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Sample records for calcium nutrition effects

  1. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. The effect of different dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations and ratios on nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S J; Bradbury, E J; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each

  2. Effect of high calcium and phosphate concentrations on the physicochemical properties of two lipid emulsions used as total parenteral nutrition for neonates.

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    Chaieb, Sonia Driss; Chaumeil, Jean-Claude; Jebnoun, Sami; Khrouf, Naima; Hedhili, Abderrazek; Sfar, Souad

    2009-01-01

    Premature infants require protein and energy for their growth and an adequate intake of calcium and phosphorus for their bone formation. However, several factors can affect the stability of intravenous lipid emulsions intended to be administered as neonatal total parenteral nutrition. This study evaluated the effect of additives and various concentrations of both calcium gluconate and glucose-1-phosphate on two intravenous lipid emulsions (Clinoleic 20% and Ivelip 20%) when using Primene 10% as source of amino acids and simulating clinical conditions (24-h storage at 37 degrees C). Two series of experiments for each lipid emulsion were carried out. One used separate ingredients (water, glucose, or amino acids) with various calcium phosphate concentrations; and the second included total parenteral nutrition admixtures with varied amino acid (1%, 2%, or 3.5%) and glucose (8% or 14%) concentrations. Evaluation was performed by visual and microscopic examination and pH, particle size, and zeta potential measurements. Calcium concentrations were determined before and after filtration by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Samples were stored 24 h at 37 degrees C. Investigations of lipid-nutrient admixtures showed a significant decrease of the pH with Primene and a visual instability when mixing with sterile water alone, while total parenteral nutrition admixtures made of Clinoleic 20% or Ivelip 20% were stable regarding pH, particle sizing, and zeta potential after storage conditions. Samples containing only calcium have their zeta potential charge reduced compared to samples containing both calcium and phosphate. Also, the evaluation of calcium phosphate solubility showed a significant decrease of the calcium concentration after filtration of the samples. Our data indicated that total parenteral nutrition admixtures could contribute to protect the lipid emulsion from its physicochemical degradation and that using organic phosphate with calcium gluconate has a less

  3. The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.R.; Kabir, A.K.M.A.; Amin, M.R.; McNeill, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated

  4. CONCENTRATED CALCIUM NITRATE IS AN EFFECTIVE SOLUTION FOR MINERAL NUTRITION OF VEGETABLES GROWN THROUGH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

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    T. V. Grebennikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basis water-soluble fertilizers that are used in greenhouse enterprises is  a Calcium  nitrate,  where  its production  and demand raise. At present time, calcium nitrate is produced  in a granulated and crystaline   form consisted of tetrahydrate, dihydrate and concentrated variants. These forms  are significantly distinguished  by their  chemical  composition.  Besides the  basic  form  of nitrogen – nitrate – there is ammoniacal nitrogen in the composition of Calcium nitrate that is found to be undesirable element, particularly with drip irrigation system in the  greenhouse. The new  product,  calcium  nitrate  has been worked out with minimal content of ammoniacal nitrogen  at  URALCHIM. The study  showed  the  advantages of the product for such characteristics as solubility and time of dissolving. It dissolves 3.4-7 time faster than those of tetrahydrate and dihydrate analogues. At present time, the concentrated  calcium  nitrate is used in many greenhouse  industrial  complexes  and  enterprises,  and has shown its efficiency in practice.

  5. The effect of dairy products choice on calcium dietary intake in female university students of nutritional faculty.

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    Włodarek, Dariusz; Głabska, Dominika; Lange, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products provide the most important source of calcium in a typical human diet, being of particular significance to women. To determine dietary calcium intakes in a group of female students studying human nutrition at a Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW through analysing the selections made of dairy products. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess average consumption of dairy products. Total daily calcium intakes were then estimated by adding the intakes obtained from such dairy products to an average non-dairy calcium value obtained from other foodstuffs and taken to be 250 mg. Varied choices were made of dairy foodstuffs, with most subjects consuming milk, milk beverages, cottage cheese and rennet cheese. Calcium intakes were thus dependent on the dietary assortment of such selected dairy products made. Whenever cheeses were avoided in the diet, then low calcium intakes became more common. When compared to dietary recommendations, calcium intakes in this group of young women were inadequately low especially for those not eating cheese and despite supposedly having sufficient knowledge through studying this subject area.

  6. Effectiveness of a Theory-Driven Nutritional Education Program in Improving Calcium Intake among Older Mauritian Adults

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    Trishnee Bhurosy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low calcium intake, a risk factor of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures, has been previously reported among post-menopausal women in Mauritius. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention in improving the calcium intake, self-efficacy, and knowledge of older Mauritians. Methodology. The study was conducted as a pre- and post-test design which was evaluated through a baseline, immediate postintervention, and 2-month follow-up assessments. Participants were adults (n=189 aged ≥40 years old from 2 urban community-based centres. The intervention group (IG (n=98 participated in 6 weekly interactive lessons based on the health belief model (HBM. The main outcome measures were calcium intake, HB scale scores, knowledge scores, and physical activity level (PAL. Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. Results. The IG significantly increased its baseline calcium intake, knowledge and self-efficacy (P<0.001 at post-assessments. A significant decrease in waist circumference in the IG was noted (P<0.05 after intervention. PAL significantly increased by 12.3% at post-test and by 29.6% at follow-up among intervention adults when compared to the CG (P<0.001. Conclusion. A theory-driven educational intervention is effective in improving the dietary calcium intake, knowledge, self-efficacy, and PAL of older community-based Mauritian adults.

  7. Calcium in edible insects and its use in human nutrition

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    Anna Adámková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is one of the most problematic substances in human nutrition. Nutrition in the present population is not optimal, because of insufficient consumption of milk and dairy products. Due to the expanding interest of specialists and the general public about entomophagy, as well as increase of the EU interest in this type of food, there is a need to consider the use of edible insects as an alternative source of nutrition. From the perspective of edible insects as a source of calcium, edible insects could be considered as a possible source of calcium for enriching the diet and also as a substitute for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to other categories of foods rich in calcium. Of the six analysed species of edible insect, Bombyx mori had the highest calcium content, almost comparable to semi-skimmed cow's milk. Gryllus assimillis can also be a rich source of calcium as well as other analysed species. The lowest content of calcium was detected in Zophobas morio. Common meat (chicken, beef, pork has lower calcium content comparing with all analysed species of edible insect (Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, Gryllus assimillis, Locusta migratoria, Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio. Therefore, the selected species of edible insect could serve as an alternative source of calcium for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to soy. Phosphorus level in human body is closely related to calcium in the calcium-phosphate metabolism, therefore phosphorus level was detected in these samples too. Bombyx mori had the highest phosphorus content and the lowest content of phosphorus was measured in Zophobas morio samples.

  8. A facile pollutant-free approach toward a series of nutritionally effective calcium phosphate nanomaterials for food and drink additives

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    Wang, Jieru; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xianyan; Xu, Sanzhong; Zhang, Xinli; Gou, Zhongru

    2011-03-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread and constitutes one of the main nutritional problems worldwide. Vitamins, amino acids, carbohydrates and Ca-phosphate (CaP) minerals are important to human health and disease prevention. Herein we developed a simple wet-chemical method to prepare multinary nutrients-containing CaP nanomaterials in diluted apple, orange, and grape juices. The scanning electron microscopy observation shows that these nanomaterials are short plate-like CaP nanocrystals of 500 nm in length. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analyses confirm the different specific surface area and organic nutrient contents. The Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate there exist similar organic groups (i.e., COO-, HN-CO) but different CaP species in the precipitates. The dissolution test in vitro simulated stomach juice pH condition indicates that these inorganic-organic nanohybrid materials are multidoped by micronutrients (such as Zn, Sr, Mg, K, vitamin c) and can be readily dissolved in the weak acidic aqueous solutions. This highly efficient utilization of fruit juice to produce CaP-based micronutrient composites may minimize the adverse side effect, so that the nanomaterials are promising as functional food/drink additives. Thus, this novel approach is environmentally and biologically friendly to produce edible nutrients while production cost is attained.

  9. The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate on vegetative growth, leaf yield and nutritive quality of Cleome gynadra (Cat Whiskers) in Keiyo District, Rift Valley Province. MJ Hutchinson, LK Kipkosgei, E Obudho, LSM Akundabweni ...

  10. Effects of dietary energy levels using calcium salts of fatty acids on nutritive value of diets and milk quality in peripartum dairy goats

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    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum is a critical period for dairy goats, as dry matter intake (DMI is not enough to supply the energy requirement for foetal growth and subsequent lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase dietary energy level of peripartum dairy goats and its effects on nutritive value of diets and milk quality. Twenty multiparous Saanen goats (body weight 63.5±10.3 kg were distributed in a completely randomised design in four treatments at the following dietary energy levels: 2.6 Mcal of metabolisable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM - control diet; and 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9 Mcal/kg DM - with added CSFA. Goats were housed in individual stalls and evaluated in the peripartum period, by measuring body weight (BW, DMI, dry matter and nutrient digestibility of diets, blood composition, and milk quality and yield. Increasing dietary energy level to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had no effect on BW and did not limit DMI. CSFA supplementation increased intake of total digestible nutrients and did not affect fibre digestion. Blood triglycerides and cholesterol concentration increased with CSFA addition. The treatments had no effect on milk yield and composition; however, CSFA supplementation changed the fatty acid concentration of milk fat, increasing levels of polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids. In conclusion, peripartum dairy goats supplemented with CSFA to increase dietary energy level up to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had a greater supply of total digestible nutrients and showed altered fatty acid concentration of milk fat.

  11. Calcium - Function and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Jianfen; He, Yifan; Gao, Qian; Wang, Xuan; Nout, M.J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the primary food source for more than half of the world population. Levels of calcium contents and inhibitor - phytic acid are summarized in this chapter. Phytic acid has a very strong chelating ability and it is the main inhibit factor for calcium in rice products. Calcium contents in

  12. Effects of chopping, and soaking in water, hydrochloric acidic and calcium hydroxide solutions on the nutritional value of Acacia villosa for goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wina, E.; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the presence of cassava flour, soaking improved average daily gain. Diets supplemented with water soaked Acacia leaves probably also need an energy supplement and cassava flour is one of the feed ingredients that is satisfactory. (author)

  13. Role of calcium deficiency in development of nutritional rickets in Indian children: a case control study.

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    Aggarwal, Varun; Seth, Anju; Aneja, Satinder; Sharma, Bhawna; Sonkar, Pitamber; Singh, Satveer; Marwaha, Raman K

    2012-10-01

    Nutritional rickets is usually attributed to vitamin D deficiency. Studies from some tropical countries have postulated low dietary intake of calcium as the cause of nutritional rickets. Both vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency are highly prevalent in India. Information on their relative contribution in the development of rickets in Indian children is limited. The aim was to study the role of calcium and vitamin D deficiency in causation of nutritional rickets in young Indian children. In a case-control study, 67 children with nutritional rickets and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were compared for demographic factors, nutritional status, sun exposure (UV score), dietary calcium and phytate intake (for subjects not breast-fed at presentation), and biochemical parameters [serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and PTH]. Mean intake of calcium (204±129 vs. 453±234 mg/d; Pnutrition status.

  14. Calcium Chloride and Calcium Gluconate in Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Solutions without Cysteine: Compatibility Studies Using Laser Light Obscuration Methodology

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    Robert K. Huston

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There are no compatibility studies for neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions without cysteine containing calcium chloride or calcium gluconate using light obscuration as recommended by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP. The purpose of this study was to do compatibility testing for solutions containing calcium chloride and calcium gluconate without cysteine. Solutions of TrophAmine and Premasol (2.5% amino acids, containing calcium chloride or calcium gluconate were compounded without cysteine. Solutions were analyzed for particle counts using light obscuration. Maximum concentrations tested were 15 mmol/L of calcium and 12.5 mmol/L of phosphate. If the average particle count of three replicates exceeded USP guidelines, the solution was determined to be incompatible. This study found that 12.5 and 10 mmol/L of calcium and phosphate, respectively, are compatible in neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions compounded with 2.5% amino acids of either TrophAmine or Premasol. There did not appear to be significant differences in compatibility for solutions containing TrophAmine or Premasol when solutions were compounded with either CaCl2 or CaGlu-Pl. This study presents data in order to evaluate options for adding calcium and phosphate to neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions during shortages of calcium and cysteine.

  15. Influence of calcium and magnesium salts on acid soil chemistry and calcium nutrition of apple

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    Pavan, M.A.; Bingham, F.T.; Peryea, F.J.

    Field experiments were conducted in two Brazilian orchards to examine the effects of soil applications of calcitic lime (Ca-lime), phosphogypsum, CaCl/sub 2/, and magnesite (Mg-lime) on soil chemistry and Ca nutrition of apple (Malus domestica Borkh, cv. Gala/MM 106). One orchard was on a low Ca, high Al Inceptisol; the second orchard was on a low Ca, low Al Oxisol. The resulting soil chemical changes were strongly influenced by the initial soil chemistry and the composition of the soil amendments. The effects of Ca-lime, added at a rate calculated to neutralize the topsoil exchange acidity, were restricted primarily to the upper 20 cm of the soil, where it increased pH, increased total dissolved and exchangeable Ca, eliminated dissolved Al, and reduced exchangeable Al. Phosphogypsum, added at Ca rates equivalent to the Ca-lime treatment, slightly reduced soil pH in the Inceptisol and slightly increased soil pH in the Oxisol. Phosphogypsum did not appreciably affect dissolved Al in the topsoil; however, it did reduce exchangeable Al but to a lesser degree than did Ca-lime or Mg-lime. Phosphogypsum increased exchangeable Ca and decreased exchangeable Al in the subsoil to a depth of 40 to 60 cm. Calcium chloride, added at Ca rates equivalent to the Ca-lime treatment, produced dissolved and exchangeable Ca increases similar to the phosphogypsum treatment; however, soluble and exchangeable Al were increased and pH slightly decreased through out the soil profiles.

  16. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

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    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium.

  17. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

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    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs and adequate intake (AI values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006. Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032. When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086 and fluorine (p = 0.503. These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  18. Prevention of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children with dietary calcium supplementation.

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    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Isichei, Christian O; Zoakah, Ayuba I; Pettifor, John M

    2012-05-01

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children usually results from dietary calcium insufficiency. Typical dietary calcium intakes in African children are about 200mg daily (approximately 20-28% of US RDAs for age). We sought to determine if rickets could be prevented with supplemental calcium or with an indigenous food rich in calcium. We enrolled Nigerian children aged 12 to 18months from three urban communities. Two communities were assigned calcium, either as calcium carbonate (400mg) or ground fish (529±109mg) daily, while children in all three communities received vitamin A (2500IU) daily as placebo. Serum markers of mineral homeostasis and forearm bone density (pDEXA) were measured and radiographs were obtained at enrollment and after 18months of supplementation. The overall prevalence of radiographic rickets at baseline was 1.2% and of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)Dchildren enrolled, 390 completed the 18-month follow-up. Rickets developed in 1, 1, and 2 children assigned to the calcium tablet, ground fish, and control groups, respectively (approximate incidence 6.4/1000 children/year between 1 and 3years of age). Children who developed rickets in the calcium-supplemented groups had less than 50% adherence. Compared with the group that received no calcium supplementation, the groups that received calcium had a greater increase in areal bone density of the distal and proximal 1/3 radius and ulna over time (Prickets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fortification of milk with calcium: effect on calcium bioavailability and interactions with iron and zinc.

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    Perales, Sara; Barberá, Reyes; Lagarda, María Jesús; Farré, Rosaura

    2006-06-28

    Calcium solubility, dialysability, and transport and uptake (retention + transport) by Caco-2 cells as indicators of calcium bioavailability have been estimated in the in vitro gastrointestinal digests of milk and calcium fortified milk. A significant linear correlation (p calcium uptake and the amount of soluble calcium added to the cells, and also between percentage calcium uptake and the calcium measured in the analyzed samples. The solubility, dialysis, transport, and uptake values are higher (p calcium fortified milks than for nonfortified milks; that is, calcium fortification increases not only calcium content but also its bioavailability. An inhibitory effect of calcium from fortified milks upon iron absorption was found. The observed effect of calcium from fortified milks upon zinc bioavailability depends on the in vitro method used, zinc solubility and dialysis decrease in calcium fortified milks, and percentage zinc uptake remains unchanged.

  20. Relationship Between Nutritional Habits and Hair Calcium Levels in Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectr...

  1. Calcium in Gluten-Free Life: Health-Related and Nutritional Implications

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    Urszula Krupa-Kozak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium deficiency and metabolic bone diseases are a frequent co-morbidity of coeliac disease (CD. Gluten-free diet (GFD is the only effective treatment of CD. However, CD patients on the strict GFD consume less than the recommended amounts of calcium. In this review, the main etiological factors responsible for calcium deficiency in CD were presented. Additionally, the research on the application of calcium supplements in the gluten-free breadmaking was reviewed, and its effect on the technological and sensory properties of baked products was indicated. Calcium-fortified gluten-free products could increase the calcium content in the diet of CD patients, supplying the amount of calcium they need for prophylactic or therapeutic use. Apart from this, the consumption of the naturally GF products as well as functional ingredients beneficially affecting calcium absorption need to be encouraged.

  2. Effects of Vegetarian Nutrition?A Nutrition Ecological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Metz, Martina; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition. The nutrition ecological perspective offers a basis for the assessment of the eff...

  3. [Nutritional study relative to proteins, energy, and calcium in children eating school meals].

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    Diego Sánchez, H; Osella, C A; de la Torre, M A; González, R J; Sbodio, O A

    1999-09-01

    Food consumption and nutritional status were evaluated on 419 children having meals at school located in the surrounding of Santa Fe (Argentina). The protein, energy and calcium content of the meals were analyzed. Anthropometrical evaluation was made by the following indicators: weight to age, height to age and weight to height. Biochemical evaluation to a sample of the children, was made by urea/creatinine and calcium/creatinine indicators. Recommended protein consumption is achieved but a biological efficiency loss is detected, probably due to an insufficient energy intake. School meals provide about 50% of the daily energy requirements. Regarding calcium consumption, the dinner cover about 15% of the recommendations but they achieve 47-49% with the cup of milk. As in the case of energy, the calcium daily intake is insufficient as we can see by the calcium/creatinine indicator which shows that a 60% of the people are below of the normal values. All these results suggest that is necessary to increase the energy intake and calcium consumption to improve the nutritional status.

  4. Dissolution and storage stability of nanostructured calcium carbonates and phosphates for nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posavec, Lidija; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N., E-mail: jesper.knijnenburg@alumni.ethz.ch; Hilty, Florentine M. [ETH Zurich, Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Health Sciences and Technology (Switzerland); Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E. [ETH Zurich, Particle Technology Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering (Switzerland); Zimmermann, Michael B. [ETH Zurich, Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Health Sciences and Technology (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    Rapid calcium (Ca) dissolution from nanostructured Ca phosphate and carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) powders may allow them to be absorbed in much higher fraction in humans. Nanosized Ca phosphate and CaCO{sub 3} made by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. As-prepared nanopowders contained both CaCO{sub 3} and CaO, but storing them under ambient conditions over 130 days resulted in a complete transformation into CaCO{sub 3}, with an increase in both crystal and particle sizes. The small particle size could be stabilized against such aging by cation (Mg, Zn, Sr) and anion (P) doping, with P and Mg being most effective. Calcium phosphate nanopowders made at Ca:P ≤ 1.5 were XRD amorphous and contained γ-Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} with increasing hydroxyapatite content at higher Ca:P. Aging of powders with Ca:P = 1.0 and 1.5 for over 500 days gradually increased particle size (but less than for CaCO{sub 3}) without a change in phase composition or crystallinity. In 0.01 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} calcium phosphate nanopowders dissolved ≈4 times more Ca than micronsized compounds and about twice more Ca than CaCO{sub 3} nanopowders, confirming that nanosizing and/or amorphous structuring sharply increases Ca powder dissolution. Because higher Ca solubility in vitro generally leads to greater absorption in vivo, these novel FASP-made Ca nanostructured compounds may prove useful for nutrition applications, including supplementation and/or food fortification.

  5. Dissolution and storage stability of nanostructured calcium carbonates and phosphates for nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posavec, Lidija; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N.; Hilty, Florentine M.; Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid calcium (Ca) dissolution from nanostructured Ca phosphate and carbonate (CaCO 3 ) powders may allow them to be absorbed in much higher fraction in humans. Nanosized Ca phosphate and CaCO 3 made by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. As-prepared nanopowders contained both CaCO 3 and CaO, but storing them under ambient conditions over 130 days resulted in a complete transformation into CaCO 3 , with an increase in both crystal and particle sizes. The small particle size could be stabilized against such aging by cation (Mg, Zn, Sr) and anion (P) doping, with P and Mg being most effective. Calcium phosphate nanopowders made at Ca:P ≤ 1.5 were XRD amorphous and contained γ-Ca 2 P 2 O 7 with increasing hydroxyapatite content at higher Ca:P. Aging of powders with Ca:P = 1.0 and 1.5 for over 500 days gradually increased particle size (but less than for CaCO 3 ) without a change in phase composition or crystallinity. In 0.01 M H 3 PO 4 calcium phosphate nanopowders dissolved ≈4 times more Ca than micronsized compounds and about twice more Ca than CaCO 3 nanopowders, confirming that nanosizing and/or amorphous structuring sharply increases Ca powder dissolution. Because higher Ca solubility in vitro generally leads to greater absorption in vivo, these novel FASP-made Ca nanostructured compounds may prove useful for nutrition applications, including supplementation and/or food fortification.

  6. Potassium and calcium nutrition improves potato production in drip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Spunta potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants to different rates of potassium (60 and 120 kg Fed-1 ) in presence or absence of Ca nutrition was studied. The study was performed in sandy-loam soil under a drip-irrigation system during fall seasons of 1996 and 1997 years. Plants fertilised with high rate of K ...

  7. Calcium Nutrition and Extracellular Calcium Sensing: Relevance for the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis, Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlik, Meinrad; Kállay, Enikoe; Cross, Heide S.

    2013-01-01

    Through a systematic search in Pubmed for literature, on links between calcium malnutrition and risk of chronic diseases, we found the highest degree of evidence for osteoporosis, colorectal and breast cancer, as well as for hypertension, as the only major cardiovascular risk factor. Low calcium intake apparently has some impact also on cardiovascular events and disease outcome. Calcium malnutrition can causally be related to low activity of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). This member of the family of 7-TM G-protein coupled receptors allows extracellular Ca2+ to function as a “first messenger” for various intracellular signaling cascades. Evidence demonstrates that Ca2+/CaSR signaling in functional linkage with vitamin D receptor (VDR)-activated pathways (i) promotes osteoblast differentiation and formation of mineralized bone; (ii) targets downstream effectors of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathway to inhibit proliferation and induce differentiation of colorectal cancer cells; (iii) evokes Ca2+ influx into breast cancer cells, thereby activating pro-apoptotic intracellular signaling. Furthermore, Ca2+/CaSR signaling opens Ca2+-sensitive K+ conductance channels in vascular endothelial cells, and also participates in IP3-dependent regulation of cytoplasmic Ca2+, the key intermediate of cardiomyocyte functions. Consequently, impairment of Ca2+/CaSR signaling may contribute to inadequate bone formation, tumor progression, hypertension, vascular calcification and, probably, cardiovascular disease. PMID:23340319

  8. Renoprotective effect of calcium channel blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimković Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancing chronic renal failure is at most the consequence of secondary haemodynamic and metabolic factors as intraglomerular hypertension and glomerular hypertrophy. Although tight blood pressure control is the major preventive mechanism for progressive renal failure, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have some other renoprotective mechanisms beyond the blood pressure control. That is why these two groups of antihypertensive drugs traditionally have advantages in treating renal patients especially those with proteinuria over 400-1000 mg/day. Even if earlier experimental studies have shown renoprotective effect of calcium channel blockers, later clinical studies did not prove that calcium channel blockers have any advantages in renal protection over ACE inhibitors given as monotherapy or in combination with ACE inhibitors. It was explained by action of calcium channel blockers on afferent but not on efferent glomerular arterioles; a well known mechanism that leads to intraglomerular hypertension. New generations of dihydropiridine calcium channel blockers can dilate even efferent arterioles not causing unfavorable haemodynamic disturbances. This finding was confirmed in clinical studies which showed that renoprotection established by calcium channel blockers was not inferior to that of ACE inhibitors and that calcium channel blockers and ACE inhibitors have additive effect on renoprotection. Newer generation of dihydropiridine calcium channel blockers seem to offer more therapeutic possibilities in renoprotection by their dual action on afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles and, possibly by other effects beyond the blood pressure control.

  9. Probability-based compatibility curves for calcium and phosphates in parenteral nutrition formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonyon, Thomas; Carter, Phillip W; Phillips, Gerald; Owen, Heather; Patel, Dipa; Kotha, Priyanka; Green, John-Bruce D

    2014-08-01

    The information content of the calcium phosphate compatibility curves for adult parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions may benefit from a more sophisticated statistical treatment. Binary logistic regression analyses were evaluated as part of an alternate method for generating formulation compatibility curves. A commercial PN solution was challenged with a systematic array of calcium and phosphate concentrations. These formulations were then characterized for particulates by visual inspection, light obscuration, and filtration followed by optical microscopy. Logistic regression analyses of the data were compared with traditional treatments for generating compatibility curves. Assay-dependent differences were observed in the compatibility curves and associated probability contours; the microscopic method of precipitate detection generated the most robust results. Calcium and phosphate compatibility data generated from small-volume glass containers reasonably predicted the observed compatibility of clinically relevant flexible containers. The published methods for creating calcium and phosphate compatibility curves via connecting the highest passing or lowest failing calcium concentrations should be augmented or replaced by probability contours of the entire experimental design to determine zones of formulation incompatibilities. We recommend researchers evaluate their data with logistic regression analysis to help build a more comprehensive probabilistic database of compatibility information. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  11. Nutrition Education Based on Health Belief Model Improves Dietary Calcium Intake among Female Students of Junior High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Lourizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hajinajaf, Saeedeh; Jarvandi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study examined the effects of a nutrition education programme based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dietary calcium in female students. In this interventional study, 188 students were placed into intervention (95) and control (93) groups. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. Students in both the groups completed KAP and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after two and three months of follow-up respectively. The data were analyzed by independent and paired t-tests. Those who received the intervention were found to have better attitude (p=0.049) and practice (p=0.005) scores compared to the controls. The HBM constructs, including perceived susceptibility (p=0.006), perceived severity (p=0.001), perceived benefits (p=0.002), perceived barriers (p=0.001), and taking health action (p=0.02) scores, were also significantly higher. The findings support the effectiveness of nutrition education based on the HBM in improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice relating to calcium intake among adolescent students. PMID:25395905

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to re-evaluate the safety in use of calcium. The Panel was requested to consider if the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for calcium established by the SCF in 2003 (2,500 mg...

  13. Effects of adding chymosin to milk on calcium homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif

    2015-01-01

    either chymosin or similar placebo was added. Compared with placebo, chymosin did not affect 24-h urinary calcium, calcium/creatinine ratio, plasma parathyroid hormone, calcitonin or ionized calcium levels. However, during the first 4 h after intake of milk with chymosin, urinary calcium-creatinine ratio...... not depend on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Chymosin added to milk increases renal calcium excretion in the hours following intake without affecting plasma levels of calcium or calciotropic hormones. The effect most likely represents enhanced intestinal calcium absorption shortly after intake. Further......Calcium intake and absorption is important for bone health. In a randomized double-blind cross-over trial, we investigated effects of adding chymosin to milk on the intestinal calcium absorption as measured by renal calcium excretion and indices of calcium homeostasis. The primary outcome...

  14. Calcium Administration Is Associated with Adverse Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Parenteral Nutrition: Results from a Natural Experiment Created by a Calcium Gluconate Shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Bryan; Larabell, Patrick; Patel, Jasmine U; Wong, Kristoffer; Qasem, Lina; Arthur, William; Leiberman, Chaim; Whittaker, Peter; Tennenberg, Steven D

    2016-11-01

    Parenteral calcium is frequently administered to critically ill patients. However, animal studies demonstrate that calcium administration during critical illness heightens inflammation and leads to shock, organ dysfunction, and mortality. We sought to evaluate the association between calcium administration and adverse outcomes in critically ill patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). Retrospective cohort examined before and during a calcium gluconate shortage. During the shortage, calcium was absent from PN, but calcium supplementation outside of PN was allowed. The shortage resulted in a natural experiment that included a group of patients who did not receive calcium. Intensive care units (ICUs) in three teaching hospitals. A total of 259 adults who received PN in the ICU for 48 hours or longer. Patients were divided into quartiles based on amount of parenteral calcium received; the lowest quartile received no calcium. End points were in-hospital mortality, acute respiratory failure, new-onset shock, and a composite of any one of these end points. For patients not on mechanical ventilation or vasoactive support when PN started, logistic regression revealed that calcium administration was associated with mortality (odds ratio [OR] 2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-5.69), acute respiratory failure (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.28-4.60), new-onset shock (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.22-6.44), and the combined end point (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.31-4.16). The odds of adverse outcomes increased as the calcium dose increased. Calcium administration correlated with adverse outcomes in critically ill patients receiving PN. The data suggest that administration of parenteral calcium to critically ill patients may be harmful. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  15. Calcium: effect of different amounts on nonheme- and heme-iron absorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Brune, M; Erlandsson, M; Sandberg, A S; Rossander-Hultén, L

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the effect of calcium on iron absorption in 126 human subjects. Addition of calcium chloride to wheat rolls significantly reduced iron absorption. Doses between 40 and 600 mg Ca were studied. The inhibition was clearly dose related up to 300 mg Ca. Calcium added to the dough when making the rolls reduced phytate degradation during fermentation and baking. As little as 40 mg Ca added to 80 g flour reduced phytate degradation by 50%, thus increasing the phytate content of the rolls to levels interfering with iron absorption. Calcium also had a direct dose-related inhibiting effect on iron absorption, noted by adding calcium to the rolls after they had been baked instead of to the dough. Iron absorption was reduced by 50-60% at doses of 300-600 mg Ca. Giving 165 mg Ca as milk, cheese, or calcium chloride reduced absorption by 50-60%. The same amount of calcium also significantly reduced heme-iron absorption, suggesting that the effect of calcium is related to the mucosal transfer of iron. The observed marked inhibitory effect on iron absorption of calcium in amounts frequently encountered in normal meals has important nutritional implications.

  16. Effect of nutrition education and dairy group membership on nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of nutrition education and dairy group membership on nutrition knowledge, practices and diet quality for rural Kenyan farm women. ... dairy development group were more food secure and had higher intake of certain micronutrients ... to improve intake of vitamin A, iron and zinc and was developed and delivered in

  17. The influence of climate and soil properties on calcium nutrition and vitality of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potocic, Nenad [Forest Research Institute, Jastrebarsko, Cvjetno naselje 41, 10450 Jastrebarsko (Croatia)]. E-mail: nenadp@sumins.hr; Cosic, Tomislav [Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetosimunska 25, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Pilas, Ivan [Forest Research Institute, Jastrebarsko, Cvjetno naselje 41, 10450 Jastrebarsko (Croatia)

    2005-10-15

    As a part of a broader research into the nutrition of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), the variation of calcium concentrations was investigated in needles and soil in two subsequent, climatologically diverse years. Statistically significant differences between plots were determined in Ca concentrations in soils. Concentrations of Ca in needles were statistically different regarding plot, defoliation class, sampling date within the same year and also between years. Fir trees on acid-rock based soils had lower, often inadequate concentrations of Ca in needles; the opposite was true for trees growing on Ca-rich soils. Trees of lower vitality generally exhibited poor Ca nutrition. Drought in the second year of research caused poor absorption of Ca on all plots and in all defoliation classes, but the combined influence of climate and soil properties affected especially trees of low vitality on acid-rock based soils. - Dry years, especially in combination with calcium-poor soils, have a strong negative effect on the Ca status of silver fir trees.

  18. Case-control study of breast milk calcium in mothers of children with and without nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Pettifor, John M; Fischer, Philip R; Okolo, Selina N; Prentice, Ann

    2006-07-01

    Despite similarly low calcium intakes and normal vitamin D status, only some Nigerian children develop nutritional rickets. We hypothesized that mothers with children who had developed rickets might have lower breast-milk calcium concentration than mothers with normal children and compared the breast-milk calcium concentration of mothers who had had children with rickets with those who had not (controls). We collected breast milk from 35 Nigerian mothers who had previously had children with nutritional rickets. For each case mother, we collected breast milk from three matched control mothers at the same stage of lactation (+/-4 weeks) who had had no children with rickets. Data were collected about parity, stage of lactation, and the infant's intake. The mother's bone density was measured. The mean breast milk calcium concentration of mothers of children with rickets (4.30+/-1.24 mmol/L) was less than that of control mothers (4.65+/-1.03 mmol/L; P=0.034 in multivariate regression controlling for duration of lactation and resumption of menses). Forearm bone mineral content was significantly related to breast milk calcium concentration (r=0.20) after adjusting for height, weight, and bone area (P=0.028). Reduced breast-milk calcium concentration may contribute to a reduced calcium intake in infancy and predispose children to nutritional rickets.

  19. Effect of nutrient calcium on the cell wall composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of calcium in the nutrient medium on kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst), grown in a solution culture, was investigated. Calcium had no effect on the lignin content of leaf material, but decreased the lignin content per unit stem cell wall. Calcium appeared to have no significant effect on either the ...

  20. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absorb calcium as well. Sufficient calcium intake from food, and supplements if needed, can slow the rate of bone loss. Women of childbearing ... calcium absorption. People who eat a variety of foods don't have to consider ... include consumption of alcohol- and caffeine-containing beverages as well ...

  1. The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate fertilisers on micronutrient density (iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and potassium) and seed yields of solanium villosum (black nightshade) and cleome gynandra (cat whiskers) on uetric nitisol.

  2. Protective effects of calcium antagonists in different organs and tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of calcium antagonists in ischemic disorders of various tissues is attributed to vasodilator and antivasoconstrictor activities. A direct, energy-conserving, antiischemic effect of certain calcium antagonists has been claimed repeatedly by basic scientists. The clinical

  3. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of calcium channel on ovarian cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chunyun; Li, Hailing

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of calcium channel protein on ovarian cancer cells. The expression of calcium channel protein in normal ovarian cells and ovarian cancer cells was detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR. Subsequently, the ovarian cancer cells were added to calcium channel protein activator media at various concentrations of 0, 1, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 mmol/l. The concentration of calcium ion in different samples was produced, and using an MTT assay, ova...

  5. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if

  6. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  7. Renoprotective effects of calcium antagonists on kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mochammad Sja'bani, Mochammad Sja'bani

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing number of evidence that calcium antagonists provide a salutary effects in preserving kidneys against acute renal ischemia in patients at increasing risk. Their beneficial effects on cellular and mitochondrial calcium may explain the effects on renal hemodynamics and metabolics. It seems, that they do not directly vasodilate kidney vessels but alter the response towards vasoconstrictor agents. This effect may mediate diuretic and natriuretic effect of calcium antagonis...

  8. [Effect of dietary calcium vs calcium citrate on conventional biochemical markers in perimenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Barreiro, Ma de los Angeles; Guerrero-Mercado, Aixa del Socorro; Méndez-Jiménez, Tannia Erika; Milián-Suazo, Feliciano

    2005-01-01

    To compare the effect of calcium citrate and a calcium enriched diet on conventional biochemical markers. Eighty-two women aged 30 to 35 years were randomized to any of three groups:A control group of 23 women who remained intact in their dietary habits and physical activity; a second group of 28 women who received 1000 mg of dietary calcium plus physical activity 30 minutes three times per week; and a third group of 31 women who received 600 mg of calcium citrate plus 500 mg of dietary calcium and physical activity three times per week for seven months. Calcaneum bone densitometry was measured to classify women into normal and osteopenic groups. Biochemical markers were measured at baseline and at the end of the study, as follows: serum alkaline phosphatase, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus, as well as the calcium/creatinine ratio in urine. Thirty-four percent of women were osteopenic. These women showed a significant reduction in the final level of calcium in the third group, as compared to the second group (p Phosphorus levels decreased in the second group (3.5 to 3.2 mg/dl) (p > 0.05). The calcium/creatinine ratio was normal in all groups. The second group showed a higher bone production than the third group. No group showed bone resorption.

  9. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values for calcium. These include Average Requirement (AR), Population Reference Intake (PRI) and Adequate Intake (AI). For adults, data were analysed from a number...

  10. Effect of zinc supplements on the intestinal absorption of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Rubio, N.; Kramer, L.; Norris, C.; Osis, D.

    1987-01-01

    Pharmacologic doses of zinc are widely used as zinc supplements. As calcium and zinc may compete for common absorption sites, a study was carried out on the effect of a pharmacologic dose of zinc on the intestinal absorption of calcium in adult males. The analyzed dietary zinc intake in the control studies was normal, averaging 14.6 mg/day. During the high zinc study, 140 mg zinc as the sulfate was added daily for time periods ranging from 17 to 71 days. The studies were carried out during both a low calcium intake averaging 230 mg/day and during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day. Calcium absorption studies were carried out during the normal and high zinc intake by using an oral tracer dose of Ca-47 and determining plasma levels and urinary and fecal excretions of Ca-47. The study has shown that, during zinc supplementation, the intestinal absorption of calcium was significantly lower during a low calcium intake than in the control study, 39.3% vs 61% respectively, p less than 0.001. However, during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day, the high zinc intake had no significant effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium. These studies have shown that the high zinc intake decreased the intestinal absorption of calcium during a low calcium intake but not during a normal calcium intake

  11. Suprimento do silicato de cálcio e a eficiência nutricional de variedades de cafeeiro Effect of calcium silicate suplly and the nutritional efficiency of coffee cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélia Aziz Alexandre Pozza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora não seja considerado nutriente essencial às plantas, o Si é classificado como elemento benéfico ou útil, mas pode alterar a dinâmica nutricional das plantas. Objetivando comparar a eficiência nutricional de variedades de cafeeiro (Catuaí, Mundo Novo e Icatu em resposta à adubação silicatada, realizou-se um experimento em blocos casualizados, com as três variedades de mudas em tubetes combinadas com seis doses de CaSiO3 (T0 = 0, T1 = 0,063, T2 = 0,125, T3 = 0,25, T4 = 0,5 e T5 = 1,0 g dm-3 de substrato. A variedade Icatu teve a maior eficiência de absorção (EA de Cu, Zn, Fe e Si, maior eficiência de uso (EU de N, K, Ca, B e Mn, não diferindo da Mundo Novo com relação aos nutrientes N, Ca e Mn, e maior eficiência de translocação (ET de N, S, Zn e de Fe. A Catuaí teve maior EA de P, K, B e Mn, não diferindo da Mundo Novo com relação aos nutrientes P, K e Mn, maior EU para Mg, S, Cu, Zn, Fe e Si, provavelmente devido à melhor ET desses nutrientes, exceto para Fe e Si. A Mundo Novo foi mais eficiente na absorção de N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn e Si, teve maior EU de P e Mn e maior ET de K, Ca, B, Mn e Si.Silicon is classified as a beneficial nutrient and can improve the nutritional dynamics of plants, although it is not considered an essential nutrient for plants. In an experiment in a randomized block design, three coffee cultivars (Catuaí, Mundo Novo and Icatu were planted in plastic tubes, combined with six doses of calcium silicate (T0=0, T1=0.063, T2=0.125, T3=0.25, T4=0.5 and T5=1.0 g dm-3 substrate, to compare the nutritional efficiency of the cultivars in response to silicon fertilization. Cultivar Icatu showed the higher uptake efficiency (UE of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Si, and efficiency of use (EU of N, K, Ca, B, and Mn, but the later did not differ from Mundo Novo cultivar (N, Ca, and Mn. The efficiency of translocation (ET was higher for N, S, Zn, and Fe. For Catuaí the uptake efficiency of P, K, B, and Mn was higher

  12. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. Growth performance, skeletal health and intake arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, E J; Wilkinson, S J; Cronin, G M; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in broiler nutrition and skeletal health is highly complex with many factors influencing their digestion, absorption and utilisation. The use of an investigative model such as the geometric framework allows a graphical approach to explore these complex interactions. A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated to one of 15 dietary treatments with five replicates and eight birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were formulated to one of three total densities of total Ca+nPP; high (15 g/kg), medium (13.5 g/kg) and low (12 g/kg) and at each density there were five different ratios of Ca : nPP (4, 2.75, 2.1, 1.5 and 1.14 : 1). Weekly performance data was collected and at the end of the experiment birds were individually weighed and the right leg removed for tibia ash analysis. Skeletal health was assessed using the latency to lie (LTL) at day 27. At low Ca and high nPP as well as high Ca and low nPP diets, birds had reduced feed intake, BW gain, poorer feed efficiency and lower tibia ash, resulting in a significant interaction between dietary Ca and nPP (Pimportance of formulating diets to a accurately balanced density of Ca : nPP considering the biological importance of both minerals.

  13. A combination of probiotics and whey proteins enhances anti-obesity effects of calcium and dairy products during nutritional energy restriction in aP2-agouti transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Kazutoyo; Sun, Xiaocum; Kawase, Manabu; Kubota, Akira; Miyazawa, Kenji; Harata, Gaku; Hosoda, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Masaru; He, Fang; Zemel, Michael B

    2015-06-14

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus paracasei TMC0409, Streptococcus thermophilus TMC1543 and whey proteins were used to prepare fermented milk. For the experiment aP2- agouti transgenic mice were pre-treated with a high-sucrose/high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. The obese mice were fed a diet containing 1·2% Ca and either non-fat dried milk (NFDM) or probiotic-fermented milk (PFM) with nutritional energy restriction for 6 weeks. The animals were examined after the treatment for changes in body weight, fat pad weight, fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity, lypolysis, the expression levels of genes related to lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and skeletal muscle and the presence of biomarkers for oxidative and inflammatory stress in plasma. It was found that the PFM diet significantly reduced body weight, fat accumulation, and adipocyte FAS activity, and increased adipocyte lipolysis as compared with the effects of the NFDM diet (Pprobiotics and supplementation of milk with whey proteins may thus enhance anti-obesity effects of Ca and dairy products by the suppression of adipose tissue lipogenesis, activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and reduction of oxidative and inflammatory stress.

  14. Effect of calcium phosphate and vitamin D₃ supplementation on bone remodelling and metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautvetter, Ulrike; Neef, Nadja; Leiterer, Matthias; Kiehntopf, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-01-17

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of calcium phosphate and/or vitamin D₃ on bone and mineral metabolism. Sixty omnivorous healthy subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel designed study. Supplements were tricalcium phosphate (CaP) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃). At the beginning of the study (baseline), all subjects documented their normal nutritional habits in a dietary record for three successive days. After baseline, subjects were allocated to three intervention groups: CaP (additional 1 g calcium/d), vitamin D₃ (additional 10 μg/d) and CaP + vitamin D₃. In the first two weeks, all groups consumed placebo bread, and afterwards, for eight weeks, the test bread according to the intervention group. In the last week of each study period (baseline, placebo, after four and eight weeks of intervention), a faecal (three days) and a urine (24 h) collection and a fasting blood sampling took place. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron were determined in faeces, urine and blood. Bone formation and resorption markers were analysed in blood and urine. After four and eight weeks, CaP and CaP + vitamin D₃ supplementations increased faecal excretion of calcium and phosphorus significantly compared to placebo. Due to the vitamin D₃ supplementations (vitamin D₃, CaP + vitamin D₃), the plasma 25-(OH)D concentration significantly increased after eight weeks compared to placebo. The additional application of CaP led to a significant increase of the 25-(OH)D concentration already after four weeks. Bone resorption and bone formation markers were not influenced by any intervention. Supplementation with daily 10 μg vitamin D₃ significantly increases plasma 25-(OH)D concentration. The combination with daily 1 g calcium (as CaP) has a further increasing effect on the 25-(OH)D concentration. Both CaP alone and in combination with vitamin D₃ have no beneficial effect on bone remodelling markers and on

  15. Effects of Calcium Ion, Calpains, and Calcium Channel Blockers on Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Nakazawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in molecular genetic studies have revealed many of the causative genes of retinitis pigmentosa (RP. These achievements have provided clues to the mechanisms of photoreceptor degeneration in RP. Apoptosis is known to be a final common pathway in RP and, therefore, a possible therapeutic target for photoreceptor rescue. However, apoptosis is not a single molecular cascade, but consists of many different reactions such as caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways commonly leading to DNA fractionation and cell death. The intracellular concentration of calcium ions is also known to increase in apoptosis. These findings suggest that calpains, one of the calcium-dependent proteinases, play some roles in the process of photoreceptor apoptosis and that calcium channel antagonists may potentially inhibit photoreceptor apoptosis. Herein, the effects of calpains and calcium channel antagonists on photoreceptor degeneration are reviewed.

  16. Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, S.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Peeters, P.H.; Engel, P.; Brustad, M.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European

  17. The effect of calcium on auxin depletion-induced tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and calcium are the most important factors that instigate plant organ abscission. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the effects of IAA and calcium on delayed abscission in tomato. The results showed a clear trend towards reduced abscission rates with increased ...

  18. The Effect Of Glycemic Control On Serum Lipids And Calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect Of Glycemic Control On Serum Lipids And Calcium – Phosphate Profiles In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. ... control levels in type 2 diabetic patients on the serum lipids and lipoprotein profiles and the serum levels of calcium, ... The patients were classified into two groups depending on their glycosylated

  19. Effects of calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride addition to bentonite in iron ore pelletization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugrul, Nurcan; Derun, Emek Moroydor; Pişkin, Mehmet

    2006-10-01

    Pyrite ash is created as waste from the roasting of pyrite ores during the production of sulphuric acid. These processes generate great amounts of pyrite ash waste that is generally land filled. This creates serious environmental pollution due to the release of acids and toxic substances. Pyrite ash waste can be utilized in the iron production industry as a blast furnace feed to process this waste and prevent environmental pollution. The essential parameters affecting the pelletization process of pyrite ash were studied using bentonite as a binder. Experiments were then carried out using bentonite and a mixture of bentonite with calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride in order to make the bentonite more effective. The metallurgical properties of pyrite ash, bentonite, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride, a mixture of these and sintered pellets were studied using X-ray analysis. The crushing strength tests were carried out to investigate the strength of pyrite ash waste pellets. The results of these analyses showed that pyrite ash can be agglomerated to pellets and used in the iron production industry as a blast furnace feed. The crushing strength of the pellets containing calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride in addition to bentonite was better than the strength of pellets prepared using only bentonite binder.

  20. Antagonist effects of calcium on borosilicate glass alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado-Depierre, S. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Angeli, F., E-mail: frederic.angeli@cea.fr [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Frizon, F. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM LP2C, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Gin, S. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Kinetic study of glass alteration is investigated in calcium-enriched solutions. •New insights into silicon–calcium interactions in glass/cement systems are proposed. •Glass alteration is controlled by pH, Ca concentration and reaction progress. •Evidence of antagonist effects according to the importance of these parameters. -- Abstract: Numerous studies have been conducted on glass and cement durability in contact with water, but very little work to date has focused directly on interactions between the two materials. These interactions are mostly controlled by silicon–calcium reactivity. However, the physical and chemical processes involved remain insufficiently understood to predict the evolution of coupled glass–cement systems used in several industrial applications. Results are reported from borosilicate glass alteration in calcium-rich solutions. Our data show that four distinct behaviors can be expected according to the relative importance of three key parameters: the pH, the reaction progress (short- or long-term alteration) and the calcium concentration. Glass alteration is thus controlled by specific mechanisms depending on the solution chemistry: calcium complexation at the glass surface, precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates (C–S–H) or calcium incorporation in the altered layer. These findings highlight the impact of silicon–calcium interactions on glass durability and open the way for a better understanding of glass–cement mixing in civil engineering applications as well as in nuclear waste storage.

  1. Nutritional aspects of calcium and vitamin D from infancy to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggese, G; Igli Baroncelli, G

    1995-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient for normal growth and development. Growing individuals must be in positive calcium balance to satisfy their calcium needs. Calcium requirements are higher during infancy and adolescence than childhood and adulthood. The achievement of a higher calcium balance in infancy and adolescence is likely due to the increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration occurring during these periods. The main determinants of calcium balance in infancy are dietary calcium intake and vitamin D. In normal circumstances, breast milk and formulas supply sufficient amounts of calcium. In the post-natal life, the major sources of vitamin D are sunlight exposure and supplemented formulas; in fact, the amount of vitamin D in breast milk, cow's milk, and common foods is poor. Although sunlight exposure should be able to maintain adequate vitamin D stores, a supplement with 400 IU/day of vitamin D from birth to the second year of life is recommended to assure the prophylaxis of rickets in all breast-fed infants. A dose of 400 IU/day of vitamin D is safe and appropriate. During childhood and adolescence, currently recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for calcium might be augmented, as suggested by calcium balance studies. The higher amount of calcium intake may lead to achieve maximal peak bone mass. The main source of vitamin D in children and adolescents is the casual sunlight exposure; therefore, a sistematical vitamin D supplementation is not usually needed. The major sources of calcium are milk and dairy products. However, if calcium intake is reduced, an additional calcium intake to reach the RDA may be provided by calcium supplements.

  2. The effect of buffered calcium diffusion on neurotransmitter release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce Dawson, Silvina; Uchitel, Osvaldo D.

    2002-08-01

    Calcium plays a major role in inter-neuron communication. It has recently been observed that the scaling relationship between extracellular calcium concentration and postsynaptic response is different depending on the channel through which calcium enters the presynaptic neuron. Experiments suggest that the two types of calcium channels probed in this regard are at different mean distances from the neurotransmitter-containing vesicles. In this work we investigate whether the effect of calcium buffers along the path from the channel to the vesicle sensor can be responsible for the differences observed. Our results show that buffers cannot account for this change. This study also allows us to probe the limitations of the rapid buffering approximation in the presence of strong and localized sources.

  3. A potential calcium antagonist and its antihypertensive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Cao, YanJun; Wang, QunLi; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Jie; He, LangChong

    2011-10-01

    Imperatorin (Imp) as a hypotensive active ingredient, its hypotensive effect was evaluated in the SHRs, its calcium antagonism and affinity to L-type calcium channel was also confirmed. The results showed that the blood pressure was decreased in the SHRs treated with Imp, the aortic ring was relaxed with Imp, L-type calcium channel currents and intracellular calcium free ion rise was nearly disappeared when adding Imp. In addition, Imp displayed a chromatographic peak similar to nitrendipine and verapamil by the cell membrane chromatography, same results from protein-drug docking approaches. Hence, Imp target the L-type calcium channel, and may be used as a novel antihypertensive drug. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternative calcium source effects on commercial egg production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pelícia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the possibility of replacing calcitic limestone by marine calcium in the diet of layers. A total number of 321 Hi-sex hens, with 40 weeks of age at the beginning of the experiment, was used. A completely randomized experimental design was applied, with 5 treatments (0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 % of calcitic limestone replacement by marine calcium source and eight replicates of eight birds each. Treatments significantly affected specific gravity (p<0.05, with the inclusion of 60% marine calcium (T5 presenting the worst result as compared to T1, which included only calcitic limestone as calcium source. It was concluded that marine calcium can replace up to 45% of calcitic limestone with no effects on performance or egg quality.

  5. Effects of calcium channel on ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyun; Li, Hailing

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of calcium channel protein on ovarian cancer cells. The expression of calcium channel protein in normal ovarian cells and ovarian cancer cells was detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR. Subsequently, the ovarian cancer cells were added to calcium channel protein activator media at various concentrations of 0, 1, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 mmol/l. The concentration of calcium ion in different samples was produced, and using an MTT assay, ovarian cancer cell activity in various samples was detected. Finally, a flow cytometer was used to explore the apoptosis rate. It was found that there was a significant difference between the expression of calcium channel protein in normal ovarian tissue and ovarian cancer cells (Pcancer cells to a certain extent, in a dose-dependent manner, especially when the concentration was at 12 mmol/l at which the intracellular calcium concentration was similar to that in normal ovarian cells. In conclusion, calcium ions play an important role in promoting cell proliferation of ovarian cancer cells, and they were involved in apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells to some extent, which regulates apoptosis by controlling the content of intracellular calcium.

  6. Effect of Ultrasound on Calcium Carbonate Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagterveld, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Scaling comprises the formation of hard mineral deposits on process or membrane equipment and calcium carbonate is the most common scaling salt. Especially in reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems, scale formation has always been a serious limitation, causing flux decline, membrane degradation, loss

  7. Tree species effects on calcium cycling: The role of calcium uptake in deep soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Smits, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Soil acidity and calcium (Ca) availability in the surface soil differ substantially beneath sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) trees in a mixed forest in northwestern Connecticut. We determined the effect of pumping of Ca from deep soil (rooting zone below 20-cm

  8. Adaptation of calcium absorption during treatment of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oramasionwu, Gloria E; Thacher, Tom D; Pam, Sunday D; Pettifor, John M; Abrams, Steven A

    2008-08-01

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children has been effectively treated with Ca supplementation. High values of Ca absorption efficiency have been observed in untreated children, but whether Ca absorption efficiency changes during treatment with Ca is unknown. Our objective in conducting this study was to identify the effect of Ca therapy on Ca absorptive efficiency in children with primary Ca-deficient nutritional rickets. Twelve children with radiographically active rickets, 2 to 14 years of age (median 39 months) participated in the study. We assessed dietary Ca intake via dietary recalls, and measured biochemical markers of Ca and vitamin D homeostasis. Fractional Ca absorption was measured using a dual tracer stable isotope method, before and after 2 weeks of treatment with 15.0 mmol elemental Ca daily. Ten children had adequate urine collection for inclusion in the analysis. Usual dietary Ca intake was 4.2 (SD 1.0) mmol/d. The median Ca absorption prior to treatment was 72 % (range 52-97 %) and decreased significantly to 57 % (31-84 %) (P = 0.004) after 2 weeks of supplementation. We conclude that Nigerian children with rickets adapt to Ca supplementation with a small decrease in Ca absorptive capacity, but retain very high absorptive levels during supplementation. Overall Ca absorption efficiency was comparable with that identified in other populations with low Ca intakes. These data demonstrate that although absorptive capacity is regulated by supplementation, recovery from rickets likely occurs through efficient use of both dietary and supplemental Ca.

  9. Effect of calcium supplementation on blood pressure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, M W; Hood, M Y; Moore, L L; Nguyen, U S; Singer, M R; Andon, M B

    1995-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of calcium supplementation on blood pressure in children. Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. One hundred one fifth-grade students in one inner-city school. Each child consumed 480 ml of juice beverages, containing either no calcium or 600 mg calcium (as calcium citrate malate) daily for 12 weeks. At baseline we obtained nutrient data from three sets of 2-day food records on each subject. We measured blood pressure four times on each of three weekly sittings at baseline and at follow-up. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we compared mean blood pressure change in the intervention group with that in the placebo group. There were 50 girls and 51 boys; 61 subjects were black. At baseline, mean age was 11.0 years, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 101.7 and 57.7 mm Hg, daily total energy intake was 1966 kcal, and calcium intake was 827 mg. With control for age, height, hours of television watched, and baseline blood pressure, systolic blood pressure increased 1.0 mm Hg in the intervention group and 2.8 mm Hg in the placebo group (effect estimate = -1.8 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval -4.0, 0.3). In black subjects the intervention effect estimate was -2.0 mm Hg (95% confidence interval -4.4, 0.4). From lowest to highest quartile of baseline calcium intake (per 1000 kcal), the intervention effect estimates were -3.5, -2.8, -1.3, and 0.0 mm Hg (p for trend = 0.009). There was little effect on diastolic blood pressure. These data suggest a blood pressure-lowering effect of calcium supplementation in children, especially in subjects with low baseline calcium intake.

