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Sample records for calcium iron zinc

  1. Calcium, Iron, and Zinc Bioaccessibilities of Australian Sweet Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnpanit, Weeraya; Coorey, Ranil; Clements, Jon; Benjapong, Wenika; Jayasena, Vijay

    2017-06-14

    In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of the cultivar and dehulling on calcium, iron, and zinc bioaccessibilities of Australian sweet lupin (ASL). Ten ASL cultivars grown in 2011, 2012, and 2013 in Western Australia were used for the study. The bioaccessibilities of calcium, iron, and zinc in whole seed and dehulled lupin samples were determined using a dialysability method. The cultivar had significant effects on calcium, iron, and zinc contents and their bioaccessibilities. Average bioaccessibilities of 6% for calcium, 17% for iron, and 9% for zinc were found for whole seeds. Dehulled ASL had average calcium, iron, and zinc bioaccessibilities of 11%, 21%, and 12%, respectively. Compared to some other pulses, ASL had better iron bioaccessibility and poorer calcium and zinc bioaccessibilities. Dehulling increased calcium bioaccessibilities of almost all lupin cultivars. The effect of dehulling on iron and zinc bioaccessibilities depends on the ASL cultivar.

  2. Content of zinc, iron, calcium and their absorption inhibitors in foods commonly consumed in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Fufa, H.

    2005-01-01

    The zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, phytate, tannin and moisture content of 36 foods consumed in rural Ethiopia were analysed. The foods analysed included those based on cereals, starchy tubers and roots, and legumes and vegetables as well as some fruits. Although many foods were relatively rich in

  3. Mineral Intake in Urban Pregnant Women from Base Diet, Fortified Foods, and Food Supplements: Focus on Calcium, Iron, and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai Xian; Han, Jun Hua; Li, Hu Zhong; Liang, Dong; Deng, Tao Tao; Chang, Su Ying

    2016-12-01

    In the Chinese national nutrition surveys, fortified foods were not investigated separately from the base diet, and the contribution of fortified foods to micronutrients intake is not very clear. This study investigated the diet, including fortified foods and food supplements, of urban pregnant women and analyzed the intake of calcium, iron, and zinc to assess the corresponding contributions of fortified foods, food supplements, and the base diet. The results demonstrated that the base diet was the major source of calcium, iron, and zinc, and was recommended to be the first choice for micronutrients intake. Furthermore, consumption of fortified foods and food supplements offered effective approaches to improve the dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc in Chinese urban pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. Total Fat, Calcium (Ca, Iron (Fe and Zinc (Zn Contents During Ecdysis process in the Crabs (Scylla serrata, Forsskal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Swasthikawati

    2015-06-01

    Soxhlet method with chloroform and methanol (1:2, v/v as solvent. Atomic absorption spectrometer was used to measure calcium, iron, and zinc contents. Then, the result were analyzed using one way Anova and Duncan 5 %. The results showed that the total fat, calcium and zinc contents of soft shell crab Scylla serrata were higher and significantly different with three other treatments. It could be concluded that the ecdysis process, raised total fat, calcium and zinc contents of crab Scylla serrata. The total fat, calcium, and zinc contents of soft shell crab Scylla serrata was higher than that of hard shell crab from the same species.

  5. Effect of Spirulina maxima Supplementation on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Status in Obese Patients with Treated Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliburska, J; Szulińska, M; Tinkov, A A; Bogdański, P

    2016-09-01

    The effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 50 obese subjects with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2 g of spirulina or a placebo daily for 3 months. At baseline and after treatment, the calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc concentration in plasma was assessed. It was found that 3 months of S. maxima supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the iron level in the plasma of obese patients. In conclusion, this is the first clinical study on the influence of spirulina supplementation on mineral status in obese patients with hypertension. Spirulina supplementation affects the iron status of obese Caucasians with well-treated hypertension.

  6. Brain copper, iron, magnesium, zinc, calcium, sulfur and phosphorus storage in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, G; Lisci, M; Caria, M P; Ambu, R; Sciot, R; Nurchi, V M; Silvagni, R; Diaz, A; Crisponi, G

    2001-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism characterised by juvenile liver cirrhosis and by neurological symptoms. Copper levels in brain in WD have been reported to be 10 to 15 fold normal values, depending on the different brain regions. Being very few data on copper distribution in central nervous system in WD available, it seemed of interest to study the concentration of copper and of other trace elements (Zn, P, Mg, Ca, Fe and S) in the brain of a patient died for WD. a 56 year old woman affected by WD was admitted to our hospital with signs of hepatic failure and died few days later. At autopsy, a brain slice extending from the left to the right hemisphere was divided in 28 samples. On each sample Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Sulphur, Zinc and Calcium were determined by Induced Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. the mean concentration of copper, ranging from 88 to 158 microg/g of dry tissue in all the brain specimens was higher than literature reference values, while that of the other tested elements was considerably lower. 1) In the brain of WD patient examined the status of trace elements was extensively altered. Further studies are necessary to correlate the concentration of trace elements with pathological lesions and with clinical pictures. 2) The elements considered in our study showed an uneven distribution in different brain areas.

  7. Dietary energy nutrient distribution, calcium, iron and zinc in young and old Asians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu-Tso, P.; Fuentes-Cano, M.; Tam, C.F. (California State Univ., Los Angeles (United States))

    1992-02-26

    The objective of this study is to examine whether ethnic eating patterns influence dietary nutrient intakes in young and old Asians. The authors experimental groups included young CSLA Asian students and their parents or close relatives. Most of them lived in the same households. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, and zinc by the Nutritionist III computer program and statistically analyzed using Mustat. No statistical difference was observed in the KCAL distribution of protein, fat, and carbohydrate and both groups met the guidelines of 20%, 30%, and 50%, respectively. However, mean KCAL intakes of both groups were found to be about 79% of NRC-RDA. No statistical difference was found in % RDA for Ca and Zn between groups, except % RDA for Fe. With respect to RDA, the older Asians consumed more Fe than the younger Asians. It is noteworthy that they did not meet the RDA requirements for Ca and Zn. Since recent Asian immigrants and refugees often suffer from a high incidence of infectious disease such as tuberculosis, these observations of low intakes of KCAL, Ca, and Zn, may, at least in part, contribute to disease.

  8. Calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, silicon and zinc content of hair in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Giovanni; Alimonti, Alessandro; Violante, Nicola; Di Gregorio, Marco; Senofonte, Oreste; Petrucci, Francesco; Sancesario, Giuseppe; Bocca, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    The aetiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still unknown, but some hypotheses have focused on the imbalances in body levels of metals as co-factors of risk. To assess whether hair could be a reliable marker of possible changes, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), silicon (Si) and zinc (Zn) were determined in hair from 81 patients affected by PD and 17 age-matched controls. Care was taken to eliminate external contamination of the hair by thorough washing. Digestion of the matrix was achieved by an acid-assisted microwave procedure. Quantification of the elements was performed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Results indicated significantly lower levels of Fe in the hair of patients (p=0.018) compared with controls. Ca and Mg levels were slightly lower while Zn levels were higher in patients, although these differences were not significant; neither were variations in Cu and Si. Ca and Mg were at least 1.5 times higher in females than in males in both controls and patients. In addition, Ca correlated positively with Mg in both groups and in both sexes (p-value always less than 0.03), and negatively with age in patients (pParkinson treatment.

  9. Determination of phytate, iron, zinc, calcium contents and their molar ratios in commonly consumed raw and prepared food in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhaizan, M E; Nor Faizadatul Ain, A W

    2009-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of phytate on the bioavailability of iron, zinc and calcium was determined by measuring their molar ratios. A total of 29 food samples consisting of 12 rice and rice products, 5 wheat and wheat products, 5 grains and cereal based products and 7 different popular varieties of cooked rice and rice products were selected. The phytate content was analysed using anion-exchange chromatography whereas mineral contents were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry(AAS). One-way ANOVA test was used to statistically analyse the mean difference between the phytate and mineral contents between the food group samples. In general, results show that cooked products have lower content of phytate and minerals as compared to raw products. This could be due to the influence of the cooking method on phytate and mineral content in the food. Based on one-way ANOVA test, there were no significant difference in phytate and zinc content between four food groups (p >0.05). Significant differences were found only in iron and calcium content (p 1, 5 food samples had a phytate/zinc molar ratio > 15 and 23 food samples had a phytate/calcium molar ratio of 0.24. These results show that although many of the food samples analysed had high mineral content, the high phytate content may impair the bioavailability of the mineral in the body.

  10. Production of maize-bambara groundnut complementary foods fortified pre-fermentation with processed foods rich in calcium, iron, zinc and provitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvere, Peter O; Onyekwere, Eucharia U; Ngoddy, Patrick O

    2010-03-15

    Maize-bambara groundnut complementary foods are deficient in calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A. Food-to-food fortification could be cheaper, safer and more easily adopted by local communities compared to the use of chemically pure compounds and vitamins to enrich such foods. Maize-bambara groundnut complementary foods fortified for iron, zinc, calcium and vitamin A by blending with a multi-mix (1.41:1:2.25, w/w) of processed roselle calyces, cattle bones, and red palm oil in a 1:2.1 (w/w) ratio showed significant increases in calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A contents of 3.26-4.225, 0.083-0.134 and 0.015-0.017 g kg(-1) and 4855.3-7493.7 microgRE kg(-1), respectively. The maize-bambara groundnut foods had calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A contents that satisfy the proposed nutrient requirements for infants. Only the maize-bambara groundnut and maize-bambara groundnut malt fermented by backslopping [(MB)(b) and (MB(m))(b)] containing red palm oil emulsified with Brachystegia eurycoma had calcium contents significantly (P food produced by Nestle (Nigeria) PLC. These products are from raw materials produced in commercial quantities by rural farmers using household level technologies which the rural and urban poor can more easily access in order to reduce micronutrient malnutrition.

  11. In vitro solubility of calcium, iron and zinc in relation to phytic acid levels in rice-based consumer products in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, J.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hamer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro solubility of calcium, iron and zinc in relation to phytic acid (PA) levels in 30 commercial rice-based foods from China was studied. Solubility of minerals and molar ratios of PA to minerals varied with degrees of processing. In primary products, [PA]/[Ca] values were less than 5 and

  12. Calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper concentration in the hair of tobacco smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkiewicz-Winiarczyk, Aneta; Bagniuk, Anna; Gromysz-Kałkowska, Kazimiera; Szubartowska, Ewa

    2009-05-01

    In the research, the content of bioelements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu) in the hair of individuals who reside in similar environmental conditions was spectrometrically determined with the use of AES-ICP spectrophotometer. The relation to their tobacco-smoking habit, age, and sex was established. It was observed that the results obtained were in the range of the content identified for the Polish population. Tobacco smokers had a decreased content of all the bioelements in question, compared to non-smokers, which apparently resulted from a decreased supply (lesser appetite) and reduced absorption caused by disturbances in the digestive system functions. Also, it has been observed that in the group of elderly people, over 50 years old, there was a fall in the content of calcium, magnesium, and iron both in smokers and non-smokers, irrespective of their sex. The sex-related differences in the content of the investigated elements were not unidirectional and only in few cases did they reveal statistical significance.

  13. Serum levels of calcium, selenium, magnesium, phosphorus, chromium, copper and iron--their relation to zinc in rats with induced hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Belviranli, Muaz

    2013-06-01

    There is an important relation between thyroid hormones and zinc. Establishment of low zinc levels in hypothyroidism and high levels in hyperthyroidism is a significant proof of this relation. The aim of the present study was to explore changes in serum levels of some elements and their relation to zinc in rats with hypothyroidism. Thirty adult male rats of Sprague-Dawley type were divided into 3 equal groups: group 1, control; group 2, sham-hypothyroidism group supplemented with 10 mg/kg serum physiologic i.p. for 4 weeks; and group 3, hypothyroidism group supplemented with 10 mg/kg propylthiouracil i.p. for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from all animals by decapitation and serum calcium, phosphorus, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium and zinc levels were analyzed using an atomic emission apparatus. Group 3 had lower calcium, selenium and zinc levels, and higher chromium, copper, iron and phosphorus levels (p hypothyroidism leads to changes in serum levels of some elements in rats. These changes may be associated with reduced zinc levels in hypothyroidism.

  14. Fe-bLf nanoformulation targets survivin to kill colon cancer stem cells and maintains absorption of iron, calcium and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Jagat R; Mahidhara, Ganesh; Roy, Kislay; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian; Prasad, Neerati; Sehgal, Rakesh; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2015-01-01

    To validate the anticancer efficacy of alginate-enclosed, chitosan-conjugated, calcium phosphate, iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) nanocarriers/nanocapsules (NCs) with improved sustained release and ability to induce apoptosis by downregulating survivin, as well as cancer stem cells. The stability, nanotoxicity of the modified nanoformulation was evaluated and their anticancer efficacy was re-examined. Their mechanism of internalization was studied and we identified the role of various miRNAs in absorption of these NCs/iron in various body parts of mice. We determined the effect of these NCs on survivin, stem cell markers, red blood cell count, iron, calcium and zinc concentration in mice, determined the antiangiogenic properties of these NCs and studied their effect on cancer stem-like cells. Spherical NCs (396.1 ± 27.2 nm) exceedingly reduced viability of Caco-2 cells (32 ± 2.83%). The NCs also showed effective internalization and reduction of cancer stem cell markers in triple-positive CD133, survivin and CD44 cancer stem-like cells. Mice treated with the NCs showed no nanotoxicity and did not develop any tumors in xenograft colon cancer models. We found that the serum iron, zinc and calcium absorption were increased. DMT1, LRP, transferrin and lactoferrin receptors were responsible for internalization of the NCs. Different miRNAs were responsible for iron regulation in different organs. Interestingly, NCs inhibited survivin and its different isoforms. Our results confirmed that NCs internalized and changed the expression of selected miRNAs that further enhanced their uptake. The NCs activated both extrinsic, as well as intrinsic apoptotic pathways to induce apoptosis by targeting survivin in cancer cells and cancer stem cells, without inducing any nonspecific nanotoxicity. Apart from inhibiting angiogenesis and stem cell markers, NCs also maintained iron and calcium levels.

  15. Speciation analysis of calcium, iron, and zinc in casein phosphopeptide fractions from toddler milk-based formula by anion exchange and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame atomic-absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miquel, Esther; Alegria, Amparo; Barbera, Reyes; Farre, Rosaura [University of Valencia, Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    Casein phosphopeptides (CPP) are phosphorylated casein-derived peptides that can be released by in-vitro or in-vivo enzymatic hydrolysis of {alpha}{sub s1}-casein, {alpha}{sub s2}-casein, and {beta}-casein (CN). Many of these peptides contain a highly polar acidic sequence of three phosphoseryl groups followed by two glutamic acid residues. These domains are binding sites for minerals such as calcium, iron, and zinc and play an important role in mineral bioavailability. The aim of this study was speciation analysis of calcium, iron, and zinc in CPP fractions from the soluble fraction of a toddler milk-based formula. Methods for CPP separation by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (AE-HPLC) were combined with CPP identification by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and determination of the calcium, iron, zinc, and phosphorus content of the fractions obtained by AE-HPLC. Calcium and phosphorus were detected in all the analyzed AE-HPLC fractions. Calcium and zinc could be bound to CPP derived from {alpha}{sub s1}-CN and {alpha}{sub s2}-CN in fraction 3. Iron could be bound to CPP in fraction 4 in which {beta}-CN(15-34)4P was present with the cluster sequence S(P)S(P)S(P)EE. The results obtained prove the different distribution of calcium, iron, and zinc in heterogeneous CPP fractions. (orig.)

  16. Identical flow injection spectrophotometric manifold for determination of protein, phosphorus, calcium, chloride, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc in feeds or premixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J F; Feng, Y D; Jiang, G B

    2001-01-01

    A simple procedure using an identical manifold was developed for determination of nitrogen (protein) phosphorus, calcium, chloride, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc in feeds and feedstuffs. By changing appropriate reagents and detection wavelength, these 8 elements were determined successively with a simple identical double-line flow injection (FI) manifold. Fl spectrophotometric determinations were made by the blue indophenol reaction for ammonium, the molybdenum blue method for phosphate, the cresolphthalein complexone procedure for calcium, and the mercuric thiocyanate procedure for chloride. The chromogenic reagents for copper, iron, manganese, and zinc determination were bis(cyclohexanone)oxalydihydrazone (Cuprizone), 1,10-phenanthroline, formaldoxime, and xylenol orange, respectively. Sample digestion catalyst, Fl manifold, and some chemical parameters were optimized. The proposed procedure had a sampling rate of 90/h for each analyte. The determination ranges (mg/L) were 10-60 for N, 1-15 for P and Ca, 540 for Cl, and 0.5-15 for Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, respectively. Results of the analyses of animal feed and feedstuff samples by this procedure did not differ significantly from those obtained by proven manual methods.

  17. Microstructure, corrosion properties and bio-compatibility of calcium zinc phosphate coating on pure iron for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Erlin; Yang, Ke

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the biocompatibility and the corrosion resistance in the initial stage of implantation, a phosphate (CaZn2(PO4)2·2H2O) coating was obtained on the surface of pure iron by a chemical reaction method. The anti-corrosion property, the blood compatibility and the cell toxicity of the coated pure iron specimens were investigated. The coating was composed of some fine phosphate crystals and the surface of coating was flat and dense enough. The electrochemical data indicated that the corrosion resistance of the coated pure iron was improved with the increase of phosphating time. When the specimen was phosphated for 30min, the corrosion resistance (Rp) increased to 8006 Ω. Compared with that of the naked pure iron, the anti-hemolysis property and cell compatibility of the coated specimen was improved significantly, while the anti-coagulant property became slightly worse due to the existence of element calcium. It was thought that phosphating treatment might be an effective method to improve the biocompatibility of pure iron for biomedical application. © 2013.

  18. Preparation of magnetic and bioactive calcium zinc iron silicon oxide composite for hyperthermia treatment of bone cancer and repair of bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yumin; Ou, Jun; Zhang, Zhanhe; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, a calcium zinc iron silicon oxide composite (CZIS) was prepared using the sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was then employed to test the CZIS composite. The results from the test showed that the CZIS had three prominent crystalline phases: Ca(2)Fe(1.7)Zn(0.15)Si(0.15)O(5), Ca(2)SiO(4), and ZnFe(2)O(4). Calorimetric measurements were then performed using a magnetic induction furnace. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were conducted to confirm the growth of a precipitated hydroxyapatite phase after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Cell culture experiments were also carried out, showing that the CZIS composite more visibly promoted osteoblast proliferation than ZnFe(2)O(4) glass ceramic and HA, and osteoblasts adhered and spread well on the surfaces of composite samples.

  19. Correlations in distribution and concentration of calcium, copper and iron with zinc in isolated extracellular deposits associated with age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Jane M; Kakalec, Peter; Tappero, Ryan; Jones, Blair F.; Lengyel, Imre

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is abundantly enriched in sub-retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) deposits, the hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and is thought to play a role in the formation of these deposits. However, it is not known whether Zn is the only metal relevant for sub-RPE deposit formation. Because of their involvement in the pathogenesis of AMD, we determined the concentration and distribution of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) and compared these with Zn in isolated and sectioned macular (MSD), equatorial (PHD) and far peripheral (FPD) sub-RPE deposits from an 86 year old donor eye with post mortem diagnosis of early AMD. The sections were mounted on Zn free microscopy slides and analyzed by microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μSXRF). Metal concentrations were determined using spiked sectioned sheep brain matrix standards, prepared the same way as the samples. The heterogeneity of metal distributions was examined using pixel by pixel comparison. The orders of metal concentrations were Ca ⋙ Zn > Fe in all three types of deposits but Cu levels were not distinguishable from background values. Zinc and Ca were consistently present in all deposits but reached highest concentration in MSD. Iron was present in some but not all deposits and was especially enriched in FPD. Correlation analysis indicated considerable variation in metal distribution within and between sub-RPE deposits. The results suggest that Zn and Ca are the most likely contributors to deposit formation especially in MSD, the characteristic risk factor for the development of AMD in the human eye.

  20. The effect of administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in drinking water on estimated intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognik, Katarzyna; Stępniowska, Anna; Cholewińska, Ewelina; Kozłowski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles used as a dietary supplement for poultry could affect the absorption of mineral elements. Hence the aim of the study was to determine the effect of administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in drinking water on intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, and calcium. The experiment was carried out on 126 chicks assigned to seven experimental groups of 18 birds each (3 replications of 6 individuals each). The control group (G-C) did not receive copper nanoparticles. Groups: Cu-5(7), Cu-10(7), and Cu-15(7) received gold nanoparticles in their drinking water in the amounts of 5 mg/L for group Cu-5(7), 10 mg/L for group Cu-10(7), and 15 mg/L for group Cu-15(7) during 8 to 14, 22 to 28, and 36 of 42 days of the life of the chicks. The birds in groups Cu-5(3), Cu-10(3), and Cu-15(3) received copper nanoparticles in the same amounts, but only during 8 to 10, 22 to 24, and 36 to 38 days of life. Blood for analysis was collected from the wing vein of all chicks at the age of 42 days. After the rearing period (day 42), six birds from each experimental group with body weight similar to the group average were slaughtered. The carcasses were dissected and samples of the jejunum were collected for analysis of absorption of selected minerals. Mineral absorption was tested using the in vitro gastrointestinal sac technique. Oral administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in the amount of 5, 10, and 15 mg/L led to accumulation of this element in the intestinal walls. The highest level of copper nanoparticles applied increased Cu content in the blood plasma of the birds. The in vitro study suggests that copper accumulated in the intestines reduces absorption of calcium and zinc, but does not affect iron absorption. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. First-principles studies on alloying and simplified thermodynamic aqueous chemical stability of calcium-, zinc-, aluminum-, yttrium- and iron-doped magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I; Kumta, Prashant N

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, the density functional theory implemented in the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package has been used to investigate the alloying effects of different elements of calcium, zinc, yttrium, aluminum and iron when introduced in the Mg crystal lattice. In particular, studies have been conducted to investigate the thermodynamics of the overall hydrolysis reaction of the different alloys with pure water. Phase stability results obtained from the first-principles calculations of the alloys considered are in good agreement with the published phase diagrams. The heats of the aqueous chemical reactions calculated in this study have been compared with that corresponding to the reaction of pure Mg with water. The heats of reactions dependence on the chemical compositions of the alloys have been investigated and, specifically, the role of Ca, Zn, Y, Al and Fe on the aqueous chemical stability and reactivity of these Mg alloys have been discussed. Results of these studies will help understand the biodegradable characteristic of Mg based alloys. Copyright (c) 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimated intake and food sources of vitamin A, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium, iron, and zinc for Guamanian children aged 9 to 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobocik, Rebecca S; Richer, Jennifer J

    2002-09-01

    This study describes the nutrient intake and food sources of select vitamins and minerals for children on Guam. Food records (n = 954) from public school students aged nine to twelve of all regions on Guam were analyzed for nutrient content and compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). Individual foods were condensed into 194 food aggregates and food lists representing 84% to 91% of the major vitamins and minerals in the diet of the children were developed by frequency analysis. Median intake of calcium, vitamin E, folate were less than 50% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and mean intake of these nutrients was 60% RDA or less. Mean and median vitamin A intake was 107% and 76% RDA, respectively. Both mean and median intake of Vitamin C, iron and zinc were present at levels above 100% RDA. Rice, meat, fruit drink from powder, milk, and fortified cereals are foods that provide substantial contributions to the vitamin and mineral content of the diets. Traditional, nutrient dense foods, such as fish, yams, papaya, and mango had minor contributions because of low frequently of consumption. Information from this study can be used to develop specific diet assessment instruments and culturally appropriate nutrition education.

