acts as a bifurcated acceptor, thus generating an R12(6 motif. These subunits are then joined through the remaining N—H...O hydrogen bonds to adjacent semi-oxalate anions into linear tetrameric chains running approximately along the b axis. The structure is stabilized by N—H...O and O—H...O intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The water molecule plays an important role in the cohesion and the stability of the crystal structure being involved in three hydrogen bonds connecting two semi-oxalate anions as donor and a benzamidinium cation as acceptor.

  14. The Effect of Calcusol™ to the Plasma Free Radical and Serum Creatinin in Mus Musculus Nephrolithiasis Model

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    A’liyatur Rosyidah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcusol™ is a traditional medicine (jamu made from Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis extract and is usually used for cure kidney stone disease. However, there has not been any studies which investigate the its mechanism. The aim of this study is to know the effect of Calcusol™ to the plasma free radical and serum creatinin of Mus musculus model for renal calcium-oxalate accumulation. This study is carried out by administration of Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri tuber flour for 3 months with the doses 6 mg/100g BW to induce renal calcium oxalate accumulation and Calcusol™ treatment for 7 days with the doses of 3.3mg/g BW. Group I was used as a control group. Group II was only given porang every day for 3 months. Group III was only given Calcusol™ for 7 days. Group IV were given porang for 3 months then given Calcusol™ for 7 days. Group V were given porang and Calcusol™ simultaneously for 3 months. Porang and CalcusolTM is administrated orally. Blood was collected from the tail of the animal for serum creatinin test and plasma free radical test using TBARS method. The data was analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD to compare the means employing SPSS 16.0 for windows. The result of the research shows that the treatment Calcusol™ on mice model for renal calcium oxalate accumulation. The content of MDA at group I, group II, group III, group IV and group V, respectivelyis 0.81±0.5 mg/ml; 2.63±0.8 mg/ml; 0.56±0.5 mg/ml; 2.09±0.9 mg/ml and 0.17±0.17 mg/ml. The content of serum creatinine are 0.15±0.04 mg/dL; 0.13±0.03 mg/dL; 0.12±0.08 mg/dL; 0.11±0.016 mg/dL and 0.14±0.015 mg/dL at group I, group II, group III, Group IV, and group V respectively. This indicates that Calcusol™ decreases plasma free radical production during renal stone formation, while serum creatinin reduced but not significantly changed. Calcusol™ has an effect to decrease free radical during renalstone formation inmice model for calcium oxalate accumulation

  15. Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant efficacy of Musa paradisiaca pseudostem on ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Padma Nibash; Dey, Sahadeb; Sahoo, Monalisa; Dan, Ananya

    2017-01-01

    Musa paradisiaca has been used in the treatment of urolithiasis by the rural people in South India. Therefore, we plan to evaluate its efficacy and possible mechanism of antiurolithiatic effect to rationalize its medicinal use. Urolithiasis was induced in hyperoxaluric rat model by giving 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) for 28 days along with 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for the first 14 days. Antiurolithiatic effect of aqueous-ethanol extract of M. paradisiaca pseudostem (MUSA) was evaluated based on urine and serum biochemistry, microscopy of urine, oxidative/nitrosative indices, kidney calcium content, and histopathology. Administration of EG and AC resulted in increased crystalluria and oxaluria, hypercalciuria, polyuria, crystal deposition in urine, raised serum urea, and creatinine as well as nitric oxide concentration and erythrocytic lipid peroxidation in lithiatic group. However, MUSA treatment significantly restored the impairment in above kidney function test as that of standard treatment, cystone in a dose-dependent manner. The present findings demonstrate the efficacy of MUSA in EG-induced urolithiasis, which might be mediated through inhibiting various pathways involved in renal calcium oxalate formation, antioxidant effect, and potential to inhibit biochemical markers of renal impairment.

  16. The association of nephrolithiasis with metabolic syndrome and its components: a cross-sectional analysis

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    Liu YT

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yen-Tze Liu,1 Pei-Yu Yang,2 Yu-Wen Yang,1 Hung-Yu Sun,1 I-Ching Lin1,3,4 1Department of Family Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, 2Department of Laboratory, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua City, 3School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, 4School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan Background: Metabolic syndrome is a worldwide disorder and also the major risk factor of several systemic diseases. Evidence identifying the association between metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis is lacking, especially in Taiwan.Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nephrolithiasis and metabolic syndrome and its components.Design and setting: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Health Examination Department of a medical center in Changhua, Taiwan, from January 2010 to December 2010.Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients who had visited the Health Examination Center of Changhua Christian Hospital in 2010. A total of 3,886 individuals were enrolled. According to the exclusion criteria, those with an age <20 years and an abnormal renal function were excluded. A total of 3,793 subjects were included. All P-values are two tailed, and P<0.05 was defined as statistically significant.Results: The results showed a correlation between nephrolithiasis and metabolic syndrome and its components. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR (95% confidence interval [CI] of metabolic syndrome for nephrolithiasis was 1.318 (1.083–1.604, with a P-value of 0.006. Larger waist circumference (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.338; 95% CI 1.098–1.631; P=0.004, higher blood pressure (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.333; 95% CI 1.106–1.607; P=0.003, and increased fasting glucose (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.276; 95% CI 1.054–1.546; P=0.01 were associated with nephrolithiasis.Conclusion: This is the first study in Taiwan to investigate the relationship between metabolic

  17. Annual Incidence of Nephrolithiasis among Children and Adults in South Carolina from 1997 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michelle E.; Song, Lihai; Sas, David J.; Keren, Ron; Denburg, Michelle R.; Chu, David I.; Copelovitch, Lawrence; Saigal, Christopher S.; Furth, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives The prevalence of nephrolithiasis in the United States has increased substantially, but recent changes in incidence with respect to age, sex, and race are not well characterized. This study examined temporal trends in the annual incidence and cumulative risk of nephrolithiasis among children and adults living in South Carolina over a 16-year period. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We performed a population–based, repeated cross–sectional study using the US Census and South Carolina Medical Encounter data, which capture all emergency department visits, surgeries, and admissions in the state. The annual incidence of nephrolithiasis in South Carolina from 1997 to 2012 was estimated, and linear mixed models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios for age, sex, and racial groups. The cumulative risk of nephrolithiasis during childhood and over the lifetime was estimated for males and females in 1997 and 2012. Results Among an at-risk population of 4,625,364 people, 152,925 unique patients received emergency, inpatient, or surgical care for nephrolithiasis. Between 1997 and 2012, the mean annual incidence of nephrolithiasis increased 1% annually from 206 to 239 per 100,000 persons. Among age groups, the greatest increase was observed among 15–19 year olds, in whom incidence increased 26% per 5 years (incidence rate ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 1.29). Adjusting for age and race, incidence increased 15% per 5 years among females (incidence rate ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 to 1.16) but remained stable for males. The incidence among blacks increased 15% more per 5 years compared with whites (incidence rate ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 to 1.17). These changes in incidence resulted in doubling of the risk of nephrolithiasis during childhood and a 45% increase in the lifetime risk of nephrolithiasis for women over the study period. Conclusions The incidence of kidney stones has

  18. Primary Nonfunction of Renal Allograft Secondary to Acute Oxalate Nephropathy

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    Ravi Parasuraman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary nonfunction (PNF accounts for 0.6 to 8% of renal allograft failure, and the focus on causes of PNF has changed from rejection to other causes. Calcium oxalate (CaOx deposition is common in early allograft biopsies, and it contributes in moderate intensity to higher incidence of acute tubular necrosis and poor graft survival. A-49-year old male with ESRD secondary to polycystic kidney disease underwent extended criteria donor kidney transplantation. Posttransplant, patient developed delayed graft function (DGF, and the biopsy showed moderately intense CaOx deposition that persisted on subsequent biopsies for 16 weeks, eventually resulting in PNF. The serum oxalate level was 3 times more than normal at 85 μmol/L (normal <27 μmol/L. Allograft nephrectomy showed massive aggregates of CaOx crystal deposition in renal collecting system. In conclusion, acute oxalate nephropathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of DGF since optimal management could change the outcome of the allograft.

  19. In vivo oxalate degradation by liposome encapsulated oxalate oxidase in rat model of hyperoxaluria

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    Tulika Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: EMA-oxalate oxidase encapsulated liposome caused oxalate degradation in experimental hyperoxaluria indicating that the enzyme could be used as a therapeutic agent in hyperoxaluria leading to urinary stones.

  20. Decomposition of oxalate precipitates by photochemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae-Hyung Yoo; Eung-Ho Kim

    1999-01-01

    A photo-radiation method was applied to decompose oxalate precipitates so that it can be dissolved into dilute nitric acid. This work has been studied as a part of partitioning of minor actinides. Minor actinides can be recovered from high-level wastes as oxalate precipitates, but they tend to be coprecipitated together with lanthanide oxalates. This requires another partitioning step for mutual separation of actinide and lanthanide groups. In this study, therefore, some experimental work of photochemical decomposition of oxalate was carried out to prove its feasibility as a step of partitioning process. The decomposition of oxalic acid in the presence of nitric acid was performed in advance in order to understand the mechanistic behaviour of oxalate destruction, and then the decomposition of neodymium oxalate, which was chosen as a stand-in compound representing minor actinide and lanthanide oxalates, was examined. The decomposition rate of neodymium oxalate was found as 0.003 mole/hr at the conditions of 0.5 M HNO 3 and room temperature when a mercury lamp was used as a light source. (author)

  1. Vibrational studies in aqueous solutions. Part II. The acid oxalate ion and oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippey, T. A.

    1980-08-01

    Assignments for oxalic acid in solution are re-examined. A detailed assignment of the IR and Raman spectra of the acid oxalate ion is presented for the first time. Raman spectroscopy is used to study the first ionization of oxalic acid.

  2. Fungi, bacteria and soil pH: the oxalate-carbonate pathway as a model for metabolic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gaëtan; Guggiari, Matteo; Bravo, Daniel; Zopfi, Jakob; Cailleau, Guillaume; Aragno, Michel; Job, Daniel; Verrecchia, Eric; Junier, Pilar

    2012-11-01

    The oxalate-carbonate pathway involves the oxidation of calcium oxalate to low-magnesium calcite and represents a potential long-term terrestrial sink for atmospheric CO(2). In this pathway, bacterial oxalate degradation is associated with a strong local alkalinization and subsequent carbonate precipitation. In order to test whether this process occurs in soil, the role of bacteria, fungi and calcium oxalate amendments was studied using microcosms. In a model system with sterile soil amended with laboratory cultures of oxalotrophic bacteria and fungi, the addition of calcium oxalate induced a distinct pH shift and led to the final precipitation of calcite. However, the simultaneous presence of bacteria and fungi was essential to drive this pH shift. Growth of both oxalotrophic bacteria and fungi was confirmed by qPCR on the frc (oxalotrophic bacteria) and 16S rRNA genes, and the quantification of ergosterol (active fungal biomass) respectively. The experiment was replicated in microcosms with non-sterilized soil. In this case, the bacterial and fungal contribution to oxalate degradation was evaluated by treatments with specific biocides (cycloheximide and bronopol). Results showed that the autochthonous microflora oxidized calcium oxalate and induced a significant soil alkalinization. Moreover, data confirmed the results from the model soil showing that bacteria are essentially responsible for the pH shift, but require the presence of fungi for their oxalotrophic activity. The combined results highlight that the interaction between bacteria and fungi is essential to drive metabolic processes in complex environments such as soil. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The Relationship between Serum Oxalic Acid, Central Hemodynamic Parameters and Colonization by Oxalobacter formigenes in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulhan, Baris; Turkmen, Kultigin; Aydin, Merve; Gunay, Murat; Cıkman, Aytekin; Kara, Murat

    2015-06-01

    Elevated pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central aortic blood pressures are independent predictors of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Oxalic acid is a uremic retention molecule that is extensively studied in the pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stones. Oxalobacter formigenes, a member of the colon microbiota, has important roles in oxalate homeostasis. Data regarding the colonization by and the exact role of O. formigenes in the pathogenesis of oxalic acid metabolism in HD patients are scant. Hence, we aimed to determine the relationship between fecal O. formigenes colonization, serum oxalic acid and hemodynamic parameters in HD patients with regard to the colo-reno-cardiac axis. Fifty HD patients were enrolled in this study. PWV and central aortic systolic (cASBP) and diastolic blood pressures (cADBP) were measured with a Mobil-O-Graph (I.E.M. GmbH, Stolberg, Germany). Serum oxalic acid levels were assessed by ELISA, and fecal O. formigenes DNA levels were isolated and measured by real-time PCR. Isolation of fecal O. formigenes was found in only 2 HD patients. One of them had 113,609 copies/ml, the other one had 1,056 copies/ml. Serum oxalic acid levels were found to be positively correlated with PWV (r = 0.29, p = 0.03), cASBP (r = 0.33, p = 0.001) and cADBP (r = 0.42, p = 0.002) and negatively correlated with LDL (r = -0.30, p = 0.03). In multivariate linear regression analysis, PWV was independently predicted by oxalic acid, glucose and triglyceride. This is the first study that demonstrates the absence of O. formigenes as well as a relation between serum oxalic acid and cASBP, cADBP and PWV in HD patients. Replacement of O. formigenes with pre- and probiotics might decrease serum oxalic acid levels and improve cardiovascular outcomes in HD patients.

  4. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ′Averrhoa bilimbi′ fruit juice ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bakul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management.

  5. Precipitation of plutonium oxalate from homogeneous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.K.; Pius, I.C.; Subbarao, M.; Chinnusamy, A.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the precipitation of plutonium(IV) oxalate from homogeneous solutions using diethyl oxalate is reported. The precipitate obtained is crystalline and easily filterable with yields in the range of 92-98% for precipitations involving a few mg to g quantities of plutonium. Decontamination factors for common impurities such as U(VI), Am(III) and Fe(III) were determined. TGA and chemical analysis of the compound indicate its composition as Pu(Csub(2)Osub(4))sub(2).6Hsub(2)O. Data are obtained on the solubility of the oxalate in nitric acid and in mixtures of nitric acid and oxalic acid of varying concentrations. Green PuOsub(2) obtained by calcination of the oxalate has specifications within the recommended values for trace foreign substances such as chlorine, fluorine, carbon and nitrogen. (author)

  6. Dating oxalate minerals in rock surface deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watchman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxalate minerals are found associated with rocks, mineral coatings, micro-organisms, plants and animals. They are important in archaeology because they have been found intimately associated with organic binders in prehistoric paints. Oxalate minerals also accumulate in the coatings on rock shelter walls and fallen ceiling slabs where they form the natural backing supports for painting and opaque laminates covering engravings. Though the relationship between anthropogenic activity in a rock shelter and oxalate formation is often uncertain, the radiocarbon age of the oxalate may provide the only means for determining the antiquity of a rock painting or engraving. This paper examines the history of dating oxalate minerals at archaeological sites and provides insights into achieving reliable age estimates. (author). 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Crystal structure of dimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2+·HC2O4−·0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH22C2O4 salt and Sn(CH33Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a dimethylammonium cation (Me2NH2+, an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4−, and half a molecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4 situated about an inversion center. From a supramolecular point of view, the three components interact together via hydrogen bonding. The Me2NH2+ cations and the HC2O4− anions are in close proximity through bifurcated N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds, while the HC2O4− anions are organized into infinite chains via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, propagating along the a-axis direction. In addition, the oxalic acid (H2C2O4 molecules play the role of connectors between these chains. Both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of each diacid are involved in four intermolecular interactions with two Me2NH2+ and two HC2O4− ions of four distinct polymeric chains, via two N—H...O and two O—H...O hydrogen bonds, respectively. The resulting molecular assembly can be viewed as a two-dimensional bilayer-like arrangement lying parallel to (010, and reinforced by a C—H...O hydrogen bond.

  8. Isolation and characterization of mesophilic, oxalate-degrading Streptomyces from plant rhizosphere and forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin

    2004-10-01

    The present work was aimed at the isolation of additional new pure cultures of oxalate-degrading Streptomyces and its preliminary characterization for further work in the field of oxalate metabolism and taxonomic studies. Mesophilic, oxalate-degrading Streptomyces were enriched and isolated from plant rhizosphere and forest soil samples. Strains were examined for cultural, morphological (spore chain morphology, spore mass colour, diffusible and melanin pigment production), physiological (antibiosis, growth in the presence of inhibitory compounds, assimilation of organic acids and enzyme substrates) and chemotaxonomic characters (cellular lipid components and diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid). The taxonomic data obtained were analysed by using the simple matching (SSM) and Jaccard (SJ) coefficients, clustering was achieved using the UPGMA algorithm. All strains were able to utilize sodium-, potassium-, calcium- and ammonium-oxalate salts. Based on the results of numerical taxonomy, isolates were grouped into five cluster groups with a ≥70% SSM similarity level. Streptomyces rochei was the most common of the cluster groups, with a Willcox probability of P>0.8. Streptomyces antibioticus, S. anulatus, S. fulvissimus, S. halstedii and S. violaceusniger are newly reported as oxalate-utilizing Streptomyces.

  9. Enamel renal syndrome with associated amelogenesis imperfecta, nephrolithiasis, and hypocitraturia: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhesania, Dhvani; Arora, Ankit; Kapoor, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Numerous cases of enamel renal syndrome have been previously reported. Various terms, such as enamel renal syndrome, amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival fibromatosis syndrome, and enamel-renal-gingival syndrome, have been used for patients presenting with the dental phenotype characteristic of this condition, nephrocalcinosis or nephrolithiasis, and gingival findings. This report describes a case of amelogenesis imperfecta of the enamel agenesis variety with nephrolithiasis in a 21-year-old male patient who complained of small teeth. The imaging modalities employed were conventional radiography, cone-beam computed tomography, and renal sonography. Such cases are first encountered by dentists, as other organ or metabolic diseases are generally hidden. Hence, cases of amelogenesis imperfecta should be subjected to advanced diagnostic modalities, incorporating both dental and medical criteria, in order to facilitate comprehensive long-term management

  10. Enamel renal syndrome with associated amelogenesis imperfecta, nephrolithiasis, and hypocitraturia: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhesania, Dhvani; Arora, Ankit; Kapoor, Sonali [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manubhai Patel Dental College, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Vadodara (India)

    2015-09-15

    Numerous cases of enamel renal syndrome have been previously reported. Various terms, such as enamel renal syndrome, amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival fibromatosis syndrome, and enamel-renal-gingival syndrome, have been used for patients presenting with the dental phenotype characteristic of this condition, nephrocalcinosis or nephrolithiasis, and gingival findings. This report describes a case of amelogenesis imperfecta of the enamel agenesis variety with nephrolithiasis in a 21-year-old male patient who complained of small teeth. The imaging modalities employed were conventional radiography, cone-beam computed tomography, and renal sonography. Such cases are first encountered by dentists, as other organ or metabolic diseases are generally hidden. Hence, cases of amelogenesis imperfecta should be subjected to advanced diagnostic modalities, incorporating both dental and medical criteria, in order to facilitate comprehensive long-term management.

  11. Enamel renal syndrome with associated amelogenesis imperfecta, nephrolithiasis, and hypocitraturia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhesania, Dhvani; Arora, Ankit; Kapoor, Sonali

    2015-09-01

    Numerous cases of enamel renal syndrome have been previously reported. Various terms, such as enamel renal syndrome, amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival fibromatosis syndrome, and enamel-renal-gingival syndrome, have been used for patients presenting with the dental phenotype characteristic of this condition, nephrocalcinosis or nephrolithiasis, and gingival findings. This report describes a case of amelogenesis imperfecta of the enamel agenesis variety with nephrolithiasis in a 21-year-old male patient who complained of small teeth. The imaging modalities employed were conventional radiography, cone-beam computed tomography, and renal sonography. Such cases are first encountered by dentists, as other organ or metabolic diseases are generally hidden. Hence, cases of amelogenesis imperfecta should be subjected to advanced diagnostic modalities, incorporating both dental and medical criteria, in order to facilitate comprehensive long-term management.

  12. Decomposition of oxalate precipitates by photochemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J.H.; Kim, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    A photo-radiation method was applied to decompose oxalate precipitates so that it can be dissolved into dilute nitric acid. This work has been studied as a part of partitioning of minor actinides. Minor actinides can be recovered from high-level wastes as oxalate precipitates, but they tend to be coprecipitated together with lanthanide oxalates. This requires another partitioning step for mutual separation of actinide and lanthanide groups. In this study, therefore, the photochemical decomposition mechanism of oxalates in the presence of nitric acid was elucidated by experimental work. The decomposition of oxalates was proved to be dominated by the reaction with hydroxyl radical generated from the nitric acid, rather than with nitrite ion also formed from nitrate ion. The decomposition rate of neodymium oxalate, which was chosen as a stand-in compound representing minor actinide and lanthanide oxalates, was found to be 0.003 M/hr at the conditions of 0.5 M HNO 3 and room temperature when a mercury lamp was used as a light source. (author)

  13. Long term effect of thiazides on bone mass in women with hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Spivacow, Francisco R; Negri, Armando L; del Valle, Elisa E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Decreased bone mineral density and increased prevalence of bone fractures have been found in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. It is not yet clear if thiazide treatment prevent these events. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated bone mass and biochemical markers of bone turnover in response to thiazide therapy in 52 consecutive female patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis. Patients were divided in two subgroups according to their menopausal status: 25 ...

  14. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wagner; O. Möhler; H. Saathoff; M. Schnaiter; T. Leisner

    2010-01-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to ...

  15. Histochemical localization and probable functions of calcium oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Julian O. Osuji

    The specimens already fixed in FAA (1 part formalin, 1 part glacial acetic acid and 18 parts 70% ethanol v/v) were rinsed in deionized water and dehydrated through graded ethanol series in the order 30, 50, 70 and 90% for two hours in each solution and finally in absolute ethanol overnight. Dehydrated specimens were.

  16. Metabolic Conversion of l-Ascorbic Acid to Oxalic Acid in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joan C.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1975-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid-1-14C and its oxidation product, dehydro-l-ascorbic acid, produced labeled oxalic acid in oxalate-accumulating plants such as spinach seedlings (Spinacia oleracea) and the detached leaves of woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta and O. oregana), shamrock (Oxalis adenopylla), and begonia (Begonia evansiana). In O. oregana, conversion occurred equally well in the presence or absence of light. This relationship between l-ascorbic acid metabolism and oxalic acid formation must be given careful consideration in attempts to explain oxalic accumulation in plants. PMID:16659288

  17. Dissolution of oxalate precipitate and destruction of oxalate ion by hydrogen peroxide in nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung-Ho; Chung, Dong-Yong; Park, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Jae-Hyung

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at developing an oxalate precipitation process, which is applicable to a partitioning of long-lived radionuclides from the high-level radioactive liquid waste. In order to achieve this, a study for decomposition-reaction of oxalic acid by hydrogen peroxide was first carried out. The decomposition rates of H 2 O 2 and oxalic acid increased with an increase of nitric acid concentration, and especially those decomposition rates steeply increased at more than 2 M HNO 3 . Based on this result, the decomposition kinetics of H 2 O 2 and oxalic acid were suggested in this work. Then, the dissolution of oxalate precipitate and the destruction of oxalate ion in the solution were examined. Oxalate precipitates were prepared by adding oxalic acid into a simulated radioactive waste containing 8 metallic elements. The precipitates obtained thereby were dissolved in various nitric acid concentrations and reacted with H 2 O 2 at 90degC. When the oxalates were completely dissolved, most of the oxalates were decomposed by adding H 2 O 2 , but in a slurry state the decomposition yield of the oxalate decreased with an increase of the slurry density in the solution. Such phenomenon was considered to be due to a catalytic decomposition of H 2 O 2 on a solid surface of oxalate and the decomposition mechanism was explained by a charge transfer from a surface of oxalate solid to H 2 O 2 , producing OH radicals which can destruct H 2 O 2 explosively. Accordingly, the experimental condition for the decomposition of the oxalate precipitates was found to be most favorable at 3 M HNO 3 under the initial concentrations of 0.2 M oxalate and 1 M H 2 O 2 . At 3M HNO 3 , oxalate precipitates could be safely and completely dissolved, and almost decomposed. Additionally, it was observed that the presence of ferric ion in the solution largely affects the decomposition rate of H 2 O 2 . This could be explained by a chain reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ferric ion in the solution

  18. Further Studies on Oxalic Acid Biosynthesis in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Richard F.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1978-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid functions as a precursor of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulating plants. The present study extends this observation to include Rumex crispus L. (curly dock), Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red root pigweed), Chenopodium album L. (lamb's-quarters), Beta vulgaris L. (sugar beet), Halogeton glomeratus M. Bieb. (halogeton), and Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb). Several species with low oxalate content are also examined. When l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid is supplied to young seedlings of R. crispus or H. glomeratus, a major portion of the 14C is released over a 24-hour period as 14CO2 and only a small portion is recovered as [14C]oxalate, unlike cuttings from 2- or 4-month-old plants which retain a large part of the 14C as [14C]oxalic acid and release very little 14CO2. Support for an intermediate role of oxalate in the release of 14CO2 from l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid is seen in the rapid release of 14CO2 by R. crispus and H. glomeratus seedlings labeled with [14C]oxalic acid. The common origin of oxalic acid carbon in the C1 and C2 fragment from l-ascorbic acid is demonstrated by comparison of 14C content of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulators after cuttings or seedlings are supplied equal amounts of l-[1-14C]- or l-[UL-14C]ascorbic acid. Theoretically, l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid will produce labeled oxalic acid containing three times as much 14C as l-[UL-14C]ascorbic acid when equal amounts of label are provided. Experimentally, a ratio of 2.7 ± 0.5 is obtained in duplicate experiments with six different species. PMID:16660342

  19. Variation in oxalate and oxalate decarboxylase production by six species of brown and white rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Oliver, Jason; Howell, Caitlin

      Oxalic acid (C2O4H2), the strongest of the organic acids is produced by both brown and white rot decay fungi and has been connected to various aspects of brown- and white rot decay including the Fenton reaction (Green and Highley, 1997; Munir et al.,2001). Oxalic acid is secreted into the wood...... cell lumen where it quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions and oxalate, resulting in a pH decrease of the environment, and oxalate-cation complexes. Generally, brown rot fungi accumulate larger quantities of oxalic acid in the wood than white rot fungi. The amount of oxalic acid has been shown to vary...... of formic acid and CO2 (Makela et al., 2002). So far only a few species of brown rot fungi have been shown to accumulate this enzyme (Micales, 1995, Howell and Jellison, 2006).   The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the levels of soluble oxalate and total oxalate, in correlation...

  20. Cholelithiasis and Nephrolithiasis in HIV-Positive Patients in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Yin Lin

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and risk factors of cholelithiasis and nephrolithiasis among HIV-positive patients in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of HIV-positive patients who underwent routine abdominal sonography for chronic viral hepatitis, fatty liver, or elevated aminotransferases between January 2004 and January 2015. Therapeutic drug monitoring of plasma concentrations of atazanavir was performed and genetic polymorphisms, including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT 1A1*28 and multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1 G2677T/A, were determined in a subgroup of patients who received ritonavir-boosted or unboosted atazanavir-containing combination antiretroviral therapy. Information on demographics, clinical characteristics, and laboratory testing were collected and analyzed.During the 11-year study period, 910 patients who underwent routine abdominal sonography were included for analysis. The patients were mostly male (96.9% with a mean age of 42.2 years and mean body-mass index of 22.9 kg/m2 and 85.8% being on antiretroviral therapy. The anchor antiretroviral agents included non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (49.3%, unboosted atazanavir (34.4%, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (20.4%, and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (5.5%. The overall prevalence of cholelithiasis and nephrolithiasis was 12.5% and 8.2%, respectively. Among 680 antiretroviral-experienced patients with both baseline and follow-up sonography, the crude incidence of cholelithiasis and nephrolithiasis was 4.3% and 3.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the independent factors associated with incident cholelithiasis were exposure to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir for >2 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-35.16 and older age (AOR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09. The positive association between duration of exposure to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir and incident

  1. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario

  2. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Leisner, T.

    2010-08-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario that coating layers

  3. Assaying the character and stenosis of the pyeloureteric segment in nephrolithiasis through pharmacologic modification of the imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, L.; Reznichenko, A.; Budkevich, Yu.; Shejretova, E.

    1994-01-01

    The study is performed with 17 patients presenting nephrolithiasis and 6 - hydronephrosis with stenosis of the pyeloureteric segment, confirmed intraoperatively. The character of stenosis (reversible or irreversible) is determined by ultrasonography with furosemide, dynamic scintigraphy with furosemide and progesterone, and excretory urography with progesterone. As shown by the obtained results, the pharmacologic modifications of imaging methods prove more informative in hydronephrosis, and to a lesser extent in nephrolithiasis patients. Dynamic scintigraphy with furosemide and excretory urography with progesterone yields less information, in comparison to ultrasonography with forosemid and excretory urography with progesterone. However, the comparatively limited number of patients investigated should be borne in mind. 2 tabs., 5 refs

  4. Advanced Oxidation: Oxalate Decomposition Testing With Ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing

  5. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration

  6. Recovery Ce from Ce - TBP Used Oxalic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwani, MV; Subagiono, R.; Suyanti

    2007-01-01

    Recovery or stripping Ce from Ce - TBP product of monazite sand used oxalic acid. Ce - TBP as organic phase and oxalic acid as aqueous phase and as strong precipitant compound to precipitate metal element. The stripping product as Ce - oxalic precipitate. The influence parameter were percentage of oxalic acid, volume ratio of Ce-TBP with oxalic acid, time and rate of stripping. At stripping of 25 ml Ce - TBP used oxalic acid, the optimum condition were achieve at using 5% oxalic acid, volume ratio of Ce - TBP : 5% oxalic acid = 1 : 1, time of stripping 7.5 minute and rate of stripping 150 rpm. At the optimum condition was obtained the recovery efficiency was 100%. (author)

  7. Interaction Studies of Dilute Aqueous Oxalic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kandpal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular conductance λm, relative viscosity and density of oxalicacid at different concentration in dilute aqueous solution were measured at 293 K.The conductance data were used to calculate the value association constant.Viscosity and density data were used to calculate the A and B coefficient ofJone-Dole equation and apparent molar volume respectively. The viscosityresults were utilized for the applicability of Modified Jone-Dole equation andStaurdinger equations. Mono oxalate anion acts, as structure maker and thesolute-solvent interaction were present in the dilute aqueous oxalic acid.

  8. Bilateral uric acid nephrolithiasis and ureteral hypertrophy in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A.; Bildfell, Rob; Henny, Charles J.; Buhler, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first case of uric acid nephrolithiasis in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis). A 7 yr old male river otter collected from the Skagit River of western Washington (USA) had bilateral nephrolithiasis and severely enlarged ureters (one of 305 examined [0.33%]). The uroliths were 97% uric acid and 3% protein. Microscopic changes in the kidney were confined to expansion of renal calyces, minor loss of medullary tissue, and multifocal atrophy of the cortical tubules. No inflammation was observed in either kidney or the ureters. The ureters were enlarged due to marked hypertrophy of smooth muscle plus dilation of the lumen. Fusion of the major calyces into a single ureteral lumen was several cm distal to that of two adult male otters used as histopathologic control specimens. This case report is part of a large contaminant study of river otters collected from Oregon and Washington. It is important to understand diseases and lesions of the otter as part of our overall evaluation of this population.

  9. Theobromine inhibits uric acid crystallization. A potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was evaluated using a flow system. The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments. Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

  10. Theobromine inhibits uric acid crystallization. A potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    Full Text Available To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL was evaluated using a flow system.The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments.Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

  11. Growth of strontium oxalate crystals in agar–agar gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Growth of strontium oxalate crystals in agar–agar gel. P V DALAL. ∗ and K B SARAF. Postgraduate Department of Physics, Pratap College, Amalner 425 401, India. MS received 16 March 2008; revised 5 April 2010. Abstract. Single crystals of strontium oxalate have been grown by using strontium chloride and oxalic acid in.