  10. The effects of excess calcium on the handling and mechanical properties of hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate bone cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. N.; Sukardi, M. A.; Sopyan, I.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of excess calcium on the handling and mechanical properties of hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate cement (CPC) for bone filling applications. Hydroxyapatite powder was synthesized via hydrothermal method using calcium oxide, CaO and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, NH4H2PO4 as the calcium and phosphorus precursors respectively. The effects of calcium excess were evaluated by varying the CaO content at 0, 5 and 15 mole %. The precursors were then refluxed in distilled water at 90-100°C and dried overnight until the calcium phosphate powder was formed. CPC was then produced by mixing the synthesized powder with distilled water at the powder-to-liquid (P/L) ratio of 1.5. The result from the morphological properties of CPC shows the increase in agglomeration and particles size with 5 mole % of calcium excess but decreased with 15 mole % of calcium excess in CPC. This result was in agreement with the compressive strength result where the CPC increased its strength with 5 mole % of calcium excess but reduced with 15 mole % of calcium excess. The excess in calcium precursor also significantly improved the setting time but reduced the injectability of CPC.

  11. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    were tested in 18 subjects according to a randomized crossover design. The test meals contained high (HC meal: 172 mg/MJ), medium (MC meal: 84 mg/MJ), or low (LC meal: 15 mg/MJ) amounts of calcium from dairy products or a high amount of calcium given as a calcium carbonate supplement (Suppl meal: 183......-like peptide 1, ghrelin, peptide YY, insulin, or glucose were observed. Conclusions: Increased calcium intakes from dairy products attenuate postprandial lipidemia, most probably because of reduced fat absorption, whereas supplementary calcium carbonate does not exert such an effect. This may be due......Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...

  12. The influence of climate and soil properties on calcium nutrition and vitality of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocić, Nenad; Cosić, Tomislav; Pilas, Ivan

    2005-10-01

    As a part of a broader research into the nutrition of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), the variation of calcium concentrations was investigated in needles and soil in two subsequent, climatologically diverse years. Statistically significant differences between plots were determined in Ca concentrations in soils. Concentrations of Ca in needles were statistically different regarding plot, defoliation class, sampling date within the same year and also between years. Fir trees on acid-rock based soils had lower, often inadequate concentrations of Ca in needles; the opposite was true for trees growing on Ca-rich soils. Trees of lower vitality generally exhibited poor Ca nutrition. Drought in the second year of research caused poor absorption of Ca on all plots and in all defoliation classes, but the combined influence of climate and soil properties affected especially trees of low vitality on acid-rock based soils.

  13. Effects of Vegetarian Nutrition–A Nutrition Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Metz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition. The nutrition ecological perspective offers a basis for the assessment of the effects of worldwide developments concerning shifts in diets and the effects of vegetarian nutrition on global problems like climate change. Furthermore, new research areas on the complexity of vegetarian nutrition can be identified.

  14. Effects of Vegetarian Nutrition–A Nutrition Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Martina; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition. The nutrition ecological perspective offers a basis for the assessment of the effects of worldwide developments concerning shifts in diets and the effects of vegetarian nutrition on global problems like climate change. Furthermore, new research areas on the complexity of vegetarian nutrition can be identified. PMID:22254037

  15. Study on the Effect of Calcium and Potassium Spray on Date Bunch Fading Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Shekofteh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Date bunch fading disorder has been one of the most important problems, which caused economic damage to date plantation area of Iran. It has been first reported on Mozafti cultivar in Kahnuj area, Kerman province. It has often been observed on soft and mid ripening cultivars such as Mozafti, Mordaseng and Kalote. Furthermore, it usually appears on Mozafti cultivar when fruits change from Khalal to Rutab stage. The most important symptoms of this disorder are sudden wilting of fruits and necrotic strips on the upper surface of the main bunch stalk. Incidence and development of these symptoms increase by high temperature, low relative humidity, and hot and dry wind. Several research studies have been carried out on this disorder so far, but the only research about the effect of nutrition on disorder was performed by Rosta (2003. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of calcium and potassium spray on date bunch fading and some traits of date fruit in Rigan region, Kerman province. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block designs with three replicates in Rigan located in east south of Kerman province, Iran, in 2012. Treatments were: T1: control, T2: spray of calcium nitrate at the concentration of 5 ppm, T3: spray of potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm, and T4: combined spray of calcium nitrate and potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm. Treatments were applied at Kimri, Hobabok and Khalal stages. Sampling was performed from 3 date palms (3 bunches from each date palm were selected randomly at the second date harvest. Totally, the traits of 200 fruits were measured in each date palm. The traits measured in the present study were: fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, stone weight, stone diameter, and bunch fading percentage. Results and Discussions: According to the data of variance analysis, treatments had a significant effect on wet fruit

  16. The effect of Integrated nutrition care intervention on the nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to adequate nutrition in children is essential for the attainment of high standards of health. The health and nutritional status of orphans and vulnerable children is important as it affects their growth, health and mental development. However, these children suffer from malnutrition as they have limited access to ...

  17. Effect of a nutrition education programme on nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Globally, the prevalence of chronic and acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency is high in young children, especially in developing countries. Nutrition education is an important intervention to address these challenges. Objective. To determine the nutritional (anthropometric and micronutrient) status of ...

  18. EFFECT OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii MOULTING AND EGG QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Khasani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A breeding program for giant freshwater prawn has been developed in Indonesia to supply good quality prawn seed to industry. To achieve the goal of the program, optimum conditions of both environment and nutrition must be provided. Calcium is the main compound of the prawn carapace, influencing moulting processes, especially during the premating moult. The effect of calcium supplementation in the prawn feed on moulting process and egg quality of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was investigated. Experimental units consisted of 300 L plastic tanks stocked with 4 adult prawns comprising 3 female and 1 male. A standard prawn feed containing 30.39% crude protein; 0.82% Ca and 0.47% P was used as the experimental diet. A complete randomized design was‘applied in the study with 5 dosage levels of dicalcium phosphate i.e. 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% with 4 replicates. Prawns were reared over 45 days. There were significant differences (P0.05. Egg hatching rate increased liniearly from 26.5%±9.9% to 50.8%±10.3% as calcium dosage increased from 0% to 8%. The number of eggs per spawn was not significantly different (P>0.05, ranging from 40,096 to 46,131 for females weighing 30.19 to 32.94 g. The results of this study suggest that giant freshwater prawns require dietary calcium supplementation to support moulting process and egg quality when reared in soft water.

  19. Documentation of functional and clinical effects of infant nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Szajewska, Hania; Ashwell, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The Early Nutrition Academy and the Child Health Foundation, in collaboration with the Committee on Nutrition, European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, held a workshop in March 2011 to explore guidance on acquiring evidence on the effects of nutritional...... interventions in infants and young children. The four objectives were to (1) provide guidance on the quality and quantity of evidence needed to justify conclusions on functional and clinical effects of nutrition in infants and young children aged...

  20. Intakes of dairy products and calcium and obesity in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19-64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m². Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45-0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71-0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64-0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

  1. Influence of nutrition on feline calcium oxalate urolithiasis with emphasis on endogenous oxalate synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Plantinga, E.A.; Baal, van J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths detected in cats with lower urinary tract disease has shown a sharp increase over the last decades with a concomitant reciprocal decrease in the occurrence of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) uroliths. CaOx stone-preventative diets are

  2. The Effect of Calcium Phosphate‑containing Desensitizing Agent on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... control), Group 3: TMD/self-etch, Group 4: Acid-etch/TMD/etch and rinse. For microleakage test, Class V adhesive cavities (3 .... purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium phosphate-containing ..... patented technique for the total-etch procedure occurs before oxalate and adhesive placement.

  3. Effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on controlling shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro shoot necrosis is a quite widespread disorder affecting raspberry micropropagation. This study was conducted to investigate effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on shoot necrosis and dieback of raspberry shoots during micropropagation. Nodal segments of primocane-fruiting raspberry cultivars 'Allgold', ...

  4. Effect of fuel characteristics on synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of fuel characteristics on the processing of nano sized calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) fine powders by the solution combustion technique is reported. Urea, glycine and glucose were used as fuels in this study. By using different combinations of urea and glycine fuels and occasional addition of small amounts of ...

  5. The effect of nifedipine induced calcium antagonism on in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the effect of calcium antagonist (nifedipine) on isolated rabbit ileum poisoned with lindane was conducted. Rabbits of 1.2kg average body weight which was obtained from the Department of Pharmacology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria animal house were used for the current study. Each rat was sacrificed by a ...

  6. Effects of 1-butanol, neomycin and calcium on the photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of 1-butanol, neomycin and calcium on the photosynthesis of pepc transgenic rice were studied with over-expressed pepc transgenic rice (PC) of the 8th generation as study materials and with non-transgenic wild type (WT) rice and maize, a typical C4 plant, as control. The results show that, 0.04% 1-butanol and ...

  7. The effect of calcium phosphate-containing desensitizing agent on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium phosphate containing desensitizing pretreatments on the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) and microleakage of the multimode adhesive agent to dentin. Materials and Methods: In this study, twelve noncarious, freshly extracted human third molar teeth ...

  8. Effects of dietary crude protein and calcium/ phosphorus content on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kesiena

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... Effects of dietary crude protein (CP), calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (Av. P) content on performance of Ross male broiler chickens from 0 to21 days of age. ..... 1pCo2, blood carbon dioxide pressure; pO2, blood oxygen pressure; sO2, blood oxygen saturation; Het, haematocrit; Hb, haemoglobin;.

  9. Mechanistic evaluation of the effect of calcium carbide waste on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium Carbide Waste (CCW) was used as an alternative to traditional Portland cement mineral filler in hot mix asphalt concrete to rid its disposal problem. Its effect on mechanical properties of hot mix asphalt was assessed using the Marshall method of mix design. Using the optimum bitumen content determined from ...

  10. Antimicrobial effectiveness of different preparations of calcium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Gangwar

    2011-01-01

    Results and Conclusions: It was seen that calcium hydroxide and CMCP combination showed the maximum zone of inhibition, and maximum inhibitory effect was seen at 24 hours. The bacteria most susceptible was found to be S. aureus and the least susceptible was E. faecalis. Further clinical studies are required to substantiate these results.

  11. Effects of calcium impurity on phase relationship, ionic conductivity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 3. Effects of calcium impurity on phase relationship, ionic conductivity and microstructure of Na + - β / b e t a " -alumina solid electrolyte. SUNG-TAE LEE DAE-HAN LEE SANG-MIN LEE SANG-SOO HAN SANG-HYUNG LEE SUNG-KI LIM. Volume 39 Issue 3 ...

  12. The effects of calcium regulation of endosperm reserve protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of steep liquor calcium ion on sorghum endosperm reserve protein mobilization were evaluated using two improved Nigeria sorghum cultivars (ICSV 400 and KSV 8). The key protein modification factors evaluated were free amino nitrogen (FAN), total non protein nitrogen (TNPN) and soluble protein of cold water ...

  13. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition.......Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition....

  14. Effect of lactose on intestinal absorption of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labat, Marie-Louise

    1972-01-01

    Calcium absorption was immediately increased when lactose was administered in large amounts in the intestine of standard rats fed on a vitamin D diet. The same effect could be reproduced with lactulose, a glucid un-hydrolyzed by lactase and unabsorbed. The occurrence of a saturation process for high doses of calcium agrees with a biochemical process through a carrier; this process was not inhibited by actinomycin D, which does not agree with a 'de novo' synthesis of a calcium binding protein; yet activation of the preexisting protein cannot be excluded. The intestinal effect of lactose resulted in an inhibition of bone catabolism in the adult normocalcemic rat indicating a possible interference of thyrocalcitonin. Finally in the young rat, hypocalcemic by lack of vitamin D, on account of the lactose effect, calcium can be considered as a 'third messenger' in the chain of intracellular events between the interaction of the parathyroid hormone with the bone receptor and the expression of its activity. (author) [fr

  15. Accurate measurement of stable isotopes 46Ca and 48Ca in human feces, plasma, and urine in relation to human nutrition of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janghorbani, M.; Sundaresan, A.; Young, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method based on Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA) is described which allows simultaneous measurement of two stable isotopes of calcium, 46 Ca and 48 Ca, in human feces, plasma, and urine for the purpose of studying human nutrition and metabolism of calcium. It is shown that these measurements can be made with relative analytical precision of 1-5% depending on the particulars of a given experiment. The method has been applied in humans and data are given showing that kinetics of plasma appearance of 46 Ca administered orally with food can be readily investigated. This method allows investigation of a number of important nutritional and metabolic issues in all human population groups without regard to radioisotope safety considerations, and should prove especially helpful in relation to studies of calcium bioavailability from different foods in a variety of population groups for whom use of radiocalcium is not warranted. (Auth.)

  16. Changing the home nutrition environment: effects of a nutrition and media literacy pilot intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra E; Dave, Jayna; Tanner, Andrea; Duhe, Sonya; Condrasky, Margaret; Wilson, Dawn; Griffin, Sarah; Palmer, Meredith; Evans, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The specific aim for this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a nutrition and media literacy intervention targeting elementary students and their parents. The purpose of the intervention was to increase child fruit and vegetables (FV) consumption and change the home nutrition environment (measured with FV availability and accessibility and parental social support). During the intervention, students learned about nutrition, the role media plays in shaping values concerning nutrition, and developed a media campaign for their parents. A quasi-experimental research design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The media intervention was effective in changing the home environment.

  17. Changes in Biochemical Parameters of the Calcium-Phosphorus Homeostasis in Relation to Nutritional Intake in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Viola; Gradussen, Charlotte J W; Körnmann, Michelle N; Roeleveld, Nel; van Goudoever, Johannes B; van Heijst, Arno F J

    2016-11-29

    Preterm infants are at significant risk to develop reduced bone mineralization based on inadequate supply of calcium and phosphorus (Ca-P). Biochemical parameters can be used to evaluate the nutritional intake. The direct effect of nutritional intake on changes in biochemical parameters has not been studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Ca-P supplementation on biochemical markers as serum (s)/urinary (u) Ca and P; alkaline phosphatase (ALP); tubular reabsorption of P (TrP); and urinary ratios for Ca/creatinin (creat) and P/creatinin in Very-Low-Birth-Weight infants on Postnatal Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. This observational study compared two groups with High ( n = 30) and Low ( n = 40) intake of Ca-P. Birth weight: median (IRQ) 948 (772-1225) vs. 939 (776-1163) grams; and gestational age: 28.2 (26.5-29.6) vs. 27.8 (26.1-29.4) weeks. Daily median concentrations of biochemical parameter were not different between the groups but linear regression mixed model analyses showed that Ca intake increased the uCa and TrP ( p = 0.04) and decreased ALP ( p = 0.00). Phosphorus intake increased sP, uP and uP/creat ratio and ALP ( p ≤ 0.02) and caused decrease in TrP ( p = 0.00). Protein intake decreased sP ( p = 0.000), while low gestational age and male gender increased renal excretion of P ( p < 0.03). Standardized repeated measurements showed that biochemical parameters were affected by nutritional intake, gestational age and gender.

  18. Changes in Biochemical Parameters of the Calcium-Phosphorus Homeostasis in Relation to Nutritional Intake in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Christmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants are at significant risk to develop reduced bone mineralization based on inadequate supply of calcium and phosphorus (Ca-P. Biochemical parameters can be used to evaluate the nutritional intake. The direct effect of nutritional intake on changes in biochemical parameters has not been studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Ca-P supplementation on biochemical markers as serum (s/urinary (u Ca and P; alkaline phosphatase (ALP; tubular reabsorption of P (TrP; and urinary ratios for Ca/creatinin (creat and P/creatinin in Very-Low-Birth-Weight infants on Postnatal Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. This observational study compared two groups with High (n = 30 and Low (n = 40 intake of Ca-P. Birth weight: median (IRQ 948 (772–1225 vs. 939 (776–1163 grams; and gestational age: 28.2 (26.5–29.6 vs. 27.8 (26.1–29.4 weeks. Daily median concentrations of biochemical parameter were not different between the groups but linear regression mixed model analyses showed that Ca intake increased the uCa and TrP (p = 0.04 and decreased ALP (p = 0.00. Phosphorus intake increased sP, uP and uP/creat ratio and ALP (p ≤ 0.02 and caused decrease in TrP (p = 0.00. Protein intake decreased sP (p = 0.000, while low gestational age and male gender increased renal excretion of P (p < 0.03. Standardized repeated measurements showed that biochemical parameters were affected by nutritional intake, gestational age and gender.

  19. Changes in Biochemical Parameters of the Calcium-Phosphorus Homeostasis in Relation to Nutritional Intake in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Viola; Gradussen, Charlotte J. W.; Körnmann, Michelle N.; Roeleveld, Nel; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Heijst, Arno F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants are at significant risk to develop reduced bone mineralization based on inadequate supply of calcium and phosphorus (Ca-P). Biochemical parameters can be used to evaluate the nutritional intake. The direct effect of nutritional intake on changes in biochemical parameters has not been studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Ca-P supplementation on biochemical markers as serum (s)/urinary (u) Ca and P; alkaline phosphatase (ALP); tubular reabsorption of P (TrP); and urinary ratios for Ca/creatinin (creat) and P/creatinin in Very-Low-Birth-Weight infants on Postnatal Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. This observational study compared two groups with High (n = 30) and Low (n = 40) intake of Ca-P. Birth weight: median (IRQ) 948 (772–1225) vs. 939 (776–1163) grams; and gestational age: 28.2 (26.5–29.6) vs. 27.8 (26.1–29.4) weeks. Daily median concentrations of biochemical parameter were not different between the groups but linear regression mixed model analyses showed that Ca intake increased the uCa and TrP (p = 0.04) and decreased ALP (p = 0.00). Phosphorus intake increased sP, uP and uP/creat ratio and ALP (p ≤ 0.02) and caused decrease in TrP (p = 0.00). Protein intake decreased sP (p = 0.000), while low gestational age and male gender increased renal excretion of P (p < 0.03). Standardized repeated measurements showed that biochemical parameters were affected by nutritional intake, gestational age and gender. PMID:27916815

  20. Application of Dairy Proteins as Technological and Nutritional Improvers of Calcium-Supplemented Gluten-Free Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, Urszula; Bączek, Natalia; Rosell, Cristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of dairy proteins on gluten-free dough behavior, and nutritional and technological properties of gluten-free bread was evaluated. Experimental doughs, containing dairy powders, showed low consistency. Obtained gluten-free breads were rich in proteins, and, regarding the energy value delivered by proteins, they could be considered as a source of proteins or high in proteins. Applied dairy proteins affected the technological properties of experimental breads causing a significant (p bread with beneficial effects on technological and nutritional properties. PMID:24241213

  1. The effect of calcium on calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal-induced renal epithelial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaskhali, Muhammad H; Byer, Karen J; Khan, Saeed R

    2009-02-01

    Since hypercalciuria is a common feature of idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis, renal epithelial cells of stone patients are exposed to various crystals in the presence of high calcium. This study was performed to determine the effect of high calcium levels on CaOx crystal-induced cell injury. We exposed human renal epithelial cell line, HK2 in vitro to CaOx monohydrate crystals at a concentration of 133 microg/cm(2) for 1, 3, 6 or 12 h in the presence or absence of 5 or 10 mM/L calcium Ca(++). We determined the release of lactate dehydrogenase as marker of injury and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and 8-isoprostane (8-IP) as sign of oxidative stress. Cells were also examined after trypan blue and nuclear DNA staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole to determine their membrane integrity and apoptosis respectively. Exposure of cells to 5 or 10 mM/L of Ca(++,) for up-to 6 h, resulted in increased trypan blue and DAPI staining and production of H(2)O(2). Similarly an exposure to CaOx crystals also resulted in increased trypan blue and DAPI staining and H(2)O(2) production. An exposure to 5 mM/L Ca or CaOx crystals also resulted in increased production of 8-IP. A combination of the two treatments, Ca and CaOx crystals, did not show anymore changes than exposure to high Ca or CaOx crystals alone, except in the case of a longer exposure of 12 h. Longer exposures of 12 h resulted in cells sloughing from the substrate. These results indicate that exposure to high levels of Ca or CaOx crystals is injurious to renal epithelial cells but the two do not appear to work synergistically. On the other hand, results of our earlier studies suggest that oxalate and CaOx crystals work in synergy, i.e., CaOx crystals are more injurious in the presence of high oxalate. Perhaps Ox and CaOx crystals activate different biochemical pathways while Ca and CaOx crystals affect the identical pathways.

  2. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  3. Effects of calcium ions on titanium surfaces for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Piñas, Laura; Murias, Alia; Prado, Roberto; Tejero, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    The chemistry and topography of implant surfaces are of paramount importance for the successful tissue integration of load-bearing dental and orthopedic implants. Here we evaluate in vitro and in vivo titanium implant surfaces modified with calcium ions (Ca(2+) surfaces). Calcium ions produce a durable chemical and nano-topographical modification of the titanium oxide interface. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry examination of the outermost surface composition, shows that calcium ions in Ca(2+) surfaces effectively prevent adventitious hydrocarbon passivation of the oxide layer. In aqueous solutions Ca(2+) surfaces release within the first minute, 2/3 of the total measured Ca(2+), the rest is released over the following 85 days. Additionally, Ca(2+) surfaces significantly increase human fetal osteoblasts-like cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, as measured by the autocrine synthesis of osteopontin. Relevant for clinical application, after 12 weeks of healing in sheep tibia, microcomputer tomography and histomorphometric analysis show that Ca(2+) surfaces develop significantly more bone contacts and higher bone density in the 1mm region around the implant. Consequently, titanium implants modified with calcium ions represent a valuable tool to improve endosseous integration in the clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Nutrition Education on Levels of Nutritional Awareness of Pregnant Women in Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Farnoush; Pourabbas, Ahmad; Delpisheh, Ali; Veisani, Yousef; Shadnoush, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal nutritional health, before and during pregnancy, influences the health status of herself and her developing fetus. Pregnancy is an important condition for improving nutritional knowledge. Objectives The present study aimed at determining effects of nutrition education on levels of nutritional awareness of a representative group of pregnant women in Western Iran. Patients and Methods A quasi-experimental intervention was undertaken on a random sample of pregnant women (n = 100) attending urban health centers in Ilam city (western Iran) during the year 2011 for prenatal care. A nutritional education program containing two to four lessons was undertaken for small groups of between six to ten women. Nutritional knowledge was assessed before intervention (pretest) and followed by two posttests within three weeks interval. Results The awareness level of pregnant women about healthy nutrition was significantly increased from 3% before intervention to 31% after the nutritional education intervention (P nutritional education intervention will have a positive effect on nutritional awareness of pregnant women. PMID:24348589

  5. The effect of a nutritional education program on the nutritional status of elderly patients in a long-term care hospital in Jeollanamdo province: health behavior, dietary behavior, nutrition risk level and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bok Hee; Kim, Mi-Ju; Lee, Yoonna

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess improvements in nutritional status following the application of nutrition education to elderly patients in a long-term care hospital. The study was carried out from January to May 2009, during which a preliminary survey, a pretest, the application of nutrition education, and a post-test were applied in stages. The number of subjects at pretest was 81, and the number of participants included in the final analysis was 61 (18 men, 43 women), all of whom participated in both the nutrition education program and the post-test. The survey consisted of general demographic items, health behaviors, dietary behaviors, the Nutrition Screening Initiative checklist, and nutrient intake assessment (24 hour recall method). The nutrition education program lasted for four weeks. It included a basic education program, provided once a week, and mini-education program, which was offered daily during lunch times. The survey was conducted before and after the education program using the same assessment method, although some items were included only at pretest. When analyzing the changes in elderly patients after the nutritional education program, we found that, among subjective dietary behaviors, self-rated perceptions of health (P nutritional risk levels decreased. In terms of nutrient intake, subjects' intake of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C all increased significantly (P nutritional education is effective in improving the nutritional status of elderly patients. We hope that the results of this study can be used as preliminary data for establishing guidelines for nutrition management tailored to elderly patients in long-term care hospitals.

  6. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  7. Effects of Nutritional Status and Supplementation on Resumption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Breastfeeding patterns, ethnic variation and nutrition have been shown to influence the return of menstruation after childbirth, but the role played by nutritional status requires further elucidation, particularly in a place like Nigeria where undernutrition is common. Objectives: To determine the effects of nutrition and ...

  8. Effect of processing methods on the nutritional values and anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aimed at determining the effect of processing on the nutritional and anti -nutritional values of “food tree” [Adenanthera pavonina L. (Fabaceae)] seeds, a highly nutritional and underutilized legume. The seeds were separated into three groups namely, boiled, roasted and raw. Quantitative analysis was carried ...

  9. Barriers to effective implementation of nutrition education in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the factors that influence people's food habits is education. This paper discussed the concept of nutrition education and the relevance of nutrition education to individual and family health. The barriers to effective implementation of nutrition education were also discussed. These include lack of contact with ...

  10. The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

  11. The effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste on the surface roughness of nano-ionomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisja, D. H.; Indrani, D. J.; Herda, E.

    2017-08-01

    Nanotechnology developments in dentistry have resulted in the development of nano-ionomer, a new restorative material. The surface roughness of restorative materials can increase bacteria adhesion and lead to poor oral hygiene. Abrasive agents in toothpaste can alter tooth and restorative material surfaces. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate, and calcium carbonate toothpaste on surface roughness of nano-ionomer. Eighteen nano-ionomer specimens were brushed with Aquabidest (doubledistilled water), nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing lasted 30 minutes, and the roughness value (Ra) was measured after each 10 minute segment using a surface roughness tester. The data was analyzed using repeated ANOVA and one-way ANOVA test. The value of nano-ionomer surface roughness increased significantly (p<0.05) after 20 minutes of brushing with the nano calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing with calcium carbonate toothpaste leaves nano-ionomer surfaces more rugged than brushing with nano calcium carbonate toothpaste.

  12. High-Phosphorus, Low-Calcium Dietary Intakes and Bone Effects of Physical Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zerath, Erik

    2003-01-01

    .... Diet inquiries showed changes in calcium and phosphorus intakes. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of physical activity on bone tissue in the context of high-phosphorus and low-calcium intakes. Sedentary (SED) and trained (TR...

  13. In vitro effects of toxaphene on mitochondrial calcium ATPase and calcium uptake in selected rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trottman, C.H.; Rao, K.S.P.; Morrow, W.; Uzodinma, J.E.; Desaiah, D.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro effects of toxaphene on Ca 2+ -ATPase activity and 45 Ca 2+ -uptake were studied in mitochondrial fractions of heart, kidney and liver tissues of rat. Mitochondrial fractions were prepared by the conventional centrifugation method. Ca 2+ -ATPase activity was determined by measuring the inorganic phosphate liberated during ATP hydrolysis. Toxaphene inhibited Ca 2+ -ATPase in a concentration dependent manner in all the three tissues. Substrate activation kinetics, with heart, kidney and liver tissue fractions, revealed that toxaphene inhibited Ca 2+ -ATPase activity non-competetively by decreasing the maximum velocity of the enzyme without affecting the enzyme-substrate affinity. Toxaphene also inhibited mitochondrial 45 Ca 2+ -uptake in the three selected tissues in a concentration dependent manner. These results indicate that toxaphene is an inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca 2+ -ATPase and calcium transport in heart, kidney and liver tissues of rat. 19 references, 5 figures

  14. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...... postprandially. Results: Dairy calcium significantly diminished the postprandial lipid response. The baseline adjusted area under the curve for chylomicron triacylglycerol was approximate to 17% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.02) and approximate to 19% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.007) than after the LC meal...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...

  15. Effects of Nutrition Health Intervention on Pupils' Nutrition Knowledge and Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of nutrition health intervention on pupils' nutrition knowledge and eating habits from grade seven to grade nine. The study was part of the ENHPS (since 2008, Schools for Health in Europe (SHE)) program in Finland, and more specifically its sub-project titled "From Puijo to the…

  16. The effect of nutritional rickets on bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M

    2014-11-01

    Nutritional rickets is caused by impaired mineralization of growing bone. The effect of nutritional rickets on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) has not been established. Our objective was to determine if aBMD is lower in children with active rickets than in healthy control children. We expected that the reduction in aBMD would vary between the radial and ulnar metaphyses near the growth plates and the proximal diaphyses. Case-control study. Primary care outpatient department of a teaching hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Nigerian children with radiographically-confirmed rickets were compared with a reference group of control children without rickets from the same community. Forearm bone density measurements were performed in all children with pDXA. Age, sex, and height-adjusted bone density parameters were compared between children with rickets and control subjects. A total of 264 children with active rickets (ages 13-120 months) and 660 control children (ages 11-123 months) were included. In multivariate analyses controlling for height, age, and gender, rickets was associated with a 4% greater bone area and 7% lower aBMD of the radial and ulnar metaphyses compared with controls (P rickets on the diaphyses of the radius and ulna were more pronounced with an 11% greater bone area, 21% lower aBMD, and 24% lower bone mineral apparent density than controls (P children with rickets, aBMD values were unrelated to dairy product intake or serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Metaphyseal aBMD was positively associated with radiographic severity score, attributed to bone edge detection artifact by densitometry in active rickets. Rickets results in increased bone area and reduced aBMD, which are more pronounced in the diaphyseal than in the metaphyseal regions of the radius and ulna, consistent with secondary hyperparathyroidism, generalized osteoid expansion and impaired mineralization.

  17. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus on intestinal calcium absorption and vitamin D metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribovich, M.L.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    To understand better dietary regulation of intestinal calcium absorption, a quantitative assessment of the metabolites in plasma and duodenum of rats given daily doses of radioactive vitamin D 3 and diets differing in calcium and phosphorus content was made. All known vitamin D metabolites were ultimately identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition to the known metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D 3 ), several new and unidentified metabolites were found. In addition to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D 3 , the levels of some of the unknown metabolites could be correlated with intestinal calcium transport. However, whether or not any of these metabolites plays a role in the stimulation of intestinal calcium absorption by low dietary calcium or low dietary phosphorus remains unknown

  18. Effects of integrated child development and nutrition interventions on child development and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Fernald, Lia C H; Kagawa, Rose M C; Walker, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies that examined the effect of interventions combining a child development component with a nutrition one; in some cases the nutrition interventions also included health-promotion components. Only papers with both child development and nutrition outcomes and rated as moderate-to-good quality were included. Eleven efficacy and two nonrandomized trials, and eight program evaluations were identified. Only six trials examined interventions separately and combined. The trials showed nutritional interventions usually benefited nutritional status and sometimes benefited child development. Stimulation consistently benefited child development. There was no significant loss of any effect when interventions were combined, but there was little evidence of synergistic interaction between nutrition and stimulation on child development. Only three trials followed up the children after intervention. All at-scale program evaluations were combined interventions. Five benefited child development, but one did not, and two showed deficits. There was generally little benefit of at-scale programs to nutritional status. We found no rigorous evaluations of adding stimulation to health and nutrition services at scale and there is an urgent need for them. There is also a need to establish quality-control mechanisms for existing scaled-up programs and to determine their long-term effects. There is also a need to determine if there are any sustained benefits for the children after programs finish. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. [Effects of atorvastatin calcium on osteopontin in renovascular hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Zhou, Jian-zhong; Chen, Yong-hong

    2010-04-18

    To investigate the effects of atorvastatin calcium on development of vascular remodeling and osteopontin (OPN) in renovascular hypertensive rats. The 2-kidney, 1-clip hypertensive rats were prepared with SD rats. Twenty-one rats were randomly selected seven rats as the control group (n=7), the remaining rats were randomly divided into hypertension group (n=7) and the statins group (n=7) after the establishment of model. Statins group was treated with atorvastatin calcium 30 mg/kg/d four weeks after model construction and then given through lavage for 8 consecutive weeks. All rats were evaluated for caudal systolic blood pressure (SBP) and blood lipid, microscopic changes in vascular structure and ratio of intima media thickness to lumen diameter (MT/LD) of thoracic aorta. Expressions of OPN were assessed with immunohistochemical staining, and expressions of OPN mRNA with fluorescence quantitative PCR. Compared with control group, hypertension group showed significant increase in SBP, MT/LD, and the expression of OPN and OPN mRNA, and significant decrease in HDL level. As compared with hypertension group, MT/LD and the expression of OPN and OPN mRNA of statins group were significantly decreased, while its HDL level significantly increased. Hypertension can lead to high expression of artery OPN, atorvastatin calcium was shown to improve the development of vascular remodeling in rats, possibly associated with decreased expression of OPN.

  20. Effect of mitochondrial calcium uniporter blocking on human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, A; Treulen, F; Uribe, P; Boguen, R; Felmer, R; Villegas, J V

    2015-08-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+) ) regulates a number of essential processes in spermatozoa. Ca(2+) is taken up by mitochondria via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (mCU). Oxygen-bridged dinuclear ruthenium amine complex (Ru360) has been used to study mCU because it is a potent and specific inhibitor of this channel. In bovine spermatozoa, it has been demonstrated that mitochondrial calcium uptake inhibition adversely affects the capacitation process. It has been demonstrated in human spermatozoa that mCU blocking, through Ru360, prevents apoptosis; however, the contribution of the mCU to normal human sperm function has not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mCU blocking on human sperm function. Spermatozoa obtained from apparently healthy donors were incubated with 5 and 10 μm Ru360 for 4 h at 37 °C. Viability was assessed using propidium iodide staining; motility was determined by computer-aided sperm analysis, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels using a luminescence-based method, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) using JC-1 staining and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production using dihydroethidium dye. Our results show that mCU blocking significantly reduced total sperm motility and ATP levels without affecting sperm viability, ΔΨm and ROS production. In conclusion, mCU contributes to the maintenance of sperm motility and ATP levels in human spermatozoa. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Application of Dairy Proteins as Technological and Nutritional Improvers of Calcium-Supplemented Gluten-Free Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Rosell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of dairy proteins on gluten-free dough behavior, and nutritional and technological properties of gluten-free bread was evaluated. Experimental doughs, containing dairy powders, showed low consistency. Obtained gluten-free breads were rich in proteins, and, regarding the energy value delivered by proteins, they could be considered as a source of proteins or high in proteins. Applied dairy proteins affected the technological properties of experimental breads causing a significant (p < 0.05 increase of the specific volume, crust darkening, and crumb lightness, depending on the dairy supplementation level, rather than the protein type. Dairy proteins incorporated at a 12% level, significantly (p < 0.05 decreased the hardness; nevertheless, the highest amount of proteins tested led to the opposite effect. These results indicate that milk proteins tested could be successfully added to gluten-free bread with beneficial effects on technological and nutritional properties.

  2. Effect of calcium chloride and calcium lactate on quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut guava slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raheem, M.I.U.; Huma, N.; Anjum, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of chemical treatments at low temperature on the quality of fresh-cut guava slices during 2011-12. Uniform sized guava slices were made free from seeds and treated with calcium chloride and calcium lactate with concentration 0.9%, 1.8%, 2.7% or 3.6%. After packing in plastic boxes, all treated samples were stored at 5 degree C + 2 degree C in a refrigerator for 24 days with 6 day interval between different removals. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis showed decrease in firmness (111.67-12.67gf) and increase in browning (1.19-1.93nm) of guava slices compared to control with the passage of storage interval. Moreover, scores in taste (7.33-1.00), flavour (7.33-1.00), colour (7.50-1.00) and texture (7.67-1.00) of guava slices was also decreased with respect to interaction of treatments and storage period. Calcium chloride at the rate 2.7% showed significantly higher stability than other concentrations of calcium chloride and calcium lactate in delaying firmness and browning of fresh-cut guava slices along with maintaining their organoleptic properties for longer storage period. However, calcium chloride imparted undesirable bitterness to fresh-cut guava slices at the concentration of 3.6%. Based on the overall quality performance, 2.7% calcium chloride and 3.6% calcium lactate exhibited better results than other concentrations and control with storage life of 8 days at 5 degree C + 2 degree C. (author)

  3. Effects of temperature during the irradiation of calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron M, A.; Camargo R, C.; Ramos B, S.; Gomez V, V.; Uribe, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    The gamma irradiation of calcium carbonate at different doses (0 to 309 kGy) and temperature regimes (77 K to 298 K) was carried out to study the effects of irradiation temperature. The changes were followed by EPR spectroscopy. We observed the formation of a composite EPR spectrum even at low radiation doses and temperature. There is a strong effect on the evaluation of the radicals formed as a function of irradiation temperature, probably due to the diffusion in the frozen powder. Response curves show that this system tends to saturate at 10 MGy at 298 K. (Author)

  4. A home-based nutrition intervention to increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods in community dwelling elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, A; Nelson, Miriam E; Tucker, Katherine L; Layne, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth; Nuernberger, Andrea; Castaneda, Carmen; Judge, James O; Buchner, David; Singh, Maria Fiatarone

    2002-10-01

    To increase fruit, vegetable, and calcium-rich food consumption in community-dwelling, functionally impaired elderly. Six-month, home-based nutrition intervention study. Seventy men and women older than age 69 years were randomized to either a nutrition education intervention (n = 38) or a control group that received an exercise intervention (n = 32). Nutrition education was designed to increase fruit, vegetable, and calcium-rich food consumption. Food intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood measures of nutrients and carotenoids were performed. Statistical Analysis Two-group randomized controlled trial with pre-test and post-test design and intention-to-treat analysis. Analysis of covariance to was used to assess differences between the two groups. Baseline and change partial correlation coefficients were performed between intake and blood nutrient levels. Paired t tests were conducted to test within-group changes. Compared with the exercise group, subjects in nutrition group increased their self-reported intake of fruits by 1.1 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- SEM) servings per day (2.8 to 3.9, P = .01), vegetables 1.1 +/- 0.2 servings per day (2.3 to 3.4, P = .001), and milk/dairy 0.9 +/- 0.2 servings per day (3.0 to 3.9, P = .001). There was an increase in the dietary intake of alpha-carotene and beta-carotene in the nutrition group and this correlated with the increase in blood concentrations of alpha-carotene and beta-carotene (P foods. Recommendations for increasing consumption of fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods should be specific and individualized to meet the dietary pattern and lifestyle of the individual. Compliance should be encouraged with record keeping as well as through continuous monitoring and positive reinforcement.

  5. Nutrition education for care staff and possible effects on nutritional status in residents of sheltered accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxén-Irving, G; Andrén-Olsson, B; Geijerstam, A; Basun, H; Cederholm, T

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the nutritional, cognitive and functional status in residents of two service-flat (SF) complexes and the effects of a nutrition education programme for care staff. Controlled nonrandomised study. Two SF complexes, that is community-assisted accommodation. Of 115 eligible SF residents, 80 subjects participated (age 83+/-7 y, 70% women). The nutritional status was assessed using body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), subjective global assessment (SGA), serum concentrations of albumin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and vitamin B(12). Cognitive and functional status were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, 0-30 points, education programme was given to the staff at one of the SF complexes. At baseline, the means of BMI and the biochemical nutritional indices were normal, whereas one-third had BMI or =10% of previous weight. According to SGA, 30% demonstrated possible or serious malnutrition. The median MMSE was 23 points (19.5-26.5, 25-75th percentile). Nearly 70% were ADL-independent. At the 5-month follow-up there were no differences in the nutritional and cognitive status of the residents. The nutritional knowledge of the staff improved slightly (Pnutritional risk. Five months after a 12-h staff nutrition education programme, no objective changes were seen in the nutritional status of the SF residents.

  6. The effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus supplementation in zeolite A treated dry cows on periparturient calcium and phosphorus homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing, Trine; Larsen, T.; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have proved the possibility of preventing parturient hypocalcaemia by zeolite A supplementation during the dry period, and a recent in vitro study has indicated a marked calcium (Ca) as well as phosphorus (P) binding effect of zeolite A in rumen fluid solutions. Because of the co......Previous studies have proved the possibility of preventing parturient hypocalcaemia by zeolite A supplementation during the dry period, and a recent in vitro study has indicated a marked calcium (Ca) as well as phosphorus (P) binding effect of zeolite A in rumen fluid solutions. Because...

  7. Effects of microgravity on bone and calcium homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zérath, E.

    Mechanical function is known to be of crucial importance for the maintenance of bone tissue. Gravity on one hand and muscular effort on the other hand are required for normal skeletal structure. It has been shown by numerous experimental studies that loss of total-body calcium, and marked skeletal changes occur in people who have flown in space. However, most of the pertinent investigations have been conducted on animal models, including rats and non-human primates, and a reasonably clear picture of bone response to spaceflight has emerged during the past few years. Osteopenia induced by microgravity was found to be associated with reduction in both cortical and trabecular bone formation, alteration in mineralization patterns, and disorganization of collagen, and non-collagenous protein metabolism. Recently, cell-culture techniques have offered a direct approach of altered gravity effects at the osteoblastic-cell level. But the fundamental mechanisms by which bone and calcium are lost during spaceflight are not yet fully known. Infrequenccy and high financial cost of flights have created the necessity to develop on-Earth models designed to mimic weightlessness effects. Antiorthostatic suspension devices are now commonly used to obtain hindlimb unloading in rats, with skeletal effects similar to those observed after spaceflight. Therefore, actual and ``simulated'' spaceflights, with investigations conducted at whole body and cellular levels, are needed to elucidate pathogeny of bone loss in space, to develop effective countermeasures, and to study recovery processes of bone changes after return to Earth.

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and increased calcium absorption pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    triglycerides may increase calcium absorption by decreasing faecal calcium excretion as calcium soaps, albeit a significant effect on calcium absorption was demonstrated in one study only. The Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between...

  9. Effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of older adults living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, JeeWon; Kim, Chun-Ja

    2017-09-07

    The effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of 71 older adults living alone were examined. Although a regular dietary meal plan is recommended for improving nutritional status of older adults living alone, little research is done in this field in Korea. A pre- and post-test controlled quasi-experimental design was used at public health centres. The intervention group participated in an intensive nutritional education and support programme once a week for 8 weeks with dietary menus provided by home visiting nurses/dieticians; control group received usual care. Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were assessed using structured questionnaires; nutritional intake status was analysed using Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program 5.0. The mean age of participants was 77.6 years, and 81.7% of the participants were women. At 8 weeks, there were significant interactions of group by time for dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status of protein, iron and vitamins of B 2 and C. Changes over time in the mean score of dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. The percentages of normal nutrition intake of protein, iron and vitamins A and C in the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group at 8 weeks. Nutritional education and support programme positively impacted dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status in older adults living alone, and we highlight the need for community-based nutritional education and counselling programmes. Older adults living alone in a community have relatively poor nutritional status and thus require tailored nutritional intervention according to objective nutritional analysis. It is necessary to link visiting nurses with dieticians in the community to manage effective nutritional

  10. Thermogenic Effect from Nutritionally Enriched Coffee Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Peter F

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nutritionally enriched JavaFit™ (JF coffee (450 mg of caffeine, 1200 mg of garcinia cambogia, 360 mg of citrus aurantium extract, and 225 mcg of chromium polynicotinate on resting oxygen uptake (VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, heart rate (HR, and blood pressure (BP in healthy and physically active individuals. Method Ten subjects (8 male, 2 female; 20.9 ± 1.7 y; 178.1 ± 10.4 cm; 71.8 ± 12.1 kg underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory after at least 3-h post-absorptive state and were provided either 354 ml (1.5 cups of freshly brewed JF or commercially available caffeinated coffee (P. Subjects then rested in a semi-recumbent position for three hours. VO2 and HR were determined every 5 min during the first 30 min and every 10 min during the next 150 min. BP was determined every 15 min during the first 30 min and every 30 min thereafter. Area under the curve (AUC analysis was computed for VO2, whereas a session-average was calculated for RER, HR and BP. Results Initial analysis revealed no significant differences. However, seven of the ten subjects were considered responders to JF (had a higher AUC for VO2during JF than P. Statistical analysis showed the difference between JF and P (12% to be significantly different in these responders. In addition, the average systolic BP was higher (p Conclusion It appears that consuming a nutritionally-enriched coffee beverage may increase resting energy expenditure in individuals that are sensitive to the caffeine and herbal coffee supplement. In addition, this supplement also appears to affect cardiovascular dynamics by augmenting systolic arterial blood pressure.

  11. Effects of nutritional supplementation and genotype on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of nutritional supplementation and genotype on milk production and fertility of lactating dairy cattle under tropical conditions. ... The objective of this study was to determine effects of nutrition on milk production and fertility in lactating multiparous Friesian and Sahiwal cows. Forty in-calf cows comprising 20 Friesians ...

  12. Effects of nutrition on oral health | Agbelusi | Nigerian Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of nutrition on oral health. ... The effects of malnutrition can be seen in the oral structures in all stages of human growth and development from conception to old age. ... These oral lesions are painful; disturb food intake and mastication thereby further compromising the nutrition of the affected individuals. In Africa ...

  13. Effect of Increased Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Food and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and water intake, body weight, cardiac weight index, left ventricular weight index, renal weight index and serum calcium level were determined. The result shows that OC treated rats had significantly lower serum calcium concentration, body weight gain, food, water and calcium intake than those of the control rats.

  14. Effects of elevated calcium on motor and exploratory activities of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Godinho

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of serum and brain calcium concentration on rat behavior were tested by maintaining animals on either distilled water (N = 60 or water containing 1% calcium gluconate (N = 60 for 3 days. Animals that were maintained on high calcium drinking water presented increased serum calcium levels (control = 10.12 ± 0.46 vs calcium treated = 11.62 ± 0.51 µg/dl. Increase of brain calcium levels was not statistically significant. In the behavioral experiments each rat was used for only one test. Rats that were maintained on high calcium drinking water showed increased open-field behavior of ambulation (20.68% and rearing (64.57%. On the hole-board, calcium-supplemented animals showed increased head-dip (67% and head-dipping (126%, suggesting increased ambulatory and exploratory behavior. The time of social interaction was normal in animals maintained on drinking water containing added calcium. Rats supplemented with calcium and submitted to elevated plus-maze tests showed a normal status of anxiety and elevated locomotor activity. We conclude that elevated levels of calcium enhance motor and exploratory behavior of rats without inducing other behavioral alterations. These data suggest the need for a more detailed analysis of several current proposals for the use of calcium therapy in humans, for example in altered blood pressure states, bone mineral metabolism disorders in the elderly, hypocalcemic states, and athletic activities.

  15. Characterization of the effect of chronic administration of a calcium-sensing receptor antagonist, ronacaleret, on renal calcium excretion and serum calcium in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltabiano, Stephen; Dollery, Colin T; Hossain, Mohammad; Kurtinecz, Milena T; Desjardins, John P; Favus, Murray J; Kumar, Rajiv; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A

    2013-09-01

    Ronacaleret is an orally-active calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonist that has the potential for therapeutic utility in the stimulation of PTH release, notably as a bone anabolic agent comparable to recombinant human PTH(1-34) (rhPTH(1-34)). A recent study has shown that, despite the ability to increase circulating PTH levels in postmenopausal women in a dose-dependent manner, minimal effects of ronacaleret on bone mineral density have been observed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the PTH profile as well as calcium metabolism parameters as a marker of PTH biological activity following the administration of ronacaleret or rhPTH(1-34). Administration of ronacaleret led to lower peak levels of PTH than were observed with rhPTH(1-34), however, greater total PTH exposure was observed. Further, chronic administration of either agent was associated with increases in urinary calcium excretion and serum calcium levels, with the magnitude of the changes following ronacaleret significantly greater than that for rhPTH(1-34). The greater magnitude of effects observed with ronacaleret is likely due to the greater total PTH exposure, and is potentially reflective of a state comparable to mild hyperparathyroidism. It is not clear whether the administration of all calcilytics would lead to a similar result, or is due to characteristics specific to ronacaleret. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of calcium at toxic concentrations of cadmium in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danlian; Gong, Xiaomin; Liu, Yunguo; Zeng, Guangming; Lai, Cui; Bashir, Hassan; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Dafei; Xu, Piao; Cheng, Min; Wan, Jia

    2017-05-01

    This review provides new insight that calcium plays important roles in plant growth, heavy metal accumulation and translocation, photosynthesis, oxidative damage and signal transduction under cadmium stress. Increasing heavy metal pollution problems have raised word-wide concerns. Cadmium (Cd), being a highly toxic metal, poses potential risks both to ecosystems and human health. Compared with conventional technologies, phytoremediation, being cost-efficient, highly stable and environment-friendly, is believed to be a promising green technology for Cd decontamination. However, Cd can be easily taken up by plants and may cause severe phytotoxicity to plants, thus limiting the efficiency of phytoremediation. Various researches are being done to investigate the effects of exogenous substances on the mitigation of Cd toxicity to plants. Calcium (Ca) is an essential plant macronutrient that involved in various plant physiological processes, such as plant growth and development, cell division, cytoplasmic streaming, photosynthesis and intracellular signaling transduction. Due to the chemical similarity between Ca and Cd, Ca may mediate Cd-induced physiological or metabolic changes in plants. Recent studies have shown that Ca could be used as an exogenous substance to protect plants against Cd stress by the alleviation of growth inhibition, regulation of metal uptake and translocation, improvement of photosynthesis, mitigation of oxidative damages and the control of signal transduction in the plants. The effects of Ca on toxic concentrations of Cd in plants are reviewed. This review also provides new insight that plants with enhanced Ca level have improved resistance to Cd stress.

  17. Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  18. Assessment of Nutritional Status in Children With Cancer and Effectiveness of Oral Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürlek Gökçebay, Dilek; Emir, Suna; Bayhan, Turan; Demir, Hacı Ahmet; Gunduz, Mehmet; Tunc, Bahattin

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common consequence of cancer in children, but the most effective methods of nutrition intervention are under debate. We aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of children diagnosed with cancer, and to investigate the effect of oral nutritional supplements on anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters, and outcome. A randomized clinical study of 45 newly diagnosed cancer patients was performed. Anthropometric and biochemical data and related factors were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months after diagnosis. On initial anthropometric assessment, prevalence of malnutrition by weight or height was found to be lower as compared with body mass index (BMI), or weight for height (WFH), or arm anthropometry. Twenty-six of the patients (55%) received oral nutritional supplement. During the second 3 months after diagnosis, there was a statistically significant decrease in number of the patients with WFH Nutritional intervention is necessary to promote normal development and increase functional status as a child receives intensive treatment. Protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplements are effective for preventing weight loss in malnourished children.

  19. Effects of environmental factors on microbial induced calcium carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, B M; Haber, M J; DeJong, J T; Caslake, L F; Nelson, D C

    2011-08-01

    To gain an understanding of the environmental factors that affect the growth of the bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii, the metabolism of the bacterium and the calcium carbonate precipitation induced by this bacterium to optimally implement the biological treatment process, microbial induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP), in situ. Soil column and batch tests were used to assess the effect of likely subsurface environmental factors on the MICP treatment process. Microbial growth and mineral precipitation were evaluated in freshwater and seawater. Environmental conditions that may influence the ureolytic activity of the bacteria, such as ammonium concentration and oxygen availability, as well as the ureolytic activities of viable and lysed cells were assessed. Treatment formulation and injection rate, as well as soil particle characteristics are other factors that were evaluated for impact on uniform induction of cementation within the soils. The results of the study presented herein indicate that the biological treatment process is equally robust over a wide range of soil types, concentrations of ammonium chloride and salinities ranging from distilled water to full seawater; on the time scale of an hour, it is not diminished by the absence of oxygen or lysis of cells containing the urease enzyme. This study advances the biological treatment process MICP towards field implementation by addressing key environmental hurdles faced with during the upscaling process. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Effects of processing on nutritional composition and quality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Effects of processing on nutritional composition and quality evaluation of candied celeriac. GRETA KRE ŠI ´C a,∗. , VESNA LELAS b and BORISLAV ˇSIMUNDI ´C a a. Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Department of Nutrition,. University of Rijeka, Naselje Ika, Primorska 42, p.p.97, 51410 Opatija, Croatia b.

  1. Interactive Distance Learning Effectively Provides Winning Sports Nutrition Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jennifer; Hoelscher-Day, Sharon; Begeman, Gale; Houtkooper, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Interactive distance-education (n=226) and face-to-face (n=129) continuing education workshops for health care and education professionals on sports nutrition were evaluated immediately and after 6 months. The well-designed distance-education format was as effective and acceptable as face to face and increased sports nutrition knowledge. (SK)

  2. The effect of oral nutritional supplementation on selected pathology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of oral nutritional supplementation on selected pathology and anthropometric markers of health status in middle aged men. ... be concluded despite the significant improvement in folic acid and sodium level observed in the AG participants that the nutritional supplement rich in folic acid, Vit B6, Vit B1, Vit B12, zinc, ...

  3. Effect of absorbable and nonabsorbable sugars on intestinal calcium absorption in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griessen, M.; Speich, P.V.; Infante, F.; Bartholdi, P.; Cochet, B.; Donath, A.; Courvoisier, B.; Bonjour, J.P.

    1989-03-01

    The effects of glucose, galactose, and lactitol on intestinal calcium absorption and gastric emptying were studied in 9, 8, and 20 healthy subjects, respectively. Calcium absorption was measured by using a double-isotope technique and the kinetic parameters were obtained by a deconvolution method. The gastric emptying rate was determined with /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and was expressed as the half-time of the emptying curve. Each subject was studied under two conditions: (a) with calcium alone and (b) with calcium plus sugar. Glucose and galactose increased the calcium mean transit time and improved the total fractional calcium absorption by 30% (p less than 0.02). Lactitol decreased the mean rate of absorption (p less than 0.001) and reduced the total fractional calcium absorption by 15% (p less than 0.001). The gastric emptying rate did not appear to influence directly the kinetic parameters of calcium absorption. These results show that both glucose and galactose exert the same stimulatory effect as lactose on calcium absorption in subjects with normal lactase whereas lactitol mimics the effects of lactose in lactase-deficient patients. Thus the absorbability of sugars determines their effect on calcium absorption.