  3. Physicochemical characterization of zinc-substituted calcium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the contrary, no changes of the crystallinity were observed for the brushite doped with Zn ions. Morphology of attained powders, visualized using scanningelectron microscopy exemplified structural changes between calcium phosphates conjugated with zinc ions. Many authors report that the addition of small amounts of ...

  4. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1 describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2 investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3 investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379. Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection, and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326. Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5 mg/day and 9.3 (3.8 mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range serum ferritin was 22 (12–38 μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD were 12.6 (1.7 μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0 μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340. Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  5. Fabrications of zinc-releasing biocement combining zinc calcium phosphate to calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shinya; Hiasa, Masahiro; Yasue, Akihiro; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Hamada, Kenichi; Asaoka, Kenzo; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Recently, zinc-releasing bioceramics have been the focus of much attention owing to their bone-forming ability. Thus, some types of zinc-containing calcium phosphate (e.g., zinc-doped tricalcium phosphate and zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite) are examined and their osteoblastic cell responses determined. In this investigation, we studied the effects of zinc calcium phosphate (ZCP) derived from zinc phosphate incorporated into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in terms of its setting reaction and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell responses. Compositional analysis by powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that HAP crystals were precipitated in the CPC containing 10 or 30wt% ZCP after successfully hardening. However, the crystal growth observed by scanning electron microscopy was delayed in the presence of additional ZCP. These findings indicate that the additional zinc inhibits crystal growth and the conversion of CPC to the HAP crystals. The proliferation of the cells and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were enhanced when 10wt% ZCP was added to CPC. Taken together, ZCP added CPC at an appropriate fraction has a potent promotional effect on bone substitute biomaterials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Minerals and Sarcopenia; The Role of Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Selenium, Sodium, and Zinc on Muscle Mass, Muscle Strength, and Physical Performance in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dronkelaar, Carliene; van Velzen, Aafke; Abdelrazek, Maya; van der Steen, Anouk; Weijs, Peter J M; Tieland, Michael

    2017-07-12

    Minerals may contribute to prevent and treat sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance. So far, there is no comprehensive review on the impact of minerals on sarcopenia outcomes. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, and zinc on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in older adults. A systematic search was conducted between March 2016 and July 2016, in the PubMed database using predefined search terms. Articles on the role of dietary mineral intake or mineral serum concentrations on muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and/or the prevalence of sarcopenia in healthy or frail older adults (average age ≥ 65 years) were selected. Only original research publications were included. The search and data extraction were conducted in duplicate by 2 independent researchers. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement was followed in constructing this systematic review. The Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. From the 3346 articles found, a total of 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. Observational studies showed that serum selenium (n = 1) and calcium intake (n = 1) were significantly associated with muscle mass, and magnesium (n = 1), selenium (n = 1), iron (n = 1), and zinc (n = 1) intake were significantly and positively associated with physical performance in older adults. Furthermore, magnesium (n = 2), selenium (n = 2), calcium (n = 2), and phosphorus (n = 1) intake were associated with the prevalence of sarcopenia. Magnesium supplementation improved physical performance based on one randomized controlled trial. No studies on the role of sodium or potassium on muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical performance were

  7. Pattern of serum total calcium, magnesium and zinc in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum total calcium, magnesium and zinc were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and HIV tests were carried out on each of the subjects. There was no significant gender difference in the mean values of serum total calcium, magnessium and Zinc obtained from the HIV disease/AIDS seropositive females ...

  8. Dietary Zinc and Incident Calcium Kidney Stones in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasian, Gregory E; Ross, Michelle E; Song, Lihai; Grundmeier, Robert W; Massey, James; Denburg, Michelle R; Copelovitch, Lawrence; Warner, Steven; Chi, Thomas; Killilea, David W; Stoller, Marshall L; Furth, Susan L

    2017-05-01

    We determined the association between dietary zinc intake and incident calcium kidney stones in adolescents. We also examined the relationship between dietary zinc intake and urinary zinc excretion between cases and controls. We conducted a nested case-control study within a large pediatric health care system. Three 24-hour dietary recalls and spot urine chemistry analyses were obtained for 30 participants 12 to 18 years old with a first idiopathic calcium based kidney stone and 30 healthy controls matched for age, sex, race and month of enrollment. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between daily zinc intake and incident calcium kidney stones, adjusting for dietary phytate, protein, calcium, sodium and oxalate. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between dietary and urine zinc, adjusting for urine creatinine and dietary phytate and calcium. Cases had lower daily zinc intake (8.1 mg) than controls (10 mg, p = 0.029). Daily zinc intake of boys and girls with calcium stones was 2 mg and 1.2 mg less, respectively, than the daily intake recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Odds of incident stones were reduced by 13% for every 1 mg increase in daily zinc intake (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-0.99). There was an estimated 4.5 μg/dl increase in urine zinc for every 1 mg increase in dietary zinc (p = 0.009), with weak evidence of a smaller increase in urine zinc in cases than in controls (interaction p = 0.08). Decreased dietary zinc intake was independently associated with incident calcium nephrolithiasis in this population of adolescents. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata

    . A common nutritional base for poor populations is a staple such as maize, wheat, rice, potatoes, cassava, or beans, but many of these have low iron and zinc content as well as potent inhibitors of iron uptake. Nutritional supplements are often unavailable to such populations due to lacking infrastructure...... crops with increased nutritional value. In spite of the discovery of several genes involved in the regulation of iron and zinc metabolism in plants, the key regulators for seed iron accumulation have not yet been described. Little is known about the molecules that are responsible for chelating iron...... in mature seeds, but the ferritin protein was suggested to be the major iron storing protein in legumes [1]. Both iron and zinc localization, as well as speciation, can have an impact on their nutritional availability. We will present detailed information about iron, zinc, and ferritin distribution...

  10. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron, manganese and zinc uptake by peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  11. Potential contribution of African green leafy vegetables and maize porridge composite meals to iron and zinc nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Johanita; Mongwaketse, Tiyapo; Faber, Mieke; van der Hoeven, Marinka; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mineral nutritive value of different traditional African green leafy vegetable (GLV) dishes and their composite meals with fortified and unfortified maize porridge. The mineral (iron, zinc, and calcium) and antinutrient (phytate, total phenolics, and tannins) contents and in vitro bioaccessibility of iron and zinc were analyzed. The iron and zinc contents and bioaccessibilities were used to calculate contribution these dishes and meals could make toward the recommended daily requirements and absolute requirements of vulnerable populations. It was found that the GLV dishes contained average amounts of zinc (2.8-3.2 mg/100 g, dry base [db]), but were high in both iron (12.5-23.4 mg/100 g, db) and antinutrients (phytate 1420-2089 mg/100 g, db; condensed tannins 105-203 mg/100 g, db). The iron bioaccessibility and amount of bioaccessible iron ranged between 6.7% and 45.2% and 0.9 and 5.11 mg/100 g, db, respectively. The zinc bioaccessibility and amount of bioaccessible zinc ranged between 6.4% and 12.7% and 0.63 and 1.63 mg/100 g, db, respectively. Importantly, although compositing the GLV dishes with fortified maize porridges decreases the iron and zinc contents, because of the low antinutrient content of the maize meal, the amount of bioaccessible iron and zinc in the meal increases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reversing Sports-Related Iron and Zinc Deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Alvin R.

    1993-01-01

    Many active athletes do not consume enough zinc or iron, which are important for oxygen activation, electron transport, and injury healing. Subclinical deficiencies may impair performance and impair healing times. People who exercise regularly need counseling about the importance of adequate dietary intake of iron and zinc. (SM)

  13. Dietary strategies to improve the iron and zinc nutriture of young women following a vegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, R S; Donovan, U M; Heath, A L

    1997-01-01

    Dietary strategies to enhance the content and bioavailability of iron and zinc in vegetarian diets were compiled. Strategies included increasing promoters and decreasing antagonists of iron and zinc absorption, adopting food preparation and processing methods which hydrolyze the phytate content of cereals and legumes, and using iron cookware. These strategies were used to devise two vegetarian menus based on food consumption patterns derived from three day weighed food records of 78 Canadian lacto-ovo-vegetarian adolescents. The iron and zinc, as well as calcium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A, protein and energy content of the devised menus were all higher than the actual intakes and the corresponding Canadian recommended nutrient intakes. Results show the overall nutrient adequacy of the recommended vegetarian menus and indicate that young lacto-vegetarian women can potentially meet their estimated dietary requirements for absorbed iron and zinc through modest modifications to the diet. Laboratory studies designed to measure the total amount of iron and zinc absorbed from these diets by young vegetarian women are needed to verify the efficacy of the devised menus.

  14. Zinc toxicity among galvanization workers in the iron and steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Safty, Amal; El Mahgoub, Khalid; Helal, Sawsan; Abdel Maksoud, Neveen

    2008-10-01

    Galvanization is the process of coating steel or cast iron pieces with zinc, allowing complete protection against corrosion. The ultimate goal of this work was to assess the effect of occupational exposure to zinc in the galvanization process on different metals in the human body and to detect the association between zinc exposure and its effect on the respiratory system. This study was conducted in 111 subjects in one of the major companies in the iron and steel industry. There were 61 subjects (workers) who were involved in the galvanization process. Fifty adult men were chosen as a matched reference group from other departments of the company. All workers were interviewed using a special questionnaire on occupational history and chest diseases. Ventilatory functions and chest X rays were assessed in all examined workers. Also, complete blood counts were performed, and serum zinc, iron, copper, calcium, and magnesium levels were tested. This study illustrated the relation between zinc exposure in the galvanization process and high zinc levels among exposed workers, which was associated with a high prevalence rate of metal fume fever (MFF) and low blood copper and calcium levels. There was no statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups with regards to the magnesium level. No long-term effect of metals exposure was detected on ventilatory functions or chest X rays among the exposed workers.

  15. Iron, zinc, and manganese distribution in mature soybean seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta

    2009-01-01

    to reveal the distribution of iron, zinc, manganese and phosphorus within soybean seeds. We show that high concentrations of iron accumulate in the seed coats of mature soybean seeds. This iron accounted for 20 to 40% of the total seed iron. Furthermore, manganese and iron accumulated in close proximity...... to each other in the provascular tissue of the soybean radicle. No regions with increased accumulation of iron, zinc, or manganese were observed in the cotyledons. The concentrations of both phosphorus and zinc were higher in the radicle compared to the cotyledons, and zinc accumulated primarily near...... the radicle tip. Our study provides a thorough description of the distribution of important micronutrients within the mature soybean seed....

  16. Total and extractable copper, iron, manganese and zinc in major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total and extractable copper, iron, manganese and zinc in major agricultural soils in the Lower Benue Valley, Central Nigeria and the concept of extractant efficiency. R Sha'Ato, SO Ajayi, AG Ojanuga ...

  17. Textural and morphological studies on zinc-iron alloy electrodeposits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc-iron alloy electrodeposits have industrial significance, since they provide better corrosion resistance and with improved mechanical properties when compared to pure zinc coatings. This is due to the unique phase structure of the alloy formed. But this deposition belongs to anomalous deposition, where the ...

  18. Calcium and Iron Levels in Some Fruits and Vegetables Commonly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Cabbage, Pepper, Spinach, and Tomato) in each case were analysed for their Calcium and iron levels using spectrophotometric method of analysis; From the results, it was found that the concentration of Calcium was highest in spinach ...

  19. CALCIUM CARBONATE REDUCES IRON ABSORPTION FROM IRON SULFATE, BUT NOT WHEN IRON IS PRESENTED AS AN ORGANIC COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. CONCEIÇÃO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Experimental and epidemiological evidences have demonstrated that calcium inhibits iron absorption; calcium carbonate being one of the most effective calcium sources to reduce iron absorption from dietary origin or from iron sulfate. In the present work, the short-term effect of calcium from calcium carbonate on iron absorption was studied in rats, using different iron compounds (monosodium ferric EDTA, iron-bys-glicine, iron peptide complex with iron sulfate as a control. Eighty (80 animals were divided into groups of 10 animals each with homogeneous weight. After 18h fast, the animals received by gavage 5 mL of a dispersion containing one of the iron compounds (1mg Fe/kg body weight, concomitantly or not with calcium carbonate at a molar ratio of 150:1 (Ca/Fe. Two hours after the administration, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected for serum iron determination (iron transfer rate from intestinal lumen to blood compartment. Additionally, the intestines were collected for soluble iron determination (available iron. The results demonstrated that calcium ion from calcium carbonate inhibits the iron absorption from iron sulfate, but not from organic iron (di- or trivalent complexes.

  20. Reducing iron deficiency anemia in Bolivian school children: calcium and iron combined versus iron supplementation alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Melissa; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Pizarro, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of combined calcium and iron versus single iron supplementation on iron status in Bolivian schoolchildren. Children ages 6 to 10 y old (N = 195), were randomly assigned to receive either 700 mg Ca (as calcium carbonate) plus 30 mg Fe (as ferrous sulfate) (Ca + Fe group) or 30 mg Fe (as ferrous sulfate) (Fe group). The doses were administered daily, from Monday to Friday, between meals at school over 3 mo. Iron status was assessed at baseline and after intervention. Additionally, overall nutritional status was assessed by anthropometry and an estimation of dietary intake. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia in the Ca + Fe group and the Fe group were 15% and 21.5%, respectively. After 3 mo follow-up, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia dropped significantly (P iron deficiency anemia in Bolivian school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Iron and zinc availability in maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the Zn and Fe availability by phytic acid/Zn and phytic acid/Fe molar ratios, in 22 tropical maize inbred lines with different genetic backgrounds. The Zn and Fe levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the P through colorimetry method. Three screening methods for phytic acid (Phy analysis were tested and one, based on the 2,2'-bipyridine reaction, was select. There was significant variability in the contents of zinc (17.5 to 42 mg.kg-1, iron (12.2 to 36.7 mg.kg-1, phosphorus (230 to 400 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid (484 to 1056 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid P (140 to 293 mg.100 g-1 and available-P (43.5 to 199.5 mg.100 g-1, and in the available-P/total-P ratio (0.14 to 0.50, Phy/Zn (18.0 to 43.5 and Phy/Fe (16.3 to 45.5 molar ratios. Lines 560977, 560978 and 560982 had greater availability of Zn and lines 560975, 560977, 561010 and 5610111 showed better Fe availability. Lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 also showed better available-P/total-P ratio. Thus, the lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 were considered to have the potential for the development of cultivars of maize with high availability of Fe and/or Zn.

  2. Tissue levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in iron deficient rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of iron deficiency on the levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in the brain, liver, kidney, heart and lungs of albino rats (Rattus novergicus) was investigated. Forty rats were divided into two groups and the first group was fed a control diet containing 1.09g iron/kg diet while the test group was fed diet ...

  3. Alkaline Leaching of Low Zinc Content Iron-Bearing Sludges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargul K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various types of waste materials containing zinc (e.g. dusts and sludges from gas dedusting process are obtained in steel industry. The contents of Zn in these materials may vary considerably. Even a low concentration of zinc in recirculated products precludes their recycling in ferrous metallurgy aggregates. Long storage of this type of material can lead to contamination of soil and water by zinc compounds which can be leached out by acid rain, for example. This paper focuses on research involving alkaline leaching tests of low zinc content iron-bearing materials. These tests were preceded by the analysis of the elemental, phase and grain size composition, and analysis of the thermodynamic conditions of the leaching process. The main aim of research was to decrease the content of the zinc in the sludge to the level where it is suitable as an iron-bearing material for iron production (~1% Zn. Leaching at elevated temperatures (368 K, 60 min has led to a decrease in the zinc content in the sludge of about 66%. The research revealed that long hour leaching (298 K, 100 hours carried out at ambient temperatures caused a reduction in zinc content by 60% to the value of 1.15-1.2% Zn.

  4. The Practical Realisation of Zinc-Iron CMA Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    1998-01-01

    A detailed study of the production opportunities for composition modulated alloy electrodeposits by pulsed current techniques with Zinc-Iron alloys is reported. It is shown that by using a chloride solution, with the additional capability of variable agitation rates, a full range of alloy composi...

  5. Serum Zinc Levels in Iron Deficient Women: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Özhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since similar symptoms and findings can be seen in the deficiencies of both iron and zinc, we aimed to evaluate the serum zinc levels of women with iron deficiency anemia (IDA. This study was conducted with women with iron deficiency and a healthy control group. When serum zinc levels were compared, they were found to be lower in the IDA group, which was statistically significant. With the help of these studies, iron and zinc treatment instead of only iron replacement may be considered in cases of iron deficiency

  6. calcium and iron levels in some fruits and vegetables commonly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usern

    ABSTRACT. Four different fruits and vegetables (i.e. Apple, Egg Plant, Pineapple, Watermelon, Cabbage,. Pepper, Spinach, and Tomato) in each case were analysed for their Calcium and iron levels using spectrophotometric method of analysis; From the results, it was found that the concentration of. Calcium was highest in ...

  7. Cast iron zinc galvanizing improved by high temperature oxidation process

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jędrzejczyk; M. Hajduga

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate influence of the high-temperature oxidation, as the preliminary stage previous to coating with zinc on the change of surface layer structure as well as subsurface layer of cast iron with flake, vermicular and nodular graphite.Design/methodology/approach: The experiment was led in the temperature range: 850-1050ºC in ambient air. Samples have been taken out from the furnace separately after: 2-12 hours. After scale layer removal the hot dip zinc coating in industrial condi...

  8. Iron supplementation in pregnancy and breastfeeding and iron, copper and zinc status of lactating women from a human milk bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Neto, Julio; Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Oshiiwa, Marie; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Zacari, Cristiane Zago; dos Santos, Mariana Lima

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of iron supplementation in pregnancy and breastfeeding on iron status of lactating women from a Brazilian Human Milk Bank. Blood and mature breast milk samples were collected from 145 women for assessment of iron status, as well as copper and zinc status. Haemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin were determined, respectively, by electronic counting, colorimetry and chemiluminescence. Transferrin and ceruloplasmin were analysed by nephelometry. Serum copper and zinc were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and serum alkaline phosphatase was measured by a colorimetric method. Iron, zinc and copper in breast milk were determined by spectrometry. Mean values of iron, copper and zinc (blood and breast milk) were compared by ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test. Iron supplementation was beneficial to prevent anaemia in pregnancy but not effective to treat anaemia. During breastfeeding, iron supplementation had a negative effect on maternal copper status, confirming an interaction between these micronutrients.

  9. Meals and dephytinization affect calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Aliu, Oluseyi; Griffin, Ian J; Pam, Sunday D; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Imade, Godwin E; Abrams, Steven A

    2009-05-01

    Nutritional rickets resulting from calcium insufficiency is common in Nigeria and high dietary phytate is thought to inhibit calcium and zinc absorption. We compared the effects of a high-phytate meal and enzymatic dephytinization on calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with and without rickets. Nineteen children with rickets and 15 age-matched control children, aged 2-10 y, were given calcium (600 mg/d) and ergocalciferol (1250 microg/wk). After 6 wk, calcium and zinc absorption were measured in both groups with and without maize porridge using stable isotopes. One week later, absorption measurements were repeated to assess the effects of enzymatic dephytinization and fermentation of the maize porridge. The phytate concentration of maize porridge (3.87 +/- 0.38 g/kg wet weight) was reduced by enzymatic dephytinization (2.83 +/- 0.41 g/kg; P rickets or by fermentation of maize porridge. Calcium absorption was greater with a meal (61.3 +/- 25.1%) than without (27.8 +/- 14.6%; P Rickets was not associated with impaired calcium or zinc absorption. Calcium absorption was enhanced by maize porridge, but zinc absorption was reduced. Enzymatic dephytinization increased zinc absorption. Multiple strategies may be required to optimize calcium and zinc absorption in deficient populations.

  10. Repletion of Zinc and Iron Deficiencies Improve Cognition of Premenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandstead, Harold

    2001-01-01

    .... To test these hypotheses, iron deficient young women without anemia were recruited for measurements of zinc kinetics, and for participation in a double blind randomized controlled trial of zinc...

  11. Evaluation of Application Methods Efficiency of Zinc and Iron for Canola(Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of application method efficiency of zinc and iron microelements in canola, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station of Eastern Azerbaijan province in 2008. The experimental design was a RCBD with eight treatments (F1: control, F2: iron, F3: zinc, F4: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility, F5: iron, F6: zinc, F7: iron+ zinc in the form of solution foliar application, and F8: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility and foliar application. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among treatments on given traits, antioxidant enzymes activity, fatty acids percentage, plant height, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio, protein percentage, oil percentage, oil yield, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium percentage of leaves, zinc and iron content of leaves and capitulum diameters. The highest seed yield, oil yield, oil percentage, 1000 seed weight, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and protein percentage were obtained from the soil and foliar application of iron + zinc treatments (F8. Also, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentration in leaves were achieved from control treatment which was an indication of non-efficiency of iron and zinc on the absorption rate of these substances in the leaves. The correlation between effective traits on the seed yield, such as, capitalism diameter, number of seed rows in capitulum, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and 1000 seed weight were positively significant. In general, foliar and soil application of zinc and iron had the highest efficiency in aspect of seed production. The comparison of the various methods of fertilization showed that foliar application was more effective than soil application. Also, micronutrient foliar application increased concentration of elements, especially zinc and iron. Antioxidant enzymes activity was different in response to treatments also the

  12. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, and other trace minerals from vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Janet R

    2003-09-01

    Iron and zinc are currently the trace minerals of greatest concern when considering the nutritional value of vegetarian diets. With elimination of meat and increased intake of phytate-containing legumes and whole grains, the absorption of both iron and zinc is lower with vegetarian than with nonvegetarian, diets. The health consequences of lower iron and zinc bioavailability are not clear, especially in industrialized countries with abundant, varied food supplies, where nutrition and health research has generally supported recommendations to reduce meat and increase legume and whole-grain consumption. Although it is clear that vegetarians have lower iron stores, adverse health effects from lower iron and zinc absorption have not been demonstrated with varied vegetarian diets in developed countries, and moderately lower iron stores have even been hypothesized to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Premenopausal women cannot easily achieve recommended iron intakes, as modified for vegetarians, with foods alone; however, the benefit of routine iron supplementation has not been demonstrated. It may be prudent to monitor the hemoglobin of vegetarian children and women of childbearing age. Improved assessment methods are required to determine whether vegetarians are at risk of zinc deficiency. In contrast with iron and zinc, elements such as copper appear to be adequately provided by vegetarian diets. Although the iron and zinc deficiencies commonly associated with plant-based diets in impoverished nations are not associated with vegetarian diets in wealthier countries, these nutrients warrant attention as nutritional assessment methods become more sensitive and plant-based diets receive greater emphasis.

  13. Vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in Indonesia : micronutrient interactions and effects of supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Wieringa, F.T.

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was concerned with vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in infants. The effects of supplementation withβ-carotene, iron and zinc on micronutrient status, growth, pregnancy outcome and immune function, and interactions

  14. Rising atmospheric CO2 lowers food zinc, iron, and protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary deficiencies of zinc and iron are a major global public health problem. Most people who experience these deficiencies depend on agricultural crops for zinc and iron. In this context, the influence of rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 on the availability of these nutrients from crops i...