  12. Laboratory study of the effect of oxalic acid on the cloud condensation nuclei activity of mineral dust aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierlus, Kelly M.; Laskina, Olga; Abernathy, Tricia L.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2012-01-01

    Dicarboxylic acids, which make up a significant portion of the atmospheric organic aerosol, are emitted directly through biomass burning as well as produced through the oxidation of volatile organic compounds. Oxalic acid, the most abundant of the dicarboxylic acids, has been shown by recent field studies to be present in mineral dust aerosol particles. The presence of these internally mixed organic compounds can alter the water absorption and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) abilities of mineral particles in the Earth's atmosphere. The University of Iowa's Multi-Analysis Aerosol Reactor System ( MAARS) was used to measure the CCN activity of internally mixed particles that were generated from a mixture of either calcite or polystyrene latex spheres (PSLs) in an aqueous solution of oxalic acid. Although PSL is not a mineral dust component, it is used here as a non-reactive, insoluble particle. CCN measurements indicate that the internally mixed oxalate/calcite particles showed nearly identical CCN activity compared to the original calcite particles whereas oxalic acid/PSL internally mixed particles showed much greater CCN activity compared to PSL particles alone. This difference is due to the reaction of calcite with oxalic acid, which produces a relatively insoluble calcium oxalate coating on the particle surface and not a soluble coating as it does on the PSL particle. Our results suggest that atmospheric processing of mineral dust aerosol through heterogeneous processes will likely depend on the mineralogy and the specific chemistry involved. Increase in the CCN activity by incorporation of oxalic acid are only expected for unreactive insoluble dust particles that form a soluble coating.

  13. Study of lithium extraction from brine water, Bledug Kuwu, Indonesia by the precipitation series of oxalic acid and carbonate sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyono, Eko; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum; Mayangsari, W.; Prasetyo, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    Lithium is one of the key elements in the development of batteries for electric car applications. Currently, the resources of the world's lithium are derived from brine water and lithium mineral based on spodumene rock. Indonesia which is located in the area of the ring of fire, has potential brine water resources in some area, such as brine water from Bledug Kuwu, Central Java that used in this research. The purposes of this research are to characterize brine water, Bledug Kuwu and to investigate the influence of chemical solvents on Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, B ion precipitation from brine water. This research was done with 2 times the process of chemical precipitation that runs series as follows: 5 liters of brine water were chemically precipitated using 400 ml of 12.43 N oxalic acid and followed by chemical precipitation using 400 mL of 7.07 N sodium carbonate solutions. Evaporation and filtration processes were also done twice in an effort to separate white precipitate and filtrate. The filtrate was analyzed by ICP-OES and white precipitates (salts) were analyzed by SEM, XRD, and XRF. The result shows that oxalate precipitation process extracted 32.24% Al, 23.42% B, 22.43% Ca, 14.26% Fe, 3.21 % K, 9.86% Na and 14.26% Li, the following process by carbonate precipitation process extracted 98.86% Mg, 73% Ca, 22.53% Li, 82.04% Al, 14.38% B, 12.50% K, 2.27% Na. There is 63.21% lithium is not extracted from the series process. The SEM analysis shows that the structure of granules on the precipitated salts by oxalic acid form gentle cubic-shaped solid. In the other hand, oxalate precipitation followed by sodium carbonate has various particle sizes and the shape of crystals is fragments, prism and cube look like magnesium carbonate, calcium chloride, and calcite's crystal respectively. This is in accordance with XRD analysis that phases of whewellite (CaC2O4.H2O), disodium oxalate (Na2C2O4), magnesite (MgCO3), calcium lithium aluminum (Al1.19 Ca1Li0.81), dolomite (CaCO3

  14. Effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder on sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul V Takawale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of advances in the present practice of medicine, the formation and growth of calculi continues to trouble mankind, as there is no satisfactory drug to treat kidney stones. In India, many indigenous drugs are in use for the treatment of urinary calculus disease. Objective: The present study was intended to determine anti-urolithiatic effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder (LSFP against sodium oxalate (NaOx induced urolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were grouped as Vehicle Group (received vehicle gum acacia 2% w/v 1 mL/kg/p.o., NaOx Group(Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg,i.p., LSFP Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. LSFP suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg, Cystone Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. Cystone suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg. Result: The increased severity of microscopic calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals deposition along with increased concentration in the kidney was seen after 7 days of NaOx (70 mg/kg, i.p. pre-treatment. LSFP (500 mg/kg, p.o. and standard marketed formulation Cystone (500 mg/kg, p.o. caused a significant reversal of NaOx-induced changes in ion excretion and urinary CaOx concentration in 7 days treatment. Conclusion: From the results, it was concluded that LSFP showed beneficial effect against urolithiasis by decreasing CaOx excretion and preventing crystal deposition in the kidney tubules.

  15. Recovery of plutonium from oxalate bearing solutions using a mixture of CMPO and TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, J.N.; Murali, M.S.; Rizvi, G.H.; Iyer, R.H.; Badheka, L.P.; Banerji, A.; Michael, K.M.; Kapoor, S.C.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    A simple and efficient procedure has been developed to quantitatively recover Pu from oxalate bearing solutions using a mixture of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and TBP in dodecane. Pu(IV) in the range of 6.9 to 34.6 mg/1 was quantitatively extracted into 0.2 M CMPO+ 1.2 M TBP in dodecane from an aqueous solution containing 3.0 M HNO 3 and 0.1 M H 2 C 2 O 4 . At such low concentrations of Pu, the distribution ratio (D) did not change but the increase in oxalic acid concentration drastically reduced these values. The variation in HNO 3 concentration at a fixed concentration of 0.2 M CMPO + 1.2 M TBP has shown a dramatic increase in the D values, being 0.3 at 1.0 M and > 10 4 at 7.5 M. The extraction was almost quantitative even at the aqueous to organic ratio of 10:1. Plutonium could be quantitatively recovered (i) by stripping with 0.5 M acetic acid and (ii) by coprecipitating it directly from the organic phase with 0.3 M oxalic acid + 0.3 M calcium nitrate + sodium nitrite. ∼ 92% of the Pu was found in the precipitate and ∼7% in the supernatant. Using this procedure Pu, in a concentrated form (∼50 times), could be recovered from the oxalate bearing solutions without recourse to the destruction of oxalate ion. The slope of 2 from the nitrate ion as well as CMPO variation experiments suggest the species in the organic phase to be PuC 2 O 4 (NO 3 ) 2 .2CMPO. The absorption spectral study of Pu(IV) confirmed the above species in the organic phase. (author). 19 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Narcotic Use and Postoperative Doctor Shopping by Patients with Nephrolithiasis Requiring Operative Intervention: Implications for Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappa, Stephen F; Green, Elizabeth A; Miller, Nicole L; Herrell, Stanley D; Mitchell, Christopher R; Mir, Hassan R; Resnick, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    We sought to determine perioperative patterns of narcotic use and the prevalence of postoperative doctor shopping among patients with nephrolithiasis requiring operative management. We retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients residing in Tennessee who required ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy for nephrolithiasis at a single institution from January to December 2013. Using the Tennessee CSMD (Controlled Substances Medication Database) patients were categorized by the number of postoperative narcotic providers. Doctor shopping behavior was identified as any patient seeking more than 1 narcotic provider within 3 months of surgery. Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with doctor shopping behavior were identified. During the study period 200 eligible patients underwent ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy for nephrolithiasis, of whom 48 (24%) were prescribed narcotics by more than 1 provider after surgery. Compared to those receiving narcotics from a single provider, patients with multiple narcotic providers were younger (48.1 vs 54.2 years, p shopping is common among patients with nephrolithiasis who require operative management. Urologists should be aware of available registry data to decrease the likelihood of redundant narcotic prescribing. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate on the ... The test plant was sown in aluminium-polluted soil (conc. ... The perseverance of the test plant in the aluminium spiked soil is an indication of adaptation to the stress ...

  18. Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    acid and ammonium oxalate on the prevalence of microorganisms and removal of aluminum in soil by bitter leaf plant (Vernonia ... highest accumulation of aluminium in the root (16.92mg/kg); however concentrations of aluminium in the roots were .... whereas the sulphate was 13.75mg/kg. Table 2: The total colony count of ...

  19. Comparison of potential dietary and urinary risk factors for ammonium urate nephrolithiasis in two bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Bert, Carolina R; Smith, Cynthia R; Poindexter, John; Ardente, Amanda; Meegan, Jenny; Wells, Randall S; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Jensen, Eric D; Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2018-04-04

    Dietary and urinary risk factors have been implicated in conditions favoring ammonium urate nephrolithiasis in managed dolphins compared to free-ranging dolphins. In this study, urine samples were collected from 16 dolphins (8 cases, 8 controls) from the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP) for the purposes of assessing changes in urinary biomarkers after a large meal. Urinary biomarkers and nephrolithiasis presence were assessed opportunistically in 15 long-term resident free-ranging dolphins living in Sarasota Bay, Florida (SB). Additionally, the total purine contents of fish commonly consumed by each dolphin population were measured to evaluate potential dietary risk factors. Populations were compared for total dietary purine composition, recently fed status, nephrolithiasis presence, and differences in urinary biochemical, acid-base, and physicochemical parameters via Wilcoxon rank sum analysis and least square means. Managed dolphins had higher urinary pH and ammonium (NH4+) in both pre- and postprandial conditions and higher urinary uric acid and saturation indices of NH4U in the postprandial condition compared to free-ranging dolphins (p dolphins (7 mmol/Mcal ME) than in the free-ranging dolphin diet (4 mmol/Mcal ME). Free-ranging dolphins did not show evidence of nephrolithiasis. Observed differences in urinary biomarkers and dietary purine content in these two dolphin populations suggest a pathophysiologic basis for the role of fish types on risk of NH4U stone formation. Future research should investigate fish type and feeding frequency, inhibitors and promoters, and alkalinizing therapy for reducing NH4U nephrolithiasis in dolphins.

  20. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Bo Jensen; Carol Clausen; Frederick Green

    2006-01-01

    The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, is one of the most destructive copper-tolerant fungi causing timber decay in buildings in temperate regions. Calcium and oxalic acid have been shown to play important roles in the mechanism of wood decay. The effect of calcium on growth and decay was evaluated for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi....

  1. An Emerging Translational Model to Screen Potential Medicinal Plants for Nephrolithiasis, an Independent Risk Factor for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological therapy for urolithiasis using medicinal plants has been increasingly adopted for the prevention of its recurrence. A Drosophila melanogaster model developed for translational research of urolithiasis was applied to evaluate agents with potential antilithic effects and calcium oxalate (CaOx formation. Potential antilithic herbs were prepared in a mixture of food in a diluted concentration of 5,000 from the original extract with 0.5% ethylene glycol (EG as the lithogenic agent. The control group was fed with food only. After 3 weeks, flies (n≥150 for each group were killed using CO2 narcotization, and the Malpighian tubules were dissected, removed, and processed for polarized light microscopy examination of the crystals. The crystal formation rate in the EG group was 100.0%. In the study, 16 tested herbal drugs reached the crystal formation rate of 0.0%, including Salviae miltiorrhizae, Paeonia lactiflora, and Carthami flos. Scutellaria baicalensis enhanced CaOx crystal formation. Two herbal drugs Commiphora molmol and Natrii sulfas caused the death of all flies. Our rapid screening methods provided evidence that some medicinal plants have potential antilithic effects. These useful medicinal plants can be further studied using other animal or human models to verify their effects.

  2. The beneficial effects of dapagliflozin on the course of experimental urate nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Perfil’ev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. Rate dapagliflozin effective in the prevention and treatment of experimental urate nephropathy.Мaterials and methods. The study was conducted on 30 male rats Wistar stock weighing 220–310 g. For the formation of urate nephropathy in rats using reproduced earlier classic model inhibiting uricase, causing the development of hyperuricemia in rodents. The animal was determined daily urine content MC, total proteins, creatinine, and enzyme activity of renal dysfunction markers LDH, gamma-glutamyl and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase. After the experiment the rat blood obtained after decapitation determined content MC, creatinine, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, thiobarbiturate-reactive products, total antioxidant activity and a common pro-oxidant activity. In the kidneys of rats was determined by the same parameters of free radical oxidation.Results. It was found that prolonged use of dapagliflozin in the prophylactic and therapeutic regimes, despite a decline in urinary pH, significantly improves the condition of animals with experimental urate nephrolithiasis, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the level of uric acid in blood plasma and urine of rats, a decrease in LDH activity in urine and inhibition process is free -radical oxidation.Сonclusion. Prolonged use of dapagliflozin in the prophylactic and therapeutic regimes, despite a decline urine pH, improved the urate nephrolithiasis, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the level of uric acid in blood plasma and urine of rats, decreased activity of LDH in urine and inhibition of the process of free-radical oxidation. 

  3. Oxalate complexation in dissolved carbide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.; Bokelund, H.; Valkiers, S.

    1983-01-01

    It has been shown that the oxalic acid produced in the dissolution of mixed uranium, plutonium carbides in nitric acid can account for the problems of incomplete uranium and plutonium extraction on the Purex process. Moreover, it was demonstrated that other identified products such as benzene polycarboxylic acids are either too insoluble or insufficiently complexing to be of concern. The stability constants for oxalate complexing of UO 2 +2 and Pu +4 ions (as UO 2 (C 2 O 4 ), Pu(C 2 O 4 ) 2+ and Pu(C 2 O 4 ) 2 , respectively) were measured in nitrate solutions of 4.0 molar ionic strength (0-4 M HNO 3 ) by extraction of these species with TBP. (orig.)

  4. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  5. Efficiency and resistance of the artificial oxalate protection treatment on marble against chemical weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, B.; Pamplona, M.; Selvaggi, R.; Miliani, C.; Matteini, M.; Sgamellotti, A.; Brunetti, B.

    2007-01-01

    The artificial oxalate protection method was analyzed in laboratory experiments in order to achieve an optimum treatment application and concentration giving rise to its most effective protective nature. Spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared, Micro-Raman and UV-vis colorimetry), microscopic (scanning electron microscope) and contact-angle analyses were carried out to characterize Carrara marble samples before and after application of the treatment to validate its efficiency. The resistance effects against chemical weathering were subsequently observed in a lab-controlled weak acid rain experiment. An acid spray at pH 5.5, representative of normal rain was used to provoke degrade of natural marble, marble treated with the artificial oxalate protective at concentrations of 0.4 and 5% and marble treated with a commercial organic silicon product. Run-off solutions sampled at timely intervals were tested for any change in pH followed by ion chromatography measurements for the presence of calcium ions in solution. The chromatography results of the oxalate treatment applied at a 5% concentration are analogous to an organic commercial product indicating its validity as a method for the conservation of carbonate substrates conferring protection to stone materials against acid environments

  6. Efficiency and resistance of the artificial oxalate protection treatment on marble against chemical weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Pamplona, M. [Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica do Instituto Superior Tecnico Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Selvaggi, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Miliani, C. [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)]. E-mail: miliani@thch.unipg.it; Matteini, M. [CNR Istituto, Conservazione e Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali (ICVBC), Via Madonna del Piano, 10, Edifico C-50019, Florence (Italy); Sgamellotti, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Brunetti, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-03-15

    The artificial oxalate protection method was analyzed in laboratory experiments in order to achieve an optimum treatment application and concentration giving rise to its most effective protective nature. Spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared, Micro-Raman and UV-vis colorimetry), microscopic (scanning electron microscope) and contact-angle analyses were carried out to characterize Carrara marble samples before and after application of the treatment to validate its efficiency. The resistance effects against chemical weathering were subsequently observed in a lab-controlled weak acid rain experiment. An acid spray at pH 5.5, representative of normal rain was used to provoke degrade of natural marble, marble treated with the artificial oxalate protective at concentrations of 0.4 and 5% and marble treated with a commercial organic silicon product. Run-off solutions sampled at timely intervals were tested for any change in pH followed by ion chromatography measurements for the presence of calcium ions in solution. The chromatography results of the oxalate treatment applied at a 5% concentration are analogous to an organic commercial product indicating its validity as a method for the conservation of carbonate substrates conferring protection to stone materials against acid environments.

  7. Isolation of oxalic acid tolerating fungi and decipherization of its potential to control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum through oxalate oxidase like protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shivani; Srivastava, Alok K; Singh, Dhanajay P; Arora, Dilip K

    2012-11-01

    Oxalic acid plays major role in the pathogenesis by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum; it lowers the pH of nearby environment and creates the favorable condition for the infection. In this study we examined the degradation of oxalic acid through oxalate oxidase and biocontrol of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. A survey was conducted to collect the rhizospheric soil samples from Indo-Gangetic Plains of India to isolate the efficient fungal strains able to tolerate oxalic acid. A total of 120 fungal strains were isolated from root adhering soils of different vegetable crops. Out of 120 strains a total of 80 isolates were able to grow at 10 mM of oxalic acid whereas only 15 isolates were grow at 50 mM of oxalic acid concentration. Then we examined the antagonistic activity of the 15 isolates against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. These strains potentially inhibit the growth of the test pathogen. A total of three potential strains and two standard cultures of fungi were tested for the oxalate oxidase activity. Strains S7 showed the maximum degradation of oxalic acid (23 %) after 60 min of incubation with fungal extract having oxalate oxidase activity. Microscopic observation and ITS (internally transcribed spacers) sequencing categorized the potential fungal strains into the Aspergillus, Fusarium and Trichoderma. Trichoderma sp. are well studied biocontrol agent and interestingly we also found the oxalate oxidase type activity in these strains which further strengthens the potentiality of these biocontrol agents.

  8. The distribution of free calcium ions in the cholesteatoma epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Rasmussen, Gurli; Ottosen, Peter D

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of free calcium ions in normal skin and cholesteatoma epithelium was investigated using the oxalate precipitation method. In agreement with previous observations, we could demonstrate a calcium ion gradient in normal epidermis where the cells in stratum basale and spinosum reside...... appeared where oblong accumulations of free calcium ions were found basally in the stratum. These findings provide evidence that fluctuations in epidermal calcium in cholesteatoma epithelium may underlie the abnormal desquamation, may contribute to the formation of an abnormal permeability barrier and may...

  9. Oxalate Acid-Base Cements as a Means of Carbon Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Emission of CO2 from industrial processes poses a myriad of environmental problems. One such polluter is the portland cement (PC) industry. PC is the main ingredient in concrete which is the ubiquitous binding material for construction works. Its production is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Half of this emission arises from the calcination of calcareous raw materials and half from kiln fuel burning and cement clinker grinding. There have long been efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of concrete. Among the many ways, one is to bind CO2 to the phases in the cement-water paste, oxides, hydroxides, and silicates of calcium, during early hydration or while in service. The problem is that obtaining calcium oxide cheaply requires the decarbonation of limestone and the uptake of CO2 is slow and limited mainly to the surface of the concrete due to its low gas permeability. Hence, a faster method to bind more CO2 is needed. Acid-base (AB) cements are fast-setting, high-strength systems that have high durability in many environments in which PC concrete is vulnerable. They are made with a powder base such as MgO and an acid or acid salt, like phosphates. Despite certain advantages over PC cement systems, AB cements are not feasible, due to their high acid content. Also, the phosphoric acid used comes from non-renewable sources of phosphate. A potential way to reduce the drawbacks of using phosphates could be to use organic acids. Oxalic acid or its salts could react with the proper powder base to give concrete that could be used for infrastructure hence that would have very high demand. In addition, methods to produce oxalates from CO2, even atmospheric, are becoming widespread and more economical. The base can also be an industrial byproduct to further lower the environmental impact. This study describes the use of oxalic acid and industrial byproducts to obtain mortars with mechanical properties comparable to those of PC mortars. It is

  10. Studies in the solubility of Pu(III) oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasilkar, S P; Khedekar, N B; Chander, K; Jadhav, V; Jain, H C [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Fuel Reprocessing Div.

    1994-11-01

    Studies have been carried out on the solubility of Pu(III) oxalate by precipitation of Pu(III) oxalate from varying concentrations of HNO[sub 3]/HCl (0.5-2.0M) solutions and also by equilibrating freshly prepared Pu(III) oxalate with solutions containing varying concentrations of HNO[sub 3]/HCl, oxalic acid and ascorbic acid. Pu(III) solutions in HNO[sub 3] and HCl media were prepared by reduction of Pu(IV) with ascorbic acid. 0.01-0.10M ascorbic acid concentration in the aqueous solution was maintained as holding reductant. The solubility of Pu(III) oxalate was found to be a minimum in 0.5M-1M HNO[sub 3]/HCl solutions containing 0.05M ascorbic acid and 0.2M excess oxalic acid in the supernatant. (author) 6 refs.; 6 tabs.

  11. Features of atopic dermatitis in children with oxalic acid dysmetabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Stoieva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the features of atopic dermatitis in children with concomitant metabolic disturbances of oxalic acid. The influence of metabolic shifts was evaluated by clinical presentation, morphofunctional parameters of the skin and the features of oxalic acid metabolites excretion. In this study, a high incidence of dysmetabolic changes was identified, their significance was determined by the involvement of different systems for oxalic acid products excretion. The increased concentration of oxalate in the urine and in the exhaled air condensate had irritant effect and is associated with the hereditary metabolic disorders, early manifestation of atopy symptoms and the intensity of skin itching, with moderate increase of immunoglobulin E level.

  12. [Features of calcium crystals and calcium components in 54 plant species in salinized habitats of Tianjin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Jing; Ci, Hua-Cong; He, Xing-Dong; Xue, Ping-Ping; Zhao, Xue-Lai; Guo, Jian-Tan; Gao, Yu-Bao

    2012-05-01

    Plant calcium (Ca) is composed of dissociated Ca2+ and easily soluble, slightly soluble, and hard soluble combined Ca salts. The hard soluble Ca salts can often engender Ca crystals. To understand the Ca status in different growth form plants in salinized habitats, 54 plant species were sampled from the salinized habitats in Tianjin, with the Ca crystals examined by microscope and the Ca components determined by sequential fractionation procedure. More Ca crystals were found in 38 of the 54 plant species. In 37 of the 38 plant species, drusy and prismatic Ca oxalate crystals dominated, whereas the cystolith of Ca carbonate crystal only appeared in the leaves of Ficus carica of Moraceae. The statistics according to growth form suggested that deciduous arbors and shrubs had more Ca oxalate crystal, liana had lesser Ca oxalate crystal, and herbs and evergreen arbors had no Ca oxalate crystal. From arbor, shrub, liana to herb, the concentration of HCl-soluble Ca decreased gradually, while that of water soluble Ca was in adverse. The concentration of water soluble Ca in herbs was significantly higher than that in arbors and shrubs. This study showed that in salinized habitats, plant Ca crystals and Ca components differed with plant growth form, and the Ca oxalate in deciduous arbors and shrubs played an important role in withstanding salt stress.

  13. Calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlmark, B.; Reizenstein, P.; Dudley, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The methods most commonly used to measure the absorption and retention of orally administered calcium are reviewed. Nearly all make use of calcium radioisotopes. The magnitude of calcium absorption and retention depends upon the chemical form and amount of calcium administered, and the clinical and nutritional status of the subject; these influences are briefly surveyed. (author)

  14. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy rabbits were allocated to two groups. Two hours before induction of nephrocalcinosis, one group received water and the other received aqueous extract of corn silk and continued feeding for ten days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis before induction and in the fifth and tenth post-induction day. Urine samples were taken to estimate urinary ca+2 levels and crystals. The histopathological examination was carried to check for crystal deposits in renal tissues. Results: Corn silk aqueous extract produced a significant reduction of blood urea nitrogen(5.2+/-0.08 vs 7.3+/-0.2 mmol/l, serum creatinine (85.9+/-0.2 vs 97.3+/-0.5 mmol/l and serum Na+ levels (137+/-0.2 vs 142.16+/-0.7 mmol/l with non-significant reduction in serum K+ (4.0+/-0.02 vs 4.2+/-0.05. There is a significant reduction in calcium deposition in renal parenchyma in comparison to the control group after ten days of treatment. Conclusion: Corn silk had a significant diuretic effect that accelerates the excretion of urinary calcium. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 75-78

  15. Uranyl oxalate hydrates: structures and IR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesting, P.A.; Porter, N.J.; Burns, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The novel compound (UO 2 ) 2 C 2 O 4 (OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 (UrOx2A) and the previously studied compound UO 2 C 2 O 4 (H 2 O) 3 (UrOx3) have been synthesized by mild hydrothermal methods. Single crystal diffraction data collected at 125 K using MoK α radiation and a CCD-based area detector were used to solve and refine the crystal structures by full-matrix least-squares techniques to agreement indices (UrOx2A, UrOx3) wR 2 = 0.037, 0.049 for all data, and R1 0.015, 0.024 calculated for 1285, 2194 unique reflections respectively. The compound UrOx2A is triclinic, space group P1, Z = 1, a = 5.5353(4), b 6.0866(4), c = 7.7686(6) Aa, α = 85.6410(10) , β = 89.7740(10) , γ = 82.5090(10) , V = 258.74(3) Aa 3 . The compound UrOx3 is monoclinic, space group P2 1 /c, Z = 4, a = 5.5921(4), b = 16.9931(13), c = 9.3594(7) Aa, β = 99.5330(10) , V = 877.11(11) Aa 3 . The structures consist of chains of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids connected by oxalate groups and, in UrOx2A, hydroxyl groups; UrOx2A is also notable for its high (2:1) ratio of uranyl to oxalate groups, higher than any observed in other published structures of uranyl oxalates. The structure determined for UrOx3, previously studied by Jayadevan and Chackraburtty (1972); Mikhailov et al. (1999) is in agreement with the previous results; however, the increased precision of the present low-temperature structure refinement allows for the assignment of H atom positions based on the difference Fourier map of electron density. The infrared spectra of these two materials collected at room temperature are also presented and compared with previous work on uranyl oxalate systems. (orig.)

  16. Reaction of Hydrazine Hydrate with Oxalic Acid: Synthesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2013-11-28

    Nov 28, 2013 ... The title compound is a molecular salt containing two discrete hydrazinium cations and an oxalate anion. The oxalate ... RESEARCH ARTICLE ... Scheme and reaction showing the simple experimental procedure for the preparation of .... 7 A.I. Vogel, A Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, 4th edn.,.

  17. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.

  18. Spectroscopic properties of Pr -doped erbium oxalate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectroscopic properties of praseodymium ions-doped erbium oxalate ... solution with specific gravity 1.04 g/cm3 was mixed homogeneously with 0.5 M oxalic ... of concentrated nitric acid were transferred carefully and gently through the wall ...

  19. Radiolysis of titanium potassium oxalate in aqueous solution. [. gamma. rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundo, Y; Ono, I [Industrial Research Inst. of Kanagawa Prefecture, Yokohama (Japan); Ogawa, T

    1975-01-01

    The dissolution state of titanium potassium oxalate in aqueous solution is different according to the pH. The yellowish brown titanium complex produced by the reaction of titanium potassium oxalate and hydrogen peroxide seems to be different in its structure according to the pH. Considering these points, gamma-ray irradiation was carried out on the sample by dissolving titanium potassium oxalate in purified water under the conditions of oxygen saturation and nitrogen saturation, and the relation between irradiation dose and the production of titanium complex was determined. On the basis of the experimental result, the mechanism of forming hydrogen peroxide was presumed. The radiation source used was 2,000 Ci of /sup 60/Co. For photometric analysis, a 139 type photoelectric spectrophotometer of Hitachi Ltd. was used. From the experimental results, in neutral water, titanium potassium oxalate exists in the state that two oxalic acid ions are coordinated to titanyl ion, while in case of the pH lowered by the addition of sulfuric acid, it can exist in the state that one oxalic acid ion is coordinated to titanyl ion. The yield of hydrogen peroxide produced by irradiating titanium potassium oxalate aqueous solution with gamma-ray is the sum of the molecular product from water and the radiolysis product from titanium potassium oxalate.

  20. Synthesis and structural characterization of actinide oxalate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, C.

    2011-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a well-known reagent to recover actinides thanks to the very low solubility of An(IV) and An(III) oxalate compounds in acidic solution. Therefore, considering mixed-oxide fuel or considering minor actinides incorporation in ceramic fuel materials for transmutation, oxalic co-conversion is convenient to synthesize mixed oxalate compounds, precursors of oxide solid solutions. As the existing oxalate single crystal syntheses are not adaptable to the actinide-oxalate chemistry or to their manipulation constrains in gloves box, several original crystal growth methods were developed. They were first validate and optimized on lanthanides and uranium before the application to transuranium elements. The advanced investigations allow to better understand the syntheses and to define optimized chemical conditions to promote crystal growth. These new crystal growth methods were then applied to a large number of mixed An1(IV)-An2(III) or An1(IV)-An2(IV) systems and lead to the formation of the first original mixed An1(IV)-An2(III) and An1(IV)-An2(IV) oxalate single crystals. Finally thanks to the first thorough structural characterizations of these compounds, single crystal X-ray diffraction, EXAFS or micro-RAMAN, the particularly weak oxalate-actinide compounds structural database is enriched, which is essential for future studied nuclear fuel cycles. (author) [fr

  1. Urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy Turkish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Ismail; Çelik, İlknur; Poyrazoglu, Hakan M; Köse, Kader; Tanrıkulu, Esen; Sahin, Habibe; Yılmaz, Kenan; Öztürk, Ahmet; Yel, Sibel; Gündüz, Zübeyde; Düşünsel, Ruhan

    2017-11-01

    we aimed to establish reference values for urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy children aged 6-15 years and to investigate the relationship between their nutritional habits and oxalate excretion. Random urine specimens from 953 healthy children aged 6-15 years were obtained and analyzed for oxalate and creatinine. Additionally, a 24-h dietary recall form was prepared and given to them. The ingredient composition of the diet was calculated. The children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (69 years, n = 353), Group II (10-12 years, n = 335), and Group III (13-15 years, n = 265). The 95th percentile of the oxalate to creatinine ratio for subjects aged 6-9, 10-12, and 13-15 years were 0.048, 0.042, and 0.042 mg/mg, respectively. The oxalate to creatinine ratio was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 and Group 3. Urinary oxalate excretion was positively correlated with increased protein intake and negatively correlated with age. A significant positive correlation was determined between urinary oxalate excretion and the proline, serine, protein, and glycine content of diet. Dietary proline intake showed a positive correlation with the urine oxalate to creatinine ratio and was found to be an independent predictor for urinary oxalate. These data lend support to the idea that every country should have its own normal reference values to determine the underlying metabolic risk factor for kidney stone disease since regional variation in the dietary intake of proteins and other nutrients can affect normal urinary excretion of oxalate.

  2. OXALATE MASS BALANCE DURING CHEMICAL CLEANING IN TANK 6F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-22

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

  3. Non-invasive identification of metal-oxalate complexes on polychrome artwork surfaces by reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Letizia; Rosi, Francesca; Miliani, Costanza; Daveri, Alessia; Brunetti, Brunetto G

    2013-12-01

    In this work a reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy study of twelve metal-oxalate complexes, of interest in art conservation science as alteration compounds, was performed. Spectra of the reference materials highlighted the presence of derivative-like and/or inverted features for the fundamental vibrational modes as result of the main contribution from the surface component of the reflected light. In order to provide insights in the interpretation of theses spectral distortions, reflection spectra were compared with conventional transmission ones. The Kramers-Kronig (KK) algorithm, employed to correct for the surface reflection distortions, worked properly only for the derivative-like bands. Therefore, to pay attention to the use of this algorithm when interpreting the reflection spectra is recommended. The outcome of this investigation was exploited to discriminate among different oxalates on thirteen polychrome artworks analyzed in situ by reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy. The visualization of the νs(CO) modes (1400-1200 cm(-1)) and low wavenumber bands (below 900 cm(-1)) in the raw reflection profiles allowed Ca, Cu and Zn oxalates to be identified. Further information about the speciation of different hydration forms of calcium oxalates were obtained by using the KK transform. The work proves reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy to be a reliable and sensitive spectro-analytical method for identifying and mapping different metal-oxalate alteration compounds on the surface of artworks, thus providing conservation scientists with a non-invasive tool to obtain information on the state of conservation and causes of alteration of artworks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient electron-induced removal of oxalate ions and formation of copper nanoparticles from copper(II oxalate precursor layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Rückriem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II oxalate grown on carboxy-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM using a step-by-step approach was used as precursor for the electron-induced synthesis of surface-supported copper nanoparticles. The precursor material was deposited by dipping the surfaces alternately in ethanolic solutions of copper(II acetate and oxalic acid with intermediate thorough rinsing steps. The deposition of copper(II oxalate and the efficient electron-induced removal of the oxalate ions was monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS. Helium ion microscopy (HIM reveals the formation of spherical nanoparticles with well-defined size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirms their metallic nature. Continued irradiation after depletion of oxalate does not lead to further particle growth giving evidence that nanoparticle formation is primarily controlled by the available amount of precursor.

  5. Calcium - ionized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretics Thrombocytosis (high platelet count) Tumors Vitamin A excess Vitamin D excess Lower-than-normal levels may be due to: Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Osteomalacia Pancreatitis Renal failure Rickets Vitamin D deficiency Alternative Names Free calcium; Ionized calcium ...