  4. Effect of absorbable and nonabsorbable sugars on intestinal calcium absorption in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griessen, M.; Speich, P.V.; Infante, F.; Bartholdi, P.; Cochet, B.; Donath, A.; Courvoisier, B.; Bonjour, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of glucose, galactose, and lactitol on intestinal calcium absorption and gastric emptying were studied in 9, 8, and 20 healthy subjects, respectively. Calcium absorption was measured by using a double-isotope technique and the kinetic parameters were obtained by a deconvolution method. The gastric emptying rate was determined with /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and was expressed as the half-time of the emptying curve. Each subject was studied under two conditions: (a) with calcium alone and (b) with calcium plus sugar. Glucose and galactose increased the calcium mean transit time and improved the total fractional calcium absorption by 30% (p less than 0.02). Lactitol decreased the mean rate of absorption (p less than 0.001) and reduced the total fractional calcium absorption by 15% (p less than 0.001). The gastric emptying rate did not appear to influence directly the kinetic parameters of calcium absorption. These results show that both glucose and galactose exert the same stimulatory effect as lactose on calcium absorption in subjects with normal lactase whereas lactitol mimics the effects of lactose in lactase-deficient patients. Thus the absorbability of sugars determines their effect on calcium absorption

  5. The calcium concentration of public drinking waters and bottled mineral waters in Spain and its contribution to satisfying nutritional needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria, Isidro; Maraver, Francisco; Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Armijo, Francisco; Moreno Aznar, Luis; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-07-01

    A sufficient intake of calcium enables correct bone mineralization. The bioavailability of calcium in water is similar to that in milk. To determine the concentration of calcium in public drinking water and bottled mineral water. We used ion chromatography to analyse the calcium concentrations of public drinking waters in a representative sample of 108 Spanish municipalities (21,290,707 people) and of 109 natural mineral waters sold in Spain, 97 of which were produced in Spain and 12 of which were imported. The average calcium concentration of public drinking waters was 38.96 ± 32.44 mg/L (range: 0.40- 159.68 mg/L). In 27 municipalities, the water contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and in six municipalities it contained over 100 mg/L. The average calcium concentration of the 97 Spanish natural mineral water brands was 39.6 mg/L (range: 0.6-610.1 mg/L). Of these, 34 contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and six contained over 100 mg/L. Of the 12 imported brands, 10 contained over 50 mg/L. Assuming water consumption is as recommended, water containing 50-100 mg/L of calcium provides 5.4-12.8% of the recommended intake of calcium for children aged one to thirteen, up to 13.6% for adolescents, 5.8-17.6% for adults, and up to 20.8% for lactating mothers. Water with 100-150 mg/L of calcium provides 10-31% of the recommended dietary allowance, depending on the age of the individual. Public drinking water and natural mineral water consumption in a third of Spanish cities can be considered an important complementary source of calcium. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of multidisciplinary nutritional care on nutritional intake, nutritional status and quality of life in patients with hip fractures: a controlled prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Jellie C.; Goosen, Jon H. M.; de Wolf, G. Sander; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary intervention program on nutritional intake and of nutritional intake on nutritional status and quality of life in older patients treated for a hip fracture. A controlled prospective cohort study included 66 patients

  7. Effects of an Oral Nutritional Supplementation Plus Physical Exercise Intervention on the Physical Function, Nutritional Status, and Quality of Life in Frail Institutionalized Older Adults: The ACTIVNES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abizanda, Pedro; López, Mateo Díez; García, Victoria Pérez; Estrella, Juan de Dios; da Silva González, Álvaro; Vilardell, Núria Barcons; Torres, Krysmarú Araujo

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a hyperproteic, hypercaloric oral nutritional supplement with prebiotic fiber, vitamin D, and calcium, plus a standardized physical intervention, in the functional status, strength, nutritional status, and quality of life of frail institutionalized older adults. Multicentric prospective observational study under usual clinical practice conditions. Four nursing homes from Burgos (2), Albacete, and Madrid, Spain. Participants included 91 institutionalized older adults (age ≥70), able to walk 50 m, and meeting at least 3 of the Fried frailty phenotype criteria. Daily intake of two 200-mL bottles of an oral nutritional supplement, each bottle containing 300 kcal, 20 g protein, 3 g fiber, 500 IU vitamin D, and 480 mg calcium, plus a standardized physical exercise training consisting of flexibility, balance, and strengthening exercises for arms and legs, 5 days per week. Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Short-Form-Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (SF-LLFDI) function subscale, handgrip strength, EuroQoL-5 Dimensions visual analogic scale (EQ5DVAS), weight, body mass index (BMI), and Short-Form Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF) at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks. Forty-eight participants (52.7%) improved at least 1 point in the SPPB at week 6, and 44 (48.4%) did so at week 12; 39 participants (42.9%) improved at least 2 points in the SF-LLFDI at week 6, and 46 (50.5%) at week 12. Participants improved their quality of life measured with the EQ5DVAS by 6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3%-10%) at week 6, and by 5% (95% CI 0%-10%) at week 12. They also improved their nutritional status (weight gain, BMI increase, and higher MNA-SF scores at 6- and 12-week follow-up). This improvement was higher in participants with more frailty criteria, lower functional level, lower vitamin D levels, and poorer nutritional status. A 12-week intervention with oral nutritional supplementation plus physical

  8. [Effect of early nutritional intervention in the a outcome of patients at risk clinical nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Montoya, Susana; Múnera García, Nora Elena

    2014-02-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a multi-causal process and high prevalence. Nutritional intervention at an early stage improves prognosis of affected patients. To compare the effect of early nutritional intervention with a routine care on clinical outcome in patients with detected nutritional risk screening tool NRS Nutritional Risk Screening 2002, entering an institution of complex health. A quasi-experimental study. Was assessed in the first 48 hours of admission to 891 patients, of whom 247 were at nutritional risk, 116 were the routine care group and 54 the intervention group. We evaluated complications, hospital stay, weight loss, change in body mass index and protein-calorie adequacy. Patients undergoing caloric intake had higher (1617 ± 444.5 vs 1366 ± 467.1 kcal, p = 0.002) and protein (1.2 ± 0.2 vs 0.9 ± 0.3 g, p = 0.000), average weight gain of 0.7% vs a loss of 2.3% (p = 0.000), a proportion of moderate complications 8.2% vs 25.2% (p = 0.012) and decreased time hospital stay of 2.2 days (p = 0.138) compared with routine care group. Early nutritional intervention in patients at nutritional risk decreased the proportion of moderate complications, improved the adequacy of energy, protein and nutritional evolution in terms of weight gain and change in BMI. The length of stay did not differ significantly. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Alleviating negative effects of irrigation-water salinity on growth and vase life of gerbera by foliar spray of calcium chloride and potassium silicate

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mohammadi Torkashvand

    2015-01-01

    The required water for greenhouses in Kishestan, Soume-e-Sara town, Guilan province, Iran, is mainly provided by underground resources that have inappropriate quality. One way to reduce the impact of salinity an plant growth is proper nutrition. This greenhouse research was conducted to evaluate the effect of water salinity and foliar spray of calcium (Ca) and silicon (Si) on growth and vase life of gerbera in a factorial experiment based on compeletly randomized design with two factors. The ...

  10. Effect of calcium electroporation in combination with metformin in vivo and correlation between viability and intracellular ATP level after calcium electroporation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gehl, Julie

    2017-01-01

    was limited when investigated in a 3D in vitro spheroid model. We aimed to investigate the effect of calcium electroporation in combination with metformin, a drug that affects intracellular ATP level. We also aimed to study the relationship between the viability and intracellular ATP levels after calcium...... electroporation in vitro. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of calcium electroporation with metformin on NMRI-Foxn1nu mice in vivo on tumor size, survival, and intracellular ATP. We further investigated viability and intracellular ATP level in vitro after calcium electroporation in two human...... electroporation significantly reduced the size and ATP level of bladder cancer tumors treated in vivo but no increased effect of metformin combined with calcium electroporation was shown on neither tumor size, survival, nor ATP level. Calcium electroporation in vitro significantly decreased viability compared...

  11. Low sodium diet in pregnancy: effects on maternal nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maten, G D

    1995-07-01

    In the present study, besides the effect on blood pressure, the effects of a low sodium diet in pregnancy on maternal energy and nutrient intake, calcium metabolism, zinc and magnesium status, weight gain and body fat storage were investigated. No effect of the low sodium diet in pregnancy on the course of blood pressure and the incidence of hypertensive disorders was observed. The reduction in sodium intake also caused a significant reduction in the intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, zinc, magnesium, iron and cholesterol. The reduced intake of calcium, zinc and magnesium in the women on the low sodium diet did not result in significant changes in circulating total calcium, ionized calcium, parathyroid hormone, zinc, alkaline phosphatase or magnesium, probably because of homeostatic adaptations by the kidneys. In the women on the low sodium diet non-significant reductions in weight gain (1.5 kg) and fat mass gain (0.9 kg) over pregnancy were observed. These reductions in weight and fat mass gain were more pronounced (3.4 kg (P = 0.003) and 1.3 kg (P = 0.15), respectively) when only the data of the women with good compliance were analyzed. The use of a low sodium diet in pregnancy did not have significant effects on infant birth weight, placental weight or other pregnancy outcome variables.

  12. Effect of the calcium to phosphorus ratio on the setting properties of calcium phosphate bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, M D; Gómez, S; Barracó, M; López, J; Fernández, E

    2012-09-01

    α-Tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) has become the main reactant of most experimental and commercial ceramic bone cements. It has calcium-to-phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio of 1.50. The present study expands and reports on the microstructures and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate (CP) cements containing sintered monolithic reactants obtained in the interval 1.29 properties as well as on their microstructure and crystal phase evolution. The results showed that: (a) CP-cements made with reactants with Ca/P ratio other than 1.50 have longer setting and lower hardening properties; (b) CP-cements reactivity was clearly affected by the Ca/P ratio of the starting reactant; (c) reactants with Ca/P 1.50 were composed of α-TCP, tetracalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite; (d) only the reactant with Ca/P = 1.50 was monophasic and was made of α-TCP, which transformed during the setting into calcium deficient hydroxyapatite; (e) CP-cements developed different crystal microstructures with specific features depending on the Ca/P ratio of the starting reactant.

  13. The Effect of Cell Immobilization by Calcium Alginate on Bacterially Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Seifan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbially induced mineral precipitation is recognized as a widespread phenomenon in nature. A diverse range of minerals including carbonate, sulphides, silicates, and phosphates can be produced through biomineralization. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3 is one of the most common substances used in various industries and is mostly extracted by mining. In recent years, production of CaCO3 by bacteria has drawn much attention because it is an environmentally- and health-friendly pathway. Although CaCO3 can be produced by some genera of bacteria through autotrophic and heterotrophic pathways, the possibility of producing CaCO3 in different environmental conditions has remained a challenge to determine. In this study, calcium alginate was proposed as a protective carrier to increase the bacterial tolerance to extreme environmental conditions. The model showed that the highest concentration of CaCO3 is achieved when the bacterial cells are immobilized in the calcium alginate beads fabricated using 1.38% w/v Na-alginate and 0.13 M CaCl2.

  14. Effect of Processing and Subsequent Storage on Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation includes the following objectives: 1) To determine the effects of thermal processing, freeze drying, irradiation, and storage time on the nutritional content of food; 2) To evaluate the nutritional content of the food items currently used on the International Space Station and Shuttle; and 3) To determine if there is a need to institute countermeasures. (This study does not seek to address the effect of processing on nutrients in detail, but rather aims to place in context the overall nutritional status at the time of consumption).

  15. Effect of fuel characteristics on synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Calcium phosphates (CaP) are the most ubiquitous family of inorganic compounds well known for their use in bio- logical applications. Variety of calcium phosphates phases offer excellent bio-active properties of which cal- cium hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 is most widely used as powders, particulate or porous ...

  16. Effects of organic matter, calcium carbonates and moisture content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When the organic matter was removed, reactive calcium carbonate concentrations in dry sediment became several times greater than those in the wet sediment. In other way, when calcium carbonates were removed, organic carbon concentrations decreased especially in B horizon of the wet sediment. On the opposite, OC ...

  17. Effects of various diets on the calcium and phosphorus composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) and superworms (Zophobas morio larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'Toya V; Toddes, Barbara D; Wyre, Nicole R; Brown, Dorothy C; Michel, Kathryn E; Briscoe, Johanna A

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals. Treatment diets were as follows: wheat millings, avian hand feeding formula, organic avian mash diet, and a high-calcium cricket feed. Control groups received water only. After treatment, larvae were flash-frozen live with liquid nitrogen in preparation for complete proximate and mineral analyses. Analyses for the 2-day treatment group were performed in triplicate. RESULTS The nutrient composition of the high-calcium cricket feed groups had significant changes in calcium content, phosphorus content, and metabolizable energy at the 2-day interval, compared with other treatment groups, for both mealworms and superworms. Calcium content and calcium-to-phosphorus ratios for larvae in the high-calcium cricket feed group were the highest among the diet treatments for all treatment intervals and for both larval species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A 2-day interval with the high-calcium cricket feed achieved a larval nutrient composition sufficient to meet National Research Council dietary calcium recommendations for nonlactating rats. Mealworm calcium composition reached 2,420 g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours, and superworm calcium composition reached 2,070g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours. These findings may enable pet owners, veterinarians, insect breeders, and zoo curators to optimize nutritive content of larvae fed to insectivorous animals.

  18. Effect of meal composition on calcium absorption: enhancing effect of carbohydrate polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, S.E.; Chawla-Singh, K.; Sellin, J.H.; Yasillo, N.J.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1984-01-01

    Meal components including fat, fiber, and carbohydrates can influence the intestinal absorption of calcium; such interactions may be of even greater importance in the presence of intestinal disease. This study compares intestinal absorption of 47CaCl2 administered in four ways: in water, within a standard meal, with a liquid formula (Ensure, Ross Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio), or with a glucose polymer solution (Frodex-15, Ross). Studies were carried out in 9 patients with ileal resection, 3 patients with jejunoileal bypass, and 14 controls. Fractional calcium absorption from water was lower in patients than in controls. Absorption was enhanced 1.5- to 5-fold when 47CaCl2 was administered with a liquid formula diet containing a glucose polymer or with the glucose polymer alone. Patients with the lowest calcium absorption from breakfast showed the greatest effect of calcium ingestion with formula or glucose polymer. These findings further emphasize the importance of meal composition on calcium absorption and provide a possible mechanism for enhancing calcium absorption in some patients with chronically impaired absorption

  19. CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: FOCUS ON METABOLIC AND VASCULAR EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    D. V. Nebieridze

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of calcium antagonists widely used in cardiological practice is proved both by placebo-controlled studies and in comparative trials with end-point control. Calcium antagonists are the most effective vasoprotective medicines. In our study we had shown antihypertensive efficacy and ability to improve endothelium function of non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, diltiazem (Altiazem RR). Altiazem RR can be drug of choice in wide profile of patients with arterial hypertension, espec...

  20. CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: FOCUS ON METABOLIC AND VASCULAR EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    D. V. Nebieridze

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of calcium antagonists widely used in cardiological practice is proved both by placebo-controlled studies and in comparative trials with end-point control. Calcium antagonists are the most effective vasoprotective medicines. In our study we had shown antihypertensive efficacy and ability to improve endothelium function of non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, diltiazem (Altiazem RR). Altiazem RR can be drug of choice in wide profile of patients with arterial hypertension, espec...

  1. MECHANISM OF THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL DIETARY CALCIUM ON CYTOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF FECAL WATER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAPRE, JA; DEVRIES, HT; TERMONT, DSML; KLEIBEUKER, JH; DEVRIES, EGE; VANDERMEER, R

    1993-01-01

    Dietary calcium supplementation inhibits hyperproliferation of rectal epithelium, possibly by precipitating luminal surfactants and thus preventing their cell-damaging effects. Therefore, we studied the effects of supplemental dietary calcium (35.5 mmol/day) on composition and cytolytic activity of

  2. Effects of calcium and humic acid treatment on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humic acid (HA) may facilitate plant growth by improving the nutrient uptake as well as through hormonal effects. Studies were conducted to investigate the effect of a mixture of calcium and HA on Oriental lily, which is sensitive to calcium deficiency. Two levels of Ca (3.5 and 7.0 meq/L) were combined with 500 mg/L HA ...

  3. Effect of body condition score and nutritional flushing on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of body condition score and nutritional flushing on the reproductive performances of Spanish and Spanish x boer crossbred does. Aberra Melesse, Girma Abebe, Roger Merkel, Arthur Goetsch, Lionel Dawson, Terry Gipson, Tilahun Sahlu ...

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Knowledge Concerning Healthy Nutrition and Nutrition Science on the Knowledge Development Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Nutrition can be regarded as an important part of any preparation program, as well as an important part of life. It seems essential to develop nutritional science and improve eating habits with the purpose of developing a healthy diet and avoiding the outcomes that arise from a lack of nutrition. Proper nutrition is one of the important factors for the development of health. Lack of sufficient awareness about nutrition can result in improper eating habits. Objectives The present study evaluated the effect of knowledge about healthy nutrition and nutrition science on the knowledge development approach. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the statistical population consisted of 190 experts and other scholars in the area of nutritional science. A questionnaire based on demographic details, nutritional science, nutrition education, research, proper solutions to individuals’ nutritional problems, and a culture of nutrition was used for data collection. Results A relatively strong positive correlation was found between the knowledge development approach, nutritional science, nutrition education and research, and proper solutions for individual nutritional problems and a culture of nutrition (P < 0.001. Conclusions 1 Effective enhancement and participation in an academic community will be important in the future of food and nutrition security; however, major gaps and weaknesses also exist in this context; 2 The main weaknesses in relation to the lack of clear policies and procedures include focusing on only Tehran, Iran; the need to overcome bureaucracy; and problems related to motivation, capital, and international communications; 3 Qualitative and quantitative improvement of research is not possible without access to skilled experts and researchers; 4 To solve these problems, it will be beneficial to pay more attention to the role of universities, facilitate intellectual communication among professors in

  5. Effect of high calcium concentration influents on enhanced biological phosphorus removal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Martinez, T.; Aguado Garcia, D.; Ferrer Polo, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the effect of calcium concentration in wastewater on the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) is investigated as well as its influence in PAO metabolism, specifically in the Y P O4 (ratio between phosphorus release and acetic acid uptake). For this study a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) anaerobic-aerobic was used, in which the PAO enriched biomass was exposed to different calcium concentrations in the influent wastewater. The results indicate that until a given calcium level in the influent wastewater (35 mg Ca/l) the metabolism is not affect, but higher calcium concentrations lead to significant Y P O4 decline. (Author) 18 refs.

  6. The effect of calcium on the properties of charged phospholipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U.R.; Leidy, Chad; Westh, P.

    2006-01-01

    to sodium ions, calcium ions are localised in a narrow (∼ 10 Å) band around the phosphate group. The interaction of calcium with the lipid molecules enhances the molecular packing of the PG and PS lipids. This observation is in good agreement with emission spectra of the membrane partitioning probe Laurdan...... in DMPG multilamellar vesicles that indicate an increase in the ordering of the DMPG bilayer due to the presence of calcium. Our results indicate that calcium ions, which often function as a second messengers in living cells have a pronounced effect on membrane structures, which may have implications...

  7. Effect of calcium on cell-wall degrading enzymes of Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasanuma, Izumi; Suzuki, Takuya

    2016-09-01

    Effective anti-Botrytis strategies leading to reduce pesticides on strawberries are examined to provide the protection that is harmless to humans, higher animals and plants. Calcium treatments significantly inhibited the spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The intracellular polygalacturonase and CMCase showed low activities in B. cinerea cultivated by medium containing calcium. On the other hand, calcium-stimulated β-glucosidases production occurred. Our findings suggest that the calcium treatments keep CMCase activity low and cause low activities of cell-wall degrading enzymes of B. cinerea in the late stage of growth.

  8. Antagonist effects of calcium on borosilicate glass alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Depierre, S.; Angeli, F.; Frizon, F.; Gin, S.

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted on glass and cement durability in contact with water, but very little work to date has focused directly on interactions between the two materials. These interactions are mostly controlled by silicon-calcium reactivity. However, the physical and chemical processes involved remain insufficiently understood to predict the evolution of coupled glass-cement systems used in several industrial applications. Results are reported from borosilicate glass alteration in calcium-rich solutions. Our data show that four distinct behaviors can be expected according to the relative importance of three key parameters: the pH, the reaction progress (short- or long-term alteration) and the calcium concentration. Glass alteration is thus controlled by specific mechanisms depending on the solution chemistry: calcium complexation at the glass surface, precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) or calcium incorporation in the altered layer. These findings highlight the impact of silicon-calcium interactions on glass durability and open the way for a better understanding of glass-cement mixing in civil engineering applications as well as in nuclear waste storage.

  9. Effect of high dietary calcium on weight management in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out a suitable dietary regime to maintain a lower prevalence of overweight or obesity by adjusting the diet components. Therefore, male Swiss albino rats were selected according to their ages and divided into two main groups, i.e., premature and mature groups. Each rat group was divided into 4 subgroups and each subgroup was fed on a diet of varied composition. Serum levels of lipids, calcium, phosphorous and testosterone were determined in addition to body weight measurement. The results indicate non-significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in premature rats fed on high-calcium diets while significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in mature rats fed on the same diet composition. The levels of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and testosterone were significantly decreased in premature rats fed high- calcium diets. In premature rats, only rat subgroup fed on high calcium from milk, showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Calcium and phosphorus levels exhibited non- significant change between premature rats. In mature rats, LDL-C data demonstrate nonsignificant changes while cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in rats fed high -calcium diet compared to control. HDL-C level revealed a significant decrease in sera of mature rats fed on high calcium from milk. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in mature rats fed low- fat diets or low fat diets supplemented with high- calcium level. In general, one would suggest to consume low fat diet (4%) supplemented with high calcium from dry skimmed milk fortified with hydroxyapatite as suitable dietary program to avoid overweight or obesity.

  10. Physician nutrition and cognition during work hours: effect of a nutrition based intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemaire Jane B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians are often unable to eat and drink properly during their work day. Nutrition has been linked to cognition. We aimed to examine the effect of a nutrition based intervention, that of scheduled nutrition breaks during the work day, upon physician cognition, glucose, and hypoglycemic symptoms. Methods A volunteer sample of twenty staff physicians from a large urban teaching hospital were recruited from the doctors' lounge. During both the baseline and the intervention day, we measured subjects' cognitive function, capillary blood glucose, "hypoglycemic" nutrition-related symptoms, fluid and nutrient intake, level of physical activity, weight, and urinary output. Results Cognition scores as measured by a composite score of speed and accuracy (Tput statistic were superior on the intervention day on simple (220 vs. 209, p = 0.01 and complex (92 vs. 85, p Conclusions Our study provides evidence in support of adequate workplace nutrition as a contributor to improved physician cognition, adding to the body of research suggesting that physician wellness may ultimately benefit not only the physicians themselves but also their patients and the health care systems in which they work.

  11. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal bone ...

  12. Effect of infection on nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrimshaw, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    All infections no matter how mild decrease nutrient intakes and increase nutrient losses even when subclinical. The losses include decreased intestinal absorption, direct loss of nutrient in the gut, internal diversion for metabolic responses to infection and increased BMR when fever is present. Infection influences in this way not only protein and energy status but also that of most other nutrients. The clinical importance of these consequences of infection depends on the prior state of the individual, the nature and duration of the infection and the diet of the individual during the infection, particularly dietary intake during the convalescent period and whether full recovery takes place before another infection occurs. In industrialized countries particular attention must be paid to the nutrition of hospitalized patients since they are frequently debilitated by their primary disease, morbidity, and their nutritional status. Morbidity and mortality are increased by nosocomial infections to which the poorly nourished individual is more susceptible. (author). Refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Effects of calcium buffering on glucose-induced insulin release in mouse pancreatic islets: an approximation to the calcium sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertusa, J A; Sanchez-Andres, J V; Martín, F; Soria, B

    1999-10-15

    1. The properties of the calcium sensor for glucose-induced insulin secretion have been studied using cell-permeant Ca2+ buffers with distinct kinetics and affinities. In addition, submembrane cytosolic Ca2+ distribution has been modelled after trains of glucose-induced action potential-like depolarizations. 2. Slow Ca2+ buffers (around 1 mmol l-1 intracellular concentration) with different affinities (EGTA and Calcium Orange-5N) did not significantly affect glucose-induced insulin release. Modelling showed no effect on cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations at the outermost shell (0.05 microm), their effects being observed in the innermost shells dependent on Ca2+ affinity. 3. In contrast, fast Ca2+ buffers (around 1 mmol l-1 intracellular concentration) with different affinities (BAPTA and Calcium Green-5N) caused a 50 % inhibition of early insulin response and completely blocked the late phase of glucose-induced insulin response, their simulations showing a decrease of [Ca2+]i at both the inner and outermost shells. 4. These data are consistent with the existence in pancreatic beta-cells of a higher affinity Ca2+ sensor than that proposed for neurons. Moreover, these data are consistent with the proposed existence of two distinct pools of granules: (i) 'primed' vesicles, colocalized with Ca2+ channels and responsible of the first phase of insulin release; and (ii) 'reserved pool' vesicles, not colocalized and responsible for the second phase.

  14. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP on enamel demineralization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel blocks (n=70, previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g. Cacit (0.25% and TMP (0.25% were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one.

  15. Effect of oral calcium and vitamin D on glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, J. W.; Raymakers, J. A.; Mosch, C.; Hoekstra, A.; Derksen, R. H.; Baart de la Faille, H.; Duursma, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    Bone-loss in glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia is most evident in trabecular bone such as the vertebrae. Bone mineral content (BMC) measurements of the spine were prospectively studied, comparing the preventive effect of calcium (500 mg a day) and calcium plus Vitamin D (4000 IU on alternate days)

  16. Metabolomic assessment reveals a stimulatory effect of calcium treatment on glucosinolates contents in broccoli microgreen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preharvest calcium application has been shown to increase broccoli microgreen yield and extend shelf life. Here we investigated the effect of calcium application on its metabolome using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem with mass spectrometry (HRMS). The data collected were...

  17. Effects of pre- and postharvest calcium treatments on shelf life and postharvest quality of broccoli microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microgreens’ extremely short shelf life limits their commercial usage. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of pre- and post- harvest treatments using different forms of calcium on the postharvest quality and shelf-life of broccoli microgreens. Preharvest spray with calcium lactate, ...

  18. Effects of dietary bread crust Maillard reaction products on calcium and bone metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Haro, Ana; Ruiz-Roca, Beatriz; Morales, Francisco J; Navarro, María Pilar

    2013-06-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) consumption has been related with the development of bone degenerative disorders, probably linked to changes in calcium metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effects of MRP intake from bread crust on calcium balance and its distribution, and bone metabolism. During 88 days, rats were fed control diet or diets containing bread crust as source of MRP, or its soluble high molecular weight, soluble low molecular weight or insoluble fractions (bread crust, HMW, LMW and insoluble diets, respectively). In the final week, a calcium balance was performed, then animals were sacrified and some organs removed to analyse calcium levels. A second balance was carried out throughout the experimental period to calculate global calcium retention. Biochemical parameters and bone metabolism markers were measured in serum or urine. Global calcium bioavailability was unmodified by consumption of bread crust or its isolate fractions, corroborating the previously described low affinity of MRP to bind calcium. Despite this, a higher calcium concentration was found in femur due to smaller bones having a lower relative density. The isolate consumption of the fractions altered some bone markers, reflecting a situation of increased bone resorption or higher turnover; this did not take place in the animals fed the bread crust diet. Thus, the bread crust intake does not affect negatively calcium bioavailability and bone metabolism.

  19. Circulating uncarboxylated matrix gla protein is associated with vitamin K nutritional status, but not coronary artery calcium, in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Vermeer, Cees; Magdeleyns, Elke J P; Crosier, Michael D; Gundberg, Caren M; Ordovas, José M; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Booth, Sarah L

    2011-08-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a calcification inhibitor in vascular tissue that must be carboxylated by vitamin K to function. Evidence suggests circulating uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) is elevated in persons with disease characterized by vascular calcification. The primary purpose of this study was to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between plasma ucMGP, vitamin K status, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in older adults without coronary heart disease. Genetic determinants of ucMGP were also explored. Cross-sectional associations among baseline plasma ucMGP, vitamin K status biomarkers [plasma phylloquinone, uncarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA-II), serum uncarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC)], CAC, and plausible genetic polymorphisms were examined in 438 community-dwelling adults (60-80 y, 59% women). The effect of phylloquinone supplementation (500 μg/d) for 3 y on plasma ucMGP was determined among 374 participants. At baseline, plasma phylloquinone was lower and %ucOC and PIVKA-II were greater across higher plasma ucMGP quartiles (all P supplemented group, the 3-y change in ucMGP was not associated with the 3-y change in CAC [unstandard β (SE) = -0.02 (0.02); P = 0.44]. Plasma ucMGP was associated with vitamin K status biomarkers and was reduced following phylloquinone supplementation, suggesting it may be a useful marker of vitamin K status in vascular tissue. Plasma ucMGP did not reflect CAC in healthy older adults.

  20. The Effects of Calcium-Vitamin D and Metformin on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Rashidi

    2009-06-01

    Conclusion: The effects of metformin and calcium-vitamin D in regulating the menstrual cycle suggest that they could also be effective for the treatment of anovulation and oligomenorrhea, with possible consequences for pregnancy rates in PCOS patients.

  1. The effect of calcium hydroxide placement on pH and calcium concentration in periapical environment: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekatain, Behnaz; Hasheminia, Seyed Mohsen; Shadmehr, Elham; Attary, Zeinab

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the calcium concentration and pH levels of Ca(OH) 2 medicament placing in pulp chamber and root canal. Ninety-nine extracted human mandibular second premolars were instrumented to size #40 k file. Nine teeth served as the control group and the remaining teeth were assigned into two groups. Group 1-Ca(OH) 2 was placed in the dried pulp chamber, while root canals remained wet with normal saline; group 2-Ca(OH) 2 was placed in dried root canals. In control group, canals remained wet without medication. Each group was divided into 3 sub-groups of 15 teeth in which pH and calcium concentration were measured in three intervals of 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks by pH meter and atomic absorption spectrometer system, respectively. Findings were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis and t-test. At 1 and 2 weeks, the calcium concentration had increased without being significantly different from Ca(OH) 2 placed either in the root canal or in the pulp chamber. Ca(OH) 2 placed in the pulp chamber or root canal provided similar pH values (P=0.362). Placing Ca(OH) 2 in pulp chamber is as effective as placing it in the root canal.

  2. Effect of calcium chelators on heat coagulation and heat-induced changes of concentrated micellar casein solutions: The role of calcium-ion activity and micellar integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de E.J.P.; Minor, M.; Snoeren, T.A.L.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Linden, van der E.

    2012-01-01

    There is general consensus that calcium chelators enhance heat stability in milk. However, they increase the heat stability to considerably different extents. For this reason, the effect of various calcium chelators on heat coagulation and heat-induced changes of concentrated micellar casein

  3. Differences between negative inotropic and vasodilator effects of calcium antagonists acting on extra- and intracellular calcium movements in rat and guinea-pig cardiac preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugtenburg, J. G.; Mathy, M. J.; Boddeke, H. W.; Beckeringh, J. J.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    In order to get more insight into the utilization of calcium in the mammalian heart and the influence of calcium antagonists on this process we have evaluated the negative inotropic and vasodilator effect of nifedipine, diltiazem, verapamil, bepridil and lidoflazine as well as of the intracellularly

  4. Effects of fibers on expansive shotcrete mixtures consisting of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, ordinary Portland cement, and calcium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry often uses shotcrete for ground stabilization. However, cracking within shotcrete is commonly observed, which delays production schedules and increases maintenance costs. A possible crack reduction method is using expansive shotcrete mixture consisting of calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA, ordinary Portland cement (OPC, and calcium sulfate (CS to reduce shrinkage. Furthermore, fibers can be added to the mixture to restrain expansion and impede cracking. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of nylon fiber, glass fiber, and steel fiber on an expansive shotcrete mixture that can better resist cracking. In this study, parameters such as density, water absorption, volume of permeable voids, unconfined compressive strength (UCS, splitting tensile strength (STS, and volume change of fiber-added expansive mixtures were determined at different time periods (i.e. the strengths on the 28th day, and the volume changes on the 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days. The results show that addition of fibers can improve mixture durability, in the form of decreased water absorption and reduced permeable pore space content. Moreover, the expansion of the CSA-OPC-CS mixture was restrained up to 50% by glass fiber, up to 43% by nylon fiber, and up to 28% by steel fiber. The results show that the STS was improved by 57% with glass fiber addition, 43% with steel fiber addition, and 38% with nylon fiber addition. The UCS was also increased by 31% after steel fiber addition, 26% after nylon fiber addition, and 16% after glass fiber addition. These results suggest that fiber additions to the expansive shotcrete mixtures can improve durability and strengths while controlling expansion. Keywords: Shotcrete, Restrained expansion, Fibers, Calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA, Ordinary Portland cement (OPC, Calcium sulfate (CS

  5. Effect of calcium on excitatory neuromuscular transmission in the crayfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, H.; Orkand, R. K.

    1970-01-01

    1. The effects of varying the external Ca concentration from 1·8 to 30 mM/l. (⅛-2 times normal) have been studied at the in vitro crayfish excitatory neuromuscular junction. Electrophysiological techniques were used to record transmembrane junctional potentials from muscle fibres and extracellular junctional currents from the vicinity of nerve terminals. 2. The excitatory junctional potential amplitude was proportional to [Ca]0n, where n varied between 0·68 and 0·94 (mean 0·82) when [Ca]0 was varied from 1·8 to 15 mM/l. 3. The increase in junctional potential amplitude on raising [Ca]0 resulted primarily from an increase in the average number of quanta of excitatory transmitter released from the presynaptic nerve terminal by the nerve impulse. 4. The size of the quanta, synaptic delay, presynaptic potential and electrical properties of the muscle membrane were little affected by changes in calcium concentration in the range studied. PMID:5498460

  6. Desalted duck egg white peptides promote calcium uptake by counteracting the adverse effects of phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tao; Liu, Weiwei; Shi, Wen; Ma, Zhili; He, Hui

    2017-03-15

    The structure of the desalted duck egg white peptides-calcium chelate was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Characterization results showed structural folding and aggregation of amino acids or oligopeptides during the chelation process. Desalted duck egg white peptides enhanced the calcium uptake in the presence of oxalate, phosphate and zinc ions in Caco-2 monolayers. Animal model indicated that desalted duck egg white peptides effectively enhanced the mineral absorption and counteracted the deleterious effects of phytic acid. These findings suggested that desalted duck egg white peptides might promote calcium uptake in three pathways: 1) desalted duck egg white peptides bind with calcium to form soluble chelate and avoid precipitate; 2) the chelate is absorbed as small peptides by enterocyte; and 3) desalted duck egg white peptides regulate the proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes through the interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 calcium channel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  8. Nutrition education intervention for women with breast cancer: effect on nutritional factors and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Cecilia C; Vieira, Francilene G K; Ceccatto, Vanessa; de Liz, Sheyla; Cardoso, Alyne L; Sabel, Cristiane; Gonzalez-Chica, David A; da Silva, Edson L; Galvan, Daisy; Crippa, Carlos G; Di Pietro, Patricia F

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effect of a nutrition education intervention on nutritional factors and oxidative stress during treatment of breast cancer. Nonrandomized clinical trial conducted in 2010-2011, including an evaluation at baseline and after 12 months. Women from Brazil who had breast cancer, divided into an intervention group (IG) (n = 18) and comparison group (n = 75). To increase intake of fruits and vegetables and reduce red and processed meats, via telephone and printed materials. Food intake, anthropometry, and levels of lipid hydroperoxide, carbonyl proteins, reduced glutathione, and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Chi-square, Mann-Whitney or t tests for baseline data; Wilcoxon or paired t tests for intra-group outcomes, linear regression models, and Bonferroni multiplicity adjustment. The researchers observed an increase in fruit and vegetable intake, reduction in red and processed meat intake, no change in body weight, and an increase in glutathione in the IG over the comparison group. However, after Bonferroni adjustment, only the consumption of fruits and vegetables and fruit was significantly higher in IG. This study presents improved dietary changes after a theory-driven nutrition education intervention. Although the sample size is small, it has proven to be clinically relevant. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of milk and milk components on calcium, magnesium, and trace element absorption during infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, B

    1997-07-01

    During early life, infants usually consume a diet that is heavily dominated by milk. It is generally believed that breast-fed infants absorb adequate quantities of minerals and trace elements, whereas there is some concern about how well infants can utilize these nutrients from cow's milk formula and other infant diets. Therefore, most infant formulas contain much higher concentrations of minerals and trace elements than those of breast milk. Our knowledge of how infants can utilize these nutrients from different diets is very limited. This paper critically reviews the effects of various components in breast milk, cow's milk, and infant formula and how they either facilitate or inhibit the absorption of minerals and trace elements. Particular emphasis is put on milk proteins such as lactoferrin, casein, and whey proteins, but phytate in soy formula is also discussed. Competition among minerals for absorptive pathways as well as other nutrient-nutrient interactions are considered in the context of infant nutrition. The difficulties involved in assessing mineral and trace element status in infants, as well as the potential consequences of suboptimal and excessive intakes of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are also discussed, particularly in the light of infant requirements.

  10. Nutritional status and phytate:zinc and phytate x calcium:zinc dietary molar ratios of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks: 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, B F; Smith, S A; Howard, M P; Ellis, R; Smith, J C

    1988-12-01

    A nutrition assessment of 16 members of a community of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks was conducted in 1977. Plasma zinc was found to be low-normal, which was attributed primarily to high intakes of phytate-containing foods. Individual and group counseling were instituted over a 10-year period in an attempt to emphasize the importance of wise food selection within the constraints of lacto-ovo vegetarianism. In 1987, a more comprehensive nutrition assessment of 21 members of the same community was performed. Food composites were analyzed, and 3-day instead of 24-hour dietary records were kept. Intakes of phytate-containing foods had decreased from 4,569 to 972 mg/day; intake of dietary zinc had increased from 7.4 to 9.7 mg/day; and the phytate:zinc molar ratio had decreased from 67 to 14 for the years 1977 and 1987, respectively. An analyzed phytate:zinc molar ratio of 9.8 and an analyzed phytate x calcium:zinc molar ratio of 0.3 were representative of the 1987 community. Both were within normal ranges. Plasma zinc had risen to upper-normal levels. The 1987 nutrition assessment showed that it is possible to be adequately nourished with a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet provided one has proper knowledge of the phytate-containing foods and the methods for compensating with foods of greater mineral density (primarily zinc).

  11. Effects of dietary calcium on Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimuro, Masaki; Nakamura, Shiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection causes gastritis and is considered a gastric cancer risk factor. We have previously reported that codfish meal markedly enhanced Hp-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils. In the present study, we sought the responsible components in codfish meal. Codfish were divided into three parts (meat, viscera and 'other parts', including bone), and administered to Hp-infected gerbils. Subsequently, cod bone, sardine bone and prawn shell were tested, along with major calcium components, hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate, in bone and shell, respectively. 'Other parts' and cod bone enhanced Hp-induced gastritis, as was observed for whole codfish. Similarly, sardine bone and prawn shell, as well as 0.22-0.88% hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate, enhanced gastritis. In contrast, administration of a higher dose of the calcium compounds exerted protective effects. Intake of calcium compounds may contribute to enhancement of Hp-induced gastritis.

  12. Effects of rapid and slow cooling on thermoregulatory reactions in hypertensive rats after administration of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, T V; Lomakina, S V; Tkachenko, E Ya; Markel', A L

    2007-01-01

    Iontophoretic administration of calcium ions into the skin close to the application site of a cold stimulus decreased the threshold of thermoregulatory reactions in hypertensive rats to a greater extent than in normotensive control animals, which may be evidence that the tissues involved in thermoregulatory reactions to cold have a greater sensitivity to calcium in hypertensive rats. The initially earlier onset of vascular and metabolic reactions and the increase in the vascular reaction seen in hypertensive rats became more marked after administration of calcium. Treatment with calcium, increasing the vascular reaction to cooling, facilitates a more marked discrimination between hyper-and normotensive animals in terms of the appearance of the vasoconstrictor reactions of skin blood vessels in response to cold. The effects of the added calcium on cold-dependent reactions depended on the rate of cooling.

  13. The Effect of Calcium Treatment on Pitting Corrosion of Type 316L Austenitic Stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Heon; LeeSoo Chan; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hee San

    2001-01-01

    Pitting in chloride containing aqueous solution occurs mainly on manganese sulphide. Adding a slight amount of Ca as an alloying element prevents the MnS formation, since Ca is a stronger sulphide former than Mn. In this work, calcium treated Type 316L austenitic stainless steels have been investigated electrochemically to evaluate the effect of modified inclusions on pitting corrosion. Staircase polarization measurements were performed in 3.5% NaCl solution, where the occurrence of pits in materials caused current spikes. During staircase polarization test, steels with calcium treatment show low and discontinuous current spikes while those without calcium treatment show high and continuous current spikes. The results show that calcium treatment in Ca/S ratio of 1 ∼ 2 leads to an increase in the pitting potential of several hundred mV. A relationship between the calcium treatment and pit initiation sites was described

  14. The effect of fluoride on the serum level of calcium in the rat (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fočak M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fluoride on the calcium level in serum was analyzed in the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. The control group consisted of 10, and the experimental group of 15 animals. In the experimental group, fluoride at a concentration of 3 mg/100 g body weight of rats was intramuscularly injected into the musculus gluteus maximus. The concentration of calcium was measured by the CPC method. The average serum calcium concentration was 2.46 mmol/l, with female rats having higher values of serum calcium than male rats. Fluoride caused the reduction of calcium concentration in serum (p<0.05; the reduction was significantly expressed in female rats (p<0.000.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of nutritional intervention in elderly subjects after hip fracture. A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wyers, C. E.; Reijven, P. L. M.; Evers, S. M. A. A.; Willems, P. C.; Heyligers, I. C.; Verburg, A. D.; van Helden, S.; Dagnelie, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hip fracture patients can benefit from nutritional supplementation during their recovery. Up to now, cost-effectiveness evaluation of nutritional intervention in these patients has not been performed. Costs of nutritional intervention are relatively low as compared with medical costs. Cost-effectiveness evaluation shows that nutritional intervention is likely to be cost-effective. Introduction Previous research on the effect of nutritional intervention on clinical outcome in hip fract...

  16. Effects of calcium-fortified ice cream on markers of bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, L; van der Hee, R M; Berry, M; Watson, C; Miret, S; Wilkinson, J; Bradburn, M; Eastell, R

    2011-10-01

    Premenopausal women with low calcium intakes consumed calcium-fortified ice cream daily for 28 days. Bone markers, NTX, CTX and PTH decreased significantly by 7 days, with some evidence of a calcium dose-dependent effect. Bone marker responses were observed within 1 h of consuming ice cream. Body weight remained constant over 28 days. Dietary calcium is important for lifelong bone health. Milk is a good source of bioavailable calcium, but consumption has declined among young adults. The aims were to determine whether calcium-fortified ice cream, a palatable source of calcium, produces significant, sustainable changes in bone turnover markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in premenopausal women with calcium intake below recommended UK levels. Eighty women, ages 20-39 years (calcium intake ice cream containing 96, 244, 459 or 676 mg calcium daily for 28 days. Urinary NTX/Cr, serum CTX, PINP, 1,25D and PTH were measured (baseline, days 1, 7 and 28). Acute changes in CTX and PTH were measured over 5 h (n = 29 women). There were significant mean decreases by 7 days in NTX/Cr, CTX, PTH and 1,25D and increases in PINP (one sample t tests), with a significant dose-dependent effect on CTX analysis of covariance. Only CTX remained suppressed at 28 days. Serum CTX and PTH decreased within 1 h. Body weight did not change significantly between baseline and 28 days. Daily consumption of calcium-fortified ice cream by premenopausal women may significantly reduce levels of the bone resorption marker serum CTX, without stimulating weight gain. The ice cream could be incorporated into the diet to replace low-calcium snacks and thus help individuals with habitually low calcium intakes to meet recommended intakes. The 244 mg calcium preparation would provide more than a quarter of the UK daily recommended nutrient intake for premenopausal women.

  17. Nutritional regulation of homocysteine: effects of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Moreiras, G

    2001-10-01

    Homocysteine plays a critical regulation role at the intersection of two metabolic pathways: remethylation and transsulfuration. Both are nutritionally regulated per se, and this issue constitutes the main goal of the present short review. In addition, several factors (i.e., drugs) may change the nutritional modulation, altering the normal functioning of the methionine/methylation cycle. The metabolism of a substrate is closely linked to that of it cofactors: in the case of homocysteine, there are three vitamins acting as cofactors or coenzymes: B6, B12 and folate. Vitamin B6 is involved in the formation of cystathionine from homocysteine (transsulfuration pathway). It is also critical for the formation of 5,10-methylentetrahydrofolate from tetrahydrofolate (folic acid derivatives), and therefore is closely related to the metabolism of folate. The latter is in conjunction with vitamin B12 involved in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. This reaction is B12-dependent. Different animal and human studies have proved the existence of a relation between vitamin status and homocysteine. Other dietary components as methionine content, riboflavin, alcohol or coffee consumption are being investigated in relation to homocysteine concentration. Drugs may interfere with the utilization of nutrients. This fact may be of special importance for vitamins (i.e., folate). Administration of drugs in populations with adequate vitamin intake is not usually a problem, but the existence of risk groups (the elderly, adolescents, smokers, dieters, etc.) may lead to specific vitamin deficiencies which may lead to elevated homocysteine. The case of folate is analysed since this vitamin shows the most reported number of interactions with drugs.

  18. Modification by food of the calcium absorbability and physicochemical effects of calcium citrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The food-calcium (Ca) interaction was examined in 12 healthy women (mean age 38 years) maintained on a constant metabolic diet. They underwent three phases of study, comprised of control (no Ca), Ca citrate (1 g Ca/day) during meals, and Ca citrate separately from meals. Each phase was 7 days in length and two 24-hour urine samples were collected on days 6 and 7. The rise from the control phase in urinary Ca was slightly more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals than without (68 and 62%, respectively). The fall in urinary phosphorus was equivalent at about 25% between Ca citrate phases. The rise in urinary citrate and pH and the decline in urinary ammonium were more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals; however, the changes were small or nonsignificant. The urinary saturation of Ca oxalate, brushite or monosodium urate did not differ between the two Ca citrate phases. There was a nonsignificant rise in serum iron during Ca citrate phases. The results suggest that: 1) dissolution and absorption of Ca citrate might be slightly greater when given with food than without; 2) that the ability of Ca citrate to attenuate crystallization of stone-forming Ca salts in urine is not modified by food; and 3) that Ca citrate may not impair iron absorption from food.

  19. Effect of nutrition counselling on client perceptions and eating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie L; Nasser, Roseann; Comfort, Brenda L Webster; Larsen, Derrick K

    2006-01-01

    Demonstrating the effectiveness of nutrition counselling is imperative, not only to promote successful patient outcomes but also to secure funding. This study therefore assessed the value and effectiveness of nutrition counselling. To measure clients' perceptions of the value of inpatient counselling, the Clients' Perceptions about Nutrition Counselling (CPNC) instrument was administered to 164 clients one week after hospital discharge. To determine if inpatient nutrition counselling is effective in promoting changes in eating behaviours, the same clients were asked to complete the Health Habits and History Questionnaire (HHHQ) before counselling and then at three and six months following discharge. The majority of respondents who completed the CPNC indicated that the information provided by the dietitian was useful, that the dietitian was knowledgeable, and that they knew what to eat after speaking with the dietitian and had changed their diet according to the recommendations. From the HHHQ, respondents counselled for heart health diet modifications (n = 45) significantly lowered their intake of energy (p<0.002), fat, saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol (all p<0.001) over time. These results suggest that inpatient nutrition counselling is perceived as valuable and results in positive dietary behaviours, the majority of which are sustained at six months.

  20. Nutritional conditioning : The effect of fasting on drug metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, L.A.

    2018-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis focus on the effect of fasting, as nutritional modulator, on drug metabolism. Drug metabolism varies considerably between and within patients, which may result in treatment failure or, conversely, in untoward side effects. Many factors contribute to the

  1. Nutritional Intervention Using Nutrition Care Process in a Malnourished Patient with Chemotherapy Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hye-Ok; Lee, Jung-Joo

    2014-01-01

    In this case study, the process of nutritional diagnosis and intervention conducted at a hospital on a malnourished patient who underwent treatment for a chronic illness (chemotherapy for cancer treatment) was recorded. The patient received his first round of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, and then a second round after the cancer metastasized to the liver. The patient was malnourished and had experienced weight loss (17% loss in the most recent 3 months) due to side effects of chemothera...

  2. The Effects of a Nutritional Intervention on the Nutritional Knowledge of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste-Williams, Lyndsey; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Banerjee, Priya; Boyle, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a nutritional program on the nutritional knowledge of children and adolescents with visual impairments. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control groups and that age and vision had no effect on the acquisition of…

  3. Promoting sustainable potato agriculture in the Andean region by supplemental calcium nutrition and breeding for frost tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative research in Peru sought to promote sustainable potato production and, mitigate adverse impacts of climate change through two approaches: first calcium amendments to increase crop yield and, second to enhance frost tolerance in native potatoes. All the multi-year, multi-location experim...

  4. Effect of root canal filling materials containing calcium hydroxide on the alkalinity of root dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehle, H J; Spiess, V; Heinecke, A; Müller, H P

    1995-08-01

    The effect of root canal filling pastes containing calcium oxide resp. calcium hydroxide on the alkalinity of extracted human teeth was investigated using a colour indicator (cresol red). An aqueous suspension of calcium hydroxide (Pulpdent), which is normally used for temporary root canal filling, most consistently produced alkalinity. Removal of the smear layer following instrumentation of the root canal led to increased proportion of alkaline-positive spots in dentinal locations distant from the canal. A clearly smaller effect was found with a calcium salicylate cement (Sealapex) and an oil-paste (Gangraena Merz), both of which are available for definite root canal fillings. Following removal of the smear layer, these hard-setting preparations caused moderate alkalinity in dentin adjacent to the canal but no effect was observed in locations more distant from the canal. Neither at locations adjacent to nor distant from the root canal was alkalinity found when another calcium salicylate cement (Apexit) was used. Apparently the release of hydroxyl ions into root dentin from calcium hydroxide containing root canal filling materials is not solely influenced by the absolute amount of calcium hydroxide, but also depends on other ingredients which variably inhibit the release of these ions.

  5. Inhibition effect of calcium hydroxide point and chlorhexidine point on root canal bacteria of necrosis teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Leonard Je

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium Hydroxide point and Chlorhexidine point are new drugs for eliminating bacteria in the root canal. The points slowly and controly realease Calcium Hydroxide and Chlorhexidine into root canal. The purpose of the study was to determined the effectivity of Calcium hydroxide point (Calcium hydroxide plus point and Chlorhexidine point in eleminating the root canal bacteria of nescrosis teeth. In this study 14 subjects were divided into 2 groups. The first group was treated with Calcium hydroxide point and the second was treated with Chlorhexidine poin. The bacteriological sampling were measured with spectrofotometry. The Paired T Test analysis (before and after showed significant difference between the first and second group. The Independent T Test which analysed the effectivity of both groups had not showed significant difference. Although there was no significant difference in statistical test, the result of second group eliminate more bacteria than the first group. The present finding indicated that the use of Chlorhexidine point was better than Calcium hydroxide point in seven days period. The conclusion is Chlorhexidine point and Calcium hydroxide point as root canal medicament effectively eliminate root canal bacteria of necrosis teeth.

  6. Polyelectrolyte addition effect on the properties of setting hydraulic cements based on calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Luis A. dos; Oliveira, Luci C. de; Rigo, Eliana C.S.; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega; Carrodeguas, Raul Gracia

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the effects of the addition of some poly electrolytes (sodium alginate and poly acrylic acid) on the solubility, crystalline phases, pH and mechanical strength under compression of three calcium phosphate cements were studied. (author)

  7. Empowering Esrd Patients For Assisted Self Nutritional Care: A Simple But Effective Intervention For Improving Nutritional Status Of Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Pratim; Biswas, Sumanta; Nandy, Rumpa; Nandy, AR

    2012-01-01

    Protein energy wasting (PEW) is a prevalent problem among hemodialysis patients. Lack of adherence to dietary principle based conventional diet charts often fail to satisfy the nutritional requirements of the patients. We studied the effect of simple nutritional training and empowerment of the patients to formulate their own dietary menu in nutritional parameters of hemodialysis patients in 68 stable non diabetic End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who are on maintenance hemodialysis. The...

  8. Effects of gastrin on calcium homeostasis in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, P.; Gagnemo-Persson, R.; Orberg, J.; Chen, D.; Hakanson, R. (University of Lund (Sweden))

    1991-09-01

    As in the rat, gastrin and an extract of the acid-producing part of the stomach (proventriculus) were found to lower the blood Ca2+ concentration in the chicken. Furthermore, gastrin enhanced the uptake of 45Ca into the femur. It has been suggested previously that gastrin causes hypocalcemia in the rat by releasing gastrocalcin, a hypothetical hormone thought to reside in the acid-producing part of the stomach. The results of the present study in the chicken are in agreement with this concept. Not only exogenous, but also endogenous gastrin lowered blood calcium levels. Thus, the serum gastrin concentration was increased in response to ranitidine-evoked blockade of the gastric acid output; the rise in gastrin was associated with a transient drop in blood calcium. Also, food intake produced a rise in the serum gastrin concentration and a transient drop in blood calcium. However, injection of ranitidine or food intake in proventriclectomized (acid-producing part of the stomach extirpated) chickens failed to lower blood calcium, supporting the view that the gastrin-evoked hypocalcemia depends upon an agent in the gastric (proventriculus) mucosa. The authors suggest that endogenous and exogenous gastrin evoke hypocalcemia in the chicken by the same mechanism as that which has been postulated in the rat, i.e. by mobilization of the candidate hormone gastrocalcin from endocrine cells in the acid-producing gastric mucosa.

  9. The effects of different irrigation protocols on removing calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies of different irrigation protocols and solutions in the removal of calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2). Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight maxillary incisors were used. Root canals were prepared and filled with Ca(OH)2. Two control (n = 4) and six experimental groups (n ...

  10. The Effects Of Calcium On Dietary Phosphorus Uptake By Hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias gariepinus x Heterobranchus bidorsalis) fry was studied. Three hundred 1.25 ± 0.02 g hatchery-bred advanced fry were randomly stocked in 15 plastic baths (25 litre capacity) with fresh spring water (8.25 mg/l calcium) at 20 fish per ...

  11. Effects of calcium antagonists on hypertension and diastolic function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium antagonists are known to decrease blood pressure acutely and chronically in hypertensive patients with hypertensive heart disease, and also to improve their systolic function. However, disorders of diastolic function may occur early in hypertensive heart disease. The improvement of diastolic function by nifedipine ...

  12. Mechanistic Evaluation of the Effect of Calcium Carbide Waste on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    assessed using the Marshall method of mix design. ... KEYWORDS: Calcium Carbide Waste, Asphalt, Portland cement, Mineral Filler, Mechanical Properties. ... filling materials. Different researchers have investigated the use of CCW in concrete works (Nattapong et al., 2010, Heni et al., 2014,. Hongfang et al., 2015) and soil ...

  13. The Effect of Calcium Phosphate‑containing Desensitizing Agent on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-31

    Jan 31, 2016 ... tubules and decrease the permeability of dentin.[6-11]. Calcium-containing desensitizing pastes should ... and favorable reduction in dentin permeability in the oral environment.[14,15] Teethmate Desensitizer ... silicon carbide paper under running water for 60 s to create a standard smear layer formation.

  14. Skeletal effects of nutrients and nutraceuticals, beyond calcium and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, J W

    2013-03-01

    There is a need to understand the role of nutrition, beyond calcium and vitamin D, in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in adults. Results regarding soy compounds on bone density and bone turnover are inconclusive perhaps due to differences in dose and composition or in study population characteristics. The skeletal benefit of black cohosh and red clover are unknown. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) use may benefit elderly individuals with low serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels, but even in this group, there are inconsistent benefits to bone density (BMD). Higher fruit and vegetable intakes may relate to higher BMD. The skeletal benefit of flavonoids, carotenoids, omega-3-fatty acids, and vitamins A, C, E and K are limited to observational data or a few clinical trials, in some cases investigating pharmacologic doses. Given limited data, it would be better to get these nutrients from fruits and vegetables. Potassium bicarbonate may improve calcium homeostasis but with little impact on bone loss. High homocysteine may relate to fracture risk, but the skeletal benefit of each B vitamin is unclear. Magnesium supplementation is likely only required in persons with low magnesium levels. Data are very limited for the role of nutritional levels of boron, strontium, silicon and phosphorus in bone health. A nutrient rich diet with adequate fruits and vegetables will generally meet skeletal needs in healthy individuals. For most healthy adults, supplementation with nutrients other than calcium and vitamin D may not be required, except in those with chronic disease and the frail elderly.

  15. Fouling control mechanisms of demineralized water backwash: Reduction of charge screening and calcium bridging effects

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng

    2011-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the ionic environment on the charge of colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes (charge screening effect) and the calcium adsorption/bridging on new and fouled membranes (calcium bridging effect) by measuring the zeta potentials of membranes and colloidal NOM. Fouling experiments were conducted with natural water to determine whether the reduction of the charge screening effect and/or calcium bridging effect by backwashing with demineralized water can explain the observed reduction in fouling. Results show that the charge of both membranes and NOM, as measured by the zeta potential, became more negative at a lower pH and a lower concentration of electrolytes, in particular, divalent electrolytes. In addition, calcium also adsorbed onto the membranes, and consequently bridged colloidal NOM and membranes via binding with functional groups. The charge screening effect could be eliminated by flushing NOM and membranes with demineralized water, since a cation-free environment was established. However, only a limited amount of the calcium bridging connection was removed with demineralized water backwashes, so the calcium bridging effect mostly could not be eliminated. As demineralized water backwash was found to be effective in fouling control, it can be concluded that the reduction of the charge screening is the dominant mechanism for this. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Nutritional Influence on Epigenetic Marks and Effect on Livestock Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Brenda M; Murdoch, Gordon K; Greenwood, Sabrina; McKay, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition represents one of the greatest environmental determinants of an individual's health. While nutrient quantity and quality impart direct effects, the interaction of nutrition with genetic and epigenetic modifications is often overlooked despite being shown to influence biological variation in mammals. Dissecting complex traits, such as those that are diet or nutrition related, to determine the genetic and epigenetic contributions toward a phenotype can be a formidable process. Epigenetic modifications add another layer of complexity as they do not change the DNA sequence itself but can affect transcription and are important mediators of gene expression and ensuing phenotypic variation. Altered carbohydrate metabolism and rates of fat and protein deposition resulting from diet-induced hypo- or hyper-methylation highlight the capability of nutritional epigenetics to influence livestock commodity quality and quantity. This interaction can yield either products tailored to consumer preference, such as marbling in meat cuts, or potentially increasing productivity and yield both in terms of carcass yield and/or offspring performance. Understanding how these and other desirable phenotypes result from epigenetic mechanisms will facilitate their inducible potential in livestock systems. Here, we discuss the establishment of the epigenome, examples of nutritional mediated alterations of epigenetics and epigenetic effects on livestock production.