  15. The role of iron and zinc in chemotherapy-induced alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukavci, Mustafa; Gurol, Ali; Karabulut, Abdulhalik; Budak, Gokhan; Karacan, Mehmet

    2005-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a common and distressing side effect in children with cancer. Iron and zinc are the well known trace elements which are associated with hair shedding. In this study, we investigated the hair content of iron and zinc in children with cancer consists of two groups: group A, newly diagnosed patients; group B, the patients received a course of chemotherapy. We compared the results between each others and healthy controls. Hair content of iron and zinc was not different between the patient groups. Iron concentrations of patient samples, either at diagnosis or after chemotherapy, were significantly lower than healthy controls. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the zinc values. In conclusion, hair content of iron and zinc do not have a role in chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

  16. Clogging and Cementation Caused by Calcium or Iron Biogrouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V.; Chu, J.; Naeimi, M.

    2012-12-01

    Chemical grouts are often used to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of soil for seepage control purposes. However, chemical grouts can be expensive and environmentally unfriendly. Therefore, two new biogrouts were tested for their bioclogging and biocementation properties. The first was calcium-based biogrout, which contained urease-producing bacteria, calcium chloride and urea for the crystallization of calcite due to enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The second was iron-based biogrout, which consisted of urease-producing bacteria, ferric chelate, and urea for the precipitation of ferric hydroxide and carbonate due to enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The permeability of sand (P, 10^-5 m/s), treated with calcium-based biogrout, linearly decreased as a function of the content of precipitated calcium (C, % w/w) according to the following equation: P = 5.1 - 4.0 C. Meanwhile, the permeability of sand treated with iron-based biogrout dropped to 2.7x10^-6 m/s at content of precipitated iron (F, % w/w) about 0.35 % w/w , by the equation: P = 5.1 - 14.6 F , and then slowly decreased to 1.4x10^-7 m/s at content of precipitated iron 1.8% w/w by the following equation: P = 0.36 - 0.23F. Both biogrouts have approximately same efficiency in the reduction of permeability of sand to low values. However, the mechanisms of bioclogging are probably different because the reduction of permeability by calcium-based biogrout was described by linear function of precipitated calcium but the reduction of permeability by iron-based biogrout showed two steps of the clogging. Different functions and mechanisms were related probably to the different type of precipitates. The images of biogrouted sand samples show that calcium-based biogrout produced white amorphous or crystallised calcium carbonate, while iron-based biogrout produced gel-like brown precipitate without visible crystals. The unconfined compressive strengths of the sand treated with different biogrouts (Y, kPa) increased by power

  17. [Impact of fortified milk on the iron and zinc levels in Mexican preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva-Haro, María Isabel; Chavarria, Elsa Yolanda; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Nieblas, Amparo; Ponce, José Antonio; Robles-Sardin, Alma E

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a national program of consumption of fortified milk "Liconsa" on the nutritional status of iron and zinc in pre-school children (3-5 y). The study was conducted in 77 healthy children of both genders. 54 of them consumed Liconsa fortified milk (GCLFL) and 23 consumed no fortified milk (GR). Iron status was determined by measuring hemoglobin and ferritin and zinc status by serum zinc. The consumption of milk was on free demand and it was estimated at baseline and 6 mo after. Through 24-h recall of measured consumption of iron and zinc in the total diet. Descriptive statistics, Student's t test for independent samples and chi-square test for differences in proportions. Children who consumed fortified milk showed an increase of hemoglobin and ferritin levels [1.13 g/dL (p < 0.05) and 5.83 μg/L (p < 0.05) respectively]. Additionally, a decrease was found of the prevalence of low iron stores from 20.4 to 4.1% (p < 0.05). The serum zinc level showed an increase of 45.2 μg/dL (p < 0.05). At the end of the study no child showed a micronutrient deficiency. Children who did not consume fortified milk Liconsa showed no significant change in their serum iron and zinc values. The average consumption of milk powder Liconsa was 22.7 ± 14.5 g, providing 2.5 mg of daily iron and zinc. Supplied diet 9.2 ± 3.4 mg of iron and 6.9 ± 3 mg of zinc. The consumption of fortified milk had a beneficial effect on the serum levels of iron and zinc in children's social welfare program Liconsa. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. mRNA Levels of Placental Iron and Zinc Transporter Genes Are Upregulated in Gambian Women with Low Iron and Zinc Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobarteh, Modou Lamin; McArdle, Harry J; Holtrop, Grietje; Sise, Ebrima A; Prentice, Andrew M; Moore, Sophie E

    2017-07-01

    Background: The role of the placenta in regulating micronutrient transport in response to maternal status is poorly understood.Objective: We investigated the effect of prenatal nutritional supplementation on the regulation of placental iron and zinc transport.Methods: In a randomized trial in rural Gambia [ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development)], pregnant women were allocated to 1 of 4 nutritional intervention arms: 1) iron and folic acid (FeFol) tablets (FeFol group); 2) multiple micronutrient (MMN) tablets (MMN group); 3) protein energy (PE) as a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS; PE group); and 4) PE and MMN (PE+MMN group) as LNS. All arms included iron (60 mg/d) and folic acid (400 μg/d). The MMN and PE+MMN arms included 30 mg supplemental Zn/d. In a subgroup of ∼300 mother-infant pairs, we measured maternal iron status, mRNA levels of genes encoding for placental iron and zinc transport proteins, and cord blood iron levels.Results: Maternal plasma iron concentration in late pregnancy was 45% and 78% lower in the PE and PE+MMN groups compared to the FeFol and MMN groups, respectively (P iron uptake protein transferrin receptor 1 were 30-49% higher in the PE and PE+MMN arms than in the FeFol arm (P iron and in the absence of supplemental zinc, the placenta upregulates the gene expression of iron and zinc uptake proteins, presumably in order to meet fetal demands in the face of low maternal supply. The ENID trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN49285450.

  19. Isolation and characterization of Lotus japonicus genes involved in iron and zinc homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Jensen, Winnie; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    The goal of this project is to find ways to improve the nutritional value of legumes by identifying genes and proteins important for iron and zinc regulation in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Legumes are important staples in the developing world and are a major source of nutrients in many areas....... Legumes are frequently grown in soil with limited nutrient availability. Plants use finely tuned mechanisms to keep appropriated levels of iron and zinc in each of their organs. Several genes involved in iron and zinc homeostasis have been described in yeast, and a few orthologs have been studied...... family. Furthermore, we are trying to map genes involved in metal homeostasis. We found significantly different levels of several micronutrients between Lotus filicaulis and L. japonicus Gifu. These differences will be used to map genes important for iron and zinc homeostasis using L. filicaulis x L...

  20. Calcium and zinc DTPA administration for internal contamination with plutonium-238 and americium-241.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzi, Ziad N; Heyl, Alexander; Ruprecht, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The accidental or intentional release of plutonium or americium can cause acute and long term adverse health effects if they enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation, or injection. These effects can be prevented by rapid removal of these radionuclides by chelators such as calcium or zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (calcium or zinc DTPA). These compounds have been shown to be efficacious in enhancing the elimination of members of the actinide family particularly plutonium and americium when administered intravenously or by nebulizer. The efficacy and adverse effects profile depend on several factors that include the route of internalization of the actinide, the type, and route time of administration of the chelator, and whether the calcium or zinc salt of DTPA is used. Current and future research efforts should be directed at overcoming limitations associated with the use of these complex drugs by using innovative methods that can enhance their structural and therapeutic properties.

  1. A Micronutrient Powder with Low Doses of Highly Absorbable Iron and Zinc Reduces Iron and Zinc Deficiency and Improves Weight-For-Age Z-Scores in South African Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troesch, B.; Stuijvenberg, van M.E.; Smuts, C.M.; Salome Kruger, H.; Biebinger, R.; Hurrell, R.F.; Baumgartner, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Micronutrient powders (MNP) are often added to complementary foods high in inhibitors of iron and zinc absorption. Most MNP therefore include high amounts of iron and zinc, but it is no longer recommended in malarial areas to use untargeted MNP that contain the Reference Nutrient Intake for iron in

  2. Is iron and zinc nutrition a concern for vegetarian infants and young children in industrialized countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2014-07-01

    Well-planned vegetarian diets are considered adequate for all stages of the life cycle, despite limited data on the zinc status of vegetarians during early childhood. The bioavailability of iron and zinc in vegetarian diets is poor because of their higher content of absorption inhibitors such as phytate and polyphenols and the absence of flesh foods. Consequently, children as well as adult vegetarians often have lower serum ferritin concentrations than omnivores, which is indicative of reduced iron stores, despite comparable intakes of total iron; hemoglobin differences are small and rarely associated with anemia. However, data on serum zinc concentrations, the recommended biomarker for identifying population groups at elevated risk of zinc deficiency, are sparse and difficult to interpret because recommended collection and analytic procedures have not always been followed. Existing data indicate no differences in serum zinc or growth between young vegetarian and omnivorous children, although there is some evidence of low serum zinc concentrations in vegetarian adolescents. Some vegetarian immigrants from underprivileged households may be predisposed to iron and zinc deficiency because of nondietary factors such as chronic inflammation, parasitic infections, overweight, and genetic hemoglobin disorders. To reduce the risk of deficiency, the content and bioavailability of iron and zinc should be enhanced in vegetarian diets by consumption of fortified cereals and milk, by consumption of leavened whole grains, by soaking dried legumes before cooking and discarding the soaking water, and by replacing tea and coffee at meals with vitamin C-rich drinks, fruit, or vegetables. Additional recommended practices include using fermented soy foods and sprouting at least some of the legumes consumed. Fortified foods can reduce iron deficiency, but whether they can also reduce zinc deficiency is less certain. Supplements may be necessary for vegetarian children following very

  3. The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate fertilisers on micronutrient density (iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and potassium) and seed yields of solanium villosum (black nightshade) and cleome gynandra (cat whiskers) on uetric nitisol.

  4. Bioavailability of zinc oxide added to corn tortilla is similar to that of zinc sulfate and is not affected by simultaneous addition of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jorge L; Díaz, Margarita; Muñoz, Elsa; Westcott, Jamie L; González, Karla E; Krebs, Nancy F; Caamaño, María C; Hambidge, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Corn tortilla is the staple food of Mexico and its fortification with zinc, iron, and other micronutrients is intended to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. However, no studies have been performed to determine the relative amount of zinc absorbed from the fortified product and whether zinc absorption is affected by the simultaneous addition of iron. To compare zinc absorption from corn tortilla fortified with zinc oxide versus zinc sulfate and to determine the effect of simultaneous addition of two doses of iron on zinc bioavailability. A randomized, double-blind, crossover design was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, 10 adult women received corn tortillas with either 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added, 20 mg/kg of zinc sulfate added, or no zinc added. In the second phase, 10 adult women received corn tortilla with 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added and either with no iron added or with iron added at one of two different levels. Zinc absorption was measured by the stable isotope method. The mean (+/- SEM) fractional zinc absorption from unfortified tortilla, tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, and tortilla fortified with zinc sulfate did not differ among treatments: 0.35 +/- 0.07, 0.36 +/- 0.05, and 0.37 +/- 0.07, respectively. The three treatment groups with 0, 30, and 60 mg/kg of added iron had similar fractional zinc absorption (0.32 +/- 0.04, 0.33 +/- 0.02, and 0.32 +/- 0.05, respectively) and similar amounts of zinc absorbed (4.8 +/- 0.7, 4.5 +/- 0.3, and 4.8 +/- 0.7 mg/day, respectively). Since zinc oxide is more stable and less expensive and was absorbed equally as well as zinc sulfate, we suggest its use for corn tortilla fortification. Simultaneous addition of zinc and iron to corn tortilla does not modify zinc bioavailability at iron doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg of corn flour.

  5. Trichomes of tobacco excrete zinc as zinc-substituted calcium carbonate and other zinc-containing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarret, Géraldine; Harada, Emiko; Choi, Yong-Eui; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Geoffroy, Nicolas; Fakra, Sirine; Marcus, Matthew A; Birschwilks, Mandy; Clemens, Stephan; Manceau, Alain

    2006-07-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn). Zn exposure resulted in toxicity signs in plants, and these damages were partly reduced by a calcium (Ca) supplement. Confocal imaging of intracellular Zn using Zinquin showed that Zn was preferentially accumulated in trichomes. Exposure to Zn and Zn + Ca increased the trichome density and induced the production of Ca/Zn mineral grains on the head cells of trichomes. These grains were aggregates of submicrometer-sized crystals and poorly crystalline material and contained Ca as major element, along with subordinate amounts of Zn, manganese, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, silicon, and magnesium. Micro x-ray diffraction revealed that the large majority of the grains were composed essentially of metal-substituted calcite (CaCO3). CaCO3 polymorphs (aragonite and vaterite) and CaC2O4 (Ca oxalate) mono- and dihydrate also were identified, either as an admixture to calcite or in separate grains. Some grains did not diffract, although they contained Ca, suggesting the presence of amorphous form of Ca. The presence of Zn-substituted calcite was confirmed by Zn K-edge micro-extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Zn bound to organic compounds and Zn-containing silica and phosphate were also identified by this technique. The proportion of Zn-substituted calcite relative to the other species increased with Ca exposure. The production of Zn-containing biogenic calcite and other Zn compounds through the trichomes is a novel mechanism involved in Zn detoxification. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved x-ray synchrotron radiation techniques to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE STORED DUST-LIKE ZINC AND IRON CONTAINING WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Lytaeva

    2017-05-01

    On the basis of laboratory research and field observations of the environmental components in the impact area of the storage of dust-like zinc and iron containing wastes, the article describes regularities of formation of hydrogeochemical halos of contamination by heavy metals and iron. Results include also the description of changes in physico-chemical groundwater composition under the storage area.

  7. Effect of zinc supplementation on the antioxidant, copper, and iron status of physically active adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Karla de Jesus Fernandes; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; de Oliveira, Astrogildo Vianna; da Silveira, Carmen Lucia Porto; Koury, Josely Correa

    2009-04-01

    Puberty associated with intense physical activity results in oxidation stress. Zinc supplementation may benefit antioxidant capacity although it may also affect iron and copper status. This study evaluated the effect of zinc supplementation on antioxidant, zinc and copper status of physically active male football players (13 years +/- 0.4 years), divided in two groups and studied during 12 weeks: Zn-supplemented (Zn-SUP, 22 mg Zn d(-1) as zinc gluconate, n = 21) and placebo (PLA, n = 26). At baseline, there was no significant difference in biochemical indices between the two groups. After treatment, plasma zinc and erythrocyte iron increased in both groups (p nutritional status. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Effect of Ductile Cast Iron Matrix on Zinc Coating During Hot Dip Galvanising of Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth kinetics of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting made from ductile iron grade EN-GJS-500-3 was investigated. To produce homogenous metal matrix in test samples, the normalising and ferritising annealing was carried out. Studies showeda heterogeneous structure of cast iron with varying content of the phases formed. This was followed by hot dip galvanising treatment at450°C to capture the growth kinetics of the zinc coating (the time of the treatment ranged from 60 to 600 seconds. Nonlinear estimation of the determined growth kinetics of the alloyed layer of a zinc coating was made and an equation of the zinc coating growth was derived.Based on the results of the investigations it was concluded that thickness of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting with a 100% pearlitic matrix makes 55% of the thickness of coating formed on the surface in 100% ferritic.

  9. The Effect of Ductile Cast Iron Matrix on Zinc Coating During Hot Dip Galvanising of Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyciński D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth kinetics of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting made from ductile iron grade EN-GJS-500-3 was investigated. To produce homogenous metal matrix in test samples, the normalising and ferritising annealing was carried out. Studies showed a heterogeneous structure of cast iron with varying content of the phases formed. This was followed by hot dip galvanising treatment at 450°C to capture the growth kinetics of the zinc coating (the time of the treatment ranged from 60 to 600 seconds. Nonlinear estimation of the determined growth kinetics of the alloyed layer of a zinc coating was made and an equation of the zinc coating growth was derived. Based on the results of the investigations it was concluded that thickness of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting with a 100% pearlitic matrix makes 55% of the thickness of coating formed on the surface in 100% ferritic.

  10. Adsorption of poly(vinyl formamide-co-vinyl amine) (PVFA-co-PVAm) polymers on zinc, zinc oxide, iron, and iron oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Susan; Simon, Frank; Baumann, Giesela; Hietschold, Michael; Seifert, Andreas; Spange, Stefan

    2011-12-06

    The adsorption of poly(vinyl formamide) (PVFA) and the statistic copolymers poly(vinyl formamide-co-vinyl amine) (PVFA-co-PVAm) onto zinc and iron metal particles as well as their oxides was investigated. The adsorbates were characterized by means of XPS, DRIFT spectroscopy, wet chemical analysis, and solvatochromic probes. Dicyano-bis-(1,10-phenanthroline)-iron(II) (1), 3-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-7-phenyl-benzo-[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-2,6-dione (2), and 4-tert-butyl-2-(dicyano-methylene)-5-[4-(diethylamino)-benzylidene]-Δ(3)-thiazoline (3) as solvatochromic probes were coadsorbed onto zinc oxide to measure various effects of surface polarity. The experimental findings showed that the adsorption mechanism of PVFA and PVFA-co-PVAm strongly depends on the degree of hydrolysis of PVFA and pH values and also on the kind of metal or metal oxide surfaces that were employed as adsorbents. The adsorption mechanism of PVFA/PVFA-co-PVAm onto zinc oxide and iron oxide surfaces is mainly affected by electrostatic interactions. Particularly in the region of pH 5, the adsorption of PVFA/PVFA-co-PVAm onto zinc and iron metal particles is additionally influenced by redox processes, dissolution, and complexation reactions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. after home cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. J. Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to the World Health Organization (WHO, iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives : This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars under the following conditions: raw beans, regular pot cooking, pressure cooking, with and without previous water soaking, and broth. Design : Determination of iron and zinc content in the raw, cooked bean grains and broth samples was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Optical Emission Spectrometry (Spectro Analytical Instrument – Spectroflame P. All experiments and analyses were carried out in triplicate. Results : Overall, regardless of the cooking method, with or without previous water soaking, the highest zinc concentration was found in the cooked bean grains. However, pressure cooking and previous water soaking diminished iron retention in the cooked grains, while increasing it in the bean broth. Conclusion : The common bean was confirmed to be an excellent source of iron and zinc for human consumption, and it was suggested that beans should be consumed in a combined form, i.e. grain with bean broth.

  12. Ion Implantation of Calcium and Zinc in Magnesium for Biodegradable Implant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadev Somasundaram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, magnesium was implanted with calcium-ion and zinc-ion at fluences of 1015, 1016, and 1017 ion·cm−2, and its in vitro degradation behaviour was evaluated using electrochemical techniques in simulated body fluid (SBF. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS revealed that the implanted ions formed layers within the passive magnesium-oxide/hydroxide layers. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS results demonstrated that calcium-ion implantation at a fluence of 1015 ions·cm−2 increased the polarisation resistance by 24%, but higher fluences showed no appreciable improvement. In the case of zinc-ion implantation, increase in the fluence decreased the polarisation resistance. A fluence of 1017 ion·cm−2 decreased the polarisation resistance by 65%, and fluences of 1015 and 1016 showed only marginal effect. Similarly, potentiodynamic polarisation results also suggested that low fluence of calcium-ion decreased the degradation rate by 38% and high fluence of zinc-ion increased the degradation rate by 61%. All the post-polarized ion-implanted samples and the bare metal revealed phosphate and carbonate formation. However, the improved degradative behaviour in calcium-ion implanted samples can be due to a relatively better passivation, whereas the reduction in degradation resistance in zinc-ion implanted samples can be attributed to the micro-galvanic effect.

  13. Serum Calcium Response Following Oral Zinc Oxide Administrations in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen RJ

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Six non-pregnant cows were allocated into 3 groups. Group 1 comprised a pair of lactating cows, whereas groups 2 and 3 each comprised a pair of non-lactating cows. The cows in groups 1 and 2 were dosed intraruminally by stomach tube with zinc oxide at 120 mg Zn per kg of bodyweight at weekly intervals for a period of 33 days. Each cow received a total of 4 doses of zinc oxide. Group 3 served as non-treated control group. Blood samples were collected from all 6 cows daily. Serum was analysed for concentration of calcium. Within 12–24 h of each zinc oxide administration the serum calcium of the lactating cows dropped dramatically indicating the existence of an antagonistic effect between Zn and Ca. The first Zn induced hypocalcaemic episode in the lactating cows was followed by a rise in serum calcium to a level above the pre-dosing level and above the mean value of the control group. The depth of the hypocalcaemic response decreased with the number of zinc oxide dosings. This effect was explained as a response from the stimulation of the calcium homeostatic mechanisms. In the Zn dosed non-lactating cows responses were similar but less clear. The perspective of these findings is discussed in relation to resistance towards parturient hypocalcaemia.

  14. Histopathological data of iron and calcium in the mouse lung after asbestos exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Trevisan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains data related to the research article entitled, “Synchrotron X-ray microscopy reveals early calcium and iron interaction with crocidolite fibers in the lung of exposed mice” [1]. Asbestos fibers disrupt iron homeostasis in the human and mouse lung, leading to the deposition of iron (Fe onto longer asbestos fibers which forms asbestos bodies (AB [2]. Similar to Fe, calcium (Ca is also deposited in the coats of the AB. This article presents data on iron and calcium in the mouse lung after asbestos exposure detected by histochemical evaluation.

  15. Wet chemical synthesis of zinc-iron oxide nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Honami; Amagasa, Shota; Nishida, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2017-11-01

    Zinc-iron oxide nanoparticles (ZnxFe3-xO4 and δ-ZnxFe1-xOOH) were successfully synthesized by room temperature chemical reaction of a solution containing ZnCl2 and FeCl2 in the presence of gelatin. The composition of products could be controlled by variation of the Zn/Fe mixture ratio of the starting material. ZnxFe3-xO4 nanoparticles were obtained from a solution with a high Zn/Fe ratio, whereas Zn-doped feroxyhyte ( δ-ZnxFe1-xOOH) nanoparticles were obtained from a solution with a low Zn/Fe ratio. The ZnxFe3-xO4 nanoparticles were spherical with diameters of approximately 10 nm, and the δ-ZnxFe1-xOOH particles were needle-like with lengths of approximately 100 nm. Mössbauer spectra measured at room temperature indicated superparamagnetic behavior of the nanoparticles, whereas the magnetic components were observed at low temperature. The Zn content of the intermediate species (( {Zn}^{ {II}}x {Fe}^{ {II}}_{1-x} {Fe}^{ {III}}2O4)) plays an important role in the oxidation process. When the Zn concentration was high, the content of Fe2+ in the intermediate species was small, and Zn2+ prevented further oxidation of the nanoparticles. When the starting material had low Zn concentration, the amount of Fe2+ in the intermediate species became large and was rapidly oxidized into δ-ZnxFe1-xOOH while rinsing under the ambient atmosphere.

  16. Hcl extractable minerals (Iron ,Zinc ,Calcium, Lead,Aluminum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Georgette Koduah

    East, Latin America, and in rural South of the United States of America [4,11]. In an earlier study, the average daily clay soil ingestion among women in Accra was reported as 70 g, range ..... Cultural Geography, 1993; 14: 69- 92. 10. Tayie FAK and A Lartey Pica practice among pregnant Ghanaians: Relationship with infant ...

  17. Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Zinc and Copper, Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backround: As breast milk is normally the only source of food in the early stages of life, the dietary levels of the essential elements in the milk of lactating mothers are significantly important. Ethiopia is a country of many nations and nationalities with distinct dietary habits. This variation in food habit may result in the variation ...

  18. Variations in the lead, zinc, and calcium content of Dendrobaena rubida (Oligachaeta) in a base metal mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ireland, M.P.; Wooton, R.J.