  6. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium is needed by the body for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  7. The promotion effect of coexisting hygroscopic composition on the reaction between oxalic acid and calcite during humidifying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; He, H.

    2012-12-01

    Internally mixed oxalic acid with mineral dust has been frequently detected in field measurements (Sullivan and Prather, 2007; Wang et al., 2012; Yang et al., 2009). Meanwhile, Furukawa and Takahashi (Furukawa and Takahashi, 2011) found that most of the oxalic acid in mineral mixture is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, however, the formation mechanism of these complexes is not well known. It was reported that cloud process of H2C2O4/CaCO3 mixture could lead to the formation of calcium oxalate (Gierlus et al., 2012). Recently, we used Raman spectroscopy to investigate the hygroscopic behavior of H2C2O4/CaCO3 mixture below saturation condition as well as the effect of coexisting hygroscopic compositions, e.g. Ca(NO3)2, NaCl, NH4NO3, and (NH4)2SO4. It was found that there was no interaction between H2C2O4 and calcite without third component during humidifying process under ambient condition. In contrast, the presence of coexisting Ca(NO)3, NaCl, or NH4NO3 could promote the reaction between H2C2O4 and calcite by providing an aqueous circumstance after deliquescence, resulting in the formation of calcium oxalate hydrates. Moreover, substitution of strong acid (HNO3) by medium acid (H2C2O4) occurred when water vapor was absorbed in Ca(NO3)2/H2C2O4 mixture (Ma and He, 2012). As for (NH4)2SO4, there existed a competition effect between (NH4)2SO4 and H2C2O4 for the reaction with CaCO3. CaCO3 was preferentially reacted with (NH4)2SO4 to form gypsum in the solution, while the residual NH4+ and C2O42- ions were bonded to (NH4)2C2O4 after efflorescence. These results implies a potential formation pathway of metal oxalate complexes in the atmosphere and also suggests that synergistic effect between different constituents in humidifying process of mixed particles should be considered in future hygroscopic behavior studies.

  8. New indium selenite-oxalate and indium oxalate with two- and three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Junjun; Li Guodong; Chen Jiesheng

    2009-01-01

    Two new indium(III) compounds with extended structures, [In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 )(H 2 O) 2 ].2H 2 O (I) and [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ][In(C 2 O 4 ) 2 ] 2 .5H 2 O (II), have been prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Compound I crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P-1, with a=5.2596(11) A, b=6.8649(14) A, c=9.3289(19) A, α=101.78(3) o , β=102.03(3) o , γ=104.52(3) o , while compound II crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Fdd2, with a=15.856(3) A, b=31.183(6) A, c=8.6688(17) A. In compound I, indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form two-dimensional (2D) In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 C 2 O 4 layers, separated by non-coordinating water molecules. In compound II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered channels. - Graphical abstract: Two new indium(III) compounds have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. In I, the indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form 2D In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 C 2 O 4 layers. In II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered ring channels

  9. A new polymorph of magnesium oxalate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-An Chen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, catena-poly[[diaquamagnesium(II]-μ-oxalato], [Mg(C2O4(H2O2]n, there is one Mg atom in an octahedral coordination with site symmetry 222, a unique C atom of the oxalate anion lying on a twofold axis, an O atom of the anion in a general position and a water O atom at a site with imposed twofold rotation symmetry. The Mg2+ ions are ligated by water molecules and bridged by the anions to form chains that are held together by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The structure of the title compound has already been reported in a different space group [Lagier, Pezerat & Dubernat (1969. Rev. Chim. Miner. 6, 1081–1093; Levy, Perrotey & Visser (1971. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. pp. 757–761].

  10. Oral Zinc Sulfate as Adjuvant Treatment in Children With Nephrolithiasis: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Cyrus, Ali; Dorreh, Fatemeh; Rafeie, Mohammad; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Frohar, Faryar; Safi, Fatemeh

    2015-12-01

    Nephrolithiasis in children is associated with a high rate of complications and recurrence. Since some evidences reported that zinc has an important place amongst inhibitors of crystallization and crystal growth, we decided to assess the effectiveness of oral zinc sulfate as adjuvant treatment in children with nephrolithiasis. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. 102 children in the age range 1 month to 11 years with first nephrolithiasis were recruited. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups (intervention and control groups). Intervention group received conservative measures for stones and 1 mg/kg/day (maximum 20 mg/day) oral zinc sulfate syrup for 3 months. Control group received placebo in addition to conservative measures, also for 3 months. Patients were followed up by ultrasonography for 9 months, in 5 steps (at the end of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 9th month after treatment) assessing size and number of stones in the kidneys. Only at the end of the first month, the average number (intervention: 1.15 ± 3.78, control: 1.3 ± 2.84) (P = 0.001) and size (cm) (intervention: 0.51 ± 1.76, control: 0.62 ± 1.39) (P = 0.001) of stones was significantly lower in the intervention group, and in other points there was no significant therapeutic efficacy in oral zinc adjuvant treatment compared to conservative treatment alone. Also, during the 9-month follow-up, the number and size of stones in both groups decreased significantly (both: P field.

  11. Synthesis of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine oxalate from rejected liquid rocket propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaogang; Yang, Jingjing; Zhang, Youzhi

    2018-02-01

    The rejected liquid propellant unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) was converted to UDMH oxalate, which has commercial value. The UDMH oxalate structure and stability were investigated by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric analysis. The results indicate that UDMH oxalate has good thermal and aqueous solution stability, a melting point of 144 °C, an initial decomposition temperature of 180 °C, and a peak wavelength of UV in aqueous solution at λ = 204 nm. This disposal method of rejected UDMH is highly efficient and environmentally safe.

  12. Neurotoxic effects of carambola in rats: the role of oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Liang; Chou, Kang-Ju; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Yeh, Jeng-Hsien; Fang, Hua-Chang; Chung, Hsiao-Min

    2002-05-01

    Carambola (star fruit) has been reported to contain neurotoxins that cause convulsions, hiccups, or death in uremic patients, and prolong barbiturate-induced sleeping time in rats. The constituent responsible for these effects remains uncertain. Carambola contains a large quantity of oxalate, which can induce depression of cerebral function and seizures. This study was conducted to investigate the role of oxalate in carambola toxicity in rats. The effects on barbiturate-induced sleeping time and death caused by intraperitoneal administration of carambola juice were observed in Sprague-Dawley rats. To obtain a dose-dependent response curve and evaluate the lethal dose, rats were treated with serial amounts of pure carambola juice diluted with normal saline in a volume of 1:1. To test the role of oxalate in the neurotoxic effect of carambola, either 5.33 g/kg carambola after oxalate removal or 5.33 g/kg of pure carambola juice diluted with normal saline were administered intraperitoneally, while the control group was given normal saline before pentobarbital injection. The effects of carambola and oxalate-removed carambola on barbiturate-induced sleeping time were compared with those of saline. To assess the lethal effect of oxalate in carambola, we gave rats chemical oxalate at comparable concentrations to the oxalate content of carambola. Carambola juice administration prolonged barbiturate-induced sleeping time in a dose-dependent manner. The sleeping time of rats that received normal saline and 1.33 g/kg, 2.67 g/kg, 5.33 g/kg, and 10.67 g/kg of carambola juice were 66 +/- 16.6, 93.7 +/- 13.4, 113.3 +/- 11.4, 117.5 +/- 29.0, and 172.5 +/- 38.8 minutes, respectively. The three higher-dose groups had longer sleeping times than controls (p carambola juice. Four of eight rats in the 10.67-g/kg group and all rats in the 21.33 g/kg and chemical oxalate groups died after seizure. Lethal doses of carambola juice were rendered harmless by the oxalate removal procedure

  13. Influence of additives on the structure and microstructure of lanthanides and actinides oxalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidon, Blaise; Vitart, Anne-Lise; Rivenet, Murielle; Arab-Chapelet, Benedicte; Roussel, Pascal; Delahaye, Thibaud; Grandjean, Stephane; Abraham, Francis

    2015-07-01

    Oxalic conversion is a well-known process in the nuclear industry where it is used for precipitating plutonium as an oxalate thereafter calcinated into an oxide. As there is a strong relationship between the morphology of the oxalate precursor and that of the resulting oxide, it is of interest to control the oxalate structure and microstructure during the precipitation step. The influence of additives on the precipitation of neodymium (III) oxalates, non-radioactive analogs of actinides (III) oxalates, was explored. With the use of nitrilotri-methylphosphonic acid (NTMP), the structure and microstructure of the neodymium oxalates are different from that obtained without additive. (authors)

  14. Mixing state of oxalic acid containing particles in the rural area of Pearl River Delta, China: implications for the formation mechanism of oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of oxalic acid and its mixing state in atmospheric particulate matter (PM were studied using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS in the summer and winter of 2014 in Heshan, a supersite in the rural area of the Pearl River Delta (PRD region in China. Oxalic-acid-containing particles accounted for 2.5 and 2.7 % in total detected ambient particles in summer and winter, respectively. Oxalic acid was measured in particles classified as elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, elemental and organic carbon (ECOC, biomass burning (BB, heavy metal (HM, secondary (Sec, sodium-potassium (NaK, and dust. Oxalic acid was found predominantly mixing with sulfate and nitrate during the whole sampling period, likely due to aqueous-phase reactions. In summer, oxalic-acid-containing particle number and ozone concentration followed a very similar trend, which may reflect the significant contribution of photochemical reactions to oxalic acid formation. The HM particles were the most abundant oxalic acid particles in summer and the diurnal variations in peak area of iron and oxalic acid show opposite trends, which suggests a possible loss of oxalic acid through the photolysis of iron oxalato-complexes during the strong photochemical activity period. In wintertime, carbonaceous particles contained a substantial amount of oxalic acid as well as abundant carbon clusters and BB markers. The general existence of nitric acid in oxalic-acid-containing particles indicates an acidic environment during the formation process of oxalic acid. The peak areas of nitrate, sulfate and oxalic had similar temporal change in the carbonaceous type oxalic acid particles, and the organosulfate-containing oxalic acid particles correlated well with total oxalic acid particles during the haze episode, which suggests that the formation of oxalic acid is closely associated with the oxidation of organic precursors in the aqueous phase.

  15. Studies on the decomposition of oxalic acid by nitric acid in presence of catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, D.M.; Pius, I.C.; Chaudhury, S.

    2015-01-01

    Impure Plutonium oxalate generated from the recovery of plutonium from waste solutions may require further purification via anion exchange. Conventionally, plutonium oxalate is converted to oxide in a furnace and the oxide is dissolved in Conc. HNO 3 containing HF and purified by anion exchange route. Studies initiated on the decomposition of oxalic acid with Conc. HNO 3 to facilitate direct dissolution of plutonium oxalate and quantitative destruction of oxalate are discussed in this paper. (author)

  16. Isolation and some characteristics of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria from the rumen.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, K A; Allison, M J; Hartman, P A

    1980-01-01

    Obligately anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria were isolated from an enriched population of rumen bacteria in an oxalate-containing medium that had been depleted of other readily metabolized substrates. These organisms, which are the first reported anaerobic oxalate degraders isolated from the rumen, were gram negative, nonmotile rods. They grew in a medium containing sodium oxalate, yeast extract, cysteine, and minerals. The only substrate that supported growth was oxalate. Growth was direc...

  17. Determination of alkaloids and oxalates in some selected food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Source of samples. Samples ... until the colour of solution changed from salmon pink colour to a faint yellow colour. .... Effect of cooking on the soluble and insoluble oxalate content of some New ...

  18. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.L.; Hammelman, J.E.; Borgonovi, G.M.

    1977-11-01

    In support of LLL material safeguards program, a dynamic process model was developed which simulates the performance of a plutonium (IV) oxalate precipitator. The plutonium oxalate precipitator is a component in the plutonium oxalate process for making plutonium oxide powder from plutonium nitrate. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization descriptive equations, the parameters of which are quantified through the use of batch experimental data. The dynamic model predicts performance very similar to general Hanford oxalate process experience. The utilization of such a process model in an actual plant operation could promote both process control and material safeguards control by serving as a baseline predictor which could give early warning of process upsets or material diversion. The model has been incorporated into a FORTRAN computer program and is also compatible with the DYNSYS 2 computer code which is being used at LLL for process modeling efforts.

  19. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.L.; Hammelman, J.E.; Borgonovi, G.M.

    1977-11-01

    In support of LLL material safeguards program, a dynamic process model was developed which simulates the performance of a plutonium (IV) oxalate precipitator. The plutonium oxalate precipitator is a component in the plutonium oxalate process for making plutonium oxide powder from plutonium nitrate. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization descriptive equations, the parameters of which are quantified through the use of batch experimental data. The dynamic model predicts performance very similar to general Hanford oxalate process experience. The utilization of such a process model in an actual plant operation could promote both process control and material safeguards control by serving as a baseline predictor which could give early warning of process upsets or material diversion. The model has been incorporated into a FORTRAN computer program and is also compatible with the DYNSYS 2 computer code which is being used at LLL for process modeling efforts

  20. Charge dynamics in conducting polyaniline–metal oxalate composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Polyaniline; metal oxalate composites; charge transport; mobile and fixed spins; VRH conduc- tion mechanism ... Al, Mn and Co on doping into Pani improve the poly- merization ... dopants on charge dynamics with EPR and other tech- niques.

  1. The effect of processing and preservation methods on the oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    vegetables and consequently the associated food safety problems. Keywords: .... vegetables prepared in slightly two different ... Table 2: Oxalate levels of selected leafy vegetables as a function of cooking method and the interplay of freezing.

  2. Measurement of plutonium oxalate in thermal neutron coincidence counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Erkkila, B.H.

    1979-01-01

    A coincidence neutron counting method has been developed for assaying batches of plutonium oxalate. Using counting data from two concentric rings of 3 He detectors, corrections are made for the effects that water has on the coincidence neutron count rate. Batches of plutonium oxalate varying from 750 to 1000 g of plutonium and from 34 to 54% water are assayed with an average accuracy of +-3%

  3. Oxalate Encapsulation in Aqueous Medium by Tripodal Urea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1H-NMR titration studies: All 1H-NMR titration experiments for L1 and L2 were conducted on a Bruker 300 MHz spectrometer at 298 K respectively. Potassium oxalate dihydrate (K2C2O4.2H2O) was used to prepare the stock solution of anion in DMSO-d6:D2O (1:1.1) solvent system. Lower solubility of potassium oxalate in ...

  4. Optimization of precipitation conditions of thorium oxalate precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazukhin, Eh.M.; Smirnova, E.A.; Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Pazukhina, Yu.L.; Kiselev, P.P.

    1986-01-01

    Thorium precipitation in the form of difficultly soluble oxalate has been investigated. The equation binding the concentration of metal with the nitric acid in the initial solution and quantity of a precipitator necessary for minimization of desired product losses is derived. The graphical solution of this equation for a case, when the oxalic acid with 0.78 mol/l concentration is the precipitator, is presented

  5. Two-stage precipitation of neptunium (IV) oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    Neptunium (IV) oxalate was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. Process variables tested were input concentrations, solubility conditions in the first stage precipitator, precipitation temperatures, and residence time in the first stage precipitator. A procedure has been demonstrated that produces neptunium (IV) oxalate particles that filter well and readily calcine to the oxide

  6. 3.2.1. Synthesis, crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ1-oxalic acid-µ3-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kovalchukova*, Sergey Aldoshin, Andrey Utenyshev, Konstantin Bogenko, Valeriy Tkachev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ- oxalic acid-µ-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I was detected by X-Ray analysis. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with a(Å 6.2378(12; b(Å 7,1115(14; c(Å 10.489(2; α(° 94.65(3; β(° 100.12(3; γ(° 97.78(3. The sodium cation in the title compound is eight coordinated and forms a square antiprism. It is surrounded by two molecules of oxalic acid, one hydrogen oxalate anion and one water molecule. Both oxalic acid and hydrogen oxalate anion act as polydentate bridging ligands. Centrosymmetric sodium cations are bounded by hydrogen oxalate anions through a system of H bonds involving the molecules of oxalic acid. In the lattice, the 3D structure stabilized by H bonds is formed.

  7. Oxalate quantification in hemodialysate to assess dialysis adequacy for primary hyperoxaluria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaojing; Voskoboev, Nikolay V; Wannarka, Stacie L; Olson, Julie B; Milliner, Dawn S; Lieske, John C

    2014-01-01

    Patients with primary hyperoxaluria (PH) overproduce oxalate which is eliminated via the kidneys. If end-stage kidney disease develops they are at high risk for systemic oxalosis, unless adequate oxalate is removed during hemodialysis (HD) to equal or exceed ongoing oxalate production. The purpose of this study was to validate a method to measure oxalate removal in this unique group of dialysis patients. Fourteen stable patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PH on HD were included in the study. Oxalate was measured serially in hemodialysate and plasma samples in order to calculate rates of oxalate removal. HD regimens were adjusted according to a given patient's historical oxalate production, amount of oxalate removal at dialysis, residual renal clearance of oxalate, and plasma oxalate levels. After a typical session of HD, plasma oxalate was reduced by 78.4 ± 7.7%. Eight patients performed HD 6 times/week, 2 patients 5 times/week, and 3 patients 3 times/week. Combined oxalate removal by HD and the kidneys was sufficient to match or exceed endogenous oxalate production. After a median period of 9 months, pre-dialysis plasma oxalate was significantly lower than initially (75.1 ± 33.4 vs. 54.8 ± 46.6 mmol/l, p = 0.02). This methodology can be used to individualize the dialysis prescription of PH patients to prevent oxalosis during the time they are maintained on HD and to reduce risk of oxalate injury to a transplanted kidney.

  8. Preparation, characterization and catalytic effects of copper oxalate nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, Inder Pal Singh; Dubey, Reena; Srivastava, Pratibha

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Prepared copper oxalate nanocrystals were characterized by FE-SEM and bright field TEM micrographs. Its catalytic activity was evaluated on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate using TG and TG-DSC techniques. Highlights: ► Preparation of nanocrystals (∼9.0 nm) of copper oxalate using Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O, oxalic acid and acetone under thermal conditions. ► Method is simple and novel. ► Characterization using XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and ED pattern. ► Catalytic activity of copper oxalate nanocrystals on AP thermal decomposition using thermal techniques (TG, TG-DSC and ignition delay). ► Kinetics of thermal decomposition of AP + CONs using isoconversional and model fitting kinetic approaches. - Abstract: Recent work has described the preparation and characterization of copper oxalate nanocrystals (CONs). It was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction pattern (ED). The catalytic activity of CONs on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and composite solid propellants (CSPs) has been done by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ignition delay measurements. Burning rate of CSPs was also found to be enhanced in presence of copper oxalate nanocrystals. Kinetics of thermal decomposition of AP with and without CONs has also been investigated. The model free (isoconversional) and model-fitting kinetic approaches have been applied to data for isothermal TG decomposition.

  9. (Dimethylphosphorylmethanaminium hydrogen oxalate–oxalic acid (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bialek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of (dimethylphosphorylmethanamine (dpma with oxalic acid in ethanol yielded the title solvated salt, C3H11NOP+·C2HO4−·0.5C2H2O4. Its asymmetric unit consists of one dpmaH+ cation, one hydrogen oxalate anion and a half-molecule of oxalic acid located around a twofold rotation axis. The H atom of the hydrogen oxalate anion is statistically disordered over two positions that are trans to each other. The hydrogen oxalate monoanion is not planar (bend angle ∼16° whereas the oxalic acid molecule shows a significantly smaller bend angle (∼7°. In the crystal, the components are connected by strong O—H...O and much weaker N—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of layers extending parallel to (001. The structure was refined from a racemically twinned crystal with twin components in an approximate 1:1 ratio.

  10. Oxalic acid biosynthesis and oxalacetate acetylhydrolase activity in Streptomyces cattleya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, D.R.; Inamine, E.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to producing the antibiotic thienamycin, Streptomyces cattleya accumulates large amounts of oxalic acid during the course of a fermentation. Washed cell suspensions were utilized to determine the specific incorporation of carbon-14 into oxalate from a number of labeled organic and amino acids. L-[U- 14 C]aspartate proved to be the best precursor, whereas only a small percentage of label from [1,5- 14 C]citrate was found in oxalate. Cell-free extracts catalyzed the formation of [ 14 C]oxalate and [ 14 C]acetate from L-[U- 14 C]aspartate. When L-[4- 14 C]aspartate was the substrate only [ 14 C]acetate was formed. The cell-free extracts were found to contain oxalacetate acetylhydrolase, the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalate and acetate. The enzyme is constitutive and is analogous to enzymes in fungi that produce oxalate from oxalacetate. Properties of the crude enzyme were examined

  11. Acute oxalate nephropathy after ingestion of star fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L; Fang, H C; Chou, K J; Wang, J S; Chung, H M

    2001-02-01

    Acute oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of star fruit (carambola) has not been reported before. We report the first two cases. These patients developed nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and backache within hours of ingesting large quantities of sour carambola juice; then acute renal failure followed. Both patients needed hemodialysis for oliguric acute renal failure, and pathologic examinations showed typical changes of acute oxalate nephropathy. The renal function recovered 4 weeks later without specific treatment. Sour carambola juice is a popular beverage in Taiwan. The popularity of star fruit juice is not compatible with the rare discovery of star fruit-associated acute oxalate nephropathy. Commercial carambola juice usually is prepared by pickling and dilution processes that reduce oxalate content markedly, whereas pure fresh juice or mild diluted postpickled juice for traditional remedies, as used in our cases, contain high quantities of oxalate. An empty stomach and dehydrated state may pose an additional risk for development of renal injury. To avoid acute oxalate nephropathy, pure sour carambola juice or mild diluted postpickled juice should not be consumed in large amounts, especially on an empty stomach or in a dehydrated state.

  12. The comparability of oxalate excretion and oxalate:creatinine ratio in the investigation of primary hyperoxaluria: review of data from a referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford-Mobley, Oliver; Tims, Christopher; Rumsby, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Urine oxalate measurement is an important investigation in the evaluation of renal stone disease. Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is a rare inherited metabolic disease characterised by persistently elevated urine oxalate, but the diagnosis may be missed in adults until renal failure has developed. Urine oxalate results were reviewed to compare oxalate:creatinine ratio and oxalate excretion, and to estimate the potential numbers of undiagnosed PH. Urine oxalate results from August 2011 to April 2013 were reviewed. Oxalate excretion and oxalate:creatinine ratio were evaluated for 24 h collections and ratio alone for spot urine samples. Oxalate:creatinine ratio and oxalate excretion were moderately correlated (R=0.63) in 24-h urine collections from patients aged 18 years and above. Sex-related differences were found requiring implementation of male and female reference ranges for oxalate:creatinine ratio. Of samples with both ratio and excretion above the reference range, 7% came from patients with confirmed PH. There were 24 patients with grossly elevated urine oxalate who had not been evaluated for PH. Oxalate:creatinine ratio and oxalate excretion were discordant in many patients, which is likely to be a result of intra-individual variation in creatinine output and imprecision in the collection itself. Some PH patients had urine oxalate within the reference range on occasion, and therefore it is not possible to exclude PH on the finding of a single normal result. A significant number of individuals had urine oxalate results well above the reference range who potentially have undiagnosed PH and are consequently at risk of renal failure. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of uranyl squarates and squarate-oxalates: hydrolysis trends and in situ oxalate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Clare E; Cahill, Christopher L

    2010-07-19

    We report the synthesis of two uranyl squarates and two mixed-ligand uranyl squarate-oxalates from aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions. These products exhibit a range of uranyl building units from squarates with monomers in (UO(2))(2)(C(4)O(4))(5).6NH(4).4H(2)O (1; a = 16.731(17) A, b = 7.280(8) A, c = 15.872(16) A, beta = 113.294(16) degrees , monoclinic, P2(1)/c) and chains in (UO(2))(2)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(C(4)O(4)) (2; a = 12.909(5) A, b = 8.400(3) A, c = 10.322(4) A, beta = 100.056(7) degrees , monoclinic, C2/c) to two squarate-oxalate polymorphs with dimers in (UO(2))(2)(OH)(C(4)O(4))(C(2)O(4)).NH(4).H(2)O (3; a = 9.0601(7) A, b = 15.7299(12) A, c = 10.5108(8) A, beta = 106.394(1) degrees , monoclinic, P2(1)/n; and 4; a = 8.4469(6) A, b = 7.7589(5) A, c = 10.5257(7) A, beta = 105.696(1) degrees , monoclinic, P2(1)/m). The dominance at low pH of monomeric species and the increasing occurrence of oligomeric species with increasing pH suggests that uranyl hydrolysis, mUO(2)(2+) + nH(2)O right harpoon over left harpoon [(UO(2))(m)(OH)(n)](2m-n) + nH(+), has a significant role in the identity of the inorganic building unit. Additional factors that influence product assembly include in situ hydrolysis of squaric acid to oxalic acid, dynamic metal to ligand concentration, and additional binding modes resulting from the introduction of oxalate anions. These points and the effects of uranyl hydrolysis with changing pH are discussed in the context of the compounds presented herein.

  14. A new method for the homogeneous precipitative separation of trace level lanthanides as oxalates: application to different types of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premadas, A.; Cyriac, Bincy; Kesavan, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    Oxalate precipitation of lanthanides in acidic medium is a widely used selective group separation method at percentage to trace level in different types of geological samples. Most of the procedures are based on the heterogeneous oxalate precipitation of lanthanides using calcium as carrier. In the heterogeneous precipitation, the co-precipitated impurities from the matrix elements are more, besides if the pH at the time of precipitation is not monitored carefully there is a chance of losing some of the lanthanides. In this report, we present a new homogeneous oxalate precipitation of trace level lanthanides from different types of geological samples using calcium as carrier. In the present method pH is getting adjusted (pH ∼1) on its own, after the hydrolysis of urea added to the sample solution. This acidic pH is essential for the complete precipitation of the lanthanides. Therefore, no critical parameter adjustment for the precipitation is involved in the proposed method. The oxalate precipitate obtained was in crystalline nature which facilitates the fast settlement, easy filtration; besides the co-precipitated matrix elements are very less as compared to normal heterogeneous oxalate precipitation of lanthanides. Another advantage is more quantity of the sample can be taken for the separation of lanthanides which is a limitation for other separation methods reported. Accuracy of the method was checked by analyzing nine international reference materials comprising different types of geological samples obtained from Canadian Certified Reference Project Materials such as syenite samples SY-2, SY-3 and SY-4; gabro sample MRG-1; soil samples SO-1 and SO-2; iron formation sample FeR-2; lake sediments LKSD-2 and LKSD-4. The values of the lanthanides obtained for these reference materials are comparable with recommended values, indicating that the method is accurate. The reproducibility is characterized by a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1 to 6% (n=4). (author)

  15. Atmospheric production of oxalic acid/oxalate and nitric acid/nitrate in the Tampa Bay airshed: Parallel pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelango, P. Kalyani; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Al-Horr, Rida S.

    Oxalic acid is the dominant dicarboxylic acid (DCA), and it constitutes up to 50% of total atmospheric DCAs, especially in non-urban and marine atmospheres. A significant amount of particulate H 2Ox/oxalate (Ox) occurred in the coarse particle fraction of a dichotomous sampler, the ratio of oxalate concentrations in the PM 10 to PM 2.5 fractions ranged from 1 to 2, with mean±sd being 1.4±0.2. These results suggest that oxalate does not solely originate in the gas phase and condense into particles. Gaseous H 2Ox concentrations are much lower than particulate Ox concentrations and are well correlated with HNO 3, HCHO, and O 3, supporting a photochemical origin. Of special relevance to the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) is the extent of nitrogen deposition in the Tampa Bay estuary. Hydroxyl radical is primarily responsible for the conversion of NO 2 to HNO 3, the latter being much more easily deposited. Hydroxyl radical is also responsible for the aqueous phase formation of oxalic acid from alkenes. Hence, we propose that an estimate of rad OH can be obtained from H 2Ox/Ox production rate and we accordingly show that the product of total oxalate concentration and NO 2 concentration approximately predicts the total nitrate concentration during the same period.

  16. Calcium waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  17. Effects of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in normal subjects and patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Bonanome, A; Grundy, S M; Unger, R H; Breslau, N A; Pak, C Y

    1990-04-01

    Transient hypercalciuria has been noted after high carbohydrate meals which is independent of dietary calcium and is probably due to impaired renal calcium reabsorption mediated by an increase in plasma insulin levels. Based on these observations, some investigators believe that long term intake of high carbohydrate diets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis and possibly osteoporosis. Using a randomized cross-over design, we compared high carbohydrate diets (60% carbohydrate and 25% fat) with high fat diets (50% fat and 35% carbohydrate) for effects on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in eight normal subjects and eight euglycemic patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. All other dietary constituents, such as protein, fiber, fluid, minerals (including Ca, Mg, Na, K, and P), and caffeine intake, were kept constant. Despite higher daylong levels of plasma insulin on the high carbohydrate diets compared to the high fat diet in both normal and noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects, no changes in daily urinary excretion of calcium or other constituents, associated with renal stone risk, were observed. Furthermore, there was no change in fractional intestinal 47Ca absorption. Although hypercalciuria may ensue transiently after high carbohydrate meals, we conclude that substitution of simple or complex carbohydrates for fats in an isocaloric manner for a longer duration does not result in significant urinary calcium loss, and therefore, high intakes of digestible carbohydrates may not increase the risk of nephrolithiasis or osteoporosis via this mechanism.

  18. Accumulation of oxalic acid and calcium crystals in ectomycorrhizas of eucalypt.: II- calcium oxalate crystal formation induced by ectomicorrhizal fungi in fine lateral roots

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Jhon Alexander Zambrano; Costa, Maurício Dutra; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Neves, Júlio César Lima; Barros, Nairam Félix de; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer

    2009-01-01

    O eucalipto é eficiente na aquisição de Ca do solo, mas pouco se sabe sobre a participação das ectomicorrizas e dos ácidos orgânicos nesse processo em campo. O acúmulo de cristais de Ca (CaOx) foi avaliado em, aproximadamente, 2.100 raízes laterais finas e ectomicorrizas do híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, cultivado por 2,5 anos em área com topografia típica em meia laranja, com vertente côncavo-convexa, na região de Viçosa, MG. Técnicas de microscopia óptica e microscopi...

  19. Surface analysis of transition metal oxalates: Damage aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenakin, S.P., E-mail: chenakin@imp.kiev.ua [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Institute of Metal Physics, Nat. Acad. Sci. of Ukraine, Akad. Vernadsky Blvd. 36, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Szukiewicz, R. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Barbosa, R.; Kruse, N. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, 155 Wegner Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6515 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Gas evolution from the Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation is studied. • A comparative study of the damage caused by X-rays in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is carried out. • Effect of Ar{sup +} bombardment on the structure and composition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is studied. - Abstract: The behavior of transition metal oxalates in vacuum, under X-ray irradiation and low-energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment was studied. A comparative mass-spectrometric analysis was carried out of gas evolution from the surface of Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation. The rates of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} liberation from the oxalates were found to be in an inverse correlation with the temperatures of dehydration and decomposition, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to study the X-ray induced damage in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} by measuring the various XP spectral characteristics and surface composition of the oxalates as a function of time of exposure to X-rays. It was shown that Cu oxalate underwent a significantly faster degradation than Ni oxalate and demonstrated a high degree of X-ray induced reduction from the Cu{sup 2+} to the Cu{sup 1+} chemical state. 500 eV Ar{sup +} sputter cleaning of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} for 10 min was found to cause a strong transformation of the oxalate structure which manifested itself in an appreciable alteration of the XP core-level and valence band spectra. The analysis of changes in stoichiometry and comparison of XP spectra of bombarded oxalate with respective spectra of a reference carbonate CoCO{sub 3} implied that the bombardment-induced decomposition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} gave rise to the formation of CoO-like and disordered CoCO{sub 3}-like phases.

  20. Inositol trisphosphate and thapsigargin discriminate endoplasmic reticulum stores of calcium in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, A; Hirsch, D J; Hanley, M R

    1990-01-01

    ATP dependent Ca2+ accumulation into oxalate-loaded rat brain microsomes is potently inhibited by thapsigargin with an IC50 of 2 nM and maximal inhibition at 10 nM. Approximately 15% of the total A23187-releasable microsomal calcium store is insensitive to thapsigargin concentrations up to 100 mi...