  17. [Operational mechanism modification of bone mechanostat in an animal model of nutritional stress: effect of propranolol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintos, Patricia Mabel; Lezón, Christian Esteban; Bozzini, Clarisa; Friedman, Silvia María; Boyer, Patricia Mónica

    2013-01-01

    Propranolol (P) treatment exerts a preventive effect against the detrimental consequences to bone status in mildly chronically food-restricted growing rats (NGR) by an increment in cortical bone and by improving its spatial distribution. To study the effect of beta-blocker on operational mechanism of bone mechanostat in an animal model of nutritional stress. Weanling male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C), C + P (CP), NGR and NGR + P (NGRP). C and CP rats were fed freely with the standard diet. NGR and NGRP rats received, for 4 weeks, 80% of the amount of food consumed by C and CP respectively, the previous day, corrected by body weight. Propranolol (7 mg/kg/day) was injected ip 5 days per week, for four weeks in CP and NGRP rats. C and NGR received saline injections at an identical dosage regimen. Body weight and length were determined during the experimental period. Dietary intake was registered daily. Animals were sacrificed after 4 weeks of food restriction. Immediately, cuadriceps, femur and tibiae from each animal were dissected and weighed, and histomorphometric and mechanical studies were performed. Serum a-CTX, osteocalcin, intact PTH, calcium and phosphorous were determined. Body protein (% prot) was measured in all groups. Food restriction induced detrimental effects on body and femoral growth, load-bearing capacity (Wf), % prot and cuadriceps weight in NGR us. C (p 0.05). However, Wf NGRP vs. NGR was significantly higher (p 0.05). Serum osteocalcin, intact PTH, calcium and phospho- rous showed no significant difference between groups (p > 0.05). These results suggest that modeling increase in bone mass and strength in NGRP rats could be due to an anticatabolic interaction of the beta-blocker propranolol on operational mechanism of bone mechanostat in an animal model of nutritional stress.

  18. Impact of nutrition support on clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness analysis in patients at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Zhu-Ming

    2017-01-01

    was measured by the rate of infectious complication. To control for potential confounding variables, the propensity score method with matching was carried out. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated based on the matched population. RESULTS: We screened 3791 patients, and 440 were recruited......OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of evidence regarding the economic effects of nutrition support in patients at nutritional risk. The aim of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis by comparing an adequate nutrition support cohort with a no-support cohort. METHOD: A prospective...... observational study was performed in the surgical and medical gastroenterology wards. We identified patients at nutritional risk and the provision of nutrition support by the staff, unaware of the risk status, was recorded. Cost data were obtained from each patient's statement of accounts, and effectiveness...

  19. CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: FOCUS ON METABOLIC AND VASCULAR EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Nebieridze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of calcium antagonists widely used in cardiological practice is proved both by placebo-controlled studies and in comparative trials with end-point control. Calcium antagonists are the most effective vasoprotective medicines. In our study we had shown antihypertensive efficacy and ability to improve endothelium function of non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, diltiazem (Altiazem RR. Altiazem RR can be drug of choice in wide profile of patients with arterial hypertension, especially in those with concomitant metabolic abnormalities, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease.

  20. CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: FOCUS ON METABOLIC AND VASCULAR EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Nebieridze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of calcium antagonists widely used in cardiological practice is proved both by placebo-controlled studies and in comparative trials with end-point control. Calcium antagonists are the most effective vasoprotective medicines. In our study we had shown antihypertensive efficacy and ability to improve endothelium function of non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, diltiazem (Altiazem RR. Altiazem RR can be drug of choice in wide profile of patients with arterial hypertension, especially in those with concomitant metabolic abnormalities, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease.

  1. Phosphorus Balance in Adolescent Girls and the Effect of Supplemental Dietary Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorland, Colby J; Martin, Berdine R; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro; Gallant, Kathleen M Hill

    2018-03-01

    There are limited data on phosphorus balance and the effect of dietary calcium supplements on phosphorus balance in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine phosphorus balance and the effect of increasing dietary calcium intake with a supplement on net phosphorus absorption and balance in healthy adolescent girls. This study utilized stored urine, fecal, and diet samples from a previously conducted study that focused on calcium balance. Eleven healthy girls ages 11 to 14 years participated in a randomized crossover study, which consisted of two 3-week periods of a controlled diet with low (817 ± 19.5 mg/d) or high (1418 ± 11.1 mg/d) calcium, separated by a 1-week washout period. Phosphorus intake was controlled at the same level during both placebo and calcium supplementation (1435 ± 23.5 and 1453 ± 28.0 mg/d, respectively, p = 0.611). Mean phosphorus balance was positive by about 200 mg/d and was unaffected by the calcium supplement ( p = 0.826). Urinary phosphorus excretion was lower with the calcium supplement (535 ± 42 versus 649 ± 41 mg/d, p = 0.013), but fecal phosphorus and net phosphorus absorption were not significantly different between placebo and calcium supplement (553 ± 60 versus 678 ± 63 versus mg/d, p = 0.143; 876 ± 62 versus 774 ± 64 mg/d, p = 0.231, respectively). Dietary phosphorus underestimates using a nutrient database compared with the content measured chemically from meal composites by ~40%. These results show that phosphorus balance is positive in girls during adolescent growth and that a calcium dietary supplement to near the current recommended level does not affect phosphorus balance when phosphorus intake is at 1400 mg/d, a typical US intake level. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Clinical effect of calcium hydroxide paste combined with triple antibiotic paste on root canal disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the efficacy in disinfection and pain control of calcium hydroxide paste and triple antibiotic paste (ornidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline used individually or jointly for root canal disinfection. Methods Two hundred and thirty-five patients with chronic apical periodontitis (235 teeth were involved in the present study and divided into 2 groups: fistula group (n=118 and no fistula group (n=117. Each group was then randomly divided into 4 subgroups: calcium hydroxide paste group, triple antibiotic paste group, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste group, and camphor phenol group. After regular root canal preparation, root canals of patients in 4 groups were filled with tiny paper ends impregnated with fore 4 different drugs respectively. Visual analogue scales (VAS of pain were given to the patients with a guide for filling the scale. One week later, both the data of the scales and the effects of root canal disinfection were recorded and analyzed. Results Seven days after treatment, the clinical efficacy of calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste was similar (P>0.05 either in fistula group or in no fistula group, but all better than that of camphor phenol (P<0.05. VAS score analysis showed that, at least on the first 3 days after sealing medicine in the root canal, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste achieved better result of pain control than the other three groups (P<0.05 no matter with or without fistula. Conclusions  Calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste are effective in treatment of chronic apical periodontitis whether with or without fistula. However, the combined use of calcium hydroxide and three antibiotic pastes is better for controlling the pain after root canal preparation than other treatments, which is therefore worthy of clinical application. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.12

  3. Species-Specific Effects of Ant Inhabitants on Bromeliad Nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Z Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Predator activities may lead to the accumulation of nutrients in specific areas of terrestrial habitats where they dispose of prey carcasses. In their feeding sites, predators may increase nutrient availability in the soil and favor plant nutrition and growth. However, the translocation of nutrients from one habitat to another may depend on predator identity and diet, as well as on the amount of prey intake. Here we used isotopic (15N and physiological methods in greenhouse experiments to evaluate the effects of the identity of predatory ants (i.e., the consumption of prey and nest sites on the nutrition and growth of the bromeliad Quesnelia arvensis. We showed that predatory ants with protein-based nutrition (i.e., Odontomachus hastatus, Gnamptogenys moelleri improved the performance of their host bromeliads (i.e., increased foliar N, production of soluble proteins and growth. On the other hand, the contribution of Camponotus crassus for the nutritional status of bromeliads did not differ from bromeliads without ants, possibly because this ant does not have arthropod prey as a preferred food source. Our results show, for the first time, that predatory ants can translocate nutrients from one habitat to another within forests, accumulating nutrients in their feeding sites that become available to bromeliads. Additionally, we highlight that ant contribution to plant nutrition may depend on predator identity and its dietary requirements. Nest debris may be especially important for epiphytic and terrestrial bromeliads in nutrient-poor environments.

  4. Effect of mother support groups on nutritional status in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In tackling the ongoing malnutrition problem in many parts of Kenya, the government has initialized preventive actions such as mother support groups in order to improve health and nutrition among children. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of such intervention. Objective: This study aimed at ...

  5. Computer-Assisted Dieting: Effects of a Randomized Nutrition Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of a computer-assisted dieting intervention (CAD) with and without self-management training on dieting among 55 overweight and obese adults. Methods: Random assignment to a single-session nutrition intervention (CAD-only) or a combined CAD plus self-management group intervention (CADG). Dependent variables were…

  6. Evaluation of nutritional properties and effect of storage conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy-coconut blends were formulated from extracts of soybeans and coconut using different blends or ratios of 90:10; 85:15; 80:20; and 70:30, while 100% Soymilk served as control. The blends were analyzed for nutritional and sensory qualities. The sample blend with the highest sensory scores was used to study the effect ...

  7. Nutritional value and cholesterol-lowering effect of wild lettuce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritive value and cholesterol-lowering effect of wild lettuce (Launaea taxaracifolia) leaf when fed as a source of protein was assessed by using male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) as an index of evaluation. The rats were fed on both methionine supplemented and unsupplemented wild lettuce leaf diets and elicited ...

  8. Elements of effective nutrition education for adults with Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review article highlights the key factors that need consideration in planning an effective nutrition education programme for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in ... Adequate contact time with an educator (> 10 hours), the educator's competence, provision of social support and follow-up intervention are also crucial.

  9. The Effect Of Agricultural Commercialization On The Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of agricultural commercialization on nutritional status of children in cocoa growing households in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. A total of 120 cocoa growing households were randomly selected for the study. Anthropometric measures of 169 children were ...

  10. Effect of Dermestes maculatus on the nutritional qualities of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to assess the effect on nutritional composition of two 'Edible Insects' (Larva of Oryctes boas and Rhynchophorus phoenicis) after infestation by Dermestes maculatus. The study was done over a period of six weeks by subjecting these edible insects to different conditions of storage (using pepper and salt).

  11. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the. Highland Sourveld of Natal. A. van Niekerk* and R. Kernick. Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg 3200, Republic of South Africa. A.W. Lishman. Department of Animal Science, University of Natal, P.O. ...

  12. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution on the nutritional value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution on the nutritional value of two varieties of ripe edible guava (Psidium guajava) fruits harvested from a petroleum hydrocarbon–polluted locality, Umudike, in Egbema were investigated. The results obtained were compared to identical guava fruits from an unpolluted area of ...

  13. Effect of different processing methods on nutritional composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The potentials of Leucaena leucocephala leaf-meal as a supplementary protein in fish feed was evaluated. Leucaena leaves were subjected to two processing methods (sun- drying and boiling) to determine the effect of these treatments on proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors. Five samples of ...

  14. Effect of mother support groups on nutritional status in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Mother support groups may have a beneficial effect on the nutritional status of children under 2 years of age. Cases of severe acute malnutrition seemed to be less prevalent in children whose mothers attend mother support groups. Keywords: Malnutrition, mother support groups, breastfeeding, Kenya.

  15. Effect of germination duration on nutritional and functional properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of germination duration on proximate, minerals, anti-nutritional factors and functional properties of two local sorghum varieties (Girana and Miskr) were investigated. A 2*3*2 full factorial design was used to conduct the experiment. Sorghum varieties were soaked for 24 hours at room temperature and germinated ...

  16. Characterization of a silver-incorporated calcium phosphate film by RBS and its antimicrobial effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, I-H [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, and Atomic-Scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seou1 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, I-S [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, and Atomic-Scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seou1 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Song, J-H [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M-H [Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J-C [Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, G-H [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Chang-Won 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, X-D [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chung, S-M [Implantium Research Center, Seoul 135-879 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    A thin calcium phosphate film was synthesized on both commercially pure Ti and Si wafers by electron beam evaporation of hydroxyapatite as an evaporant with simultaneous Ar ion beam bombardments. Silver was introduced into an ion-beam-assisted deposition of a calcium phosphate thin film for antimicrobial effect. The amount of incorporated silver ions was controlled by immersing calcium-phosphate-coated samples in different AgNO{sub 3} concentrations, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was employed to measure the amounts of substituted silver. The higher concentration of silver in the calcium phosphate film was more effective in reducing the bacteria of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Streptococcus mutans OMZ 65 on contact with respect to controls.

  17. Characterization of a silver-incorporated calcium phosphate film by RBS and its antimicrobial effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, I-H; Lee, I-S; Song, J-H; Lee, M-H; Park, J-C; Lee, G-H; Sun, X-D; Chung, S-M

    2007-01-01

    A thin calcium phosphate film was synthesized on both commercially pure Ti and Si wafers by electron beam evaporation of hydroxyapatite as an evaporant with simultaneous Ar ion beam bombardments. Silver was introduced into an ion-beam-assisted deposition of a calcium phosphate thin film for antimicrobial effect. The amount of incorporated silver ions was controlled by immersing calcium-phosphate-coated samples in different AgNO 3 concentrations, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was employed to measure the amounts of substituted silver. The higher concentration of silver in the calcium phosphate film was more effective in reducing the bacteria of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Streptococcus mutans OMZ 65 on contact with respect to controls

  18. Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as endo intracanal dressing on Streptococcus viridans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Zubaidah

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium hydroxide had been used as the intra-canal dressing in endodontic treatment due to its high alkaline and antimicrobial capacity. It can also dissolve the necrotic tissue, prevent dental root resorbtion and regenerate a new hard tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of calcium hydroxide which had the highest antimicrobial effect on Streptococcus viridans. Samples were divided into 5 groups; each group consisted of 8 samples with different concentration of calcium hydroxide. Group I: 50%, group II: 55, Group III: 60%, Group IV: 65%, Group V: 70%. The antimicrobial testing was performed using diffusion method against Streptococcus viridans. The result of susceptibility test was showed by the inhibition zone diameter which measured with caliper (in millimeter. We analyzed the data using One-Way ANOVA test with significant difference 0.05 and subsequently LSD test. The study showed that calcium hydroxide with concentration 60% has the highest antimicrobial effect.

  19. Effects of intensive nutrition education on nutritional status and quality of life among postgastrectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ok; Han, So Ra; Choi, Sung Il; Lee, Jung Joo; Kim, Sang Hyun; Ahn, Hong Seok; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of 3 months of intensive education (IE) after hospital discharge compared to conventional education (CE) on nutritional status and quality of diet and life among South Korean gastrectomy patients. The study was conducted among 53 hospitalized gastrectomy in-patients (IE group, n = 28; CE group, n = 25) at Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong. Baseline data were collected from electronic medical records and additional information was gathered via anthropometric measurements, assessment of nutritional status through a patient-generated, subjective global assessment (PG-SGA), diet assessment, and measures of self-efficacy and satisfaction with meals for 3 months following hospital discharge. Total PG-SGA scores were significantly higher in the CE group than in the IE group at 3-week post-discharge (5.2 in the IE group vs. 10.4 in the CE group, P Nutritional status among gastrectomy patients in the IE group improved. Relative to the CE control, the IE group demonstrated improved self-efficacy and meal satisfaction 3-week post-discharge.

  20. Effect of Nutrition Intervention Using a General Nutrition Course for Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eun-Jeong; Caine-Bish, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of implementing nutrition intervention using a general nutrition class to promote consumption of fruits and vegetables in college students. Design: 3-day food records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Setting: A midwestern university. Participants: 80 college…

  1. Feed the Alien! The Effects of a Nutrition Instruction Game on Children's Nutritional Knowledge and Food Intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Roel C. J.; van den Broek, Nina; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Otten, Roy; Ruiter, Emilie L. M.; Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Serious games are a promising venue to increase children's nutritional knowledge in an entertaining format. The aim of this study was to test the short-term effectiveness of the Alien Health Game, a videogame designed to teach elementary school children about nutrition and healthy food

  2. Calcium binding to calmodulin by molecular dynamics with effective polarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohagen, Miriam; Lepšík, Martin; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 22 (2014), s. 3964-3969 ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016; GA MŠk LH12001 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : EF-hand motif * free energy calculations * charge scaling * calcium -binding protein * umbrella sampling Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 7.458, year: 2014

  3. Calcium hydroxide as low cost adsorbent for the effective removal of indigo carmine dye in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimmasandra Narayan Ramesh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of indigo carmine dye onto calcium hydroxide was investigated in this work. The variation in the pH, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, duration and the temperature was evaluated. Adsorption of indigo carmine dye onto calcium hydroxide was effective at pH 12 (50 min and follows Langmuir-type isotherm behaviour. The adsorption process follows pseudo-second order rate kinetics. Enthalpy, entropy, free energy and the activation energy parameters have been reported.

  4. Effects of structural modification of calcium spirulan, a sulfated polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis, on antiviral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J B; Srisomporn, P; Hayashi, K; Tanaka, T; Sankawa, U; Hayashi, T

    2001-01-01

    Calcium ion binding with the anionic part of a molecule was replaced with various metal cations and their inhibitory effects on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 were evaluated. Replacement of calcium ion with sodium and potassium ions maintained the antiviral activity while divalent and trivalent metal cations reduced the activity. Depolymerization of sodium spirulan with hydrogen peroxide decreased in antiviral activity as its molecular weight decreased.

  5. Study of the effect of Chinese medicine on calcium absorption with isotopic tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.M.; Mao, X.Y.; Feng, W.Y.; OY, H.; Wang, M.; Xu, D.D.; Zhang, F.; Chai, Z.F.

    2005-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the effect of Chinese medicine on calcium absorption. Female Wistar rats, 3 months old, weighing 250-275 g, were randomly divided into ten groups of 5 rats each. The rats were individually housed in stainless steel metabolic cages in an environmentally controlled room (temperature, 20 degree C; relative humidity, 30%-60%; reversed light : dark cycle, 12:12 hr). Isotopic tracer technique was conducted to study the absorption of calcium acetate and calcium acetate + Chinese medicine in rats. The two calcium supplements were irradiated in a nuclear reactor for 4.95 d at neutron flux of φ=6.1 x 10 13 n/cm 2 ·s. Then they were prepared from concentrated 47 Ca solution (10 mg/ml) with cyclodextrin. The animals received oral doses of 25 mg calcium as calcium acetate or calcium acetate + Chinese medicine via an intragastric gavage. The animals were fasted overnight preceding and food was resumed 3 hrs after the gavage. Blood, heart, lung, liver, spleen, stomach, kidney, small intestine, large intestine and femur samples of the rats were taken upon sacrifice at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, 120, 168 hrs after dosing and assayed for 47 Ca. Urine and feces samples were collected separately after dosing and assayed for 47 Ca. The radioactivity of the samples was counted with a high pure Ge detector and a PC-based Ortec MCA. Its energy resolution was l.85 keV at 1332.5 keV and the relative detection efficiency was 30 %. The dead time was controlled within 10 % to reduce the count loss. Weighed 47 CaCO 3 was used as reference materials. A big distance between the samples and detector was kept to overcome the geometric effect caused by different shape and size of the samples. The gamma energy spectra were analyzed with a multipurpose gamma ray spectrum analysis software package. The parameters were evaluated by means of general linear model, using analysis of covariance with SAS 6.12 for Windows. The results showed that peroral 47 Ca was

  6. Effect of cationic and anionic surfactants on the application of calcium carbonate nanoparticles in paper coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoum, Ahmed; Rahier, Hubert; Abou-Zaied, Ragab Esmail; Rehan, Mohamed; Dufour, Thierry; Hill, Gavin; Dufresne, Alain

    2014-02-26

    Modification of calcium carbonate particles with surfactant significantly improves the properties of the calcium carbonate coating on paper. In this study, unmodified and CTAB (hexadecyltetramethylammonium bromide)- and oleate-modified calcium carbonate nanoparticles were prepared using the wet carbonation technique for paper coating. CTAB (cationic surfactant) and sodium oleate (anionic surfactant) were used to modify the size, morphology, and surface properties of the precipitated nanoparticles. The obtained particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Coating colors were formulated from the prepared unmodified and modified calcium carbonates and examined by creating a thin coating layer on reference paper. The effect of calcium carbonate particle size and surface modification on paper properties, such as coating thickness, coating weight, surface roughness, air permeability, brightness, whiteness, opacity, and hydrophobicity, were investigated and compared with commercial ground (GCC) calcium carbonate-coated papers. The results show that the obtained calcium carbonate nanoparticles are in the calcite phase. The morphology of the prepared calcium carbonate nanoparticles is rhombohedral, and the average particle diameter is less than 100 nm. Compared to commercial GCC, the use of unmodified and CTAB- and oleate-modified calcium carbonate nanoparticles in paper coating improves the properties of paper. The highest measured paper properties were observed for paper coated with oleate-modifed nanoparticles, where an increase in smoothness (decrease in paper roughness) (+23%), brightness (+1.3%), whiteness (+2.8%), and opacity (+2.3%) and a decrease in air permeability (-26%) was obtained with 25% less coat weight. The water contact angle at a drop age time of 10 min was about 112° for the paper

  7. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete's Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-09-07

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20-32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12-19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete's eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete's eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets.

  8. Effects of calcium and magnesium acetates on tissue distribution of carcinogenic doses of calcium chloride in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzak, K.S.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that magnesium, unlike calcium, prevents cadmium carcinogenesis at the subcutaneous injection site, and that neither magnesium nor calcium has any significant influence on the production of testicular tumors by cadmium in rats. The present investigation attempts to disclose the nature of those different effects by comparing the results of administration of both physiological metals on the uptake and distribution of carcinogenic doses of cadmium in rats. Male Wistar rats received a single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 109 CdCl 2 (0.02 mmol/kg or 0.04 mmol/kg) and s.c. injections (one daily) of calcium acetate (CaAcet; 0.16 mmol/kg), or magnesium acetate (MgAcet; 4 mmol/kg) or saline on the day before, the day of and the day after the 109 CdCl 2 dosing. The concentration of cadmium in tissues was determined by gamma-counting on the 4th, the 15th and the 45th day after 109 CdCl 2 injection. The concentration of cadmium in tissues on day 4 was ranked as follows: liver > kidney > the injection site skin > pancreas > spleen > heart > lung > distant skin > testes > blood. Administration of CaAcet increased by over 20% and that of MgAcet decreased by over 30% the initial uptake of both cadmium doses at the injection site. The MgAcet may prevent cadmium carcinogenesis by inhiniting the uptake of cadmium by the injection site tissues. In the testis and in all other tissues investigated, except kidney, the effects of the physiological metals were reversed, CaAcet and MgAcet tended to increase the uptake of cadmium. CaAcet exerted no noticeable effects on the uptake of cadmium by the kidney. The observed results of CaAcet and MgAcet administration on the concentration of cadmium in distal tissues seem to depend on the alterations in cadmium uptake at the injection site. (author)

  9. Effects of soil calcium and aluminum on the physiology of balsam fir and red spruce saplings in northern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Boyce; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Paula F. Murakami

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) nutrition on the foliar physiology of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] in northern New England, USA. At the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (NH, USA), spruce and fir saplings were sampled from control, Al-, and Ca-supplemented...

  10. Fermentation of calcium-fortified soymilk with Lactobacillus: effects on calcium solubility, isoflavone conversion, and production of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, A L; Shah, N P; Wilcox, G; Walker, K Z; Stojanovska, L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance calcium solubility and bioavailability from calcium-fortified soymilk by fermentation with 7 strains of Lactobacillus, namely, L. acidophilus ATCC 4962, ATCC33200, ATCC 4356, ATCC 4461, L. casei ASCC 290, L. plantarum ASCC 276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. The parameters that were used are viability, pH, calcium solubility, organic acid, and biologically active isoflavone aglycone content. Calcium-fortified soymilk made from soy protein isolate was inoculated with these probiotic strains, incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C, then stored for 14 d at 4 degrees C. Soluble calcium was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). Organic acids and bioactive isoflavone aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein, were measured using HPLC. Viability of the strains in the fermented calcium-fortified soymilk was > 8.5 log(10) CFU/g after 24 h fermentation and this was maintained for 14-d storage at 4 degrees C. After 24 h, there was a significant increase (P casei ASCC 290 demonstrated the highest increase with 89.3% and 87.0% soluble calcium after 24 h, respectively. The increase in calcium solubility observed was related to lowered pH associated with production of lactic and acetic acids. Fermentation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the level of conversion of isoflavones into biologically active aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein. Our results show that fermenting calcium-fortified soymilk with the selected probiotics can potentially enhance the calcium bioavailability of calcium-fortified soymilk due to increased calcium solubility and bioactive isoflavone aglycone enrichment.

  11. Nutritional shortage augments cisplatin-effects on murine melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, F; Pereira, G J; Jasiulionis, M G; Bincoletto, C; Smaili, S S

    2018-02-01

    Melanoma incidence increases every year worldwide and is responsible for 80% of skin cancer deaths. Due to its metastatic potential and resistance to almost any treatments such as chemo, radio, immune and targeted-therapy, the patients still have a poor prognosis, especially at metastatic stage. Considering that, it is crucial to find new therapeutic approaches to overcome melanoma resistance. Here we investigated the effect of cisplatin (CDDP), one of the chemotherapeutic agents used for melanoma treatment, in association with nutritional deprivation in murine melanoma cell lines. Cell death and autophagy were evaluated after the treatment with cisplatin, nutritional deprivation and its association using an in vitro model of murine melanocytes malignant transformation to metastatic melanoma. Our results showed that nutritional deprivation augmented cell death induced by cisplatin in melanoma cells, especially at the metastatic subtype, with slight effects on melanocytes. Mechanistic studies revealed that although autophagy was present at high levels in basal conditions in melanoma cells, was not essential for cell death process that involved mitochondrial damage, reactive oxygen species production and possible glycolysis inhibition. In conclusion, nutritional shortage in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs as cisplatin can be a valuable new therapeutic strategy to overcome melanoma resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium Chloride in Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Solutions with and without Added Cysteine: Compatibility Studies Using Laser and Micro-Flow Imaging Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Robert K.; Christensen, J. Mark; Alshahrani, Sultan M.; Mohamed, Sumeia M.; Clark, Sara M.; Nason, Jeffrey A.; Wu, Ying Xing

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of compatibility of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and phosphates have not included particle counts in the range specified by the United States Pharmacopeia. Micro-flow imaging techniques have been shown to be comparable to light obscuration when determining particle count and size in pharmaceutical solutions. Objective The purpose of this study was to do compatibility testing for parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions containing CaCl2 using dynamic light scattering and micro-flow imaging techniques. Methods Solutions containing TrophAmine (Braun Medical Inc, Irvine, CA), CaCl2, and sodium phosphate (NaPhos) were compounded with and without cysteine. All solutions contained standard additives to neonatal PN solutions including dextrose, trace metals, and electrolytes. Control solutions contained no calcium or phosphate. Solutions were analyzed for particle size and particle count. Means of Z-average particle size and particle counts of controls were determined. Study solutions were compared to controls and United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Chapter 788 guidelines. The maximum amount of Phos that was compatible in solutions that contained at least 10 mmol/L of Ca in 2.5% amino acids (AA) was determined. Compatibility of these solutions was verified by performing analyses of 5 repeats of these solutions. Microscopic analyses of the repeats were also performed. Results Amounts of CaCl2 and NaPhos that were compatible in solutions containing 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, and 3% AA were determined. The maximum amount of NaPhos that could be added to TrophAmine solutions of > = 2.5% AA containing at least 10 mmol/L of CaCl2 was 7.5 mmol/L. Adding 50 mg/dL of cysteine increased the amount of NaPhos that could be added to solutions containing 10 mmol/L of CaCl2 to 10 mmol/L. Conclusion Calcium chloride can be added to neonatal PN solutions containing NaPhos in concentrations that can potentially provide an intravenous intake of adequate amounts of calcium and phosphorus

  13. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design: A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg calcium versus a single serving of calcium carbonate powder (one packet of powder=1,000 mg calcium was performed in healthy women aged between 25 and 45. All subjects were on a calcium-restricted diet 7 days prior to testing and fasted for 12 h before being evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of the test agents. Blood measurements for total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone were performed and adverse events were monitored. Results: Twenty-three women were evaluable with a mean age of 33.2±8.71. Results showed that administration of a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder resulted in greater absorption in total and ionized calcium versus a single serving of calcium citrate tablets at 4 h (4.25±0.21 vs. 4.16±0.16, p=0.001. There were minimal side effects and no reported serious adverse events. Conclusions: This study shows that a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder is more bioavailable than a single serving of calcium citrate tablets. This may be beneficial for long-term compliance.

  14. The effect of sodium bicarbonate upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Vivian Barbosa; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria; Tiselius, Hans-Göran; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral sodium bicarbonate (NaBic) supplementation upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers (CSFs). Sixteen adult calcium stone formers with hypocitraturia were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover protocol using 60 mEq/day of NaBic during 3 days compared to the same period and doses of potassium citrate (KCit) supplementation. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and during the third day of each alkali salt. NaBic, similarly to KCit supplementation, led to an equivalent and significant increase in urinary citrate and pH. Compared to baseline, NaBic led to a significant increase in sodium excretion without concomitant increases in urinary calcium excretion, whereas KCit induced a significant increase in potassium excretion coupled with a significant reduction in urinary calcium. Although NaBic and KCit both reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation (CaOxSS) significantly vs baseline, KCit reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation significantly further vs NaBic. Both KCit and NaBic significantly reduced urinary phosphate and increased calcium phosphate supersaturation (CaPSS) compared to baseline. Finally, a significantly higher sodium urate supersaturation (NaUrSS) was observed after the use of the 2 drugs. This short-term study suggests that NaBic represents an effective alternative for the treatment of hypocitraturic calcium oxalate stone formers who cannot tolerate or afford the cost of KCit. In view of the increased sodium urate supersaturation, patients with pure uric acid stones and high urate excretion may be less suited for treatment with NaBic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to lactose and increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention (ID 668) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to lactose and increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member...... States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is lactose. The Panel considers that lactose is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “calcium absorption”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. The Panel notes...... between the consumption of lactose and an increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention....

  16. Arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus by affecting transmembrane flow of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenying; Yin, Yongqiang; Wang, Zengyong; Fang, Runping; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo'an

    2013-12-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan extract from Arctium lappa (L.), exhibits anti-inflammation, antioxidation, vasodilator effects, etc. However, the effects of arctigenin on bronchus relaxation are not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate how arctigenin regulates bronchus tone and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) flow. Trachea strips of guinea pigs were prepared for testing the relaxation effect of arctigenin to acetylcholine, histamine, KCl, and CaCl2, respectively. Furthermore, L-type calcium channel currents were detected by patch-clamp, and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was detected by confocal microscopy. The results showed that arctigenin exhibited relaxation effect on tracheae to different constrictors, and this was related to decreasing cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx partly through L-type calcium channel as well as promoting Ca(2+) efflux. In summary, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms by which arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus and suggests its potential use for airway disease therapy.

  17. [Efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and effects on quality of life of nutritional supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Candela, C; Cantón Blanco, A; Luengo Pérez, L M; Fuster, G Olveira

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the main results and conclusions presented in the Symposium "Nutritional supplementation: evidences and experiences" that took place in the XXIIIrd SENPE Congress (2008). Protein energy malnutrition, that can affect 30-50% of hospitalized patients, increases both time of hospitalization and costs of medical care of this kind of patients. There is a lot of scientific evidences demonstrating that the use of nutritional supplementation improves nutritional status or prevents malnutrition in those patients who do not meet their nutritional needs with a conventional diet or an adapted one with no replacing intake from normal food. This is strengthened by the results that demonstrate the rol of nutritional supplements improving nutritional and functional parameters. Current bibliographic reviews focused on certain clinical frameworks (i.g. geriatrics, oncology), prove that nutritional supplements reduce complications related to pathology and to nutritional status, and also reduce length of hospitalization and mortality. More studies regarding to efficacy of oral nutritional supplements are needed. These studies should be carried out with a period of follow-up longer than the current published studies have. As well as effective, nutritional supplements become a save therapeutic intervention with no important adverse events that, according to bibliography, improve patient's functionality and quality of life. It is worth mentioning that nutritional supplements can be effective on certain kind of patients, for instance, malnourished elderly or elderly in risk of malnourishment, and hospitalized surgical patients. Scientific literature refers that it is necessary to carry out more studies, with an accurate methodology, which assess the effect of nutritional supplements on quality of life and its cost-effectiveness on malnourished patients regarding specific clinical situations. That would allow physicians to make clinical decisions based on evidences

  18. [Effects of tannins in animal nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendarp, H

    2006-07-01

    Tannins are watersoluble plant polyphenols that precipitate proteins. According to their chemical structure they can be divided into condensed tannins and hydrolysable tannins. Altogether, tannins are reported to have various physiological effects like anti-irritant, antisecretolytic, antiphlogistic, antimicrobial and antiparasitic effects. Phytotherapeutically tannin-containing plants are used to treat nonspecific diarrhoea, inflammations of mouth and throat and slightly injured skins. Studies with ruminants have also demonstrated that the denaturing properties of tannins can possibly be used to improve protein supply to the small intestine. Besides anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins have been observed in sheep and goats. On the other hand high tannin concentrations resulted in reduced animal performances and health disorders as well in ruminants as in monogastriers. Further scientific research is therefore needed to clarify whether tannins can be effectivly used in livestock feeding, for example in prophylaxis of diarrhoea or parasitic control.

  19. Assessment of membrane protection by 31P-NMR effects of lidocaine on calcium-paradox in myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hirosumi; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Teragaki, Masakazu; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Takeda, Takeda; Ikata, Mari; Ishikawa, Makoto; Miura, Iwao

    1989-01-01

    In studying calcium paradox, perfused rat hearts were used to investigate the myocardial protective effects of lidocaine. Intracellular contents of phosphates were measured using the 31 P-NMR method. In hearts reexposed to calcium, following 3 minute calcium-free perfusion, a rapid contracture occurred, followed by rapid and complete disappearance of intracellular phosphates with no resumption of cardiac function. In hearts where lidocaine was administered from the onset of the calcium-free perfusion until 2 minutes following the onset of reexposure to calcium, both intracellular phosphates and cardiac contractility were maintained. Therefore, it can be said that cell membranes were protected by lidocaine

  20. Assessment of membrane protection by /sup 31/P-NMR effects of lidocaine on calcium-paradox in myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hirosumi; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Teragaki, Masakazu; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Takeda, Takeda; Ikata, Mari; Ishikawa, Makoto; Miura, Iwao

    1989-01-01

    In studying calcium paradox, perfused rat hearts were used to investigate the myocardial protective effects of lidocaine. Intracellular contents of phosphates were measured using the /sup 31/P-NMR method. In hearts reexposed to calcium, following 3 minute calcium-free perfusion, a rapid contracture occurred, followed by rapid and complete disappearance of intracellular phosphates with no resumption of cardiac function. In hearts where lidocaine was administered from the onset of the calcium-free perfusion until 2 minutes following the onset of reexposure to calcium, both intracellular phosphates and cardiac contractility were maintained. Therefore, it can be said that cell membranes were protected by lidocaine.

  1. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, Karina V; Thorning, Tanja K; Astrup, Arne; Kristensen, Mette; Lorenzen, Janne K

    2014-05-01

    Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition. We investigated whether milk- and cheese-based diets with similar calcium contents affect a saturated fatty acid-induced increase in blood lipids differently. Fifteen healthy, young men participated in a randomized 3 × 2-wk crossover study in which the following 3 isocaloric diets that were similar in fat contents and compositions were compared: control diet [nondairy diet (~500 mg Ca/d)], milk diet [semiskimmed milk-based diet (1700 mg Ca/d)], and cheese diet [semihard cow-cheese-based diet (1700 mg Ca/d)]. Blood was drawn before and after each period, and feces were collected for 5 d during each period. Saturated fatty acid-induced increases in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were lower with the milk diet (mean ± SD: 0.57 ± 0.13 and 0.53 ± 0.11 mmol/L, respectively) (P milk (5.2 ± 0.4 g/d) and cheese (5.7 ± 0.4 g/d) diets than with the control diet (3.9 ± 0.3 g/d) (P cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipid ratios did not differ. Compared with the control diet, milk- and cheese-based diets attenuated saturated fatty acid-induced increases in total and LDL cholesterol and resulted in increased fecal fat excretion; however, effects of milk and cheese did not differ. Because the diets contained similar amounts of saturated fat, similar increases in total and LDL cholesterol could be expected; however, both milk and cheese attenuated these responses, which seem to be explained by their calcium contents. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01317251.

  2. NUTRITIVE EFFECT OF CABBAGE (Brassica oleracea) ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Blood Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb), White Blood Cells (WBC), Red Blood Cells (RBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes ... Thus Cabbage is effective in lowering heart disease risk through lowering of lipidaemia in Broilers, and improves bodyweight at ... consuming meat from chickens raised on supplementation.

  3. Effect of calcium carbonate saturation of seawater on coral calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattuso, J.-P.; Frankignoulle, M.; Bourge, I.; Romaine, S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    The carbonate chemistry of seawater is usually not considered to be an important factor influencing calcium-carbonate-precipitation by corals because surface seawater is supersaturated with respect to aragonite. Recent reports, however, suggest that it could play a major role in the evolution and biogeography of recent corals. We investigated the calcification rates of five colonies of the zooxanthellate coral Stylophora pistillata in synthetic seawater using the alkalinity anomaly technique. Changes in aragonite saturation from 98% to 585% were obtained by manipulating the calcium concentration. The results show a nonlinear increase in calcification rate as a function of aragonite saturation level. Calcification increases nearly 3-fold when aragonite saturation increases from 98% to 390%, i.e., close to the typical present saturation state of tropical seawater. There is no further increase of calcification at saturation values above this threshold. Preliminary data suggest that another coral species, Acropora sp., displays a similar behaviour. These experimental results suggest: (l) that the rate of calcification does not change significantly within the range of saturation levels corresponding to the last glacial-interglacial cycle, and (2) that it may decrease significantly in the future as a result of the decrease in the saturation level due to anthropogenic release of CO2 into the atmosphere. Experimental studies that control environmental conditions and seawater composition provide unique opportunities to unravel the response of corals to global environmental changes.

  4. Effect of articaine on calcium transport in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes isolated from medial pterygoid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gabriel A; Di Croce, Daniel E; Richard, Susana B; Takara, Delia

    2012-01-01

    Local anesthetics used in dentistry have myotoxic effects. Articaine, also known as carticaine, is one of the local anesthetics most widely used in clinical dentistry. The aim of this work was to describe its effect on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase isolated from medial pterygoid muscle. Ca-ATPase enzymatic activity was determined by a colorimetric method and ATP-dependent calcium uptake with a radioisotopic technique. Articaine inhibited both Ca-ATPase activity and calcium uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. Both inhibitory effects became evident at articaine concentrations lower than those employed in clinical dentistry. Half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (K) were 15.1 +/- 1.8 mM (n = 6) and 25.2 +/- 1.6 mM (n = 6) for enzymatic activity and calcium uptake, respectively. Preincubation of sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes with articaine enhanced Ca-ATPase activity in the absence of calcium ionophore, suggesting an ionophoric-like effect of the local anesthetic. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of articaine on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase isolated from medial pterygoid muscle is due to a direct interaction of the anesthetic with the enzyme and to the increased membrane permeability to calcium induced by this drug.

  5. Effects of Oral Nutritional Supplements on Mortality, Missed Dialysis Treatments, and Nutritional Markers in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Debbie; Brunelli, Steven M; Brosch, Becky; Wheeler, Jane; Nissenson, Allen R

    2017-12-06

    Protein-energy wasting is common in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis and is strongly associated with mortality and adverse outcomes. Intradialytic oral nutritional supplements (ONS) reduce risk of mortality in these patients. Large studies characterizing the impact of ONS on other outcomes are lacking. We assessed the associations between administration of ONS and clinical and nutritional outcomes. Retrospective evaluation of a pilot program providing ONS to patients at a large dialysis organization in the United States. The pilot program provided ONS to in-center hemodialysis patients with serum albumin ≤3.5 g/dL at 408 facilities. ONS patients were compared to matched controls with serum albumin ≤3.5 g/dL, identified from facilities not participating in the ONS program (n = 3,374 per group). Receipt of ONS. Death, missed dialysis treatments, hospitalizations, serum albumin, normalized protein catabolic rate, and postdialysis body weight were abstracted from large dialysis organization electronic medical records. There was a 69% reduction in deaths (hazard ratio = 0.31; 95% confidence interval = 0.25-0.39), and 33% fewer missed dialysis treatments (incidence rate ratio = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.73-0.82) among ONS patients compared to controls (P nutritional indices were mixed: serum albumin was lower, whereas normalized protein catabolic rate values, a surrogate for dietary protein intake, and postdialysis body weights were higher for ONS patients compared to controls during follow-up. Our evaluation confirmed the beneficial effects of ONS in reducing mortality and improving some indices of nutritional status for hypoalbuminemic hemodialysis patients. We also report the novel finding that ONS can reduce the number of missed dialysis treatments. These results support the use of intradialytic ONS as an effective intervention to improve the outcomes in hemodialysis patients with low serum albumin. Copyright © 2017

  6. The Effects of a Dairy Probiotic Product, Espar, on Salivary Calcium and Mutans Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Poureslami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Espar is a dairy product of probiotic nature that contains useful bacteria and high calcium content. The aim of this study was to analyze effects of daily consumption of Espar on the number of salivary mutans streptococci and the level of calcium content in a population of 15 to 17 year-old female students. Materials and methods. A double-blind randomized crossover study (n = 50 of healthy female adolescents was implemented in four stage intervals. The first and third stages were ‘run-in’ and ‘wash-out’ intervals. For the second and fourth stages, two weeks long in duration, the participants consumed 100 grams of Espar or 200 grams of plain yogurt. At the end of each stage, the number of salivary mutans streptococci and the level of calcium content were documented. Results. There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of salivary mutans streptococci subsequent to Espar consumption when compared to ordinary yogurt (p < 0.01. Additionally, salivary calcium content increased significantly subsequent to the consumption of Espar and yogurt. However, Espar yielded a higher level of significant increase in salivary calcium when compared to plain yogurt (p < 0.01. Conclusion. This study found that daily consumption of Espar increased the salivary calcium level while decreasing mutans streptococci of the saliva.

  7. The effect of formulated goats' milk on calcium bioavailability in male growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Hilary; Kruger, Marlena; Prosser, Colin; Lowry, Dianne

    2010-01-15

    There are two main proteins in milk; whey and casein. Casein contains casein phosphopeptides (CPP), which are released on digestion of the milk. These may increase calcium solubility by binding calcium in the small intestine. Thus increasing casein in the diet may help to stimulate bioavailability of calcium and increase bone density. The present study tested this hypothesis in growing male rats fed diets containing three different concentrations of casein from goat milk. Rats fed the diet containing no casein had significantly lower calcium absorption when compared to rats fed the diets that contained 80% and 57% of goat milk protein as casein; however, no significant difference was observed between rats fed diets with 80% and 57% casein. The varying amounts of casein had no effect on mineral uptake or retention in the femur. Biomechanical testing and mineral analysis of the femurs showed no differences between diet groups. The mechanism to explain this lack of retention remains unclear. The diets containing 80% and 57% of goat milk protein as casein delivered increased calcium absorption compared to the diet containing no casein, suggesting a minimum level of casein is needed to optimize calcium absorption from goat milk. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The effect of intracellular calcium oscillations on fluid secretion in airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, N J; Tawhai, M H; Crampin, E J

    2010-08-07

    Airway epithelium has been shown to elicit fluid secretion after a rise in intracellular calcium. This rise in intracellular calcium has been shown to display complex oscillations in many species after the binding of particular agonists to extracellular receptors. Fluid secreted by the airway epithelium is used to maintain the depth of the periciliary liquid (PCL) above the apical membrane of the epithelial cells lining the bronchial airways. Previous mathematical models have been published which separately consider the electrophysiology involved in regulating periciliary liquid depth, and the transmission of intracellular calcium waves in airway epithelial tissue. In this paper we present a mathematical model that combines these previous models and allows the effect of oscillations in intracellular calcium on fluid secretion by airway epithelial cells to be investigated. We show that an oscillatory calcium response produces different fluid secretion properties to that elicited by a tonic rise in intracellular calcium. These differences are shown to be due to saturation of the Ca(2+) activated ion channels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Calcium dependency of the AT1-receptor mediated effects in the rat portal vein: influence of calcium antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J. S.; van Meel, J. C.; Pfaffendorf, M.; Zhang, J.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    The calcium dependency of AT1-receptor mediated contractions was studied in isolated rat portal vein preparations. The spontaneous phasic contractile force of the rat portal vein was increased (ED50 = 1.76 mmol/l) and the frequency of contractions decreased by raising the extracellular calcium

  10. Effect of calcium carbonate on hardening, physicochemical properties, and in vitro degradation of injectable calcium phosphate cements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sariibrahimoglu, K.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Yubao, L.; Jansen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main disadvantage of apatitic calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) is their slow degradation rate, which limits complete bone regeneration. Carbonate (CO(3)(2)(-)) is the common constituent of bone and it can be used to improve the degradability of the apatitic calcium phosphate ceramics. This study

  11. Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston John

    2010-12-01

    Vegetarians exhibit a wide diversity of dietary practices, often described by what is omitted from their diet. When a vegetarian diet is appropriately planned and includes fortified foods, it can be nutritionally adequate for adults and children and can promote health and lower the risk of major chronic diseases. The nutrients of concern in the diet of vegetarians include vitamin B(12), vitamin D, ω-3 fatty acids, calcium, iron, and zinc. Although a vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients, the use of supplements and fortified foods provides a useful shield against deficiency. A vegetarian diet usually provides a low intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and a high intake of dietary fiber and many health-promoting phytochemicals. This is achieved by an increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole-grains, legumes, nuts, and various soy products. As a result of these factors, vegetarians typically have lower body mass index, serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and blood pressure; reduced rates of death from ischemic heart disease; and decreased incidence of hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers than do nonvegetarians.

  12. Effects of thyroid hormones on calcium contents and 45Ca exchange in rat skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everts, M.E.; Clausen, T.

    1986-09-01

    In 4-wk-old rats, pretreatment with L-triiodothyronine (T3) increased calcium content by 100% and the 30-min /sup 45/Ca uptake by 64% in the soleus, whereas the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle showed no significant change. The stimulation of /sup 45/Ca uptake was resistant to dantrolene and methoxyverapamil (D600) and could not be attributed to altered permeability of the plasma membrane to calcium, but appears to reflect increased net accumulation of calcium in intracellular pools. The stimulating effect of high K0 (20 mM) on /sup 45/Ca uptake was more pronounced in soleus than in EDL and could be suppressed by dantrolene and D600. The results indicate that the effects of T3 on calcium content and /sup 45/Ca exchange are primarily exerted on muscles containing a large proportion of slow-twitch, oxidative fibers. In soleus muscle from hyperthyroid rats the stimulating effects of high K0 on /sup 45/Ca uptake and lactate production were, respectively, 3.4 and 4.5 times larger than in those obtained from controls. These observations further support the earlier proposed idea (C. van Hardeveld and T. Clausen. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Endocrinol. Metab. 10): E421-E430, 1984) that the metabolic effects of thyroid hormone depend on the availability of cellular as well as extracellular calcium.

  13. Effects of thyroid hormones on calcium contents and 45Ca exchange in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everts, M.E.; Clausen, T.

    1986-01-01

    In 4-wk-old rats, pretreatment with L-triiodothyronine (T3) increased calcium content by 100% and the 30-min 45 Ca uptake by 64% in the soleus, whereas the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle showed no significant change. The stimulation of 45 Ca uptake was resistant to dantrolene and methoxyverapamil (D600) and could not be attributed to altered permeability of the plasma membrane to calcium, but appears to reflect increased net accumulation of calcium in intracellular pools. The stimulating effect of high K0 (20 mM) on 45 Ca uptake was more pronounced in soleus than in EDL and could be suppressed by dantrolene and D600. The results indicate that the effects of T3 on calcium content and 45 Ca exchange are primarily exerted on muscles containing a large proportion of slow-twitch, oxidative fibers. In soleus muscle from hyperthyroid rats the stimulating effects of high K0 on 45 Ca uptake and lactate production were, respectively, 3.4 and 4.5 times larger than in those obtained from controls. These observations further support the earlier proposed idea [C. van Hardeveld and T. Clausen. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Endocrinol. Metab. 10): E421-E430, 1984] that the metabolic effects of thyroid hormone depend on the availability of cellular as well as extracellular calcium

  14. Effects of functional groups and soluble matrices in fish otolith on calcium carbonate mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Dongni; Li Zhuo; Gao Yonghua; Feng Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-10-01

    Calcium carbonate mineralization is significantly influenced by organic matrices in vivo. The effect mainly relies on functional groups in proteins. In order to study the influence of functional groups on calcium carbonate mineralization, -OH, -NH{sub 2} and -COOH groups were grafted onto single crystal silicon chips, and such modified chips were used as substrates in in vitro mineralization experiments. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) test was conducted to examine the grafting efficiency, and the three groups were successfully grafted. Calcium carbonate mineralization on a modified silicon substrate was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the results showed that the effects of -OH, -NH{sub 2} and -COOH groups were quite different. Furthermore, a water-soluble protein matrix (WSM) and an acid-soluble protein matrix (ASM) extracted from fish otolith were adsorbed onto the -COOH-modified silicon substrate, and the effects of the protein matrices on calcium carbonate mineralization were studied. The results showed that both WSM and ASM of lapillus could mediate aragonite crystallization, but the size and morphology of the formed crystals were different. The WSM and ASM of asteriscus adsorbed on the silicon substrate had little effect on calcium carbonate mineralization; almost all the crystals were calcite, while both asteriscus WSM and ASM in solution could mediate vaterite crystals, and the morphologies of vaterite crystal aggregates were different.

  15. Effects of functional groups and soluble matrices in fish otolith on calcium carbonate mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Dongni; Li Zhuo; Gao Yonghua; Feng Qingling

    2010-01-01

    Calcium carbonate mineralization is significantly influenced by organic matrices in vivo. The effect mainly relies on functional groups in proteins. In order to study the influence of functional groups on calcium carbonate mineralization, -OH, -NH 2 and -COOH groups were grafted onto single crystal silicon chips, and such modified chips were used as substrates in in vitro mineralization experiments. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) test was conducted to examine the grafting efficiency, and the three groups were successfully grafted. Calcium carbonate mineralization on a modified silicon substrate was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the results showed that the effects of -OH, -NH 2 and -COOH groups were quite different. Furthermore, a water-soluble protein matrix (WSM) and an acid-soluble protein matrix (ASM) extracted from fish otolith were adsorbed onto the -COOH-modified silicon substrate, and the effects of the protein matrices on calcium carbonate mineralization were studied. The results showed that both WSM and ASM of lapillus could mediate aragonite crystallization, but the size and morphology of the formed crystals were different. The WSM and ASM of asteriscus adsorbed on the silicon substrate had little effect on calcium carbonate mineralization; almost all the crystals were calcite, while both asteriscus WSM and ASM in solution could mediate vaterite crystals, and the morphologies of vaterite crystal aggregates were different.

  16. Effects of functional groups and soluble matrices in fish otolith on calcium carbonate mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongni; Li, Zhuo; Gao, Yonghua; Feng, Qingling

    2010-10-01

    Calcium carbonate mineralization is significantly influenced by organic matrices in vivo. The effect mainly relies on functional groups in proteins. In order to study the influence of functional groups on calcium carbonate mineralization, -OH, -NH2 and -COOH groups were grafted onto single crystal silicon chips, and such modified chips were used as substrates in in vitro mineralization experiments. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) test was conducted to examine the grafting efficiency, and the three groups were successfully grafted. Calcium carbonate mineralization on a modified silicon substrate was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the results showed that the effects of -OH, -NH2 and -COOH groups were quite different. Furthermore, a water-soluble protein matrix (WSM) and an acid-soluble protein matrix (ASM) extracted from fish otolith were adsorbed onto the -COOH-modified silicon substrate, and the effects of the protein matrices on calcium carbonate mineralization were studied. The results showed that both WSM and ASM of lapillus could mediate aragonite crystallization, but the size and morphology of the formed crystals were different. The WSM and ASM of asteriscus adsorbed on the silicon substrate had little effect on calcium carbonate mineralization; almost all the crystals were calcite, while both asteriscus WSM and ASM in solution could mediate vaterite crystals, and the morphologies of vaterite crystal aggregates were different.

  17. CALCIUM AND VITAMIN-D - POSSIBLE PROTECTIVE AGENTS AGAINST COLORECTAL-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; DEVRIES, EGE

    1995-01-01

    Nutritional factors are important determinants of colorectal cancer risk. Diets high in fat and/or low in fibre are especially recognised to increase risk. Dietary calcium and vitamin D have been suggested to be protective against colorectal cancer. With respect to calcium, its possible effect is

  18. Nutritional style of parents and examination of the effective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslu, Gonca Karayağız; Beytut, Dilek; Kahraman, Ayşe; Yardımcı, Figen; Başbakkal, Zümrüt

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to determine the nutritional style in parents who had children aged between 3 and 6 years and the effective factors. The sample number of this descriptive study was calculated with the sample formula for unknown population and the parents of 300 children aged between 3 and 6 years who attended a nursery school in the province of İzmir constituted the sample. The sample was reached in two periods. "The Sociodemographic Data Form" and "the Parent Nutritional Style Scale" were used as data collection tools. Written approval was obtained from the scientific ethics committee of the Ege University, Faculty of Nursery (B.30.2.EGE.0.82.00.00/29-288). The heights and weights of the children were measured by the investigators with certain measurement tools. The body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) was calculated for each child. The children whose body mass index standard deviations were between +2 and -2 standard deviation were considered to have normal weight. The Auxology program was used to obtain these data. The body mass indexes of the parents were calculated according to the height and weight values stated by themselves. In analyses of the data, student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparison of two groups. Variance analysis and Kruskal-Wallis variance were used for multiple comparisons; Bonferrroni corrected Mann-Whitney U test and Shefee test were used for advanced analysis. It was found that the variables including the age, education level, number of children, working status of the mothers and the perception of the child's weight by the mother affected the nutritional style of the parents. The mean "emotional" and "instrumental" nutrition subdimension scores of the mothers who were young, who had an education of primary school and who were housewifes, the mean "encouraging nutrition" subdimension scores of the mothers who had small for gestational age babies and the mean "emotional" nutrition sub

  19. Effects of nutritional supplementation for HIV patients starting antiretroviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mette Frahm; Abdissa, Alemseged; Kæstel, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of lipid based nutritional supplements with either whey or soy protein in patients with HIV during the first three months of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to explore effects of timing by comparing supplementation at the start of ART and after three months...... delay. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Three public ART facilities in Jimma, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Participants: Adults with HIV eligible for ART with body mass index (BMI) >16. Intervention: Daily supplementation with 200 g (4600 kJ) of supplement containing whey or soy during either...... with undetectable viral load at three months. Patients receiving delayed supplementation had higher weight gain but lower gains in functional outcomes. Conclusions: Lipid based nutritional supplements improved gain of weight, lean body mass, and grip strength in patients with HIV starting ART. Supplements...

  20. Fertility-dependent effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on white spruce seedling nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alistair J H; Potvin, Lynette R; Lilleskov, Erik A

    2015-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcMF) typically colonize nursery seedlings, but nutritional and growth effects of these communities are only partly understood. To examine these effects, Picea glauca seedlings collected from a tree nursery naturally colonized by three dominant EcMF were divided between fertilized and unfertilized treatments. After one growing season seedlings were harvested, ectomycorrhizas identified using DNA sequencing, and seedlings analyzed for leaf nutrient concentration and content, and biomass parameters. EcMF community structure-nutrient interactions were tested using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) combined with vector analysis of foliar nutrients and biomass. We identified three dominant species: Amphinema sp., Atheliaceae sp., and Thelephora terrestris. NMDS + envfit revealed significant community effects on seedling nutrition that differed with fertilization treatment. PERMANOVA and regression analyses uncovered significant species effects on host nutrient concentration, content, and stoichiometry. Amphinema sp. had a significant positive effect on phosphorus (P), calcium and zinc concentration, and P content; in contrast, T. terrestris had a negative effect on P concentration. In the unfertilized treatment, percent abundance of the Amphinema sp. negatively affected foliar nitrogen (N) concentration but not content, and reduced foliar N/P. In fertilized seedlings, Amphinema sp. was positively related to foliar concentrations of N, magnesium, and boron, and both concentration and content of manganese, and Atheliaceae sp. had a negative relationship with P content. Findings shed light on the community and species effects on seedling condition, revealing clear functional differences among dominants. The approach used should be scalable to explore function in more complex communities composed of unculturable EcMF.