    1976-04-01

    A study was made of the concentrations of lead, zinc and calcium in Dendrobaena rubida (Savigny) taken at different times of the year and at three different sites. Lead levels in earthworms reflected the levels in the soils and the highest concentrations occurred in the winter months. Zinc appeared to be unrelated to soil levels at the site where the level of zinc in the soil was high. At the sites with lower levels of zinc in the soil the lowest concentration of zinc in earthworms was found in November. Earthworm calcium values were inversely proportional to the soil levels but monthly variations were inconsistent. There was a good correlation in earthworms between lead and calcium at the sites with high levels of lead in the soil. The concentration of metal in D. rubida is discussed in relation to seasonal changes, regulation and lead/calcium antagonism. (auth)

  19. Relation between Omega 3 Fatty Acid, Iron, Zinc and Treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shalileh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In some studies, it is suggested that a number of dietary factors including essential fatty acid, iron and zinc deficiency, may be linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD. However, the exact mechanism of this relationship is yet unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc, and iron in etiopathology and management of ADHD. For the purpose of this study, Science Direct, PubMed, and Medline databases were explored and thirty-four relevant articles in english language were collected. Eighteen out of twenty-two studies confirmed the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid and ADHD. In addition, the role of insufficient store of iron in developing ADHD symptoms and the positive effect of iron supplement in improvement of ADHD behavioral symptoms have been shown. Also, plasma zinc concentration in children with ADHD was lower than the normal population, and the effect of zinc supplement on reducing on attentive-deficit symptoms was contradictory. Although polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and iron supplements are not suggested as main treatment for ADHD, but if future studies confirm the positive results of that, use of these supplements as complementary treatment will affect ADHD symptoms. Considering the little amount of studies on zinc, more research is necessary.

  20. Serum calcium response following oral zinc oxide administrations in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Thilsing, Trine

    2001-01-01

    Six non-pregnant cows were allocated into 3 groups. Group 1 comprised a pair of lactating cows, whereas groups 2 and 3 each comprised a pair of non-lactating cows. The cows in groups 1 and 2 were dosed intraruminally by stomach tube with zinc oxide at 120 mg Zn per kg of bodyweight at weekly...... intervals for a period of 33 days. Each cow received a total of 4 doses of zinc oxide. Group 3 served as non-treated control group. Blood samples were collected from all 6 cows daily. Serum was analysed for concentration of calcium. Within 12-24 h of each zinc oxide administration the serum calcium...... of the hypocalcaemic response decreased with the number of zinc oxide dosings. This effect was explained as a response from the stimulation of the calcium homeostatic mechanisms. In the Zn dosed non-lactating cows responses were similar but less clear. The perspective of these findings is discussed in relation...

  1. ARTICLE - Path analysis of iron and zinc contents and others traits in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Oliveira Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of agronomic and culinary traits on iron and zinc contents in 11 cowpea populations. Correlations between traits were estimated and decomposed into direct and indirect effects using path analysis. For the study populations, breeding for larger grain size, higher number of grains per pod, grain yield, reduced cooking time, and number of days to flowering can lead to decreases in the levels of iron and zinc in the grain. Genetic gains for the iron content can be obtained by direct selection for protein content by indirect effects on the number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield. The positive direct effect of grain size and protein content on the zinc content indicates the possibility of simultaneous gain by combined selection of these traits.

  2. The utilization of some iron and zinc compounds as regulators of catalase activity at Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremova, N.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the impact of some zinc and iron compounds as oxidative stress factors on catalase activity, which is known to be important defense system of microorganisms to metal stress. For the investigation was used baker's yeast strain - Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-11 previously selected as a source of protein and catalase. The obtained results have revealed that compounds of iron and zinc with citrate and acetate contributes to the accumulation of yeast biomass and have beneficial effect on the catalase activity at selected yeast strain. The maximum increase of catalase activity in yeast biomass was established in case of iron and zinc citrate supplementation to the nutritive medium in optimal concentration of 15.0 mg/l. Results of the present study could be used for the elaboration of new procedures of catalase obtaining by directed synthesis with the utilization of selected metal compounds.

  3. Repletion of Zinc and Iron Deficiencies Improves Cognition of Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Work This 3 year project tests the hypothesis: "Repletion of mild zinc and iron deficiencies will improve neuropsychological ( neuromotor and...zinc turnover rate were highly related to lean body mass. These findings are original with us and represent an advance in basic knowledge. The double...different models based on Ramakrishnan’s matrix transformation [21]. His basic idea was derived from Berman’s model [21]. As was proven in the Appendix

  4. Bio-accumulation of copper, zinc, iron and manganese in oyster Saccostrea cucullata, Snail Cerithium rubus and Clam Tellina angulata from the Bombay coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V.R.; Moraes, C.

    and C. rubus. Sexwise, iron content was high in male and manganese in female oysters. In T. angulata male specimens showed maximum zinc content. Stationwise, difference in copper and iron was significant in C. rubus. In general, copper and zinc...

  5. Iron Bioavailability from Ferric Pyrophosphate in Extruded Rice Cofortified with Zinc Sulfate Is Greater than When Cofortified with Zinc Oxide in a Human Stable Isotope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Laura; Zimmermann, Michael B; Zeder, Christophe; Parker, Megan; Johns, Paul W; Hurrell, Richard F; Moretti, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Background: Extruded rice grains are often cofortified with iron and zinc. However, it is uncertain if the addition of zinc to iron-fortified rice affects iron absorption and whether this is zinc-compound specific.Objective: We investigated whether zinc, added as zinc oxide (ZnO) or zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), affects human iron absorption from extruded rice fortified with ferric pyrophosphate (FePP).Methods: In 19 iron-depleted Swiss women (plasma ferritin ≤16.5 μ/L) aged between 20 and 39 y with a normal body mass index (in kg/m(2); 18.7-24.8), we compared iron absorption from 4 meals containing fortified extruded rice with 4 mg Fe and 3 mg Zn. Three of the meals contained extruded rice labeled with FePP ((57)FePP): 1) 1 meal without added zinc ((57)FePP-Zn), 2) 1 cofortified with ZnO ((57)FePP+ZnO), and 3) 1 cofortified with ZnSO4 ((57)FePP+ZnSO4). The fourth meal contained extruded rice without iron or zinc, extrinsically labeled with ferrous sulfate ((58)FeSO4) added as a solution after cooking. All 4 meals contained citric acid. Iron bioavailability was measured by isotopic iron ratios in red blood cells. We also measured relative in vitro iron solubility from (57)FePP-Zn, (57)FePP+ZnO, and (57)FePP+ZnSO4 expressed as a fraction of FeSO4 solubility.Results: Geometric mean fractional iron absorption (95% CI) from (57)FePP+ZnSO4 was 4.5% (3.4%, 5.8%) and differed from (57)FePP+ZnO (2.7%; 1.8%, 4.1%) (P iron bioavailabilities compared with (58)FeSO4 were 62%, 57%, and 38% from (57)FePP+ZnSO4, (57)FePP-Zn, and (57)FePP+ZnO, respectively. In vitro solubility from (57)FePP+ZnSO4 differed from that of (57)FePP-Zn (14.3%; P iron-depleted women, iron absorption from FePP-fortified extruded rice cofortified with ZnSO4 was 1.6-fold (95% CI: 1.4-, 1.9-fold) that of rice cofortified with ZnO. These findings suggest that ZnSO4 may be the preferable zinc cofortificant for optimal iron bioavailability of iron-fortified extruded rice. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  6. Dietary zinc and iron intake and risk of depression: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongyao; Li, Bingrong; Song, Xingxing; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2017-05-01

    The associations between dietary zinc and iron intake and risk of depression remain controversial. Thus, we carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate these associations. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang databases for relevant studies up to January 2017. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model. A total of 9 studies for dietary zinc intake and 3 studies for dietary iron intake were finally included in present meta-analysis. The pooled RRs with 95% CIs of depression for the highest versus lowest dietary zinc and iron intake were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.58-0.76) and 0.57 (95% CI: 0.34-0.95), respectively. In subgroup analysis by study design, the inverse association between dietary zinc intake and risk of depression remained significant in the cohort studies and cross-sectional studies. The pooled RRs (95% CIs) for depression did not substantially change in the influence analysis and subgroup analysis by adjustment for body mass index (BMI). The present meta-analysis indicates inverse associations between dietary zinc and iron intake and risk of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Composition, mineral safety index, calcium, zinc and phytate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, mineral and amino acid contents and calculated values of calcium/phytate Ca/Phy, Zn/Phy, [Ca][Phy]/[Zn], Ca/P, Na/K, Ca/Mg, [K/(Ca+Mg)], mineral safety index (MSI) for Na, Mg, P, Ca, Fe and Zn, and the amino acid scores were determined in four fast-foods consumed in Nigeria. The fast-foods were meat pie ...

  8. Iron overload and apoptosis of HL-1 cardiomyocytes: effects of calcium channel blockade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-pian Chen

    Full Text Available Iron overload cardiomyopathy that prevails in some forms of hemosiderosis is caused by excessive deposition of iron into the heart tissue and ensuing damage caused by a raise in labile cell iron. The underlying mechanisms of iron uptake into cardiomyocytes in iron overload condition are still under investigation. Both L-type calcium channels (LTCC and T-type calcium channels (TTCC have been proposed to be the main portals of non-transferrinic iron into heart cells, but controversies remain. Here, we investigated the roles of LTCC and TTCC as mediators of cardiac iron overload and cellular damage by using specific Calcium channel blockers as potential suppressors of labile Fe(II and Fe(III ingress in cultured cardiomyocytes and ensuing apoptosis.Fe(II and Fe(III uptake was assessed by exposing HL-1 cardiomyocytes to iron sources and quantitative real-time fluorescence imaging of cytosolic labile iron with the fluorescent iron sensor calcein while iron-induced apoptosis was quantitatively measured by flow cytometry analysis with Annexin V. The role of calcium channels as routes of iron uptake was assessed by cell pretreatment with specific blockers of LTCC and TTCC.Iron entered HL-1 cardiomyocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced cardiac apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated caspase-3 dependent pathways. Blockade of LTCC but not of TTCC demonstrably inhibited the uptake of ferric but not of ferrous iron. However, neither channel blocker conferred cardiomyocytes with protection from iron-induced apoptosis.Our study implicates LTCC as major mediators of Fe(III uptake into cardiomyocytes exposed to ferric salts but not necessarily as contributors to ensuing apoptosis. Thus, to the extent that apoptosis can be considered a biological indicator of damage, the etiopathology of cardiosiderotic damage that accompanies some forms of hemosiderosis would seem to be unrelated to LTCC or TTCC, but rather to other routes of iron ingress present in

  9. Increasing iron and zinc in pre-menopausal women and its effects on mood and cognition: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomagno, Karla A; Hu, Feifei; Riddell, Lynn J; Booth, Alison O; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Nowson, Caryl A; Byrne, Linda K

    2014-11-14

    Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide and Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Sesbania grandiflora Leaf Extract as Reducing Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran, Sorna Prema; Sengodan, Kandasamy

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this present study are to synthesize iron oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles from different concentrations of Sesbania grandiflora leaf extract (5–20%) using zinc nitrate and ferrous chloride as precursor materials and synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectrometer, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, and SEM. The results showed that synthesized zinc oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles exhibited UV-visible absorption peaks at 235 nm and 220 nm, respectively, ...

  11. Effects of iron and zinc fortified milk supplementation on working memory of underweight poor-urban school children: A randomized double blind controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hari Wahyu Nugroho; Endang Dewi Lestari; Harsono Salimo; Mayasari Dewi; Zusta'in Noor Adhim; Leilani Lestarina

    2010-01-01

    Background Undernutrition associated micronutrient deficiencies in children are still prevalent in most developing countries. Iron and zinc deficiencies are the most common micronutrient deficiency globally, which significantly contribute deficits in cognitive function. Fortification with iron and zinc has proven successfully in reducing certain cognitive impairments like memory. Objective To determine the effects of milk fortified with iron and zinc on memory of under...

  12. A COMMUNITY BASED RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF IRON AND ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION IN INFANTS: EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lind

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies of iron and zinc are associated with delayed development, growth faltering, and increased infectious disease morbidity during infancy and childhood. Combined iron and zinc supplementation may therefore be a logical preventive strategy. Objective: the objective of the study was to compare the effects of combined iron and zinc supplementation in infancy with the effects of iron and zinc as single micronutrients on growth, psychomotor development, and incidence of infectious disease. Design: Indonesian infants (n = 680 were randomly assigned to daily supplementation with 10 mg Fe (Fe group, 10 mg Zn (Zn group, 10 mg Fe and 10 mg Zn (Fe + Zn group, or placebo from 6 to 12 mo of age. Anthropometric indexes, developmental indexes (bay ley scales of infant development; sid, and morbidity were recorded. Results: at 12 mo, two factor analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between Iron and Zinc for weight for age z score, knee heel length, and sid psychomotor development. Weight forage z score was higher in the Zn group than in the placebo and Fe + Zn groups, knee heel length was higher in the Zn and Fe groups than in the placebo group, and the sid psychomotor development index was higher in the Fe group than in the placebo group. No significant effect on morbidity was found. Conclusions: single supplementation with zinc significantly improved growth, and single supplementation with iron significantly improved growth and psychomotor development, but combined supplementation with iron and zinc had no significant effect on growth or development. Combined, simultaneous supplementation with iron and zinc to infants cannot be routinely recommended at the iron to zinc ratio used in this study.Key words: infants, growth, knee heel length, development, iron, zinc.

  13. Short-term in vivo evaluation of zinc-containing calcium phosphate using a normalized procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calasans-Maia, Monica, E-mail: monicacalasansmaia@gmail.com [Dental Clinical Research Center, Dentistry School, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Calasans-Maia, José, E-mail: josecalasans@gmail.com [Dental Clinical Research Center, Dentistry School, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santos, Silvia, E-mail: silviaquimica@gmail.com [LABIOMAT, Brazilian Center for Physics Research, CBPF, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mavropoulos, Elena, E-mail: elena@cbpf.br [LABIOMAT, Brazilian Center for Physics Research, CBPF, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Farina, Marcos, E-mail: mfarina@anato.ufrj.br [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lima, Inayá, E-mail: inayacorrea@gmail.com [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rossi, Alexandre, E-mail: rossi@cbpf.br [LABIOMAT, Brazilian Center for Physics Research, CBPF, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Granjeiro, José Mauro, E-mail: jmgranjeiro@gmail.com [Dental Clinical Research Center, Dentistry School, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bioengineering Division, National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    The effect of zinc-substituted calcium phosphate (CaP) on bone osteogenesis was evaluated using an in vivo normalized ISO 10993-6 protocol. Zinc-containing hydroxyapatite (ZnHA) powder with 0.3% by wt zinc (experimental group) and stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (control group) were shaped into cylindrical implants (2 × 6 mm) and were sintered at 1000 °C. Thermal treatment transformed the ZnHA cylinder into a biphasic implant that was composed of Zn-substituted HA and Zn-substituted β-tricalcium phosphate (ZnHA/βZnTCP); the hydroxyapatite cylinder was a highly crystalline and poorly soluble HA implant. In vivo tests were performed in New Zealand White rabbits by implanting two cylinders of ZnHA/βZnTCP in the left tibia and two cylinders of HA in the right tibia for 7, 14 and 28 days. Incorporation of 0.3% by wt zinc into CaP increased the rate of Zn release to the biological medium. Microfluorescence analyses (μXRF-SR) using synchrotron radiation suggested that some of the Zn released from the biomaterial was incorporated into new bone near the implanted region. In contrast with previous studies, histomorphometric analysis did not show significant differences between the newly formed bone around ZnHA/βZnTCP and HA due to the dissolution profile of Zn-doped CaP. Despite the great potential of Zn-containing CaP matrices for future use in bone regeneration, additional in vivo studies must be conducted to explain the mobility of zinc at the CaP surface and its interactions with a biological medium. - Highlights: • We produced a hydroxyapatite containing a low concentration (0.3 wt.%) of zinc. • The biomaterial underwent characterization before and after in vivo implant. • In vivo tests were performed according to ISO 10993-6. • Zinc-containing calcium phosphate promotes osteoconduction and bone regeneration. • Zinc-containing calcium phosphate may be useful for clinical applications.

  14. Calcium-Sensitive MRI Contrast Agents Based on Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Calmodulin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tatjana Atanasijevic; Maxim Shusteff; Peter Fam; Alan Jasanoff

    2006-01-01

    We describe a family of calcium indicators for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), formed by combining a powerful iron oxide nanoparticle-based contrast mechanism with the versatile calciumsensing protein calmodulin and its targets...

  15. Zinc transporter ZIP14 functions in hepatic zinc, iron and glucose homeostasis during the innate immune response (endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolunay Beker Aydemir

    Full Text Available ZIP14 (slc39A14 is a zinc transporter induced in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. ZIP14 induction accompanies the reduction in serum zinc (hypozincemia of acute inflammation. ZIP14 can transport Zn(2+ and non-transferrin-bound Fe(2+ in vitro. Using a Zip14(-/- mouse model we demonstrated that ZIP14 was essential for control of phosphatase PTP1B activity and phosphorylation of c-Met during liver regeneration. In the current studies, a global screening of ZIP transporter gene expression in response to LPS-induced endotoxemia was conducted. Following LPS, Zip14 was the most highly up-regulated Zip transcript in liver, but also in white adipose tissue and muscle. Using ZIP14(-/- mice we show that ZIP14 contributes to zinc absorption from the gastrointestinal tract directly or indirectly as zinc absorption was decreased in the KOs. In contrast, Zip14(-/- mice absorbed more iron. The Zip14 KO mice did not exhibit hypozincemia following LPS, but do have hypoferremia. Livers of Zip14-/- mice had increased transcript abundance for hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin and transferrin receptor-1 and greater accumulation of iron. The Zip14(-/- phenotype included greater body fat, hypoglycemia and higher insulin levels, as well as increased liver glucose and greater phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and increased GLUT2, SREBP-1c and FASN expression. The Zip14 KO mice exhibited decreased circulating IL-6 with increased hepatic SOCS-3 following LPS, suggesting SOCS-3 inhibited insulin signaling which produced the hypoglycemia in this genotype. The results are consistent with ZIP14 ablation yielding abnormal labile zinc pools which lead to increased SOCS-3 production through G-coupled receptor activation and increased cAMP production as well as signaled by increased pSTAT3 via the IL-6 receptor, which inhibits IRS 1/2 phosphorylation. Our data show the role of ZIP14 in the hepatocyte is multi-functional since zinc and iron trafficking are

  16. The supply of bioavailable iron and zinc may be affected by phytate in Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Food composition data are important for estimating energy and nutrient intakes. The objectives of this study were, first, to evaluate the proximate and inorganic composition of foods eaten in northern Benin and second, to estimate the potentially inhibiting effect of phytate on iron and zinc

  17. Low blood zinc, iron, and other sociodemographic factors associated with behavior problems in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ma, Chenjuan; Zhao, Sophie R; Cao, Siyuan; Compher, Charlene

    2014-01-27

    Previous research supports the link among malnutrition, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral outcomes; however, less research has focused on micronutrient deficiencies. This study investigates whether micronutrient deficiencies, specifically blood zinc and iron levels, will be associated with increased behavior problem scores, including internalizing and externalizing behaviors. 1314 Children (55% boys and 45% girls) from the Jintan Preschool Cohort in China participated in this study. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for zinc and iron when the children were 3-5 years old. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), which was completed by the parents when children were in their last months of preschool (mean age 5.6 years). General linear multivariate modeling was used, with adjustment for important sociodemographic variables. The results indicate that low zinc levels alone (p = 0.024) and combined low zinc and iron levels (p = 0.022) are significantly associated with increased reports of total behavior problems. We did not find an association between low iron and behavior problems. With regards to sociodemographics, living in the suburbs is associated with increased internalizing problems, while higher mother's education and being female were associated with decreased externalizing problems. This study suggests that micronutrient deficiencies and sociodemographic facts are associated with behavior problems in preschoolers.

  18. Sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study also evaluated the sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron in plasma samples utilising plasma electrolyte parameters as a biomarker using an albino mice model, M. musculus. Mice were subjected to sublethal concentrations of the selected heavy metals (1/10th of 96 hrLC50). Blood plasma ...

  19. Low Blood Zinc, Iron, and Other Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Behavior Problems in Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research supports the link among malnutrition, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral outcomes; however, less research has focused on micronutrient deficiencies. This study investigates whether micronutrient deficiencies, specifically blood zinc and iron levels, will be associated with increased behavior problem scores, including internalizing and externalizing behaviors. 1314 Children (55% boys and 45% girls from the Jintan Preschool Cohort in China participated in this study. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for zinc and iron when the children were 3–5 years old. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, which was completed by the parents when children were in their last months of preschool (mean age 5.6 years. General linear multivariate modeling was used, with adjustment for important sociodemographic variables. The results indicate that low zinc levels alone (p = 0.024 and combined low zinc and iron levels (p = 0.022 are significantly associated with increased reports of total behavior problems. We did not find an association between low iron and behavior problems. With regards to sociodemographics, living in the suburbs is associated with increased internalizing problems, while higher mother’s education and being female were associated with decreased externalizing problems. This study suggests that micronutrient deficiencies and sociodemographic facts are associated with behavior problems in preschoolers.

  20. β-carotene, iron and zinc content in Papua New Guinea and East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional disorders due to inadequate intake of vitamin A, iron and zinc in the East African region are unusually high. Interventions to alleviate these deficiencies rely on supplementation and food fortification programs, which are not sustainable and do not reach all the affected. Sustainable solutions to malnutrition can be ...

  1. Micronutrient (provitamin A and iron/zinc) retention in biofortified crops

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Degradation also occurs during the storage of dried products (e.g. from sweet potato, maize, cassava) at ambient temperature, and a short shelf life is a constraint that should be considered when foods are biofortified for provitamin A. Iron and zinc retention were high for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas ...

  2. Genome Wide Identification of Orthologous ZIP Genes Associated with Zinc and Iron Translocation in Setaria italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Alagarasan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Genes in the ZIP family encode transcripts to store and transport bivalent metal micronutrient, particularly iron (Fe and or zinc (Zn. These transcripts are important for a variety of functions involved in the developmental and physiological processes in many plant species, including most, if not all, Poaceae plant species and the model species Arabidopsis. Here, we present the report of a genome wide investigation of orthologous ZIP genes in Setaria italica and the identification of 7 single copy genes. RT-PCR shows 4 of them could be used to increase the bio-availability of zinc and iron content in grains. Of 36 ZIP members, 25 genes have traces of signal peptide based sub-cellular localization, as compared to those of plant species studied previously, yet translocation of ions remains unclear. In silico analysis of gene structure and protein nature suggests that these two were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ZIP gene family in S. italica. NAC, bZIP and bHLH are the predominant Fe and Zn responsive transcription factors present in SiZIP genes. Together, our results provide new insights into the signal peptide based/independent iron and zinc translocation in the plant system and allowed identification of ZIP genes that may be involved in the zinc and iron absorption from the soil, and thus transporting it to the cereal grain underlying high micronutrient accumulation.

  3. Iron and zinc deficiencies in China: existing problems and possible solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guansheng Ma,

    2007-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies affect the health and development of the population of China as well as its socia] and economic development. Iron and zinc deficiencies are quite prevalent, while insufficient intake and poor bioavailability are the major causes. Phytate is be!ieved to bc a potent

  4. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaromb, S.; Lawson, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    A process for recovering zinc-rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered by distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10 C, separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream. 1 figure.