  1. Corrosion and impedance studies on magnesium alloy in oxalate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekry, A.M.; Tammam, Riham H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in 0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 containing different additives as Br - , Cl - or Silicate. → The corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 ). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. → For the other added ions Br - or Cl - , the corrosion rate is higher than the blank. - Abstract: Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in oxalate solution using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS). The effect of oxalate concentration was studied, where the corrosion rate increases with increasing oxalate concentration. The effect of added ions (Br - , Cl - or SiO 3 2- ) on the electrochemical behavior of magnesium alloy in 0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 solution at 298 K, was investigated. It was found that the corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 ). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. However, for the other added ions Br - or Cl - , the corrosion rate is higher than the blank.

  2. Corrosion and impedance studies on magnesium alloy in oxalate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekry, A.M., E-mail: hham4@hotmail.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Gamaa Street, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Tammam, Riham H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Gamaa Street, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} containing different additives as Br{sup -}, Cl{sup -} or Silicate. > The corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. > For the other added ions Br{sup -} or Cl{sup -}, the corrosion rate is higher than the blank. - Abstract: Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in oxalate solution using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS). The effect of oxalate concentration was studied, where the corrosion rate increases with increasing oxalate concentration. The effect of added ions (Br{sup -}, Cl{sup -} or SiO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) on the electrochemical behavior of magnesium alloy in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} solution at 298 K, was investigated. It was found that the corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. However, for the other added ions Br{sup -} or Cl{sup -}, the corrosion rate is higher than the blank.

  3. Precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and calcination to plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Orosco, E.H.; Cassaniti, P.; Greco, L.; Adelfang, P.

    1989-01-01

    The plutonium based fuel fabrication requires the conversion of the plutonium nitrate solution from nuclear fuel reprocessing into pure PuO2. The conversion method based on the precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and subsequent calcination has been studied in detail. In this procedure, plutonium (III) oxalate is precipitated, at room temperature, by the slow addition of 1M oxalic acid to the feed solution, containing from 5-100 g/l of plutonium in 1M nitric acid. Before precipitation, the plutonium is adjusted to trivalent state by addition of 1M ascorbic acid in the presence of an oxidation inhibitor such as hydrazine. Finally, the precipitate is calcinated at 700 deg C to obtain PuO2. A flowsheet is proposed in this paper including: a) A study about the conditions to adjust the plutonium valence. b) Solubility data of plutonium (III) oxalate and measurements of plutonium losses to the filtrate and wash solution. c) Characterization of the obtained products. Plutonium (III) oxalate has several potential advantages over similar conversion processes. These include: 1) Formation of small particle sizes powder with good pellets fabrication characteristics. 2) The process is rather insensitive to most process variables, except nitric acid concentration. 3) Ambient temperature operations. 4) The losses of plutonium to the filtrate are less than in other conversion processes. (Author) [es

  4. The Calcium-Sensing Receptor Gene Polymorphism rs1801725 and Calcium-Related Phenotypes in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja E. Grzegorzewska

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR rs1801725 variant is responsible for a non-conservative amino-acid change (A986S in the calcium-sensing receptor cytoplasmic tail. We hypothesized that rs1801725 polymorphism might be helpful in understanding Ca-related abnormalities in HD patients. Methods: In 1215 subjects (245 on cinacalcet, we determined the associations of rs1801725 with secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT-related laboratory parameters, PTH-decreasing effect of cinacalcet hydrochloride, coronary artery disease (CAD, myocardial infarction (MI, nephrolithiasis-related ESRD, and mortality. CASR rs7652589(AT haplotypes and rs1801725 epistatic interactions with vitamin D signaling pathway genes were examined for associations with selected phenotypes. Results: The rs1801725 variant allele showed an increasing independent effect on plasma PTH (Pcorrected = 0.009. CASR rs7652589_rs1801725 AT haplotype was associated with 1.7-fold higher frequency of PTH levels over 437 pg/mL than the reference haplotype GG (P = 0.001. CASR rs7652589_rs1801725 AG haplotype was 1.5-fold more frequent in nephrolithiasis-related ESRD than the GG haplotype (P = 0.004. There were no significant associations between rs1801725, CAD, MI, and response to cinacalcet. Variant homozygosity of rs1801725 correlated independently with higher infection-related mortality compared with heterozygosity (HR 7.95, 95%CI 2.15 – 29.37, P = 0.003 and major homozygosity (HR 5.89, 95%CI 1.69 – 20.55, P = 0.040. CASR rs1801725 did not show epistatic interactions with vitamin D signaling pathway genes concerning tested associations. Conclusion: The variant allele of CASR rs1801725 solely and together with the variant allele of rs7652589 increases risk of more advanced sHPT. Homozygosity of the rs1801725 variant allele contributes to infection-related mortality in HD patients.

  5. Oxalate Content of the Herb Good-King-Henry, Blitum Bonus-Henricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves, stems and buds of Good-King-Henry (Blitum Bonus-Henricus were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. The large, mature leaves contained 42% more total oxalate than in the small leaves and the soluble oxalate content of the large leaves was 33% higher than the smaller leaves. Cooking the mixed leaves, stems and buds in boiling water for two minutes significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the total oxalate when compared to the raw plant parts. Pesto sauce made from mixed leaves contained 257 mg total oxalate/100 g fresh weight; this was largely made up of insoluble oxalates (85% of the total oxalate content. Soup made from mixed leaves contained lower levels of total oxalates (44.26 ± 0.49 mg total oxalate/100 g fresh weight and insoluble oxalate made up 49% of the oxalate contents. The levels of oxalates in the Good-King-Henry leaves were high, suggesting that the leaves should be consumed occasionally as a delicacy because of their unique taste rather than as a significant part of the diet. However, the products made from Good-King-Henry leaves indicated that larger amounts could be consumed as the oxalate levels were reduced by dilution and processing.

  6. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  7. Crystal structure of di?methyl?ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid)

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Waly; Gueye, Ndongo; Crochet, Aur?lien; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, H?l?ne

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2 +?HC2O4 ??0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu)3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH2)2C2O4 salt and Sn(CH3)3Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a di?methyl?ammonium cation (Me2NH2 +), an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4 ?), and half a mol?ecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4) situated about an inversion center. From a supra?molecular point of view, the t...

  8. Characterization of wheat germin (oxalate oxidase) expressed by Pichia pastoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Heng-Yen; Whittaker, Mei M.; Bouveret, Romaric; Berna, Anne; Bernier, Francois; Whittaker, James W.

    2007-01-01

    High-level secretory expression of wheat (Triticum aestivum) germin/oxalate oxidase was achieved in Pichia pastoris fermentation cultures as an α-mating factor signal peptide fusion, based on the native wheat cDNA coding sequence. The oxalate oxidase activity of the recombinant enzyme is substantially increased (7-fold) by treatment with sodium periodate, followed by ascorbate reduction. Using these methods, approximately 1 g (4 x 10 4 U) of purified, activated enzyme was obtained following eight days of induction of a high density Pichia fermentation culture, demonstrating suitability for large-scale production of oxalate oxidase for biotechnological applications. Characterization of the recombinant protein shows that it is glycosylated, with N-linked glycan attached at Asn47. For potential biomedical applications, a nonglycosylated (S49A) variant was also prepared which retains essentially full enzyme activity, but exhibits altered protein-protein interactions

  9. NDA technique for the assay of wet plutonium oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Canada, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantitatively measure batches of wet plutonium oxalate. The method is based on a count of coincidence neutrons to which a correction is applied for the effects of neutron moderation by water. A therma-neutron coincidence counter (TNC) with two concentric rings of 3 He detectors provides the signal needed for the water correction. The signal is the ratio of neutron counts between the detector rings that changes with the percent of water in plutonium oxalate. To evaluate the measurement technique, 26 batches of plutonium oxalate were measured in an in-line TNC. The evaluation showed the measurements to be essentially unbiased and precise to 2.2%

  10. Crystal structure of di­methyl­ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Waly; Gueye, Ndongo; Crochet, Aurélien; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2 +·HC2O4 −·0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu)3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH2)2C2O4 salt and Sn(CH3)3Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a di­methyl­ammonium cation (Me2NH2 +), an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4 −), and half a mol­ecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4) situated about an inversion center. From a supra­molecular point of view, the three components inter­act together via hydrogen bonding. The Me2NH2 + cations and the HC2O4 − anions are in close proximity through bifurcated N—H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bonds, while the HC2O4 − anions are organized into infinite chains via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, propagating along the a-axis direction. In addition, the oxalic acid (H2C2O4) mol­ecules play the role of connectors between these chains. Both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of each diacid are involved in four inter­molecular inter­actions with two Me2NH2 + and two HC2O4 − ions of four distinct polymeric chains, via two N—H⋯O and two O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, respectively. The resulting mol­ecular assembly can be viewed as a two-dimensional bilayer-like arrangement lying parallel to (010), and reinforced by a C—H⋯O hydrogen bond. PMID:25995858

  11. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol. A.

    2006-01-01

    The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, is one of the most destructive copper-tolerant fungi causing timber decay in buildings in temperate regions. Calcium and oxalic acid have been shown to play important roles in the mechanism of wood decay. The effect of calcium on growth and decay was evaluated...... for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi. This was done by treating copper citrate (CC)-treated Southern yellow pine (SYP) wood with a CaCl2 solution and estimating the decay rate and amount of soluble oxalic acid in an ASTM soil block test. Decay by S. lacrymans was found....... In summary, a marked decrease was observed in the decay capacity of S. lacrymans in pine treated with CC+CaCl2. The amount of soluble oxalic acid was measured in CC-treated blocks and blocks also treated with CaCl2. Of the comparative brown-rot fungi, both Antrodia vaillantii (TFFH 294) and Postia placenta...

  12. Evaluation of hemostasis parameters and the role of the oxidative damage to plasma proteins in the modulation of hemostasis in patients with nephrolithiasis before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Woźniak

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is a commonly-used method in urology, which may modulate hemostasis and may induce lipid peroxidation in patients with nephrolithiasis. However, previous studies only examine changes occurring in patients 30-240 min after ESWL. The main aim of the present study was to determine whether oxidative stress may modulate the hemostatic activity of plasma in patients with nephrolithiasis before ESWL and the day after treatment ESWL. This will be performed by measuring selected parameters of hemostasis in these patients, both before ESWL and the following day, and assessing the level of oxidative damage to plasma proteins in these patients by measuring two biomarkers.Twelve patients with nephrolithiasis and 10 healthy participants were included. The following parameters of hemostasis were measured: the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, prothrombin time (PT, and thrombin time (TT of plasma, the level of fibrinogen, the level of D-dimer and blood platelet count. In addition, two selected biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured: protein carbonylation level and the number of protein thiol groups.No difference was observed between patients with nephrolithiasis before and after ESWL and healthy controls with regard to PT, TT or APTT. Fibrinogen concentration and blood platelet count were lower in the nephrolithiasis patients in the period after ESWL than before ESWL. The nephrolithiasis patients demonstrated elevated D-dimer concentration after ESWL. However, although oxidative damage was observed in the plasma proteins in the nephrolithiasis patients, this was not influenced by ESWL.Oxidative stress may induce changes of hemostasis in patients with nephrolithiasis, both before and after ESWL. In addition, changes of hemostasis parameters such as fibrinogen, blood platelet count and D-dimer level can be observed in these patients, especially after ESWL, and this may suggest that ESWL modulates

  13. Evaluation of hemostasis parameters and the role of the oxidative damage to plasma proteins in the modulation of hemostasis in patients with nephrolithiasis before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Paweł; Kontek, Bogdan; Różański, Waldemar; Olas, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a commonly-used method in urology, which may modulate hemostasis and may induce lipid peroxidation in patients with nephrolithiasis. However, previous studies only examine changes occurring in patients 30-240 min after ESWL. The main aim of the present study was to determine whether oxidative stress may modulate the hemostatic activity of plasma in patients with nephrolithiasis before ESWL and the day after treatment ESWL. This will be performed by measuring selected parameters of hemostasis in these patients, both before ESWL and the following day, and assessing the level of oxidative damage to plasma proteins in these patients by measuring two biomarkers. Twelve patients with nephrolithiasis and 10 healthy participants were included. The following parameters of hemostasis were measured: the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT) of plasma, the level of fibrinogen, the level of D-dimer and blood platelet count. In addition, two selected biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured: protein carbonylation level and the number of protein thiol groups. No difference was observed between patients with nephrolithiasis before and after ESWL and healthy controls with regard to PT, TT or APTT. Fibrinogen concentration and blood platelet count were lower in the nephrolithiasis patients in the period after ESWL than before ESWL. The nephrolithiasis patients demonstrated elevated D-dimer concentration after ESWL. However, although oxidative damage was observed in the plasma proteins in the nephrolithiasis patients, this was not influenced by ESWL. Oxidative stress may induce changes of hemostasis in patients with nephrolithiasis, both before and after ESWL. In addition, changes of hemostasis parameters such as fibrinogen, blood platelet count and D-dimer level can be observed in these patients, especially after ESWL, and this may suggest that ESWL modulates hemostasis. By

  14. Interaction of Celestine Concentrate and Reagent Grade SrSO4 with Oxalate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Obut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of reagent grade strontium sulphate and celestine concentrate with aqueous solutions of oxalic acid, sodiumoxalate and ammonium oxalate for the production of strontium carbonate were investigated for different oxalate compound:SrSO4 moleratios and reaction times using x-ray diffraction analysis and dissolution tests. Under the same experimental conditions, it was foundthat aqueous oxalic acid and sodium oxalate solutions had no or little effect on reagent grade strontium sulphate or celestineconcentrate, but aqueous ammonium oxalate solution converted them into strontium oxalate hydrate. Strontium carbonate was obtainedat conversion ratios of 74.7% for the celestine concentrate and 84.6 % for the reagent grade strontium sulphate by the decompositionof the obtained strontium oxalate hydrate at 600 °C under air atmosphere.

  15. Effect of aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris on oxalate-induced oxidative stress in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, P.; Aggarwal, M.; Puri, S.; Singla, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at studying the effect of Tribulus terrestris on different parameters of oxidative stress and gene expression profiles of antioxidant enzymes in renal tissues of male wistar rats after induction of hyperoxaluria. The animals were divided into three groups. The animals in group I (control) were administered vehicle only. In group II, the animals were treated with ethylene glycol (hyperoxaluric agent) and those in group III were administered T. terrestris plant extract in addition to ethylene glycol. All treatments were continued for a period of seven weeks. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased excretion of calcium and phosphate. Serum creatinine, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen levels were also altered in hyperoxaluric animals. Various oxidative stress parameters viz. lipid peroxidation and activity of antioxidant enzymes were used to confirm the peroxidant state. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was used to confirm whether steady-state transcription level of different antioxidant enzymes was altered. T. terrestris significantly reduced the excretion of oxalate, calcium, and phosphate along with decreased levels of blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine in serum. T. terrestris also reduced hyperoxaluria- caused oxidative stress, and restored antioxidant enzyme activity and their expression profile in kidney tissue. Histological analysis depicted that T. terrestris treatment decreased renal epithelial damage, inflammation, and restored normal glomerular morphology. PMID:21886973

  16. Enzymatic oxalic acid regulation correlated with wood degradation in four brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup; Frederick Green III; Patricia K. Lebow; Bo Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a key component in the initiation of brown-rot decay and it has been suggested that it plays multiple roles during the degradation process. Oxalic acid is accumulated to varying degrees among brown-rot fungi; however, details on active regulation are scarce. The accumulation of oxalic acid was measured in this study from wood degraded by the four brown-...

  17. A new method for the analysis of soluble and insoluble oxalate in pulp and paper matrices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel method has been developed for determining soluble and insoluble forms of oxalate in pulp and paper samples by ion chromatography. Methanesulphonic acid is used to dissolve insoluble oxalate, and total oxalate is then determined by ion...

  18. Oxaloacetate hydrolase, the C-C bond lyase of oxalate secreting fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Y.; Joosten, H.J.; Niu, W.; Zhao, Z.; Mariano, P.S.; McCalman, M.; Kan, van J.; Schaap, P.J.; Dunaway-Mariano, D.

    2007-01-01

    Oxalate secretion by fungi is known to be associated with fungal pathogenesis. In addition, oxalate toxicity is a concern for the commercial application of fungi in the food and drug industries. Although oxalate is generated through several different biochemical pathways, oxaloacetate

  19. Correlation between oxalic acid production and copper tolerance in Wolfiporia cocos

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Clausen; Frederick Green; B. M. Woodward; J. W. Evans; R. C. DeGroot

    2000-01-01

    The increased interest in copper-based wood preservatives has hastened the need for understanding why some fungi are able to attack copper-treated wood. Due in part to accumulation of oxalic acid by brown-rot fungi and visualization of copper oxalate crystals in wood decayed by known copper-tolerant decay fungi, oxalic acid has been implicated in copper tolerance by...

  20. A Drosophila genetic model of nephrolithiasis: transcriptional changes in response to diet induced stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Vera Y; Turney, Benjamin W

    2017-11-28

    Urolithiasis is a significant healthcare issue but the pathophysiology of stone disease remains poorly understood. Drosophila Malpighian tubules were known to share similar physiological function to human renal tubules. We have used Drosophila as a genetic model to study the transcriptional response to stone formation secondary to dietary manipulation. Wild-type male flies were raised on standard medium supplemented with lithogenic agents: control, sodium oxalate (NaOx) and ethylene glycol (EG). At 2 weeks, Malpighian tubules were dissected under polarized microscope to visualize crystals. The parallel group was dissected for RNA extraction and subsequent next-generation RNA sequencing. Crystal formation was visualized in 20%(±2.2) of flies on control diet, 73%(±3.6) on NaOx diet and 84%(±2.2) on EG diet. Differentially expressed genes were identified in flies fed with NaOx and EG diet comparing with the control group. Fifty-eight genes were differentially expressed (FDR <0.05, p < 0.05) in NaOx diet and 20 genes in EG diet. The molecular function of differentially expressed genes were assessed. Among these, Nervana 3, Eaat1 (Excitatory amino acid transporter 1), CG7912, CG5404, CG3036 worked as ion transmembrane transporters, which were possibly involved in stone pathogenesis. We have shown that by dietary modification, stone formation can be manipulated and visualized in Drosophila Malpighian tubules. This genetic model could be potentially used to identify the candidate genes that influence stone risk hence providing more insight to the pathogenesis of human stone disease.

  1. Synthesis, Crystal structure and Characterization of a New Oxalate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in a slightly distorted octahedral environment, by two O atoms from two water molecules and four O atoms of two oxalate anions acting as chelating ligands. ... component for building up supramolecular systems and for participating in hydrogen bonding ... heating rate of 10◦C min−1. 2.2 Synthesis of the complex. Aqueous ...

  2. Computational and experimental studies on oxalic acid imprinted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: rkkawadkar@chm.vnit.ac.in. MS received 13 ... vent or porogen to form a pre-polymerization complex, followed by .... tered off and the filtrate was analysed for oxalic acid by. UV/VIS ... The experimental binding data were fitted to the.

  3. Competitive adsorption and photodegradation of salicylate and oxalate on goethite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krýsa, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Bajt, O.; Mailhot, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2011), s. 221-227 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : goethite * oxalate * salicylate Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  4. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

  5. The Forgotten Complication of Recurrent Nephrolithiasis: “Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis”—A Case and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek Assi; Elie El Rassy; Samah Naderi; Tania Moussa; Maroun Moukarzel; Joseph Kattan

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis is an aggressive tumor with insidious onset of unspecific symptoms and advanced stages at diagnosis. It is a rare entity, accounting for 0.5–8% of renal tumors. In this paper, we describe the case of a patient with a history of recurrent nephrolithiasis that presented with an aggressive form of SCC of the renal pelvis with rapid relapse after resection.

  6. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 Containing an Artificial Oxalate Operon and Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Secretes Oxalic Acid and Solubilizes Rock Phosphate in Acidic Alfisols

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G.; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) s...

  7. Co-precipitation of plutonium(IV) and americium(III) from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions with bismuth oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pius, I.C.; Noronha, D.M.; Chaudhury, Satyajeet

    2017-01-01

    Co-precipitation of plutonium and americium from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions with bismuth oxalate has been investigated for the removal of these long lived α-active nuclides from waste solutions. Effect of concentration of bismuth and oxalic acid on the co-precipitation of Pu(IV) from 3 M HNO_3 has been investigated. Similar experiments were also carried out from 3.75 M HNO_3 on co-precipitation of Am(III) to optimize the conditions of precipitation. Strong co-precipitation of Pu(IV) and Am(III) with bismuth oxalate indicate feasibility of treatment of plutonium and americium bearing waste solutions. (author)

  8. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  9. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Female urinary tract Male urinary tract Calcium urine test References Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  10. Novel Peptide with Specific Calcium-Binding Capacity from Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and Calcium Bioavailability in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Cai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptide-calcium can probably be a suitable supplement to improve calcium absorption in the human body. In this study, a specific peptide Phe-Tyr (FY with calcium-binding capacity was purified from Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. The calcium-binding capacity of FY reached 128.77 ± 2.57 μg/mg. Results of ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy showed that carboxyl groups, amino groups, and amido groups were the major chelating sites. FY-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which were beneficial to be absorbed and transported in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the calcium bioavailability in Caco-2 cells showed that FY-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency by more than three times when compared with CaCl2, and protect calcium ions against dietary inhibitors, such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate, and Zn2+. Our findings further the progress of algae-based peptide-calcium, suggesting that FY-Ca has the potential to be developed as functionally nutraceutical additives.

  11. Effect of chemical mixing state on the hygroscopicity and cloud nucleation properties of calcium mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sullivan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mineral dust particles can alter cloud properties and thus climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN that form cloud droplets. The CCN activation properties of various calcium mineral dust particles were studied experimentally to investigate the consequences of field observations showing the segregation of sulphate from nitrate and chloride between individual aged Asian dust particles, and the enrichment of oxalic acid in Asian dust. Each mineral's observed apparent hygroscopicity was primarily controlled by its solubility, which determines the degree to which the mineral's intrinsic hygroscopicity can be expressed. The significant increase in hygroscopicity caused by mixing soluble hygroscopic material with insoluble mineral particles is also presented. Insoluble minerals including calcium carbonate, representing fresh unprocessed dust, and calcium sulphate, representing atmospherically processed dust, had similarly small apparent hygroscopicities. Their activation is accurately described by a deliquescence limit following the Kelvin effect and corresponded to an apparent single-hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of ~0.001. Soluble calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, representing atmospherically processed mineral dust particles, were much more hygroscopic, activating similar to ammonium sulphate with κ~0.5. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (κ=0.05 was significantly less CCN-active than oxalic acid (κ=0.3, but not as inactive as its low solubility would predict. These results indicate that the common assumption that all mineral dust particles become more hygroscopic and CCN-active after atmospheric processing should be revisited. Calcium sulphate and calcium oxalate are two realistic proxies for aged mineral dust that remain non-hygroscopic. The dust's apparent hygroscopicity will be controlled by its chemical mixing state, which is determined by its mineralogy and the chemical reaction pathways it experiences

  12. Novel Inorganic Coordination Polymers Based on Cadmium Oxalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, P. A.; Neeraj, S.; Vaidhyanathan, R.; Natarajan, Srinivasan

    2002-06-01

    Three new cadmium oxalate coordination polymers, I-III, with extended layered structures have been synthesized in the presence of imidazole. While I was prepared by the reaction between imidazolium oxalate and Cd, II and III were synthesized from their constituents using hydrothermal methods. [Cd(C2O4)(C3N2H4)]∞ (I): monoclinic, space group P21/c (no. 14), a=8.7093(1) Å, b=9.9477(3) Å, c=8.4352 Å, β=93.796(1)°, Z=4; [Cd(C2O4)2(C3N2H4)3(H2O)]∞ (II): monoclinic, space group P21/c (no. 14), a=7.8614(2) Å, b=14.9332(3) Å, c=15.9153(4) Å β=94.587(1)°, Z=4; [Cd(C2O4)2(C3N2H4)3(H2O)]∞ (III): monoclinic, space group P21/c (no. 14), a=11.844(2) Å, b=9.066(1) Å, c=18.583(2) Å, β=103.84(2)°, Z=4. While the structure of I is made from CdO5N distorted octahedra linked with oxalate, II and III are built-up from CdO6N, CdO5N2 distorted pentagonal bi-pyramids connected to oxalate units. The framework formulas of II and III are identical and their structures closely related. In all the cases, the networking between the Cd-O/N polyhedra and oxalates give rise to layered architectures with the amine molecules pointing in a direction perpendicular to the layers (in the inter-lamellar region). The difference in the linkages between the oxalates and the Cd atoms in I-III, produces unusual Cd-O-Cd one-dimensional chains, which have been observed for the first time.

  13. Translocation and bonding of calcium (45Ca) in two-year-old seedlings of spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerk, S.H.

    1995-12-01

    Within the framework of the project ''Effect of liming and magnesium fertilization on the uptake, transport, and chemical bonding form of calcium and magnesium in conifers'', experiments regarding the calcium budget of two-year-old spruce and pine seedlings under conditions of controlled nutrition in a gravel culture were carried out. Two variants of calcium nutrition demonstrated which of the mechanisms in the calcium metabolism of trees are dependent on changes in element availability. Root labelling using the radioactive tracer 45 Ca permitted aimed investigation of the uptake and translocation of calcium during shoot formation in May. The functional importance of the investigated nutritive element was characterized by breaking up the total calcium contents ( 45 Ca) into the three essential chemical bonding forms (water-soluble Ca, Ca-pectate, Ca-oxalate) for the different tree fractions.- The culture experiments led to the conclusion that the root tips are most important as sites of calcium uptake. Translocation within the roots to the shoot took place via diffusion and exchange displacement as a function of calcium supply in the nutritive solution. There is no clue to support the assumption of a regulation of calcium uptake in spruces; in pines, by contrast, it cannot be excluded.- From a nutrition-physiological viewpoint, a total calcium content of 2 mg per gramme of dry mass is to be considered as sufficient. As this target is always attained, even where calcium supply is scarce, it is not appropriate to equate increased calcium availability with enhanced nutrient supply. Rather, the results discussed seem to support the theory that the trees now need to detoxicate excessively high calcium concentrations, which are liable to endanger the physiological cell metabolism, by a reaction with oxalic acid resulting in the formation of calcium oxalate. (orig.) [de

  14. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  15. The effect of sodium bicarbonate upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Vivian Barbosa; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria; Tiselius, Hans-Göran; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral sodium bicarbonate (NaBic) supplementation upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers (CSFs). Sixteen adult calcium stone formers with hypocitraturia were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover protocol using 60 mEq/day of NaBic during 3 days compared to the same period and doses of potassium citrate (KCit) supplementation. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and during the third day of each alkali salt. NaBic, similarly to KCit supplementation, led to an equivalent and significant increase in urinary citrate and pH. Compared to baseline, NaBic led to a significant increase in sodium excretion without concomitant increases in urinary calcium excretion, whereas KCit induced a significant increase in potassium excretion coupled with a significant reduction in urinary calcium. Although NaBic and KCit both reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation (CaOxSS) significantly vs baseline, KCit reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation significantly further vs NaBic. Both KCit and NaBic significantly reduced urinary phosphate and increased calcium phosphate supersaturation (CaPSS) compared to baseline. Finally, a significantly higher sodium urate supersaturation (NaUrSS) was observed after the use of the 2 drugs. This short-term study suggests that NaBic represents an effective alternative for the treatment of hypocitraturic calcium oxalate stone formers who cannot tolerate or afford the cost of KCit. In view of the increased sodium urate supersaturation, patients with pure uric acid stones and high urate excretion may be less suited for treatment with NaBic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Precipitation behavior of uranium in multicomponent solution by oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.J.; Kim, I.S.; Lee, W.K.; Shin, H.S.; Ro, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    A study on the precipitation of uranium by oxalic acid was carried out in a multicomponent solution. The precipitation method is usually applied to the treatment of radioactive waste and the recovery of uranium from a uranium-scrap contaminated with impurities. In these cases, the problem is how to increase the precipitation yield of target element and to prevent impurities from coprecipitation. The multicomponent solution in the present experiment was prepared by dissolving U, Nd, Cs and Sr in nitric acid. The effects of concentrations of oxalic acid and ascorbic acid on the precipitation yield and purity of uranium were observed. As results of the study, the maximum precipitation yield of uranium is revealed to be about 96.5% and the relative precipitation ratio of Nd, Cs and Sr versus uranium are discussed at the condition of the maximum precipitation yield of uranium, respectively. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. The metabolic and ecological interactions of oxalate-degrading bacteria in the Mammalian gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron W; Dearing, Denise

    2013-12-06

    Oxalate-degrading bacteria comprise a functional group of microorganisms, commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. Oxalate is a plant secondary compound (PSC) widely produced by all major taxa of plants and as a terminal metabolite by the mammalian liver. As a toxin, oxalate can have a significant impact on the health of mammals, including humans. Mammals do not have the enzymes required to metabolize oxalate and rely on their gut microbiota for this function. Thus, significant metabolic interactions between the mammalian host and a complex gut microbiota maintain the balance of oxalate in the body. Over a dozen species of gut bacteria are now known to degrade oxalate. This review focuses on the host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions that regulate the degradation of oxalate by the gut microbiota. We discuss the pathways of oxalate throughout the body and the mammalian gut as a series of differentiated ecosystems that facilitate oxalate degradation. We also explore the mechanisms and functions of microbial oxalate degradation along with the implications for the ecological and evolutionary interactions within the microbiota and for mammalian hosts. Throughout, we consider questions that remain, as well as recent technological advances that can be employed to answer them.

  18. Binding abilities of copper to phospholipids and transport of oxalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Jakl, M.; Nováková, Kateřina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Šádek, Vojtěch

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 5 (2015), s. 831-837 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-21409P; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : copper cations * dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (lecithin) * ESI-MS * impedance spectroscopy * oxalic acid * voltammetry * membrane Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.131, year: 2015

  19. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; Hammelman, J.E.; Miller, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    A dynamic model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator is developed to provide a means of predicting plutonium inventory on a continuous basis. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization equations, which describe nucleation and growth phenomena. The model parameters were obtained through the use of batch experimental data. The model has been used to study the approach to steady state, to investigate the response to input transients, and to simulate the control of the precipitation process. 12 refs

  20. Hafnium(IV) complexation with oxalate at variable temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friend, Mitchell T.; Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullmanm, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-08-01

    Appropriate management of fission products in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is crucial in developing advanced reprocessing schemes. The addition of aqueous phase complexing agents can prevent the co-extraction of these fission products. A solvent extraction technique was used to study the complexation of Hf(IV) - an analog to fission product Zr(IV) - with oxalate at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4} utilizing a {sup 175+181}Hf radiotracer. The mechanism of the solvent extraction system of 10{sup -5} M Hf(IV) in 1 M HClO{sub 4} to thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) in toluene demonstrated a 4{sup th}-power dependence in both TTA and H{sup +}, with Hf(TTA){sub 4} the only extractable species. The equilibrium constant for the extraction of Hf(TTA){sub 4} was determined to be log K{sub ex}=7.67±0.07 (25±1 C, 1 M HClO{sub 4}). The addition of oxalate to the aqueous phase decreased the distribution ratio, indicating aqueous Hf(IV)-oxalate complex formation. Polynomial fits to the distribution data identified the formation of Hf(ox){sup 2+} and Hf(ox){sub 2(aq)} and their stability constants were measured at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4}. van't Hoff analysis was used to calculate Δ{sub r}G, Δ{sub r}H, and Δ{sub r}S for these species. Stability constants were observed to increase at higher temperature, an indication that Hf(IV)-oxalate complexation is endothermic and driven by entropy.

  1. Rare calcium oxalate monohydrate calculus attached to the wall of the renal pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Prieto, Rafael M; Saus, Carlos; Servera, Antonio; García-Miralles, Reyes; Benejam, Joan

    2011-04-01

    Most renal calculi can be classified using well-established criteria in a manner that reflects both composition and fine structure under specific pathophysiological conditions. However, when a large patient population is considered, rare renal calculi invariably appear, some of which have never been classified; careful study is required to establish stone etiology in such cases. The patient in the present case report formed two types of calculi. One was attached on the wall of the renal pelvis near the ureter and part of the calculus was embedded inside pelvic renal tissue. The calculus developed on an ossified calcification located in the pelvis tissue. Current knowledge on the development of calcification in soft tissues suggests a pre-existing injury as an inducer of its development. A mechanism of calculus formation is proposed. The second stone was a typical jack-stone calculus. © 2011 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Synthesis of CaTiO3 from calcium titanyl oxalate hexahydrate (CTO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    2.2 Thermogravimetry (TG), derivative thermogravimetry. (DTG) and differential .... nology for medical processing—A promising option for tomor- row, Mumbai ... E J 1988 in Radioactive waste forms for future (eds) W Lutre and R C Ewing ...