  1. Effect of the presence of HCl on cyclic CO2 capture of calcium-based sorbent in calcium looping process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenjing; Li, Yingjie; Xie, Xin; Sun, Rongyue

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HCl improves CO 2 capture capacity of limestone in the previous a dozen cycles. • HCl sharply decreases limestone reactivity after a dozen cycles. • HCl intensifies effects of carbonation and calcination temperature on CO 2 capture. • HCl enlarges effects of particle size on CO 2 capture. • HCl severely aggravates the sintering of limestone after a dozen cycles. - Abstract: The effect of the presence of HCl on cyclic CO 2 capture behavior of calcium-based sorbent in the calcium looping process was investigated. When HCl was present in the carbonation atmosphere, the effects of carbonation temperature, calcination temperature, HCl concentration and particle size on CO 2 capture of the limestone in the multiple calcination/carbonation cycles were studied in a dual fixed-bed reactor. The presence of HCl in the carbonation atmosphere improves CO 2 capture capacity of the limestone in the previous a dozen cycles, but sharply decreases its reactivity with further increasing the cycle number above a dozen. The presence of HCl intensifies the effects of carbonation temperature and calcination temperature on CO 2 capture capacity of the limestone. The optimum carbonation temperature and the feasible calcination temperature for cyclic CO 2 capture of the limestone in the presence of HCl should be 700 °C and below 900 °C, respectively. The cyclic CO 2 capture capacity of the limestone in the previous a dozen cycles achieves the maximum in the presence of 300 ppm HCl with increasing the HCl concentration from 100 to 1000 ppm. The higher CO 2 capture capacity of the limestone is achieved with smaller particle size in the presence of HCl. The presence of HCl may destroy the compact CaCO 3 product layer and it is beneficial to CO 2 diffusion through the layer in the initial cycles. The chlorination conversion and the molten CaCl 2 –CaCO 3 product layer thickness of the limestone in the presence of HCl increase with the number of calcination

  2. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  3. Enhancing effect of calcium and vanadium ions on thermal stability of bromoperoxidase from Corallina pilulifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, Esther; Ohshiro, Takashi; Aibara, Toshiaki; Izumi, Yoshikazu; Littlechild, Jennifer

    2005-05-01

    Bromoperoxidase from the macro-alga Corallina pilulifera is an enzyme that possesses vanadate in the catalytic center, and shows a significant thermostability and stability toward organic solvents. The structural analysis of the recombinant enzyme overexpressed in yeast revealed that it contains one calcium atom per subunit. This has been confirmed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry experiments. The study of the effect of metal ions on the apo-enzyme stability has shown that the calcium ion significantly increased the enzyme stability. In addition, vanadate also increased the thermostability and strontium and magnesium ions had similar effects as calcium. The holo-enzyme shows high stability in a range of organic solvents. The effect of the different ions and solvents on the structure of the enzyme has been studied by circular dichroism experiments. The high stability of the enzyme in the presence of organic solvents is useful for its application as a biocatalyst.

  4. Inhibitory effect of aniracetam on N-type calcium current in acutely isolated rat neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, H; Saito, H; Matsuki, N

    1993-04-01

    Effects of aniracetam on whole-cell calcium currents were studied in acutely isolated neuronal cells from postnatal rat ventromedial hypothalamus. There were three types of inward calcium currents, one low-threshold transient current and two high-threshold sustained currents. The nicardipine sensitive L-type current was activated at -20 mV or more depolarized potentials, and the omega-conotoxin sensitive N-type current was recorded at more positive potentials than the L-type. Aniracetam inhibited the N-type current in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the other two types of calcium currents. The effect appeared soon after the addition and lasted for several minutes during washing. Since the N-type current is thought to regulate the release of transmitters, the inhibitory effect may contribute to the nootropic property of aniracetam by modifying the neurotransmission.

  5. Differential effect of extracellular calcium on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in intact polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R H; Knudsen, T; Johansen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    The effect of extracellular calcium on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes was studied and compared with the activity in mixed peritoneal leucocytes from rats. While there was maximal decrease in the pump activity (25-30%) of leucocytes from both rat...... and human by calcium 0.6 mM, a concentration of 0.1 mM caused a substantial decrease indicating a high sensitivity for extracellular calcium. In contrast, calcium had no effect on the pump activity in erythrocytes. The effect of calcium on the pump activity in leucocytes may be due to regulation...... of the influx of sodium across the plasma membrane, since in human leucocytes calcium had no effect on the pump activity if the cells were loaded with sodium....

  6. Effect of Parental Migration Background on Childhood Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Besharat Pour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, and obesity in children have important public health implications but, to date, their effects have not been studied in the growing population of children in Sweden with immigrant parents. Methods. We estimated the association between parental migration background and nutrition, physical activity, and weight in 8-year-old children born in Stockholm between 1994 and 1996 of immigrants and Swedish parents (n=2589. Data were collected through clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by parents. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Children of immigrants complied more closely with Nordic Nutrition Recommendations compared with those of Swedes (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11–1.64. They had higher intake of dietary fibre, vitamins C, B6, and E, folic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6 reflecting higher consumption of foods of plant origin, but lower intake of vitamins A and D, calcium, and iron reflecting lower consumption of dairy products. Children of immigrants had higher intake of sucrose reflecting higher consumption of sugar and sweets. Furthermore, these children had a higher risk of having low physical activity (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62 and being overweight (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.06–1.65 compared with children of Swedish parents. The odds of having low physical activity and being overweight were even higher in children whose parents were both immigrants. A low level of parental education was associated with increased risk of low physical activity regardless of immigration background. Conclusions. Culturally appropriate tools to capture the diverse range of ethnic foods and other lifestyle habits are needed. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the low levels of physical activity, increased weight, and lack of consumption of some important vitamins among children of

  7. The effect of diabetes mellitus on urinary calcium excretion in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, T J; Husain, S M; Garland, H O; Sibley, C P

    1995-04-01

    The effect of maternal diabetes mellitus on renal calcium excretion in pregnant rats and their offspring has been examined in order to ascertain the role of the kidney in the disturbed calcium homeostasis of infants born to diabetic mothers. Diabetic pregnant (DP) rats exhibited severe hypercalciuria which greatly exceeded the urinary calcium losses (UCaV) in non-diabetic pregnant (CP) or non-pregnant diabetic (D) rats. Means +/- S.E.M. for UCaV at day 21 (mmol/24 h) were: DP = 1.12 +/- 0.09 (n = 7); CP = 0.06 +/- 0.01 (n = 7); D = 0.63 +/- 0.06 (n = 7) (P < 0.001 DP vs CP and DP vs D). The profile for urinary calcium excretion in the three groups was different from that of other measured ions. The degree of natriuresis, for example, was comparable in DP and D rats at all stages studied. Although magnesium output was significantly greater in DP than D rats on days 14 and 21, this appeared to result from an additive effect of the magnesiuresis seen when pregnancy and diabetes were studied separately. The marked renal calcium wasting of diabetic pregnancy will have implications for overall calcium balance in the mother. For example, an enhanced intestinal calcium absorption was seen in DP rats in the second half of gestation. Means +/- S.E.M. for day 21 (mmol/24 h) were: DP = 3.8 +/- 0.8 (n = 7); CP = 1.4 +/- 0.3 (n = 7); D = 1.6 +/- 0.3 (n = 7) (P < 0.05 DP vs CP and DP vs D).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Effect of soy protein/animal protein ratio on calcium metabolism of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Gun Ae; Hwang, Hye Jin

    2006-04-01

    This study examined the effects of a ratio of soy protein to animal protein on bone metabolism of rats. Experimental groups were a high soy protein group (200 g of soy protein and 0 g of casein per kilogram of diet; HSoy), a middle soy protein group (100 g of soy protein and 100 g of casein per kilogram of diet; MSoy), a low soy protein group (50 g of soy protein and 150 g of casein per kilogram of diet; LSoy), and a no soy protein group (0 g of soy protein and 200 g of casein per kilogram of diet; NSoy). Calcium excretion and retention, biochemical parametrically related calcium metabolism, and bone mineral density were measured. Statistical analysis was performed with SAS software. Urinary excretion of calcium was significantly high in the LSoy and NSoy groups, and there was no difference in absorption of calcium across experimental groups. Calcium retention was significantly higher in the HSoy and MSoy groups than in the LSoy and NSoy groups. Experimental groups showed no differences in the activity of alkaline phosphatase. The casein group (NSoy) showed a remarkably lower degree of serum osteocalcin concentration. The concentration of deoxypyridinoline in urine showed an increasing tendency, i.e., HSoy and MSoy protein/soy proteins, its concentration increases. Wet weight of the femur appeared to be significantly greater in the MSoy and LSoy groups than in the NSoy group. Ash content of the femur and bone density were highest in the MSoy group, with the ratio of 1:1 between soy protein and animal protein. This study indicated that deoxypyridinoline concentration was lower and the density of osteocalcin was higher in the MSoy group than in the NSoy group, and that calcium retention was high and bone mineral density was the highest in the MSoy group. The ratio of soy to animal protein that seemed to have the most positively significant effect on calcium metabolism was 1:1.

  9. Effect of a nutrient-enriched drink on dietary intake and nutritional status in institutionalised elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Blauw, Y.H.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Hoeckel-Prüst, van L.; Bindels, J.G.; Siebelink, E.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: (1) To determine whether nutritional supplementation (energy and micronutrients) in institutionalised elderly has a positive effect on dietary intake and nutritional status. (2) To investigate whether individuals tend to compensate for the energy content of the intervention product by

  10. Effectiveness of nutritional supplements on cognitive functioning in elderly persons: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Mulders, A.J.M.J.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The effectiveness of nutritional supplementation in improving cognitive functioning is evaluated in elderly people. Methods. The authors systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials that compared nutritional supplementation with a placebo treatment. Trials were identified from a

  11. Calcium carbide (CaC2): Effect on fruit set and yield of mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reviewer

    et al., 2001). Taking into consideration the role of calcium carbide, as a potent source of acetylene and ethylene, the study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different doses of wax- coated CaC2 on vegetative and reproductive growth of mango. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The present study regarding the effects of ...

  12. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    ), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p...-malignant as well as normal. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, calcium electroporation seems to be more effective in inducing cell death in cancer cell spheroids than in a normal fibroblast spheroid, even though intracellular ATP level is depleted in all spheroid types after treatment. These results may indicate......BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...

  13. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smed Sinne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  14. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen D; Smed, Sinne

    2007-04-04

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10-30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  15. Therapeutic Effects of Oral Nutritional Supplements during Haemodialysis: Physician's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Arun B; Shah, Rupin A; Chaudhari, Anup; Shinde, Neelam

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of predialytic oral nutritional supplementation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD). NEPRO HP was provided to 77 CKD patients on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) over 3 months. Efficacy parameters were improvement in albumin levels, weight and haemoglobin levels; safety parameters were serum potassium and phosphorus values; other parameters were SGA and MIS scores. Mean serum albumin values showed a statistically significant increase. There was a statistically significant improvement in the mean body weight and haemoglobin of the patients in the second and third months of treatment. Serum phosphorus and potassium levels did not change in a statistically significant manner. There was improvement in nourishment status as detected by MIS and SGA scores. Two patients expired during the course of the study. Predialytic oral supplementation with NEPRO HP improves nutritional status of CKD patients on MHD.

  16. Nutritional and lactational effects on follicular development in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, H

    2009-01-01

    In sows, follicular development is inhibited during lactation, and weaning the piglets allows recruitment and selection of follicles that will undergo preovulatory maturation and ovulate. Lactation inhibits GnRH secretion, and in turn LH secretion, through neuroendocrine stimuli induced by suckling. Pituitary response to GnRH and the sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary unit to oestradiol positive feedback are also reduced. The impact of lactation on the reproductive axis is further complicated by the physiological and metabolic adaptations that are developed for milk production and that depend on nutrient intake, nutrient needs and body reserves. A strongly catabolic state during lactation amplifies the inhibition of LH secretion, thereby inducing a delay of oestrus and ovulation after weaning. Nevertheless, post-weaning ovulation is less delayed nowadays than in the 1970's or 80's. Nutritional deficiency has also deleterious effects on embryo survival, which are likely related to alterations in follicular growth and maturation. The physiological mechanisms by which information on the metabolic changes is transmitted to the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis are not fully understood in the sow. Glucose, insulin and leptin are the most likely signals informing the hypothalamus of the metabolic state, yet their roles have not been definitely established. At the ovarian level, folliculogenesis is likely to be altered by the reduction in insulin and IGF-I concentrations induced by nutritional deficiency. More knowledge is needed at the intrafollicular level to better understand nutritional effects on follicular development, and also on occyte quality and embryo development.

  17. The co-effect of collagen and magnesium ions on calcium carbonate biomineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yunfeng; Feng Qingling; Li Xiaoming

    2006-01-01

    The process of calcium carbonate biomineralization in the solution containing collagen and magnesium ions was studied in this paper. The results were characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect rules were obtained by the cooperation of collagen and magnesium ions in different concentration. The experiment results showed that in the presence of both collagen and magnesium ions, aragonite and vaterite were precipitated at low Mg/Ca ion concentration ratio, while only aragonite with regular spherical morphology was precipitated at high Mg/Ca ion concentration ratio. It indicated that collagen has a promotional effect on magnesium ions in controlling the polymorph of calcium carbonate crystal. A much wider range of calcium carbonate morphologies was observed in the presence of both collagen and magnesium ions. The experiments suggested that collagen acts in combination with magnesium ions to inhibit calcite crystal growth, while favoring the formation of aragonite crystals

  18. Precipitation of calcium sulphate on hot walls - influence of impurities, thermal and hydraulic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, Roger

    1973-01-01

    After some generalities on desalination by distillation processes and on problems due to scaling, this research thesis aims at a better understanding of the formation of deposits and their effects in the case of precipitation of calcium sulphate hemihydrate which precipitates above 100 C in pure solution and between 100 and 300 C in brine. Deposit growth, influence of impurities, and influence of the deposit on heat exchange and loss of load are the main issues of this research. The author addresses general principles of salt crystallization and the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of calcium sulphate precipitation, studies the growth kinetics of the calcium sulphate hemihydrate in a transient concentration regime, reports the study of thermal and hydraulic effects of the formation of a hemihydrate deposit, notably by discussing the different phases involved in the covering of a metallic surface

  19. The effects of apple pomace, bentonite and calcium superphosphate on swine manure aerobic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishao; Huang, Yimei; Liu, Xueling; Huang, Hua

    2014-09-01

    The effects of additives such as apple pomace, bentonite and calcium superphosphate on swine manure composting were investigated in a self-built aerated static box (90 L) by assessing their influences on the transformation of nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous and compost maturity. The results showed that additives all prolonged the thermophilic stage in composting compared to control. Nitrogen losses amounted to 34-58% of the initial nitrogen, in which ammonia volatilization accounted for 0.3-4.6%. Calcium superphosphate was helpful in facilitating composting process as it significantly reduced the ammonia volatilization during thermophilic stage and increased the contents of total nitrogen and phosphorous in compost, but bentonite increased the ammonia volatilization and reduced the total nitrogen concentration. It suggested that calcium superphosphate is an effective additive for keeping nitrogen during swine manure composting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate containing chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorus: An in-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B P Santhosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Caries clinical trials of sugar-free chewing gum have shown that the gum is noncariogenic and in fact has anticariogenic effect through the stimulation of saliva. Sugar-free gums, therefore, may be an excellent delivery vehicle for safe and effective additive, capable of promoting enamel remineralization. Casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP nanocomplexes incorporated into sugar-free chewing gum have shown to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in situ. So this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP containing sugar-free chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorous. Materials and Methods : Unstimulated saliva from each 24 selected subjects was collected. Then each subject was given two pellets of chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and asked to chew for a period of 20 min, after which saliva samples were collected from each individual. Once all the samples were collected they were assessed for calcium and phosphorous concentration using affiliated reagent kits and photometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained were analyzed using student′s paired t test. Results: Significant difference was found in the calcium and phosphorus concentration of saliva before and after chewing CPP-ACP containing chewing gum. Conclusions: Chewing of CPP-ACP containing chewing gum showed a significant increase in the salivary concentration of calcium for a prolonged period of time hence it may help in the remineralization of tooth surfaces.

  1. Proteomic analysis of the effects of exogenous calcium on hypoxic-responsive proteins in cucumber roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Lizhong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia acts as a plant stress factor, particularly in cucumbers plants under hydroponic culture. Calcium is involved in stress signal transmission and in the growth of plants. To determine the effect of exogenous calcium on hypoxic-responsive proteins in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinchun No.2 roots, proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectrometry. Results Cucumber roots were used to analyze the influence of hypoxia on plants. The expressions of 38 protein spots corresponding to enzymes were shown to change in response to hypoxia. Of these, 30 spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. The proteins were categorized according to functional groups, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, fermentative metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, energy metabolism, protein synthesis and defense against stress. Exogenous calcium appeared to alleviate hypoxic stress via these metabolic and physiological systems. Western blotting was used to analyze the accumulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC; calcium further increased the expression of ADH and PDC under hypoxia. In addition, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to assess the transcript levels of differentially expressed proteins. Conclusions Exogenous calcium enhanced the expression of enzymes involved in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, fermentative metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and reactive oxygen species (ROS defense in plants under hypoxia. Calcium appears to induce hypoxic tolerance of cucumber seedlings. These phenomena have prompted us to further investigate the mechanisms by which cucumbers respond to exogenous calcium under hypoxia.

  2. Effect of nicotine on exocytotic pancreatic secretory response: role of calcium signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Parimal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotine is a risk factor for pancreatitis resulting in loss of pancreatic enzyme secretion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of nicotine-induced secretory response measured in primary pancreatic acinar cells isolated from Male Sprague Dawley rats. The study examines the role of calcium signaling in the mechanism of the enhanced secretory response observed with nicotine exposure. Methods Isolated and purified pancreatic acinar cells were subjected to a nicotine exposure at a dose of 100 μM for 6 minutes and then stimulated with cholecystokinin (CCK for 30 min. The cell’s secretory response was measured by the percent of amylase released from the cells in the incubation medium Calcium receptor antagonists, inositol trisphosphate (IP3 receptor blockers, mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitors and specific nicotinic receptor antagonists were used to confirm the involvement of calcium in this process. Results Nicotine exposure induced enhanced secretory response in primary cells. These responses remained unaffected by mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK’s inhibitors. The effects, however, have been completely abolished by nicotinic receptor antagonist, calcium channel receptor antagonists and inositol trisphosphate (IP3 receptor blockers. Conclusions The data suggest that calcium activated events regulating the exocytotic secretion are affected by nicotine as shown by enhanced functional response which is inhibited by specific antagonists… The results implicate the role of nicotine in the mobilization of both intra- and extracellular calcium in the regulation of stimulus-secretory response of enzyme secretion in this cell system. We conclude that nicotine plays an important role in promoting enhanced calcium levels inside the acinar cell.

  3. Calcium induces long-term legacy effects in a subalpine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Schaffner

    Full Text Available Human activities have transformed a significant proportion of the world's land surface, with profound effects on ecosystem processes. Soil applications of macronutrients such as nitrate, phosphorus, potassium or calcium are routinely used in the management of croplands, grasslands and forests to improve plant health or increase productivity. However, while the effects of continuous fertilization and liming on terrestrial ecosystems are well documented, remarkably little is known about the legacy effect of historical fertilization and liming events in terrestrial ecosystems and of the mechanisms involved. Here, we show that more than 70 years after the last application of lime on a subalpine grassland, all major soil and plant calcium pools were still significantly larger in limed than in unlimed plots, and that the resulting shift in the soil calcium/aluminium ratio continues to affect ecosystem services such as primary production. The difference in the calcium content of the vegetation and the topmost 10 cm of the soil in limed vs. unlimed plots amounts to approximately 19.5 g m(-2, equivalent to 16.3% of the amount that was added to the plots some 70 years ago. In contrast, plots that were treated with nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer in the 1930s did not differ from unfertilized plots in any of the soil and vegetation characteristics measured. Our findings suggest that the long-term legacy effect of historical liming is due to long-term storage of added calcium in stable soil pools, rather than a general increase in nutrient availability. Our results demonstrate that single applications of calcium in its carbonated form can profoundly and persistently alter ecosystem processes and services in mountain ecosystems.

  4. EFFECTS OF FOOD ASSISTANCE AND NUTRITION PROGRAMS ON NUTRITION AND HEALTH: VOLUME 3, LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous; Hamilton, William L.; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive review and synthesis of published research on the impact of USDA's domestic food and nutrition assistance programs on participants' nutrition and health outcomes. The outcome measures reviewed include food expenditures, household nutrient availability, dietary intake, other measures of nutrition status, food security, birth outcomes, breastfeeding behaviors, immunization rates, use and cost of health care services, and selected nonhealth outcomes, such as ...

  5. Effects of melatonin on seedling growth, mineral nutrition, and nitrogen metabolism in cucumber under nitrate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruimin; Sun, Yunkuo; Liu, Zeyu; Jin, Wen; Sun, Yan

    2017-05-01

    In China, excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers in glasshouses leads to nitrate accumulations in soil and plants, which then limits productivity. Melatonin, an evolutionarily highly conserved molecule, has a wide range of functions in plants. We analyzed the effects of melatonin pretreatment on the growth, mineral nutrition, and nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. "Jin You No. 1") when seedlings were exposed to nitrate stress. An application of 0.1 mmol/L melatonin significantly improved the growth of plants and reduced their susceptibility to damage due to high nitrate levels (0.6 mol/L) during the ensuing period of stress treatment. Although excess nitrate led to an increase in the concentrations of nitrogen, potassium, and calcium, as well as a decrease in levels of phosphorus and magnesium, exogenous melatonin generally had the opposite effect except for a further rise in calcium concentrations. Pretreatment also significantly reduced the accumulations of nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen and enhanced the activities of enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism. Expression of Cs-NR and Cs-GOGAT, two genes that function in that metabolism, was greatly down-regulated when plants were exposed to 0.6 mol/L nitrate, but was up-regulated in plants that had received the 0.1 mmol/L melatonin pretreatment. Our results are the first evidence that melatonin has an important role in modulating the composition of mineral elements and nitrogen metabolism, thereby alleviating the inhibitory effect on growth normally associated with nitrate stress. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of Calcium Oxide Microstructure on the Diffusion of Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes Ramos, João Pedro; Stora, T

    2012-01-01

    Calcium oxide (CaO) powder targets have been successfully used at CERN-ISOLDE to produce neutron deficient exotic argon and carbon isotopes under proton irradiation at high temperatures (>1000°C). These targets outperform the other related targets for the production of the same beams. However, they presented either slow release rates (yields) from the beginning or a rapid decrease over time. This problem was believed to come from the target microstructure degradation, justifying the material investigation. In order to do so, the synthesis, reactivity in ambient air and sintering kinetics of CaO were studied, through surface area determination by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction for crystalline phase identification and crystallite size determination, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy to investigate the microstructure. The synthesis studies revealed that a nanometric material is obtained from the decarbonation of CaCO3 in vacuum at temperatures higher than 550°C, which is very reactive in air....

  7. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to grow and stay strong. The body also needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. Nutrition surveys have shown ... found in dairy products. How much calcium and vitamin D you need depends on your age and other factors. If ...

  8. Effect of Ultrasound Technology on Food and Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Kumari S; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound technology has been successfully demonstrated for several food processing and preservation applications. The majority of food processing applications reported refer to liquid foods. Ultrasound has been applied to solid foods in some niche applications, e.g., tenderization of meat, mass transfer applications, and drying. Similar to any other technology, ultrasound also has some positive and negative effects on food quality depending on the application and processing conditions employed. This chapter outlines various applications of ultrasound to food and its effect on food and nutritional quality. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Calcium Hydroxide As an Intracanal Medication of The Apical Microleakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat Mohajer AR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Nowadays, calcium hydroxide is used as a dressing for canal sterilization and repair progression of apical lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament on the apical microleakage of root filling.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 46 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with step-back technique to master apical file (MAF size 35. Specimens were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20. In group 1, the specimens were treated with calcium hydroxide intracanal medication; and in group 2, the samples did not receive any medication. The teeth were incubated in 100% humidity at 37°C for one week. After that, calcium hydroxide was removed using irrigation with normal saline and reaming with MAF. The root canals were obturated with gutta- percha and AH26 sealer using lateral compaction technique. Specimens were incubated in 100% humility at 37°C for 72 hours and then immersed in India ink for 1 week. Finally, the teeth were cleared and the maximum linear dye penetration was measured under a stereomicroscope at 4X magnification. The data were analyzed by T-test and Chi-square.Results: There was no significant difference between the two experimental groups (P=0.068. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that using calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament did not influence the apical microleakage after final obturation of the root canal system.

  10. Effect of particle size on calcium release and elevation of pH of endodontic cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asatourian, Armen; Orangi, Jafar; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Soukup, Jason W; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-06-01

    Elevation of pH and calcium ion release are of great importance in antibacterial activity and the promotion of dental soft and hard tissue healing process. In this study, we evaluated the effect of particle size on the elevation of pH and the calcium ion release from calcium silicate-based dental cements. Twelve plastic tubes were divided into three groups, filled with white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA), WMTA plus 1% methylcellulose, and nano-modified WMTA (nano-WMTA), and placed inside flasks containing 10 ml of distilled water. The pH values were measured using a pH sensor 3, 24, 72, and 168 h after setting of the cements. The calcium ion release was measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with same sample preparation method. Data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (anova) followed by post hoc Tukey tests with significance level of P pH elevation only after 24 h (P dental pulp cells and as a consequence enhance mineralized matrix nodule formation to achieve desirable clinical outcomes. However, the increase in pH values mainly occurred during the short time postsetting. Addition of 1% methylcellulose imposed a delay in elevation of pH and calcium ion release by WMTA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of Calcium Chloride Treatments on Quality Characteristics of Blackberry Fruit During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Turmanidze

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvested blackberry fruits were immediately treated with 1% and 2% calcium chloride by immersion at 20 ± 1ºC for 2.5 min and kept for 8 days at 0 ± 0,5ºC and Relative Humidity (RH 90 ± 5%.  The application of calcium did not significantly effect on total titratable acidity, pH and   total soluble solids. The blackberry fruits treated with 1% and 2% Calcium chloride increased their ascorbic acid content by 15.7 and 37.5% respectively. Content of cyanidin-3-O-monoglucoside decreased by 6.33, 32.06 and 11.35 mg per 100 g of fruit in case of storage of untreated, treated with 1 and 2%   calcium chloride respectively. Content of pelargonidin 3 – O - monoglucoside increased respectively by 2.29, 26.87 and 8.45 mg per 100 g fruits. Change of content of cyanidin 3 – O - (6 - p – coumaroyl - glucoside was not statistically significant.  Reduction in polyphenols content of control sample by 13.6% reflected in reduction of antioxidant potential by 25%. In the samples treated with 1 and 2%   calcium chloride reduction of polyphenols content by 12.4 and 7.5 % caused reduction of antioxidant potential by 15.6 and 8.7% respectively.

  12. Effect of Blumea balsamifera extract on the phase and morphology of calcium oxalate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Charlimagne M; De Leon, Rizalinda L

    2017-10-01

    Calcium oxalate crystals are found in majority of kidney stones with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) as one of the primary types of kidney stones. Various methods of treatment exist, including herbal treatment in the Philippines that uses the medicinal herb Blumea balsamifera ( B. balsamifera ). The effect of B. balsamifera extract on the morphology of calcium oxalate crystals was studied by light microscopy, image analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The extract decreased the crystal size by 5.22%-82.62% depending on the degree of supersaturation. Through analysis of the projected area of the crystals, the extract was found to shift the phase of the crystals from COM to calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD). This shift in phase is significant with a COM to COD shift of 88.26% at 0.5 mg/mL of extract and 91.53% at 1.0 mg/mL of extract. Scanning election microscopic (SEM) images revealed aggregation of crystals at 0 mg/mL of extract. At 1.0 mg/mL of extract, the scanning electron micrographs showed discernible crystal unit boundaries. B. balsamifera extract was observed to have decreased crystal size, shifted crystal phase from COM to COD and prevented the aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals.

  13. Effect of nutritional support in children with spastic quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Ozlem Bekem; Unalp, Aycan; Uran, Nedret; Dizdarer, Gülsen; Ozgonul, Figen Oksel; Conku, Aliye; Ataman, Hamide; Ozturk, Aysel Aydogan

    2008-11-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in patients with cerebral palsy. We evaluated the effect of nutritional support on clinical findings in children with spastic quadriplegia. Feeding history, numbers of lower respiratory tract infections, and gastrointestinal and neurologic findings were evaluated via questionnaire. Weight, height, head circumference, midarm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured. Height for age, weight for age, weight for height, body mass index, and weight and height z-scores were calculated. Clinical findings and anthropometric parameters were re-evaluated after nutritional support for 6 months. Forty-five patients were enrolled. No difference was evident between the first and the last height z-scores of 31 patients who completed the follow-up. Weight, height, weight z-scores, weight for age, weight for height, body mass index, midarm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness exhibited improvement. Moreover, a significant decrease in number of infections was evident. Frequency of seizures and Gross Motor Function Classification System status did not change. Constipation decreased significantly. Nutritional therapy revealed improvements in some anthropometric findings and a decrease in number of infections. Although there was no difference regarding motor development or seizure frequency, further studies with a longer follow-up are required.

  14. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...... fat excretion, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomized, controlled trials of calcium (supplements or dairy) in healthy subjects, where faecal fat excretion was measured. Meta-analyses used random-effects models with changes in faecal fat excreted expressed...

  15. Role of calcium in effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on aldosterone production in adrenal glomerulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, L.; Schiffrin, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits the stimulation of aldosterone secretion by isolated adrenal glomerulosa cells produced by angiotensin II (ANG II), ACTH, and potassium. The effect of ANP on the dose-response curve of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II, ACTH, and potassium on isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells was studied. In the presence of ANP the maximal response of aldosterone output stimulated by ANG II or potassium decreased and the half-maximum (EC 50 ) of the response to ACTH was displaced to the right. Because these effects resemble those of calcium-channel blockers, the authors investigated the effect of different concentrations of nifedipine, a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker, on the dose-response curve of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II, ACTH, and potassium. Nifedipine produced effects similar to ANP. The maximal response of aldosterone stimulated by ANG II and potassium was decreased and the dose-response curve to ACTH was displaced to the right. ANP decreased the maximal response of aldosterone to the dihydropyridine derivative BAY K8644, a calcium-channel activator, without change in its EC 50 . In contrast, nifedipine displaced the dose-response curve to BAY K8644 to the right as expected of a competitive inhibitor. The effect of ANP and nifedipine on basal and stimulated 45 Ca influx into isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells was studied. ANP may act on the rat adrenal glomerulosa cells at least in part by interference with calcium entry

  16. Effect of calcium chloride concentration on output force in electrical actuator made of sodium alginate gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuda; Zhao, Gang; Wei, Chengye; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yu; Liu, Xvxiong

    2018-01-01

    As a kind of artificial muscle intelligent material, the biological gel electric driver has the advantages of low driving voltage, large strain, good biological compatibility, good flexibility, low price, etc. The application prospect is broad and it has high academic value. Alginate, as a common substance in sea, has characteristics of low cost, green and pollution-free. Therefore,this paper obtains biological gel electric actuator by sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Effects on output force of the electric actuator is researched by changing the crosslinking of calcium chloride concentration and the output force enhancement mechanism is analyzed in this paper.

  17. The effects of prolonged oral administration of the disinfectant calcium hypochlorite in Nigerian commercial cockerels

    OpenAIRE

    Temitayo O. Iji; Ademola A. Oyagbemi; Odunayo I. Azeez

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of prolonged oral administration of calcium hypochlorite in the drinking water of commercial cockerels. It was carried out in order to ascertain probable toxicity associated with prolonged exposure to calcium hypochlorite. Thirty-two healthy birds were used; they were grouped into four groups of eight. Group 1, which served as the control, received 10 mL/kg body weight of physiological saline. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.0375 g, 0.375 g and ...

  18. Aqueous solutions of calcium ions: hydration numbers and the effect of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavitsas, Andreas A

    2005-11-03

    Hydration numbers of calcium ions are determined from extensive measurements of colligative properties of water solutions of calcium salts. The hydration numbers reported refer to the average number of water molecules that are bound sufficiently strongly to calcium ions so as to be removed from the solvent and become part of the solute. Contrary to common descriptions of deviations from ideal behavior for concentrated solutions, ideal behavior is demonstrated when mole fractions are calculated by taking account of such bound water. Measurements over wide concentration and temperature ranges are used to obtain the effect of temperature on the average hydration number of Ca(2+). Freezing point depression measurements yield a hydration number of 12.0 +/- 0.8. Boiling point elevations yield 6.7 +/- 0.6. Consistent with this, vapor pressure measurements from 0 to 200 degrees C show a gradual decrease in hydration number with increasing temperature, with a value of 5.0 at 200 degrees C.

  19. The effects of thermal stimuli on intracellular calcium change and histamine releases in rat basophilic leukemia mast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zu-Hui; Zhu, Dan; Chen, Ji-Yao; Zhou, Lu-Wei

    2012-05-01

    The effects of thermal stimuli on rat basophilic leukemia mast cells were studied. The cells in calcium-contained or calcium-free buffers were thermally stimulated in the temperature range of 25-60 °C. The corresponding calcium ion concentration in cells [Ca2+]i as well as the released histamine from cells was measured with fluorescence staining methods. The ruthenium red (RR), a block of membrane calcium channels (transient receptor potential family V (TRPV)), was used in experiments. Under the stimulus of 25-50 °C, no significant difference on [Ca2+]i was found between these three groups of the cells in calcium-contained buffer without or with RR and cells in calcium-free saline, indicating that the increased calcium in cytosol did not result from the extracellular buffer but came from the intracellular calcium stores. The [Ca2+]i continuously increased under the temperature of 50-60 °C, but the RR and calcium-free saline can obviously diminish the [Ca2+]i increase at these high temperatures, reflecting that the opening of the TRPV2 channels leads to a calcium influx resulting in the [Ca2+]i increment. The histamine release also became significant in these cases. Since the released histamine is a well-known mediator for the microcirculation promotion, the histamine release from mast cells could be one of the mechanisms of thermal therapy.

  20. Calcium and phosphate effects on growth and alkaloid production in Coffea arabica: experimental results and mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, J L; Graves, D J; Brodelius, P

    1991-04-15

    Plant, mammalian, and microbial cells are commonly immobilized in calcium alginate gels for the production of valuable secondary metabolites. However, calcium ions are known to inhibit growth in various types of cells, and calcium is an integral part of such gels. Therefore, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of calcium on the growth and alkaloid production of a model cell-line, Coffea arabica, in suspension culture before, attempting to immobilize such cells in alginate. A kinetic model was then developed from the results to describe cell growth and alkaloid production and the mechanism by which calcium influences these variables. In addition, it was observed that there was a characteristic relationship between the concentration of calcium in the external medium and the concentration of extra cellular and intracellular phosphate. The intracellular phosphate level was, in turn, related to the production of alkaloids. Using these results, a dynamic mathematical model of cell growth and alkaloid production was developed based on the proposed roles of calcium and phosphate. The model showed satisfactory agreement with three sets of experiments at different calcium concentrations. A possible linkage between the calcium and phosphate results is postulated based on the limited solubility of calcium phosphate.

  1. Effects of calcium hydroxide addition on the physical and chemical properties of a calcium silicate-based sealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Carlos KUGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various calcium silicate-based sealers have been introduced for use in root canal filling. The MTA Fillapex is one of these sealers, but some of its physicochemical properties are not in accordance with the ISO requirements. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the flowability, pH level and calcium release of pure MTA Fillapex (MTAF or containing 5% (MTAF5 or 10% (MTAF10 calcium hydroxide (CH, in weight, in comparison with AH Plus sealer. Material and Methods: The flowability test was performed according to the ISO 6876:2001 requirements. For the pH level and calcium ion release analyses, the sealers were placed individually (n=10 in plastic tubes and immersed in deionized water. After 24 hours, 7 and 14 days, the water in which each specimen had been immersed was evaluated to determine the pH level changes and calcium released. Flowability, pH level and calcium release data were analyzed statistically by the ANOVA test (α=5%. Results: In relation to flowability: MTAF>AH Plus>MTAF5>MTAF10. In relation to the pH level, for 24 h: MTAF5=MTAF10=MTAF>AH Plus; for 7 and 14 days: MTAF5=MTAF10>MTAF>AH Plus. For the calcium release, for all periods: MTAF>MTAF5=MTAF10>AH Plus. Conclusions: The addition of 5% CH to the MTA Fillapex (in weight is an alternative to reduce the high flowability presented by the sealer, without interfering in its alkalization potential.

  2. Effects of calcium hydroxide addition on the physical and chemical properties of a calcium silicate-based sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUGA, Milton Carlos; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; SANT'ANNA-JÚNIOR, Arnaldo; KEINE, Kátia Cristina; FARIA, Gisele; DANTAS, Andrea Abi Rached; GUIOTTI, Flávia Angélica

    2014-01-01

    Recently, various calcium silicate-based sealers have been introduced for use in root canal filling. The MTA Fillapex is one of these sealers, but some of its physicochemical properties are not in accordance with the ISO requirements. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the flowability, pH level and calcium release of pure MTA Fillapex (MTAF) or containing 5% (MTAF5) or 10% (MTAF10) calcium hydroxide (CH), in weight, in comparison with AH Plus sealer. Material and Methods The flowability test was performed according to the ISO 6876:2001 requirements. For the pH level and calcium ion release analyses, the sealers were placed individually (n=10) in plastic tubes and immersed in deionized water. After 24 hours, 7 and 14 days, the water in which each specimen had been immersed was evaluated to determine the pH level changes and calcium released. Flowability, pH level and calcium release data were analyzed statistically by the ANOVA test (α=5%). Results In relation to flowability: MTAF>AH Plus>MTAF5>MTAF10. In relation to the pH level, for 24 h: MTAF5=MTAF10=MTAF>AH Plus; for 7 and 14 days: MTAF5=MTAF10>MTAF>AH Plus. For the calcium release, for all periods: MTAF>MTAF5=MTAF10>AH Plus. Conclusions The addition of 5% CH to the MTA Fillapex (in weight) is an alternative to reduce the high flowability presented by the sealer, without interfering in its alkalization potential. PMID:25025558

  3. Toxic Effects of Ochratoxin A on Calcium Metabolism during Chick Embryo Developmentand in Hatched Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAE Elsayed

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was carried out to study the effect of in-ovo ochratoxin A (OTA injection in Highline layer eggs on calcium metabolism and blood biochemical parameters of embryos and after the hatch. At day 10 of embryonic development, one hundred and sixty-two fertile eggs were individually weighed and divided into two equal treatments. The first treatment (control consisted of the individual injection of fertile eggs with 50 µL sodium carbonate. In the second treatment (OTA, fertile eggs were individually injected with 12.5 ng OTA dissolved in 50 µL sodium carbonate. On days 12, 14, and 16 of incubation and at the hatch, serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus concentrations were lower (p<0.05, while sodium, alkaline phosphatase and triiodothyronine concentrations were higher (p<0.05 in the OTA-injected eggs compared with the controls. Serum potassium concentration was not affected (p<0.05 by OTA treatment. Lower calcium and phosphorus levels were determined (p<0.05 in the allantoic fluid of OTA-injected eggs compared with the controls. On days 12, 14, and 16 of incubation and at the hatch, lower whole body and yolk calcium and phosphorus, but not sodium levels, were measured (p<0.05 in the OTA treatment compared with the controls. In conclusion, the injection of eggs with OTA reduced blood calcium and phosphorus levels, which were associated with reduced whole body and yolk content from these electrolytes. Therefore, ochratoxin A had a negative effect on calcium metabolism.

  4. Effect of membrane potential on dialysis of calcium in a continuous-flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, M J; Farrance, I

    1978-12-01

    Electical potentials across the membrane in a modified AutoAnalyzer dialyzer (Technicon) have been determined under various conditions and related to the dialysis of 45Ca. The results suggest that anomalies in the diffusion of calcium from protein and nonprotein containing streams could be due to factors other than "Donnan equilibrium effects."

  5. Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Preparation of Low-fat Spreads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and citrate on thermal stability of whey protein stabilized oil-in-water emulsions containing calcium chloride. Food Res Int 2006; 39(2): 230-239. 10. Alexa RI, Mounsey JS, O'Kennedy BT, Jacquier JC. Effect of k-carrageenan on rheological properties, microstructure, texture and oxidative stability of water-in-oil spreads.

  6. Effects of irrigation solutions and Calcium hydroxide dressing on root canal treatments of periapical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Nirmala

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of root canal in endodontic treatment plays an important role in treating non vital teeth with periapical lesion. Some factors influence the success of root canal treatment in short and long terms are the irrigation of root canal using antiseptic solution and the use of root canal medicament. The aim of this literature study is to determined the effect of irrigation solution and Calcium hydroxide dressing in root canal treatment of periapical lesions. The use of root canal medicament during the endodontic treatment could sterilized and decreased the number of pathogenic microorganism of root canal. An effective root canal irrigation solution must be able to dissolve organic and anorganic debris, lubricate endodontic instruments, disinfect microorganisms, non toxic and economical. The best irrigation solution has maximum antimicrobial effect with minimum toxicity. Division of calcium hydroxide into Calcium and hydroxyl ions is responsible for alkalinization of cavity, subsequently it makes the condition of cavity to be inappropriate for bacterial endotoxin in vitro as well as in vivo, and considered as the only clinically effective medicament in inactivating bacterial endotoxin. Calcium hydroxide is the only medication which has the ability to clinically inactive bacterial endotoxin in vitro in vivo and accepted as the best of root canal medication.

  7. Calcium carbide (CaC2): Effect on fruit set and yield of mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of slow release calcium carbide (CaC2) to the soil are thought to improve plant growth and yield through the generation of acetylene, which inhibits nitrification, thereby reducing nitrogen losses which may be converted to physiologically significant concentrations of the plant growth regulator ethylene. The effects ...

  8. Effects of calcium magnesium acetate on the combustion of coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.

    1990-01-01

    The general objective of the project is to investigate the combustion behavior of single and multiple Coal-Water Slurry particles burning at high temperature environments. Both uncatalyzed as well as catalyzed CWS drops with Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA) catalyst will be investigated. Emphasis will also be given in the effects of CMA on the sulfur capture during combustion. 10 figs.

  9. Effect of calcium bentonite on lipid parameters in Wistar albino rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vivo effect of Nigerian calcium bentonite clay on rat plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels of Wistar albino rats was investigated. The rats were fed for a period of four weeks with varying concentrations of the bentonite clay, and the cholesterol and triglyceride levels determined using spectrophotometric methods.

  10. Acute effects of nasal salmon calcitonin on calcium and bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, G; Skousgaard, S G; Daugaard, H

    1993-01-01

    Effects of a single dose of 200 IU of nasal salmon calcitonin (SCT) on calcium metabolism and biochemical markers of bone turnover were investigated in 12 healthy male volunteers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. The nasal spray was given in the morning, and subsequently blood...

  11. Nanoscale observations of the effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.

    2016-04-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4ṡxH2O) minerals are naturally occurring minerals found in fossils, plants, kidney stones and is a by-product in some processes such as paper, food and beverage production [1,2]. In particular, calcium oxalate monohydrate phase (COM) also known as whewellite (CaC2O4ṡH2O), is the most frequently reported mineral phase found in urinary and kidney stones together with phosphates. Organic additives are well known to play a key role in the formation of minerals in both biotic and abiotic systems, either facilitating their precipitation or hindering it. In this regard, recent studies have provided direct evidence demonstrating that citrate species could enhance dissolution of COM and inhibit their precipitation. [3,4] The present work aims at evauate the influence of pH, citrate and oxalic acid concentrations in calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces (Island Spar, Chihuahua, Mexico) through in-situ nanoscale observation using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, Multimode, Bruker) in flow-through experiments. Changes in calcium oxalate morphologies and precipitated phases were observed, as well as the inhibitory effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation, which also lead to stabilization an the amorphous calcium oxalate phase. [1] K.D. Demadis, M. Öner, Inhibitory effects of "green"additives on the crystal growth of sparingly soluble salts, in: J.T. Pearlman (Ed.), Green Chemistry Research Trends, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 265-287. [2] M. Masár, M. Zuborová, D. Kaniansky, B. Stanislawski, Determination of oxalate in beer by zone electrophoresis on a chip with conductivity detection, J. Sep. Sci. 26 (2003) 647-652. [3] Chutipongtanate S, Chaiyarit S, Thongboonkerd V. Citrate, not phosphate, can dissolve calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and detach these crystals from renal tubular cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;689:219-25. [4] Weaver ML, Qiu SR, Hoyer JR, Casey WH, Nancollas GH, De Yoreo JJ

  12. Effect of early nutrition support on postoperative rehabilitation in patients with oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xing-An Zhang; Xiao-Yao Tan; Lan-Fang Zhang; Hua-Dong Wang; Xin-Sheng Han; Hua-Wei Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of early nutrition support on the postoperative nutrition metabolism and rehabilitation in patients with oral cancer. Methods: A total of 80 patients with oral cancer who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2013 to January, 2015 were included in the study, and divided into the observation group (early nutrition support) and control group (routine treatments) with 40 cases in each group. The postoperative basic nutrition requirement amoun...

  13. Effect of nutritional interventions on nutritional status, quality of life and mortality in patients with head and neck cancer receiving (chemo)radiotherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langius, Jacqueline A E; Zandbergen, Myrna C; Eerenstein, Simone E J; van Tulder, Maurits W; Leemans, C René; Kramer, Mark H H; Weijs, Peter J M

    2013-10-01

    We performed a systematic review to examine the effect of nutritional interventions on nutritional status, quality of life (QoL) and mortality in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, CENTRAL and Cinahl from inception through January 3rd, 2012 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from a broad range of nutritional interventions in patients with HNSCC during (chemo)radiotherapy. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Of 1141 titles identified, 12 study reports were finally included, describing 10 different studies with 11 interventions. Four out of 10 studies examined the effects of individualized dietary counseling, and showed significant benefits on nutritional status and QOL compared to no counseling or general nutritional advice by a nurse (p nutritional supplements (ONS) were inconsistent about the effect on nutritional status compared with no supplementation. One study showed that nasogastric tube feeding had beneficial effects on nutritional status compared to ONS, but not in all patient groups (p nutritional status shortly after RT compared with nasogastric feeding (p = 0.001). Two studies showed that prophylactic PEG feeding was not superior over tube feeding if required. This review shows beneficial effects of individualized dietary counseling on nutritional status and QoL, compared to no counseling or standard nutritional advice. Effects of ONS and tube feeding were inconsistent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of size and composition of the body on absolute measurement of calcium in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of size and composition of the body on the measurement of total calcium in absolute units by neutron activation analysis is described. The neutron beam, produced from a cyclotron, was of mean energy 7.5 MeV. Counting of the activities induced in a patient was carried out with a multidetector whole body counter. Calibration of the system was achieved by using two phantoms of different sizes containing known quantities of calcium. The dimensions of various phantom sections were varied to determine the effect on efficiency of activation, an approximately linear relationship with body thickness being found. The influence of body habitus on counting efficiency was assessed by counting different patients who had been given known quantities of 42 K. The effects of (a) the non-uniform distribution of calcium and (b) the variation in density of different tissues on both activation and counting efficiency are discussed. It is estimated that the 68% confidence limits on the measurement of 49 Ca count rate per unit neutron fluence is +- 3.0% and on the measurement of calcium in grams +- 8.2%. (author)

  15. Effect of a School-based Nutrition Education Program on the Nutritional Status of Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Keshani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of unhealthy food habits among Iranian children, we aimed to assess the effect of a school-based nutrition education program on nutritional status of primary school students in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This randomized educational controlled trial was carried out on 221 primary school age children selected by cluster sampling in the elementary schools of Shiraz-Iran. The intervention consisted of 6 nutrition education sessions carried out through one year for children, using active learning methods. Mothers’ education was carried out in person in both lecture and question-answer sessions also via sending text messages and pamphlets. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC of children were measured before and after the intervention. Also a 168-item food frequency questionnaire was completed. Two separate nutrition knowledge questionnaires were filled up by children and their mothers. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: 171 children (83 in the case and 88 in the control group, aged 9.5-10.5 years, completed the study. Anthropometric and nutritional knowledge of the participants in both the intervention and control groups was significantly increased. Weight, height, WC and nutritional knowledge increased significantly more in the intervention group compared to the controls. Consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased in the intervention group while plain sugar and fast foods intake increased among the controls. There were no significant differences between the changes in the intake of any of the food groups in the two groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, the designed nutrition education program could increase students’ nutritional knowledge, and lead to a non-significant change towards reducing the consumption of unhealthy foods such as fast foods, sweets and salty snacks.

  16. The effects of prolonged oral administration of the disinfectant calcium hypochlorite in Nigerian commercial cockerels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitayo O. Iji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of prolonged oral administration of calcium hypochlorite in the drinking water of commercial cockerels. It was carried out in order to ascertain probable toxicity associated with prolonged exposure to calcium hypochlorite. Thirty-two healthy birds were used; they were grouped into four groups of eight. Group 1, which served as the control, received 10 mL/kg body weight of physiological saline. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.0375 g, 0.375 g and 0.75 g of calcium hypochlorite per 10 litres of drinking water for six weeks respectively. Six weeks after the administration of calcium hypochlorite, blood was collected from the jugular vein to assess liver function, lipid profiles and for markers of oxidative stress. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in alanine aminotransferase activity in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. Also, there was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity. Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein levels compared with the control. There was a significant increase in malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide generation with a concomitant significant (p < 0.05 decrease in serum glutathione level in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. In this study, calcium hypochloriteinduced hepatic damage via oxidative stress and decrease in antioxidant defense system was found. Therefore, prolonged exposure of chickens to calcium hypochlorite is potentially harmful.

  17. The effects of prolonged oral administration of the disinfectant calcium hypochlorite in Nigerian commercial cockerels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitayo O. Iji

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of prolonged oral administration of calcium hypochlorite in the drinking water of commercial cockerels. It was carried out in order to ascertain probable toxicity associated with prolonged exposure to calcium hypochlorite. Thirty-two healthy birds were used; they were grouped into four groups of eight. Group 1, which served as the control, received 10 mL/kg body weight of physiological saline. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.0375 g, 0.375 g and 0.75 g of calcium hypochlorite per 10 litres of drinking water for six weeks respectively. Six weeks after the administration of calcium hypochlorite, blood was collected from the jugular vein to assess liver function, lipid profiles and for markers of oxidative stress. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in alanine aminotransferase activity in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. Also, there was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity. Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein levels compared with the control. There was a significant increase in malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide generation with a concomitant significant (p < 0.05 decrease in serum glutathione level in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. In this study, calcium hypochloriteinduced hepatic damage via oxidative stress and decrease in antioxidant defense system was found. Therefore, prolonged exposure of chickens to calcium hypochlorite is potentially harmful.

  18. The effects of prolonged oral administration of the disinfectant calcium hypochlorite in Nigerian commercial cockerels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iji, Temitayo O; Oyagbemi, Ademola A; Azeez, Odunayo I

    2013-11-25

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of prolonged oral administration of calcium hypochlorite in the drinking water of commercial cockerels. It was carried out in order to ascertain probable toxicity associated with prolonged exposure to calcium hypochlorite. Thirty-two healthy birds were used; they were grouped into four groups of eight. Group 1, which served as the control, received 10 mL/kg body weight of physiological saline. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.0375 g, 0.375 g and 0.75 g of calcium hypochlorite per 10 litres of drinking water for six weeks respectively. Six weeks after the administration of calcium hypochlorite, blood was collected from the jugular vein to assess liver function, lipid profiles and for markers of oxidative stress. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in alanine aminotransferase activity in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. Also, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity. Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein levels compared with the control. There was a significant increase in malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide generation with a concomitant significant (p < 0.05) decrease in serum glutathione level in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. In this study, calcium hypochloriteinduced hepatic damage via oxidative stress and decrease in antioxidant defense system was found. Therefore, prolonged exposure of chickens to calcium hypochlorite is potentially harmful.

  19. The effect of calcium hydroxide, alkali dilution and calcium concentration in mitigating the alkali silica reaction using palm oil fuel ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrah, Hidayati; Mirasa, Abdul Karim; Bolong, Nurmin

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the mechanism of how POFA mitigated the ASR expansion. Two types of POFA; the UPOFA and GPOFA with different fineness were used to replace the cement at 20% and 40% and their effects on the mortar bar expansion, calcium hydroxide, alkali dilution, and calcium concentration were investigated. The results showed that UPOFA has a significant ability to mitigate the ASR, even at a lower level of replacement (20%) compared to GPOFA. The mechanism of UPOFA in mitigating the ASR expansion was through a reduction in the calcium hydroxide content, which produced low calcium concentration within the mortar pore solution. Low pore solution alkalinity signified that UPOFA had good alkali dilution effect. Meanwhile, a higher dosage of GPOFA was required to mitigate the ASR expansion. An increase in the pore solution alkalinity of GPOFA mortar indicated higher penetration of alkalis from the NaOH solution, which reduced the alkali dilution effect. However, this was compensated by the increase in the cement dilution effect at higher GPOFA replacement, which controlled the mortar bar expansion below the ASTM limit.

  20. Feed the Alien! The Effects of a Nutrition Instruction Game on Children's Nutritional Knowledge and Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Roel C J; van den Broek, Nina; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Otten, Roy; Ruiter, Emilie L M; Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C

    2018-04-10

    Serious games are a promising venue to increase children's nutritional knowledge in an entertaining format. The aim of this study was to test the short-term effectiveness of the Alien Health Game, a videogame designed to teach elementary school children about nutrition and healthy food choices. To examine the effects of the Alien Health Game, an experimental design with a single between-subjects factor (experimental condition vs. active control condition) was used. A total of 108 Dutch children (10-13 years; 58 boys) were randomly assigned to either play Alien Health using the Kinect sensor for two consecutive days, for 1 hour of gameplay (experimental condition; n = 50), or a web-based nutrition game for the same period (active control condition; n = 58). Participants' nutritional knowledge was assessed at pretest, immediate, and at 2-week follow-up. Food intake was assessed at immediate and 2-week follow-up. Participants who played Alien Health had better knowledge of the five most important macronutrients of foods at immediate posttest, but not at follow-up. Participants were better able to distinguish the healthier food item out of two options over time, but this effect did not differ for those in the experimental versus the active control condition. No differences in food intake, neither in the consumption of nutrient-dense or energy-dense foods, were found between children playing both games. A brief game-based intervention like the Alien Health Game has the potential to improve children's nutritional knowledge in the short term, but may not be strong enough to increase nutritional knowledge and actual eating behavior in the long term. Further investigation is warranted before this game is applied in future nutrition education programs.