  5. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaromb, Solomon; Lawson, Daniel B.

    1994-01-01

    A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

  6. Progress in the genetic understanding of plant iron and zinc nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghandilyan, A.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this review, we describe the need and progress to improve the iron and zinc contents in crop plants by genetic means. To achieve this goal either by transgenic approaches or classical breeding, knowledge about the physiological and molecular mechanisms of mineral uptake and mineral homeostasis

  7. Methods for analysis of the distribution and speciation of iron and zinc in the cereal grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj

    Deficiency of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and other mineral micronutrients is a worldwide problem affecting more than 50% of the world’s population, especially in human populations depending on a cereal diet. Mineral micronutrients are not distributed evenly in the cereal grain and a large fraction...

  8. Assessing of plasma levels of iron, zinc and copper in Iranian Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Nikyar, Hamidreza; Dehghani, Leila; Basiri, Keivan; Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza Aghaye

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements have long been suspected to be involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis, but their exact roles have been remained controversial. In this study, we assessed the levels of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in different stage of PD patients. Serum concentrations of iron, copper and zinc were measured in 109 patients with PD by colorimetric methods. Staging of the disease was evaluated according to Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) and Unified PD Rating Scale III (UPDRS). Severity values of PD measured by UPRDSIII and HY stages with mean ± SD were 22.9 ± 1.81 and 1.8 ± 1.1, respectively. Mean ± SD values of iron, zinc and copper are 100.7 ± 289.2, 68.3 ± 5.32, and 196.8 ± 162.1 μg/dl, respectively. Serum iron level in most of the patients was normal (76.6%). Whereas zinc concentration in most participants was below the normal range (64.5%) and serum Cu in the majority of patients had a high normal concentration (42.7%) and did not significantly differ among various PD stages. The result of this study does not confirm strong correlation between PD stages and serum levels of tested trace elements. The actual correlations between these elements and PD and whether modulating of these agents levels could be an effective approach in the treatment of this disease remain to be elucidated.

  9. Effect of oral drenching with zinc oxide or synthetic zeolite A on total blood calcium in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R J; Hansen, T; Jensen, M L

    2001-01-01

    values. Oral drenching with a single dose of zinc oxide of 100 mg/kg of body weight as well as with zeolite in doses of 500 g of zeolite/cow twice a day for 2.5 d was reflected in serum calcium levels. In the group given zeolite A, there was a depression in evening values of total serum calcium although...

  10. Revaluation of landraces potatoes from Bolivia (Solanum tuberosum L. as a source of iron and zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 19 communities’ farmer fields from Northern Potosi, La Paz and Cochabamba, 144 landraces potato were collected in the years 2012 and 2013, with the aim to determining the iron and zinc content in tubers. The content analysis of iron and zinc were performed in the Institute Food Technology (I.TA. lab of the Royal and Pontifical San Francisco Xavier of Chuquisaca University, by using the technique of atomic absorption (AA. The results showed that species with higher content of iron and zinc were Solanum x ajanhuiri (2n = 2x = 24, S. Solanum goniocalyx (2n = 2x = 24 and S. stenotomum (2n = 2x = 24. However, the average analysis showed that cultivars with higher iron content were Sakampaya (ADG con 14.50 mg.kg-1, Wila Surimana (STN with 13.50 mg.kg-1, Khati Señorita (STN with 12.10 mg.kg-1, Chilltu (STN with 11.80 mg.kg-1, Imilla Negra (ADG with 10.90 mg.kg-1, Yuraj Sak’ampaya (ADG with 10.90 mg.kg-1, Sak’ampaya (ADG with 10.80 mg.kg-1 and Pinta Boca (STN with 9.80 mg.kg-1. For zinc content, the highest content were in cultivars Yuraj Sak’ampaya (ADG with 5.20 mg.kg-1, Kellu Zapallo (GON with 4.80 mg.kg-1, Ajawiri (AJH with 9.00 mg.kg-1, Pepino (STN with 4.50 mg.kg-1, Candelero (STN with 4.50 mg.kg-1 and Zapallo (GON with 4.40 mg.kg-1. Correlation analysis using Pearson's test at Pr<0.05 probability showed a moderate correlation, positive and notable (r = 0.32 between the iron and zinc content for all sites where collections were made.

  11. The kinetics of zinc coating growth on hyper-sandelin steels and ductile cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed at an analysis of the formation and growth kinetics of zinc coating on reactive silicon-killed steels in a zinc bath. The growth kinetics of the produced zinc coatings was evaluated basing on the power-law growth equation. As regards galvanizing of the surface of products, investigation was done for various steel grades and ductile iron taking into account the quality and thickness of coating. It has been proved that the chemical constitution of basis significantly influences the kinetics of growth of the individual phases in a zinc coating. This relationship was evaluated basing on the, so called, silicon and phosphorus equivalent E = (Si+2.5P.103, and coating thickness dependences were obtained.

  12. The shaping of zinc coating on surface steels and ductile iron casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed at an analysis of the formation and growth kinetics of zinc coating on reactive silicon-killed steels in a zinc bath. The growth kinetics of the produced zinc coatings was evaluated basing on the power-law growth equation. As regards galvanizing of the surface of products, investigation was done for various steel grades and ductile iron (DI taking into account the quality and thickness of coating. It has been proved that the chemical constitution of basis significantly influences the kinetics of growth of the individual phases in a zinc coating. This relationship was evaluated basing on the, so called, silicon and phosphorus equivalent ESi,P and coating thickness dependences were obtained.

  13. A micronutrient powder with low doses of highly absorbable iron and zinc reduces iron and zinc deficiency and improves weight-for-age Z-scores in South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troesch, Barbara; van Stuijvenberg, Martha E; van Stujivenberg, Martha E; Smuts, Cornelius M; Kruger, H Salomè; Biebinger, Ralf; Hurrell, Richard F; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-02-01

    Micronutrient powders (MNP) are often added to complementary foods high in inhibitors of iron and zinc absorption. Most MNP therefore include high amounts of iron and zinc, but it is no longer recommended in malarial areas to use untargeted MNP that contain the Reference Nutrient Intake for iron in a single serving. The aim was to test the efficacy of a low-iron and -zinc (each 2.5 mg) MNP containing iron as NaFeEDTA, ascorbic acid (AA), and an exogenous phytase active at gut pH. In a double-blind controlled trial, South African school children with low iron status (n = 200) were randomized to receive either the MNP or the unfortified carrier added just before consumption to a high-phytate maize porridge 5 d/wk for 23 wk; primary outcomes were iron and zinc status and a secondary outcome was somatic growth. Compared with the control, the MNP increased serum ferritin (P < 0.05), body iron stores (P < 0.01) and weight-for-age Z-scores (P < 0.05) and decreased transferrin receptor (P < 0.05). The prevalence of iron deficiency fell by 30.6% (P < 0.01) and the prevalence of zinc deficiency decreased by 11.8% (P < 0.05). Absorption of iron from the MNP was estimated to be 7-8%. Inclusion of an exogenous phytase combined with NaFeEDTA and AA may allow a substantial reduction in the iron dose from existing MNP while still delivering adequate iron and zinc. In addition, the MNP is likely to enhance absorption of the high native iron content of complementary foods based on cereals and/or legumes.

  14. The requirement of zinc and calcium ions for functional MMP activity in demineralized dentin matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A; Hoshika, Tomohiro; Carrilho, Marcela; Breschi, Lorenzo; Tjäderhane, Leo; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Looney, Stephen; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H

    2010-11-01

    The progressive degradation of resin-dentin bonds is due, in part, to the slow degradation of collagen fibrils in the hybrid layer by endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) of the dentin matrix. In in vitro durability studies, the storage medium composition might be important because the optimum activity of MMPs requires both zinc and calcium. This study evaluated the effect of different storage media on changes in matrix stiffness, loss of dry weight or solubilization of collagen from demineralized dentin beams incubated in vitro for up to 60 days. Dentin beams (1mm×2mm×6mm) were completely demineralized in 10% phosphoric acid. After baseline measurements of dry mass and elastic modulus (E) (3-point bending, 15% strain) the beams were divided into 5 groups (n=11/group) and incubated at 37°C in either media containing both zinc and calcium designated as complete medium (CM), calcium-free medium, zinc-free medium, a doubled-zinc medium or water. Beams were retested at 3, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days of incubation. The incubation media was hydrolyzed with HCl for the quantitation of hydroxyproline (HOP) as an index of solubilization of collagen by MMPs. Data were analyzed using repeated measures of ANOVA. Both the storage medium and the storage time showed significant effects on E, mass loss and HOP release (p<0.05). The incubation in CM resulted in relatively rapid and significant (p<0.05) decreases in stiffness, and increasing amounts of mass loss. The HOP content of the experimental media also increased with incubation time but was significantly lower (p<0.05) than in the control CM medium, the recommended storage medium. The storage solutions used to age resin-dentin bonds should be buffered solutions that contain both calcium and zinc. The common use of water as an aging medium may underestimate the hydrolytic activity of endogenous dentin MMPs. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. zinc, chromium, cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... determined with an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, and the results showed significantly (P<0.05) lower concentrations of Zn ... toxic in moderate doses and is a potent antagonist of several essential minerals including calcium, iron, copper and zinc. (Lettow, 2004). ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  16. Design and validation of a program to identify inadequate intake of iron, zinc, and vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jati, Ignasius Radix A P; Widmer, Christian; Purwestri, Ratna Chrismiari; Wirawan, Nia Novita; Gola, Ute; Lambert, Christine; Biesalski, Hans Konrad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to create an innovative, easy-to-use, and informative web-based application system to calculate the iron, zinc, and vitamin A intake in comparison to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI). Food survey data on commonly consumed Indonesian foods (122 foods) were recorded from 68,800 households. The data were used to extract 13 relevant food groups representing typical Indonesian dietary patterns and were incorporated into the development of new software called the Calculator of Inadequate Micronutrient Intake (CIMI). To validate, 24-h dietary recall data of children (n = 118) and adult women (n = 124) from Indonesia were collected and analyzed using CIMI and Nutrisurvey (NS) and the results were analyzed. CIMI calculates the absolute intake of energy, macronutrients, retinol, ß-carotene, retinol equivalents, iron, and zinc. The percentages of RNI fulfillment with regard to age and sex are presented. The bioavailability levels of iron and zinc are considered. Validation showed that results of CIMI and NS were comparable with regard to the average intake and range of data distribution ratio. Due to bioavailability factors, more participants who had intake of iron (adult group) and zinc (both groups) below the cutoff were detected by CIMI. The range of correlation coefficient of NS and CIMI were from 0.889 (energy) to 0.713 (iron) in the children's group and from 0.919 (protein) to 0.686 (vitamin A) in the adult group. CIMI is a simple and rapid tool that calculates energy and nutrient intake, and also the percentage of nutrient fulfillment in comparison with the dietary recommendation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanocompounds of iron and zinc: their potential in nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hilty, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest nanostructured oxides and phosphates of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn may be useful for nutritional applications. These compounds may have several advantages over existing fortificants, such as ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)), NaFeEDTA and electrolytic iron. Because of their very

  18. Hydrothermal treatment and malting of barley improved zinc absorption but not calcium absorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredlund, K; Bergman, E-L; Rossander-Hulthén, L; Isaksson, M; Almgren, A; Sandberg, A-S

    2003-12-01

    To study whether hydrothermal treatment or malting of barley (cv. Blenheim) improves zinc and calcium absorption in humans. : Two groups of 10 and 12 healthy subjects, respectively, were in a period of 2 months in a fasting state, served two single meals each containing porridge or breakfast cereals prepared from processed or unprocessed (control) barley (60 g). The meals included 200 g of milk, extrinsically labelled with (65)Zn and (47)Ca. Whole-body retention of both minerals was measured. The study was carried out at the Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg. The subjects were recruited among students at the Göteborg University. None dropped out. The activities of (65)Zn and (47)Ca were measured by whole-body counting four to five times over a 4-week period after each meal. Zinc absorption from hydrothermally treated barley porridge, containing 28 mg P as inositol tri- to hexaphosphates (InsP(3)-InsP(6)), was significantly higher (P0.05), 21.1+/-6.8 vs 19.5+/-4.7% (n=12). Zinc absorption from breakfast cereals of malted barley with phytase activity and containing 70 mg P as InsP(3)-InsP(6,) was significantly higher (P0.05). Improvements of zinc absorption in breakfast meals can be achieved by optimised hydrothermal treatment or malting of barley. Calcium absorption was not influenced in the meals in this study. Supported by Semper AB, Sweden, Oy Lahden Polttimo, Finland, the SL-Foundation, Sweden, Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK), the Nordic Industrial Foundation, Swedish Council for Forestry and Agricultural Research (SJFR, project no 50.0306/97).

  19. Impact of selenium, iron, copper and zinc in on/off Parkinson's patients on L-dopa therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, G A; Qureshi, A A; Memon, S A; Parvez, S H

    2006-01-01

    We have quantitated CSF and serum levels of Selenium, iron, copper and zinc by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer in 36 patients with parkinson's disease all on L-dopa therapy. Out of these 19 showed on or positive response to L-dopa where as 21 patients showed on and off response. These data were compared with 21 healthy controls. The results showed that serum levels of iron, copper and zinc remained unchanged where as in CSF, significant decrease in zinc was found in both on and on/off PD patients indicating the deficiency of zinc which continues in the worsening clinical condition of off patients. The level of copper remained unchanged in both on and on/off PD patients. Iron and selenium increase in CSF of both patients which is a clear evidence of relationship between increased iron and selenium level in brain which could be correlated with decrease in dopamine levels and oxidative stress in PD Patients.

  20. Dietary intake of iron, zinc, copper, and risk of Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pengfei; Yu, Jia; Huang, Wen; Bai, Shunjie; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Qi, Zhigang; Shao, Weihua; Xie, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Although some studies have reported the associations between specific metal element intake and risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), the associations between specific metal element intake such as iron intake and PD are still conflicted. We aimed to determine whether intake of iron, zinc, and copper increases/decreases the risk of PD. PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar were searched. We pooled the multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios using random effects. Study quality was evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Five studies including 126,507 individuals remained for inclusion, pooled RRs of Parkinson's disease for moderate dietary iron intake was 1.08 (95 % CI 0.61-1.93, P = 0.787), and for high dietary iron intake was (1.03, 95 % CI 0.83-1.30, P = 0.766), respectively. The pooled RRs of Parkinson's disease for the highest compared with the lowest dietary iron intake were 1.47 (95 % CI 1.17-1.85, P = 0.001) in western population and in males (RR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.01-2.01, P = 0.041). The pooled RRs of Parkinson's disease for moderate or high intake of zinc, and copper were not statistically different (P > 0.05). PD increased by 18 % (RR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.02-1.37) for western population by every 10-mg/day increment in iron intake. Higher iron intake appears to be not associated with overall PD risk, but may be associated with risk of PD in western population. Sex may be a factor influencing PD risk for higher iron intake. However, further studies are still needed to confirm the sex-selective effects.

  1. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  2. Highly Stable Aqueous Zinc-ion Storage Using Layered Calcium Vanadium Oxide Bronze Cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2018-02-12

    Cost-effective aqueous rechargeable batteries are attractive alternatives to non-aqueous cells for stationary grid energy storage. Among different aqueous cells, zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs), based on Zn2+ intercalation chemistry, stand out as they can employ high-capacity Zn metal as anode material. Herein, we report a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze as cathode material for aqueous Zn batteries. For the storage of Zn2+ ions in aqueous electrolyte, we demonstrate that calcium based bronze structure can deliver a high capacity of 340 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C, good rate capability and very long cycling life (96% retention after 3000 cycles at 80 C). Further, we investigate the Zn2+ storage mechanism, and the corresponding electrochemical kinetics in this bronze cathode. Finally, we show that our Zn cell delivers an energy density of 267 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 53.4 W kg-1.

  3. Diffusion Coefficient in the Zinc Coating Shaped on the Surface of Cast Iron and Steel Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyciński D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the method to assess the diffusion coefficient D in the sub-layer of intermetallic phases formed during hot-dip galvanizing “Armco” iron and ductile cast iron EN-GJS-500-7. Hot-dip galvanizing is one of the most popular forms of long-term protection of Fe-C alloys against corrosion. The process for producing a protective layer of sufficient quality is closely related to diffusion of atoms of zinc and iron. The simulation consist in performed a hot-dip galvanizing in laboratory condition above Fe-C alloys, in the Department of Engineering of Cast Alloys and Composites. Galvanizing time ranged from 15 to 300 seconds. Then metallographic specimens were prepared, intermetallic layers were measured and diffusion coefficient (D were calculated. It was found that the diffusion coefficient obtained during hot-dip galvanizing “Armco” iron and zinc is about two orders of magnitude less than the coefficient obtained on ductile cast iron EN-GJS-500-7.

  4. Effect of Initial Iron Content in a Zinc Bath on the Dissolution Rate of Iron During a Hot Dip Galvanizing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Myung; Lee, Suk Kyu; Paik, Doo-Jin; Park, Joo Hyun

    2017-04-01

    The mechanism of iron dissolution and the effect of initial Fe content in a Zn bath on the dissolution rate of iron were investigated using a finger rotating method (FRM). When the initial iron content, [Fe]°, in the zinc bath was less than the solubility limit, the iron content in the zinc bath showed a rapid increase, whereas a moderate increase was observed when [Fe]° was close to the solubility limit. Based on Eisenberg's kinetic model, the mass transfer coefficient of iron in the present experimental condition was calculated to be k M = 1.2 × 10-5 m/s, which was similar to the results derived by Giorgi et al. under industrial practice conditions. A dissolution of iron occurred even when the initial iron content in the zinc bath was greater than the solubility limit, which was explained by the interfacial thermodynamics in conjunction with the morphology of the surface coating layer. By analyzing the diffraction patterns using TEM, the outermost dendritic-structured coating layer was confirmed as FeZn13 ( ζ). In order to satisfy the local equilibrium based on the Gibbs-Thomson equation, iron in the dendrite-structured phase spontaneously dissolved into the zinc bath, resulting in the enrichment of iron in front of the dendrite tip. Through the diffusion boundary layer in front of the dendritic-structured layer, dissolved Fe atoms diffused out and reacted with Zn and small amounts of Al, resulting in the formation of dross particles such as FeZn10Al x ( δ). It was experimentally confirmed that the smaller the difference between the initial iron content in the zinc bath and the iron solubility limit at a given temperature, the lower the number of formed dross particles.

  5. Survey of lead, cadmium, iron, copper and zinc in Kaşar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüzbaşi, N; Sezgin, E; Yildirim, M; Yildirim, Z

    2003-05-01

    Lead, cadmium, iron, copper and zinc contents of Kaşar cheese sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey, were determined over 12 months. A total of 240 samples comprising 10 different brands were analysed. Graphite-furnace atomic absorption was employed for the determination of lead and cadmium, and flame atomic absorption for iron, copper and zinc. The mean (range) of the lead, cadmium, iron, copper and zinc content of the samples were 86 (10-421) microg kg(-1), 1.8 (0.3-8.3) microg kg(-1), 4.2 (1.0-14.1) mg kg(-1), 0.7 (0.3-1.6) mg kg(-1) and 37.7 (26.5-63.0) mg kg(-1), respectively. The samples in November, December and January contained higher amounts of lead than those in other months (p cheese producers (p 0.05). These findings suggested that some contamination occurred during milk production and/or manufacturing of cheese depending on the equipment used. For a consumption of 100 g Kaşar cheese, one would ingest approximately 8.6 microg (4% of the provisional tolerable daily intake, PTDI) of lead, 0.2 microg (0.3%) of cadmium, 0.4 mg (0.9%) of iron, 0.07 mg (2%) of copper and 3.8 mg (6%) of zinc. Therefore, it was concluded that Kaşar cheese is not a significant contributor to the intake of investigated heavy metals.

  6. Zinc, copper, iron, and selenium levels in brain and liver of mice exposed to acrylonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongzhu, Lu; Suhua, Wang; Guangwei, Xing; Chunlan, Ren; Fangan, Han; Junjie, Jing; Aschner, Michael

    2009-07-01

    The mechanism of toxicity of acrylonitrile (AN) has not been fully defined. The research described herein was undertaken to investigate the possible effects of AN on the levels of metallic elements in liver and brain of mice. Thirty-two mice were randomly assigned to four separate groups and treated intraperitoneal (i.p.) once daily for 1 week. Mice in the control group received normal saline, and mice in the three exposure groups received 5, 10, or 20 mg AN/kg b.w. Samples of brain and liver were collected immediately after decapitation. Tissue levels of trace elements (zinc, copper, iron) were determined with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer or double channel atomic fluorescence absorption spectrophotometer (selenium). Mean brain weights of AN-treated mice were increased as a function of dose compared to controls, but there was no significant change in the ratio of liver/body weight in the four groups. While mean brain zinc decreased as a function of AN dosage, mean liver zinc of the low-dose group significantly increased (p 0.05). Mean brain iron levels were significantly decreased in the middle-dose AN group (p < 0.05), but there were no consistent changes in liver iron. Tissue levels of selenium in brain and liver were similar for the control and AN treatment groups. AN induces significant and differential changes in the levels of zinc, copper, and iron in brain and liver. These changes likely play a pivotal role in mediating AN toxicity, most likely via changes in cellular redox status.

  7. Assessing of plasma levels of iron, zinc and copper in Iranian Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsareh Meamar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trace elements have long been suspected to be involved in Parkinson's disease (PD pathogenesis, but their exact roles have been remained controversial. In this study, we assessed the levels of copper (Cu, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn in different stage of PD patients. Materials and Methods: Serum concentrations of iron, copper and zinc were measured in 109 patients with PD by colorimetric methods. Staging of the disease was evaluated according to Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y and Unified PD Rating Scale III (UPDRS. Results: Severity values of PD measured by UPRDSIII and HY stages with mean ± SD were 22.9 ± 1.81 and 1.8 ± 1.1, respectively. Mean ± SD values of iron, zinc and copper are 100.7 ± 289.2, 68.3 ± 5.32, and 196.8 ± 162.1 μg/dl, respectively. Serum iron level in most of the patients was normal (76.6%. Whereas zinc concentration in most participants was below the normal range (64.5% and serum Cu in the majority of patients had a high normal concentration (42.7% and did not significantly differ among various PD stages. Conclusion: The result of this study does not confirm strong correlation between PD stages and serum levels of tested trace elements. The actual correlations between these elements and PD and whether modulating of these agents levels could be an effective approach in the treatment of this disease remain to be elucidated.

  8. Zinc recovery from iron and steel making wastes by conventional and microwave assisted leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Vereš

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant quantities of sludge and dust are generated as a waste material or byproduct every day from iron and steel industries.Nowadays The occurrence and recovery of metallurgical wastes from steelmaking and iron making processes is a great problem, mainlydue to the big amount and environmental pollution of these wastes by heavy metals. The future technology of fine-grain metallurgicalwastes treatment is mainly the thing of ecological and financial limits. This work explains the removal of zinc from blast furnace sludgeby hydrometallurgical process. The aim of this work was to carry out a chemical, physical, structural, and morphologicalcharacterization of these waste materials and subsequently to find out the best suitable method for the hydrometallurgical treatment.The experimental work includes full plant experiments. Extraction conditions such as the effect of microwave power, leaching agent,acid concentration, S/L ratio and extraction time on the zinc removal efficiency were evaluated. The main goal is to set the bestconditions to transfer zinc into the solution while the iron should to remain in the solid phase.