  3. Effect of heat treatment on the structure of incorporated oxalate species and photoluminescent properties of porous alumina films formed in oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevsky, I.; Jagminas, A.; Hemeltjen, S.; Goedel, W. A.

    2008-09-01

    The present work focuses on the use of IR spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectral measurements for studying the treatment temperature effect on the compositional and luminescent properties of oxalic acid alumina films. In line with the recent researches we have also found that heat treatment of porous alumina films formed in oxalic acid leads to considerable changes in their photoluminescence properties: upon annealing the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) increases reaching a maximum at the temperature of around 500 °C and then decreases. IR spectra of as-grown and heat-treated films have proved that PL emission in the anodic alumina films is related with the state of 'structural' oxalate species incorporated in the oxide lattice. These results allowed us to conclude that PL behavior of oxalic acid alumina films can be explained through the concept of variations in the bonding molecular orbitals of incorporated oxalate species including σ- and π-bonds.

  4. Liquid waste processing from plutonium (III) oxalate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Cassaniti, P.; Orosco, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium (III) oxalate filtrates contain about 0.2M oxalic acid, 0.09M ascorbic acid, 0.05M hydrazine, 1M nitric acid and 20-100 mg/l of plutonium. The developed treatment of liquid wastes consist in two main steps: a) Distillation to reduce up to 10% of the initial volume and refluxing to destroy organic material. Then, the treated solution is suitable to adjust the plutonium at the tetravalent state by addition of hydrogen peroxide and the nitric molarity up to 8.6M. b) Recovery and purification of plutonium by anion exchange using two columns in series containing Dowex 1-X4 resin. With the proposed process, it is possible to transform 38 litres of filtrates with 40mg/l of Pu into 0.1 l of purified solution with 15-20g/l of Pu. This solution is suitable to be recycled in the Pu (III) oxalate precipitation process. This process has several potential advantages over similar liquid waste treatments. These include: 1) It does not increase the liquid volume. 2) It consumes only few reagents. 3) The operations involved are simple, requiring limited handling and they are feasible to automatization. 4) The Pu recovery factor is about 99%. (Author) [es

  5. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 Containing an Artificial Oxalate Operon and Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Secretes Oxalic Acid and Solubilizes Rock Phosphate in Acidic Alfisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, G.; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2) transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2) containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah) and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp) secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil. PMID:24705024

  6. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 containing an artificial oxalate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin secretes oxalic acid and solubilizes rock phosphate in acidic alfisols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Yadav

    Full Text Available Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah, Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2 transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4 secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2 transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2 containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil.

  7. A Novel Method for Fabricating Double Layers Porous Anodic Alumina in Phosphoric/Oxalic Acid Solution and Oxalic Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for fabricating ordered double layers porous anodic alumina (DL-PAA with controllable nanopore size was presented. Highly ordered large pore layer with interpore distance of 480 nm was fabricated in phosphoric acid solution with oxalic acid addition at the potential of 195 V and the small pore layer was fabricated in oxalic acid solution at the potential from 60 to 100 V. Experimental results show that the thickness of large pore layer is linearly correlative with anodizing time, and pore diameter is linearly correlative with pore widening time. When the anodizing potential in oxalic acid solution was adjusted from 60 to 100 V, the small pore layers with continuously tunable interpore distance from 142 to 241 nm and pore density from 1.94×109 to 4.89×109 cm−2 were obtained. And the interpore distance and the pore density of small pore layers are closely correlative with the anodizing potential. The fabricated DL-PAA templates can be widely utilized for fabrication of ordered nanomaterials, such as superhydrophobic or gecko-inspired adhesive materials and metal or semiconductor nanowires.

  8. Evidence for a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, C.P.; Schreferl-Kunar, G.; Woehrer, W.; Roehr, M.

    1988-03-01

    Oxalate accumulation of up to 8 g/liter was induced in Aspergillus niger by shifting the pH from 6 to 8. This required the presence of P/sub i/ and a nitrogen source and was inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Exogenously added /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was not incorporated into oxalate, but was incorporated into acetate and malate, thus indicating the biosynthesis of oxalate by hydrolytic cleavage of oxaloacetate. Inhibition of mitochondrial citrate metabolism by fluorocitrate did not significantly decrease the oxalate yield. The putative enzyme that was responsible for this oxaloacetate hydrolase (EC 3.7.1.1), which was induced de novo during the pH shift. Subcellular fractionation of oxalic acid-forming mycelia of A. niger showed that this enzyme is located in the cytoplasm of A. niger. The results are consistent with a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate formation which does not involve the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

  9. Evidence for a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, C.P.; Schreferl-Kunar, G.; Woehrer, W.; Roehr, M.

    1988-01-01

    Oxalate accumulation of up to 8 g/liter was induced in Aspergillus niger by shifting the pH from 6 to 8. This required the presence of P/sub i/ and a nitrogen source and was inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Exogenously added 14 CO 2 was not incorporated into oxalate, but was incorporated into acetate and malate, thus indicating the biosynthesis of oxalate by hydrolytic cleavage of oxaloacetate. Inhibition of mitochondrial citrate metabolism by fluorocitrate did not significantly decrease the oxalate yield. The putative enzyme that was responsible for this oxaloacetate hydrolase (EC 3.7.1.1), which was induced de novo during the pH shift. Subcellular fractionation of oxalic acid-forming mycelia of A. niger showed that this enzyme is located in the cytoplasm of A. niger. The results are consistent with a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate formation which does not involve the tricarboxylic acid cycle

  10. Preparation of High-purity Indium Oxalate Salt from Indium Scrap by Organic Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Su-Jin; Ju, Chang-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Effect of organic acid on the preparation of indium-oxalate salt from indium scraps generated from ITO glass manufacturing process was studied. Effects of parameters, such as type and concentration of organic acids, pH of reactant, temperature, reaction time on indium-oxalate salt preparation were examined. The impurity removal efficiency was similar for both oxalic acid and citric acid, but citric acid did not make organic acid salt with indium. The optimum conditions were 1.5 M oxalic acid, pH 7, 80 .deg. C, and 6 hours. On the other hand, the recoveries increased with pH, but the purity decreased. The indium-oxalate salt purity prepared by two cycles was 99.995% (4N5). The indium-oxalate salt could be converted to indium oxide and indium metal by substitution reaction and calcination

  11. Removal of plutonium from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions using anion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasar, U.M.; Pawar, S.M.; Joshi, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    An anion exchange method using Amberlyst A-26 (MP) resin was developed for removal of Pu from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions without destroying oxalate. The method consists of sorption of Pu(IV) on Amberlyst A-26, a macroporous anion exchange resin, from nitric acid-oxalic acid medium in the presence of Al(NO 3 ) 3 . Pu(IV) breakthrough capacity of Amberlyst A-26 using synthetic feed solution was determined. (author)

  12. Determination of calcium salt solubility with changes in pH and P(CO(2)), simulating varying gastrointestinal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Sandra L; Lemons, Karen A; Kerstetter, Jane E; Bogner, Robin H

    2007-11-01

    The amount of calcium available for absorption is dependent, in part, on its sustained solubility in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Many calcium salts, which are the calcium sources in supplements and food, have pH-dependent solubility and may have limited availability in the small intestine, the major site of absorption. The equilibrium solubility of four calcium salts (calcium oxalate hydrate, calcium citrate tetrahydrate, calcium phosphate, calcium glycerophosphate) were determined at controlled pH values (7.5, 6.0, 4.5 and solubility of calcium carbonate was also measured at pH 7.5, 6.0 and 4.5 with two CO(2) environments (0.3 and 152 mmHg) above the solution. The precipitation profile of CaCO(3) was calculated using in-vivo data for bicarbonate and pH from literature and equilibrium calculations. As pH increased, the solubility of each calcium salt increased. However, in distilled water each salt produced a different pH, affecting its solubility value. Although calcium citrate does have a higher solubility than CaCO(3) in water, there is little difference when the pH is controlled at pH 7.5. The partial pressure of CO(2) also played a role in calcium carbonate solubility, depressing the solubility at pH 7.5. The calculations of soluble calcium resulted in profiles of available calcium, which agreed with previously published in-vivo data on absorbed calcium. The experimental data illustrate the impact of pH and CO(2) on the solubility of many calcium salts in the presence of bicarbonate secretions in the intestine. Calculated profiles using in-vivo calcium and bicarbonate concentrations demonstrate that large calcium doses may not further increase intestinal calcium absorption once the calcium carbonate solubility product has been reached.

  13. Studies on removal of plutonium from oxalic acid containing hydrochloric acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadse, D R; Noronha, D M; Joshi, A R [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Solution containing hydrochloric acid, oxalic acid and considerable quantities of plutonium may be generated while recycling of scrap produced during the metallic fuel fabrication. Plutonium from such waste is normally recovered by anion exchange method after the destruction of oxalic acid using suitable oxidising agent. Solvent extraction and ion exchange methods are being explored in this laboratory for recovery of Pu from oxalic acid containing HCl solutions without prior destruction of oxalic acid. This paper describes the results on the determination of distribution ratios for extraction of Pu(IV) from hydrochloric acid using Aliquot-336 or HDEHP under varying experimental conditions. (author). 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Rational choice of a minimally invasive method of treatment in uncomplicated nephrolithiasis with kidney calculi from 1.0 to 2.5 cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. І. Sagalevich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Study purpose – to improve the solitary nephrolithiasis treatment effectiveness by determining the optimal conditions for ESWL or mini PNL application in the treatment of kidney calculi 1.0 to2.5 cm in size. Patients and methods. A comparative analysis of the results of minimally invasive methods application for nephrolithiasis treatment was performed in 210 patients treated with mini PNL (the group I and 190 patients treated with ESWL (the group II. Patients with calculi more than 1.5 cm predominated in the group of mini PNL and with calculi less than 1.5 cm – in the ESWL group. The number of patients with calculi 1.5–2.0 cm in both groups was the same: 24.3 % and 24.2 % (P > 0.05. Results. It was noted that the calculi destruction effectiveness after 1–4 or more sessions of ESWL took place in 182 patients (95.8 %. At the same time, an increase in the mean density of calculi above 600 HU caused reduction (P < 0.001 of the primary ESWL session efficiency almost twofold. When performing the 221 mPNL, 97.1 % of the patients required one surgical treatment. The number of complications (bleeding, attack of pyelonephritis in the group II was insignificantly higher in contrast to the group I – 26 (12.3 % and 45 (14.1 %, respectively (P < 0.05. The stone-free status (up to one month was noted in 62.6 % of patients after the completion of ESWL sessions that increases the risk of nephrolithiasis recurrence from 37.4 %. In treatment with mPNL, the stone-free status reached 97.1 % (P < 0.001, and in repeated mPNL applying in 2.8 % of cases – 100 %. The mean clinic postoperative treatment periods in the group I were lower in contrast to patients of the group II – 3.0 ± 1.5 and 12.5 ± 3.6, respectively (P < 0.001. Conclusions. This comparative analysis of features and results of uncomplicated nephrolithiasis with mPNL and ESWL treatment indicates that mPNL is the most preferred method for kidney calculi 1.0 to2.5 cm and more in size treatment.

  15. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  16. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  17. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  18. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: Antacids (Tums, Chooz) Mineral supplements Hand lotions Vitamin and mineral supplements Other products may also contain ...

  19. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  20. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  1. Solubility of Plutonium (IV) Oxalate During Americium/Curium Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 15,000 L of solution containing isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) will undergo stabilization by vitrification at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Prior to vitrification, an in-tank pretreatment will be used to remove metal impurities from the solution using an oxalate precipitation process. Material balance calculations for this process, based on solubility data in pure nitric acid, predict approximately 80 percent of the plutonium in the solution will be lost to waste. Due to the uncertainty associated with the plutonium losses during processing, solubility experiments were performed to measure the recovery of plutonium during pretreatment and a subsequent precipitation process to prepare a slurry feed for a batch melter. A good estimate of the plutonium content of the glass is required for planning the shipment of the vitrified Am/Cm product to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The plutonium solubility in the oxalate precipitation supernate during pretreatment was 10 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. In two subsequent washes with a 0.25M oxalic acid/0.5M nitric acid solution, the solubility dropped to less than 5 mg/mL. During the precipitation and washing steps, lanthanide fission products in the solution were mostly insoluble. Uranium, and alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal impurities were soluble as expected. An elemental material balance for plutonium showed that greater than 94 percent of the plutonium was recovered in the dissolved precipitate. The recovery of the lanthanide elements was generally 94 percent or higher except for the more soluble lanthanum. The recovery of soluble metal impurities from the precipitate slurry ranged from 15 to 22 percent. Theoretically, 16 percent of the soluble oxalates should have been present in the dissolved slurry based on the dilution effects and volumes of supernate and wash solutions removed. A trace level material balance showed greater than 97 percent recovery of americium-241 (from the beta dec

  2. Calcium in Urine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Calcium, Serum; Calcium and Phosphates, Urine; ...

  3. Transcellular transport of calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terepka, A R; Coleman, J R; Armbrecht, H J; Gunter, T E

    1976-01-01

    Studies of two calcium transporting epithelia, embryonic chick chorioallantoic membrane and the small intestine of rat and chick, have strongly suggested that the transfer of calcium across a cell involves processes distinctly different from intracellular calcium ion regulation. In the proposed model, transcellular calcium transport is considered as a specialized process developed only by certain cells in those tissues charged with bulk transfer of calcium. The overall effect of the endocytotic mechanism is bulk calcium movement across a cell, protection of mitochondria from exposure to high concentrations of calcium, and the avoidance of wide and potentially toxic fluctuations in cytosol ionic calcium levels. (MFB)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of tungsten or calcium doped PZT ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.M.; Caracas, L.B.; Noronha, R.G.; Santos, M.M.T. dos; Paiva-Santos, C.O.

    2009-01-01

    Pure and doped (tungsten or calcium) PZT ceramics were prepared by association of the polymeric precursor and partial oxalate method. The phase formation was investigated by thermal analysis (TG/DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The affect of W or Ca doping PZT and their electrical properties was evaluated. Substitution of W by Ti and Ca by Pb leads to an increase of Curie temperature and broadening of dielectric constant. A typical hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature and the remnant polarization was increased with the content of W and Ca. (author)

  5. 3.2.1. Synthesis, crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ1-oxalic acid)-µ3-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I)).

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Kovalchukova*, Sergey Aldoshin, Andrey Utenyshev, Konstantin Bogenko, Valeriy Tkachev

    2015-01-01

    The crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ- oxalic acid)-µ-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I)) was detected by X-Ray analysis. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with a(Å) 6.2378(12); b(Å) 7,1115(14); c(Å) 10.489(2); α(°) 94.65(3); β(°) 100.12(3); γ(°) 97.78(3). The sodium cation in the title compound is eight coordinated and forms a square antiprism. It is surrounded by two molecules of oxalic acid, one hydrogen oxalate anion and one water molecule. Both ox...

  6. Pathophyisiology analysis overload nephron protein in the proximal tubule damage in the nephrolithiasis size stones of 0.6-1.0 sm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Ye. Rohovyi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis as the most common urological disorder characterized by frequent early relapses, acquires a social character, because these patients are 30 to 45% of all urological patients, while in Europe the disease is diagnosed in 2% of the population. The study included 40 patients with nephrolithiasis, 10 patients constituted the control group. Set the “hidden” damage to the proximal nephron in the presence of renal stones with a size of 0.6-1.0 cm in the upper third of the ureter, the upper and middle sections of the calyx, which is confirmed by the inhibition of enzymatic fibrinolytic activity of urine, the presence of tubular proteinuria in the absence of inhibition of proximal reabsorption of sodium ions. The link “hidden” damage to the proximal tubule of the degree of overload of the proximal nephron is a protein graphics multicorrelation dependence between the protein concentration of urine, standardized excretion protein and excretion, which are becoming more significant disharmony form towards control in the following sequence: the upper third of the ureter, medium cup, top cup.

  7. Effect of mitochondrial potassium channel on the renal protection mediated by sodium thiosulfate against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baldev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sodium thiosulfate (STS is clinically reported to be a promising drug in preventing nephrolithiasis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP channel in the renal protection mediated by STS. Materials and Methods: Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar rats by administrating 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week in drinking water followed by only 0.75% EG for two weeks. Treatment groups received STS, mitochondrial KATP channel opener and closer exclusively or in combination with STS for two weeks. Results: Animals treated with STS showed normal renal tissue architecture, supported by near normal serum creatinine, urea and ALP activity. Diazoxide (mitochondria KATP channel opening treatment to the animal also showed normal renal tissue histology and improved serum chemistry. However, an opposite result was shown by glibenclamide (mitochondria KATP channel closer treated rats. STS administered along with diazoxide negated the renal protection rendered by diazoxide alone, while it imparted protection to the glibenclamide treated rats, formulating a mitochondria modulated STS action. Conclusion: The present study confirmed that STS render renal protection not only through chelation and antioxidant effect but also by modulating the mitochondrial KATP channel for preventing urolithiasis.

  8. Equilibrium aluminium hydroxo-oxalate phases during initial clay formation; H +-Al 3+-oxalic acid-Na + system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilinski, Halka; Horvath, Laszlo; Ingri, Nils; Sjöberg, Staffan

    1986-09-01

    The conditions necessary for initial clay formation have been studied in different model systems comprising different organic acids besides Si and Al. In the present paper the solid phases and the precipitation boundary characterizing the subsystem H +-Al 3+-oxalic acid (H 2L) are discussed. pH and tyndallometric measurements were performed in an ionic medium of 0.6 M Na(Cl) at 25 °C. The two phases Al 3(OH) 7(C 2O 4) · 3H 2O (phase I) and NaAl(OH) 2(C 2O 4) · 3H 2O (phase II) determine the precipitation boundary. The following formation constants for the two phases were deduced: lgβ1 = lg([ Al3+] -3[ H2C2O4] -1[ H+] 9 = -21.87 ± 0.08 and lgβ11 = lg([ Al3+] -1[ H2C2O4] -1[ H+] 4 = -5.61 ± 0.06. Phase I exists in the range [ Al] tot≥ 10 -4.4moldm-3,[ H2C2O4] tot ≥ 10 -4.9moldm-3 and at pH oxalic-rich natural waters. The more soluble sodium phase is unlikely to exist in natural waters. The two phases are metastable relative to crystalline gibbsite and may be considered as the first precipitation step in the transition from aqueous Al oxalates down to stable Al hydroxide. Model calculations illustrating these competing hydrolysis-complexation reactions are discussed in terms of predominance and speciation diagrams. The solid phases have been characterized by X-ray analysis of powders, TGA and IR spectra, and tentative structures are proposed. Phase I seems to be an octahedral layer structure, in which 3/5 of the octahedral sites between two close packed oxygen sheets are occupied by Al 3+ and the oxalate ion acts as a bridge ligand between two aluminium atoms. Phase II forms a more open sheet structure and has ion exchange properties. Powder data for a phase crystallized from the studied solution after a year are also presented. This phase, Na 4Al 2(OH) 2(C 2O 4) 4 · 10H 2O, supports the results from the equilibrium analysis of recent solution data by SJöBERG and ÖHMAN (1985), who have found the dinuclear complex Al 2(OH) 2(C 2O 4) 44- to exist in a

  9. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hà Vũ Hồng Nguyễn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L. and golden (Actinidia chinensis L. were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW, while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  10. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyễn, Hà Vũ Hồng; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-03-05

    Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green ( Actinidia deliciosa L . ) and golden ( Actinidia chinensis L . ) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW) and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW) when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW), while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  11. an oxalate-peroxide complex used in the preparation of doped barium titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, S.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Verweij, H.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the preparation of homogeneously doped barium titanate, which can be applied in non-linear dielectric elements. Ba and Ti salts are dissolved, mixed with hydrogen peroxide and added to a solution of ammonium oxalate, resulting in the formation of an insoluble peroxo-oxalate

  12. Characterization of oxalate-based 237NpO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, D.T.; Burney, G.A.; Smith, P.K.; Sisson, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    238 Pu, a radioisotope heat source, is produced by irradiating reactor targets containing 237 NpO 2 . The neptunium oxide is obtained by precipitating and calcining 237 Np(IV) oxalate. The effects of oxalate precipitation parameters on particle morphology and size distribution of 237 NpO 2 powder were established to provide process controls for fabricating reactor targets

  13. Optimization of the conditions for the precipitation of thorium oxalate. II. Minimization of the product losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazukhin, E.M.; Smirnova, E.A.; Krivokhatskii, A.S.; Pazukhina, Yu.L.; Kiselev, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    The precipitation of thorium as a poorly soluble oxalate was investigated. An equation relating the concentrations of the metal and nitric acid in the initial solution and the amount of precipitant required to minimize the product losses was derived. A graphical solution of the equation is presented for the case where the precipitant is oxalic acid at a concentration of 0.78 M

  14. Influencing the solubility of oxalates for the preparation of ceramic powders from mixed precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, C.; Fischer, S.; Fischer, St.; Chebani, M.Kh.

    1991-01-01

    Based on investigations of the solubility of oxalate with 140 Ba, 64 Cu and 59 Fe, techniques for quantitative oxalate coprecipitation were developed. Addition of organic solvents lowers the solubility and leads to a smaller particle size of products. (orig.) [de

  15. Microbial growth on oxalate by a route not involving glyoxylate carboligase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Maureen A.; Quayle, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    1. The metabolism of oxalate by the pink-pigmented organisms, Pseudomonas AM1, Pseudomonas AM2, Protaminobacter ruber and Pseudomonas extorquens has been compared with that of the non-pigmented Pseudomonas oxalaticus. 2. During growth on oxalate, all the organisms contain oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase, formate dehydrogenase and oxalyl-CoA reductase. This is consistent with oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide taking place via oxalyl-CoA, formyl-CoA and formate as intermediates, and also reduction of oxalate to glyoxylate taking place via oxalyl-CoA. 3. The pink-pigmented organisms, when grown on oxalate, contain l-serine–glyoxylate aminotransferase and hydroxypyruvate reductase but do not contain glyoxylate carboligase. The converse of this obtains in oxalate-grown Ps. oxalaticus. This indicates that, in contrast with Ps. oxalaticus, synthesis of C3 compounds from oxalate by the pink-pigmented organisms occurs by a variant of the `serine pathway' used by Pseudomonas AM1 during growth on C1 compounds. 4. Evidence in favour of this scheme is provided by the finding that a mutant of Pseudomonas AM1 that lacks hydroxypyruvate reductase is not able to grow on oxalate. PMID:5472155

  16. Deep catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with oxalate-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hongying; Li, Pengcheng; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Wang, Shunan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Han

    2015-07-07

    An oxalate-based DES with a tetrabutyl ammonium chloride and oxalate acid molar ratio of 1/2 (TBO1 : 2) exhibited high activity in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under mild reaction conditions. It is potentially a promising and highly environmentally friendly approach for desulfurization of fuels.

  17. The effects of copper proximity on oxalate production in Fibroporia radiculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie M. Jenkins; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green III

    2014-01-01

    Copper remains a key component used in wood preservatives available today. However, the observed tolerance of several critical wood rotting organisms continues to be problematic. Tolerance to copper has been linked to the production and accumulation of oxalate, which precipitates copper into insoluble copper-oxalate crystals, thus inactivating copper ions. The purpose...

  18. Viscosities of oxalic acid and its salts in water and binary aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Viscosities; oxalic acid and its salts; water + THF mixtures; structure-breakers. 1. Introduction ... has found its application in the organic syntheses as manifested from ... water. In other words, these results indicate that oxalic acid and its salts mix ...

  19. Determining the biochemical properties of the Oxalate Biosynthetic Component (Obc)1 from Burkholderia mallei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxalic acid is produced by a variety of organisms ranging from simple microbes to complex animals. This acid has been proposed to fulfill various physiological and pathological functions which vary between organisms. In bacteria from the Burkholderia genus, oxalate secretion has been shown to be quo...

  20. The oxalic acid biosynthetic activity of Burkholderia mallei is encoded by a single locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although it is known that oxalic acid provides a selective advantage to the secreting microbe, our understanding of how this acid is biosynthesized remains incomplete. This study reports the identification, cloning, and partial characterization of the oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme from the animal ...

  1. Oxalic acid biosynthesis is encoded by an operon in Burkholderia glumae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the biosynthesis of oxalic acid is known to occur in a number of bacteria, the mechanism(s) regulating its production remains largely unknown. To date, there is no report on the identification of an oxalic acid biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria. In an attempt to identify such a gene...

  2. In vitro selection of rape variants resistant to oxalic acid using haploid stem apexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yifei; Huang Jianhua; Lu Ruiju; Sun Yuefang; Zhou Runmei; Zhou Zhijiang; Xie Zhujie; Liu Chenghong

    2002-01-01

    Mutagenic treatment was made of the haploid stem apexes rape strain '9841' and '9885' with Pingyangmycin. As a result of positive selection with oxalic acid providing selection pressure, variants with significantly higher tolerance to oxalic acid than the original ones were obtained. 3 germplasm with significantly higher resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum than cultivar Hu You 12 were selected from field test

  3. Calcium uptake and release by isolated cortices and microsomes from the unfertilized egg of the sea urchin strongylocentrotus droebachiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberdorf, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Two subcellular fractions of the sea urchin egg were studied for their potential role in regulating the transient rise in cytosolic calcium that accompanies fertilization. Isolated cortices from unfertilized sea urchin eggs sequester calcium in an ATP dependent manner when incubated in a medium containing free calcium levels characteristic of the resting cell. This ATP dependent calcium uptake activity, measured in the presence of 5mM Na Azide to prevent mitochondrial accumulation, was increased by oxalate, and was blocked by 150 μM quercetin and 50 μM vanadate. Cortices preloaded with 45 Ca in the presence of ATP dramatically increased their rate of calcium efflux upon the addition of (1) the calcium ionophore A23187 (10 μM), (2) trifluoperazine (200 μM), (3) concentrations of free calcium that activated cortical granule exocytosis, and (4) the calcium mobilizing agent inositol trisphosphate (IP3). This pool of calcium is most likely sequestered in the portion of the egg's endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that remains associated with the cortical region during its isolation. They have developed a method for obtaining a high yield of purified microsomal vesicles from whole eggs. This preparation also demonstrates ATP dependent calcium sequestering activity which increases in the presence of oxalate and has similar sensitivities to calcium transport inhibitors, however the isolated microsomal vesicles did not show any detectable release of calcium when exposed to IP3. Procedures originally developed for purifying calsequestrin were used to partially purify a 58,000 MW protein from the egg's microsomal vesicles

  4. Behaviour of Pu-IV with various ion exchangers in solutions containing nitric acid and oxalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.; Ali, S.A.

    1982-02-01

    The distribution of Pu-IV on the ion exchangers Dowex 50W-X8, Dowex 1-X8 und Dowex Chelating Resin Al-X8 in the presence of various concentrations of nitric acid and oxalate were investigated. The results indicate that nitric acid and oxalic acid influence each other during complexation of Pu-IV with oxalate ions solutions containing nitric acid it is not possible to neglect the formation of Pu-IV nitrate complexes. The complex Pu(IV) (C 2 O 4 ) 3 2 - only is formed in solutions containing low nitric acid and high oxalic acid concentrations. The separation of Pu-IV in Dowex Chelating Resin from nitric acid solution in the presence of higher oxalate concentrations is possible, provided that the nitric acid concentration is lower than 0.25 molar [fr

  5. Facile fabrication of cobalt oxalate nanostructures with superior specific capacitance and super-long cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanhua; Si, Conghui; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ying; Yang, Wanfeng; Dong, Chaoqun; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-04-01

    Transition metal oxalate materials have shown huge competitive advantages for applications in supercapacitors. Herein, nanostructured cobalt oxalate supported on cobalt foils has been facilely fabricated by anodization, and could directly serve as additive/binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. The as-prepared cobalt oxalate electrodes present superior specific capacitance of 1269 F g-1 at the current density of 6 A g-1 in the galvanostatic charge/discharge test. Moreover, the retained capacitance is as high as 87.2% as the current density increases from 6 A g-1 to 30 A g-1. More importantly, the specific capacitance of cobalt oxalate retains 91.9% even after super-long cycling of 100,000 cycles. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with cobalt oxalate (positive electrode) and activated carbon (negative electrode) demonstrates excellent capacitive performance with high energy density and power density.

  6. Effect of oxalic acid on the optical, thermal, dielectric and mechanical behaviour of ADP crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the addition, over a concentration range from 1 to 5 mol%, of oxalic acid on the growth rate, optical transparency, hardness, dielectric behaviour, and SHG efficiency of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals grown by slow evaporation method has been investigated. UV-Vis studies show that the transparency of the oxalic acid added crystals decreased gradually. Thermal studies indicate that the decomposition temperatures of the crystal are decreased in oxalic acid added ADP crystals. It is observed from the dielectric measurements that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss increase with increase in temperature for all the crystals. Vicker's microhardness study reveals that the addition of higher concentration of oxalic acid decreases the hardness of the crystal. SHG efficiency of 1 mol% of oxalic acid is higher than the pure ADP.

  7. Effects of Juice Processing on Oxalate Contents in Carambola Juice Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nha K; Nguyen, Ha V H

    2017-09-01

    Effects of processing methods including pressing, enzyme-assisted extraction, lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus acidophilus, and alcohol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae on total and soluble oxalate contents of carambola juices were studied. In comparison with pressing, the use of enzyme increased juice yields (15.89-17.29%), but resulted in higher total oxalate (1.60-1.73 times) and soluble oxalate contents (1.16-1.49 times). In addition, extension of enzyme incubation periods led to an increase in soluble oxalate contents in the products (p carambola juices. These results suggested that carambola juice products should only be consumed moderately, and that alcohol fermentation could be a potential method to reduce oxalate contents in foods in order to prevent the risks of forming kidney stones.

  8. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...... current understanding of calcium sensing in neurotransmitter release and hormone secretion....

  9. Calcium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.W.; Nestor, O.H.

    1989-01-01

    A new process for producing large, single, oriented crystals of calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) has been developed which overcomes the limitations of current growing methods. This process has been reduced to practice and has yielded oriented crystals 17.5 x 17.5 x 5 cm 3 . Currently nearing completion is a system for producing 35 x 35 x 7.5 cm 3 single crystals. A scale up to one-meter-square is considered feasible. This crystal growing process makes possible the fabrication of very large CaF 2 windows. Suitability for very high power lasers, however, requires attention to properties beyond mere size. A process to generate higher purity growth stock (starting material) was also developed. The additional purification of the growth stock contributes to lower bulk absorption, the absence of color centers and increased radiation hardness. Also identified were several specific impurities which correlate with radiation hardness. A correlation was found between color centers induced by laser radiation and ionizing radiation. Other CaF 2 crystal properties such as tensile strength, absorption and laser damage thresholds were studied and are discussed

  10. Incidence of and risk factors for nephrolithiasis in patients with gout and the general population, a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, A J; Jacobsson, L T H; Lindström, U; Sandström, T Z S; Drivelegka, P; Björkman, L; Fjellstedt, E; Dehlin, M

    2017-07-24

    Nephrolithiasis (NL) is known to be associated with gout, although there are few comparative studies on risk and risk factors for NL in gout compared to population cohorts. In this cohort study we investigated: (1) overall incidence of NL in gout (cases) and general population controls; (2) risk and risk factors (common comorbidities and medications) for first-time NL in cases and controls separately. Cases (n = 29,968) and age-matched and sex-matched controls (n = 138,678) were identified from the regional healthcare database in western Sweden (VEGA). The analyzed risk factors (comorbidities and current medication use) for first-time NL, and socioeconomic factors were retrieved from VEGA and other national Swedish registers. For cases, follow up began on 1 January 2006 or on the first diagnosis of gout if this occurred later, and for controls on their index patient's first diagnosis of gout. Follow up ended on death, emigration or 31 December 2012. Incidence rates (IR) per 1000 person-years and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated. The incidence calculations were performed for cases (regardless of prior NL) and their controls. HRs with first occurrence of NL as outcome were calculated only in those without previous NL. In cases there were 678 NL events (IR: 6.16 events per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 5.70-6.64) and in controls 2125 NL events (IR 3.85 events per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 3.69-4.02), resulting in an age-sex-adjusted incidence rate ratio of 1.60 (95% CI:1.47-1.74). Point estimates for predictive factors were similar in cases and controls, except for a significant interaction for losartan which increased the risk of NL only in controls (HR = 1.49 (95% CI: 1.03-2.14). Loop diuretics significantly decreased the risk of NL by 30-34% in both cases and controls. Further significant predictors of NL in gout cases were male sex, diabetes and obesity and in controls male sex and kidney disease. The risk (age and sex adjusted) of NL was increased by

  11. Protection of metal artefacts with the formation of metal-oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eJoseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated in vitro. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g.L-1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal-oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archaeological and modern metal artefacts. The production of copper-oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archaeological and modern. The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal-oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates and probably goethite. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. Silver nitrate was extracellularly reduced into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artefacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals.