  1. Long-term persistence of the urine calcium-lowering effect of potassium bicarbonate in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, Lynda; Morris, R Curtis; Sebastian, Anthony

    2005-02-01

    Potassium bicarbonate (KBC) potently reduces urine calcium excretion in adult humans, including patients with hypertension or calcium urolithiasis, and postmenopausal women. In the latter, who have substantial risk of calcium deficiency, it remains unknown whether the observed short-term urine calcium-lowering effect of KBC persists over years. We studied 170 postmenopausal women randomized to KBC 30, 60, or 90 mmol/d (KBC treatment), or placebo, for up to 36 months. Each received a multivitamin with 400 IU vitamin D, and calcium carbonate as needed to produce a total dietary calcium intake of at least 30 mmol daily. Daily urine calcium excretion (UCaV) did not differ among groups at baseline (all-groups mean +/- SD, 155 +/- 83 mg/d). From 1-36 months of KBC treatment, adjusting UCaV for creatinine (Cr) excretion, each dose of KBC reduced UCaV (P UCaV/Cr persisted throughout the KBC treatment period (up to 36 months) in all KBC, and the greatest reductions occurred in the subjects with greatest baseline UCaV/Cr (Delta UCaV/Cr vs. baseline UCaV/Cr; P UCaV/Cr > 200 mg Ca/1000 mg Cr). With baseline UCaV/Cr of 250 mg/1000 mg Cr, KBC 60 mmol decreased UCaV/Cr by 55.8 mg/1000 mg Cr, a potential daily calcium retention that over a 36-month period would accumulate up to 55,845 mg of calcium, nearly 5% of bone calcium content. KBC treatment induced a dose-dependent decrease in UCaV/Cr that persisted up to 36 months, with the greatest decreases occurring in those women with the greatest baseline UCaV, nearly a third of whom had high baseline calciuria. Thus, one can preselect postmenopausal women most likely to have the urine calcium-lowering effect of KBC and predict their potential bone calcium increase.

  2. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  3. The Effect of Maternal Nutrition on the Development of the Offspring: An International Symposium. Nutrition Reports International, Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Lois M., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Contents of this symposium include the following papers: "Effect of Maternal Protein Malnutrition on Neonatal Lung Development and Mitochondrial Function," E. J. Hawrylewicz, J. Q. Kissane, W. H. Blair and C. A. Heppner; "Effect of the Level of Nutrition on Rates of Cell Proliferation and of RNA and Protein Syntheses in the Rat," L. M. Roeder;…

  4. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  5. Radioprotective effect of calcium channel blockers against late rectal bleeding in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaccesi, Mariangela; Ippolito, Edy; Deodato, Francesco; Cilla, Savino; Digesù, Cinzia; Macchia, Gabriella; Caravatta, Luciana; Picardi, Vincenzo; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Di Lallo, Alessandra; Cuscunà, Daniele; Cellini, Numa; Valentini, Vincenzo; Morganti, Alessio G

    2014-05-01

    This study was done to assess the impact of clinical factors and in particular the use of drugs for concomitant illnesses on late radiation-induced rectal bleeding in patients with prostate cancer. Patients with histologically proven prostate adenocarcinoma treated with radical radiotherapy and followed up for at least 6 months were selected. The correlation between late rectal bleeding and a number of factors was investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 278 patients who underwent radiotherapy at our institution between October 2002 and May 2011 were selected. At univariate analysis, delivery of radiation doses higher than 70 Gy and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were associated with a higher incidence of rectal bleeding. Conversely, patients who used calcium channel blockers had a lower risk (3-year rectal bleeding-free survival 89.8 versus 66.5 %, p = 0.043). At multivariate analysis, use of calcium channel blockers was found to have a protective effect with a hazard ratio of 0.3 (95 % CI 0.12-0.96). Delivery of higher radiation doses was associated with an increased risk of rectal bleeding (hazard ratio 3.02, 95 % CI 1.23-7.38). Use of calcium channel blockers during and after radiotherapy treatment might have a protective effect against late rectal bleeding. If these results are reconfirmed by larger clinical series, calcium channel blockers may be tested as radioprotector agents in clinical trials.

  6. The effect of calcium and phosphorus supplementation on metabolic bone disorders in premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torabi, Z.; Moemeni, N.; Ahmadiafshar, A.; Mazloomzadeh, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of calcium and phosphorus on radiological and biochemical characteristics of osteopenia in premature infants. Methods: The randomised clinical trial study was conducted at Valie-e-Asr Hospital of Zanjan city, Iran, from December 2010 to June 2011. It involved monitoring 40 premature neonates over a period of six months. The babies, who were fed with breast milk and 400 units of vitamin D daily, were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group received supplement of calcium and phosphorus. Serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels as well as growth parameters (including weight, height, and head circumference) were measured every two weeks. At the end of the study, wrist X-ray was done for evaluation of osteopenia. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: Radiological changes, characteristic of osteopenia, were found in 8(40%) cases and 13(65%) controls (p<0.113). The mean of weight, length and head circumference increased significantly from second to sixth week during follow-up (p<0.0001). Phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase activity decreased significantly from second to sixth week of follow-up (p<0.02, p<0.01 respectively). However, repeated measurement analyses did not show significant effect of intervention in biochemical and growth parameters in the trial group. Conclusion: The study didn't show significant effect of calcium and phosphorus on prevention of osteopenia and improvement of growth. Further studies of longer duration and with different doses of supplement are recommended. (author)

  7. Multitrophic effects of calcium availability on invasive alien plants, birds, and bird prey items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince D' Amico; Greg Shriver; Jake Bowman; Meg Ballard; Whitney Wiest; Liz Tymkiw; Melissa. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Acid rain alters forest soil calcium concentrations in two ways: (1) hydrogen ions displace exchangeable calcium adsorbed to soil surfaces, and (2) aluminum is released to soil water by acid rain and displaces adsorbed calcium. This increases the absorption of aluminum by plant roots, and decreases the absorption of calcium, causing calcium to be more readily leached...

  8. Effectiveness of nutrition education in Dutch primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fries, M.C.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition education in Dutch primary schools” School-based nutrition education programmes have increasingly been used to teach children about nutrition and to provide them with the skills to make healthy food choices. As these programmes differ in content and delivery,

  9. Effectiveness of nutrition education in Dutch primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fries, M.C.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition education in Dutch primary schools”

    School-based nutrition education programmes have increasingly been used to teach children about nutrition and to provide them with the skills to make healthy food choices. As these programmes differ in content and delivery, it

  10. Effect of Personalized Nutritional Counseling on the Nutritional Status of Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, In-Young; Kim, Woo Jeong; Park, Hyeong Cheon; Choi, Hoon Young; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Song Mi

    2017-10-01

    This study set out to evaluate the impact of personalized nutritional counseling (PNC) on the nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD) patients. This was an intervention study for 10 months at 2 hospitals. Anthropometric, biochemical, dietary, and body composition parameters were measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of PNC. A total of 42 patients (23 men and 19 women) were included. Intake of dietary protein, serum albumin, and cholesterol levels had increased significantly from baseline to month 6 (p nutritional status of the subjects using the malnutrition inflammation score (MIS), and divided them into an adequately nourished (AN) and a malnourished (MN) group at baseline. In the subgroup analysis, serum levels of albumin and cholesterol had increased significantly, particularly from baseline to month 6 in the MN group (p nutritional status, particularly in malnourished patients receiving HD treatment.

  11. Bone Mineral Density Accrual in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Calcium Intake and Physical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mahmood; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with autism spectrum disorders. For this reason 60 boy students with autism disorder (age 8-10 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  12. [Effects of grape procyanidins on the concentration of intracellular calcium and the proliferation activity of the hepatoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jin-Yi; Li, Jie; Liu, Hui; Zhang, She-Hua

    2006-09-01

    To investigate the effects of grape procyanidins (GPC) on concentration of intracellular calcium and the proliferation activity of normal hepatic cells and the hepatic cell injuried by alcohol. Rat hepatic cells and the cell injuried by alcohol were cultured with different concentration of GPC. The proliferation activity and concentration of intracellular calcium of the hepatic cells were measured by MTT assay and Fura-2 fluorescence methods. (1) The concentration of intracellular calcium of the normal control group and alcohol injury group were (108.26 +/- 14.17) and (651.24 +/- 47.95) nmol/L respectively, and that of both the high and the medium dose GPC groups were lower than the alcohol injury group, all differences are significant (P calcium in the normal hepatic cells treated with GPC is the group with calcium of extracellular fluid > the group free from calcium of extracellular fluid > the normal control group. (3) The proliferation activity of the high and the medium dose GPC group of normal hepatic cell and the cell injuried by alcohol were higher than the normal control group and alcohol injury group, all differences are significant (P calcium concentration of normal hepatic cell by increasing extracellular fluidca introaffluxion and release from calcium pool, and enhance the proliferation activity of hepatic cells. It also can inhibit the abnormal rise (overload) of intracellular calcium concentration and the proliferation activity injury of hepatic cell induced by alcohol.

  13. Effects of dietary energy and calcium levels on performance, egg shell quality and bone metabolism in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sha; Cui, Luying; Shi, Cheng; Ke, Xiao; Luo, Jingwen; Hou, Jiafa

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary energy and calcium levels on laying performance, eggshell quality and bone metabolism of layers. One hundred and sixty-two 19-week-old Hy-Line brown laying hens in 54 battery cages were allocated to one of nine dietary treatments with control, middle and high levels of energy (11.50, 12.68 and 13.37 MJ/kg, respectively) and low, control and high levels of calcium (2.62%, 3.7% and 4.4%, respectively) for 60 days, using a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Compared with the control energy diet, high- and middle-energy diets increased fat deposition and egg weight, decreased feed intake and bone quality and had no effects on eggshell quality. The high-energy diet reduced the serum phosphate concentration and elevated osteocalcin mRNA expression in the keel bone without increasing osteocalcin protein. Dietary calcium intake did not affect fat deposition, feed intake or egg weight. Low dietary calcium resulted in weaker eggshells and poorer bone quality than that from hens fed the control diet. High dietary calcium increased serum calcium concentration, osteoprotegerin mRNA and osteocalcin protein and inhibited serum alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased its mRNA compared with low or control dietary calcium. The high-energy and high-calcium diet significantly reduced egg production. Compared with the control energy diet, high- and middle-energy diets increased fat deposition but had negative effects on bone metabolic homeostasis. Dietary calcium did not influence fat deposition but a high-calcium diet benefited bone homeostasis, while a low-calcium diet was associated with poorer eggshell quality and bone homeostasis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Digital Nutrition Education Intervention on the Nutritional Knowledge Levels of Information Technology Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priya; Rani, M Usha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in knowledge of information technology (IT) professionals after receiving a nutrition education intervention for a month. The sample comprised of 40 IT professionals (29 males and 11 females). The sample was drawn from four IT companies of Hyderabad city using random sampling techniques. The data on the general information of the subjects was collected. The data regarding the commonly accessed sources of nutrition and health information by the subjects was also obtained from the study. The intervention study group received nutrition education by distribution of the developed CD-ROMs to them followed by interactive sessions. To assess the impact of nutrition education intervention, the knowledge assessment questionnaire (KAQ) was developed and administered before and after the education programme. A significant improvement in the mean nutritional knowledge scores was observed among the total study subjects from 22.30 to 40.55 after the intervention (p educated groups on nutrition, physical activity and overall health education to improve their health, lifestyle and eating habits.

  15. Effects of Calcium Channel Blockers on Antidepressant Action of Alprazolam and Imipramine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorash ZM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Alprazolam is effective as an anxiolytic and in the adjunct treatment of depression. In this study, the effects of calcium channel antagonists on the antidepressant action of alprazolam and imipramine were investigated. A forced swimming maze was used to study behavioral despair in albino mice. Mice were divided into nine groups (n = 7 per group. One group received a single dose of 1% Tween 80; two groups each received a single dose of the antidepressant alone (alprazolam or imipramine; two groups each received a single dose of the calcium channel blocker (nifedipine or verapamil; four groups each received a single dose of the calcium channel blocker followed by a single dose of the antidepressant (with same doses used for either in the previous four groups. Drug administration was performed concurrently on the nine groups. Our data confirmed the antidepressant action of alprazolam and imipramine. Both nifedipine and verapamil produced a significant antidepressant effect (delay the onset of immobility when administered separately. Verapamil augmented the antidepressant effects of alprazolam and imipramine (additive antidepressant effect. This may be due to the possibility that verapamil might have antidepressant-like effect through different mechanism. Nifedipine and imipramine combined led to a delay in the onset of immobility greater than their single use but less than the sum of their independent administration. This may be due to the fact that nifedipine on its own might act as an antidepressant but blocks one imipramine mechanism that depends on L-type calcium channel activation. Combining nifedipine with alprazolam produced additional antidepressant effects, which indicates that they exert antidepressant effects through different mechanisms.

  16. The effect of calcium and phosphorus supplementation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment lasted 12) weeks of lactation. Results show that dry matter intake (DMI) was between 4.2 and 4.5% of body weight (BW). Treatment effect on blood glucose (BG) and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) was not significant. Effects of week and time of blood collection were highly significant (P<0.01). Mean value (%of ...

  17. Feeding effect of magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus on growth and clinical symptoms of calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Her Sasongko, B.

    1987-01-01

    Feeding effect of magnesium, calcium and phosphorus on growth and clinical symptoms of calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves of 1-5 days old were used in the experiments. The calves were placed into 4 groups of 5 calves each. Group I was fed with basal diet, group II: basal diet + 1,4% magnesium, group III: basal diet + 1,4% magnesium + 1,8% calcium, and group IV: basal diet + 1,4% magnesium + 1,6% phosphorus. The animals were fed for 9 weeks. Result indicated that the average body weight of groups II and IV was lower than groups I (P 0,05) and III. Diarrhea was the most noticeable visual observation of group II, III and IV. Fecal texture of group I was solid, that of group II was extremely watery, group III was thick without folds, and group IV was watery. It seemed that dietary magnesium increased the calcium content in the serum and decreased the calcium content. The end result of the experiment showed that CALCULI-URETHRALIS were found in group II and IV. (author). 9 refs.; 5 figs

  18. Synergistic effect of calcium and bicarbonate in enhancing arsenate release from ferrihydrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfield, Samantha L.; Bostick, Benjamin C.

    2010-09-01

    Many groundwater systems contain anomalously high arsenic concentrations, associated with less than expected retention of As by adsorption to iron (hydr)oxides. Although carbonates are ubiquitous in aquifers, their relationship to arsenate mobilization is not well characterized. This research examines arsenate release from poorly crystalline iron hydroxides in abiotic systems containing calcium and magnesium with bicarbonate under conditions of static and dynamic flow (pH 7.5-8). Aqueous arsenic levels remained low when arsenate-bearing ferrihydrite was equilibrated with artificial groundwater solution containing Ca, Mg, and HCO 3-. In batch titrations in which a solution of Ca and HCO 3- was added repeatedly, the ferrihydrite surface became saturated with adsorbed Ca and HCO 3-, and aqueous As levels increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude. In columns containing Ca or Mg and HCO 3-, As solubility initially mimicked titrations, but then rapidly increased by an additional order of magnitude (reaching 12 μM As). Separately, calcium chloride and other simple salts did not induce As release, although sodium bicarbonate and lactate facilitated minor As release under flow. Results indicate that adsorption of calcium or magnesium with bicarbonate leads to As desorption from ferrihydrite, to a degree greater than expected from competitive effects alone, especially under dynamic flow. This desorption may be an important mechanism of As mobilization in As-impacted, circumneutral aquifers, especially those undergoing rapid mineralization of organic matter, which induces calcite dissolution and the production of dissolved calcium and bicarbonate.

  19. Effect of Breast Milk Calcium and Fluidity on Breast Cancer Cells: An In Vitro Cell Culture Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Recep; Yavuz, Muhsine Zeynep; Benek, Bedri Selim; Aydoğar Bozkurt, Ayşenur; Ucbek, Ali; Özünal, Zeynep Güneş; Gepdiremen, Akçahan

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of calcium at the same concentration as that found in human milk on the viability, proliferation, and adhesion of MCF-7 human breast ductal carcinoma cells by exposing them to calcium at the same frequency as in breastfeeding. High-concentration calcium was applied for 30 minutes every 4 hours for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Cell proliferation and viability were measured using a hemocytometer and the MTT cell viability assay. The effects of calcium treatment were evaluated by a comparison among a multiple-, single-dose calcium treatment, and a control group. We show that calcium at the same concentration as that in milk caused a decrease in the number of cells but did not affect cell viability. The results of this study suggest that calcium caused a lowering of the number of cells from the luminal surface of the breast by triggering proliferation under the condition of fluidity. Calcium and fluidity together serve to eliminate breast cancer stem cells during the lactation period. Effects of the other components of milk can be analyzed by the new method developed in this study.

  20. Effect of in-office bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with and without addition of calcium on the enamel surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Izadora Quintela Souza; Silva, Lucas Nunes de Brito; Porto, Isabel Cristina Celerino de Moraes; de Lima Neto, Cantídio Francisco; Dos Santos, Natanael Barbosa; Fragoso, Larissa Silveira de Mendonça

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness and effects of bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with and without calcium on color, micromorphology, and the replacement of calcium and phosphate on the enamel surface. Thirty bovine enamel blocks (5.0 × 5.0 mm) were placed into the following groups: G1: artificial saliva (control); G2: 35% hydrogen peroxide gel without calcium (Whiteness HP Maxx-FGM); and G3: 35% hydrogen peroxide gel with calcium (Whiteness HP Blue-FGM). Three color measurements were performed with a spectrophotometer: untreated (baseline), after performing staining, and after application of bleaching agents. Calcium deposition on the enamel was evaluated before and after the application of bleaching agents using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The enamel surface micromorphology was observed under scanning electron microscopy. The pH of each product was measured. The data were subjected to one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), and any differences were analyzed using Tukey's test (P hydrogen peroxide with calcium showed greater bleaching potential, but the addition of calcium had no effect in terms of reducing morphological changes or increasing the calcium concentration on the enamel surface. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Potential effects of ocean acidification on Alaskan corals based on calcium carbonate mineralogy composition analysis (NCEI Accession 0157223)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains potential effects of ocean acidification on Alaskan corals based on calcium carbonate mineralogy composition analysis. Effects of...

  2. Effect of sound on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling: Calcium waves under acoustic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deymier, P A; Swinteck, N; Runge, K; Deymier-Black, A; Hoying, J B

    2015-01-01

    We present a previously unrecognized effect of sound waves on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling such as in biological tissues composed of endothelial cells. We suggest that sound irradiation may, through temporal and spatial modulation of cell-to-cell conductance, create intercellular calcium waves with unidirectional signal propagation associated with nonconventional topologies. Nonreciprocity in calcium wave propagation induced by sound wave irradiation is demonstrated in the case of a linear and a nonlinear reaction-diffusion model. This demonstration should be applicable to other types of gap-junction-based intercellular signals, and it is thought that it should be of help in interpreting a broad range of biological phenomena associated with the beneficial therapeutic effects of sound irradiation and possibly the harmful effects of sound waves on health.

  3. Empowering Esrd Patients For Assisted Self Nutritional Care: A Simple But Effective Intervention For Improving Nutritional Status Of Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratim Sengupta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein energy wasting (PEW is a prevalent problem among hemodialysis patients. Lack of adherence to dietary principle based conventional diet charts often fail to satisfy the nutritional requirements of the patients. We studied the effect of simple nutritional training and empowerment of the patients to formulate their own dietary menu in nutritional parameters of hemodialysis patients in 68 stable non diabetic End stage renal disease (ESRD patients who are on maintenance hemodialysis. The factors which otherwise can affect the nutritional status like sepsis, malignancy,tuberculosis were excluded. At the beginning patient's baseline nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements, Subjective Global Assessment and serum albumin level. Body composition was assessed by linear regression equation (Durin-Womersley and Siri equation. The patients were divided in two comparable groups (Group-A&B. In group A patients were prescribed individualized dietary prescription; based on their nutritional allowance as per KDOQI guideline. In Group-B the patients were initially made familiar with the dietary principals of the commonly consumed food. Then they were trained by renal nutritionist by study material, visual aid, and proportional food models and one to one discussion to formulate a dietary menu, by these they were empowered to formulate their own dietary menu. They were constantly assisted when faced any problem. In both the group the nutritional parameters were reassessed after three months of intervention. The results were analyzed statistically. There was statistically significant mean increment in the fat free mass index in GroupB[0.8%(Gr.-AVs1.0%(Gr.-B,(p<0.05], the mean increment in the serum albumin in the GroupB was also significantly higher than GroupA[(0.6gm/dl(Gr.A Vs 0.9 gm/dl(Gr.B, p<0.0].Compared to Group-A there was statistically favorable anthropometric changes in Group-B. In conclusion patient empowerment and self

  4. Effects of lanthanum on calcium and magnesium contents and cytoplasmic streaming of internodal cells of Chara corallina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Yu, Ming; Zhou, Yunlong; Zhao, Yuliang

    2011-10-01

    Biological and environmental effects of lanthanide series of elements have received much attention recently due to their wide applications. In this study, effects of La(3+) treatments on calcium and magnesium concentrations as well as cytoplasmic streaming of internodal cells of Chara corallina were investigated. At all treatment concentrations (10, 100, and 1,000 μM), La(3+) significantly decreased calcium concentrations in the cell-wall fractions after 5-h treatments. Calcium concentrations in the cell contents and magnesium concentrations in the cell-wall fractions were reduced by 100 and 1,000 μM La(3+) treatments. However, cytoplasmic streaming as an indicator of [Ca(2+)](cyt) was only inhibited at the highest La(3+) concentration (1,000 μM). The results suggest that La(3+) may affect cellular calcium homeostasis by actions other than as a simple Ca(2+) antagonist. La(3+) could partially compensate for calcium deficiency at certain concentrations.

  5. Alleviation of ascorbic acid-induced gastric high acidity by calcium ascorbate in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joon-Kyung; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Eun; Han, Joo-Hui; Jo, Eunji; Park, Hyun-Soo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Deasun; Park, Jeong-Sook; Myung, Chang-Seon

    2017-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the most well-known nutritional supplement and antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Calcium ascorbate has been developed to mitigate the gastric irritation caused by the acidity of ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to compare calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid, focusing on their antioxidant activity and effects on gastric juice pH, total acid output, and pepsin secretion in an in vivo rat model, as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Calcium ascorbate an...

  6. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and over: 1,200 mg/day The body needs vitamin D to help absorb calcium. You can get ... from your diet. Ask your provider whether you need to take a vitamin D supplement. SIDE EFFECTS AND SAFETY DO NOT ...

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTION MEASURES ON CHILDREN ADMITTED IN NUTRITIONAL REHABILITATION CENTER (NRC KING GEORGE HOSPITAL- VISAKHAPATNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Rao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND NRC was started in Visakhapatnam (KGH in December’ 2012 to nutritionally rehabilitate severely acute malnourished children. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of rehabilitation services provided at Nutritional Rehabilitation Center. OBJECTIVES 1 To evaluate the effectiveness of Nutritional interventional measures undertaken at Nutritional Rehabilitation Center through review of selected anthropometric measure indicators. 2 To assess the nutritional status after discharge from Nutritional Rehabilitation center. METHODS A Retrospective record based (secondary data study conducted in the month of November 2013.Sevevnty five children were admitted in Nutritional Rehabilitation Center (NRC of KGH, Visakhapatnam in the months of April to October 2013. The data was obtained from NRC records including anthropometric measurements at admission, discharge and follow-up. RESULTS Twenty percent of the children were less than 12 months of age and 34.7% were in the age group of 13–24 months. Forty eight percent were female and 52% were male children. Majority (93% of the children stayed in the NRC for more than 14 days. There was significant difference in the weight of children at the time of admission and at the time of discharge (t= - 15.942, p=0.001. There was no significant difference in Mid Arm Circumference at the time of admission and at the time of discharge (t = -0.942, p=0.349. Fourteen percent were defaulted. There was significant difference in weight of children at the time of discharge and at the time of first follow-up (t=2.203, p=0.03 and third follow-up (t= -8.903, p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS NRCs are effective in improving the nutritional status of severely acute malnourished children and the follow-up also shows the children are having catch-up growth. RECOMMENDATIONS: 1 Adequate number of NRCs should be available for severely acute malnourished children in all the areas. 2 Effective counseling measures should be

  8. The effects of synthetic human secretin on calcium carbonate solubility in human bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyrim, K; Vakil, N

    1990-11-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of synthetic human secretin on ionized calcium and carbonate concentrations in human hepatic bile. Five patients with a nasobiliary drain in the right hepatic duct were studied. Three basal samples of bile were collected, each over a 15-minute period. Synthetic human secretin was then infused IV at 0.05 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 for 45 minutes followed by 0.5 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 for 45 minutes. Bile was sampled over 15-minute periods. To document return to baseline conditions, two further samples of bile were obtained over 15-minute periods 2 hours after the infusion was terminated. Bile acid concentration was determined by an enzymatic method; pH and PCO2 were measured with an automated analyzer. Total calcium was determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and ionized calcium by an ion-specific electrode. Bicarbonate and carbonate concentrations were calculated using Henry's law and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. The fraction of bile sampled by the catheter was determined by Indocyanin Green recovery at the end of the experiment. Secretin caused an increase in bile flow and bicarbonate output. Bicarbonate concentrations increased from 26 +/- 3 mmol/L to 41 +/- 3 mmol/L (P less than 0.05), and chloride concentrations decreased. Mean bile acid concentrations declined significantly from 14.6 +/- 2 mmol/L to 4.7 +/- 1 mmol/L (P less than 0.05). Ionized calcium concentrations decreased from 0.7 +/- 0.005 mmol/L to 0.5 +/- 0.02 mmol/L (P less than 0.05) while pH increased significantly from 7.44 +/- 0.06 to 7.6 +/- 0.04 (P less than 0.05). Carbonate concentrations increased significantly from 0.15 +/- 0.02 mmol/L to 0.26 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, and the ion product for calcium carbonate increased significantly from 0.099 +/- 0.002 (mmol/L)2 to 0.135 +/- 0.015 (mmol/L)2 (P less than 0.05). Synthetic human secretin augments the ion product of calcium and carbonate in human hepatic bile, increasing the tendency for

  9. High Pressure Processing Treatment of Fresh-Cut Carrots: Effect of Presoaking in Calcium Salts on Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of high pressure (HP treatment (200–600 MPa; 0–20 min on quality of fresh-cut carrot slices was evaluated after presoaking in selected calcium salt solutions (1% calcium chloride, 1% calcium lactate, 1% calcium gluconate, and distilled water as control for one hour. Results showed that calcium chloride (CaCl2 solution pretreatment was most effective for preserving the hardness of carrot slices at 400 and 600 MPa and this treatment also resulted in the least amount of color change in carrots, followed by calcium lactate, gluconate, and control pretreatments. The average sensory evaluation scores during 9 days of refrigerated storage at 4°C in control, CaCl2, calcium lactate, and calcium gluconate presoaking treatments followed by HP treatment were 6.4 ± 0.5, 8.0 ± 0.5, 7.8 ± 0.4, and 7.6 ± 0.3, respectively, on a zero to 9 scale for quality.

  10. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts.

  11. The effects of different irrigation protocols on removing calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... technique was been shown to be more effective in dentine debris removal from the root canal than the delivery of the irrigant using a syringe.[25] PUI works on the principle of placing a small file at the center of a previously shaped root canal and activating it to produce acoustic streaming and cavitation.

  12. Effect of extracellular calcium chloride on sporangiospore-yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... broth treatment at 0.25 mM ZnSO4: pH 4.5 which gave optimum biomass in a previous study. ... In an attempt to explain the cryptic biophysical changes .... treatments. The effect of extracellular pH levels on sporangiospore- yeast transformation had earlier been shown (Omoifo,. 1996). In synthetic broth, pH ...

  13. Effects of 1-butanol, neomycin and calcium on the photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    Institute of Food Crops, Jiangsu High Quality Rice R&D Center, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing,. Jiangsu Province, 210014, China. Accepted 31 October, 2011. The effects .... and blue light source under the open system, with the following conditions: 1200 µmol m-2s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density.

  14. Effects of dietary crude protein and calcium/ phosphorus content on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of three levels of crude protein (CP) (NRC, 15% more than NRC and 15% less than NRC) and three levels of Ca and available P (Av. P) (NRC, 15% more than NRC and 15% less than NRC) on performance of broilers from hatching until 21 days of age. The experimental ...

  15. Effects of 1-butanol, neomycin and calcium on the photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-31

    Oct 31, 2011 ... The results show that,. 0.04% 1-butanol and 0.05 mmol L-1 Ca2+ has a significant effect on the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of the three tested materials. ... pepc transgenic rice; Pn, net photosynthetic rate; PLD, phospholipase D; PLC ...... Fukayama H, Hatch MD, Tamai T(2003).Activity regulation and.

  16. Effect of phase composition of calcium silicate phosphate component on properties of brushite based composite cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopcak, T., E-mail: tsopcak@imr.saske.sk [Institute of Materials Research of SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Medvecky, L.; Giretova, M.; Stulajterova, R.; Durisin, J. [Institute of Materials Research of SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Girman, V. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Faberova, M. [Institute of Materials Research of SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia)

    2016-07-15

    The composite cement mixtures were prepared by mixing brushite (B) with, the amorphous hydrated calcium silicate phosphate (CSPH) or annealed calcium silicate phosphate (CSP composed of Si-saturated hydroxyapatite, wollastonite and silica) phases and water as liquid component. The contents of the silicate-phosphate phase in composites were 10.30 and 50 wt%. The significant effect of both the Ca/P ratio and different solubility of calcium silicate phosphate component in starting cement systems on setting time and phase composition of the final composite cements was demonstrated. The compressive strength of the set cements increased with the filler addition and the highest value (~ 48 MPa) exhibited the 50CSP/B cement composite. The final setting times of the composite cements decreased with the CSPH addition from about 25 to 17 min in 50CSHP/B and setting time of CSP/B composites was around 30 min. The higher content of silica in cements caused the precipitation of fine hydroxyapatite particles in the form of nanoneedles or thin plates perpendicularly oriented to sample surface. The analysis of in vitro cement cytotoxicity demonstrated the strong reduction in cytotoxicity of 10CSPH/B composite with time of cultivation (a low cytotoxicity after 9 days of culture) contrary to cements with higher calcium silicate-phosphate content. These results were attributed to the different surface topography of composite substrates and possible stimulation of cell proliferation by the slow continuously release of ions from 10CSPH/B cement. - Highlights: • Ca/P ratio and solubility of calcium silicate-phosphate components affect the self-setting properties of cements. • Strong relationship between the composite in vitro cytotoxicity and surface microtopography was demonstrated. • Plate-like morphology of coarser particles allowed cells to better adhere and proliferate as compared with nanoneedles.

  17. Effect of Sulfur in Steel on Transient Evolution of Inclusions During Calcium Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhang, Ying; Duan, Haojian; Ren, Ying; Yang, Wen

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, the effect of S content in the molten steel on inclusions during calcium treatment was studied using an induction furnace. The calcium in steel decreased from 48 to 2 ppm, and the sulfur in steel changed a little with time. When sulfur content in steel was as low as 25 ppm during calcium treatment, inclusions shifted from CaO-Al2O3-CaS to Al2O3-CaO with about 35 pct CaO. When the sulfur increased over 90 ppm, more CaS-CaO formed just after the addition of calcium, and then the CaS content decreased from over 45 pct to lower than 15 pct and inclusions were mostly Al2O3-CaO-CaS and Al2O3-CaO with a high Al2O3 content. Thermodynamic calculation predicted the variation of the composition of inclusions, indicating good agreement with the measurement, while a certain deviation existed, especially for heats with 90 and 180 ppm sulfur. A reaction model was proposed for the formation of CaO and CaS, which considered the reaction between calcium vapor bubbles in the zone and the dissolved oxygen and sulfur in the molten steel, as described by a Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm with a reaction occurring on the remaining vacant sites. The variation of transient CaS inclusions was discussed based on the thermodynamic calculation and the morphology evolution of typical inclusions containing CaS.

  18. Effect of TGFβ on calcium signaling in megakaryocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jing [Department of Physiology I, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Schmid, Evi [Department of Physiology I, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Department of Pediatric Surgery and Pediatric Urology, University Children' s Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Almilaji, Ahmad; Shumilina, Ekaterina [Department of Physiology I, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Borst, Oliver [Department of Physiology I, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Department of Cardiology & Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Laufer, Stefan [Department of Pharmacy, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Gawaz, Meinrad [Department of Cardiology & Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Lang, Florian, E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Physiology I, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    TGFβ is a powerful regulator of megakaryocyte maturation and platelet formation. As previously shown for other cell types, TGFβ may up-regulate the expression of the serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, an effect requiring p38 kinase. SGK1 has in turn recently been shown to participate in the regulation of cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} activity ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) in megakaryocytes and platelets. SGK1 phosphorylates the IκB kinase (IKKα/β), which in turn phosphorylates the inhibitor protein IκBα resulting in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor NFκB. Genes up-regulated by NFκB include Orai1, the pore forming ion channel subunit accomplishing store operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE). The present study explored whether TGFβ influences Ca{sup 2+} signaling in megakaryocytes. [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was determined by Fura-2 fluorescence and SOCE from the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} following re-addition of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} after store depletion by removal of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} and inhibition of the sarcoendoplasmatic Ca{sup 2+} ATPase (SERCA) with thapsigargin (1 μM). As a result, TGFβ (60 ng, 24 h) increased SOCE, an effect significantly blunted by p38 kinase inhibitor Skepinone-L (1 μM), SGK1 inhibitor EMD638683 (50 μM) and NFκB inhibitor wogonin (100 μM). In conclusion, TGFβ is a powerful regulator of store operated Ca{sup 2+} entry into megakaryocytes, an effect mediated by a signaling cascade involving p38 kinase, SGK1 and NFκB. - Highlights: • TGFβ up-regulates store operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) in megakaryocytes. • The effect of TGFβ on SOCE is blunted by p38 kinase inhibitor Skepinone-L. • The effect of TGFβ on SOCE is virtually abrogated by SGK1 inhibitor EMD638683. • The effect of TGFβ on SOCE is almost abolished by NFκB inhibitor wogonin. • The effect of TGFβ is expected to enhance sensitivity of platelets to activation.

  19. Effect of erbium-calcium manganite doping on microstructure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, (80-x) mol% zinc oxide with 20 mol% CaMnO3 as the additive and (x) mol% erbium oxide Er2O3 as the doping material where x = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. Aims of this work are to elucidate the effects of doping material on microstructure ZnO and nonlinear characteristics of ZnO based varistor ceramics.

  20. Effect of biocides and anionic homopolymeric inhibitors on the precipitation behavior of calcium fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ur Rehman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of biocides and of the anionic homopolymeric inhibitors on the precipitation behavior of calcium fluoride (CaF2.The efficiency of inhibitors in the presence and absence of biocides was calculated using the half-life (t1/2 approach, where 50% of the concentration has been precipitated. Conductometric and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis have been performed for the calcium fluoride scale minerals using three polymeric inhibitors and three biocides, which are commonly used in industrial processes. The main aim of the study was to investigate the role of anionic homopolymerspoly(acrylic acid PAA, and of the oxidizing and non-oxidizing biocides such as; sodium hypochlorite, gluteraldehyde, tris(hydroxymethyl nitromethane. It was found that addition of low concentration (1-10 mg/L of the polymers (K-752, K-732 and K-702 have great inhibitory effect on the precipitation of calcium fluoride (CaF2. Their inhibition efficiency was in the order, K-752 > K-732 > K-702. The observed behaviour can be attributed to the effect of molecular weight of the polymer. The polymer having higher molecular weight shows weaker inhibiting ability. However, the oxidizing and non-oxidizing biocides have no appreciable effect on their performance and hence on the overall inhibition process.

  1. Radioprotective effects of some commonly used calcium blockers (deltiazem, nifidine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alya, G.

    2002-11-01

    The main aim of this study is looking for other radio protectors less or non-toxic with a favorable therapeutic index and good tolerance in human body. Wistar rats of both sexes were used; control animals were irradiated (total body irradiation) in perforated plexiglas by using the 60 Co source. Dose of irradiation was 9 Gy (lethal dose of 100% of animals-LD 1 00) and dose rate was 80-85 rad/min -1 . Irradiated animals have been monitored for two weeks and percentage of survival has been calculated. Different concentrations of deltiazem and nifidine were used at 15 or 30 minutes before the time of irradiation. Irradiation and treated animals have been monitored for 30 days post-irradiation and the percentage of survival has been calculated. The results showed that the Ca 2+ antagonists in question could be used as radio protectors. moreover, results of this undertaken study revealed that deltiazem is more effective than nifidine, survival rates of deltiazem-treated animals were, significantly, higher than those, which were treated with nifidine. The radio protective effects of these drugs vary according to animals' sex and age. Drugs concentration and time of administration play an important role in their radioprotective effects. These drugs can attenuate radiation injuries and thus they can protect animals from radiation syndromes, especially bone marrow syndrome and gastrointestinal syndrome the matter that causes decreasing in lethality induced by lethal doses of gamma radiation. (author)

  2. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding.

  3. Effect of Levodropropizine on isolated rabbit aorta contracted with phenylephrine and its Relationship with calcium

    OpenAIRE

    cankara, fatma nihan; çiçek, ekrem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium (Ca+2) channels and levodropropizine, also to compare the potency of diltiazem and levodropropizine on phenylephrine pre-contracted rabbit aortic rings. Mateial-Method: 2-3 mm width rings of thoracic aorta were removed and suspended in 25 ml organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution to reach baseline tension. To investigate contraction inhibiting effect of levodropropizine, Ca+2 free Krebs solution was ...

  4. Effects of nutritional intake on disease severity in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandese, Valentina; Marotti, Francesca; Bedetti, Luca; Bigi, Elena; Palazzi, Giovanni; Iughetti, Lorenzo

    2016-04-30

    Children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) may show growth failure in comparison to healthy peers. Many factors as hematological status, endocrine and/or metabolic dysfunction, and nutritional status, may play an important role in growth failure. The aim of this study was to assess whether impaired growth and nutritional intake can affect SCD severity during childhood. We conducted an observational study on children with SCD referring to our clinic for routine follow-up visits in a 6-month period. We collected information on weight, height and body mass index (BMI) and calculated their respective standardized scores (z). The nutritional intake was assessed through the last 24-h recall intake of total calories, macro- (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) and micronutrients (calcium, iron, phosphorus, vitamins B1, PP, A, C, B2). Disease severity was assessed through total hemoglobin (Hb) and fetal hemoglobin (HbF), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, and through the total number and days of hospitalizations, as well as the lifetime episodes of acute chest syndrome (ACS). Twenty nine children (14 males, 15 females) with SCD were enrolled; their mean age was 9.95 years (SD 3.50, min 3.72, max 17.18). Z-weight and z-BMI were significantly directly related to total Hb. Food intake resulted significantly unbalanced in terms of total calorie intake, macro- and micronutrients, especially calcium, iron, vitamin B1 and C. Low intake of calcium and vitamin B1 were significantly inversely correlated with number and days of hospitalizations per year. Protein, lipid, phosphorus, and vitamin PP intakes resulted adequate but were inversely correlated with number and days of hospitalizations. Carbohydrate, lipid, iron, phosphorus, vitamins B1 and B2 intakes were significantly inversely correlated to HbF levels. This study showed that, in our population, inadequate nutritional intake, weight and BMI have a significant impact on SCD severity indices.

  5. Impact of nutrition support on clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness analysis in patients at nutritional risk: A prospective cohort study with propensity score matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Zhu-Ming; Kondrup, Jens; Fang, Hai; Andrews, Martha; Nolan, Marie T; Mu, Shao-Yu; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Kang; Lu, Qian; Kang, Wei-Ming

    2017-05-01

    There is a lack of evidence regarding the economic effects of nutrition support in patients at nutritional risk. The aim of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis by comparing an adequate nutrition support cohort with a no-support cohort. A prospective observational study was performed in the surgical and medical gastroenterology wards. We identified patients at nutritional risk and the provision of nutrition support by the staff, unaware of the risk status, was recorded. Cost data were obtained from each patient's statement of accounts, and effectiveness was measured by the rate of infectious complication. To control for potential confounding variables, the propensity score method with matching was carried out. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated based on the matched population. We screened 3791 patients, and 440 were recruited for the analysis. Patients in the nutrition support cohort had a lower incidence of infectious complications than those in the no-support cohort (9.1 versus 18.1%; P = 0.007). This result was similar in the 149 propensity matched pairs (9.4 versus 24.2%; P effectiveness analysis suggested that nutrition support cost US $392 per patient prevented from having infectious complications. Nutrition support was associated with fewer infectious complications and shorter length of stay in patients at nutritional risk. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio indicated that nutrition support had not increased costs significantly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Ph on Calcium Carbonate Precipitation Under Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Saksono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field effect on CaCO3 precipitation is the key parameter in evaluating the effectiveness of Anti-scale Magnetic Treatment (AMT. The purpose of this study was to investigate magnetic fields influence on CaCO3 precipitation in high and low super-saturated CaCO3 solution by varied pH CaCO3 solution using circulation flow fluid system. The observation results in the high super saturated solution (pH 8.5 showed the increase of precipited CaCO3 in magnetized solutions compared to those in non-magnetic solution during circulation process. In the low super-saturated CaCO3 solution (pH 6.4 it was found that magnetic treatment increased CaCO3 precipitation after circulation process. In high super-saturated solution, magnetic field strengthens ion interactions, which reduce precipitation during circulation process. However, in low super-saturated CaCO3 solution, magnetic field weakens hydrate ion interaction which indicated by decreasing of the conductivity of solution. It increases the precipitation of CaCO3 after the circulation of magnetization process has completed.

  7. Effects of a food supplementation program on the nutritional status of pregnant women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Mahmud; Ahmed, Shakil; Protik, Ali Ehsan; Dhar, Badal Chandra; Roy, S K

    2005-12-01

    The Government of Bangladesh implemented a comprehensive nutrition intervention in 1997 to reduce the rates of malnutrition among women and children. The pilot program, the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Program (BINP), adopted a multisectoral approach targeting women and children through food supplementation, home gardening, and health and nutrition education. This paper estimates the effectiveness of BINP's food supplementation and nutrition education on the nutritional status of pregnant women. Methods. Three effectiveness measures were considered: target efficiency, improvements in the nutritional status of beneficiaries, and the persistence of nutritional effects. To isolate the effects of the intervention, the nutritional status of participants and nonparticipants was compared after controlling for various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data were collected in 2000 from a random sample of 3262 households in a BINP intervention area. Thirty-nine percent of pregnant women were correctly targeted by the program's food supplementation activities. The nutrition program reduced the prevalence of thinness among participant pregnant women by about 3 percentage points per month of enrollment. The prevalence of thinness among program graduates was 62%, which was much higher than that of the matched (nonparticipant) group (35%). This finding is perplexing but it may simply imply that those who enrolled at the initial phase of the project were severely underweight and they fell back to their original status within a short period of time. The nutrition program was intended to improve the nutritional status of women in the longer run through the provision of nutrition education during the food supplementation phase. The prevalence of thinness or severe underweight in women who exited the program after completion of the enrollment period was found to be much higher than in women of similar age and socioeconomic status in the community. This apparent lack of

  8. [Oral nutritional supplements are effective, purposeful and economic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uster, Alexandra; Rühlin, Maya; Ballmer, Peter E

    2014-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that medically indicated sip feeding is an effective and cost-saving mean to combat malnutrition. Particularly, acutely ill, elderly, polymorbid internal and surgical patients benefit from sip feeding. In Switzerland, the reimbursement of medically indicated sip feeding at home by the compulsory health insurance is critically important for the good of the patient and cost optimization. This is particularly true in the longer-term considering the demographic trends in Switzerland with an important increase of the elderly population. Therefore, the reimbursement of sip feeding was requested from the Federal Department of Home Affairs - with success. Since July 2012, medically indicated sip feeding at home is covered by the compulsory health insurance provided that a medical diagnosis according to the strict and well-defined guidelines from the Society for Clinical Nutrition Switzerland (SSCN) is given.

  9. Effect of intensive vs conventional insulin therapy on perioperative nutritional substrates metabolism in patients undergoing gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Cheng; Zhou, Yan-Bing; Chen, Dong; Niu, Zhao-Jian; Yu, Yang

    2012-06-07

    To investigate the effect of intensive vs conventional insulin therapy on perioperative nutritional substrates metabolism in patients undergoing radical distal gastrectomy. Within 24 h of intensive care unit management, patients with gastric cancer were enrolled after written informed consent and randomized to the intensive insulin therapy (IIT) group to keep glucose levels from 4.4 to 6.1 mmol/L or the conventional insulin therapy (CIT) group to keep levels less than 10 mmol/L. Resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory quotient (RQ), resting energy expenditure per kilogram (REE/kg), and the lipid oxidation rate were monitored by the indirect calorimeter of calcium citrate malate nutrition metabolism investigation system. The changes in body composition were analyzed by multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis. Blood fasting glucose and insulin concentration were measured for assessment of Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Sixty patients were enrolled. Compared with preoperative baseline, postoperative REE increased by over 22.15% and 11.07%; REE/kg rose up to 27.22 ± 1.33 kcal/kg and 24.72 ± 1.43 kcal/kg; RQ decreased to 0.759 ± 0.034 and 0.791 ± 0.037; the lipid oxidation ratio was up to 78.25% ± 17.74% and 67.13% ± 12.76% supported by parenteral nutrition solutions from 37.56% ± 11.64% at the baseline; the level of Ln-HOMA-IR went up dramatically (P total protein, albumin and triglyceride declined significantly on postoperative days 1 and 3 compared with pre-operative levels (P total protein and albumin concentrations in the IIT group were greater than those in the CIT group (P = 0.023, 0.009). Postoperative values of internal cell fluid (ICF), fat mass, protein mass (PM), muscle mass, free fat mass and body weight decreased obviously on postoperative 7th day compared with the preoperative baseline in the CIT group (P consumption of fat mass, PM and ICF compared with CIT (P = 0.009 to 0.026). There were some benefits of IIT in

  10. [A experimental study on the effect of fluorine capture of calcium based coal briquette].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaolan; Chen, Dongqing; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Bingcheng; Ying, Bo; Wang, Shuquan; Li, Shengda; Yang, Cuifu

    2009-11-01

    To study on the fluorine capture effect of calcium based coal briquette with fluorine capture additive in coal-burning fluorosis area. Add proper proportions of calcium based fluorine capture additive in high fluorine coal for making coal briquette were added, and were added the fluorine in coal cinder in order to reduce its emission. Meanwhile, to determine the composes of coal briquette were added, the percentage of fluorine in coal cinder and the concentration of fluoride, sulfur dioxide and PM10 were determinated, to evaluate the effect of fluorine capture and the level of door air pollution. After pilot-scale studying on the effect of fluorine capture in 30 households at coal-burning fluorosis area in Guiding of Guizhou Province. The average fluorine capture rate were 71.8%, and the average concentration of fluoride were 0.0052 mg/m3, which reduces by 27.8% in comparison with control group and were lower than environmental air quality standard (0.007 mg/m3); and the average concentration of SO2 were 0.67 mg/m3, which reduces 52.8% in comparison with control group and slightly higher than those of indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg/m3). The application of the coal briquette made by calcium based fluorine capture additive could reduce the pollution caused by high fluorine coal, could improve the quality of indoor air.

  11. Effects of rapid calcination on properties of calcium-based sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Chang-Feng; Grace, John R.; Lim, C. Jim

    2010-01-01

    The calcination process may influence subsequent fragmentation, sintering and swelling when CaO derived from limestone acts as a CO 2 or SO 2 -sorbent in combustion, gasification and reforming. Sorbent properties are affected by CO 2 partial pressure, total pressure, temperature, heating rate, impurities and sample size. In this study, the effect of calcination heating rate was investigated based on an electrically heated platinum foil. The effects of heating rate (up to 800 C/s), calcination temperature (700-950 C), particle size (90-180 μm) and sweep gas velocity were investigated. Higher initial heating rates led to lower extents of limestone calcination, but the extents of carbonation of the resulting CaO were similar to each other. Calcium utilization declined markedly during carbonation or sulphation of CaO after calcination by rapid heating. Experimental results show that carbonation and calcium utilization were most effective for carbonation temperatures between 503 and 607 C. Increasing the extent of calcination is not the best way to improve overall calcium utilization due to the vast increase in energy consumption. (author)

  12. "Permethrin chronic exposure alters motor coordination in rats: effect of calcium supplementation and amlodipine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, A F; Stanzani, S L; Ferreira, F C; Braga, T C; Silva, M C; Chaguri, J L; Dias-Júnior, C A

    2014-03-01

    Recently was observed that pyrethroids decrease motor coordination and that calcium channels can be important targets for this effect. To contribute with this observation, this work studied the motor coordination and exploration (using hole-board apparatus), and locomotion (using open-field apparatus) of rats exposed to following treatments: permethrin (PM), PM plus calcium gluconate (CG) and PM plus amlodipine (AML). The results obtained show that CG or AML alone not changed the motor coordination while PM decreases it. CG kept the effect of permethrin; AML, however, decreased the values of permethrin to the control. Locomotor activity and exploration, which could confound results of motor coordination, were not modified by treatments. The concentration of PM in brain tissue was increased by the CG and AML. The neurosomatic index (weight brain/body weight) was increased by the PM and PM+CG. In conclusion, the combined results here obtained indicates that the calcium ion and the channels in which it is involved can be important targets for the toxic effect of pyrethroid insecticide permethrin on motor nerve activity of rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of oral calcium supplementation on intestinal bile-acids and cytolytic activity of fecal water in patients with adenomatous polyps of the colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welberg, J. W. M.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; van der Meer, R.; Kuipers, F.; Cats, A.; van Rijsbergen, H.; Termont, D. S. M. L.; Boersma-van Ek, W.; Vonk, R. J.; Mulder, N. H.; de Vries, E. G. E.

    Calcium has been proposed to prevent colon cancer in subjects at risk for this tumour. This effect is supposed to be due at least in part to binding the bile acids to calcium, making them insoluble and harmless. To evaluate the effects of oral calcium supplementation on intestinal bile acids, 19

  14. The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Eduardo Rossi, Andrew Landreth, Stacey Beam, Taylor Jones, Layne Norton, Jason Michael Cholewa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal, carbohydrate (CHO, protein (PRO, fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg. FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec. Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players.

  15. The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Landreth, Andrew; Beam, Stacey; Jones, Taylor; Norton, Layne; Cholewa, Jason Michael

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI) on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat) participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C) for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI) received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal), carbohydrate (CHO), protein (PRO), fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat) were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg) but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg). FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec) compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec). Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players.

  16. Neospora caninum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 is an effective drug target for neosporosis therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode K Ojo

    Full Text Available Despite the enormous economic importance of Neospora caninum related veterinary diseases, the number of effective therapeutic agents is relatively small. Development of new therapeutic strategies to combat the economic impact of neosporosis remains an important scientific endeavor. This study demonstrates molecular, structural and phenotypic evidence that N. caninum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (NcCDPK1 is a promising molecular target for neosporosis drug development. Recombinant NcCDPK1 was expressed, purified and screened against a select group of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs previously shown to have low IC50s against Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 and T. gondii tachyzoites. NcCDPK1 was inhibited by low concentrations of BKIs. The three-dimensional structure of NcCDPK1 in complex with BKIs was studied crystallographically. The BKI-NcCDPK1 structures demonstrated the structural basis for potency and selectivity. Calcium-dependent conformational changes in solution as characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering are consistent with previous structures in low Calcium-state but different in the Calcium-bound active state than predicted by X-ray crystallography. BKIs effectively inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite proliferation in vitro. Electron microscopic analysis of N. caninum cells revealed ultra-structural changes in the presence of BKI compound 1294. BKI compound 1294 interfered with an early step in Neospora tachyzoite host cell invasion and egress. Prolonged incubation in the presence of 1294 interfered produced observable interference with viability and replication. Oral dosing of BKI compound 1294 at 50 mg/kg for 5 days in established murine neosporosis resulted in a 10-fold reduced cerebral parasite burden compared to untreated control. Further experiments are needed to determine the PK, optimal dosage, and duration for effective treatment in cattle and dogs, but these data demonstrate proof-of-concept for BKIs, and 1294 specifically, for

  17. The effect of calcium phosphate nanoparticles on hormone production and apoptosis in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Qin, Dingxia; Cui, Yugui; Chen, Liang; Li, Hao; Chen, Zhen; Gao, Li; Li, Ying; Liu, Jiayin

    2010-04-02

    Although many nanomaterials are being used in academia, industry and daily life, there is little understanding about the effects of nanoparticles on the reproductive health of vertebral animals, including human beings. An experimental study was therefore performed here to explore the effect of calcium phosphate nanoparticles on both steroid hormone production and apoptosis in human ovarian granulosa cells. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles uptaking was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cell cycle was assessed with propidium iodide-stained cells (distribution of cells in G0/G1, S, and G2/M phases) by flow cytometry. The pattern of cell death (necrosis and apoptosis) was analyzed by flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The expression of mRNAs encoding P450scc, P450arom and StAR were determined by RT-PCR. Progesterone and estradiol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. TEM results confirmed that calcium phosphate nanoparticles could enter into granulosa cells, and distributed in the membranate compartments, including lysosome and mitochondria and intracellular vesicles. The increased percentage of cells in S phase when cultured with nanoparticles indicated that there was an arrest at the checkpoint from phase S-to-G2/M (from 6.28 +/- 1.55% to 11.18 +/- 1.73%, p StAR after 48 h and 72 h period of treatment. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles interfered with cell cycle of cultured human ovarian granulosa cells thus increasing cell apoptosis. This pilot study suggested that effects of nanoparticles on ovarian function should be extensively investigated.

  18. Neospora caninum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 is an effective drug target for neosporosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Kayode K; Reid, Molly C; Kallur Siddaramaiah, Latha; Müller, Joachim; Winzer, Pablo; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Vidadala, Rama Subba Rao; Merritt, Ethan A; Hol, Wim G J; Maly, Dustin J; Fan, Erkang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Hemphill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Despite the enormous economic importance of Neospora caninum related veterinary diseases, the number of effective therapeutic agents is relatively small. Development of new therapeutic strategies to combat the economic impact of neosporosis remains an important scientific endeavor. This study demonstrates molecular, structural and phenotypic evidence that N. caninum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (NcCDPK1) is a promising molecular target for neosporosis drug development. Recombinant NcCDPK1 was expressed, purified and screened against a select group of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) previously shown to have low IC50s against Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 and T. gondii tachyzoites. NcCDPK1 was inhibited by low concentrations of BKIs. The three-dimensional structure of NcCDPK1 in complex with BKIs was studied crystallographically. The BKI-NcCDPK1 structures demonstrated the structural basis for potency and selectivity. Calcium-dependent conformational changes in solution as characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering are consistent with previous structures in low Calcium-state but different in the Calcium-bound active state than predicted by X-ray crystallography. BKIs effectively inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite proliferation in vitro. Electron microscopic analysis of N. caninum cells revealed ultra-structural changes in the presence of BKI compound 1294. BKI compound 1294 interfered with an early step in Neospora tachyzoite host cell invasion and egress. Prolonged incubation in the presence of 1294 interfered produced observable interference with viability and replication. Oral dosing of BKI compound 1294 at 50 mg/kg for 5 days in established murine neosporosis resulted in a 10-fold reduced cerebral parasite burden compared to untreated control. Further experiments are needed to determine the PK, optimal dosage, and duration for effective treatment in cattle and dogs, but these data demonstrate proof-of-concept for BKIs, and 1294 specifically, for therapy of bovine

  19. Implementing nutritional guidelines - the effect of systematic training for nurse nutrition practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Tewes, Marianne; Bjerrum, Merete

    2012-01-01

    of appropriate food choices from the menu increased suggesting that the nutritional intake of the patients had improved. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that s strategy based on the principles of experimental learning theory and the phases in the look, think and act model facilitated the implementation...

  20. Effectiveness of Carisolv compared with sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammaschke, Till; Eickmeier, Monika; Schäfer, Edgar; Danesh, Gholamreza; Ott, Klaus Heinrich Reiner

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Carisolv with that of two other alkaline substances: NaOCl and Ca(OH)2. Sixty extracted teeth were randomly divided into three groups and split down the center of a carious lesion. In group I, one half of the cavity was excavated with NaOCl (0.5%, pH 11.7), the corresponding half with Ca(OH)2 (pH 12.4); in group II with NaOCl and Carisolv; and in group III with Ca(OH)2 and Carisolv (n = 20 in each case). Carisolv hand instruments were used. Histological specimens were subsequently produced from all cavities and analyzed with a light-microscope following Mallory-Azan staining. The thickness of the remaining caries was measured ( 1 mm) and the locations were recorded. The data were statistically evaluated using the chi-square test. In group I, 50.5% of the specimens treated with NaOCI and 48.7% treated with Ca(OH)2 were evaluated to be caries-free. The results in group II were NaOCl 61.5% and Carisolv 75.4% caries-free, and in group III Ca(OH)2 61.2% and Carisolv 73.9%. No statistically significant differences were found between NaOCl and Ca(OH)2 excavation (group I: p = 0.89). Compared to NaOCl and Ca(OH)2, Carisolv produced significantly better results for chemo-mechanical caries removal (groups II + III: p 1 mm were found significantly more often than in the Carisolv-treated specimens (groups II + III: p 0.05).