  9. Subcellular compartmentalisation of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc in the Parkinson's disease brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoud, Sian; Roberts, Blaine R; Gunn, Adam P; Halliday, Glenda M; Lewis, Simon J G; Ball, Helen J; Hare, Dominic J; Double, Kay L

    2017-10-18

    Elevated iron and decreased copper levels are cardinal features of the degenerating substantia nigra pars compacta in the Parkinson's disease brain. Both of these redox-active metals, and fellow transition metals manganese and zinc, are found at high concentrations within the midbrain and participate in a range of unique biological reactions. We examined the total metal content and cellular compartmentalisation of manganese, iron, copper and zinc in the degenerating substantia nigra, disease-affected but non-degenerating fusiform gyrus, and unaffected occipital cortex in the post mortem Parkinson's disease brain compared with age-matched controls. An expected increase in iron and a decrease in copper concentration was isolated to the soluble cellular fraction, encompassing both interstitial and cytosolic metals and metal-binding proteins, rather than the membrane-associated or insoluble fractions. Manganese and zinc levels did not differ between experimental groups. Altered Fe and Cu levels were unrelated to Braak pathological staging in our cases of late-stage (Braak stage V and VI) disease. The data supports our hypothesis that regional alterations in Fe and Cu, and in proteins that utilise these metals, contribute to the regional selectively of neuronal vulnerability in this disorder.

  10. CALCIUM AND IRON INTAKE BY OLD PEOPLE LIVING IN GERIATRIC INSTITUTIONS IN FORTALEZA, CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarciana Nobre de Menezes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and iron intake by 152 old people living in geriatric institutions in Fortaleza, CE was analyzed. The methodology used consisted of weighing food first and then its remainder after meals in order to calculate food consumption. The results showed that 93% of the old people studied presented inadequate intake of calcium. Regarding iron, 72% of men and 41% of women presented intakes above the recommended levels. However, 12% of women presented iron intakes below the recommended levels. According to such results, it is concluded that this population is under a nutritional risk of osteoporosis (considering the large proportion of individuals with inadequate intake of calcium as well as ferroprivous anaemia, especially concerning women. Thus, interventions to prevent and correct such deficiencies are necessary. Key words: old people in geriatric institutions, food intake, food direct weighing.

  11. Occupational exposure to manganese, copper, lead, iron, mercury and zinc and the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorell, J M; Johnson, C C; Rybicki, B A; Peterson, E L; Kortsha, G X; Brown, G G; Richardson, R J

    1999-01-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in the Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) in metropolitan Detroit to assess occupational exposures to manganese, copper, lead, iron, mercury and zinc as risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). Non-demented men and women 50 years of age who were receiving primary medical care at HFHS were recruited, and concurrently enrolled cases (n = 144) and controls (n = 464) were frequency-matched for sex, race and age (+/- 5 years). A risk factor questionnaire, administered by trained interviewers, inquired about every job held by each subject for 6 months from age 18 onward, including a detailed assessment of actual job tasks, tools and environment. An experienced industrial hygienist, blinded to subjects' case-control status, used these data to rate every job as exposed or not exposed to one or more of the metals of interest. Adjusting for sex, race, age and smoking status, 20 years of occupational exposure to any metal was not associated with PD. However, more than 20 years exposure to manganese (Odds Ratio [OR] = 10.61, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.06, 105.83) or copper (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.06,5.89) was associated with PD. Occupational exposure for > 20 years to combinations of lead-copper (OR = 5.24, 95% CI = 1.59, 17.21), lead-iron (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.07,7.50), and iron-copper (OR = 3.69, 95% CI = 1.40,9.71) was also associated with the disease. No association of occupational exposure to iron, mercury or zinc with PD was found. A lack of statistical power precluded analyses of metal combinations for those with a low prevalence of exposure (i.e., manganese, mercury and zinc). Our findings suggest that chronic occupational exposure to manganese or copper, individually, or to dual combinations of lead, iron and copper, is associated with PD.

  12. Signaling domain of Sonic Hedgehog as cannibalistic calcium-regulated zinc-peptidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Rebollido-Rios

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sonic Hedgehog (Shh is a representative of the evolutionary closely related class of Hedgehog proteins that have essential signaling functions in animal development. The N-terminal domain (ShhN is also assigned to the group of LAS proteins (LAS = Lysostaphin type enzymes, D-Ala-D-Ala metalloproteases, Sonic Hedgehog, of which all members harbor a structurally well-defined Zn2+ center; however, it is remarkable that ShhN so far is the only LAS member without proven peptidase activity. Another unique feature of ShhN in the LAS group is a double-Ca2+ center close to the zinc. We have studied the effect of these calcium ions on ShhN structure, dynamics, and interactions. We find that the presence of calcium has a marked impact on ShhN properties, with the two calcium ions having different effects. The more strongly bound calcium ion significantly stabilizes the overall structure. Surprisingly, the binding of the second calcium ion switches the putative catalytic center from a state similar to LAS enzymes to a state that probably is catalytically inactive. We describe in detail the mechanics of the switch, including the effect on substrate co-ordinating residues and on the putative catalytic water molecule. The properties of the putative substrate binding site suggest that ShhN could degrade other ShhN molecules, e.g. by cleavage at highly conserved glycines in ShhN. To test experimentally the stability of ShhN against autodegradation, we compare two ShhN mutants in vitro: (1 a ShhN mutant unable to bind calcium but with putative catalytic center intact, and thus, according to our hypothesis, a constitutively active peptidase, and (2 a mutant carrying additionally mutation E177A, i.e., with the putative catalytically active residue knocked out. The in vitro results are consistent with ShhN being a cannibalistic zinc-peptidase. These experiments also reveal that the peptidase activity depends on pH.

  13. Photoresponse of p-type zinc-doped iron(III) oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingler, William B; Baltrus, John P; Khan, Shahed U M

    2004-08-25

    Stable zinc-doped iron(III) oxide thin films that exhibit p-type behavior were synthesized by spray pyrolytic deposition (SPD) on conducting indium-doped tin oxide-coated glass substrate. The highest photocurrent density of 1.1 mA/cm2 was observed at an illumination intensity of 40 mW/cm2 at -0.8 V vs Pt for zinc-doped p-Fe2O3 samples prepared at an optimum substrate temperature of 663 K using an optimum spray time of 70 s. A quantum efficiency of 21.1% at 325 nm was found for SPD samples prepared using a dopant concentration of 0.0088 M zinc nitrate hexahydrate. X-ray diffraction results showed structures of alpha-Fe2O3 and ZnFe2O4. A direct band gap energy of 2.2 eV was found from monochromatic photocurrent density data and agrees closely with the band gap obtained from UV-vis absorption. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results also confirm the presence of zinc dopant (4.0 atomic %) in thin films of zinc-doped p-Fe2O3.

  14. Combined in situ zymography, immunofluorescence, and staining of iron oxide particles in paraffin-embedded, zinc-fixed tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeckel, Akvile; Schoenzart, Lena; Appler, Franziska; Schnorr, Joerg; Taupitz, Matthias; Hamm, Bernd; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles are used as potent contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In histology, these particles are frequently visualized by Prussian blue iron staining of aldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Recently, zinc salt-based fixative was shown to preserve enzyme activity in paraffin-embedded tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that zinc fixation allows combining in situ zymography with fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) and iron staining for advanced biologic investigation of iron oxide particle accumulation. Very small iron oxide particles, developed for magnetic resonance angiography, were applied intravenously to BALB/c nude mice. After 3 hours, spleens were explanted and subjected to zinc fixation and paraffin embedding. Cut tissue sections were further processed to in situ zymography, IHC, and Prussian blue staining procedures. The combination of in situ zymography as well as IHC with subsequent Prussian blue iron staining on zinc-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues resulted in excellent histologic images of enzyme activity, protease distribution, and iron oxide particle accumulation. The combination of all three stains on a single section allowed direct comparison with only moderate degradation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled substrate. This protocol is useful for investigating the biologic environment of accumulating iron oxide particles, with excellent preservation of morphology.

  15. Combined in Situ Zymography, Immunofluorescence, and Staining of Iron Oxide Particles in Paraffin-Embedded, Zinc-Fixed Tissue Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyk Schellenberger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles are used as potent contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In histology, these particles are frequently visualized by Prussian blue iron staining of aldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Recently, zinc salt-based fixative was shown to preserve enzyme activity in paraffin-embedded tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that zinc fixation allows combining in situ zymography with fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC and iron staining for advanced biologic investigation of iron oxide particle accumulation. Very small iron oxide particles, developed for magnetic resonance angiography, were applied intravenously to BALB/c nude mice. After 3 hours, spleens were explanted and subjected to zinc fixation and paraffin embedding. Cut tissue sections were further processed to in situ zymography, IHC, and Prussian blue staining procedures. The combination of in situ zymography as well as IHC with subsequent Prussian blue iron staining on zinc-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues resulted in excellent histologic images of enzyme activity, protease distribution, and iron oxide particle accumulation. The combination of all three stains on a single section allowed direct comparison with only moderate degradation of fluorescein isothiocyanate–labeled substrate. This protocol is useful for investigating the biologic environment of accumulating iron oxide particles, with excellent preservation of morphology.

  16. Association of Increased Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations with Agro-morphological Traits of Biofortified Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tatiana Moreno-Moyano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofortification of rice (Oryza sativa L. with micronutrients is widely recognized as a sustainable strategy to alleviate human iron (Fe and zinc (Zn deficiencies in developing countries where rice is the staple food. Constitutive overexpression of the rice nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS genes has been successfully implemented to increase Fe and Zn concentrations in unpolished and polished rice grain. Intensive research is now needed to couple this high-micronutrient trait with high grain yields. We investigated associations of increased grain Fe and Zn concentrations with agro-morphological traits of backcross twice second filial (BC2F2 transgenic progeny carrying OsNAS1 or OsNAS2 overexpression constructs under indica/japonica and japonica/japonica genetic backgrounds. Thirteen agro-morphological traits were evaluated in BC2F2 transgenic progeny grown under hydroponic conditions. Concentrations of 8 mineral nutrients (Fe, Zn, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus in roots, stems/sheaths, non-flag leaves, flag leaves, panicles and grain were also determined. A distance-based linear model (DistLM was utilized to extract plant tissue nutrient predictors accounting for the largest variation in agro-morphological traits differing between transgenic and non-transgenic progeny. Overall, the BC2F2 transgenic progeny contained up to 148% higher Fe and 336% higher Zn concentrations in unpolished grain compared to non-transgenic progeny. However, unpolished grain concentrations surpassing 23 µg Fe g-1 and 40 µg Zn g-1 in BC2F2 indica/japonica progeny, and 36 µg Fe g-1 and 56 µg Zn g1 in BC2F2 japonica/japonica progeny, were associated with significant reductions in grain yield. DistLM analyses identified grain-Zn and panicle-magnesium as the primary nutrient predictors associated with grain yield reductions in the indica/japonica and japonica/japonica progeny, respectively. We subsequently produced polished grain from high

  17. [The relevance of the trace elements zinc and iron in the milk fever disease of cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, M; Bäuml, D; Fürll, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the concentrations of Zn and Fe as well as their relationships to metabolic parameters in milk fever cows. A total of 195 Simmental cows, downer cows and clinically healthy control animals were divided into five groups: a) control group (CG, n = 21), b) all cows with milk fever (MF) (n = 174), c) MF cows without additional diseases (n = 145), d) cows with MF and mastitis (n = 10) and e) cows with retained placenta or endometritis (n = 19). Selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (Pi), tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), haptoglobin (Hp), antioxidants (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidative Capacity: TEAC), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), bilirubin, urea, creatinine, glucose, cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were analysed in the blood serum. The concentrations of Zn, Fe, Ca, Pi and TEAC were lower in groups b) to e) whereas Hp was higher than in the CG (p ≤ 0.05). In group c), lower Ca and Pi concentrations were found when compared to groups d) and e) (p ≤ 0.05). In group e), Zn concentrations were significantly lower than in group c) (p ≤ 0.05). Zn was negatively correlated with K (CG) and positively correlated with TEAC, Cu, Mn and Fe (groups b and c) and with Mn (group e) (p ≤ 0.05). Fe was positively correlated with Ca (group c), Pi (group c), K (groups b and c) and Mg (groups b-d) as well as with Zn, Cu and Se (groups b and c) (p ≤ 0.05). In groups b) and c), TNFα was increased and negatively correlated with Fe (p ≤ 0.05). AP activity in groups b) and e) was lower than in the CG (p ≤ 0.05). These results and literature data support the hypothesis that Zn and Fe could be engaged in bone metabolism and be involved in the pathogenesis of MF. The concentrations of Hp and TEAC support this interpretation. Control of the Zn and Fe status of cows and Zn supplementation should be included in the

  18. Acceptability and solubility of iron and zinc contents of modified Moringa oleifera sauces consumed in the Far?north region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Mawouma, Saliou; Ponka, Roger; Mbofung, Carl Moses

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves is a local and inexpensive solution to iron and zinc deficiencies in the Far?north region of Cameroon. However, traditional household's cooking techniques result in sauces with high pH levels and low leaves incorporation rates that compromise the bioavailability of iron and zinc. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of modifying a standard Moringa sauce on consumer acceptability and the solubility of iron and zinc, which is an indi...

  19. Iron and zinc status in rats with diet-induced marginal deficiency of vitamin A and/or copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houwelingen, F; Van den Berg, G J; Lemmens, A G; Sijtsma, K W; Beynen, A C

    1993-07-01

    The hypothesis was tested that there are interactions of marginal copper and vitamin A deficiency regarding iron and zinc status. Copper restriction (1 vs 5 mg Cu/kg diet) significantly lowered copper concentrations in plasma and tissues of rats and reduced blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, and iron concentrations in tibia and femur, but raised iron concentrations in liver. Vitamin A restriction (0 vs 4000 IU vitamin A/kg diet) reduced plasma retinol concentrations and induced a fall of blood hemoglobin and hematocrit. Neither copper nor vitamin A restriction for up to 42 d affected feed intake and body wt gain. There were no interrelated effects of vitamin A and copper deficiency on iron status. Copper deficiency slightly depressed liver, spleen, and kidney zinc concentrations. Vitamin A deficiency lowered zinc concentrations in heart, but only when the diets were deficient in copper.

  20. Limited proteolysis of myoglobin opens channel in ferrochelatase-globin complex for iron to zinc transmetallation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, Marcella O; Grossi, Alberto B; Dores-Silva, Paulo R; Borges, Julio C; Cardoso, Daniel R; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-11-01

    Recombinant ferrochelatase (BsFECH) from Bacillus subtilis expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) was found by UV-visible spectroscopy to bind the model substrate tetraphenylporphyrin-sulfonate, TPPS, with Ka=3.8 10(5)mol/L in aqueous phosphate buffer pH 5.7 at 30°C, and to interact with metmyoglobin with Ka=1.07±0.13 10(5)mol/L at 30°C. The iron/zinc exchange in myoglobin occurring during maturation of Parma hams seems to depend on such substrate binding to BsFECH and was facilitated by limited pepsin proteolysis of myoglobin to open a reaction channel for metal exchange still with BsFECH associated to globin. BsFECH increased rate of zinc insertion in TPPS significantly and showed saturation kinetics with an apparent binding constant of Zn(II) to the [enzyme-TPPS] complex of 1.3 10(4)mol/L and a first-order rate constant of 6.6 10(-1)s(-1) for dissociation of the tertiary complex, a similar pattern was found for zinc/iron transmetallation in myoglobin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multimicronutrient Slow-Release Fertilizer of Zinc, Iron, Manganese, and Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siladitya Bandyopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process for the production of a slow-release micronutrient fertilizer is described. The compound contains zinc, iron, manganese, and copper as micronutrients and is produced by polymerizing a system containing phosphoric acid, zinc oxide, hematite, pyrolusite, copper sulfate, and magnesium oxide followed by neutralization of the polyphosphate chain with ammonium hydroxide. Changes in temperature, density, and viscosity of the reaction system during polymerization were studied. Reaction kinetics was studied at three different temperatures. Rate curves revealed a multistage process with essentially linear rates at each stage. Thus, each stage displayed zero order kinetics. The product was crystalline and revealed ordering of P-O-P chains. It had low solubility in water but high solubility in 0.33 M citric acid and 0.005 M DTPA. Three different field trials showed significant yield increments using the slow-release micronutrient fertilizer compared to the conventional micronutrients. Yield increments in rice were in the range of 10–55% over control (with no micronutrient and up to 17% over the conventional micronutrient fertilizers. There were significant increases in total uptake of zinc, iron, and manganese in the grain. Slow-release fertilizers also produced significant yield increases in potato as well as significant increase in vitamin C content of the tuber.

  2. Performance of iron filings and activated sludge as media for permeable reactive barriers to treat zinc contaminated groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayapat Hassapak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is one of the important contaminants in groundwater. Removal of zinc by iron filings, activated sludge and lateritic soil was studied with batch test. The lowest optimum pH for removal of zinc by iron filings, activated sludge and lateritic soil was 6. From isotherm studies iron filings and activated sludge were chosen as media for permeable reactive barrier (PRB. The PRB of 0.5-m thick was simulated in the unconfined aquifer with the distance of 21.5 m downgradient of the zinc contaminated site having constant concentration of 100 mg/l. The groundwater flow in the site was induced by the hydraulic gradient of 0.02. Simulation results indicated that the concentration of zinc of treated groundwater was less than 5 mg/l, which met Thai Groundwater Quality Standard for Drinking Purposes. The continuous PRBs using iron filings and activated sludge could treat zinc for 2,170 and 2,248 days, respectively

  3. Magnesium, Iron, Copper and Zinc in Vegetable Roots from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Zanoni Fernanda Zanoni Cônsolo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The inorganic components, especially magnesium, iron, copper and zinc contained in vegetable roots are of major importance, but seldom taken into account, either by general practitioners or by dietitians. The goal of this work is to report on magnesium, iron, copper and zinc in potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, yam and taro produced, and consumed in Campo Grande, the capital of Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. After previous determination of humidity, the vegetables were digested with a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2 in the microwave digestion system Speedwave®, Berghof, Germany. The levels of trace elements were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES, iCap 6000® - Thermo Scientific, USA. Most of the elements analyzed occur at levels within the range reported from international and Brazilian sources. However, iron in common potato, sweet potato and cassava was at the lowest level, while magnesium was very low in taro samples. The bioelements studied cannot pose any serious health risks and the edible tuberous roots widely consumed in Mato Grosso do Sul may represent an important source of essential micronutrients. The data show exclusively the population exposure to these minerals, no assumptions made as to their real absorption or bioavailability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i3.929

  4. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Huiying [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Kuanyu, E-mail: likuanyu@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Hang, Chun-Hua, E-mail: hang_neurosurgery@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • Iron accumulation was involved in the acute phase following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could attenuate cellular iron accumulation following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could decrease ROS generation and improve cell energy supply following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could alleviate apoptosis and brain injury following SAH. - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH + RR, and SAH + Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron–sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  5. Functionalization of Calcium Sulfate/Bioglass Scaffolds with Zinc Oxide Whisker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Cijun; Zhou, Jianhua; Gao, Dan; Gao, Chengde; Feng, Pei; Peng, Shuping

    2016-03-18

    There are urgent demands for satisfactory antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of bone scaffolds. In this study, zinc oxide whisker (ZnOw) was introduced into calcium sulfate/bioglass scaffolds. Antimicrobial behavior was analyzed using Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The results showed that the scaffolds presented a strong antibacterial activity after introducing ZnOw, due to the antibacterial factors released from the degradation of ZnO. Moreover, ZnOw was also found to have a distinct reinforcing effect on mechanical properties. This was ascribed to whisker pull-out, crack bridging, crack deflection, crack branching and other toughening mechanisms. In addition, the cell culture experiments showed that the scaffolds with ZnOw had a good biocompatibility.

  6. Functionalization of Calcium Sulfate/Bioglass Scaffolds with Zinc Oxide Whisker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cijun Shuai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are urgent demands for satisfactory antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of bone scaffolds. In this study, zinc oxide whisker (ZnOw was introduced into calcium sulfate/bioglass scaffolds. Antimicrobial behavior was analyzed using Escherichia coli (E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. The results showed that the scaffolds presented a strong antibacterial activity after introducing ZnOw, due to the antibacterial factors released from the degradation of ZnO. Moreover, ZnOw was also found to have a distinct reinforcing effect on mechanical properties. This was ascribed to whisker pull-out, crack bridging, crack deflection, crack branching and other toughening mechanisms. In addition, the cell culture experiments showed that the scaffolds with ZnOw had a good biocompatibility.

  7. Ostrich eggshell as calcium source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, J.R.M.; Louro, L.H.L.; Costa, A.M.; Silva, M.H. Prado da [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campos, J.B. de, E-mail: josericardo@r-crio.com, E-mail: louro@ime.eb.br, E-mail: andrea@r-crio.com, E-mail: brantjose@gmail.com, E-mail: marceloprado@ime.eb.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite and Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using ostrich eggshell as a calcium source. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the present phases, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative chemical analysis of the synthesized and heat treated powders. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used before and after heat treatments at 700, 900 and 1100 °C in order to identify the functional groups present, as an additional technique to the XRD analysis. The results presented in this study represent a promising method for synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc, since the results showed no undesirable phases or impurities in the produced powders. It was observed that Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite showed higher thermal stability, when compared to pure hydroxyapatite. (author)

  8. Effects of various anesthesia maintenance on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol maintenances on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde, and glutathion peroxidase measurements, and antioxidant capacity. METHODS: 60 patients scheduled for unilateral lower extremity surgery which would be performed with tourniquet under general anesthesia were divided into three groups. Blood samples were collected to determine the baseline serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase. Anesthesia was induced using 2-2.5 mg kg-1 propofol, 1 mg kg-1 lidocaine and 0.6 mg kg-1 rocuronium. In the maintenance of anesthesia, under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:N2O 4 L min-1, 1 MAC sevoflorane was administered to Group S and 1 MAC desflurane to Group D; and under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:air 4 L min-1 6 mg kg h-1 propofol and 1 µg kg h-1 fentanyl infusion were administered to Group P. At postoperative blood specimens were collected again. RESULTS: It was observed that only in Group S and P, levels of MDA decreased at postoperative 48th hour; levels of glutathion peroxidase increased in comparison to the baseline values. Selenium levels decreased in Group S and Group P, zinc levels decreased in Group P, and iron levels decreased in all three groups, and copper levels did not change in any groups in the postoperative period. CONCLUSION: According to the markers of malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase, it was concluded that maintenance of general anesthesia using propofol and sevoflurane activated the antioxidant system against oxidative stress and using desflurane had no effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant system.

  9. Calcium polyphosphate as an additive to zinc-silicate glass ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Esther Mae; Gagnier, David; Dickey, Brett Thomas; Boyd, Daniel; Filiaggi, Mark Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Aluminum-free glass ionomer cements (GICs) are under development for orthopedic applications, but are limited by their insufficient handling properties. Here, the addition of calcium polyphosphate (CPP) was investigated as an additive to an experimental zinc-silicate glass ionomer cement. A 50% maximum increase in working time was observed with CPP addition, though this was not clinically significant due to the short working times of the starting zinc-silicate GIC. Surprisingly, CPP also improved the mechanical properties, especially the tensile strength which increased by ∼33% after 30 days in TRIS buffer solution upon CPP addition up to 37.5 wt%. This strengthening may have been due to the formation of ionic crosslinks between the polyphosphate chains and polyacrylic acid. Thus, CPP is a potential additive to future GIC compositions as it has been shown to improve handling and mechanical properties. In addition, CPP may stimulate new bone growth and provide the ability for drug delivery, which are desirable modifications for an orthopedic cement. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can function properly. Full-term newborns that are underweight.. Most research suggests that taking zinc supplements during ... infant. However, adding zinc to nutritional supplementation for underweight, full-term infants in developing countries seems to ...