  12. Enzymatic mechanism of oxalate production in the TCA and glyoxylate pathways using various isolates of Antrodia radiculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Jenkins; S.V. Diehl; C.A. Clausen; F. Green

    2011-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi produce oxalate in large amounts; however, levels of accumulation and function vary by species. Copper-tolerant fungi, like Antrodia radiculosa, produce and accumulate high levels of oxalate in response to copper. Oxalate biosynthesis in copper-tolerant fungi has been linked to the glyoxylate and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycles. Within these two cycles...

  13. Improving the two-step remediation process for CCA-treated wood. Part I, Evaluating oxalic acid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Clausen

    2004-01-01

    In this study, three possible improvements to a remediation process for chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) treated wood were evaluated. The process involves two steps: oxalic acid extraction of wood fiber followed by bacterial culture with Bacillus licheniformis CC01. The three potential improvements to the oxalic acid extraction step were (1) reusing oxalic acid for...

  14. Physical simulation of precipitation of radioactive element oxalates by using the harmless neodymium oxalate for studying the agglomeration phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalleman, Sophie; Bertrand, Murielle; Plasari, Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic precipitation is usually applied in nuclear industry to process radioactive wastes or to recover actinides from a multicomponent solution.This paper deals with the development of methods adapted to a nuclear environment in order to study the agglomeration phenomena during actinide oxalic precipitation.These methods are previously set up with harmless elements that simulate the actinide behaviour: the lanthanides. A parametric study is carried out to quantify the influence of operating parameters on the agglomeration kernel and to determine a kinetic law for this mechanism. The experimental study is performed in a continuous-MSMPR precipitator at steady-state. The method is based on the resolution of two population balances using the moment approach, one for elementary crystals and the other for agglomerates. Provided that the kinetic rates of nucleation and growth are known, the agglomeration kernel can be obtained from a mathematical treatment of the experimental particle size distributions. Results point out that experimental crystal sizes are consistent with an independent kernel. It appears that the agglomeration kernel is directly proportional to supersaturation, increases with temperature but is limited by ionic strength and shear rate. (authors)

  15. The role of calcium utilization of intestinal flora on urinary calcium excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurt Lambrecht, F.; Uenak, P.; Kavukcu, S.; Soylu, A.; Tuerkmen, M.; Kasap, B.; Yucesoy, M.; Esen, N.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether calcium utilization of intestinal flora has any effect on urinary calcium excretion, like oxalate degrading effect of Oxalobacter formigenes. Materials and Methods: The data of urinary calcium excretion examinations were evaluated. 0.1 g/ml of feces samples were implanted in broths. 5 μL of 45 Ca solution was added to the samples and they were incubated for 24 hours at 37 degree C. The amount of bacteriae in the samples was determined as colony forming unit (CFU). 200 μL of the samples were filtrated by 0.45 μm membrane and rinsed by 200 μL pure water. 45 Ca activity ( 45 Ca) of bacteria in the membrane was counted by GM detector for 100 seconds. Then, activity per CFU ( 45 Ca/CFU) was calculated and compared in hypercalciuric (calciuria >4; mg/kg/hour and/or calcium/creatinine ratio>0.21; Group I) and normocalciuric (Group II) patients. Results: Samples of 29 patients with a mean age of 7.50±4.28 (1.5-16) years were evaluated. 11 of them were female (M/F: 18/11). There were 14 patients in Group I and 15 patients in Group II, 45 Ca/CFU was not different for neither aerobic nor anaerobic bacteries between the two groups (p:0.983, p:0.601, respectively). 24-hour urine calcium levels were negatively but not significantly correlated to aerobic and anaerobic 45 Ca/CFU (p:0.079, r:-0.145; p:0.260, r:-0.420, respectively) in hypercalciuric patients. Besides, in normocalciuric patients, 24-hour urine calcium levels were correlated positively to aerobic and negatively to anaerobic 45 Ca/CFU again in an insignificant manner (p:0.509, r: 0.223; p:0623, r:-0.257, respectively). Conclusion: In this, study, similar 45 Ca/CFU levels in both hypercalciuric and normocalciuric patients imply that calcium utilization of intestinal flora does not have a distinct effect on urinary calcium excretion but, although not significant, there was a negative correlation between urine calcium levels and bacterial 45 Ca/CFU levels especially in hypercalciuric

  16. FT-Raman spectroscopic study of calcium-rich and magnesium-rich carbonate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Villar, Susana E Jorge; Jehlicka, Jan; Munshi, Tasnim

    2005-08-01

    Calcium and magnesium carbonates are important minerals found in sedimentary environments. Although sandstones are the most common rock colonized by endolith organisms, the production of calcium and magnesium carbonates is important in survival strategies of organisms and as a source for the removal of oxalate ions. Extremophile organisms in some situations may convert or destroy carbonates of calcium and magnesium, which gives important information about the conditions under which these organisms can survive. The identification on the surface of Mars of 'White Rock' formations, in Juventae Chasma or Sabaea Terra, as possibly carbonate rocks makes the study of these minerals a prerequisite of remote Martian exploration. Here, we show the protocol for the identification by Raman spectroscopy of different calcium and magnesium carbonates and we present a database of relevance in the search for life, extinct or extant, on Mars; this will be useful for the assessment of data obtained from remote, miniaturized Raman spectrometers now proposed for Mars exploration.

  17. Study on the Key Technology of High Purity Strontium Titanate Powder Synthesized from Oxalic Acid Co-sediment Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoguo; Dong, Yingnan; Li, Yingjie; Niu, Wei; Tang, Jian; Ding, Shuang; Li, Meiyang

    2017-09-01

    Oxalate coprecipitation is applied in this paper, high purity titanium tetrachloride, and after the purification of strontium chloride, match with a certain concentration of solution, oxalate and strontium chloride and titanium tetrachloride in 1.005:1.000 make strontium titanium mixture ratio, slowly under 60°C to join in oxalic acid solution, aging around 4 h, get oxygen titanium strontium oxalate (SrTiO(C2O4)2 • 4H2 ) precipitation, after washing, drying and other process made oxygen titanium strontium oxalate powder.

  18. (Di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanaminium hydrogen oxalate–oxalic acid (2/1)

    OpenAIRE

    Bialek, Sebastian; Clemens, Rebecca; Reiss, Guido J.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of (di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanamine (dpma) with oxalic acid in ethanol yielded the title solvated salt, C3H11NOP+·C2HO4 −·0.5C2H2O4. Its asymmetric unit consists of one dpmaH+ cation, one hydrogen oxalate anion and a half-mol­ecule of oxalic acid located around a twofold rotation axis. The H atom of the hydrogen oxalate anion is statistically disordered over two positions that are trans to each other. The hydrogen oxalate monoanion is not planar (bend angle ∼16°) whereas the ox...

  19. Optimization of air-sparged plutonium oxalate/hydroxide precipitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanderHeyden, W.B.; Yarbro, S.L.; Fife, K.W.

    1997-04-01

    The high cost of waste management and experimental work makes numerical modeling an inexpensive and attractive tool for optimizing and understanding complex chemical processes. Multiphase open-quotes bubbleclose quotes columns are used extensively at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility for a variety of different applications. No moving parts and efficient mixing characteristics allow them to be used in glovebox operations. Initially, a bubble column for oxalate precipitations is being modeled to identify the effect of various design parameters such as, draft tube location, air sparge rate and vessel geometry. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric models have been completed and successfully compared to literature data. Also, a preliminary three-dimensional model has been completed. These results are discussed in this report along with future work

  20. Manganese oxalate nanorods as ballistic modifier for composite solid propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Supriya [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India); Chawla, Mohit [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Siril, Prem Felix, E-mail: prem@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Singh, Gurdip [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Manganese oxalate nanorods were prepared using mild thermal precipitation and aging. • The nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for solid propellants. • The nanorods sensitized the thermolysis of ammonium perchlorate. • Controlled thermal decomposition of nanorods yielded manganese oxide nanoparticles. • MnO nanoparticles formed insitu in the condensed phase enhance the burning rates. - Abstract: Rod-shaped nanostructures of manganese oxalate (MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were synthesized via mild thermal precipitation and aging process. Chemical composition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was confirmed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies revealed the crystal structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) imaging and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) were employed to study the structural features of the nanorods. The MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for the burning rate enhancement of composite solid propellants (CSPs). Thermal analysis using TGA-DSC showed that MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods sensitized the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and the CSPs. Controlled thermal decomposition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods resulted in the formation of managanese oxide nanoparticles with mesoporosity. A plausible mechanism for the burning rate enhancement using MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was proposed.

  1. Decontamination effectiveness of mixtures of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranzini, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study of the decontamination effectiveness of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA mixtures was conducted to assess whether oxalic acid could be removed from decontamination solutions to minimize corrosion. In loop experiments, radioactive specimens from two boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor were suspended in solutions of single acids or in mixtures of reagents at total reagent concentrations of less than 0.1 wt% under conditions similar to those used to decontaminate reactor systems. Rate constants for dissolution of oxides and decontamination factors were measured. Based on the results, it was concluded that under certain conditions, oxalic acid was the most effective reagent for the dissolution of oxides. It was also found, however, that conditions under which effective dissolution occurred in solutions of oxalic acid and/or citric acid were difficult to define and control. EDTA was found to be an effective reagent for dissolution of oxides such that rates of dissolution in EDTA containing solutions at 117 degrees Celsius were comparable to rates in oxalic acid containing solutions. At 90 degrees Celsius, EDTA acted synergistically with oxalic acid such that the rate of dissolution of oxides in citric-acid/oxalic-acid/EDTA solutions was higher than in citric-acid/EDTA solutions. The rates of dissolution of oxides were significantly reduced when 60 mg/kg of ferric ion was added to the citric-acid/oxalic-acid, citric-acid/EDTA and citric-acid/oxalic-acid/EDTA solutions. It was concluded that effective decontaminations of BWR and PWR systems could be achieved with mixtures of citric acid and EDTA

  2. Structural diversity of the lanthanide oxalates: Condensation of neodymium oxygen polyhedra under hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mer, A.; Rivenet, M.; Abraham, F.; De Almeida, L.; Grandjean, S.

    2013-01-01

    New neodymium hydroxo-oxalate and oxalate [Nd 6 (H 2 O) 6 (C 2 O 4 ) 7 (OH) 4 ].4H 2 O (1) and [Nd 2 (H 2 O) 4 (C 2 O 4 ) 3 ].2H 2 O (2) were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction at 150 C between neodymium nitrate and oxalic acid solutions at pH = 10-11 obtained by adding various monoamines. The structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The two compounds crystallize in the monoclinic system with space group P21/c and a = 17.4384 (11), b = 8.1717 (5), c = 12.9929 (7), β = 94.66 (1) degrees, V = 1845.38 (19) (Angstroms) 3 , Z = 2 for 1 and a = 9.8249 (2) Angstroms, b = 8.2487 (2) Angstroms, c = 10.1911 (3) Angstroms, β = 99.09 (1), V = 815.53 (4) (Angstroms) 3 , Z = 2 for 2. Full matrix least-squares refinement yielded R1 = 0.0365 and 0.0267 for 6033 and 3382 independent reflections for 1 and 2 respectively. In 2, the three-dimensional neodymium oxalate arrangement results from dimeric units of edge shared NdO 9 polyhedra connected through oxalate ions acting as bis-bidentate. In 1, the neodymium atoms are connected through μ2-OH and μ3-OH ions to form a hexa-nuclear inorganic core [Nd 6 (OH) 4 (H 2 O) 6 ] with an un-precedently reported geometry leading to a hexa-nuclear polyhedra block. The blocks are connected through an O-O bridge involving two oxygen atoms of two oxalate ions to build a centipede-like ribbon. The ribbons are further connected through oxalate ions to form a three dimensional neodymium oxalate arrangement. In 1, oxalates adopt four distinct bridging modes of coordination, μ2, μ3, μ4 and μ5. (authors)

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E

    2008-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned

  4. Enhanced nitrogen availability in karst ecosystems by oxalic acid release in the rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujing ePan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In karst ecosystems, a high level of CaCO3 enhances the stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM and causes nitrogen (N and/or phosphorus (P limitation in plants. Oxalic acid has been suggested to be involved in the nutrient-acquisition strategy of plants because its addition can temporarily relieve nutrient limitation. Therefore, understanding how oxalic acid drives N availability may help support successful vegetation restoration in the karst ecosystems of southwest China. We tested a model suggested by Clarholm et al. (2015 where oxalate reacts with Ca bridges in SOM, thus exposing previously protected areas to enzymatic attacks in a way that releases N for local uptake. We studied the effects of oxalic acid, microbial biomass C (MBC, and β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG on potential N mineralization rates in rhizosphere soils of four plant species (two shrubs and two trees in karst areas. The results showed that rhizosphere soils of shrubs grown on formerly deforested land had significantly lower oxalic acid concentrations and NAG activity than that of trees in a 200-year-old forest. The levels of MBC in rhizosphere soils of shrubs were significantly lower than those of trees in the growing season, but the measure of shrubs and trees were similar in the non-growing season; the potential N mineralization rates showed a reverse pattern. Positive relationships were found among oxalic acid, MBC, NAG activity, and potential N mineralization rates for both shrubs and trees. This indicated that oxalic acid, microbes, and NAG may enhance N availability for acquisition by plants. Path analysis showed that oxalic acid enhanced potential N mineralization rates indirectly through inducing microbes and NAG activities. We found that the exudation of oxalic acid clearly provides an important mechanism that allows plants to enhance nutrient acquisition in karst ecosystems.

  5. Influence of oxalic acid on the dissolution kinetics of manganese oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godunov, E. B.; Artamonova, I. V.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.

    2012-11-01

    The kinetics and electrochemical processes of the dissolution of manganese oxides with various oxidation states in sulfuric acid solutions containing oxalate ion additives is studied under variable conditions (concentration, pH, temperature). The parameters favoring a higher degree of the dissolution of manganese oxides in acidic media are determined. The optimal conditions are found for the dissolution of manganese oxides in acidic media in the presence of oxalate ions. The mechanism proposed for the dissolution of manganese oxides in sulfuric acid solutions containing oxalic acid is based on the results of kinetic and electrochemical studies. The steps of the dissolution mechanism are discussed.

  6. Complexation of Am(III) by oxalate in NaClO4 media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.; Chen, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    The complexation of Am(III) by oxalate has been investigated in solutions of NaClO 4 up to 9.0 M ionic strength at 25 degrees C. The dissociation constants of oxalic acid were determined by potentiometric titration, while the stability constants of the Am(III)-oxalate complexation were measured by the solvent extraction technique. A thermodynamic model was constructed to predict the apparent equilibrium constants at different ionic strengths by applying the Pitzer equation using parameters for the Na + -HOx - , Na + -Ox - , AmOx + -ClO 4 - , and Na + -Am(Ox) 2 - interactions obtained by fitting the data

  7. Calcium and phosphorus regulatory hormones and risk of incident symptomatic kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric N; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Curhan, Gary C

    2015-04-07

    Calcium and phosphorus regulatory hormones may contribute to the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis. However, there has been no prospective study to date of plasma hormone levels and risk of kidney stones. This study aimed to examine independent associations between plasma levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and creatinine and the subsequent risk of incident kidney stones. This study was a prospective, nested case-control study of men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who were free of diagnosed nephrolithiasis at blood draw. During 12 years of follow-up, 356 men developed an incident symptomatic kidney stone. Using risk set sampling, controls were selected in a 2:1 ratio (n=712 controls) and matched for age, race, and year, month, and time of day of blood collection. Baseline plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and creatinine were similar in cases and controls. Mean 1,25(OH)2D and median FGF23 levels were higher in cases than controls but differences were small and statistically nonsignificant (45.7 versus 44.2 pg/ml, P=0.07 for 1,25[OH]2D; 47.6 versus 45.1 pg/ml, P=0.08 for FGF23). However, after adjusting for body mass index, diet, plasma factors, and other covariates, the odds ratios of incident symptomatic kidney stones in the highest compared with lowest quartiles were 1.73 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 2.71; P for trend 0.01) for 1,25(OH)2D and 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 2.19; P for trend 0.03) for FGF23. There were no significant associations between other plasma factors and kidney stone risk. Higher plasma 1,25(OH)2D, even in ranges considered normal, is independently associated with higher risk of symptomatic kidney stones. Although of borderline statistical significance, these findings also suggest that higher FGF23 may be

  8. Preparation of nuclear purity beryllium oxalate tri-hydrate; Preparation d'oxalate de beryllium trihydrate de purete nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcorte, M; Lecocq, A; Rigaud, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In this report we have gathered the whole of the knowledge acquired by our group during the campaign for preparation of beryllium oxalate we carried out through the first half year of 1962. The reader shall find in the first place information and bibliographic data gathered by Miss OLLIVIER, documentalist of the Section d'Etudes, Recherches et Applications Chimiques. We then describe the original process perfected in the laboratories, and the production techniques we employed for the semi-large operative units. Finally, we publish the results we obtained on one hand on the chemical aspect, in the industrial meaning of the term, which is to-day concerning the ponderal output, on the other hand on the analytical aspect as you can evidently not dissociate the quantity of substance produced from its purity. (authors) [French] Nous avons reuni dans ce document l'ensemble des connaissances acquises par notre groupe pendant la campagne de preparation d'oxalate de beryllium que nous avons effectuee au cours du 1er semestre 1962. Le lecteur y trouvera en premier lieu les renseignements et donnees bibliographiques rassembles par Mlle OLLIVIER, documentaliste a la Section d'Etudes, Recherches et Applications Chimiques. Nous decrivons ensuite le procede original mis au point dans les laboratoires et les techniques de fabrication que nous avons utilisees pour des unites operatoires demi-grand. Pour terminer nous publions les resultats obtenus, d'une part sur le plan chimique, au sens industriel du terme, c'est-a-dire du point de vue rendement ponderal, d'autre part sur le plan analytique puisqu'on ne peut evidemment pas dissocier la quantite de produit fabrique, de sa purete. (auteurs)

  9. Calcium and magnesium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The roles of calcium and magnesium in human health and disease have been extensively studied. Calcium and magnesium have been determined in biological specimens by atomic absorption spectroscopy using stiochiometric nitrous oxide-acetylene flame

  10. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  11. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  12. A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwalka, Neha J; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Mughal, M Zulf; Sayyad, Mehmood G; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Shirole, Shilpa C; Divate, Uma P; Bhandari, Dhanshari R

    2010-01-01

    Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adolescence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689-1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.

  13. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  14. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of

  15. Structure and dynamics of solvated hydrogenoxalate and oxalate anions: theoretical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroutil, O.; Minofar, Babak; Kabeláč, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2016), s. 210 ISSN 1610-2940 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ab initio molecular dynamics * oxalic acid anions * Potential energy surface Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.425, year: 2016

  16. Precipitation stripping of neodymium from carboxylate extractant with aqueous oxalic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Yasuhiro; Asai, Satoru; Murai, Tetuya

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a precipitation stripping method in which neodymium ions are stripped from carboxylate extractant in organic solvent and simultaneously precipitated with aqueous oxalic acid solution. For the single-stage process, a quantitative criterion for precipitating oxalate powders was derived theoretically, and stripping experiments were done under the precipitation conditions. The resultant precipitates were neodymium oxalate, which is completely free from contamination by the carboxylate extractant and the organic solvent. The overall rate of stripping was controlled by the transfer of neodymium carboxylate in the organic solution, indicating that the presence of oxalic acid in the aqueous phase has no effect on the stripping rate. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of combining the conventional stripping and precipitation stages in a solvent extraction process for separation and purification of rare earths

  17. Hydrothermal growth of cross-linked hyperbranched copper dendrites using copper oxalate complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Duc; Kakihana, Masato

    2012-06-01

    A facile and surfactant-free approach has been developed for the synthesis of cross-linked hyperbranched copper dendrites using copper oxalate complex as a precursor and oxalic acid as a reducing and structure-directing agent. The synthesized particles are composed of highly branched nanostructures with unusual cross-linked hierarchical networks. The formation of copper dendrites can be explained in view of both diffusion control and aggregation-based growth model accompanied by the chelation-assisted assembly. Oxalic acid was found to play dual roles as reducing and structure-directing agent based on the investigation results. The understanding on the crystal growth and the roles of oxalic acid provides clear insight into the formation mechanism of hyperbranched metal dendrites.

  18. Oxalate content of different drinkable dilutions of tea infusions after different brewing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of different brewing times and diluting on oxalate content of loose-packed black teas consumed in Tabriz, Iran. The oxalate content of black teas after brewing for 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 minutes was measured in triplicate by enzymatic assay. In order to attain the most acceptable dilution of tea infusions, tea samples which were brewed for 15, 30 and 60 minutes were diluted two (120 ml), three (80 ml) and four (60 ml) times respectively. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentrations associated with increased brewing times (Pbrewing times, respectively. There were significant differences between the mean oxalate content of different dilutions after brewing for 15, 30 and 60 minutes (Pbrewing times and different dilution was below the recommended levels. Therefore, it seems that consumption of black tea several times per day would not pose significant health risk in kidney stone patients and susceptible individuals.

  19. Thermal, FT–IR and dielectric studies of gel grown sodium oxalate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Institute of Diploma Studies, Nirma University of Science and Technology, Ahmedabad 384 481, India. MS received 29 ... dielectric response at various frequencies of applied field. ... 1987). Many oxalates exist in nature, for example, copper.

  20. Utilisation of sugarcane trash and other cellulosic wastes for production of oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, J D; Modak, H M; Ramaiah, N A; Jadhav, S J

    1988-01-01

    The nitric acid oxidation process was developed for the production of oxalic acid from sugarcane trash, groundnut shells, corn cobs and rice husks. Good yields of oxalic acid from the above raw materials were obtained under optimum conditions, with sugarcane trash as the preferable raw material. The absorption of waste nitrogen oxide gases in aqueous NaOH to get a valuable by-product, sodium nitrite, was also successful.

  1. Recovery of plutonium from oxalate supernatant using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.; Gupta, K.K.; Singh, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Extraction of Pu(IV) from oxalate supernatant was carried out employing varying concentrations of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (PMBP). Near quantitative extraction of Pu(IV) from an aqueous solution of 0.2M oxalic acid and 3M HNO 3 was possible employing 0.05M PMBP solution in xylene. Extraction studies at different uranium loading conditions were carried out and conditions for quantitative stripping were arrived at. (author). 2 refs., 4 tabs

  2. In-cloud oxalate formation in the global troposphere: a 3-D modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Myriokefalitakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids attract increasing attention as contributors to atmospheric acidity, secondary organic aerosol mass and aerosol hygroscopicity. Oxalic acid is globally the most abundant dicarboxylic acid, formed via chemical oxidation of gas-phase precursors in the aqueous phase of aerosols and droplets. Its lifecycle and atmospheric global distribution remain highly uncertain and are the focus of this study. The first global spatial and temporal distribution of oxalate, simulated using a state-of-the-art aqueous-phase chemical scheme embedded within the global 3-dimensional chemistry/transport model TM4-ECPL, is here presented. The model accounts for comprehensive gas-phase chemistry and its coupling with major aerosol constituents (including secondary organic aerosol. Model results are consistent with ambient observations of oxalate at rural and remote locations (slope = 1.16 ± 0.14, r2 = 0.36, N = 114 and suggest that aqueous-phase chemistry contributes significantly to the global atmospheric burden of secondary organic aerosol. In TM4-ECPL most oxalate is formed in-cloud and less than 5 % is produced in aerosol water. About 62 % of the oxalate is removed via wet deposition, 30 % by in-cloud reaction with hydroxyl radical, 4 % by in-cloud reaction with nitrate radical and 4 % by dry deposition. The in-cloud global oxalate net chemical production is calculated to be about 21–37 Tg yr−1 with almost 79 % originating from biogenic hydrocarbons, mainly isoprene. This condensed phase net source of oxalate in conjunction with a global mean turnover time against deposition of about 5 days, maintain oxalate's global tropospheric burden of 0.2–0.3 Tg, i.e. 0.05–0.1 Tg-C that is about 5–9 % of model-calculated water soluble organic carbon burden.

  3. Evidence of a natural marine source of oxalic acid and a possible link to glyoxal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Matteo; Decesari, Stefano; Carbone, Claudio; Finessi, Emanuela; Fuzzi, Sandro; Ceburnis, Darius; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Sciare, Jean; Burrows, John P.; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Ervens, Barbara; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Facchini, Maria Cristina

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents results supporting the existence of a natural source of oxalic acid over the oceans. Oxalate was detected in "clean-sector" marine aerosol samples at Mace Head (Ireland) (53°20'N, 9°54'W) during 2006, and at Amsterdam Island (37°48'S, 77°34'E) from 2003 to 2007, in concentrations ranging from 2.7 to 39 ng m-3 and from 0.31 to 17 ng m-3, respectively. The oxalate concentration showed a clear seasonal trend at both sites, with maxima in spring-summer and minima in fall-winter, being consistent with other marine biogenic aerosol components (e.g., methanesulfonic acid, non-sea-salt sulfate, and aliphatic amines). The observed oxalate was distributed along the whole aerosol size spectrum, with both a submicrometer and a supermicrometer mode, unlike the dominant submicrometer mode encountered in many polluted environments. Given its mass size distribution, the results suggest that over remote oceanic regions oxalate is produced through a combination of different formation processes. It is proposed that the cloud-mediated oxidation of gaseous glyoxal, recently detected over remote oceanic regions, may be an important source of submicrometer oxalate in the marine boundary layer. Supporting this hypothesis, satellite-retrieved glyoxal column concentrations over the two sampling sites exhibited the same seasonal concentration trend of oxalate. Furthermore, chemical box model simulations showed that the observed submicrometer oxalate concentrations were consistent with the in-cloud oxidation of typical marine air glyoxal mixing ratios, as retrieved by satellite measurements, at both sites.

  4. Morphological control of strontium oxalate particles by PSMA-mediated precipitation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Jiaguo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)]. E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com; Tang Hua [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Cheng Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2005-05-15

    In this paper, strontium oxalate particles with different morphologies could be easily obtained by a precipitation reaction of sodium oxalate with strontium chloride in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA). The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of pH, aging time and concentration of PSMA on the phase structures and morphologies of the as-prepared strontium oxalate particles were investigated and discussed. The results showed that strontium oxalate particles with various morphologies, such as, bi-pyramids, rods, peanuts, and spherical particles, etc., could be obtained by varying the experimental conditions. PSMA promoted the formation of strontium oxalate dihydrate (SOD) phase. Suitable pH values (pH 7 and 8) favor the formation of the peanut-shaped SrC{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. This research may provide new insight into the control of morphologies and phase structures of strontium oxalate particles and the biomimetic synthesis of novel inorganic materials.

  5. Competitive and Cooperative Effects during Nickel Adsorption to Iron Oxides in the Presence of Oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Elaine D. [Department of Earth and Planetary; Catalano, Jeffrey G. [Department of Earth and Planetary

    2017-08-09

    Iron oxides are ubiquitous in soils and sediments and play a critical role in the geochemical distribution of trace elements and heavy metals via adsorption and coprecipitation. The presence of organic acids may potentially alter how metals associate with iron oxide minerals through a series of cooperative or competitive processes: solution complexation, ternary surface complexation, and surface site competition. The macroscopic and molecular-scale effects of these processes were investigated for Ni adsorption to hematite and goethite at pH 7 in the presence of oxalate. The addition of this organic acid suppresses Ni uptake on both minerals. Aqueous speciation suggests that this is dominantly the result of oxalate complexing and solubilizing Ni. Comparison of the Ni surface coverage to the concentration of free (uncomplexed) Ni2+ in solution suggests that the oxalate also alters Ni adsorption affinity. EXAFS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopies indicate that these changes in binding affinity are due to the formation of Ni–oxalate ternary surface complexes. These observations demonstrate that competition between dissolved oxalate and the mineral surface for Ni overwhelms the enhancement in adsorption associated with ternary complexation. Oxalate thus largely enhances Ni mobility, thereby increasing micronutrient bioavailability and inhibiting contaminant sequestration.

  6. Determination of Food Oxalates Using Silica–Titania Xerogel Modified with Eriochrome Cyanine R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Morosanova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of silica–titania xerogel with triphenylmethane dyes (pyrocatechol violet, chrome azurol S, eriochrome cyanine R has been investigated to create a new sensor material for solid phase spectrophotometric determination of food oxalates. The complex forming reaction between xerogel incorporated titanium(IV and triphenylmethane dyes has been studied; half-reaction periods, complex composition, equilibrium constants, and xerogel sorption capacity have been calculated for each dye. Eriochrome cyanine R (ECR is characterized by the shortest half-reaction period, the smallest equilibrium constant, and the greatest capacity; it has been chosen for the sensor material construction because titanium(IV-ECR complex is formed faster and can be destroyed easier than other studied complexes. The interaction of this sensor material with oxalates has been described: the presence of oxalates causes sensor material discoloration and the absorbance is used as analytical signal. The analytical range is 35–900 mg/L (LOD 10.5 mg/L, n = 7. High concentrations of interfering inorganic anions, organic acids, and sucrose did not affect oxalate determination. Proposed solid phase spectrophotometric procedure has been successfully applied for the determination of oxalates in food samples (sorrel, spinach, parsley, ginger, and black pepper and the results are in good agreement with HPLC oxalate determination.

  7. Determination of water-soluble forms of oxalic and formic acids in soils by ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karicheva, E.; Guseva, N.; Kambalina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Carboxylic acids (CA) play an important role in the chemical composition origin of soils and migration of elements. The content of these acids and their salts is one of the important characteristics for agrochemical, ecological, ameliorative and hygienic assessment of soils. The aim of the article is to determine water-soluble forms of same carboxylic acids — (oxalic and formic acids) in soils by ion chromatography with gradient elution. For the separation and determination of water-soluble carboxylic acids we used reagent-free gradient elution ion-exchange chromatography ICS-2000 (Dionex, USA), the model solutions of oxalate and formate ions, and leachates from soils of the Kola Peninsula. The optimal gradient program was established for separation and detection of oxalate and formate ions in water solutions by ion chromatography. A stability indicating method was developed for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble organic acids in soils. The method has shown high detection limits such as 0.03 mg/L for oxalate ion and 0.02 mg/L for formate ion. High signal reproducibility was achieved in wide range of intensities which correspond to the following ion concentrations: from 0.04 mg/g to 10 mg/L (formate), from 0.1 mg/g to 25 mg/L (oxalate). The concentration of formate and oxalate ions in soil samples is from 0.04 to 0.9 mg/L and 0.45 to 17 mg/L respectively.

  8. Intercomparison of the measurements of oxalic acid in aerosols by gas chromatography and ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Barrie, Leonard A.; Toom-Sauntry, Desiree

    2010-12-01

    Oxalate, the anion of oxalic acid, is one of the most abundant measurable organic species in atmospheric aerosols. Traditionally, this bifunctional species has been measured by gas chromatography (GC) after derivatization to butyl ester and by ion chromatography (IC) without derivatization. However, there are few published comparisons of the two techniques. Here, we report the results of an intercomparison study for the measurement of oxalic acid in Arctic aerosols (oxalic acid by GC ranged from 6.5-59.1 ng m -3 (av. 26.0 ng m -3, median 26.2 ng m -3) whereas those by IC ranged from 6.6-52.1 ng m -3 (av. 26.6 ng m -3, median 25.4 ng m -3). They showed a good correlation ( r = 0.84) with a slope of 0.96. Thus, observations of oxalate obtained by GC employing dibutyl esters are almost equal to those by IC. Because the accuracy of oxalic acid by GC method largely depends on the method used, it is important to strictly examine the recovery in each study.