  1. Nutritional decline in cystic fibrosis related diabetes: the effect of intensive nutritional intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, H

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports indicate that nutritional and respiratory decline occur up to four years prior to diagnosis of cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD). Our aim was to establish whether intensive nutritional intervention prevents pre-diabetic nutritional decline in an adult population with CFRD. METHODS: 48 adult patients with CFRD were matched to 48 controls with CF, for age, gender and lung pathogen status. Nutritional and other clinical indices were recorded at annual intervals from six years before until two years after diagnosis. Data were also analysed to examine the impact of early and late acquisition of CFRD. RESULTS: No important differences in weight, height, body mass index (BMI), lung function or intravenous treatment were found between groups in the six years prior to diagnosis, nor any significant deviation over time. In those who developed diabetes, use of overnight enteral tube feeding (ETF) was four times as likely at the time of diagnosis, compared to controls [ETF 43.8% (CFRD) v 18.8% (CF Controls), OR 4.0, CI 1.3 to 16.4, p=0.01]. Age at onset of CFRD played a significant role in determining the pre-diabetic clinical course. Younger diabetics with continued growth at study onset (n=17) had a lower BMI from 2 years prior to diagnosis compared to controls [BMI 18.9 kg\\/m(2) (CFRD) v 20.8 kg\\/m(2) (CF Controls), diff=1.9, CI -0.1 to 3.7 p=0.04]. The BMI of older diabetics (completed growth at study onset) was equal to that of controls throughout. CONCLUSION: Pre-diabetic nutritional decline is not inevitable in adults with CFRD, but is influenced by age of onset. In the group overall, those with CFRD are more likely to require ETF from 2 years prior to diagnosis. Despite intensive nutritional intervention, patients who continue to grow throughout the pre-diabetic years, show a level of nutritional decline absent in older adults.

  2. Intestinal amoebiasis in children and its effect on nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Iqbal Ahmed; Jamal, Ammarah; Memon, Hamida; Parveen, Naila

    2009-07-01

    To determine the frequency and clinical presentation of amoebic diarrhea in children and its effect on the nutritional status of the affected children. Descriptive. Department of Diarrhea Treatment Unit (DTU), Dow Medical College and Civil Hospital, Karachi, from November 1998 to April 2001. Paediatric patients between the ages of > 1 month to 15 years were included, who visited the DTU of the department with diarrhea. Stool samples of all these patients were checked under microscope for the vegetative forms of Entamoeba Histolytica (E.H.). Patients who were positive for E.H. were evaluated for the symtomatology including the type of diarrhea {acute watery diarrhea (AWD) or dysentery}, abdominal pain, tenesmus and nausea/vomiting. Examination carried out was assessed for state of hydration, fever and anaemia and nutritional status of those less than 5 years of age. The patients were divided into three age groups to assess the association of the age with severity and type of clinical presentation. Chi- square test was applied to calculate the p-values. P-values of 0.05 or less were considered statistically significant. The stool samples of 3870 patients with diarrhea were examined under microscope. Three hundred and twenty eight (8.47%) of these samples were positive for E.H. The difference between the number of patients presenting with acute watery diarrhea n=157, 47.86% and with dysentery n=171, 52.13% was found to be statistically non-significant (p=0.364). Two hundred and seventy seven (84.45%) patients had tenesmus, while abdominal pain was present in 287 (87.5%). Fever and malnutrition were present in 169 (51.52%) patients each. Malnutrition was significantly most frequent in 1-5 years of age groups (n=98, 57.98%, p=0.026). The nutritional evaluation of the 272 under-5 children with amoebic diarrhea showed a significantly normal status in 123 (45.55%, p-value amoebiasis and malnutrition was 1-5 years.

  3. Organic acid effect on calcium uptake by the wheat roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrize Caroline Nunes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of the natural organic acids on the uptake of Ca by the wheat roots in a hydroponic solution. The following organic acids were evaluated: citric, oxalic, tartaric, malic, malonic, maleic, DL-malic, p-hydroxybenzoic, aconitic, and salicilic. The organic acids neither enhanced the root growth nor increased Ca uptake. The salicilic and malic acids were highly toxic and decreased the root growth. The citric, tartaric, maleic, aconitic, and salicilic decreased the Ca uptake by the roots due to their higher capacity to form the stable complexes with Ca in solution at pH 6.0. Decreasing the Ca valence from Ca++ to CaL+ or CaL2(0 through the organic ligand complexation reactions decreased the Ca uptake. The results suggested that the wheat roots do not absorb Ca-organic complexes.Ácidos orgânicos possuem grupos funcionais com cargas negativas que complexam íons metálicos em solução. Este trabalho avaliou o efeito de ácidos orgânicos naturais na absorção de Ca pelas raízes de trigo. Foram avaliados os seguintes ácidos orgânicos: cítrico, oxálico, tartarico, málico, malônico, maleico, DL-málico, p-hidroxibenzoico, aconítico e salicílico. Os ácidos orgânicos não estimularam o crescimento das raízes e não aumentaram a absorção de Ca. Os ácidos salicílico e maleico diminuíram drasticamente o crescimento radicular. Os ácidos cítrico, tartárico, maleico, aconítico e salicílico diminuíram a absorção de Ca pelas raízes devido à maior capacidade de formar complexos estáveis com Ca em solução no pH 6,0. A redução da valência de Ca++ para CaL+ e CaL2(0, através das reações de complexação, diminuiu a absorção de Ca pelas raízes. Os resultados sugerem que os complexos de Ca-orgânico não são absorvidos pelas raízes de trigo.

  4. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of albendazole in improving nutritional status of pre-school children in urban slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, S; Pande, V K; Fletcher, R H

    2000-01-01

    To study the clinical efficacy and the incremental cost-effectiveness of albendazole in improving the nutritional status of pre-school children. Single blind, placebo-controlled trial with child as the unit of randomization. In the Anganwadi centers of the Integrated Child Development Services situated in the urban slums of Lucknow, North India. Thirty-two Anganwadi centers were randomly selected for the trial. Included were registered resident children between 1.5 to 3.5 years of age with informed and written parental consent. The intervention group received 600 mg of albendazole powder every six months while the placebo group received same quantity of calcium powder. Enrolled children were contacted once in six months from January 1995 to 1997 and given treatment. The outcome measure were change in the proportion of underweight (weight for age 95%. During the 2 year follow-up, the proportion of stunted children increased by 11.44% and 2.06% in the placebo and albendazole groups, respectively, and the difference was 9.38% (95% CI 6.01% to 12.75%; p value cognitive performance, as judged by the revised Denver prescreening questionnaire, in both the groups at enrollment as well as at the end of the study. Six monthly albendazole reduces the risk of stunting with a small increase in the expenditure on health care from the payer's perspective. Larger trials are needed to study the effect of albendazole on prevention of stunting, cognitive functions and all-cause childhood mortality.

  5. The effect of calcium-naloxone treatment on blood calcium, beta-endorphin, and acetylcholine in milk fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A; Minoia, G; Ceci, E; Manca, R; Mutinati, M; Spedicato, M; Sciorsci, R L

    2008-09-01

    Milk fever is a postpartum syndrome of cows characterized by acute hypocalcemia, which reduces the release of acetylcholine (ACH), inducing flaccid paralysis and recumbency. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of calcium (Ca2+) combined with naloxone (Nx, an opioid antagonist; Ca2+-Nx) on plasma concentrations of ACH, beta-endorphin (betaE), and Ca2+ just before treatment (T0) and at 15, 30, and 90 min after treatment (T15, T30, and T90, respectively). Thirty cows were divided into 3 groups of 10 cows each. In group A1, cows affected by milk fever were treated (i.v.) with a combination of 0.2 mL/kg of body weight (BW) of Ca2+ borogluconate (20%) and 0.01 mg/kg of BW of Nx hydrochloride dihydrate. In group A2, cows affected by milk fever were treated (i.v.) with 2 mL/kg of BW of Ca2+ borogluconate (20%). In group C, healthy cows were treated (i.v.) with a combination of 0.2 mL/kg of BW of Ca2+ borogluconate (20%) and 0.01 mg/kg of BW of Nx hydrochloride dihydrate. Cows underwent treatments within 24 h of calving. Blood samples were collected at T0 and at T15, T30, and T90 for quantitative determination of ACH, betaE, and Ca2+. The cows in groups A1 and A2 recovered within a mean of 20 +/- 10 min, although 4 cows in group A2 underwent a relapse. Blood Ca2+ concentrations in group C increased slightly at T30 and at T90 (T30: 8.8 +/- 0.6 mg/dL; T90: 8.7 +/- 0.6 mg/dL) after treatment, whereas the response in groups affected by milk fever was similar, even though Ca2+ concentrations showed a sharp increase (A1: 8.9 +/- 0.8 mg/dL; A2: 6.0 +/- 0.7 mg/dL), particularly at T15 in group A1. Concentrations of betaE showed a similar pattern in groups A1 and C, with an increase at T15 (A1: 8.2 +/- 1.0 ng/mL; C: 2.7 +/- 0.4 ng/mL) and a subsequent decrease until T90 (A1: 1.4 +/- 0.3 ng/mL; C: 1.4 +/- 0.4 ng/mL), whereas betaE remained constant throughout in group A2. Concentrations of ACH in group A1 decreased significantly between T0 and T15, T30, and T90 (T0: 7.2 +/- 1.1 nmol

  6. Effect of nanostructure on osteoinduction of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Liao, Xiaoling; Zheng, Li; Zhu, Xiangdong; Wang, Zhe; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2012-10-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of the nanostructure of calcium phosphate ceramics on osteoinductive potential, porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics with a nano- or submicron structure were prepared via microwave sintering and compared to conventional BCP ceramics. The selective protein adsorption of bovine serum albumin and lysozyme (LSZ) and the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro was investigated. Porous BCP nanoceramics showed higher ability to adsorb proteins, especially low molecular weight protein of LSZ, than conventional BCP ceramics, and the BCP nanoceramics promoted bone sialoprotein expression more than conventional BCP did. Further in vivo study to investigate ectopic bone formation and bone repair efficiency proved the highly osteoinductive potential of nanostructured BCP ceramics. The results suggest that nanostructured BCP ceramics have the potential to become a new generation of bioceramics for bone tissue engineering grafts. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of soft drinks on the release of calcium from enamel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Surarit, Rudee

    2013-09-01

    Continuous consumption of soft drinks is the main cause of potential oral health problems, including dental caries and erosion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three different types of soft drinks on the release of calcium from the enamel surface of teeth. Forty bovine teeth were selected for the experiment. They were divided into four groups (n=10/group): Group 1 (Coke), Group 2 (Pepsi), Group 3 (Sprite), and Group 4 (distilled water, the control). The pH of each beverage was measured using a pH meter. The release of calcium ions was measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer at baseline, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The results were assessed by analysis of variance and then by the Tukey test (pexposure to soft drinks could lead to significant enamel loss.

  8. Effect Of Fertilization And Mycorrhization On Growth And Nutritional Status Of Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon Ait. In The Nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michałojć Zenia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. is a species that is becoming increasingly popular due to the health value and taste qualities of fruits. Studies on cranberry ‘Pilgrim’ were carried out in 2012-2013 in the nursery farm. Plants were grown in containers in open space. The effect of method of fertilization and application of mycorrhizal vaccine on the growth, development and nutritional status of plants during the first two years of cultivation in the nursery was evaluated. Fertilizer characterized by a controlled release of nutrients (CRF – Osmocote 6M, agent with sustained-releasing components (SRF – Hortiform pH, fertigation and fertilization using Hortiform pH combined with fertigation, were applied. The vaccine contained fungi of Hymenoscyphus sp. genus that are characteristic for Vaccinium genus. Significantly greater weight of plant shoots as well as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium contents were recorded in plants supplied with the mycorrhizal vaccine. A positive effect of slow-releasing fertilizers on plant weight and their chemical composition has been demonstrated, whereas plants fertigated developed lower mass of shoots and contained less nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium.

  9. Functional Effects of Prebiotic Fructans in Colon Cancer and Calcium Metabolism in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Huerta, Marisol; Lizárraga-Grimes, Vania Lorena; Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Tinoco-Méndez, Mabel; Macías-Rosales, Lucía; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Tapia-Pérez, Graciela Guadalupe; Romero-Romero, Laura; Gracia-Mora, María Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Inulin-type fructans are polymers of fructose molecules and are known for their capacity to enhance absorption of calcium and magnesium, to modulate gut microbiota and energy metabolism, and to improve glycemia. We evaluated and compared the effects of Chicory inulin "Synergy 1®" and inulin from Mexican agave "Metlin®" in two experimental models of colon cancer and bone calcium metabolism in mice and rats. Inulins inhibited the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and colon cancer in mice; these fructans reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and prevented the formation of intestinal polyps, villous atrophy, and lymphoid hyperplasia. On the other hand, inulin treatments significantly increased bone densitometry (femur and vertebra) in ovariectomized rats without altering the concentration of many serum biochemical parameters and urinary parameters. Histopathology results were compared between different experimental groups. There were no apparent histological changes in rats treated with inulins and a mixture of inulins-isoflavones. Our results showed that inulin-type fructans have health-promoting properties related to enhanced calcium absorption, potential anticancer properties, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of inulin as a prebiotic can improve health and prevent development of chronic diseases such as cancer and osteoporosis.

  10. Functional Effects of Prebiotic Fructans in Colon Cancer and Calcium Metabolism in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Rivera-Huerta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inulin-type fructans are polymers of fructose molecules and are known for their capacity to enhance absorption of calcium and magnesium, to modulate gut microbiota and energy metabolism, and to improve glycemia. We evaluated and compared the effects of Chicory inulin “Synergy 1®” and inulin from Mexican agave “Metlin®” in two experimental models of colon cancer and bone calcium metabolism in mice and rats. Inulins inhibited the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and colon cancer in mice; these fructans reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and prevented the formation of intestinal polyps, villous atrophy, and lymphoid hyperplasia. On the other hand, inulin treatments significantly increased bone densitometry (femur and vertebra in ovariectomized rats without altering the concentration of many serum biochemical parameters and urinary parameters. Histopathology results were compared between different experimental groups. There were no apparent histological changes in rats treated with inulins and a mixture of inulins-isoflavones. Our results showed that inulin-type fructans have health-promoting properties related to enhanced calcium absorption, potential anticancer properties, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of inulin as a prebiotic can improve health and prevent development of chronic diseases such as cancer and osteoporosis.

  11. Effect of Aerobic Training on Estrogen, PTH, Calcium, Alkaline Phosphatase and Albumin, in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Baghery

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to consider the effect of eight weeks aerobic training on PTH, albumin, calcium, alkaline phosphatesand estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. Methods & Materials: 22 postmenopause women, 55-70 years, of Jahandidegan center in Tehran were selected and randomly divided into two groups: [experimental (12 and control (10]. They had aerobic training program included 8 weeks jogging and aerobic movement with 60-70% MHR intensity, 3 times per week. Fasting blood samples were collected 24 hour before and after training. Serum PTH and estradiol were measured by an enzyme link immonosorbent assay (ELISA. Serum calcium was estimated by using photometric test (CPC, Serum ALP was measured by using kinetic photometric test. Independed and paired ttest were used to analyze data. Results: The results showed that PTH and alkaline phosphates increased significantly after aerobic training (P≤0.05. Calcium and albuminconcentration decreased but not significantly (P≥0.05. Estrogen concentration did not significantly (P≥0.05 decrease. Conclusion: Increased PTH and alkaline phosphates concentrations, along with nonsignificant decrease in estrogen level seem to promote anabolic process of bone formation. The result of this study supports the possible positive effect of physical activity on bone metabolism.

  12. Effectiveness and safety of calcium and vitamin D treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesareo, R; Iozzino, M; D'onofrio, L; Terrinoni, I; Maddaloni, E; Casini, A; Campagna, G; Santonati, A; Palermo, A

    2015-09-01

    Imbalance of bone resorption and bone formation is responsible for osteoporosis that is characterized by decreased bone mass and mineral density. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available data that could clarify the effectiveness and safety of supplementations with calcium and vitamin D, alone or in combination, to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal and elderly women. Using search key words, we performed a research both in the PubMed and Cochrane Library in order to find all meta-analysis, prospective and randomized clinical studies published from 2000 to 2014 that had investigated the effectiveness of calcium and vitamin D in the treatment of osteoporosis. At the moment it is not possible either to provide reassurance that calcium supplements given with vitamin D do not cause adverse cardiovascular events or to link them with certainty to increased cardiovascular risk. According to the data now available, vitamin D, at dosage of at least 800 IU/day, alone or in combination with antiresorptive drugs, should be administered in osteoporotic and osteopenic patients for a primary and secondary prevention. Further studies are needed and the debate remains ongoing. However, every administration needs the calculation of the absolute fracture risk of the patient. Especially considering the high cost of osteoporosis prevention, more studies are mandatory to clarify indications and contraindications.

  13. Effect of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffold porosities on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulQader, Sarah T; Rahman, Ismail A; Thirumulu, Kannan P; Ismail, Hanafi; Mahmood, Zuliani

    2016-04-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaP) of different porosities have been widely and successfully used as scaffolds with osteoblast cells for bone tissue regeneration. However, the effects of scaffold porosities on cell viability and differentiation of human dental pulp cells for dentin tissue regeneration are not well known. In this study, biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds of 20/80 hydroxyapatite to beta tricalcium phosphate ratio with a mean pore size of 300 μm were prepared into BCP1, BCP2, BCP3, and BCP4 of 25%, 50%, 65%, and 75% of total porosities, respectively. The extracts of these scaffolds were assessed with regard to cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation of human dental pulp cells. The high alkalinity, and more calcium and phosphate ions release that were exhibited by BCP3 and BCP4 decreased the viability and proliferation of human dental pulp cells as compared to BCP1 and BCP2. BCP2 significantly increased both cell viability and cell proliferation. However, the cells cultured with BCP3 extract revealed high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and high expression of odontoblast related genes, collagen type I alpha 1, dentin matrix protein-1, and dentin sialophosphoprotein as compared to that cultured with BCP1, BCP2, and BCP4 extracts. The results highlight the effect of different scaffold porosities on the cell microenvironment and demonstrate that BCP3 scaffold of 65% porosity can support human dental pulp cells differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Functional Effects of Prebiotic Fructans in Colon Cancer and Calcium Metabolism in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Huerta, Marisol; Lizárraga-Grimes, Vania Lorena; Tinoco-Méndez, Mabel; Macías-Rosales, Lucía; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Tapia-Pérez, Graciela Guadalupe; Romero-Romero, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Inulin-type fructans are polymers of fructose molecules and are known for their capacity to enhance absorption of calcium and magnesium, to modulate gut microbiota and energy metabolism, and to improve glycemia. We evaluated and compared the effects of Chicory inulin “Synergy 1®” and inulin from Mexican agave “Metlin®” in two experimental models of colon cancer and bone calcium metabolism in mice and rats. Inulins inhibited the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and colon cancer in mice; these fructans reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and prevented the formation of intestinal polyps, villous atrophy, and lymphoid hyperplasia. On the other hand, inulin treatments significantly increased bone densitometry (femur and vertebra) in ovariectomized rats without altering the concentration of many serum biochemical parameters and urinary parameters. Histopathology results were compared between different experimental groups. There were no apparent histological changes in rats treated with inulins and a mixture of inulins-isoflavones. Our results showed that inulin-type fructans have health-promoting properties related to enhanced calcium absorption, potential anticancer properties, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of inulin as a prebiotic can improve health and prevent development of chronic diseases such as cancer and osteoporosis. PMID:28293641

  15. The effect of sodium hypochlorite application on the success of calcium hydroxide pulpotomy in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunç, Emine Sen; Saroğlu, Işil; Sari, Saziye; Günhan, Omer

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) used as a hemostatic agent on the outcome of calcium hydroxide pulpotomies of primary teeth. A total of 18 primary molars with advanced caries and root resorption of approximately half the root length were randomly placed into 2 groups. Conventional calcium hydroxide pulpotomies were performed on teeth in both groups; however, a cotton pellet saturated with 3% sodium hypochlorite was applied to teeth in the treatment group for 30 seconds before the pulpotomy to control hemorrhage. After the extraction of the teeth, they were examined histologically. In the histologic evaluation it was found that none of the specimens in the control group showed necrosis and 1 specimen in the treatment group showed partial necrosis. It was found that the use of 3% NaOCl as a hemostatic agent had no effect on the outcome of calcium hydroxide pulpotomies with the given concentration and timing of the NaOCl treatment and the given observation period.

  16. Tribological and antioxidation synergistic effect study of sulfonate-modified nano calcium carbonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhongyi

    Full Text Available A middle base number sulphonate-modified nano calcium carbonate (SMC with an average size of 35 nm was synthesized, and its tribological and antioxidation synergistic behaviors with ashless antioxidant N-phenyl-α-naphthylamine (T531 in hydrogenated oil (5Cst were evaluated. The results demonstrate that adding this synthesized additive even at a low amount (<2.0 wt.% can evidently improve its load-carrying capacity by 1.5 times and enhance its antiwear performance; in addition, the friction-reducing effect of additive in the high load was better than that in low load. The SMC have a good synergistic antioxidation effect with T531, which verifies the nano calcium carbonate compound was a kind of multifunctional and high-performance additive. The chemical composition of the rubbing surface which formed on the boundary film was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The results indicating that the excellent antiwear and load-carrying performance could be attributed to the forming of boundary lubrication film which composed of calcium carbonate, oxides, ferrites, sulphide and FeSO4, and so on. Its ability to increase oxidation free energy of base oil is the main reason for increasing its antioxidant collaboration property with ashless antioxidant T531.

  17. Comparison of the effect of sorbitol and glucose on calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, R.M.; Peacock, M.; Barkworth, S.A.; Marshall, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that the oral administration of sorbitol promotes calcium absorption, while glucose has no effect. We have therefore compared the effect of oral sorbitol and glucose on the absorption of radiocalcium from low and high carrier loads in healthy postmenopausal women. In a control group of 20 women given neither sorbitol nor glucose, the mean +/- SEM fractional radiocalcium absorption rate from a low carrier load was 0.65 +/- 0.05 (fraction of dose/h). In a second group of 10 women the fractional absorption rate from the low carrier load was lower (p less than 0.05) with 10 g sorbitol (0.48 +/- 0.05) than with 10 g glucose (0.65 +/- 0.08). Fractional absorption of radiocalcium from a high carrier load measured in a third group of seven women using two isotopes (oral 45Ca, IV 47Ca) was also lower (p less than 0.001) with 10 g sorbitol (0.22 +/- 0.01, fraction/3 h) than with 10 g glucose (0.29 +/- 0.02). The results suggest that calcium absorption from a low carrier load is unaltered by glucose but that absorption of calcium from both low and high carrier loads is lower with sorbitol than with glucose

  18. [Preventive and remineralization effect over incipient lesions of caries decay by phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana; Hernández-Palacios, Rosa Diana; Hernández-Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Farfán, Dolores; Molina-Frechero, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Dental caries continues to affect a large percentage of Mexican children and currently advises that if diagnosed at an early stage can be reversed with minimally invasive treatments. The casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate known as CPP-ACP is a phosphoprotein capable of releasing calcium and phosphate ions in the oral environment promoting remineralization. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP with fluoride added in a scholar preventive program. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A cuasi- experimental study was conducted in 104 schools of six years old. The children were classified into three groups and received six months biweekly applications of different treatments: casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate added fluoride (CPP-ACPF), sodium fluoride (NaF) and a control group. Clinical evaluation was performed with the laser fluorescence technique (Diagnodent model 2095). 1340 teeth were included: 294 teeth with incipient lesions and 1,046 healthy teeth. Statistical tests of χ2 y Mc Nemar were used. RESULTS. In the group that received the application of CPP-ACPF, 38% of incipient carious lesions were remineralizing compared with 21% in the group receiving the NaF (p application biweekly for six months of CPP-ACPF showed a protective and remineralizing effect on incipient carious lesions. His action was better than the application of NaF. However, to reduce the impact from dental caries in schoolchildren is important to have a comprehensive preventive approach that includes promoting self-care, as well as the application of sealants.

  19. Individual and family correlates of calcium-rich food intake among parents of early adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Ballejos, Miriam Edlefsen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2011-03-01

    Most adults do not meet calcium intake recommendations. Little is known about how individual and family factors, including parenting practices that influence early adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, affect calcium intake of parents. This information could inform the development of effective nutrition education programs. To identify individual and family factors associated with intake of calcium-rich foods among parents of early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years). A cross-sectional survey was used with 14 scales to assess attitudes/preferences and parenting practices regarding calcium-rich foods and a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire (2006-2007). A convenience sample of self-reporting non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian (n=661) parents was recruited in nine states. Parents were the primary meal planner/preparer and completed questionnaires in homes or community settings. Predictors of calcium intake from three food groupings-all food sources, dairy foods, and milk. Multivariate regression analyses identified demographic, attitude/preference, and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake. Most respondents were women (∼90%) and 38% had a college degree. Education was positively associated with calcium intake from all three food groupings, whereas having an Asian spouse compared to a non-Hispanic white spouse was negatively associated with calcium intake only from all food sources and from dairy foods. Expectations for and encouragement of healthy beverage intake for early adolescents were positively associated with calcium intake from dairy foods and milk, respectively. Parental concern regarding adequacy of intake was negatively associated, whereas perception of health benefits from calcium-rich foods was positively associated with calcium intake from all food sources and from dairy foods. Between 20% and 32% of the variance in calcium intake from all food groupings was explained in these models. Individual factors and positive

  20. Differential antiepileptic effects of the organic calcium antagonists verapamil and flunarizine in neurons of organotypic neocortical explants from newborn rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bingmann, D; Speckmann, E J; Baker, R E; Ruijter, J; de Jong, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of the organic calcium antagonists verapamil and flunarizine on pentylenetetrazol induced paroxysmal depolarizations were tested in organotypic neocortical explants taken from neonatal rats. In these in vitro experiments the papaverin derivative verapamil depressed, and finally abolished,

  1. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and addition of calcium hypochlorite on the atmosphere composition, colour and microbial quality of mushrooms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuyper, L

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging in combination with the addition of calcium hypochlorite on the atmosphere composition, colour and microbial quality of mushrooms was investigated. A modified atmosphere which slowed down discolouration...

  2. Effect of different calcium phosphate scaffold ratios on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbdulQader, Sarah Talib [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Department of Pedodontic and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad (Iraq); Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj, E-mail: kannan@usm.my [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Rahman, Ismail Ab [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Ismail, Hanafi [School of Materials and Minerals Resource Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Penang (Malaysia); Mahmood, Zuliani [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds have been widely and successfully used with osteoblast cells for bone tissue regeneration. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of these scaffolds on odontoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. In this study, three different hydroxyapatite (HA) to beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratios of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds, BCP20, BCP50, and BCP80, with a mean pore size of 300 μm and 65% porosity were prepared from phosphoric acid (H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) and calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sintered at 1000 °C for 2 h. The extracts of these scaffolds were assessed with regard to cell viability and differentiation of odontoblasts. The high alkalinity, more calcium, and phosphate ions released that were exhibited by BCP20 decreased the viability of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. However, the cells cultured with BCP20 extract expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity and high expression level of bone sialoprotein (BSP), dental matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) genes as compared to that cultured with BCP50 and BCP80 extracts. The results highlighted the effect of different scaffold ratios on the cell microenvironment and demonstrated that BCP20 scaffold can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • BCPs of different HA/β-TCP ratios influence cell microenvironment. • BCP20 decreases cell viability of HDPCs as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 express highest ALP activity. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 up-regulate BSP, DMP-1 and DSPP gene expressions. • BCP20 can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration.

  3. In vitro degradation of calcium phosphates: Effect of multiscale porosity, textural properties and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Escudero, A; Espanol, M; Beats, S; Ginebra, M-P

    2017-09-15

    The capacity of calcium phosphates to be replaced by bone is tightly linked to their resorbability. However, the relative importance of some textural parameters on their degradation behavior is still unclear. The present study aims to quantify the effect of composition, specific surface area (SSA), and porosity at various length scales (nano-, micro- and macroporosity) on the in vitro degradation of different calcium phosphates. Degradation studies were performed in an acidic medium to mimic the osteoclastic environment. Small degradations were found in samples with interconnected nano- and micropores with sizes below 3µm although they were highly porous (35-65%), with maximum weight loss of 8wt%. Biomimetic calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, with high SSA and low crystallinity, presented the highest degradation rates exceeding even the more soluble β-TCP. A dependence of degradation on SSA was indisputable when porosity and pore sizes were increased. The introduction of additional macroporosity with pore interconnections above 20µm significantly impacted degradation, more markedly in the substrates with high SSA (>15m 2 /g), whereas in sintered substrates with low SSA (phosphates are crucial to tune biological events like resorption during bone remodeling. Understanding in vitro resorption can help to predict the in vivo behavior. Besides chemical composition, other parameters such as porosity and specific surface area have a strong influence on resorption. The complexity of isolating the contribution of each parameter lies in the close interrelation between them. In this work, a multiscale study was proposed to discern the extent to which each parameter influences degradation in a variety of calcium phosphates, using an acidic medium to resemble the osteoclastic environment. The results emphasize the importance of textural properties, which can modulate or even outweigh the effect of the intrinsic solubility of the compounds. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia

  4. Effects of boron and calcium supplementation on mechanical properties of bone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Torkaman, Giti; Mofid, Mahmood

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to consider the effects of boron (B) and calcium (Ca) supplementation on mechanical properties of bone tissues and mineral content of the selected bones in rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats underwent three different treatments with boron and calcium in their drinking water, while taking diet ad libitum for 4 weeks. Rats in the three treatment groups received 2 mg B/d, 300 mg Ca/d, and a combination of 2 mg B+ 300 mg Ca/d, respectively. After the experimental period body weights were recorded and bone mechanical properties were determined on the tibiae, femurs, and fifth lumbar vertebral bones and the mineral contents of these bones was calculated as the ash percentage. Better measurement of bone mechanical properties were observed for boron supplementation. The stiffness of the lumbar vertebral bones tended to increase in all groups and was significant for Ca supplementation. The significant maximal load obtained for boron in all bones indicates higher strength and less strength for apparently a high level of calcium, while this negative defect in the case of lumbar vertebral bones was corrected in the presence of boron. Highest mean energy to maximal load was shown with boron supplementation, demonstrating significant values with Ca group, and lower energy for the lumbar vertebral bones in Ca group in comparison with the controls. Less deformation at the yield points was shown in Ca group. There were no significant differences in ash weights among the four groups. Additional and longer studies are warranted to further determine the effects of supplemental boron with different calcium levels and possibly other minerals involved in bone mechanical properties in rats.

  5. Effect of different calcium phosphate scaffold ratios on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdulQader, Sarah Talib; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Rahman, Ismail Ab; Ismail, Hanafi; Mahmood, Zuliani

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds have been widely and successfully used with osteoblast cells for bone tissue regeneration. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of these scaffolds on odontoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. In this study, three different hydroxyapatite (HA) to beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratios of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds, BCP20, BCP50, and BCP80, with a mean pore size of 300 μm and 65% porosity were prepared from phosphoric acid (H 2 PO 4 ) and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) sintered at 1000 °C for 2 h. The extracts of these scaffolds were assessed with regard to cell viability and differentiation of odontoblasts. The high alkalinity, more calcium, and phosphate ions released that were exhibited by BCP20 decreased the viability of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. However, the cells cultured with BCP20 extract expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity and high expression level of bone sialoprotein (BSP), dental matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) genes as compared to that cultured with BCP50 and BCP80 extracts. The results highlighted the effect of different scaffold ratios on the cell microenvironment and demonstrated that BCP20 scaffold can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • BCPs of different HA/β-TCP ratios influence cell microenvironment. • BCP20 decreases cell viability of HDPCs as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 express highest ALP activity. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 up-regulate BSP, DMP-1 and DSPP gene expressions. • BCP20 can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration

  6. Glycemic effect of nutritive sweeteners: Honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controversy currently exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Using a randomized, crossover design we evaluated the effects of chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)) on glucose tolerance in overweigh...

  7. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritive value of oat forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertilization is a routine part of forage management strategies for grasses, but the effects on forage nutritive value have been inconsistent. Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on the nutritive value of fall-grown oat fertilized at planting with 20, 40, 60, 80, ...

  8. Childhood Obesity Study: A Pilot Study of the Effect of the Nutrition Education Program "Color My Pyramid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Goldberg, Patricia; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Stoehr, Ana; Baghi, Heibatollah

    2009-01-01

    The need for successful nutrition interventions is critical as the prevalence of childhood obesity increases. Thus, this pilot project examines the effect of a nutrition education program, "Color My Pyramid", on children's nutrition knowledge, self-care practices, activity levels, and nutrition status. Using a pretest-posttest,…

  9. Effect of different processing methods on nutritional composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Key Words: Leucaena leucocephala, anti-nutritional factors, nutritional composition, supplementary protein, ... forage section of the National Animal Production ... protein content of the samples was determined using the Microkjeldahl method of (AOAC, 1990) which involved protein digestion and distillation. a. Protein.

  10. Paradigm shift: efficient and cost effective real-time nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For several decades, nutritional anthropometry has been used in the assessment of nutritional status and growth monitoring for individuals and at population level. Techniques, equipment and standardization procedures endorsed by The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and The World Health Organization (WHO) ...

  11. Nutritional Composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Leaf: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that Stevia leaves is a good source of carbohydrate and other nutrients and hence a substitute for sugar in processed drinks. Furthermore, drying reduces nutritional values with the exception to fiber content. Keywords: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni , Nutritional composition, Protein, ...

  12. Effect of educational intervention program for parents on adolescents’nutritional behaviors in Isfahan in 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents’ nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a kind of field t...

  13. Perceptual characteristics of nutritional supplements determine the expected effectiveness in boosting strength, endurance, and concentration performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila; Bérdi, Márk; Köteles, Ferenc; Bárdos, György

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the link between the physical-perceptual characteristics of nutritional supplements and their expected effectiveness in enhancing sport performance. Participants (n = 267) ranked nine images of fictive nutritional supplements, varying in shape, color, and route of administration (e.g., pill, powder, lotion, etc.), in ranked- order of expected effectiveness. They performed the task three times, (1) for strength, (2) endurance, and (3) for concentration. Results have revealed that the perceived effectiveness of the supplements was statistically significantly different for the three types of performances (p nutritional supplements', aimed at sport performance enhancement, influence their perceived effectiveness. Future inquiries in sport nutrition should examine the relationship between expected and experienced effectiveness of various nutritional supplements in enhancing sport performance.

  14. Effect of ultraviolet radiation, smoking and nutrition on hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2015-01-01

    Similar to the rest of the skin, the hair is exposed to noxious environmental factors. While ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and smoking are well appreciated as major factors contributing to the extrinsic aging of the skin, their effects on the condition of hair have only lately attracted the attention of the medical community. Terrestrial solar UVR ranges from approximately 290 to 400 nm; UV-B (290-315 nm) reaches only the upper dermis, while the penetration of UV-A (315-400 nm) into the dermis increases with wavelength. The two most important chronic effects of UVR on the skin and bald scalp are photocarcinogenesis and solar elastosis; however, the effects of UVR on hair have largely been ignored. As a consequence of increased leisure time and a growing popularity of outdoor activities and holidays in the sun, the awareness of sun protection of the skin has become important and should also apply to the hair. Besides being the single-most preventable cause of significant cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and an important cause of death, the association of tobacco smoking with various adverse effects on the skin and hair has also been recognized. Increasing public awareness of the association between smoking and hair loss seems to offer a good opportunity for the prevention or cessation of smoking, since the appearance of hair plays an important role in the overall physical appearance and self-perception of people. Finally, the quantity and quality of hair are closely related to the nutritional state of an individual. Normal supply, uptake, and transport of proteins, calories, trace elements, and vitamins are of fundamental importance in tissues with high biosynthetic activity, such as the hair follicle. In instances of protein and calorie malnutrition as well as essential amino acid, trace element, and vitamin deficiencies, hair growth and pigmentation may be impaired. Ultimately, important commercial interest lies in the question of whether increasing the

  15. The decompensated detrusor I: the effects of bladder outlet obstruction on the use of intracellular calcium stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, D; Levin, R M; Duckett, J W; Zderic, S A

    1996-08-01

    As in other smooth muscle groups, extracellular calcium influx as well as the release of calcium from intracellular storage sites or sarcoplasmic reticulum occur in response to receptor stimulation. The relative participation of extracellular influx versus intracellular release has recently been shown to be influenced by developmental stage and obstruction. Partial bladder outlet obstruction results in marked hypertrophy of the bladder and produces alterations in contractile function. To understand better how this contractile dysfunction after outlet obstruction is influenced by intracellular calcium handling we tested the effects of 2 drugs with known effects on the sarcoplasmic reticulum. We evaluated ryanodine, which blocks the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and thapsigargin, which blocks the ability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum to pump cytosolic calcium back into the storage sites. Rabbit bladders were obstructed for different periods, after which detrusor muscle strips were harvested and contractile performance was evaluated in the absence and presence of ryanodine and thapsigargin. In the early phases of outlet obstruction the release of intracellular calcium increased significantly. With prolonged obstruction and detrusor decompensation the intracellular storage sites lost the ability to contribute to the generation of contractile force. Alterations in the calcium handling ability of the smooth muscle cell appear to have an important role in the process of decompensation of bladder function in infravesical obstruction.

  16. [Effect of student knowledge in gastronomy schools and origin of residence on their nutritional habits and nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalcarz, W; Klemczak, L; Krajewski, P

    1991-01-01

    Nutritional habits and nutritional status of 142 pupils of a Gastronomic School Complex were examined from the standpoint of the year of school, school marks and place of residence. It was found that the year of school and place of residence exerted an effect on the nutritional habits of pupils. These young people failed to prefer dishes and food products recommended in the prophylaxis of civilization diseases. In all subjects the levels of total lipids and beta-lipoproteins exceeded the upper range of the norm. Hemoglobin concentration fluctuated within the lower range of the norm, and that of glucose--within the upper range of the norm. When completing school, the pupils displayed a lowered protein level and elevated glucose level. Pupils inhabiting the school boarding house ought to take part in the decisions on the menu and on food purchases. Recommendations concerning nutrition in the prophylaxis of civilization diseases ought to be as soon as possible introduced into the teaching program of the Gastronomic School Complex.

  17. Effects of Weather on Caloric and Nutritive Intake in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Babiarz, K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, J.; Lobell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have investigated effects of weather on production of key food crops, largely motivated by a desire to anticipate impacts of climate change. However, health outcomes are most directly affected by food consumption, not production. Consumption changes will not necessarily follow production changes, primarily because people can adjust their diets away from foods that are most negatively affected. To more directly evaluate the effects of weather on nutrition, we analyzed reported household expenditure and consumption data from 20 rounds of the National Sample Survey (NSS) of India along with aggregated weather data of the two main agricultural seasons, kharif and rabi. Per capita intake of calories, protein, fats, and micronutrients were calculated from reported data at the household level, and then aggregated to district level for comparison with weather data. Regression analysis revealed significant negative effects of increased temperatures on calorie consumption in rural areas, with lower sensitivities in urban areas. We also found a higher sensitivity of protein and fat consumption to weather than for calories, which likely reflects the ability of households to switch to cheaper sources of calories in lean times. The results of this analysis will be useful for assessing the overall health burdens associated with climate change in India.

  18. Enteral nutrition in person with Dementia: Indication, effects and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This systematic literature review aims to clarify indications for the use of enteral feeding in patients with dementia. Difficulties in feeding patients with dementia may arise at any stage of the disease and may include malnutrition, weight loss, decreased quality of life, among others. Enteral tube feeding by tube may be a way of mitigating the effects, but its benefits are under discussion. Methods: Eight qualitative studies were included: 5 primary sources, 3 systematic literature reviews, published in the 2008-2013 period. Results: Enteral tube feeding in patients with dementia may affect survival/mortality rate (no evidence of benefit, nutritional status (no improvement, functional status and cognitive development (no improvement, aspiration (does not reduce the risk of aspiration, pressure ulcers (no evidence of benefit in ulcers incidence and progression, and quality of life (without hard data in most studies. Conclusion: Evidence on benefits of enteral tube feeding in patients with dementia was not conclusive and may even have the opposite effect. We lack data on the adverse effects of these interventions. Keywords: Palliative care; Dementia; Enteral feeding; Therapeutic use.

  19. Functional Foods and Health Effects: A Nutritional Biochemistry Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Hernández-Alvarez, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Increased consumer´s interest in health has driven the development of foods that offer specific beneficial effects. The list of foods and ingredients includes essential and non-essential nutrients, plant and marine components, whole foods, microorganisms, microalgae and technological approaches. Traditionally, health outcomes focussed on the prevention of chronic diseases but health targets have expanded to cover areas such as brain health, inflammation, eye health, women´s health, healthy ageing and beauty. This review highlights, from a nutritional biochemistry perspective, differential aspects on designing and interpreting human studies to support the health effects of functional foods. Despite the available evidence from in vitro, animal and observational studies, welldesigned human studies are necessary to support the health effects of functional foods. Intervention trials with foods are complex as they imply limitations due to methodological, food-related and host-related factors. The use of responsive, validated and clinically relevant markers becomes essential even though there is a lack of reliable biomarkers of exposure for many bioactives. Furthermore, the effect of modulating factors such as subclinical inflammation, gut microbiota and genetic variability should be taken into account. Multiple indicators may provide a more reliable alternative to assess physiological processes while emerging biomarkers (microRNAs, epigenetic changes) constitute a promising approach. Additionally, the magnitude of the change is critical to support any health effect although interventions may have a limited clinical impact but be epidemiologically relevant. Also, based on the available data, the premise that bioactivescontaining foods are safe may be questionable. An integrated approach including multiple biomarkers, genetic variability, effect of gut microbiota and risk/benefit assessment should be used to support the potential health effects of functional foods.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of nutritional intervention in elderly subjects after hip fracture. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyers, C E; Reijven, P L M; Evers, S M A A; Willems, P C; Heyligers, I C; Verburg, A D; van Helden, S; Dagnelie, P C

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture patients can benefit from nutritional supplementation during their recovery. Up to now, cost-effectiveness evaluation of nutritional intervention in these patients has not been performed. Costs of nutritional intervention are relatively low as compared with medical costs. Cost-effectiveness evaluation shows that nutritional intervention is likely to be cost-effective. Previous research on the effect of nutritional intervention on clinical outcome in hip fracture patients yielded contradictory results. Cost-effectiveness of nutritional intervention in these patients remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate cost-effectiveness of nutritional intervention in elderly subjects after hip fracture from a societal perspective. Open-label, multi-centre randomized controlled trial investigating cost-effectiveness of intensive nutritional intervention comprising regular dietetic counseling and oral nutritional supplementation for 3 months postoperatively. Patients allocated to the control group received care as usual. Costs, weight and quality of life were measured at baseline and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for weight at 3 months and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) at 6 months postoperatively. Of 152 patients enrolled, 73 were randomized to the intervention group and 79 to the control group. Mean costs of the nutritional intervention was 613 Euro. Total costs and subcategories of costs were not significantly different between both groups. Based on bootstrapping of ICERs, the nutritional intervention was likely to be cost-effective for weight as outcome over the 3-month intervention period, regardless of nutritional status at baseline. With QALYs as outcome, the probability for the nutritional intervention being cost-effective was relatively low, except in subjects aged below 75 years. Intensive nutritional intervention in elderly hip fracture patients is likely to be cost-effective

  1. Scientific conception on mechanisms of calcium homeostasis disorders under low dose effect of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylaev, Zh.A.; Dospolova, Zh.G.

    1997-01-01

    Scientific conception of probable consequences of calcium homeostasis disorders in personals, exposed to low dose effect of ionizing radiation has been developed. Principle positions of the conception is that pathologic processes development have different ways of conducting. During predominance of low doses of external gamma-radiation there is leading pathologic mechanism (mechanism 1) of disorder neuroendocrine regulation of both the calcium and the phosphor. In this case sicks have disorders of both the vegetative tonus and the endocrine status. Under internal irradiation (mechanism 2) there is disfunction of organs and systems (bore changes and disorders of hormone status). These changes are considered as consequence of negative action on organism of incorporated long-living radionuclides. Radio-toxic factors action (mechanism 3) provokes the excess of hormones, which acting on bone tissue and could be cause of steroid osteoporosis. Influence of chronic stress factor (mechanism 4) enlarges and burden action on organism of low radiation doses. It is emphasized, that decisive role in development of pathologic processes has mechanism of disturbance of neuroendocrine regulation of calcium exchange

  2. Effect of Cyclosporin A and Angiotensin II on cytosolic calcium levels in primary human gingival fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajitkumar Supraja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the effect of Cyclosporin A (CsA and angiotensin II (Ang II on cytosolic calcium levels in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs. Materials and Methods: Healthy gingival samples from six volunteers were obtained, and primary HGFs were cultured. Cell viability and proliferation assay were performed to identify the ideal concentrations of CsA and Ang II. Cytosolic calcium levels in cultured gingival fibroblasts treated with CsA and Ang II were studied using colorimetric assay, confocal and fluorescence imaging. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS software and GraphPad Prism. Results: Higher levels of cytosolic levels were evident in cells treated with CsA and Ang II when compared to control group and was statistically significant (P < 0.05 in both colorimetric assay and confocal imaging. Fluorescent images of the cultured HGFs revealed the same. Conclusion: Thus calcium being a key player in major cellular functions, plays a major role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced gingival overgrowth.

  3. Effects of arachnotoxin on intracellular pH and calcium in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Fernando; Cunha, Maria Adelaide; Sanchez, Raul; Ferreira, Alice Teixeira; Schor, Nestor; Oshiro, Maria Etsuko Miyamoto

    2007-06-01

    To determine the effect of arachnotoxin (ATx), a venom extracted from the Chilean spider Latrodectus mactans, on intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) and pH (pH(i)) in capacitated human spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were collected from fertile adult men (n = 8). Mobile spermatozoa were collected by the "swim up" technique and stimulated with the crude extract of ATx and with progesterone (P). Hospital of the Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. [Ca(2+)](i) was measured in fura2-AM-loaded spermatozoa, and pH(i) was measured in spermatozoa loaded with the pH-sensitive dye [(2',7')-bis (carboxymethyl)-(5,6)-carboxyfluorescein]-AM (BCECF). The ATx and P induced a biphasic change in [Ca(2+)](i) consisting of a peak followed by a small but sustained elevation. The response to ATx was greatly reduced by pretreatment with P. The ATx caused intracellular acidification, whereas P induced alkalinization. Blockade of the NA(+)/H(+) exchanger with ethylisopropylamiloride (EIPA) sharply increased ATx-induced acidification. Arachnotoxin increased [Ca(2+)](i) through the opening of calcium channels and release of calcium from intracellular stores. The ATx reduced pH(i) in human sperm, possibly by inhibiting the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger.

  4. Effect of solvent type on the nanoparticle formation of atorvastatin calcium by the supercritical antisolvent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Soo; Song, Ha-Seung; Park, Hee Jun; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify how the solvent selection affects particle formation and to examine the effect of the initial drug solution concentration on mean particle size and particle size distribution in the supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process. Amorphous atorvastatin calcium was precipitated from seven different solvents using the SAS process. Particles with mean particle size ranging between 62.6 and 1493.7 nm were obtained by varying organic solvent type and solution concentration. By changing the solvent, we observed large variations in particle size and particle size distribution, accompanied by different particle morphologies. Particles obtained from acetone and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were compact and spherical fine particles, whereas those from N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were agglomerated, with rough surfaces and relatively larger particle sizes. Interestingly, the mean particle size of atorvastatin calcium increased with an increase in the boiling point of the organic solvent used. Thus, for atorvastatin particle formation via the SAS process, particle size was determined mainly by evaporation of the organic solvent into the antisolvent phase. In addition, the mean particle size was increased with increasing drug solution concentration. In this study, from the aspects of particle size and solvent toxicity, acetone was the better organic solvent for controlling nanoparticle formation of atorvastatin calcium.

  5. The Effect of Calcium Sodium Phosphosilicate on Dentin Hypersensitivity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjiao Zhu

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS in treating dentin hypersensitivity (DH and to compare this effect to that of a negative (placebo control.Several databases, including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, were searched to identify relevant articles published through January 2015; grey literature (i.e., academic literature that is not formally published was also searched. Two authors performed data extraction independently and jointly using data collection forms. The primary outcome was the DH pain response to routine activities or to thermal, tactile, evaporative, or electrical stimuli, and the secondary outcome was the side effects of CSPS use. Each study was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk bias. Meta-analysis of studies with the same participant demographics, interventions, controls, assessment methods and follow-up periods was performed. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation System was used to assess the quality of the evidence and the risk of bias across studies.Meta-analysis demonstrated that toothpaste containing 5% CSPS was more effective than the negative control at relieving dentin sensitivity, with the level of evidence classified as "moderate". In addition, prophylaxis paste containing 15% calcium sodium phosphosilicate was favored over the negative control at reducing post-periodontal therapy hypersensitivity, with the level of evidence categorized as "low". Only two studies reported side effects of CSPS use.The majority of studies found that calcium sodium phosphosilicate was more effective than the negative control at alleviating DH. Because strong evidence is scarce, high-quality, well-designed clinical trials are required in the future before definitive recommendations can be made.

  6. The effect of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 on intestinal calcium absorption in Nigerian children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Obadofin, Michael O; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Abrams, Steven A

    2009-09-01

    Children with calcium-deficiency rickets have high 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D values. The objective of the study was to determine whether vitamin D increased calcium absorption. This was an experimental study. The study was conducted at a teaching hospital. Participants included 17 children with nutritional rickets. The participants were randomized to 1.25 mg oral vitamin D(3) (n = 8) or vitamin D(2) (n = 9). Fractional calcium absorption 3 da after vitamin D administration was measured. Mean baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were 20 ng/ml (range 5-31 ng/ml). The increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D was equivalent after vitamin D(3) (29 +/- 10 ng/ml) or vitamin D(2) (29 +/- 17 ng/ml). Mean 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D values increased from 143 +/- 76 pg/ml to 243 +/- 102 pg/ml (P = 0.001), and the increase in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D did not differ between vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3) (107 +/- 110 and 91 +/- 102 ng/ml, respectively). The increment in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was explained almost entirely by the baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (r(2) = 0.72; P rickets in Nigerian children is not primarily due to vitamin D-deficient calcium malabsorption.

  7. Stable isotope aided evaluation of community nutrition program: effect of food supplementation schemes on maternal and infant nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Aïta Sarr; Dossou, Nicole; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Guèye, Amadou Lamine; Diop, El Hadji Issakha; Diaham, Babou; Guiro, Amadou Tidiane; Cissé, Djibril; Sarr, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Wade, Salimata

    2002-09-01

    The supplementation program of the community nutrition project (PNC) launched by the Senegalese Government in order to protect the most vulnerable groups (children and women) was evaluated. Using a stable isotope (deuterium), we assessed the effect of the PNC on breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and baby's growth at three months of lactation. Breastmilk triglycerides, lactose, protein, and zinc were also determined. Mothers who were supplemented more than 60 days during pregnancy showed a significant increase in fat-free mass as compared to those who were supplemented for less than 30 days (p = .03). Breastmilk output was not influenced by the supplementation, but breastmilk lactose, total protein, and zinc contents increased significantly (p supplemented mothers. Growth of the babies of the supplemented mothers was better than that of those whose mothers were not supplemented. It was concluded that the food supplementation had beneficial effects on both mothers' and babies' nutritional status depending on the onset of the supplementation.

  8. The effect of glucose stimulation on 45calcium uptake of rat pancreatic islets and their total calcium content as measured by a fluorometric micro-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, G.H.J.; Wiegman, J.B.; Konijnendijk, W.

    1982-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated 45 calcium uptake and total calcium content of rat pancreatic islets has been studied, using a new fluorometric micro-method to estimate total calcium. Extracellular calcium was separated from incubated tissue by a rapid micro-filtration procedure. Islets incubated up to 60 min with calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l and glucose 2.5 mmol/l maintained the same calcium content (670 +- 7.5 pmol/μg DNA). When the glucose concentration was raised to 15 mmol/l no change in the total calcium content could be detected. On incubation with glucose 2.5 mmol/l in the absence of calcium, the calcium content decreased to 488 +- 27 pmol/μg DNA. On incubation with 45 calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l for 5 or 30 min at 2.5 mmol/l glucose, islets exchanged 21 +- 2 and 28 +- 1% of their total calcium content and, at 15 mmol/l glucose, 30 +- 3 and 45 +- 2%, respectively. Thus, islet calcium has a high turn-over rate. Glucose stimulation results in an increase of the calcium uptake without enhancing the total calcium content and hence must increase the calcium-exchangeable pool. (orig.)

  9. The effects of UV light on calcium metabolism in ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, J; Eatwell, K

    2013-10-12

    Despite the popularity of keeping snakes in captivity, there has been limited investigation into the effects of UV radiation on vitamin D levels in snakes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of UV-b radiation on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and ionised calcium concentrations in ball pythons (Python regius). Blood samples were taken from 14 ball pythons, which had never been exposed to UV-b light, to obtain baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and ionised calcium concentrations. Blood samples were then taken again from the same snakes 70 days later after one group (Group 1, n=6 females) were exposed to UV-b radiation daily, and the other group (Group 2, n=5 males and 3 females) were exposed to no UV-b radiation. Mean±sd 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels on day 0 in Group 1 were 197±35 nmol/l, and on day 70 were 203.5±13.8 nmol/l. Mean±sd 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels in Group 2 on day 0 were 77.7±41.5 nmol/l, and on day 70 were 83.0±41.9 nmol/l. Mean±sd ionised calcium levels at day 0 were 1.84±0.05 mmol/l for Group 1, and on day 70 were 1.78±0.07 mmol/l. Mean±sd ionised calcium levels at day 0 were 1.79±0.07 mmol/l for Group 2, and on day 70 were 1.81±0.05 mmol/l. No association was demonstrated between exposure to UV-b radiation and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and ionised calcium concentrations. These results may provide baseline parameters for future studies in this and other snake species to determine ability to utilise UV-b light for vitamin D production.

  10. Effect of intramuscular cholecalciferol megadose in children with nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothra, Meenakshi; Gupta, Nandita; Jain, Vandana

    2016-06-01

    The treatment practices for vitamin D deficiency rickets are highly variable. Though a single intramuscular (IM) megadose of vitamin D is economical, and ensures good compliance, it poses the risk of hypervitaminosis D. This observational study was conducted to assess the duration of effect and safety of single IM megadose of cholecalciferol in the treatment of vitamin D deficiency rickets. Children younger than 14 years with rickets were enrolled. Baseline investigations included radiograph of wrists and estimation of serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 25(OH) vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) levels. All children received a single IM megadose of vitamin D3. Biochemical parameters were re-evaluated at 1.5, 3 and 6 months after the megadose and the values were compared to the baseline. We enrolled 21 children, out of which nine remained under active follow-up till 6 months. Radiological evidence of rickets was present in all 21 children, 14 had hypocalcemia at the time of presentation. After IM cholecalciferol megadose, median 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level remained significantly more than the baseline till 6 months after the megadose. At 1.5 months after the vitamin D megadose, three (30%) of the children were found to develop toxic levels of vitamin D (>150 ng/mL), although none had hypercalcemia or any clinical manifestation of vitamin D toxicity. At 3 months and 6 months after the megadose, 25(OH)D levels remained in the sufficient range (20-100 ng/mL) in seven out of the eight children who came for follow-up. A single IM megadose of vitamin D may be effective in significantly increasing the 25(OH)D levels for at least 6 months in children with rickets, but elevation of 25(OH)D to toxic range raises concern regarding its safety.