  11. MicroXRF tomographic visualization of zinc and iron in the zebrafish embryo at the onset of the hatching period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourassa, Daisy; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Vogt, Stefan; Shin, Chong Hyun; Fahrni, Christoph J.

    2016-01-01

    Transition metals such as zinc, copper, and iron play key roles in cellular proliferation, cell differentiation, growth, and development. Over the past decade, advances in synchrotron X-ray fluorescence instrumentation presented new opportunities for the three-dimensional mapping of trace metal distributions within intact specimens. Taking advantage of microXRF tomography, we visualized the 3D distribution of zinc and iron in a zebrafish embryo at the onset of the hatching period. The reconstructed volumetric data revealed distinct differences in the elemental distributions, with zinc predominantly localized to the yolk and yolk extension, and iron to various regions of the brain as well as the myotome extending along the dorsal side of the embryo. The data set complements an earlier tomographic study of an embryo at the pharyngula stage (24 hpf), thus offering new insights into the trace metal distribution at key stages of embryonic development.

  12. Synthesis of multifunctional nanostructured zinc-iron mixed oxide photocatalyst by a simple solution-combustion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Gajendra Kumar; Martha, Satyabadi; Parida, K M

    2012-02-01

    A series of nanostructure zinc-iron mixed oxide photocatalysts have been fabricated by solution-combustion method using urea as the fuel, and nitrate salts of both iron and zinc as the metal source. Different characterization tools, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectra (DRUV-vis), electron microscopy, and photoelectrochemical measurement were employed to establish the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the material. Electron microscopy confirmed the nanostructure of the photocatalyst. The synthesized photocatalysts were examined towards photodegradation of 4-chloro-2-nitro phenol (CNP), rhodamine 6G (R6G), and photocatalytic hydrogen production under visible light (λ ≥ 400 nm). The photocatalyst having zinc to iron ratio of 50:50 showed best photocatalytic activity among all the synthesized photocatalysts.

  13. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Kyung; Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon; Kim, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth.

  14. Effects of Zinc Sulfate Supplementation in Treatment of Iron Defi ciency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Gülşan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to compare the effect(s of zinc sulphate on growth and serum iron variables when it is given with ferrous sulphate in iron deficiency anemia (IDA. METHODS: Patients (n=79 were randomly divided into two groups. In one group (n=40 4 mg/kg/d ferrous sulfate was given orally. In the other group (n=39, in addition to ferrous sulfate, 5 mg/d oral zinc sulfate was given. RESULTS: Compared to the initial values statistically significant increase in mean height, weight, and head circumference has been observed in both groups after 3 months. However, there was no statistical difference between two groups concerning mean height, weight, and head circumference at the beginning (83.43±11.3 cm vs 84.62±12.77 cm; 12.36±3.08 kg vs 12.72±3.87 kg; 47.33±2.15 cm vs 47.26±2.73 cm, respectively, at the first month, (84.82±10.97 vs 85.97±12.28; 12.78±3.09 vs 13.09±3.87; 47.76±2.10 vs 47.61±2.67, respectively, and at the third month, (86.4±11.12 vs 87.69±12.13; 12.9±3.06 vs 13.35±3.81; 48.22±1.89 vs 48.07±2.45, respectively. There were no statistical differences between mean hematological parameters of the groups at the beginning, at the first month, and at the third month, either (mean hb of Group 1: 8.78±1.12 g/dL; 11.27±1.09 g/ dL; 12.05±1.00 g/dL respectively and of Group 2: 9.10±1.07 g/dL; 11.12±0.85 g/dL; 11.80±0.79 g/dL, respectively. Mean ferritin and zinc values of the groups were statistically insignificant at the beginning (Mean ferritin: 4.96±4.03 μg/dL vs 4.52±2.94 μg/dL, zinc: 88.64±15.35 ng/mL vs 86.84±17.34 ng/mL. Their increase was statistically significant at the third month (mean ferritin: 15.91±9.57 μg/dL vs 15.25±10.47 μg/dL; zinc: 88.02±15.10 ng/mL vs 95.25±16.55 ng/mL. CONCLUSION: In our study neither positive nor negative effect of zinc administration on IDA treatment was demonstrated. Therefore, in the treatment of IDA zinc together with iron should be used at different

  15. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  16. Age-associated changes of brain copper, iron, and zinc in Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stewart F; Nasaruddin, Muhammad Bin; Carey, Manus; Holscher, Christian; McGuinness, Bernadette; Kehoe, Patrick G; Love, Seth; Passmore, Peter; Elliott, Christopher T; Meharg, Andrew A; Green, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    Disease-, age-, and gender-associated changes in brain copper, iron, and zinc were assessed in postmortem neocortical tissue (Brodmann area 7) from patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 14), severe AD (n = 28), dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 15), and normal age-matched control subjects (n = 26). Copper was lower (20%; p copper and iron, suggesting gradual age-associated decline of these metals in healthy non-cognitively impaired individuals. Zinc was unaffected in any disease pathologies and no age-associated changes were apparent. Age-associated changes in brain elements warrant further investigation.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as calcium-responsive MRI contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Pengfei [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nonferrous Metals and Specific Materials Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Jian Gan Road 12, Guilin 541004 (China); Shen, Zhiwei [Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Dong Xia North Road, Shantou 515041,China (China); Zhang, Baolin, E-mail: baolinzhang@ymail.com [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nonferrous Metals and Specific Materials Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Jian Gan Road 12, Guilin 541004 (China); Wang, Jun [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nonferrous Metals and Specific Materials Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Jian Gan Road 12, Guilin 541004 (China); Wu, Renhua, E-mail: rhwu@stu.edu.cn [Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Dong Xia North Road, Shantou 515041,China (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • SPIONs were conjugated with EGTA by EDC/sulfo-NHS method. • The presence of Ca{sup 2+} induced the aggregation of EGTA-SPIONs. • The aggregation of EGTA-SPIONs increased the T2 relaxation time. • EGTA-SPIONs can be used for the calcium imaging with MRI. - Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as T2 contrast agents have great potential to sense calcium ion (Ca{sup 2+}) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we prepared calcium-responsive SPIONs for MRI, formed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polyethylenimine (PEI) coated iron oxide nanoparticle (PEI/PEG-SPIONs) contrast agents with the straightforward calcium-sensing compound EGTA (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid). EGTA was conjugated onto PEI/PEG-SPIONs using EDC/sulfo-NHS method. EGTA-SPIONs were characterized using TEM, XPS, DSL, TGA and SQUIID. DSL results show that the SPIONs aggregate in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. MRI analyses indicate that the water proton T2 relaxation rates in HEPES suspensions of the EGTA-SPIONs significantly increase with the calcium concentration because the SPIONs aggregate in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. The T2 values decreased 25% when Ca{sup 2+} concentration decreased from 1.2 to 0.8 mM. The aggregation of EGTA-SPIONs could be reversed by EDTA. EGTA-SPIONs have potential as smart contrast agents for Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive MRI.

  18. Genomic prediction for grain zinc and iron concentrations in spring wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velu, Govindan; Crossa, Jose; Singh, Ravi P; Hao, Yuanfeng; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Perez-Rodriguez, Paulino; Joshi, Arun K; Chatrath, Ravish; Gupta, Vikas; Balasubramaniam, Arun; Tiwari, Chhavi; Mishra, Vinod K; Sohu, Virinder Singh; Mavi, Gurvinder Singh

    2016-08-01

    Predictability estimated through cross-validation approach showed moderate to high level; hence, genomic selection approach holds great potential for biofortification breeding to enhance grain zinc and iron concentrations in wheat. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major staple crop, providing 20 % of dietary energy and protein consumption worldwide. It is an important source of mineral micronutrients such as zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) for resource poor consumers. Genomic selection (GS) approaches have great potential to accelerate development of Fe- and Zn-enriched wheat. Here, we present the results of large-scale genomic and phenotypic data from the HarvestPlus Association Mapping (HPAM) panel consisting of 330 diverse wheat lines to perform genomic predictions for grain Zn (GZnC) and Fe (GFeC) concentrations, thousand-kernel weight (TKW) and days to maturity (DTM) in wheat. The HPAM lines were phenotyped in three different locations in India and Mexico in two successive crop seasons (2011-12 and 2012-13) for GZnC, GFeC, TKW and DTM. The genomic prediction models revealed that the estimated prediction abilities ranged from 0.331 to 0.694 for Zn and from 0.324 to 0.734 for Fe according to different environments, whereas prediction abilities for TKW and DTM were as high as 0.76 and 0.64, respectively, suggesting that GS holds great potential in biofortification breeding to enhance grain Zn and Fe concentrations in bread wheat germplasm.

  19. Calcium intercalation into layered fluorinated sodium iron phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Albert L.; Kim, Soojeong; Pan, Baofei; Liao, Chen; Fister, Timothy T.; Ingram, Brian J.

    2017-11-01

    The energy density and cost of battery systems, relative to the current state-of-the art, can be improved by developing alternative chemistries utilizing multivalent working ions such as calcium. Many challenges must be overcome, such as the identification of cathode materials with high energy density and an electrolyte with a wide electrochemical stability window that can plate and strip calcium metal, before market implementation. Herein, the feasibility and cycling performance of Ca2+ intercalation into a desodiated layered Na2FePO4F host is described. This is the first demonstration of Ca2+ intercalation into a polyanionic framework, which implies that other polyanionic framework materials may be active for Ca2+ intercalation. Although substantial effort is expected in order to develop a high energy density cathode material, this study demonstrates the feasibility of Ca2+ intercalation into multiple host structures types, thereby extending opportunities for development of Ca insertion host structures, suggesting such a cathode material can be identified and developed.

  20. Clean hydrometallurgical route to recover zinc, silver, lead, copper, cadmium and iron from hazardous jarosite residues produced during zinc hydrometallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Shaohua; Zhang, Yifei; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Peiyi; Wang, Yihui

    2011-08-30

    A hydrometallurgical process for treating the hazardous jarosite residue from zinc hydrometallurgy was proposed, for not only detoxifying the residue, but also recovering the contained valuable metal components. The jarosite was initially activated and decomposed by sintering at 650°C for 1h. The sintered residue was leached in 6mol L(-1) aqueous NH(4)Cl solution at 105°C, followed by filtration. The leaching extraction of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ag are more than 95%. During reduction with Zn powder, more than 93% of Pb, Cu, Ag and Cd can be simultaneously recovered. Then the NH(4)Cl leaching residue were leached again in 30wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 1h at 160°C, and about 94% of As and 73% of Si were removed from the residue. The final residue was almost completely detoxified, and contains about 55wt% Fe, which can be used as an iron concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Iron and Vitamin C Co-Supplementation Increased Serum Vitamin C Without Adverse Effect on Zinc Level in Iron Deficient Female Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khoshfetrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron supplementation can decrease the absorption of zinc and influence other antioxidants levels such as vitamin C. This study aimed to investigate the effect of iron supplements alone and in combination with vitamin C on zinc and vitamin C status in iron deficient female students. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trail, 60 iron deficient students were selected from 289 volunteers residing in dormitory. After matching, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Group I (50 mg elemental iron supplements and Group II (50 mg elemental iron + 500 mg ascorbic acid. Serum ferritin, iron, serum zinc, and plasma vitamin C concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, spectrophotometer, atomic absorption spectrometer, and colorimeter, respectively after 6 and 12 weeks supplementation. Student′s t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data using SPSS software. Results: Serum zinc levels had no significant differences between 2 groups at the baseline; however, its concentration decreased from 80.9 ± 4.2-68.9 ± 2.7 μg/dl to 81.2 ± 4.5-66.1 ± 2.9 μg/dl (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively after 6 weeks of supplementation. Continuous supplementation increased serum zinc concentration to baseline levels (79.0 ± 2.9 μg/dl; P < 0.01 in Group I and 70.5 ± 3.1 μg/dl in Group II following 12 weeks of supplementation. Plasma vitamin C increased from 3 ± 0/1-3.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl to 2.7 ± 0. 1-4.2 ± 0.2 mg/dl (P < 0.01 in Groups I and II, respectively. At the end of study, plasma vitamin C significantly increased from 3.3 ± 0.3-4.7 ± 0.3 (P < 0.01 to 4.2 ± 0.2-7.1 ± 0.2 (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Iron supplementation with and without vitamin C led to reduction in serum Zn in iron-deficient female students after 6 weeks. However, the decreasing trend stops after repletion of iron stores and Zn levels returned to the

  2. Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in preemies with a corrected age of six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de Freitas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze adherence to the recommended iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 58 preemies born in 2014 until they reached six months corrected age. The preemies were followed at a referral secondary health service and represented 63.7% of the preterm infants born that year. Outcomes of interest included high or low adherence to iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines; prevalence of anemia; and prevalences of iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence ratios were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (65.5% preemies presented high adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines. At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc deficiency were higher in the low-adherence group but also concerning in the high-adherence group. Preemies with low adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines were 2.5 times more likely to develop anemia and 3.1 times more likely to develop zinc deficiency. Low maternal education level increased the likelihood of nonadherence to all three supplements by 2.2 times. CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron, zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age.

  3. Experimental observation of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP)-induced iron sulphide formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltanahmadi, Siavash, E-mail: s.soltanahmadi@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Morina, Ardian [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Eijk, Marcel C.P. van; Nedelcu, Ileana [SKF Engineering and Research Centre, 3430 DT Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Neville, Anne [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-31

    Graphical abstract: Chemical analysis of ZDDP-induced tribofilm under severe boundary lubricated regime in nano and micro-meter scales.▪ - Highlights: • A ZDDP-derived locally formed iron-sulphide layer is detected on the steel surface. • The iron-sulphide is a 5–10 nm thin distinct layer at steel-phosphate interface. • Near the surface-crack site the elemental distribution of the tribofilm is altered. • Sulphur concentration is enhanced in the iron-sulphide layer near the cracked-site. • ZDDP elements are detected inside the crack with a greater contribution of sulphur. - Abstract: Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) as a well-known anti-wear additive enhances the performance of the lubricant beyond its wear-protection action, through its anti-oxidant and Extreme Pressure (EP) functionality. In spite of over thirty years of research attempting to reveal the mechanism of action of ZDDP, there are still some uncertainties around the exact mechanisms of its action. This is especially the case with the role of sulphide layer formed in the tribofilm and its impact on surface fatigue. Although iron sulphide on the substrate is hypothesised in literature to form as a separate layer, there has been no concrete experimental observation on the distribution of the iron sulphide as a dispersed precipitate, distinct layer at the steel substrate or both. It remains to be clarified whether the iron sulphide layer homogeneously covers the surface or locally forms at the surface. In the current study a cross section of the specimen after experiment was prepared and has been investigated with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) elemental analysis. A 5–10 nm iron sulphide layer is visualised on the interface as a separate layer underneath the phosphate layer with an altered distribution of tribofilm elements near the crack site. The iron sulphide interface layer is more visible near the crack site where the concentration of the

  4. Experimental observation of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP)-induced iron sulphide formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanahmadi, Siavash; Morina, Ardian; van Eijk, Marcel C. P.; Nedelcu, Ileana; Neville, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) as a well-known anti-wear additive enhances the performance of the lubricant beyond its wear-protection action, through its anti-oxidant and Extreme Pressure (EP) functionality. In spite of over thirty years of research attempting to reveal the mechanism of action of ZDDP, there are still some uncertainties around the exact mechanisms of its action. This is especially the case with the role of sulphide layer formed in the tribofilm and its impact on surface fatigue. Although iron sulphide on the substrate is hypothesised in literature to form as a separate layer, there has been no concrete experimental observation on the distribution of the iron sulphide as a dispersed precipitate, distinct layer at the steel substrate or both. It remains to be clarified whether the iron sulphide layer homogeneously covers the surface or locally forms at the surface. In the current study a cross section of the specimen after experiment was prepared and has been investigated with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) elemental analysis. A 5-10 nm iron sulphide layer is visualised on the interface as a separate layer underneath the phosphate layer with an altered distribution of tribofilm elements near the crack site. The iron sulphide interface layer is more visible near the crack site where the concentration of the sulphur is enhanced. Also, ZDDP elements were clearly detected inside the crack with a varied relative concentration from the crack-mouth to the crack-tip. Sulphur is present inside the crack to a higher extent than in the bulk of the tribofilm.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as calcium-responsive MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengfei; Shen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Baolin; Wang, Jun; Wu, Renhua

    2016-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as T2 contrast agents have great potential to sense calcium ion (Ca2+) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we prepared calcium-responsive SPIONs for MRI, formed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polyethylenimine (PEI) coated iron oxide nanoparticle (PEI/PEG-SPIONs) contrast agents with the straightforward calcium-sensing compound EGTA (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid). EGTA was conjugated onto PEI/PEG-SPIONs using EDC/sulfo-NHS method. EGTA-SPIONs were characterized using TEM, XPS, DSL, TGA and SQUIID. DSL results show that the SPIONs aggregate in the presence of Ca2+. MRI analyses indicate that the water proton T2 relaxation rates in HEPES suspensions of the EGTA-SPIONs significantly increase with the calcium concentration because the SPIONs aggregate in the presence of Ca2+. The T2 values decreased 25% when Ca2+ concentration decreased from 1.2 to 0.8 mM. The aggregation of EGTA-SPIONs could be reversed by EDTA. EGTA-SPIONs have potential as smart contrast agents for Ca2+-sensitive MRI.

  6. Solid-phase extraction of copper, iron and zinc ions on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis loaded on Dowex optipore V-493

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Melek, Esra [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: msoylak@gmail.com

    2008-11-30

    Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis loaded on Dowex optipore V-493 as new adsorbent for the separation-preconcentration of heavy metal ions has been proposed. The analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of copper(II), iron(III) and zinc(II) including pH, amounts of adsorbent, sample volume, etc. were investigated. The influences of alkaline and earth alkaline ions were also reported. The recovery values for the analytes are generally higher than 95%. The preconcentration factor was 37. The limit of detections of the analyte ions (k = 3, N = 21) were 1.14 {mu}g L{sup -1} for copper, 2.01 {mu}g L{sup -1} for iron and 0.14 {mu}g L{sup -1} for zinc. The relative standard deviations of the determinations were found to be lower than 9%. The procedure was validated by analyzing copper, iron and zinc contents in two certified reference materials, NRCC-SLRS-4 Riverine water and NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves. Agreements between the obtained results and the certified values were achieved. The developed preconcentration method was applied in the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper, iron and zinc in several samples including a multivitamin-multimineral tablet, dialysis solutions, natural waters and some food samples.

  7. Iron, zinc and phytic acid in rice from China: wet and dry processing towards improved mineral bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, J.

    2007-01-01

    Rice and rice products supply two thirds of Chinese people with their staple food. Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron and zinc, are prevalent in China, and are caused by insufficient intake and poor bioavailability. Rice and rice products contribute more than 50% of the antinutrient  phytic

  8. Impact of sorghum processing on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in thick porridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study focussed on the impact of process variables on levels of phytate and phenolic compounds, and in vitro solubility of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in sorghum porridges, a major staple in semi-arid tropics. The aim was to identify practices that enhance the mineral availability in this type of

  9. Vegetable relishes, high in β-carotene, increase the iron, zinc and β-carotene nutritive values from cereal porridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Johanita; Breynaert, Annelies; Pieters, Luc; Hermans, Nina

    2017-08-04

    Iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies are serious public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, which can be alleviated by dietary diversification. The effects of adding cowpea leaf (CL) and orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) relishes to sorghum and maize porridges on iron, zinc and β-carotene contents and bioaccessibilities were determined. Despite the high iron content of the CL relish (14.59 mg/100 g), the vegetable relishes had little effect on the iron bioaccessibility from the cereal porridges. Importantly, the addition of the CL relish increased the percentage and amount of bioaccessible zinc 2- and 3-fold, respectively. Addition of CL and OFSP relishes resulted in β-carotene contents of 10-13 mg/100 g. The β-carotene from the OFSP relish meals was double as bioaccessible than that from the CL relish meals. Addition of the vegetable relishes has real potential to improve especially the vitamin A and zinc nutritive value of cereal diets.

  10. Expression profiling reveals functionally redundant multiple-copy genes related to zinc, iron and cadmium responses in Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Liu, B.; Cheng, F.; Wang, X.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Wu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Genes underlying environmental adaptability tend to be over-retained in polyploid plant species. Zinc deficiency (ZnD) and iron deficiency (FeD), excess Zn (ZnE) and cadmium exposure (CdE) are major environmental problems for crop cultivation, but little is known about the differential expression of

  11. Effect of phytic acid, tannic acid and pectin on fasting iron bioavailability both in the presence and absence of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Ángela; Briones, Lautaro; Andrews, Mónica; Arredondo, Miguel; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Pizarro, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    To determine the effect of phytic acid, tannic acid and pectin on fasting non-heme iron bioavailability in both the presence and absence of calcium. Twenty-eight apparently healthy adult females participated in two iron absorption studies using radioactive iron isotopes ((59)Fe and (55)Fe). One group received 5mg of iron (as FeSO4) alone (control), together with 10mg of phytic acid, 100mg of tannic acid and 250mg of pectin (study A), on different days. The second group received the same iron doses and compounds as the other group, plus 800mg of calcium (CaCl2) (study B). The compounds were administered after an overnight fast, and no food or beverages were consumed for the following 3h. Iron status and circulating radioactivity were measured in venous blood samples. The geometric means of iron bioavailability (range±1SD) for iron alone, iron with phytic acid, iron with tannic acid, and iron with citrus pectin were 25.0% (11.9-52.0); 18.9% (9.9-35.8); 16.8% (8.7-32.3); and 21.1% (10.2-43.9), respectively (repeated-measures ANOVA, pfasting bioavailability of non-heme iron, however this effect did not exist in the presence of calcium. No effect was observed by phytic acid or citrus pectin on fasting non-heme iron bioavailability in both the presence and absence of calcium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrient Composition and Phytate-Zinc Molar Ratio of Prepared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High calcium foods include kulikuli (871.08mg/100g), akara (296.13mg/100g) and fufu a wet cassava meal (255.31mg/100g). kulikuli was also high in iron and zinc ... Phytate-zinc molar ratios of the prepared dishes were <10 indicating that the bioavailability of zinc consumed in these rural dishes is not likely to be impaired.

  13. A micronutrient-fortified food enhances iron and selenium status of Zambian infants but has limited efficacy on zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Kafwembe, Emmanuel; Mwanza, Sydney; Gosset, Laura; Bailey, Karl B; Mullen, Anne; Baisley, Kathy; Filteau, Suzanne

    2011-05-01

    Micronutrient-fortified, cereal-based infant foods are recommended for reducing multiple micronutrient deficiencies in low-income countries, but their nutritional quality is not always optimal. In a double-blind randomized trial, we compared the efficacy of a locally produced porridge based on maize, beans, bambaranuts, and groundnuts fortified with 19 (rich) or 9 (basal) micronutrients. Infants aged 6 mo from Lusaka, Zambia were randomized to receive the richly fortified (n = 373) or basal (n = 370) porridge daily for 12 mo along with routine vitamin A supplements. Baseline and final micronutrient status and inflammation (based on α-1-glycoprotein) were assessed using nonfasting blood samples. Baseline prevalence of anemia (39%) and zinc deficiency (51%) were a public health concern. There were overall treatment effects on hemoglobin (Hb) (P = 0.001), serum transferrin receptor (P selenium (P = 0.009); biomarker responses for iron and zinc were modified by baseline concentrations, and for Hb and iron by socioeconomic status. At 18 mo, the adjusted odds of anemia, iron deficiency anemia (Hb 11.0 mg/L), and iron deficiency were 0.37 (95% CI = 0.25, 0.55), 0.18 (0.09, 0.35), and 0.30 (0.18, 0.50) times those in the basal group, respectively. The rich level of fortification had no overall treatment effect on serum zinc (1.09; 0.66, 1.80) but improved serum zinc in children with lower Hb concentrations at baseline (P = 0.024). A locally produced cereal- and legume-based infant food richly fortified with micronutrients reduced anemia and improved iron and selenium status but may require reformulation to improve the biochemical zinc status of urban Zambian infants.