  9. Putative Aspergillus niger-induced oxalate nephrosis in sheep : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A sheep farmer provided a maize-based brewer's grain (mieliemaroek and bales of Eragrostis curvula hay to ewes and their lambs, kept on zero-grazing in pens. The 'mieliemaroek' was visibly mouldy. After 14 days in the feedlot, clinical signs, including generalised weakness, ataxia of the hind limbs, tremors and recumbency, were noticed. Six ewes died within a period of 7 days. A post mortem examination was performed on 1 ewe. The carcass appeared to be cachectic with mild effusions into the body cavities; mild lung congestion and pallor of the kidneys were observed. Microscopical evaluation revealed nephrosis and birefringent oxalate crystals in the renal tubules when viewed under polarised light. A provisional diagnosis of oxalate nephrosis with subsequent kidney failure was made. Amongst other fungi, Aspergillus niger was isolated from 'mieliemaroek' samples submitted for fungal culture and identification. As A. niger is known to synthesise oxalates, a qualitative screen to detect oxalic acid in the mieliemaroek and purified A. niger isolates was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Oxalic acid was detected, which supported a diagnosis of soluble oxalate-induced nephropathy.

  10. Investigation on clean-up of Zr and HDBP in PUREX process with UDMH oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Youzhi; Wang Xuanjun; Li Zhengli; Liu Xiangxuan

    2007-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the interracial crud formation is related to the complex formation of Zr with degradation products of TBP, such as DBP and MBP, in PUREX process, especially in the first cycle. The crud seriously deteriorates the operation of extraction column and therefore must be properly cleared up. Various clear up methods were studied and those with salt-free washing agents were recently focused. In this paper a new scrubbing agent 1,1- dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) oxalate was proposed, the optimized experimental conditions were described, and the possible mechanism was discussed. The influence of different factors, including reaction temperature, UDMH oxalate concentration, organic-to-aqueous phase ratio, and free UDMH concentration, on the decontamination factors were examined with simulated Zr- and/or DBP-loaded solvents. The optical experimental parameters are found as follows: temperature 40-60 degree C, phase ratio V (o) /V (a) =1, concentration of UDMH oxalate solution 0.4-0.6 mol/L. Especialy some UDMH was added into the UDMH oxalate queues solution to make the concentration of free UDMH 0.2-0.3 mol/L. Under these conditions, the decontaminator factor of Zr from the corresponding simulated solvent with UDMH oxalate is up to 143, slightly higher than that with sodium carbonate. The decontamination factor of HDBP from the corresponding simulated solvent with UDMH oxalate is up to 100, similar to sodium carbonate. (authors)

  11. Actinides in intermediate-level liquid waste: removal by oxalic acid precipitation followed by cement incorporation and characterization of the final product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokelund, H.; Lebrun, M.; Ougier, M.; de Caritat de Peruzzis, G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the conditions for the provision of an alpha free waste form (non-TRU waste with 5000) and adequate (70) DF-values were found for americium and for plutonium, respectively, with calcium as the preferred carrier. No difference between simulated and genuine ILLW was found. The final cement product was investigated by measurements of its mechanical and chemical properties. The compressive strength was evaluated as functions of the ageing time and the salt content of the waste incorporated. Furthermore, the change of porosity of the product and its resistance to water leaching were tested. The study was carried out on both simulated and genuine ILLW samples. The use of microsilica as an additive to the cement gave significant improvements in the performance of the matrix: the compressive strength was increased and, more pronounced, the leachability was decreased by up to 50%. No detrimental effects of oxalates on the cement matrix were found

  12. The thermal decomposition of copper(II) oxalate revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, Emmanuel; Watkins, Gareth M.; Brown, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    DSC, TG and TG-FT-IR, and XRPD have been used to examine the effects of supposedly inert atmospheres of argon and nitrogen on the mechanism of the thermal decomposition of copper(II) oxalate. The DSC curves in pure argon at 10 deg. C min -1 show a broad endotherm with onset at about 280 deg. C and maximum at about 295 deg. C. In mixtures of argon and nitrogen, as the proportion of argon gas is decreased, the endothermic character of the decomposition decreases until, when nitrogen is the main component, the decomposition exhibits a complex broad exothermic character. XRPD studies showed that, regardless of the proportions of nitrogen and argon, the DSC residues consisted of mainly copper metal with small amounts of copper(I) oxide (cuprite) and, under some conditions, traces of copper(II) oxide (tenorite). Various explanations for this behaviour are discussed and a possible answer lies in the disproportionation of CO 2 (g) to form small quantities of O 2 (g) or monatomic oxygen. The possibility exists that the exothermicity in nitrogen could be explained by reaction of the nitrogen with atomic oxygen to form N 2 O(g), but this product could not be detected using TG-FT-IR

  13. The thermal decomposition of copper(II) oxalate revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamprecht, Emmanuel [Chemistry Department, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Watkins, Gareth M. [Chemistry Department, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Brown, Michael E. [Chemistry Department, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)]. E-mail: m.brown@ru.ac.za

    2006-07-01

    DSC, TG and TG-FT-IR, and XRPD have been used to examine the effects of supposedly inert atmospheres of argon and nitrogen on the mechanism of the thermal decomposition of copper(II) oxalate. The DSC curves in pure argon at 10 deg. C min{sup -1} show a broad endotherm with onset at about 280 deg. C and maximum at about 295 deg. C. In mixtures of argon and nitrogen, as the proportion of argon gas is decreased, the endothermic character of the decomposition decreases until, when nitrogen is the main component, the decomposition exhibits a complex broad exothermic character. XRPD studies showed that, regardless of the proportions of nitrogen and argon, the DSC residues consisted of mainly copper metal with small amounts of copper(I) oxide (cuprite) and, under some conditions, traces of copper(II) oxide (tenorite). Various explanations for this behaviour are discussed and a possible answer lies in the disproportionation of CO{sub 2}(g) to form small quantities of O{sub 2}(g) or monatomic oxygen. The possibility exists that the exothermicity in nitrogen could be explained by reaction of the nitrogen with atomic oxygen to form N{sub 2}O(g), but this product could not be detected using TG-FT-IR.

  14. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  15. Thiazides diuretics in the treatment of nephrolithiasis: are we using them in an evidence-based fashion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigen, Rebecca; Weideman, Rick A; Reilly, Robert F

    2011-09-01

    In the 1980s a change occurred in hydrochlorothiazide prescribing practices for hypertension from high-dose (50 mg/day) to low-dose (12.5-25 mg/day) therapy. However, randomized controlled trials (RCT) for prevention of calcium-containing kidney stones (CCKS) employed only high doses (≥ 50 mg/day). We hypothesized that these practices have resulted in underdosing of hydrochlorothiazide for prevention of CCKS. Patients with a filled prescription for thiazide diuretics that underwent a 24-h urine stone risk factor analysis were eligible. Those with evidence that thiazide was prescribed for CCKS were further analyzed. Of 107 patients, 102 were treated with hydrochlorothiazide, 4 with indapamide, and one with chlorthalidone. Only 35% of hydrochlorothiazide-treated patients received 50 mg/day; a dose previously shown to reduce stone recurrence. Fifty-two percent were prescribed 25 mg and 13% 12.5 mg daily, doses that were not studied in RCT. Evidence-based hydrochlorothiazide use was suboptimal regardless of where the patient received care (Nephrology or Endocrinology clinic). In a small subset of patients (n = 6) with 24-h urinary calcium excretion measured at baseline and after 2 hydrochlorothiazide doses (25 and ≥ 50 mg), there was a trend toward decreased urinary calcium excretion as the dose was increased from 25 to ≥ 50 mg/day (p = 0.051). Low-dose hydrochlorothiazide was often used for prevention of CCKS despite the fact that there is no evidence that it is effective in this setting. This may have resulted from a practice pattern of using lower doses for hypertension therapy or a lack of knowledge of RCT results in treatment of CCKS.

  16. Adaptable coordination of U(IV) in the 2D-(4,4) uranium oxalate network: From 8 to 10 coordinations in the uranium (IV) oxalate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvieubourg-Garela, L.; Vigier, N.; Abraham, F.; Grandjean, S.

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of uranium (IV) oxalate hydrates, U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .6H 2 O (1) and U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .2H 2 O (2), were obtained by hydrothermal methods using two different U(IV) precursors, U 3 O 8 oxide and nitric U(IV) solution in presence of hydrazine to avoid oxidation of U(IV) into uranyl ion. Growth of crystals of solvated monohydrated uranium (IV) oxalate, U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .H 2 O.(dma) (3), dma=dimethylamine, was achieved by slow diffusion of U(IV) into a gel containing oxalate ions. The three structures are built on a bi-dimensional complex polymer of U(IV) atoms connected through bis-bidentate oxalate ions forming [U(C 2 O 4 )] 4 pseudo-squares. The flexibility of this supramolecular arrangement allows modifications of the coordination number of the U(IV) atom which, starting from 8 in 1 increases to 9 in 3 and, finally increases, to 10 in 2. The coordination polyhedron changes from a distorted cube, formed by eight oxygen atoms of four oxalate ions, in 1, to a mono-capped square anti-prism in 3 and, finally, to a di-capped square anti-prism in 2, resulting from rotation of the oxalate ions and addition of one and two water oxygen atoms in the coordination of U(IV). In 1, the space between the ∞ 2 [U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 ] planar layers is occupied by non-coordinated water molecules; in 2, the space between the staggered ∞ 2 [U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .2H 2 O] layers is empty, finally in 3, the solvate molecules occupy the interlayer space between corrugated ∞ 2 [U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .H 2 O] sheets. The thermal decomposition of U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .6H 2 O under air and argon atmospheres gives U 3 O 8 and UO 2 , respectively. - Graphical abstract: The adaptable environment of U(IV) in U(IV) oxalates: from eight cubic coordination in U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .6H 2 O (a) completed by water oxygens to nine in [U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .H 2 O](C 2 NH 5 ) (b) and ten coordination in U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .2H 2 O (c)

  17. Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets in rats: potential application in a bioregenerative life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, K. P.; Nielsen, S. S.; Smart, D. J.; Mitchell, C. A.; Belury, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets containing various proportions of candidate crops for a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) was determined by femur 45Ca uptake. Three vegetarian diets and a control diet were labeled extrinsically with 45Ca and fed to 5-wk old male rats. A fifth group of rats fed an unlabeled control diet received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 45Ca. There was no significant difference in mean calcium absorption of vegetarian diets (90.80 +/- 5.23%) and control diet (87.85 +/- 5.25%) when calculated as the percent of an IP dose. The amounts of phytate, oxalate, and dietary fiber in the diets did not affect calcium absorption.

  18. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Yeong Jang

    Full Text Available Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10% and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%, were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate. These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease.

  19. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  20. Dengue and Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan C; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is potentially fatal unless managed appropriately. No specific treatment is available and the mainstay of treatment is fluid management with careful monitoring, organ support, and correction of metabolic derangement. Evidence with regards to the role of calcium homeostasis in dengue is limited. Low blood calcium levels have been demonstrated in dengue infection and hypocalcemia maybe more pronounced in more severe forms. The cause of hypocalcemia is likely to be multifactorial. Calcium...

  1. Calcium Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain calcium channel blockers interact with grapefruit products. Kaplan NM, et al. Treatment of hypertension: Drug therapy. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer ...

  2. The Accuracy and Prognostic Value of Point-of-care Ultrasound for Nephrolithiasis in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Charles; Teitge, Braden; Ross, Marshall; Young, Paul; Robertson, Helen Lee; Lang, Eddy

    2018-02-10

    Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been suggested as an initial investigation in the management of renal colic. Our objectives were: 1) to determine the accuracy of POCUS for the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis and 2) to assess its prognostic value in the management of renal colic. The review protocol was registered to the PROSPERO database (CRD42016035331). An electronic database search of MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed was conducted utilizing subject headings, keywords, and synonyms that address our research question. Bibliographies of included studies and narrative reviews were manually examined. Studies of adult emergency department patients with renal colic symptoms were included. Any degree of hydronephrosis was considered a positive POCUS finding. Accepted criterion standards were computed tomography evidence of renal stone or hydronephrosis, direct stone visualization, or surgical findings. Screening of abstracts, quality assessment with the QUADAS-2 instrument, and data extraction were performed by two reviewers, with discrepancies resolved by consensus with a third reviewer. Test performance was assessed by pooled sensitivity and specificity, calculated likelihood ratios, and a summary receiver operator curve (SROC). The secondary objective of prognostic value was reported as a narrative summary. The electronic search yielded 627 unique titles. After relevance screening, 26 papers underwent full-text review, and nine articles met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five high-quality studies (N = 1,773) were included in the meta-analysis for diagnostic accuracy and the remaining yielded data on prognostic value. The pooled results for sensitivity and specificity were 70.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 67.1%-73.2%) and 75.4% (95% CI = 72.5%-78.2%), respectively. The calculated positive and negative likelihood ratios were 2.85 and 0.39. The SROC generated did not show evidence of a threshold effect. Two of the studies in the meta-analysis found that the

  3. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: Effectiveness Of The UV Lamp To Decompose Oxalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E.; Huff, T.; Sudduth, C.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced Chemical Cleaning is a new process scheduled to begin cleaning Savannah River Site High Level Waste Tanks in 2012. It is an improvement over the current chemical cleaning method, in that it minimizes downstream impacts on the High Level Waste System. It is based on a state of the art scale removal process used on the secondary side of nuclear power plants, with modifications to accommodate the unique constraints created by the tanks. Both Enhanced Chemical Cleaning and the scale removal process are founded on dissolving metal oxides/hydroxides using oxalic acid, with subsequent oxalate decomposition via hydroxylation using ozone or peroxide, and UV light as a catalyst. A divergence Enhanced Chemical Cleaning has from nuclear power scale removal is the significantly increased solids concentration during oxalate decomposition. These solids can limit the ability of the UV light to create hydroxyl radicals, either by limiting the ability of the light to penetrate through the solution, or by increasing the fouling rate on the UV light. Both will decrease the overall catalytic effectiveness, thereby decreasing the concentration of formed hydroxyl radicals. The hydroxyl radicals are the driving force behind the oxalate decomposition. To understand the impact of increased solids, testing was performed using a medium pressure UV light inside an ozone supplied Oxalate Decomposition Reactor. Using a dissolved metal sludge simulant with an initial oxalate concentration greater than 12,000 ppm, and an initial pH of about 2.0, the spent acid solution was recirculated through the reactor, while the UV light was allowed to foul. For the first few hours, the oxalate decomposition rate was about 1,300 ppm/hour. After about 3 hours, enough time for the UV lamp to foul, the oxalate decomposition rate decreased to about 500 ppm/hour. The decomposition rate then remained roughly constant for the next 16 hours. Overall, testing showed that the oxalate destruction rate decreased

  4. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: EFFECTIVENESS OF THE UV LAMP TO DECOMPOSE OXALATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E.; Huff, T.; Sudduth, C.

    2010-01-19

    Enhanced Chemical Cleaning is a new process scheduled to begin cleaning Savannah River Site High Level Waste Tanks in 2012. It is an improvement over the current chemical cleaning method, in that it minimizes downstream impacts on the High Level Waste System. It is based on a state of the art scale removal process used on the secondary side of nuclear power plants, with modifications to accommodate the unique constraints created by the tanks. Both Enhanced Chemical Cleaning and the scale removal process are founded on dissolving metal oxides/hydroxides using oxalic acid, with subsequent oxalate decomposition via hydroxylation using ozone or peroxide, and UV light as a catalyst. A divergence Enhanced Chemical Cleaning has from nuclear power scale removal is the significantly increased solids concentration during oxalate decomposition. These solids can limit the ability of the UV light to create hydroxyl radicals, either by limiting the ability of the light to penetrate through the solution, or by increasing the fouling rate on the UV light. Both will decrease the overall catalytic effectiveness, thereby decreasing the concentration of formed hydroxyl radicals. The hydroxyl radicals are the driving force behind the oxalate decomposition. To understand the impact of increased solids, testing was performed using a medium pressure UV light inside an ozone supplied Oxalate Decomposition Reactor. Using a dissolved metal sludge simulant with an initial oxalate concentration greater than 12,000 ppm, and an initial pH of about 2.0, the spent acid solution was recirculated through the reactor, while the UV light was allowed to foul. For the first few hours, the oxalate decomposition rate was about 1,300 ppm/hour. After about 3 hours, enough time for the UV lamp to foul, the oxalate decomposition rate decreased to about 500 ppm/hour. The decomposition rate then remained roughly constant for the next 16 hours. Overall, testing showed that the oxalate destruction rate decreased

  5. Synthesis and characterization of new oxalate ester-polymer composites for practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petre, Razvan [Scientific Research Centre for CBRN Defense and Ecology, 225 Sos. Oltenitei, Bucharest 041309 (Romania); University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, 149 Calea Victoriei, Bucharest 010072 (Romania); Zecheru, Teodora, E-mail: teodora.zecheru@yahoo.com [Scientific Research Centre for CBRN Defense and Ecology, 225 Sos. Oltenitei, Bucharest 041309 (Romania)

    2013-03-15

    The present study focused on the synthesis of high purity oxalate esters: bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate (TCPO) and bis(2,4,5-trichloro-6-carbobutoxyphenyl) oxalate (TCCBPO), and further on their incorporation into potentially applicative polymer composites. The organic compounds were characterized through NMR and the composites obtained were evaluated for light capacity availability at room temperature and low temperatures. The concentrations of the peroxide, fluorescer, catalyst, and polymer additives were optimized. The chemiluminescent composites' performances were evaluated after 360 days and returned satisfactory results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer bis(2,4,6-Trichlorophenyl)-oxalate (TCPO) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer bis(2,4,5-Trichloro-6-carbobutoxiphenyl)-oxalate (TCCBPO) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TCPO and TCCBPO-based composites were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composites light emission was evaluated versus scotopic visual sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new compositions present superior performances within extensive emission time.

  6. Effects of potassium oxalate on knoop hardness of etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S M A; Malacarne-Zanon, J; Carvalho, R M; Alves, M C; De Goes, M F; Anido-Anido, A; Carrilho, M R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the hardness of etch-and-rinse adhesives may be affected by the pretreatment of acid-etched dentin with potassium oxalate desensitizer. Unerupted human third molars were cut into crown segments by removing the occlusal enamel and roots. The pulp chamber of these crown segments was connected to a syringe barrel filled with phosphate-buffered saline so that the moisture of dentin was maintained during the bonding procedures. Three etch-and-rinse adhesives-two two-step systems (Adper Single Bond 2 [SB], One-Step [OS]) and one three-step system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose [MP])-were applied to acid-etched dentin that had been treated (experimental groups) or not (control groups) with potassium oxalate (BisBlock). The Knoop hardness (KHN) of adhesives was taken at different sites of the outer surface of the adhesive-bonded dentin. The KHN of the three tested adhesives applied to acid-etched dentin treated with potassium oxalate was significantly lower than that exhibited by the respective controls (not treated with oxalate; padhesive, the treatment with potassium oxalate reduced the adhesives' KHN (psystem exhibiting the lowest KHN compared with the MP and SB systems.

  7. Growth and characterization of Sm3+ doped cerium oxalate single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Mary C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of Sm3+ doped cerium oxalate decahydrate were synthesized using single diffusion gel technique and the conditions influencing the size, morphology, nucleation density and quality of the crystals were optimized. Highly transparent single crystals of average size 3 mm × 2 mm × 1 mm with well-defined hexagonal morphology were grown during a time period of two weeks. X-ray powder diffraction analysis revealed that the grown crystals crystallize in the monoclinic system with space group P21/c as identical with the pure cerium oxalate. The various functional groups of the oxalate ligand and the water of crystallization were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photoluminescence spectrum of the Sm3+ doped cerium oxalate indicated that the Sm3+ ions are optically active in the cerium oxalate matrix. The crystal has a strong and efficient orange red emission with a wavelength peak at 595 nm and hence can be effectively used for optical amplification. Microhardness measurements of the crystal revealed that they belong to the soft material category.

  8. Pre-treatment of soybean plants with calcium stimulates ROS responses and mitigates infection by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaoui, Arbia; El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Daayf, Fouad

    2018-01-01

    Considering the high incidence of white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in a variety of field crops and vegetables, different control strategies are needed to keep the disease under economical threshold. This study assessed the effect of foliar application of a calcium formulation on disease symptoms, oxalic acid production, and on the oxidative stress metabolism in soybean plants inoculated with each of two isolates of the pathogen that have contrasting aggressiveness (HA, highly-aggressive versus WA, weakly-aggressive). Changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in soybean plants inoculated with S. sclerotiorum isolates were assessed at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation (hpi). Generation of ROS including hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), anion superoxide (O 2 - ) and hydroxyl radical (OH) was evaluated. Inoculation with the WA isolate resulted in more ROS accumulation compared to the HA isolate. Pre-treatment with the calcium formulation restored ROS production in plants inoculated with the HA isolate. We also noted a marked decrease in oxalic acid content in the leaves inoculated with the HA isolate in presence of calcium, which coincided with an increase in plant ROS production. The expression patterns of genes involved in ROS detoxification in response to the calcium treatments and/or inoculation with S. Sclerotiorum isolates were monitored by RT-qPCR. All of the tested genes showed a higher expression in response to inoculation with the WA isolate. The expression of most genes tested peaked at 6 hpi, which preceded ROS accumulation in the soybean leaves. Overall, these data suggest that foliar application of calcium contributes to a decrease in oxalic acid production and disease, arguably via modulation of the ROS metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Impaired calcium sensing distinguishes primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thomas J; Koh, James; Thomas, Samantha M; Hogue, Joyce A; Scheri, Randall P; Roman, Sanziana A; Sosa, Julie A

    2017-09-01

    A subset of PHPT patients exhibit a more severe disease phenotype characterized by bone loss, fractures, recurrent nephrolithiasis, and other dysfunctions, but the underlying reasons for this disparity in clinical presentation remain unknown. We sought to identify new mechanistic indices that could inform more personalized management of PHPT. Pre-, peri-, and postoperative data and demographic, clinical, and pathological information from patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for PHPT were collected. Univariate and partial Spearman correlation was used to estimate the association of parathyroid tumor calcium sensing capacity with select variables. An unselected series of 237 patients aged >18years and undergoing parathyroidectomy for PHPT were enrolled. Calcium sensing capacity, expressed as the concentration required for half-maximal biochemical response (EC50), was evaluated in parathyroid tumors from an unselected series of 74 patients and assessed for association with clinical parameters. The hypothesis was that greater disease severity would be associated with attenuated calcium sensitivity and biochemically autonomous parathyroid tumor behavior. Parathyroid tumors segregated into two distinct groups of calcium responsiveness (EC50calcium EC50 value of 2.49mM [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.43-2.54mM], consistent with reference normal activity. In contrast, the high EC50 group (n=47) displayed attenuated calcium sensitivity with a mean EC50 value of 3.48mM [95% CI: 3.41-3.55mM]. Retrospective analysis of the clinical registry data suggested that high calcium EC50 patients presented with a more significant preoperative bone mineral density (BMD) deficit with a t-score of -2.7, (95% CI: -3.4 to -1.9) versus 0.9, (95% CI: -2.1 to -0.4) in low EC50 patients (pcalcium EC50 were inversely correlated, with a partial Spearman correlation coefficient of -0.35 (p=0.02). Impaired calcium sensing in parathyroid tumors is selectively observed in a subset of patients with

  10. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  11. Impedance and hydrogen evolution studies on magnesium alloy in oxalic acid solution containing different anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekry, A.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2010-12-15

    The corrosion behavior of AZ31E alloy was investigated in oxalic acid solution using different electrochemical techniques. The effect of concentration was studied, where the corrosion rate was found to increase with increasing oxalic acid concentration and hydrogen evolution. The effect of adding Cl{sup -}, F{sup -} or PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions on the electrochemical behavior of AZ31E electrode was studied in 0.01 M oxalic acid solution at 298 K. It was found that the corrosion rate increases with increasing Cl{sup -} or F{sup -} ion concentration, however, it decreases with increasing PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ion concentration. Good agreement was observed between the results obtained from electrochemical techniques and confirmed by Scanning electron micrographs. (author)

  12. Oxalic acid as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in the upper troposphere and its indirect aerosol effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zobrist

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice freezing points of aqueous solutions containing various immersed solid dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, adipic, succinic, phthalic and fumaric have been measured with a differential scanning calorimeter. The results show that only the dihydrate of oxalic acid (OAD acts as a heterogeneous ice nucleus, with an increase in freezing temperature between 2 and 5 K depending on solution composition. In several field campaigns, oxalic acid enriched particles have been detected in the upper troposphere with single particle aerosol mass spectrometry. Simulations with a microphysical box model indicate that the presence of OAD may reduce the ice particle number density in cirrus clouds by up to ~50% when compared to exclusively homogeneous cirrus formation without OAD. Using the ECHAM4 climate model we estimate the global net radiative effect caused by this heterogeneous freezing to result in a cooling as high as −0.3 Wm−2.

  13. Hydrothermal decomposition of actinide(IV oxalates: a new aqueous route towards reactive actinide oxide nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal decomposition of actinide(IV oxalates (An= Th, U, Pu at temperatures between 95 and 250 °C is shown to lead to the production of highly crystalline, reactive actinide oxide nanocrystals (NCs. This aqueous process proved to be quantitative, reproducible and fast (depending on temperature. The NCs obtained were characterised by X-ray diffraction and TEM showing their size to be smaller than 15 nm. Attempts to extend this general approach towards transition metal or lanthanide oxalates failed in the 95–250 °C temperature range. The hydrothermal decomposition of actinide oxalates is therefore a clean, flexible and powerful approach towards NCs of AnO2 with possible scale-up potential.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of stability in iron removal from kaolin by using oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ocampo-López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The graphical representation of global stability for a system, or Pourbaix diagram, was constructed to perform a thermodynamic study of iron removal from kaolin using oxalic acid as an oxidant. To do this the free energies of formation of the oxalate complex of the system were calculated, and it was found that the more stable specie is Fe(C2O43-3, with a calculated free energy of formation of -3753.88 kcal/mol. Thermodynamic stability functions were estimated for the system as a function of pH and Eh known as potential of oxide reduction. It was built a global stability diagram for the removal system; it showed that the specie trioxalate Fe(C2O43-3 is the only oxalate in equilibrium with other compounds associated with the removal of iron in kaolin.

  15. Savannah River Site Tank Cleaning: Corrosion Rate For One Versus Eight Percent Oxalic Acid Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, the use of oxalic acid for chemically cleaning the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste tanks focused on using concentrated 4 and 8-wt% solutions. Recent testing and research on applicable dissolution mechanisms have concluded that under appropriate conditions, dilute solutions of oxalic acid (i.e., 1-wt%) may be more effective. Based on the need to maximize cleaning effectiveness, coupled with the need to minimize downstream impacts, SRS is now developing plans for using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution. A technology gap associated with using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution was a dearth of suitable corrosion data. Assuming oxalic acid's passivation of carbon steel was proportional to the free oxalate concentration, the general corrosion rate (CR) from a 1-wt% solution may not be bound by those from 8-wt%. Therefore, after developing the test strategy and plan, the corrosion testing was performed. Starting with the envisioned process specific baseline solvent, a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution, with sludge (limited to Purex type sludge-simulant for this initial effort) at 75 C and agitated, the corrosion rate (CR) was determined from the measured weight loss of the exposed coupon. Environmental variations tested were: (a) Inclusion of sludge in the test vessel or assuming a pure oxalic acid solution; (b) acid solution temperature maintained at 75 or 45 C; and (c) agitation of the acid solution or stagnant. Application of select electrochemical testing (EC) explored the impact of each variation on the passivation mechanisms and confirmed the CR. The 1-wt% results were then compared to those from the 8-wt%. The immersion coupons showed that the maximum time averaged CR for a 1-wt% solution with sludge was less than 25-mils/yr for all conditions. For an agitated 8-wt% solution with sludge, the maximum time averaged CR was about 30-mils/yr at 50 C, and 86-mils/yr at 75 C. Both the 1-wt% and the 8-wt% testing demonstrated that if the sludge was removed from

  16. Effect of Surface Precipitate on the Crevice Corrosion in HYBRID and Oxalic Acid Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. Y.; Jung, J. Y.; Won, H. J.; Kim, S. B.; Choi, W. K.; Moon, J. K.; Park, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the crevice corrosion for Inconel-600 and 304SS in OA solution according to the change in pH. The evaluation of the crevice corrosion with the chemical thermodynamic analysis identified the effect of the residual chemicals such as iron-oxalate and nickeloxalate to the crevice corrosion behavior. Test results were compared with those of HYBRID (HYdrizine Base Reductive metal Ion Decontamination). The crevice corrosion properties of 304 SS and Inconel-600 in HYBRID and oxalic acid solution were evaluated. In case of oxalic acid solution, the corrosion rate on 304SS was rapidly increased with a pH decrease of around 2, but there was no increase in the corrosion rate on Inconel-600

  17. Analysis of complications of percutaneous X-Ray endoscopic surgical operations of patients with urolithiasis and nephrolithiasis with a single functioning kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented article focuses on the important matters of development of intraoperative and postoperative complications in patients with urolithiasis undergoing percutaneous operative treatment for coral calculus of a solitary or sole functioning kidney. Complications of percutaneous X-ray-endoscopic operations in these patients always require careful medical and diagnostic approach, as they can lead to oppression of an already impaired solitary kidney function and, as a consequence, can have life-threatening nature. They are divided into two groups: intraoperative and postoperative complications. Intraoperative complications include: bleeding, damage of the renal pelvis in the course of creating of puncture access, perforation of internal organs, loss of stroke. Postoperative complications include: development of acute inflammation in a single kidney, bleeding, urinoma or hematoma development, progression of renal failure, leave of residual concretions, organ loss. There is a sufficient amount of data on the development of complications after percutaneous endoscopic surgeries in the literature, but very few works are devoted to a solitary kidney matter. The object of this study was the group of patients with urolithiasis, coral nephrolithiasis by a solitary or a single functioning kidney, who were on treatment in the urology department of the N.I. Pirogov City Clinical Hospital No. 1 from January 2007 to July 2014. All patients underwent percutaneous operative treatment for the removal of coral calculi. 

  18. Calcium metabolism in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is one of the most important plasma constituents in mammals and birds. It provides structural strength and support (bones and eggshell) and plays vital roles in many of the biochemical reactions in the body. The control of calcium metabolism in birds is highly efficient and closely regulated in a number of tissues, primarily parathyroid gland, intestine, kidney, and bone. The hormones with the greatest involvement in calcium regulation in birds are parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol), and estrogen, with calcitonin playing a minor and uncertain role. The special characteristics of calcium metabolism in birds, mainly associated with egg production, are discussed, along with common clinical disorders secondary to derangements in calcium homeostasis.