  11. Promising role of calcium hypochlorite as a disinfectant: an in vitro evaluation regarding its effect on type V dental stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Prasanta Kumar; Nagaral, Sharanbasappa C; Kamalapurker, Pawan Kumar; Damineni, Ravishankar

    2012-11-01

    The current study has been chosen to evaluate the efficacy of calcium hypochlorite as a disinfecting additive for the gypsum products and its effect on compressive and tensile strength of the set material. It is hypothesized that, the addition of calcium hypochlorite to type V dental stone in sufficient quantity to disinfect the material would have no deleterious effect on compressive or tensile strength. Total of 160 samples made up of type V dental stone were divided broadly into two groups of 80 samples each for the sake of compressive and tensile strength testing in dry and wet conditions: Out of each group, 10 samples without addition of any disinfectant (0% calcium hypochlorite) was compared with other group of 30 samples after adding disinfectant, i.e. each subgroup containing 10 samples each (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% calcium hypochlorite). Within limitations of this in vitro study it is assumed to prepare type V dental stone that contains a disinfectant, has adequate compressive strength and tensile strength, and can significantly act against a resistant species like Bacillus subtilis. When calcium hypochlorite was added to dental stone, extra mixing water was required to produce a material of nearly same pouring consistency. The samples, which were put to microbiological tests, showed effective action of disinfectant on Bacillus subtilis. No deleterious effect on compressive or tensile strength could be found after putting the selected samples with calcium hypochlorite.

  12. Effect of sepsis on calcium uptake and content in skeletal muscle and regulation in vitro by calcium of total and myofibrillar protein breakdown in control and septic muscle: Results from a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.W.; Hasselgren, P.O.; Hiyama, D.T.; James, J.H.; Li, S.; Rigel, D.F.; Fischer, J.E.

    1989-07-01

    Because high calcium concentration in vitro stimulates muscle proteolysis, calcium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of increased muscle breakdown in different catabolic conditions. Protein breakdown in skeletal muscle is increased during sepsis, but the effect of sepsis on muscle calcium uptake and content is not known. In this study the influence of sepsis, induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture, on muscle calcium uptake and content was studied. Sixteen hours after cecal ligation and puncture or sham operation, calcium content of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles was determined with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Calcium uptake was measured in intact SOL muscles incubated in the presence of calcium 45 (45Ca) for between 1 and 120 minutes. Total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was determined in SOL muscles, incubated in the presence of different calcium concentrations (0; 2.5; 5.0 mmol/L), and measured as release into the incubation medium of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), respectively. Calcium content was increased by 51% (p less than 0.001) during sepsis in SOL and by 10% (p less than 0.05) in EDL muscle. There was no difference in 45Ca uptake between control and septic muscles during the early phase (1 to 5 minutes) of incubation. During more extended incubation (30 to 120 minutes), muscles from septic rats took up significantly more 45Ca than control muscles (p less than 0.05). Tyrosine release by incubated SOL muscles from control and septic rats was increased when calcium was added to the incubation medium, and at a calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L, the increase in tyrosine release was greater in septic than in control muscle. Addition of calcium to the incubation medium did not affect 3-MH release in control or septic muscle.

  13. Effect of sepsis on calcium uptake and content in skeletal muscle and regulation in vitro by calcium of total and myofibrillar protein breakdown in control and septic muscle: Results from a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, D.W.; Hasselgren, P.O.; Hiyama, D.T.; James, J.H.; Li, S.; Rigel, D.F.; Fischer, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Because high calcium concentration in vitro stimulates muscle proteolysis, calcium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of increased muscle breakdown in different catabolic conditions. Protein breakdown in skeletal muscle is increased during sepsis, but the effect of sepsis on muscle calcium uptake and content is not known. In this study the influence of sepsis, induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture, on muscle calcium uptake and content was studied. Sixteen hours after cecal ligation and puncture or sham operation, calcium content of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles was determined with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Calcium uptake was measured in intact SOL muscles incubated in the presence of calcium 45 (45Ca) for between 1 and 120 minutes. Total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was determined in SOL muscles, incubated in the presence of different calcium concentrations (0; 2.5; 5.0 mmol/L), and measured as release into the incubation medium of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), respectively. Calcium content was increased by 51% (p less than 0.001) during sepsis in SOL and by 10% (p less than 0.05) in EDL muscle. There was no difference in 45Ca uptake between control and septic muscles during the early phase (1 to 5 minutes) of incubation. During more extended incubation (30 to 120 minutes), muscles from septic rats took up significantly more 45Ca than control muscles (p less than 0.05). Tyrosine release by incubated SOL muscles from control and septic rats was increased when calcium was added to the incubation medium, and at a calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L, the increase in tyrosine release was greater in septic than in control muscle. Addition of calcium to the incubation medium did not affect 3-MH release in control or septic muscle

  14. Effects of low calcium plus high aluminum diet on magnesium and calcium contents in spinal cord and trabecular bone of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro; Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    Current epidemiological surveys in the Western Pacific area and Kii Peninsula have suggested that low calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and high aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenetic process of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia (PD). The condition of unbalanced minerals was experimentally duplicated in this study using rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 60 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca diet with high Al. Magnesium concentration was determined in spinal cord and trabecular bone using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) and the calcium concentration was determined using neutron activation method. In the group maintained on low Ca high Al diet, magnesium content of the spinal cord was lower than the group fed standard diet. Also, magnesium content of lumbar bone showed lower values in the unbalanced diet group fed low Ca high Al diet than those in the standard diet and low Ca diet groups. Calcium content of spinal cord was highest in rats maintained on low Ca high Al diet. Calcium content in lumbar bone of rats significantly decreased in rats maintained on the low Ca diet (group B and C) compared to rats given a standard diet (group A). Our data indicate that low Ca and high Al dietary intake influence Mg concentration in bone and central nervous system (CNS) tissues and that low Ca and high Al diet diminish Mg in bone and CNS tissues, thereby inducing loss of calcification in bone and degeneration of CNS tissues due to disturbance of the normal biological effects of Mg. (author)

  15. Disinfestation of Date Fruits by Gamma Radiation and Its Effect on the Nutritional Contents of Dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Z.A.; Boshra, S.A.; Mikhaiel, A.A.; Hassan, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation dis infestations of Siwa date fruits seems to be a very promising method. Considerations of the health safety of irradiated date fruits involve nutritional contents has been investigated by chemical analysis. The dose of 400 and 1000 Gy were lethal for the different stages of oases date moth, Ephestia calidella. Dates are a good source of iron and potassium, they also contain calcium, magnesium, copper and other minerals. The radiation dose 1000 Gy had mostly affected the carbohydrates content, some minerals as Fe, Ca and Na partially changed by the treatment. Protein and vitamin contents were slightly affected

  16. THE EFFECT OF NUTRITIONAL EDUCATION BASED ON PENDER'S HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL ON NUTRITIONAL BEHAVIOR OF PREGNANT WOMEN: A QUASI EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Shobeiri, Khadigeh Dehghan Afshari, Sasan Nazari, Saman Nazari*, Maryam Farhadian

    2018-01-01

    The health behavior of a pregnant woman, including adequate nutritional behaviors and supply of all the necessary nutrients. The objective of this study was examined the effect nutritional education based on Pender's Health Promotion Model on nutritional behavior of pregnant women referred to health centers in Hamadan city, Iran, 2016. This study was a quasiexperimental study, and its plans for the two groups (experimental and control groups). 100 women referred to health centers in Hamadan c...

  17. Unravelling the effect of the Dutch school-based nutrition programme Taste Lessons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes-Fries, Marieke C.E.; Dongen, van Ellen J.I.; Renes, Reint Jan; Meester, Hante J.; Veer, van 't Pieter; Haveman-Nies, Annemien

    2016-01-01

    Background: To unravel the effect of school-based nutrition education, insight into the implementation process is needed. In this study, process indicators of Taste Lessons (a nutrition education programme for Dutch elementary schools) and their association with changes in behavioural

  18. Facebook Is an Effective Strategy to Recruit Low-Income Women to Online Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…

  19. Effects of harvesting stages on yield and nutritional quality of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Farmers often harvest African eggplant (Solanum Aethiopicum L.) fruits at different stages of fruit maturity. The influence of these harvesting practices on fruit productivity and nutritional quality is not known. This study was conducted to determine the effect of harvesting stages on yield and nutritional quality of ...

  20. The effect of a liquid nutrition supplement on body composition and physical functioning in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Hooijdonk, van C.; Wagenaar, L.; Bindels, J.G.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Background & aims: The elderly are at an increased risk of poor nutritional status which is mutually interacting with functional status. We evaluated the effects of a liquid nutrition supplement on anthropometric and functional indices in elderly people. Methods: Subjects (n=68; mean age=82 +/-

  1. Effects of Protein Foods on the Nutritional Status of Adults with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    Effects of Protein Foods on the Nutritional Status of. Adults with Moderate Chronic Renal Failure. Fadupin Grace T. Department of Human Nutrition, College of Medicine, University Of Ibadan. Ibadan. ABSTRACT: This study compares the efficacy of low- protein foods, from cooked beef (diet A), smoked cat fish (diet B),.

  2. The effects of drugs on nutrition | Van Zyl | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. The effects of drugs on nutrition. M Van Zyl ...

  3. Effect of Spirulina maxima Supplementation on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Status in Obese Patients with Treated Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Suliburska, J.; Szuli?ska, M.; Tinkov, A. A.; Bogda?ski, P.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 50 obese subjects with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2?g of spirulina or a placebo daily for 3?months. At baseline and after treatment, the calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc concentration in plasma was assessed. It was found that 3?months of S. maxima supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the iron level in t...

  4. Effect of calcium on adsorptive removal of As(III) and As(V) by iron oxide-based adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Uwamariya, V.

    2014-06-25

    The effects of calcium on the equilibrium adsorption capacity of As(III) and As(V) onto iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS) and granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) were investigated through batch experiments, rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCT) and kinetics modelling. Batch experiments showed that at calcium concentrations≤20 mg/L, high As(III) and As(V) removal efficiencies by IOCS and GFH are achieved at pH 6. An increase of the calcium concentration to 40 and 80 mg/L reversed this trend, giving higher removal efficiencies at higher pH (8). The adsorption capacities of IOCS and GFH at an equilibrium arsenic concentration of 10 g/L were found to be between 2.0 and 3.1 mg/g for synthetic water without calcium and between 2.8 and 5.3 mg/g when 80 mg/L of calcium was present at the studied pH values. After 10 hours of filter run in RSSCT, approximately 1000 empty bed volumes, the ratios of C/Co for As(V) were 26% and 18% for calcium-free model water; and only 1% and 0.2% after addition of 80 mg/L of Ca for filter columns with IOCS and GFH, respectively. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto GFH follows a second-order reaction, with and without addition of calcium. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto IOCS follows a first-order reaction without calcium addition, and moves to the second-reaction-order kinetics when calcium is added. Based on the intraparticle diffusion model, the main controlling mechanism for As(III) adsorption is intraparticle diffusion, while surface diffusion contributes greatly to the adsorption of As(V).

  5. The effects of resistance exercise and oral nutritional supplementation during hemodialysis on indicators of nutritional status and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Alemañy, Geovana; Valdez-Ortiz, Rafael; Olvera-Soto, Guadalupe; Gomez-Guerrero, Irma; Aguire-Esquivel, Guillermo; Cantu-Quintanilla, Guillermo; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Miranda-Alatriste, Paola; Espinosa-Cuevas, Angeles

    2016-10-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is common in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Studies have assessed the positive effect of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) or resistance exercise (RE) on nutritional status (NS) markers in patients undergoing HD. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ONS and RE on NS and the quality of life (QOL) of 36 patients undergoing HD. In a randomized clinical trial, patients were divided into the following two groups: a control group (ONS) that received a can of ONS during their HD sessions and an intervention group (ONS + RE) that received a can of ONS and underwent a 40-min session of RE during their HD sessions. Both interventions lasted 12 weeks. The patients' anthropometric, biochemical, dietetic and bioelectrical impedance measurements as well as their QOL, evaluated using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form, were recorded. At baseline, 55.5% of patients presented with PEW according to International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism criteria (20 patients). We found statistically significant changes from baseline in both groups, such as increases in body weight, body mass index, midarm circumference, midarm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, fat mass percentage, handgrip strength, phase angle and serum albumin. A decrease in the prevalence of PEW was observed in both groups at the end of the intervention. A delta comparison between groups showed no statistically significant differences in the anthropometric and biochemical parameters. No significant improvement was observed in QOL and body composition measured by bioimpedance vector analysis. Dietary energy and protein intake increased significantly during the study period for all patients. Oral nutritional supplementation during HD improves NS. The addition of RE during HD does not seem to augment the acute anabolic effects of intradialytic ONS on NS. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA

  6. [Effects of nutritional education on improvement of nutritional knowledge of infant's mothers in rural area in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shi-an; Li, Nan; Yan, Zhi-yue; Pan, Lei; Lai, Jian-qiang; Zhao, Xian-feng

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of young children's mothers on infant feeding and to evaluate the effects of nutritional education in the rural areas. A cluster sampling method was used to select the local health station. Five hundred and fifteen mothers, who had infants with age of 4 - 6 months, were recruited for the questionnaire survey on the nutritional knowledge in rural areas of Tianjin municipality. The mothers were randomly divided into intervention group I (160), intervention group II (180) and control group (175). The mothers in the intervention group I were educated with feeding guideline on infants and young children and had had Group lectures and advisory from experts about maternal and child nutrition for teaching them how to feed their children; while, the mothers in the intervention group II were trained with feeding guideline on infants and young children by themselves; and the mothers in the control group received routine guidance at the local health station. The follow-up evaluation on nutritional knowledge of the mothers in each group was carried out after 3 and 6 months intervention, respectively. The educational background had significant effect on KAP scores: KAP scores of the mothers with primary education or less (8.3 +/- 2.2) were significantly lower than that of the mothers educated with high school (9.4 +/- 1.6) and university (9.6 +/- 1.8) (LSD t = 3.70, P educated with feeding guideline on infants and young children, the knowledge of infant's mothers was greatly improved and KAP scores of the mothers after intervention were higher than that of the baseline (F = 183.556, P = 0.006); the percentage of correct answer on nutrition knowledge in the intervention groups was significantly higher than that of the control group. At six months of intervention, the KAP scores of intervention group I (12.0) and intervention group II (11.6) were higher than that of the control group (10.5) (LSD t = 5.96, P nutritional and

  7. Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on small conductance calcium –activated potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simo Vicens, Rafel; Sauter, Daniel Rafael Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia. Current pharmacological treatment for AF is moderately effective and/or increases the risk of serious ventricular adverse effects. To avoid ventricular adverse effects, a new target has been considered, the small conductance calcium....... Whether antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) recommended for treating AF target KCa2.X channels is unknown. To this end, we tested a large number of AADs on the human KCa2.2 and KCa2.3 channels to assess their effect on this new target using automated whole-cell patch clamp. Of the AADs recommended for treatment...... for their antiarrhythmic effect is unlikely, as the calculated IC50 values are very high compared to the effective free therapeutic plasma concentration of the drugs when used for AF treatment, 40,000-fold for dofetilide and 140- fold higher for propafenone....

  8. Effects of Nutritional variables in children with iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron deficiency (ID is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in the world. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA is about 9% in toddlers, 9-11% in adolescent girls and less than 1% in teenage boys. IDA presents when there is not sufficient iron for haemoglobin synthesis. In particular it has negative effects on the behavior, cognitive performance, immune system and physical growth of infants, preschool and school age children. Material and Methods: Blood samples of 337 randomly selected children (6-59 months living in the Ahwaz, Khuzestan province, were taken. Serum ferritin, Complete Blood Cell (CBC and hematological indices were measured Results and Discussion: In this study 61.1% of the children had serum ferritin less than 12mcg/dl. Prevalence of IDA were 29.1 %. The results showed that most children with IDA were at 12-23 months. Families with more than 6 children had 4.49 times greater chance of IDA. The mean of breast-feeding in non-IDA children was higher than IDA children (17.6 and 16.3 months respectively, P>0.05. In this study families who gave tea to their children for 1-11 months had the highest prevalence of IDA. Conclusion: There are several main risk factors for ID & IDA in the children. Parent's illiteracy, family income and using cow's milk before 12 months are among most important risk factors for iron deficiency for children.

  9. Effect of postoperative nutrition on muscle high energy phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, K Y; Askanazi, J; Michelsen, C B; Furst, P F; Elwyn, D H; Kinney, J M

    1982-01-01

    This study examines the effect of hypocaloric nutritional regimens on muscle high energy phosphates in normal subjects and patients following total hip replacement. Eighteen patients undergoing total hip replacement and 11 normal subjects on a four-day period of bedrest were studied. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either: (1) 90 gms/day glucose; (2) 70 gms/day amino acids; or (3) 90 gms/day glucose + 70 gms/day amino acids. A percutaneous muscle biopsy was performed before operation and on the morning of the fourth day after operation. Samples were analyzed for adenine triphosphate (ATP), adenine diphosphate (ADP), adenine monophosphate (AMP), phosphocreatine (PC), free creatine (CR), lactate, and pyruvate. Normal subjects were assigned to receive either: (1) 90 gms/day glucose; (2) 70 gms/day amino acids; or (3) no caloric intake. The patients receiving amino acid alone demonstrated a decrease in ATP, ADP, and PC, while AMP and free creatine rose. No significant changes were seen in patients who received 90 gms/day glucose either with, or without, amino acids. There were also no significant changes in any of the normal subjects. These results suggest that a series of metabolic changes occur in skeletal muscle following injury such that small amounts of glucose are important for maintenance of cellular energy levels. PMID:7055378

  10. In vitro antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide combined with chlorhexidine or iodine potassium iodide on Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirén, Eva K; Haapasalo, Markus P P; Waltimo, Tuomas M T; Ørstavik, Dag

    2004-08-01

    Several studies have shown a higher success rate of root canal therapy when the canal is free from bacteria at the time of obturation. Treatment strategies that are designed to eliminate this microflora should include agents that can effectively disinfect the root canal. Enterococcus faecalis is often associated with persistent endodontic infections. While in vivo studies have indicated calcium hydroxide to be the most effective all-purpose intracanal medicament, iodine potassium iodide (IKI) and chlorhexidine (CHX) may be able to kill calcium hydroxide-resistant bacteria. Supplementing the antibacterial activity of calcium hydroxide with IPI or CHX preparations was studied in bovine dentine blocks. While calcium hydroxide was unable to kill E. faecalis in the dentine, calcium hydroxide combined with IKI or CHX effectively disinfected the dentine. The addition of CHX or IKI did not affect the alkalinity of the calcium hydroxide suspensions. It may be assumed that combinations also have the potential to be used as long-term medication. Cytotoxicity tests using the neutral red method indicated that the combinations were no more toxic than their pure components.

  11. Effect of Silicon Supplementation on Bone Status in Ovariectomized Rats Under Calcium-Replete Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, So Young; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that silicon (Si) had positive effects on bone, but such benefits from Si may be dependent on calcium status. Also, several biochemical roles of Si in osteoblastic mineralization, the regulation of gene expression related to bone matrix synthesis, and the decrease in reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory mediators were reported, but these effects were mostly shown in cell culture studies. Hence, we tested the effect of Si supplementation on bone status and the gene expression related to bone metabolism and inflammatory mediators in young estrogen-deficient rats under calcium-replete condition (0.5 % diet). Results showed that 15-week supplementation of both high and very high doses of Si (0.025 and 0.075 % diet, respectively) could not restore the ovariectomy (OVX)-induced decrease of bone mineral density (BMD) of vertebrae, femur, and tibia. Also, several bone biochemical markers (ALP, osteocalcin, CTx) and mRNA expression of COL-I, RANKL, IL-6, and TNF-α in femur metaphysis were not significantly changed by Si in OVX rats. However, a very high dose (0.075 %) of Si supplementation significantly increased OPG expression and decreased the ratio of RANKL/OPG in mRNA expression comparable to that of sham-control animals. Taken together, Si supplementation did not increase BMD under calcium-replete condition but the decrease in the ratio of RANKL/OPG expression to the normal level suggests the possibility of a bone health benefit of Si in estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss.

  12. The central role of calcium in the effects of cytokines on beta-cell function: implications for type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, James W; Steiner, Stephen R; O'Neill, Christina M; Nunemaker, Craig S

    2011-12-01

    The appropriate regulation of intracellular calcium is a requirement for proper cell function and survival. This review focuses on the effects of proinflammatory cytokines on calcium regulation in the insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cell and how normal stimulus-secretion coupling, organelle function, and overall beta-cell viability are impacted. Proinflammatory cytokines are increasingly thought to contribute to beta-cell dysfunction not only in type 1 diabetes (T1D), but also in the progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cytokine-induced disruptions in calcium handling result in reduced insulin release in response to glucose stimulation. Cytokines can alter intracellular calcium levels by depleting calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and by increasing calcium influx from the extracellular space. Depleting ER calcium leads to protein misfolding and activation of the ER stress response. Disrupting intracellular calcium may also affect organelles, including the mitochondria and the nucleus. As a chronic condition, cytokine-induced calcium disruptions may lead to beta-cell death in T1D and T2D, although possible protective effects are also discussed. Calcium is thus central to both normal and pathological cell processes. Because the tight regulation of intracellular calcium is crucial to homeostasis, measuring the dynamics of calcium may serve as a good indicator of overall beta-cell function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. THE BACTERIOLOGIC EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT: NORMAL SALINE 5.25% AND 0.5%, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R FARHAD

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this invitro investigation was to compare the anti-bacterial effect of normal saline and sodium hypochlorite (5.25 percent and 0.5 percent with calcium hydroxide used as intra canal dressing used in different time periods. Methods: 180 single-rooted freshly extracted teeth were selected. The crowns were resected of CEJ and the canal were flared to the same length using a number one Gates-Glidden. A suspension of selected strict and facultative anaerobic bacteria was placed inside the canals and incubated in anaerobic condition for 24 hours. Then the teeth were randomly assigned to 9 groups. Results: Group 1. Negative control; group 2. Positive control; group 3. instrumented using normal saile; group 4. instrumented using 0.5 percent sodium hypochlorite; grooup 5. instrumentation using 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite; group 6. After instrumentation, 10 min. of calcium hydroxide was placed; group 7. after instrumentation 24h of calcium hydroxide was placed; group 8. After instrumentation 48h of calcium hydroxide was placed; group9. After instrumentation a week of calcium hydroxide was placed. Then paper points were used to get samples in each group. The samples incubated in anaerobid condition for 48 hours. The TSB turbidity was compared to mcfarland"s scale. Discussion: The results of this study indicates: Sodium hypochlorite in both concentrations were significantly more effective than normal saline. The one week calcium hydroxide group was significantly more effective than all other groups and was comparable to negative control group. The 24h and 48h calcium hydroxide groups did not have significant differences with each other or with the sodium hypochlorite groups. The 10 min. calcium hydroxide group was only comparable to normal saline group.

  14. Effects of combined vitamin D--calcium supplements on the cardiovascular system: should we be cautious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoumas, Dimitrios; Stavrou, Antonio; Pericleous, Agamemnon; Dimitrakakis, Georgios

    2015-02-01

    Despite the growing body of evidence on the potential effects of calcium and vitamin D as monotherapies on different cardiovascular (CV) parameters, the combined supplementation with calcium and vitamin D (CaD), which is most frequently encountered in clinical practice, has not received the attention it deserves. A literature search was conducted via EMBASE and Medline and identified 14 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 meta-analyses reporting on effects of combined supplementation with CaD on CV events, CV death, blood pressure, lipids, glucose metabolism and weight. Overall, the existing evidence does not support beneficial properties of supplementation with CaD on the CV system, nor does it suggest that a re-appraisal of the use of CaD is necessary due to adverse effects, although increased risk of CV events has been reported by some authors. The guidelines for the use of CaD supplementation need not change until well-conducted RCTs that have CV effects as primary outcomes and adjust for major confounders indicate otherwise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An effect of dietary orthophosphate, cyclotriphosphate, and hexamethaphosphate on calcium retention in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.T.; Wollenburg, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ca 2 + was used to measure the effect of dietary 0.1% orthophosphate, 0.1% hexametaphosphate and 0.1% cyclotriphosphate on calcium retention in the rat. Based on the 45 Ca 2 + content of the carcass, blood and liver, there was no significant difference in percent retention of a test dose of 45 Ca 2 + in rats fed by either orthophosphate or hexametaphosphate. However, in the case of cyclotriphosphate feeding, a significant increase in the retention of a pulse dose of 45 Ca 2 + was found. (author)

  16. The effect of calcium infiltration and irradiation treatment on biochemical and physiological aspects during mango storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Qiaobing; Liu Shaode

    1993-01-01

    Zhi Hua Mango (Mangifera indica L.) was treated using calcium infiltration and radiation. Biochemical and physiological aspects during mango storage were researched. The results that the treatment of CaCl 2 with radiation (dose of 0.25 kGy) can retard Malic enzyme activity, and radiation can also cause effects on the transpiration of Ca ++ and release of CO 2 and ethylene. The mango treated with above way is the best one from view of sense organ. However it does not delay maturity of mango to use Ca ++ treatment alone

  17. Effect of Temperature on Precipitation Rate of Calcium Carbonate Produced through Microbial Metabolic Process of Bio Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Yane Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most widely used construction material in civil engineering. But plain concrete is a brittle material and has little resistance to cracking. The cracking in concrete promotes deterioration such as the corrosion of reinforcing rebar, therefore, repair in filling the crack is often carried out. Recently, repair methods using bio-based materials associated with microbial metabolic processes leading to precipitation of calcium carbonate have been intensively studied. In this study, influencing factors on the precipitation rate depending on the constituents of bio-based material comprising yeast, glucose and calcium acetate mixed in tris buffer solution was examined for improving the rate of initial reactions. In addition, effect of temperature change on the amount of calcium carbonate precipitation was also investigated. The precipitates were identified by X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the increase of temperature lead to a change on calcium carbonate precipitation and caused the pH decrease under 7.0.

  18. PLEIOTROPIC EFFECTS OF PARATHYROIDECTOMY AND AGONIST CALCIUM-SENSITIVE RECEPTOR, CINACALCET

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    L. V. Egshatyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of parathyroidectomy and cinacalcet on anemia, lipid profile and blood pressure (BP in uremic hyperparathyroidism.Material and methods. Uremic patients (n=39 treated with hemodialysis and having secondary hyperparathyroidism were included into the study. Radical parathyroidectomy was performed in 21 patients, 18 patients were treated with cinacalcet. BP measurement, determination of blood levels of albumin, total calcium, phosphorus, total cholesterol (TC, low (LDL and high density lipoproteins, triglycerides, intact parathyroid hormone, and hemoglobin were performed in all patients initially and during treatment. Doses of antihypertensive and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents were also assessed.Results. Calcium-phosphorus metabolism indices improved after 6 months of cinacalcet therapy and parathyroidectomy (p<0.05. BP reduction not requiring antihypertensive drugs dose adjustment was found in patients treated with cinacalcet. Significant BP reduction (p<0.05 was observed after parathyroidectomy and it required antihypertensive drugs cancellation or dose lowering. Cinacalcet therapy and parathyroidectomy led to increase in hemoglobin level by 2.02% (p=0.143 and 7.6% (p=0.029, respectively, as well as reduction in weekly dose of erythropoiesis-stimulating drugs by 2.7% (p=0.875 and 8.9% (p=0.751, respectively. Significant (p<0.05 decrease in LDL (5.6%, and triglycerides (23.7% levels was found in patients treated with cinacalcet. Reduction (p<0.05 in total cholesterol (1.4% and LDL (4.3% levels was observed after parathyroidectomy.Conclusion. The pleiotropic effects (reduction in BP and atherogenic lipids levels, as well as decrease in anemia resistant to the action of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents were found after parathyroidectomy and cinacalcet therapy additionally to calcium-phosphorus metabolism improvement.

  19. The effect of exogenous calcium on mitochondria, respiratory metabolism enzymes and ion transport in cucumber roots under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lizhong; Li, Bin; Lu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Lingyun; Yang, Yanjuan; Yuan, Yinghui; Du, Jing; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-25

    Hypoxia induces plant stress, particularly in cucumber plants under hydroponic culture. In plants, calcium is involved in stress signal transmission and growth. The ultimate goal of this study was to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the effects of exogenous calcium on the mitochondrial antioxidant system, the activity of respiratory metabolism enzymes, and ion transport in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinchun No. 2) roots under hypoxic conditions. Our experiments revealed that exogenous calcium reduces the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes in mitochondria under hypoxia. Exogenous calcium also enhances the accumulation of enzymes involved in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. We utilized fluorescence and ultrastructural cytochemistry methods to observe that exogenous calcium increases the concentrations of Ca(2+) and K(+) in root cells by increasing the activity of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase and tonoplast H(+)-ATPase and H(+)-PPase. Overall, our results suggest that hypoxic stress has an immediate and substantial effect on roots. Exogenous calcium improves metabolism and ion transport in cucumber roots, thereby increasing hypoxia tolerance in cucumber.

  20. Effect of taurine and caffeine on plasma c-reactive protein and calcium in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, B V; Oyewole, A L; Biliaminu, S A; Alashi, Y

    2015-09-01

    Caffeine is a component of several beverages such as coffee and tea. It has been shown to possess psychoactive properties because it increases alertness, energy and ability to concentrate at moderate doses. Taurine on the other hand, is an amino acid which has the capacity to promote neural development, osmoregulation and neuroprotection. There is paucity of information on the effect of the combined administration of taurine and caffeine on C-reactive protein (CRP)--a marker of inflammation and plasma calcium level in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of combined taurine and caffeine on the plasma level of CRP, Ca2+ as well as the effect of nifedipine on calcium level. Fifty four rats weighing 120-140 g were used for these studies. The animals were divided into nine groups consisting of six animals each. Group 1 was treated with 10 m/kg of normal saline, Groups 2 and 3 were given 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of taurine respectively, groups 4 and 5 received 7.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg of caffeine respectively while group 6 was administered taurine (200 mg/kg) and caffeine (15 mg/kg), groups 7 and 8 were treated with taurine (200 mg/kg) plus nifedipine (10 mg/kg) and taurine (200 mg/kg)plus furosemide (20 mg/kg) respectively while group 9 was given taurine plu caffeine plus nifdipine plus furosemide. Treatment was done once daily for 21 days and blood was finally collected via cardiac puncture for the assay of CRP and calcium while the animals were under anaesthesia. The results showed that CRP was significantly decreased in five of the treated groups compared with the control with the exception of the group treated with taurine alone (Group 2), and that treated with combined taurine and caffeine (Group 6). The Ca2+ level of groups treated with caffeine (11.70 ± 0.29 mg/dL) and taurine with caffeine (11.64 ± 0.15 mg/dL) were significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared with the control (10.70 ± 0.29 mg/dL). However, treatment with taurine and

  1. Effect of Calcium Chloride Treatments on Quality Characteristics of Blackberry, Raspberry and Strawberry Fruits After Cold Storage

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    Tamar Turmanidze

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvested blackberry, raspberry and strawberry fruits were immediately treated with 1% and 2% calcium chloride by immersion at 20 ± 1°C for 2.5 min and kept for 8 days at 0 ± 0.5°C and relative humidity (RH 90 ± 5%. The application of calcium did not significantly effect on total titratable acidity, pH and total soluble solids. Maximum weight lost was observed for untreated berries and minimum lost was observed for fruits treated with 2% calcium chloride. After storage, ascorbic acid content was significantly higher in samples of blackberry, raspberry and strawberry fruits subjected to 2% calcium chloride dip. Treatment of blackberry, raspberry and strawberry fruits with calcium chloride had a positive effect on retention of total polyphenols content during the storage period. Depletion of antioxidant capacity of untreated fresh blackberry fruits during 8 days cold storage was 25%; raspberries and strawberries - 34 and 26 % respectively. Whereas depletion of antioxidant activity in the 2% calcium chloride treated samples of these fruits was 8, 22 and 11% respectively. In case of storage of untreated blackberry fruits content of cyanidin-3-O-monoglucoside decreased by 6.33 mg per 100 g of fruit. While, in fruit samples treated with 1 and 2% calcium chloride content of cyanidin-3-O-monoglucoside decreased by 32.06 and 11.35 mg per 100 g of fruit, respectively. Content of pelargonidin 3–O- monoglucoside increased by 2.29 mg per 100 g of the untreated blackberry fruits and by 26.87 and 8.45 mg per 100 g of fruits treated with 1 and 2% calcium chloride respectively. Change of content of cyanidin 3–O- (6 - p – coumaroyl - glucoside in blackberry fruits was not statistically significant.

  2. Effectiveness of hydrothermal-calcium chloride treatment and chitosan on quality retention and microbial growth during storage of fresh-cut papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayón-Reyna, Lidia E; Tamayo-Limón, Ransés; Cárdenas-Torres, Feliznando; López-López, Martha E; López-Angulo, Gabriela; López-Moreno, Héctor S; López-Cervántes, Jaime; López-Valenzuela, José A; Vega-García, Misael O

    2015-03-01

    Rapid degradation of fresh-cut papaya limits its marketability. Hydrothermal treatments in combination with a calcium dip, applied to whole fruit before slicing, and also the application of chitosan as a coating film, have been found to have very good results in maintaining the quality of fresh-cut fruits. Based on these considerations, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment (HT; 49 °C, 25 min) containing calcium chloride (Ca; 1%, w/v) followed by dipping in chitosan (Chit; 1%, w/v, 3 min) on the physical, chemical, and microbial qualities of papaya slices stored at 5 °C for 10 d. Pulp color, firmness, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, β-carotene, and lycopene were evaluated every 2 d while the microbial quality (mesophilics, psychrophilics, molds, and yeasts) was evaluated every 5 d. Fruit treated with HT-Ca and HT-Ca + Chit showed better color and firmness retention than Control and Chit. Papaya slices treated with HT-Ca + Chit had higher nutritional content and lower microbial growth at the end of storage. The application of the HT-Ca + Chit could be used to reduce deterioration processes, maintaining physical, chemical, and microbial qualities and increasing the shelf life of fresh-cut papaya stored at 5 °C. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Effect of Fluoride, Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Fluoride on Enamel Surface Microhardness After Microabrasion: An In Vitro Study

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    Ghazaleh Ahmadi Zenouz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of applying casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste, casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF paste and sodium fluoride gel on surface microhardness of enamel after microabrasion.Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted human premolars were selected. All samples were subjected to hardness indentations made with the Vickers hardness machine and the average value was recorded as the initial surface microhardness. The specimens were then randomly divided into three groups (n=10 of CPP-ACPF, fluoride and CPP-ACP. The teeth were micro-abraded with Opalustre. Microhardness test was performed to assess the post-abrasion hardness. Three remineralization modalities were performed on samples of each group. The enamel surface microhardness measurements were performed. To compare the difference between groups, the rehardening and softening values were defined. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test at a significance level of 5% were used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean microhardness value (MMV had a significant decrease after microabrasion from baseline. The MMV had a significant increase after remineralization in all groups. The MMV of CPP-ACPF group was significantly more than that of fluoride group (P=0.027. The rehardening value of fluoride group was significantly more than that of other groups (P<0.001.Conclusion: All the remineralizing agents were effective for rehardening the enamel after microabrasion. The CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF pastes are effective, but to a lesser extent than neutral sodium fluoride gel in remineralizing enamel surface. Incorporation of fluoride to CPP-ACP formulation does not provide any additional remineralizing potential.Keywords: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex; Enamel Microabrasion; Hardness; Sodium Fluoride

  4. Effect of glutamine enteral nutrition on the postoperative nutrition status and immune function in elderly patients with gastrointestinal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Sheng Tao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy of glutamine enteral nutrition in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumor in elderly patients and the effect in improving the nutrition and immunity. Methods: A total of 92 elderly patients with gastrointestinal tumor who were admitted in our hospital from June, 2014 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the control group (n=46 and the treatment group (n=46. The patients in the two groups were given adjuvant chemotherapy 2 weeks after operation and routine enternal nutrition 1 d after operation. On the basis of routine enternal nutrition, the patients in the treatment group were given glutamine granules for intensive treatment. The patients in the two groups were continuously given 10 d nutrition support. The gastrointestinal function recovery and intestinal mucosal barrier recovery before and after operation in the observation group were compared. The levels of related nutrition and immune indicators before and after operation in the two groups were detected and compared. Results: The first exhaust and first defecation time after operation in the treatment group was significantly shortened when compared with the control group. When compared with before operation, L/M and plasma DAO level 1 d and 10 d after operation in the control group were significantly elevated. L/M and plasma DAO level 1 d after operation in the treatment group were significantly elevated, while those 10 d after operation were significantly reduced when compared with before operation. L/M and plasma DAO level 1 d and 10 d after operation in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The serum TP, Alb, PA, and TRF levels 1 d and 10 d after operation in the two groups were significantly elevated when compared with before operation, and those in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group. When compared with before operation, the plasma Ig

  5. Comparative proteomic and physiological analyses reveal the protective effect of exogenous calcium on the germinating soybean response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongqi; Yang, Runqiang; Han, Yongbin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2015-01-15

    suppressed under salt stress condition. According to previous studies, exogenous calcium counters the harmful effect of salt stress and increases the biomass and GABA content of germinating soybeans. Nevertheless, the precise molecular mechanism underlying the role of calcium in resistance to salt stress is still unknown. This paper is the first study employing comparative proteomic and physiological analyses to reveal the protective effect of exogenous calcium in the germinating soybean response to salt stress. Our study links the biological events with proteomic information and provides detailed peptide information on all identified proteins. The functions of those significantly changed proteins are also analyzed. The physiological and comparative proteomic analyses revealed the putative molecular mechanism of exogenous calcium treatment induced salt stress responses. The findings from this paper are beneficial to high GABA-rich germinating soybean biomass. Additionally, these findings also might be applicable to the genetic engineering of soybean plants to improve stress tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of calcium phosphate/chitosan composite on bone healing in rats: calcium phosphate induces osteon formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Tulio; Olave, Gilberto; Valencia, Carlos H; Arce, Sandra; Quinn, Julian M W; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qi-Zhi

    2014-07-01

    Vascularization of an artificial graft represents one of the most significant challenges facing the field of bone tissue engineering. Over the past decade, strategies to vascularize artificial scaffolds have been intensively evaluated using osteoinductive calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials in animal models. In this work, we observed that CaP-based biomaterials implanted into rat calvarial defects showed remarkably accelerated formation and mineralization of new woven bone in defects in the initial stages, at a rate of ∼60 μm/day (0.8 mg/day), which was considerably higher than normal bone growth rates (several μm/day, 0.1 mg/day) in implant-free controls of the same age. Surprisingly, we also observed histological evidence of primary osteon formation, indicated by blood vessels in early-region fibrous tissue, which was encapsulated by lamellar osteocyte structures. These were later fully replaced by compact bone, indicating complete regeneration of calvarial bone. Thus, the CaP biomaterial used here is not only osteoinductive, but vasculogenic, and it may have contributed to the bone regeneration, despite an absence of osteons in normal rat calvaria. Further investigation will involve how this strategy can regulate formation of vascularized cortical bone such as by control of degradation rate, and use of models of long, dense bones, to more closely approximate repair of human cortical bone.

  7. Nutritional status of tribal children and adolescents in rural south India: the effect of an NGO delivered nutritional programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Srinivasan, Rohit; Sudarshan, Hanumappa

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of malnutrition using anthropometric measures in a cohort of tribal students attending a school in rural south India. Children attending the school were offered three meals a day during attendance. Analysis of anthropometric data obtained aimed to determine the nutritional effect of the food provided. The nutritional status of 409 students were assessed by comparing anthropometric measurements to reference values according to WHO/NCHS guidelines. Height for age evaluation of the meals provided by the organisation. Four hundred and nine students were included for analysis in the study. The prevalence of thinness was 39.4 %. 59.5 % of 'new' and 52.9 % of 'old' students at the school demonstrated thinness. 59.4 % of students were classified as stunted. 73.8 % of 'new' students and 52.9 % of 'old' students demonstrated stunting (p 0.091). Significantly (p 0.010) more 'new' female students had stunted growth. Acute and chronic measures of malnutrition were high amongst adolescent students attending the school. Comparison of 'new' and 'old' adolescent pupils at the school hints that the 'old' students were less malnourished than their 'new' counterparts. This study demonstrates the importance for NGOs to develop their nutritional programmes with a special focus on adolescents.

  8. Effects of preoperative and postoperative enteral nutrition on postoperative nutritional status and immune function of gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dayong; Feng, Ye; Song, Bin; Gao, Shuohui; Zhao, Jisheng

    2015-03-01

    Effects of preoperative one week enteral nutrition (EN) support on the postoperative nutritional status, immune function and inflammatory response of gastric cancer patients were investigated. 106 cases of gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into preoperative one week EN group (trial group) and early postoperative EN group (control group), which were continuously treated with EN support until the postoperative 9th day according to different treatment protocols. All the patients were checked for their body weight, skinfold thickness, upper arm circumference, white blood cell count (WBC), albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), C-reactive protein (CRP), humoral immunity (IgA, IgG), T cell subsets (CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), etc. on the preoperative and the postoperative 1st and 10th day, respectively. PA and IgG levels of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group on the postoperative 10th day, whereas IL-6 level of the experimental group was lower than that of the control group. EN support for preoperative gastric cancer patients will improve the postoperative nutritional status and immune function, alleviate inflammatory response, and facilitate the recovery of patients.

  9. Effect of nutritional interventions on nutritional status, quality of life and mortality in patients with head and neck cancer receiving (chemo) radiotherapy: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langius, J.A.E.; Zandbergen, M.C.; Eerenstein, S.E.J.; van Tulder, M.W.; Leemans, C.R.; Kramer, M.H.H.; Weijs, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: We performed a systematic review to examine the effect of nutritional interventions on nutritional status, quality of life (QoL) and mortality in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Methods: We searched Pubmed,

  10. Annual Feedback Is an Effective Tool for a Sustained Increase in Calcium Intake among Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Nicholson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to optimize calcium intake among the 2,000+ older women taking part in the Vital D study. Calcium supplementation was not included in the study protocol. Our hypothesis was that annual feedback of calcium intake and informing women of strategies to improve calcium intake can lead to a sustained increase in the proportion of women who consume adequate levels of the mineral. Calcium intake was assessed on an annual basis using a validated short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Supplemental calcium intake was added to the dietary estimate. Participants and their nominated doctor were sent a letter that the participant’s estimated daily calcium intake was adequate or inadequate based on a cutoff threshold of 800 mg/day. General brief statements outlining the importance of an adequate calcium intake and bone health were included in all letters. At baseline, the median daily consumption of calcium was 980 mg/day and 67 percent of 1,951 participants had calcium intake of at least 800 mg per day. Of the 644 older women advised of an inadequate calcium intake at baseline (< 800 mg/day, 386 (60% had increased their intake by at least 100 mg/day when re-assessed twelve months later. This desirable change was sustained at 24 months after baseline with almost half of these women (303/644 consuming over 800 mg calcium per day. This study devised an efficient method to provide feedback on calcium intake to over 2,000 older women. The improvements were modest but significant and most apparent in those with a low intake at baseline. The decreased proportion of these women with an inadequate intake of calcium 12- and 24-months later, suggests this might be a practical, low cost strategy to maintain an adequate calcium intake among older women.

  11. Bile composition, plasma lipids and oxidative hepatic damage induced by calcium supplementation; effects of goat or cow milk consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, María J M; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Nestares, Teresa; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; Campos, Margarita S

    2013-05-01

    Calcium-fortified foods, especially milk and dairy products are recommended to be consumed daily for groups in risk of nutritional deficiency, including children, young adults, menopausal women, pregnant women and the elderly, however Ca-supplementation promotes gallstone formation because Ca is a nucleating factor. The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of cow or goat milk-based diets, either normal or Ca-supplemented, on bile composition, biochemical parameters and hepatic antioxidant status. Weanling male rats were randomly divided into six groups, fed standard, goat or cow milk-based diets, either with normal Ca content (5.0 g/kg), or Ca-supplemented (10.0 g/kg), for 2 weeks. Bile cholesterol concentration and output was higher in rats fed goat milk in comparison with those fed with standard and cow-milk-based diet. Ca-supplementation increased lithogenic index with the standard and cow-milk based diets, this change was not observed with the goat milk diet. Activities of plasma transaminases were also lower in the animals fed Ca-supplemented goat milk, in comparison with the other diets assayed. In general, Ca-supplement in the diet led to an increase in the hepatic oxidative damage, with an increase in the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied in the standard and cow milk diet, but not with goat milk. The habitual consumption of goat milk has positive effects on the plasma lipid profile, biliary composition and hepatic antioxidant defence. In addition, under our experimental conditions, Ca-supplementation of this type of milk does not increase the lithogenic index, or hepatic oxidative damage.

  12. Effects of silica and calcium levels in nanobioglass ceramic particles on osteoblast proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorthi, A.; Parihar, P.R.; Saravanan, S.; Vairamani, M.; Selvamurugan, N., E-mail: selvamurugan.n@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in

    2014-10-01

    At nanoscale, bioglass ceramic (nBGC) particles containing calcium oxide (lime), silica and phosphorus pentoxide promote osteoblast proliferation. However, the role of varied amounts of calcium and silica present in nBGC particles on osteoblast proliferation is not yet completely known. Hence, the current work was aimed at synthesizing two different nBGC particles with varied amounts of calcium oxide and silica, nBGC-1: SiO{sub 2}:CaO:P{sub 2}O{sub 5}; mol% ∼ 70:25:5 and nBGC-2: SiO{sub 2}:CaO:P{sub 2}O{sub 5}; mol% ∼ 64:31:5, and investigating their role on osteoblast proliferation. The synthesized nBGC particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. They exhibited their size at nanoscale and were non-toxic to human osteoblastic cells (MG-63). The nBGC-2 particles were found to have more effect on stimulation of osteoblast proliferation and promoted entering of more cells into G2/M cell cycle phase compared to nBGC-1 particles. There was a differential expression of cyclin proteins in MG-63 cells by nBGC-1 and nBGC-2 treatments, and the expression of cyclin B1 and E proteins was found to be more by nBGC-2 treatment. Thus, these results provide us a new insight in understanding the design of various nBGC particles by altering their ionic constituents with desirable biological properties thereby supporting bone augmentation. - Highlights: • nBGC particles with varied amounts of calcium and silica were synthesized. • They were non-toxic to human osteoblastic cells. • nBGC-2 particles had more effect on stimulation of osteoblast proliferation. • nBGC-2 particles promoted entering of osteoblasts into G2/M cell cycle phase. • Expression of cyclin B1 and E proteins was found to be more by nBGC-2 treatment.

  13. Effect of amorphous calcium phosphate and silver nanocomposites on dental plaque microcosm biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Lin, Nancy J.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Xu, Sarah M.; Zhou, Xuedong

    2012-01-01

    A dental composite containing amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (NACP) was developed that released calcium (Ca) and phosphate (PO4) ions and possessed acid-neutralization capability. There has been little study on incorporation of antibacterial agents into calcium phosphate composites. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticle (NAg) mass fraction in NACP nanocomposite on mechanical properties and dental plaque microcosm biofilm for the first time. NACP nanoparticles of 116 nm were synthesized via a spray-drying technique. NAg nanoparticles were synthesized using Ag 2-ethylhexanoate and 2-(tert-butylamino)ethyl methacrylate, yielding NAg of particle size of 2.7 nm that were well-dispersed in the resin. Five NACP nanocomposites were fabricated with NAg mass fractions of 0, 0.028, 0.042, 0.088, and 0.175%, respectively. Mechanical properties of NACP nanocomposites containing 0–0.042% of NAg matched those of a commercial composite without antibacterial activity. Live/dead assay of dental plaque microcosm biofilms showed complete coverage with live bacteria on commercial composite. However, there were increasingly more dead bacteria with higher NAg content in the NACP nanocomposite. Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts for total microorganisms, total Streptococci, and mutans Streptococci for NACP nanocomposite with 0.042% NAg were about 1/4 those of commercial composite. Lactic acid production on NACP nanocomposite with 0.042% NAg was 1/3 that on commercial composite. In conclusion, novel NACP–NAg nanocomposites were developed which possessed good mechanical properties and potent antibacterial properties, with substantially reduced biofilm viability and lactic acid production. Hence, the NACP–NAg nanocomposites are promising for dental restorations with remineralizing and antibacterial capabilities. PMID:22566464

  14. Anti-osteoporotic effect of medical herbs and calcium supplementation on ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda M. Elkomy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency and insufficient calcium in diet in postmenopause create serious problems with resultant osteoporosis and fractures. In the present study, forty adult albino rats weighting 200–220 g were used and divided into five groups. Group 1, control group included non-ovariectomized untreated rats. Group 2, ovariectomizedOVX rats. Group 3, OVX rats daily received CaCO3 (27 mg/kg b.w.. Group 4, OVX rats daily received a mixture of herbs (sage, rosemary and thyme (30 g/kg b.w.. Group 5, OVX rats daily received both herb mixture and CaCO3. The results showed significant decrease in serum calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphorus (P, total proteins (TP, calcitonin, bone mass density (BMD, reduced glutathione (GSH and catalase (CAT in OVX rats compared to the control group. While a significant increase in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acid phosphatase (ACP were recorded. Also the recorded data showed increases in femur, tibia and vertebral lipid peroxidation (MAD content and the activities of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the ovariectomized rats. On the other hand, when OVX rats were fed on sage, rosemary and thyme supplemented diets or CaCO3 in a single or in combination, the data recorded a significant improvement in all the above mentioned parameters. Finally, the results of this study indicated that the combination of common herbs (sage, rosemary and thyme with calcium carbonate, was more effective in reduction and prevention of osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. So, it can be concluded that consumption of mixed herbs supplemented diets might be considered as a functional food for retarding risks of osteoporosis associated with estrogen deficiency in OVX states.

  15. Effects of silica and calcium levels in nanobioglass ceramic particles on osteoblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthi, A; Parihar, P R; Saravanan, S; Vairamani, M; Selvamurugan, N

    2014-10-01

    At nanoscale, bioglass ceramic (nBGC) particles containing calcium oxide (lime), silica and phosphorus pentoxide promote osteoblast proliferation. However, the role of varied amounts of calcium and silica present in nBGC particles on osteoblast proliferation is not yet completely known. Hence, the current work was aimed at synthesizing two different nBGC particles with varied amounts of calcium oxide and silica, nBGC-1: SiO2:CaO:P2O5; mol%~70:25:5 and nBGC-2: SiO2:CaO:P2O5; mol%~64:31:5, and investigating their role on osteoblast proliferation. The synthesized nBGC particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. They exhibited their size at nanoscale and were non-toxic to human osteoblastic cells (MG-63). The nBGC-2 particles were found to have more effect on stimulation of osteoblast proliferation and promoted entering of more cells into G2/M cell cycle phase compared to nBGC-1 particles. There was a differential expression of cyclin proteins in MG-63 cells by nBGC-1 and nBGC-2 treatments, and the expression of cyclin B1 and E proteins was found to be more by nBGC-2 treatment. Thus, these results provide us a new insight in understanding the design of various nBGC particles by altering their ionic constituents with desirable biological properties thereby supporting bone augmentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate...

  17. Synergistic Effect of Fluconazole and Calcium Channel Blockers against Resistant Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyuan Liu

    Full Text Available Candidiasis has increased significantly recently that threatens patients with low immunity. However, the number of antifungal drugs on the market is limited in comparison to the number of available antibacterial drugs. This fact, coupled with the increased frequency of fungal resistance, makes it necessary to develop new therapeutic strategies. Combination drug therapy is one of the most widely used and effective strategy to alleviate this problem. In this paper, we were aimed to evaluate the combined antifungal effects of four CCBs (calcium channel blockers, amlodipine (AML, nifedipine (NIF, benidipine (BEN and flunarizine (FNZ with fluconazole against C. albicans by checkerboard and time-killing method. In addition, we determined gene (CCH1, MID1, CNA1, CNB1, YVC1, CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1 expression by quantitative PCR and investigated the efflux pump activity of resistant candida albicans by rhodamine 6G assay to reveal the potential mechanisms. Finally, we concluded that there was a synergy when fluconazole combined with the four tested CCBs against resistant strains, with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI <0.5, but no interaction against sensitive strains (FICI = 0.56 ~ 2. The mechanism studies revealed that fluconazole plus amlodipine caused down-regulating of CNA1, CNB1 (encoding calcineurin and YVC1 (encoding calcium channel protein in vacuole membrane.

  18. Lead toxicity and nutritional deficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levander, O.A.

    1979-04-01

    Recent data concerning lead toxicity and nutritional deficiencies are summarized. Lead poisoning can be exacerbated by consumption of either deficient or excessive levels of protein. Mineral deficiencies also exaggerate lead poisoning. Evidence for antagonism between lead and nutritional levels of selenium is inconclusive. Vitamin E deficiency and lead poisoning interact to produce an anemia in rats that is more severe than that caused by either treatment alone. A pro-oxidant stress of lead on red blood cells is hypothesized to cause their accelerated destruction. In addition, disruption of normal membrane structure, leading to peroxidative damage, may occur. Calcium deficiencies in children are negatively correlated with lead concentrations in their blood. Other examples of interactions between minerals and lead poisoning are provided. Nutritional deficiencies have been shown to have an additive effect in potentiating lead toxicity in some cases. (112 references, 4 tables)

  19. Effect of potassium and calcium loading on healthy subjects under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the acute responses to the electrolyte challenges under hypokinesia and physical exercise (PE) of different intensities with fluid and salt supplementation (FSS). The studies were performed on 12 physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesia (decreased number of steps per day) with a set of PE with FSS. The volunteers were divided into two equal groups. The first group was subjected to a set of intensive PE and the second group was submitted to a set of moderate PE. Both groups of subjects consumed daily water and salt supplements that aimed to increase the body hydration level. For simulation of the hypokinetic effect all subjects were kept under an average of 3000 steps per day. Functional tests with a potassium chloride (KCl) and calcium lactate (Cal) load were performed during the hypokinetic period of 364 days and the 60-day prehypokinetic period that served as control, while both groups of subjects consumed daily calcium and potassium supplements. The concentration of electrolyte and hormone levels in the blood and their excretion rate in urine were determined. Renal excretion of calcium and potassium and the blood concentration thereof increased markedly in both groups of subjects. With the potassium chloride load tests the increased potassium excretion was accompanied by higher aldosterone and insulin blood levels, and with the calcium lactate load tests the increased calcium excretion was accompanied by a decreased parathyroid content in the blood. FSS and PE, regardless of intensity, failed to attenuate calcium and potassium losses. Additional intake of KCl and Cal also failed to normalize potassium and calcium abnormalities. It was concluded that during the KCl and Cal loading tests, the increased losses of potassium and calcium in the hypokinetic subjects were due to the inability of their bodies to retain these electrolytes, and that electrolyte abnormalities could

  20. Effect of chemical mixing state on the hygroscopicity and cloud nucleation properties of calcium mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sullivan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mineral dust particles can alter cloud properties and thus climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN that form cloud droplets. The CCN activation properties of various calcium mineral dust particles were studied experimentally to investigate the consequences of field observations showing the segregation of sulphate from nitrate and chloride between individual aged Asian dust particles, and the enrichment of oxalic acid in Asian dust. Each mineral's observed apparent hygroscopicity was primarily controlled by its solubility, which determines the degree to which the mineral's intrinsic hygroscopicity can be expressed. The significant increase in hygroscopicity caused by mixing soluble hygroscopic material with insoluble mineral particles is also presented. Insoluble minerals including calcium carbonate, representing fresh unprocessed dust, and calcium sulphate, representing atmospherically processed dust, had similarly small apparent hygroscopicities. Their activation is accurately described by a deliquescence limit following the Kelvin effect and corresponded to an apparent single-hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of ~0.001. Soluble calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, representing atmospherically processed mineral dust particles, were much more hygroscopic, activating similar to ammonium sulphate with κ~0.5. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (κ=0.05 was significantly less CCN-active than oxalic acid (κ=0.3, but not as inactive as its low solubility would predict. These results indicate that the common assumption that all mineral dust particles become more hygroscopic and CCN-active after atmospheric processing should be revisited. Calcium sulphate and calcium oxalate are two realistic proxies for aged mineral dust that remain non-hygroscopic. The dust's apparent hygroscopicity will be controlled by its chemical mixing state, which is determined by its mineralogy and the chemical reaction pathways it experiences