  19. Photodegradation of orange I in the heterogeneous iron oxide-oxalate complex system under UVA irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Jing; Liu Chengshuai; Li Fangbai; Li Xiaomin; Zhou Shungui; Liu Tongxu; Gu Minghua; Wu Qitang

    2006-01-01

    To understand the photodegradation of azo dyes in natural aquatic environment, a novel photo-Fenton-like system, the heterogeneous iron oxide-oxalate complex system was set up with the existence of iron oxides and oxalate. Five iron oxides, including γ-FeOOH, IO-250, IO-320, IO-420 and IO-520, were prepared and their adsorption capacity was investigated in the dark. The results showed that the saturated adsorption amount (Γ max ) was ranked the order of IO-250>IO-320>γ-FeOOH>IO-420>IO-520 and the adsorption equilibrium constant (K a ) followed the order of IO-250>IO-520>γ-FeOOH>IO-420>IO-320. The effect of initial pH value, the initial concentrations of oxalate and orange I on the photodegradation of orange I were also investigated in different iron oxide-oxalate systems. The results showed that the photodegradation of orange I under UVA irradiation could be enhanced greatly in the presence of oxalate. And the optimal oxalate concentrations (C ox 0 ) for γ-FeOOH, IO-250, IO-320, IO-420 and IO-520 were 1.8, 1.6, 3.5, 3.0 and 0.8mM, respectively. The photodegradation of orange I in the presence of optimal C ox 0 was ranked as the order of γ-FeOOH>IO-250>IO-320>IO-420>IO-520. The optimal range of initial pH was at about 3-4. The first-order kinetic constant for the degradation of orange I decreased with the increase in the initial concentration of orange I. Furthermore, the variation of pH, the concentrations of Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ during the photoreaction were also strongly dependent on the C ox 0 and iron oxides

  20. SAFETY EVALUATION OF OXALIC ACID WASTE RETRIEVAL IN SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) 241-C-106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the safety evaluation of the process of retrieving sludge waste from single-shell tank 241-C-106 using oxalic acid. The results of the HAZOP, safety evaluation, and control allocation/decision are part of the report. This safety evaluation considers the use of oxalic acid to recover residual waste in single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-106. This is an activity not addressed in the current tank farm safety basis. This evaluation has five specific purposes: (1) Identifying the key configuration and operating assumptions needed to evaluate oxalic acid dissolution in SST 241-C-106. (2) Documenting the hazardous conditions identified during the oxalic acid dissolution hazard and operability study (HAZOP). (3) Documenting the comparison of the HAZOP results to the hazardous conditions and associated analyzed accident currently included in the safety basis, as documented in HNF-SD-WM-TI-764, Hazard Analysis Database Report. (4) Documenting the evaluation of the oxalic acid dissolution activity with respect to: (A) Accident analyses described in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), and (B) Controls specified in HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006, Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (TSR). (5) Documenting the process and results of control decisions as well as the applicability of preventive and/or mitigative controls to each oxalic acid addition hazardous condition. This safety evaluation is not intended to be a request to authorize the activity. Authorization issues are addressed by the unreviewed safety question (USQ) evaluation process. This report constitutes an accident analysis

  1. Two novel metal–organic coordination polymers based on diphosphonate and oxalate: Synthesis, structures and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Qing-Jun; Zheng, Yue-Qing; Zhou, Lin-Xia; Zhu, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Two 2-(1-imidazole)-1-hydroxyl-1,1'-ethylidenediphosphonato and oxalic acid bridged coordination polymers (H 2 en)[Co 3 (H 2 zdn) 2 (ox)(H 2 O) 2 ] (1) and Cd 2 (H 2 zdn)(ox) 0.5 (H 2 O) (2) (2-(1-imidazole)-1-hydroxyl-1,1'-ethylidenediphosphonic acid=H 5 zdn; oxalic acid=H 2 ox) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by the infrared (IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), elemental analyses (EA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compound 1 is bridged by phosphonate anions to 1D chain, and further linked by oxalate anions to 2D layer. Compound 2 is bridged by O–P–O units of H 5 zdn to the layer, and then pillared by oxalate anions to generate 3D frameworks. Compound 1 shows anti-ferromagnetic behaviors analyzed with the temperature-dependent zero-field ac magnetic susceptibilities, while compound 2 exhibits an influence on the luminescent property. - Graphical abstract: Linked by oxalate, two zoledronate-based metal–organic frameworks are synthesized, which exhibits the different frameworks. Magnetism and luminescent properties have been studied. The weak antiferromagnetic coupling is conducted in 1. - Highlights: • Compound 1 and 2 are first linked by oxalate anion based on zoledronic acid. • Compound 1 generates a classic “dia Diamond” (6 6 ) topology. • Compound 2 exhibits a (4 4 ·6 2 )(4 4 ·6 6 ) topology. • Magnetism and luminescent properties of 1 and 2 have been studied, respectively

  2. Effect of dentin pretreatment with potassium oxalate: analysis of microtensile bond strengths and morphologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moraes Porto, Isabel Cristina Celerino; De Andrade, Ana Karina Maciel; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Braz, Rodivan

    2012-02-01

    An effective and stable bond is the most desirable characteristic of contemporary adhesive systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of potassium oxalate on dentin/resin bond strength. Dentin on the occlusal surface of human premolars was exposed and etched with 35% phosphoric acid, to receive 3% monohydrated potassium oxalate and the following adhesive systems: Scotchbond Multipurpose (SMO; 3M/ESPE) and Prime & Bond NT (PBO; Dentsply), followed by the application of resin composite (Z250; 3M/ESPE). The control groups (SM and PB) did not receive potassium oxalate application. The prepared teeth were kept in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and 12 months. They were then cut longitudinally into sticks with a bond area of ∼0.8 mm(2) for submission to the microtensile bond strength test. The data were analyzed by two-factor ANOVA, Tamhane's paired comparisons, and the Student t-test (α = 0.05). The hybrid layer formed was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis of the surfaces treated with PB revealed shorter resin tags associated with the application of potassium oxalate, whereas SM showed tags similar to those without potassium oxalate. A significant difference was shown between the two storage times for each of the protocols. There was a significant difference among SMO, SM, and PBO (24 h), as well as among SM, SMO, and PBO, and between PB and PBO (12 months). The application of potassium oxalate before conventional adhesive systems may result in alteration of the bond strength between dentin and resin composite, depending on the material. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakde, Rajendra B; Satone, Dinesh D; Gadapayale, Kamalesh K; Kakde, Megha G

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to develop a validated, specific stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the quantitative determination of escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam and their related substances in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of degradation products. Forced degradation studies were performed on the pure drugs of escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam, as per the stress conditions prescribed by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) using acid, base, oxidation, thermal stress and photolytic degradation to show the stability-indicating power of the method. Significant degradation was observed during acid and alkaline hydrolysis and no degradation was observed in other stress conditions. The chromatographic method was optimized using the samples generated from forced degradation studies. Good resolution between the peaks corresponded to the active pharmaceutical ingredients, escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam, and degradation products from the analyte were achieved on an ODS Hypersil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm) using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile-50 mM phosphate buffer + 10 mM triethylamine (70:30, v/v). The detection was conducted at 268 nm. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation for escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam were established. The stress test solutions were assayed against the qualified working standards of escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam, which indicated that the developed LC method was stability-indicating. Validation of the developed LC method was conducted as per ICH requirements. The developed LC method was found to be suitable to check the quality of bulk samples of escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam.

  4. The roles of xylan and lignin in oxalic acid pretreated corncob during separate enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae-Won Lee; Rita C.L.B. Rodrigues; Hyun Joo Kim; In-Gyu Choi; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2010-01-01

    High yields of hemicellulosic and cellulosic sugars are critical in obtaining economical conversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. To optimize pretreatment conditions, we evaluated oxalic acid loading rates, treatment temperatures and times in a 23 full factorial design. Response-surface analysis revealed an optimal oxalic acid pretreatment...

  5. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free

  6. Acute kidney injury associated with ingestion of star fruit: Acute oxalate nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, A K; Goel, R; Sharma, M; Mahanta, P J

    2016-01-01

    Starfruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) and its juice are popular in the Indian subcontinent as an indigenous medicine. Oxalate concentration in this fruit and it's freshly prepared juice is very high. We present a report of patients presenting with acute kidney injury due to oxalate nephropathy admitted in a single center. All patients had history of ingesting star fruit. Patients became symptomatic after 10-12 h of eating and main symptoms were pain abdomen and decrease in urine output. Three patients needed hemodialysis. All improved with complete renal recovery. Taking star fruit in large amount on an empty stomach and in a dehydrated state is a risk factor for nephrotoxicity.

  7. A Specific Peptide with Calcium-Binding Capacity from Defatted Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and the Molecular Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xixi; Yang, Qian; Lin, Jiaping; Fu, Nanyan; Wang, Shaoyun

    2017-03-29

    Marine microorganisms have been proposed as a new kind of protein source. Efforts are needed in order to transform the protein-rich biological wastes left after lipid extraction into value-added bio-products. Thus, the utilization of protein recovered from defatted Schizochytrium sp. by-products presents an opportunity. A specific peptide Tyr-Leu (YL) with calcium-binding capacity was purified from defatted Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The calcium-binding activity of YL reached 126.34 ± 3.40 μg/mg. The calcium-binding mechanism was investigated through ultraviolet, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that calcium ions could form dative bonds with carboxyl oxygen atoms and amino nitrogen atoms as well as the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of amide bonds. YL-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which was beneficial for its absorption and transport in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the cellular uptake of calcium in Caco-2 cells showed that YL-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency and protect calcium ions against precipitation caused by dietary inhibitors such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate and metal ions. The findings indicate that the by-product of Schizochytrium sp. is a promising source for making peptide-calcium bio-products as algae-based functional supplements for human beings.

  8. A Specific Peptide with Calcium-Binding Capacity from Defatted Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and the Molecular Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Cai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms have been proposed as a new kind of protein source. Efforts are needed in order to transform the protein-rich biological wastes left after lipid extraction into value-added bio-products. Thus, the utilization of protein recovered from defatted Schizochytrium sp. by-products presents an opportunity. A specific peptide Tyr-Leu (YL with calcium-binding capacity was purified from defatted Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The calcium-binding activity of YL reached 126.34 ± 3.40 μg/mg. The calcium-binding mechanism was investigated through ultraviolet, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that calcium ions could form dative bonds with carboxyl oxygen atoms and amino nitrogen atoms as well as the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of amide bonds. YL-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which was beneficial for its absorption and transport in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the cellular uptake of calcium in Caco-2 cells showed that YL-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency and protect calcium ions against precipitation caused by dietary inhibitors such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate and metal ions. The findings indicate that the by-product of Schizochytrium sp. is a promising source for making peptide-calcium bio-products as algae-based functional supplements for human beings.

  9. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  10. Determination of thermodynamic parameters for complexation of calcium and magnesium with chondroitin sulfate isomers using isothermal titration calorimetry: Implications for calcium kidney-stone research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Jackson, Graham E.

    2017-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) occurs in human urine. It has several potential binding sites for calcium and as such may play an inhibitory role in calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (kidney stone disease by reducing the supersaturation (SS) and crystallization of these salts. Urinary magnesium is also a role player in determining speciation in stone forming processes. This study was undertaken to determine the thermodynamic parameters for binding of the disaccharide unit of two different CS isomers with calcium and magnesium. These included the binding constant K. Experiments were performed using an isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC) at 3 different pH levels in the physiological range in human urine. Data showed that interactions between the CS isomers and calcium and magnesium occur via one binding site, thought to be sulfate, and that log K values are 1.17-1.93 and 1.77-1.80 for these two metals respectively. Binding was significantly stronger in Mg-CS than in Ca-CS complexes and was found to be dependent on pH in the latter but not in the former. Furthermore, binding in Ca-CS complexes was dependent on the location of the sulfate binding site. This was not the case in the Mg-CS complexes. Interactions were shown to be entropy driven and enthalpy unfavourable. These findings can be used in computational modeling studies to predict the effects of the calcium and magnesium CS complexes on the speciation of calcium and the SS of calcium salts in real urine samples.

  11. Evaluation of soluble oxalates content in infusions of different kinds of tea and coffee available on the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    Tea and coffee are the potentially rich source of oxalic acid, which can act as a antinutrient. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the content of soluble oxalates in teas and coffees available on the Polish market. The green, red and black teas, and black natural ground and instant coffees were used for preparing the infusions. The manganometric method was used for the determination of the oxalates in the infusions. The mean oxalates content in the infusions from 3 g of black teas was 115.68 mg/100 cm3 and was higher as compared to red teas (101.91 mg/100 cm3) and green teas (87.64 mg/100 cm3). Disregarding the variety of analyzed teas, the largest oxalates content was in infusions of pure one-component tea--"Sir Roger" (164.82-174.22 mg/100 cm3), while the lowest oxalates content was noted in the tea containing the components from other plants ("Bio-Active" with grapefruit juice--reaching as low level as 39.00 mg/100 cm3). Instant coffees contained larger amount of oxalates than natural ground coffees. Irrespective of the kind of the tested coffees, the lowest oxalates content was found in the infusions from the following coffees: Tchibo Exclusive--19.62 mg/100 cm3, Gala ulubiona--37.32 mg/100 cm3, and Maxwell House--38.40 mg/100 cm3, while the highest oxalates content in instant coffee--Nescafe Espiro 51.80 mg/100 cm3. The results revealed a significant relation between phytochemical composition of analyzed teas and coffees and the level of soluble oxalates in infusions prepared from the tested products.

  12. Oxalate-metabolising genes of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens are differentially induced on wood and at high proton concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; de Vries, Ronald P; Timonen, Sari; Hildén, Kristiina; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a prevalent fungal metabolite with versatile roles in growth and nutrition, including degradation of plant biomass. However, the toxicity of oxalic acid makes regulation of its intra- and extracellular concentration crucial. To increase the knowledge of fungal oxalate metabolism, a

  13. Some critical aspects of FT-IR, TGA, powder XRD, EDAX and SEM studies of calcium oxalate urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vimal S; Vasant, Sonal R; Bhatt, J G; Joshi, Mihir J

    2014-06-01

    Urinary calculi constitute one of the oldest afflictions of humans as well as animals, which are occurring globally. The calculi vary in shape, size and composition, which influence their clinical course. They are usually of the mixed-type with varying percentages of the ingredients. In medical management of urinary calculi, either the nature of calculi is to be known or the exact composition of calculi is required. In the present study, two selected calculi were recovered after surgery from two different patients for detailed examination and investigated by using Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) techniques. The study demonstrated that the nature of urinary calculi and presence of major phase in mixed calculi could be identified by FT-IR, TGA and powder XRD, however, the exact content of various elements could be found by EDAX only.

  14. DIHYDROPYRIDINE CALCIUM- CHANNELBLOCKERSFOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the controversy over the role of calci~-channel blockers as first-line ..... group trials while fully accounting for placebo effects as well as interindividual ..... Reducing calcium overload in the ischemic brain. N Engl JMed. 1999; 341 ...

  15. Calcium and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium-set tofu edamame (soybeans) broccoli, collard greens, kale, chard, Chinese cabbage, and other leafy greens almonds ... more dark green, leafy vegetables (such as broccoli, kale, collard greens, or Chinese cabbage) with meals. Kids ...

  16. The production of (14C) oxalate during the metabolism of (14C) carbohydrates in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofe, A M; James, H M; Bais, R; Edwards, J B; Conyers, R A

    1980-04-01

    Oxalate (14C) was produced during the metabolism of (U-14C) carbohydrates in hepatocytes isolated from normal rats. At 10 mM, the order of oxalate production was fructose > glycerol > xylitol > sorbitol greater than or equal to glucose in the ratio 10 : 4 : 3 : 1 : 1. This difference between oxalate production from fructose and glucose was reflected in their rates of utilisation, glucose being poorly metabolised in hepatocytes from fasted rats. Fructose was rapidly metabolised, producing glucose, lactate and pyruvate as the major metabolites. Glycerol, xylitol and sorbitol were metabolised at half the rate of fructose, the major metabolites being glucose, lactate and glycerophosphate. The marked similarity in the pattern of intermediary metabolites produced by these polyols was not, however, reflected in the rates of oxalate production. Hepatic polyol metabolism resulted in high levels of cytosolic NADH, as indicated by elevated lactate : pyruvate and glycerophosphate : dihydroxyacetone phosphate ratios. The artificial electron acceptor, phenazine methosulphate (PMS) stimulated oxalate production from the polyols, particularly xylitol. In the presence of PMS, the order of oxalate production was fructose greater than or equal to xylitol > glycerol > sorbitol in the ratio 10 : 10 : 6 : 2. The production of glucose, lactate and pyruvate from the polyols was also stimulated by PMS, whereas the general metabolism of fructose, including oxalate production, was little affected. Oxalate (14C) was produced from (1-14C), (2-14C) and (6-14C) but not (3,4-14C) glucose in hepatocytes isolated from non-fasted, pyridoxine-deficient rats. Whilst this labelling pattern is consistent with oxalate being produced by a number of pathways, it is suggested that metabolism via hydroxypyruvate is a major route for oxalate production from various carbohydrates, with perhaps the exception of xylitol, which appears to have an alternative mechanism for oxalate production. The observation that

  17. Oxalic acid complexes: Promising draw solutes for forward osmosis (FO) in protein enrichment

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Qingchun; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    Highly soluble oxalic acid complexes (OACs) were synthesized through a one-pot reaction. The OACs exhibit excellent performance as draw solutes in FO processes with high water fluxes and negligible reverse solute fluxes. Efficient protein enrichment was achieved. The diluted OACs can be recycled via nanofiltration and are promising as draw solutes.

  18. The role of nanoparticulate agglomerates in TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis: degradation of oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Irina [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Technische Chemie (Germany); Mendive, Cecilia B., E-mail: cbmendive@mdp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de Química (Argentina); Bahnemann, Detlef [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Technische Chemie (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The simultaneous bimodal study of the photocatalytic oxalic acid degradation by aqueous TiO{sub 2} suspensions revealed that particular systems possess the capacity to protect a certain amount of oxalic acid from oxidation, thus hindering, to some extent, the photocatalytic reaction. While measurements of the oxalic acid concentration in the bulk liquid phase indicated full photocatalytic degradation; in situ pH-stat measurements allowed the quantification of the amount of oxalic acid remaining in the part of the nanoparticulate agglomerates where light could apparently not access. An explanation for this phenomenon takes into account the possibility of the formation of TiO{sub 2} agglomerates in which these molecules are hidden from the effect of the light, thus being protected from photocatalytic degradation. Studies of different TiO{sub 2} materials with different particle sizes allowed a deeper exploration of this phenomenon. In addition, because this property of encapsulating pollutant molecules by photocatalytic systems is found to be a reversible phenomenon, P25 appears to be more convenient and advantageous as compared to the use of large surface area photocatalysts.Graphical AbstractFig.: Deaggregation of TiO{sub 2} particle agglomerates upon UV illumination.

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of formic and oxalic acids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The organic acids were commercial products of the highest degree of purity .... reaction is not complete even at high concentration of ZnCl2, and that only the ... activation in the oxidation of oxalic acid suggests the involvement of both the ...

  20. Investigation of composition and properties of some neptunium (5) oxalate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubarev, V.G.; Krot, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    A simple way of neptunium (5) oxalate synthesis is described and its composition is determined: (NpO 2 ) 2 C 2 O 4 xH 2 O. The compound is precipitated from solution during pouring together stoichiometric quantities of neptunium (5) nitrate and ammonium, sodium or potassium oxalate at pH=4-5. An explanation to unusual effect of solubility change with time of neptunium (5) monooxalate complexes and alkali metal or ammonium ion is found taking into account the slow formation of precipitate and low solubility of the compound obtained (0.62 g/l as to metal). Thermal decomposition of the compound is studied. At 180 deg C a water molecule is split off and at 260 deg C decomposition of neptunium oxalate starts. IR spectra and interplane distances (dsub(hkl)) of the compound crystal lattice are determined. New data on the synthesis and properties of complex neptunium (5) oxalates and monovalent cation in second sphere with the ratio ligand: metal=2:1 and 3:1 are presented. On the basis of results of IR spectroscopy and X-ray phase analyses a supposition is made on the existence of such complex compounds [ru

  1. Growth and study of barium oxalate single crystals in agar gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tive Powder Diffraction Data Interpretation and Indexing. Program, Version 2.2) was used to calculate 'd' values. Calculated 'd' values matched with reported values. Table. 2 shows calculated unit cell parameters. Table 2. Calculated unit cell parameters. Parameters. Barium oxalate. System. Monoclinic (P) a. 8⋅2426 Å b.

  2. Conductance and bulk vertical detachment energy of hydrated sulphate and oxalate dianions: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arup Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Analytical expressions have been derived for the vertical detachment energy (VDE) for hydrated sulphate (SO2 -4) and oxalate (C2O2 -4) dianions that can be used to calculate the same over a wide range of cluster sizes including the bulk from the knowledge of VDE for a finite number of stable clusters. The calculated bulk detachment energies are found to be very good in agreement (within 5%) with the available experimental results for both the systems. It is observed that two or more water molecules will be essential for the stability of sulphate and oxalate dianions against spontaneous electron loss and this is consistent with the experiment. We have, for the first time, provided a scheme to calculate the radius of the solvent berg for sulphate and oxalate dianions. The calculated conductivity values for the sulphate and oxalate dianions using Stokes-Einstein relation and the radius of solvent berg are found to be very good in agreement (within 4%) with the available experimental results.

  3. In-cloud oxalate formation in the global troposphere: A 3-D modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myriokefalitakis, S.; Tsigaridis, K.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Sciare, J.; Nenes, A.; Kawamura, K.; Segers, A.; Kanakidou, M.

    2011-01-01

    Organic acids attract increasing attention as contributors to atmospheric acidity, secondary organic aerosol mass and aerosol hygroscopicity. Oxalic acid is globally the most abundant dicarboxylic acid, formed via chemical oxidation of gas-phase precursors in the aqueous phase of aerosols and

  4. Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of oxalic acid pretreated corncob assessed with response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae-Won Lee; Rita C.L.B. Rodrigues; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2009-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to evaluate optimal time, temperature and oxalic acid concentration for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corncob particles by Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. Fifteen different conditions for pretreatment were examined in a 23 full factorial design with six axial points. Temperatures ranged from 132 to 180º...

  5. Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment for biorefining giant reed (Arundo donax L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Cosentino; Jae-Won Lee; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    Biomass pretreatment is essential to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose for ethanol production. In the present study we pretreated giant reed (Arundo donax L.), a perennial, rhizomatous lignocellulosic grass with dilute oxalic acid. The effects of temperature (170-190 ºC), acid loading (2-10% w/w) and reaction time (15-40 min) were handled as a single...

  6. Effect of oxalic acid pretreatment of wood chips on manufacturing medium-density fiberboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) wood chips pretreatment prior to refining, which is done to reduce energy used during the refining process. Selected mechanical and physical performances of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) – internal bonding (IB), modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), water absorption (WA)...

  7. Copper tolerance of brown-rot fungi : time course of oxalic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen

    2003-01-01

    The increase in the use of non-arsenical copper-based wood preservatives in response to environmental concerns has been accompanied by interest in copper-tolerant decay fungi. Oxalic acid production by brown-rot fungi has been proposed as one mechanism of copper tolerance. Fifteen brown-rot fungi representing the genera Postia, Wolfiporia, Meruliporia, Gloeophyllum,...

  8. Oxalic acid pretreatment of rice straw particles and loblolly pine chips : release of hemicellulosic carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) pretreatment on carbohydrates released from rice straw particles and wood chips. The results showed that OA treatment accelerated carbohydrates extraction from rice straw particles and wood chips. OA pretreatment dramatically increased the amount of carbohydrates extracted, up to 24 times for wood...

  9. The crystal structure of paramagnetic copper(ii) oxalate (CuC2O4):

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Lebech, Bente; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic copper(ii) oxalate, CuC2O4, was obtained in a precipitation reaction between a copper(ii) solution and an aqueous solution of oxalic acid. The product was identified from its conventional X-ray powder patterns which match that of the copper mineral Moolooite reported to have...... the composition CuC2O4·0.44H2O. Time resolved in situ investigations of the thermal decomposition of copper(ii) oxalate using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction showed that in air the compound converts to Cu2O at 215 °C and oxidizes to CuO at 345 °C. Thermo gravimetric analysis performed in an inert Ar....... The crystal structure consists of a random stacking of CuC2O4 micro-crystallites where half the Cu-atoms are placed at (2a) and the other half at (2b) positions with the corresponding oxalate molecules centred around the corresponding (2b) and (2a) site positions, respectively. The diffraction patterns...

  10. Two novel metal-organic coordination polymers based on diphosphonate and oxalate: Synthesis, structures and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qing-Jun; Zheng, Yue-Qing; Zhou, Lin-Xia; Zhu, Hong-Lin

    2015-07-01

    Two 2-(1-imidazole)-1-hydroxyl-1,1'-ethylidenediphosphonato and oxalic acid bridged coordination polymers (H2en)[Co3(H2zdn)2(ox)(H2O)2] (1) and Cd2(H2zdn)(ox)0.5(H2O) (2) (2-(1-imidazole)-1-hydroxyl-1,1'-ethylidenediphosphonic acid=H5zdn; oxalic acid=H2ox) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by the infrared (IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), elemental analyses (EA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compound 1 is bridged by phosphonate anions to 1D chain, and further linked by oxalate anions to 2D layer. Compound 2 is bridged by O-P-O units of H5zdn to the layer, and then pillared by oxalate anions to generate 3D frameworks. Compound 1 shows anti-ferromagnetic behaviors analyzed with the temperature-dependent zero-field ac magnetic susceptibilities, while compound 2 exhibits an influence on the luminescent property.

  11. Membrane inlet mass spectrometry reveals that Ceriporiopsis subvermispora bicupin oxalate oxidase is inhibited by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, Ellen W; Uberto, Richard; Tu, Chingkuang

    2014-07-18

    Membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) uses a semipermeable membrane as an inlet to a mass spectrometer for the measurement of the concentration of small uncharged molecules in solution. We report the use of MIMS to characterize the catalytic properties of oxalate oxidase (E.C. 1.2.3.4) from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CsOxOx). Oxalate oxidase is a manganese dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide in a reaction that is coupled with the formation of hydrogen peroxide. CsOxOx is the first bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes this reaction. The MIMS method of measuring OxOx activity involves continuous, real-time direct detection of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production from the ion currents of their respective mass peaks. (13)C2-oxalate was used to allow for accurate detection of (13)CO2 (m/z 45) despite the presence of adventitious (12)CO2. Steady-state kinetic constants determined by MIMS are comparable to those obtained by a continuous spectrophotometric assay in which H2O2 production is coupled to the horseradish peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid). Furthermore, we used MIMS to determine that NO inhibits the activity of the CsOxOx with a KI of 0.58±0.06 μM. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemically modified carbon paste electrode for fast screening of oxalic acid levels in soil solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šestáková, Ivana; Jakl, M.; Jaklová Dytrtová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, - (2008), s. 140-140 E-ISSN 1213-7103. [International Conference on Electroanalysis /12./. 16.06.2008-19.06.2008, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/06/0496 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : oxalic acid * carbon paste electrodes * soil solutions Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of formic and oxalic acids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The oxidation of formic and oxalic acids by benzyltrimethylammonium dichloroiodate (BTMACI), in the presence of zinc chloride, leads to the formation of carbon dioxide. The reaction is first order with respect to BTMACI, zinc chloride and organic acid. Oxidation of deuteriated formic acid indicates the presence of a kinetic ...

  14. Comparative study of oxalic and malonic acid behaviour in the chemical cleaning of alloy 800 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Damian A.; Bruyere, Vivienne I.E.; Bordoni, Roberto A.; Olmedo, Ana M.; Morando, Pedro J.

    2004-01-01

    This work consisted, in a first stage, on a basic study of the dissolution mechanism of nickel ferrite in aqueous malonic acid. Powdered oxides (Ni x Fe 3-x O 4 ) were synthesized by wet procedures and heated at 750 C degrees. These oxides were characterized by conventional methods and dissolved under different experimental conditions (pH, reagent concentration, temperature, etc.) in order to determine the dissolution rates. Optimal dissolution conditions were explored and compared to the corresponding oxalic acid ones. In a second stage, these conditions were applied to oxides grown on Alloy 800 coupons. Before oxidation, all coupons were ground polished and then were exposed to hydrothermal conditions (350 C degrees, pH 25Cdegrees ≅ 10.4 -LiOH-, 20-22 days) in static autoclaves. Finally, oxidized and unoxidized coupons were treated with chemical solutions containing oxalic or malonic acid at conditions optimized in the first stage. These results were also compared to those obtained on coupons exposed to a commercial formulation, APAC (Alkaline Permanganate Ammonium Citrate), as a reference. The results on coupon descaling using APMAL (AP + Malonic), APOX (AP + oxalic) and the comparison with APAC leads to conclude that malonic acid is a reagent whose chemical behavior is much better than oxalic acid and comparable to commercial formulations. (author) [es

  15. Thermal behaviour of iron (II) oxalate dihydrate in the atmosphere of its conversion gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heřmánek, M.; Zbořil, R.; Mašláň, M.; Machala, L.; Schneeweiss, Oldřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 13 (2006), s. 1273-1280 ISSN 0959-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : hydrous ferrous oxalate * oxide nanoparticles * crystal-structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.287, year: 2006

  16. Growth and study of barium oxalate single crystals in agar gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barium oxalate was grown in agar gel at ambient temperature. The effect of various parameters like gel concentration, gel setting time and concentration of the reactants on the growth of these crystals was studied. Prismatic platy shaped spherulites and dendrites were obtained. The grown crystals were characterized by ...

  17. Crystal forms of the hydrogen oxalate salt of o-desmethylvenlafaxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichiarante, Elena; Curzi, Marco; Giaffreda, Stefano L; Grepioni, Fabrizia; Maini, Lucia; Braga, Dario

    2015-06-01

    To prepare new crystalline forms of the antidepressant o-desmethylvenlafaxine salt as potential new commercial forms and evaluate their physicochemical properties, in particular the dissolution rate. A new hydrogen oxalate salt of o-desmethylvenlafaxine hydrogen oxalate (ODV-OX) was synthesized, and a polymorph screening was performed using different solvents and crystallization conditions. Crystalline forms were characterized by a combination of solid-state techniques: X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The stability of all crystalline phases was tested under International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) conditions (40°C and 75% Relative Humidity (RH)) for 1 week. Dissolution tests were performed on the hydrogen oxalate salt ODV-OX Form 1 and compared with dissolution test on the commercial form of the succinate salt of o-desmethylvenlafaxine. Five crystalline forms of ODV-OX were isolated, namely three hydrated forms (Form 1, Form 2, Form 3) and two anhydrous forms (Form 4 and Form 5). Comparative solubility tests on ODV-OX Form 1 and o-desmethylvenlafaxine succinate evidenced a significant increase in solubility for the hydrogen oxalate salt (142 g/l) with respect to the succinate salt (70 g/l). © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. ROLE OF THE MICROFLORA IN DISTAL INTESTINAL TRACT BY MAINTAINING OXALATE HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osolodchenko T.P.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal microflora is part of the human body and performs numerous function. Considerable research interest is in the field of probiotics for the prevention of kidney stones, which is one of the most common urological diseases.Urolithiasis is one of the most common urological diseases. This is polyetiological disease congenital and acquired character with complex physical and chemical processes that occur not only in the urinary system, but also the whole body. None of the treatments does not guarantee full recovery of the patient and often leads to relapse. The open methods of removal stones yield news minimally invasive the technologys. Development of stone formation depends on the presence of many factors, metabolic disorders, chronic urinary tract infections, genetic disorders and more. Most have the following metabolic disorders as hypercalciuria, hiperurikuria, hipotsytraturia , hyperoxaluria and hipomahniuria. Among all types of urolithiasis kaltsiyoksalatnyy ranked first in the prevalence rate - about 75.0 - 85.0 % of cases. Dietary restriction by oxalates іs the unreliable method of preventing disease. Although there is evidence for the growth inhibition normobiocenosis representatives, which in turn enhances the absorption of salts of oxalic acid oxalate in the application of sodium , magnesium and cobalt in their intragastric administration. Recently published many papers on the impact on the level of oxalate intestinal microflora. The first publications appeared on the influence of gram-negative obligate anaerobes O. formigenes the concentration of oxalate in the urine. This anaerobic bacteria living in the colon, its prevalence - 46.0 % - 77.0 % of the adult population. O. formigenes reveals the symbiotic interaction with the human body by reducing absorption of oxalate in the intestinal cavity with subsequent decrease in their concentration in plasma and urine. O. formigenes has two key enzymes - oksalyl

  19. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  20. A novel 3D framework indium phosphite-oxalate based on a pcu-type topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Mengmeng; Zhou, Mingdong; Hu, Dianwen; Gao, Fan; Dong, Sijie; Huang, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    A new inorganic–organic hybrid indium phosphite-oxalate, formulated as H[In 5 (HPO 3 ) 6 (H 2 PO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 2 ]·(C 4 N 2 H 11 ) 2 ·H 2 O 1 has been hydrothermally synthesized in the presence of piperazine acting as a structure directing agent (SDA). The single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that compound 1 shows three-dimensional open-framework with intersecting 12-ring channels along the [010] and [001] directions, which is constructed from strictly alternating double 6-ring units (D6Rs), [C 2 O 4 ] 2− groups and [H 2 PO 3 ] − pseudo-pyramids. It is noted that the classical D6R SBU is firstly reported in main metal phosphite/phosphite-oxalate. By regarding D6R as the 6-connected nodes, the inorganic–organic hybrid framework is based on a pcu-type topology. The as-synthesized product was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ICP-AES and elemental analyses. - Graphical abstract: A 3D open-framework indium phosphite-oxalate has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. A classical SBU, D6R, is present in the structure. By regarding D6R as the 6-connected nodes, the inorganic–organic hybrid framework is based on a pcu-type topology. - Highlights: • A new indium phosphite-oxalate based on a pcu-type topology has been synthesized. • A classical SBU, D6R, is present in the structure. • The classical SBU is firstly reported in main metal phosphite/phosphite-oxalate.