  14. Interactions of iron with manganese, zinc, chromium, and selenium as related to prophylaxis and treatment of iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørklund, Geir; Aaseth, Jan; Skalny, Anatoly V; Suliburska, Joanna; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-05-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is considered as the most common nutritional deficiency. Iron deficiency is usually associated with low Fe intake, blood loss, diseases, poor absorption, gastrointestinal parasites, or increased physiological demands as in pregnancy. Nutritional Fe deficiency is usually treated with Fe tablets, sometimes with Fe-containing multimineral tablets. Trace element interactions may have a significant impact on Fe status. Existing data demonstrate a tight interaction between manganese (Mn) and Fe, especially in Fe-deficient state. The influence of Mn on Fe homeostasis may be mediated through its influence on Fe absorption, circulating transporters like transferrin, and regulatory proteins. The existing data demonstrate that the influence of zinc (Zn) on Fe status may be related to their competition for metal transporters. Moreover, Zn may be involved in regulation of hepcidin production. At the same time, human data on the interplay between Fe and Zn especially in terms of Fe-deficiency and supplementation are contradictory, demonstrating both positive and negative influence of Zn on Fe status. Numerous data also demonstrate the possibility of competition between Fe and chromium (Cr) for transferrin binding. At the same time, human data on the interaction between these metals are contradictory. Therefore, while managing hypoferremia and Fe-deficiency anemia, it is recommended to assess the level of other trace elements in parallel with indices of Fe homeostasis. It is supposed that simultaneous correction of trace element status in Fe deficiency may help to decrease possible antagonistic or increase synergistic interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of magnesium, chromium, iron and zinc from food supplements on selected aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnir, Jasna; Puntarić, Dinko; Cvetković, Zelimira; Pollak, Lea; Barusić, Lidija; Klarić, Ivana; Miskulin, Maja; Puntarić, Ida; Puntarić, Eda; Milosević, Milan

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of uncontrolled environmental disposal of food supplements containing magnesium (Mg), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) on selected aquatic organisms including freshwater algae Scenedesmus subspicatus and Raphidocelis subcapitata, water flea Daphnia magna and duckweed Lemna minor. Thirty different food supplements containing Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn were analyzed. Results were expressed as effective concentration 50 (EC50), i.e. growth inhibiting Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn (mg/L) concentration immobilizing 50% of treated organisms. Particular metal EC50 differed significantly (p food supplements containing Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn exerts adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Therefore, legal provisions should regulate both the utilization and disposal of food supplements into the environment.

  16. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap. is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods: Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results: When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions: Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  17. SOY YOGURT FORTIFIED WITH IRON AND CALCIUM: STABILITY DURING THE STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA CARDOSO UMBELINO CAVALLINI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to prepare a soy yogurt, fortifi ed with microencapsulated FeSO4.7H2O (12mg of iron/l and calcium citrate (600mg of calcium/l, and evaluate the stability of the fi nal product during the storage at 10°C. The soy yogurt without addition of iron and calcium was used as control. Analysis of these samples was done once a week, during 28 days, for: pH, titratable acidity, rheological properties (viscosity and consistency, sensory characteristics (acceptance test and enumeration of viable cells (L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. The pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, consistency and acceptance test data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey’s test. During the storage was observed a decrease in the pH and increase in the titratable acidity, due to the lactic cultures to be continue viable (107CFU/g in the product. The fortifi ed yogurt exhibited lower viscosity, but this parameter did not change signifi cantly (p0,05 during the storage time. The acceptance test results showed that the control and fortifi ed samples did not exhibit signifi cant differences (p0,05, during the studied period, in relation to the all sensory attributes evaluated. In conclusion, the present work enabled the development of a iron and calcium fortifi ed soy yogurt, stable during 28 days at 10°C, that could be used in the prevention and control of mineral defi ciencies in general population.

  18. Aluminum, copper, iron and zinc differentially alter amyloid-Aβ(1-42) aggregation and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognin, Silvia; Messori, Luigi; Drago, Denise; Gabbiani, Chiara; Cendron, Laura; Zatta, Paolo

    2011-06-01

    Amyloid-β(1-42) (Aβ) is believed to play a crucial role in the ethiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In particular, its interactions with biologically relevant metal ions may lead to the formation of highly neurotoxic complexes. Here we describe the species that are formed upon reacting Aβ with several biometals, namely copper, zinc, iron, and with non-physiological aluminum to assess whether different metal ions are able to differently drive Aβ aggregation. The nature of the resulting Aβ-metal complexes and of the respective aggregates was ascertained through a number of biophysical techniques, including electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy and by the use of conformation-sensitive antibodies (OC, αAPF). Metal binding to Aβ is shown to confer highly different chemical properties to the resulting complexes; accordingly, their overall aggregation behaviour was deeply modified. Both aluminum(III) and iron(III) ions were found to induce peculiar aggregation properties, ultimately leading to the formation of annular protofibrils and of fibrillar oligomers. Notably, only Aβ-aluminum was characterized by the presence of a relevant percentage of aggregates with a mean radius slightly smaller than 30 nm. In contrast, both zinc(II) and copper(II) ions completely prevented the formation of soluble fibrillary aggregates. The biological effects of the various Aβ-metal complexes were studied in neuroblastoma cell cultures: Aβ-aluminum turned out to be the only species capable of triggering amyloid precursor and tau181 protein overproduction. Our results point out that Al can effectively interact with Aβ, forming "structured" aggregates with peculiar biophysical properties which are associated with a high neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in calcium and iron levels in the brains of rats during kainate induced epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, M.-Q.; Ong, W.-Y.; Makjanic, Jagoda; Watt, Frank E-mail: phywattf@nus.edu.sg

    1999-09-02

    Epilepsy is a recurrent disorder of cerebral function characterised by sudden brief attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity or sensory phenomena, and affects approximately 1% of the population. Kainic acid injection induces neuronal degeneration in rats, is associated with glial hypertrophy and proliferation in the CA3-CA4 fields of hippocampal complex, and is a model for temporal lobe epilepsy. In this study we have applied Nuclear Microscopy to the investigation of the elemental changes within the hippocampus and the cortex areas of the rat brain following kainate injection. Analyses of unstained freeze dried tissue sections taken at 1 day and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following injection were carried out using the Nuclear Microscopy facility at the Research Centre for Nuclear Microscopy, National University of Singapore. Quantitative analysis and elemental mapping indicates that there are significant changes in the calcium levels and distributions in the hippocampus as early as 1 day following injection. Preliminary results indicate a rapid increase in cellular calcium. High levels of calcium can activate calcium dependent proteins and phospholipases. Activation of phospholipase A{sub 2} can be harmful to surrounding neurons through free radical damage. In addition to observed increases in calcium, there was evidence of increases in iron levels. This is consistent with measurements in other degenerative brain disorders, and may signal a late surge in free radical production.

  20. Changes in calcium and iron levels in the brains of rats during kainate induced epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Min-Qin; Ong, Wei-Yi; Makjanic, Jagoda; Watt, Frank

    1999-10-01

    Epilepsy is a recurrent disorder of cerebral function characterised by sudden brief attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity or sensory phenomena, and affects approximately 1% of the population. Kainic acid injection induces neuronal degeneration in rats, is associated with glial hypertrophy and proliferation in the CA3-CA4 fields of hippocampal complex, and is a model for temporal lobe epilepsy. In this study we have applied Nuclear Microscopy to the investigation of the elemental changes within the hippocampus and the cortex areas of the rat brain following kainate injection. Analyses of unstained freeze dried tissue sections taken at 1 day and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following injection were carried out using the Nuclear Microscopy facility at the Research Centre for Nuclear Microscopy, National University of Singapore. Quantitative analysis and elemental mapping indicates that there are significant changes in the calcium levels and distributions in the hippocampus as early as 1 day following injection. Preliminary results indicate a rapid increase in cellular calcium. High levels of calcium can activate calcium dependent proteins and phospholipases. Activation of phospholipase A 2 can be harmful to surrounding neurons through free radical damage. In addition to observed increases in calcium, there was evidence of increases in iron levels. This is consistent with measurements in other degenerative brain disorders, and may signal a late surge in free radical production.

  1. Performance of Water-Based Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Coolant during Abrasive Grinding of Ductile Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of ductile cast iron grinding machining using water-based zinc oxide nanoparticles as a coolant. The experimental data was utilized to develop the mathematical model for first- and second-order models. The second order gives worthy performance of the grinding. The results indicate that the optimum parameters for the grinding model are 20 m/min table speed and 42.43 μm depth of cut for single-pass grinding. For multiple-pass grinding, optimization is at a table speed equal to 35.11 m/min and a depth of cut equal to 29.78 μm. The model fit was adequate and acceptable for sustainable grinding using a 0.15% volume concentration of zinc oxide nanocoolant. This paper quantifies the impact of water-based ZnO nanoparticle coolant on the achieved surface quality. It is concluded that the surface quality is the most influenced by the depth of cut(s and table speed.

  2. Zinc and selenium accumulation and their effect on iron bioavailability in common bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Marislaine A; Boldrin, Paulo F; Hart, Jonathan J; de Andrade, Messias J B; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Glahn, Raymond P; Li, Li

    2017-02-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are the most important legume crops. They represent a major source of micronutrients and a target for essential trace mineral enhancement (i.e. biofortification). To investigate mineral accumulation during seed maturation and to examine whether it is possible to biofortify seeds with multi-micronutrients without affecting mineral bioavailability, three common bean cultivars were treated independently with zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), the two critical micronutrients that can be effectively enhanced via fertilization. The seed mineral concentrations during seed maturation and the seed Fe bioavailability were analyzed. Common bean seeds were found to respond positively to Zn and Se treatments in accumulating these micronutrients. While the seed pods showed a decrease in Zn and Se along with Fe content during pod development, the seeds maintained relatively constant mineral concentrations during seed maturation. Selenium treatment had minimal effect on the seed accumulation of phytic acid and polyphenols, the compounds affecting Fe bioavailability. Zinc treatment reduced phytic acid level, but did not dramatically affect the concentrations of total polyphenols. Iron bioavailability was found not to be greatly affected in seeds biofortified with Se and Zn. In contrast, the inhibitory polyphenol compounds in the black bean profoundly reduced Fe bioavailability. These results provide valuable information for Se and Zn enhancement in common bean seeds and suggest the possibility to biofortify with these essential nutrients without greatly affecting mineral bioavailability to increase the food quality of common bean seeds. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. The effects of iron supplementation on serum copper and zinc levels in pregnant women with high-normal hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Saeideh; Janghorban, R; Shariatdoust, Sosan; Faghihzadeh, Sofhrate

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron supplementation on serum copper and zinc levels. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 66 pregnant women with hemoglobin 13.2 g/dL or greater between the 13th and 18th week of pregnancy were randomized into case and control groups. From the 20th week until the end of pregnancy the case group received one ferrous sulfate tablet containing 50 mg elemental iron daily, while the control group received placebo. Hemoglobin, ferritin, copper, and zinc levels at 24-28 and 32-36 weeks of pregnancy were measured and compared. In the case group, serum copper levels in the second and third trimester were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). Serum zinc levels in the case group in the second and third trimester were also significantly lower than the control group (P<0.001). Iron supplementation in pregnant women with hemoglobin greater than 13.2 g/dL reduces serum levels of copper and zinc.

  4. Serum Iron, Zinc, and Copper Levels in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Replication Study and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Xuan; Tan, Lan; Wang, Hui-Fu; Ma, Jing; Liu, Jinyuan; Tan, Meng-Shan; Sun, Jia-Hao; Zhu, Xi-Chen; Jiang, Teng; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether iron, zinc, and copper levels in serum are disarranged in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we performed meta-analyses of all studies on the topic published from 1984 to 2014 and contextually carried out a replication study in serum as well. Our meta-analysis results showed that serum zinc was significantly lower in AD patients. Our replication and meta-analysis results showed that serum copper was significantly higher in AD patients than in healthy controls, so our findings were consistent with the conclusions of four previously published copper meta-analyses. Even if a possible role of iron in the pathophysiology of the disease could not be ruled out, the results of our meta-analysis showed no change of serum iron levels in AD patients, but this conclusion was not robust and requires further investigation. The meta-regression analyses revealed that in some studies, differences in serum iron levels could be due to the different mean ages, while differences in zinc levels appeared to be due to the different sex ratios. However, the effect of sex ratio on serum zinc levels in our meta-analysis is subtle and needs further confirmation. Also, diverse demographic terms and methodological approaches appeared not to explain the high heterogeneity of our copper meta-analysis. Therefore, when investigating trace elements, covariants such as age and sex have to be taken into account in the analyses. In the light of these findings, we suggest that the possible alteration of serum zinc and copper levels are involved in the pathogenesis of AD.

  5. Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats

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    Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn or vitamin E (Vit-E on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g (n = 6 control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E experimental groups and the experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and lipid peroxidase (LPx were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of experimental rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and quantified band densities. These results showed that Cd exposure leads to decreases in SOD, CAT, GR, and GPx activities and a concomitant increase in LPx and GST activities. Ca + Zn and Vit-E administration with Cd significantly reversed Cd-induced perturbations in oxidative stress marker enzymes. However, Vit-E showed more inhibitory activity against Cd than did Ca + Zn, and it protected against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  6. Plants sensitivity on nickel under different conditions of iron or calcium concentration in the nutrient medium

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    Renata Matraszek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of six vegetable plants on nickel at early stages of their growth was investigated by index of tolerance. Besides the possibility of nickel fitostabilization by additional application of iron or calcium was tested. The experiment was conducted on Petri dishes. Different concentrations of nickel (0; 0,03; 0,06mM Ni as nickel sulphate, iron (0,05; O,OlmM Fe as Fe2+ citrate and calcium (0,50; 0,75; lmM Ca as calcium carbonate were added. Taking into consideration the sensitivity, investigated vegetables can be ordered in the following way: Cucurbita pepo conv. giromontiina L.>Lactuca sativa L.>Sinapis alba L.>Spinacia oleracea L.=Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke.>Phaseolus vulgaris L. Positive, statistically significant effect ofnickel fitostabilization (0,03 or 0,06mM Ni on elongative growth by the iron application (0,10mM Fe was shown for Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke independently of Ni concentration in the nutrient medium as well as for Sinapis alba L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. in 0,06mM Ni. Addition as much as 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,03mM Ni had positive result on Sinapis alba L and Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings as well as on Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke and Lactuca sativa L. roots and Cucurbita pepo convar. giromontiina L. shoots. Addition of 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,06mM Ni promoted elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke seedlings. Application lmM Ca resulted in the promotion of elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke. roots (0,03mM Ni as well as Spinacia oleracea L. roots (0,06mM Ni.

  7. Effect of oral cadmium administration to female rats during pregnancy on zinc, copper, and iron content in placenta, foetal liver, kidney, intestine, and brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, B.; Steibert, E.

    1985-02-01

    Cadmium chloride was administered in drinking water at a concentration of 50 ppm cadmium to female rats for 20 days of gestation. The foetuses were then removed from the uteri of the dams. Gestational exposure to oral cadmium resulted in decreased zinc, copper, iron, metallothionein, and thionein-bound zinc content in foetal liver as well as in reduced copper content in placenta and foetal intestine, brain and kidney. Subcellular fractionation of the foetal liver revealed decreased microsomal iron content. Pregnant rats exposed to oral cadmium revealed decreased serum zinc and iron concentration as well as reduced ceruloplasmin activity. The decreased zinc, copper, and iron content in foetal organs is suggested to be causally connected with the diminished availability of these metals in the maternal circulation.

  8. The potential of lentil (Lens culinaris L.) as a whole food for increased selenium, iron, and zinc intake: Preliminary results from a three year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronutrient malnutrition, especially selenium (Se), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) deficiency, is a major global health problem. Previous attempts to prevent micronutrient malnutrition through food fortification, supplementation, and enrichment of staple crops has had limited success. Canadian grown len...

  9. Antimicrobial Activity and pH of Calcium Hydroxide and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Intracanal Medication and Association with Chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Alana Souza; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane M; Faria, Gisele; Leonardo, Renato Toledo; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate pH and antibacterial activity of pastes with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and zinc oxide (ZnO) microparticles (micro) or nanoparticles (nano) and association with 0.4% chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis. The following pastes were analyzed: Ca(OH)2/ZnO micro, (2) Ca(OH)2/ZnO nano, (3) Ca(OH)2/ ZnO micro + 0.4% chlorhexidine, (4) Ca(OH)2/ZnO nano + 0.4% chlorhexidine. Antibacterial activity against E. faecalis was evaluated by agar diffusion test. The direct contact test on planktonic cells of E. faecalis was performed for 30 and 60 seconds. Root canals from bovine teeth were filled with the pastes and pH was evaluated after 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days. The data obtained were submitted to the statistical tests analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn test, with a 5% significance level. Calcium hydroxide and zinc oxide nano, and the pastes with 0.4% chlorhexidine were more effective in agar diffusion test. In the direct contact test, the pastes with chlorhexidine showed the highest effect after 30 seconds. All pastes eliminated E. faecalis after 60 seconds. All pastes promoted an increase in pH. The highest increase in pH was observed with nanoparticle medications after 1 and 7 days (p chlorhexidine. Although nanoparticles of calcium hydroxide and zinc oxide promoted antibacterial effect, the activity against E. faecalis is favored by association with chlorhexidine.

  10. Sexual development of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is induced by zinc or iron limitation through Ecl1 family genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Hokuto; Ishida, Maiko; Naito, Chikako; Murakami, Hiroshi; Aiba, Hirofumi

    2015-02-01

    Ecl1 family genes (ecl1 (+), ecl2 (+), and ecl3 (+)) have been identified as extenders of the chronological lifespan in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we found that the triple-deletion mutant (∆ecl1/2/3) had a defect in sexual development after entry into the stationary phase, although the mutant essentially showed normal mating and sporulation under nitrogen starvation or carbon limitation. In this study, we showed that limitation of zinc or iron can be a signal for sexual development of S. pombe cells grown in Edinburgh minimal medium until the stationary phase and that Ecl1 family genes are important for this process. Because the ∆ecl1/2/3 mutant diminishes the zinc depletion-dependent gene expression, Ecl1 family proteins may function as zinc sensors in the process of sexual development.

  11. Fast Determination of Iron and Zinc in Hair and Human Serum Samples After Alkaline Solubilization by GF AAS

    OpenAIRE

    Donnici, Cláudio L.; Souza, Carolina C.; Beinner, Mark A.; Silva, José Bento B. da

    2016-01-01

    Methods for the development and validation for determination of iron and zinc in human serum and hair samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) were performed. Solubilization was immediate by manual agitation in both samples with a 10 mL volume sample plus deionized water. Optimum pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were obtained by pyrolysis and atomization temperature curves in both matrices. For serum samples, the best temperatures were 1400 and 2500 °C (Fe) an...

  12. Correlation of Blood and Salivary Levels of Zinc, Iron and Copper in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: An Investigational Study

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    T.George

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metals like copper, iron and zinc have been suggested to modulate free radical generation and carcinogenesis. In lieu of these observations, estimation of these metals is vital and most studies have been with the blood. Objectives: In the present study we estimated the levels of these metals in both serum and saliva of the head and neck (H&N cancer patients and compared it with healthy age-matched control group. A correlation between the levels of these metals in the serum and saliva of respective H&N cancer patient was also assessed. Materials and Methods: The subjects of this study were the clinically confirmed cases of H&N cancers visiting the Oncology Department of Medical College Hospital for treatment. Age and sex-matched healthy individuals were included as control group. The levels of iron, copper and zinc were estimated in whole saliva and serum by standard spectrophotometric methods. Results: When compared to the controls, the levels of iron and copper were higher in serum and saliva was high in the H&N cancer patients and statically significant (P=.0002 to P=.0001. On the contrary, there was a decrease in the levels of zinc but was not significant. There was significant correlation between serum and saliva with respect to the levels of iron, copper and zinc in H&N cancer patients and was statically significant (P=.0001. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated the role of metals in etiopathogenesis of H&N cancer. An assessment of the levels of metals in cancer patients might have prognostic and therapeutic implications. This study observed a significant positive correlation between serum and saliva which will go a long way in establishing saliva as a diagnostic tool complimentary to blood

  13. Shaping optimal zinc coating on the surface of high-quality ductile iron casting. Part I – Moulding technologies vs. zinc coating

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    Szczęsny A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have demonstrated that in the process of hot dip galvanizing the decisive influence on the mechanism of zinc coating formation and properties has the quality of the mechanically untreated (raw surface layer of the galvanized product. The terms “casting surface layer” denote various parameters of the microstructure, including the type of metal matrix, the number of grains and the size of graphite nodules, possible presence of hard spots (the precipitates of eutectic cementite and parameters of the surface condition. The completed research has allowed linking the manufacturing technology of ductile iron castings with the process of hot dip galvanizing.

  14. Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Amelia Villagomez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder increasing in prevalence. Although there is limited evidence to support treating ADHD with mineral/vitamin supplements, research does exist showing that patients with ADHD may have reduced levels of vitamin D, zinc, ferritin, and magnesium. These nutrients have important roles in neurologic function, including involvement in neurotransmitter synthesis. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of each of these nutrients in the brain, the possible altered levels of these nutrients in patients with ADHD, possible reasons for a differential level in children with ADHD, and safety and effect of supplementation. With this knowledge, clinicians may choose in certain patients at high risk of deficiency, to screen for possible deficiencies of magnesium, vitamin D, zinc, and iron by checking RBC-magnesium, 25-OH vitamin D, serum/plasma zinc, and ferritin. Although children with ADHD may be more likely to have lower levels of vitamin D, zinc, magnesium, and iron, it cannot be stated that these lower levels caused ADHD. However, supplementing areas of deficiency may be a safe and justified intervention.

  15. Inhibition of iron absorption by calcium is modest in an iron-fortified, casein- and whey-based drink in Indian children and is easily compensated for by addition of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Thomas; Muthayya, Sumithra; Wegmüller, Rita; Thankachan, Prashanth; Sierksma, Aafje; Frenken, Leon G J; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-11-01

    Calcium inhibits and ascorbic acid (AA) enhances iron absorption from iron-fortified foods. Absorption efficiency depends on iron status, although the interaction is unclear. We investigated the ability of AA to overcome calcium-induced inhibition of iron absorption in children differing in iron status. The effect of calcium (0, 100, and 200 mg/test meal) on iron absorption in the absence and presence of AA (0, 42.5, and 85 mg/test meal) from a casein/whey-based drink fortified with ferrous sulfate was assessed in a series of randomized crossover studies both in iron-replete (IR) Indian schoolchildren and in children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) (6-11 y; n = 14-16/group) by using stable isotopes. In the absence of calcium and AA, iron absorption from the casein/whey-based drink was 20% lower in IR children than in children with IDA. The addition of calcium reduced mean iron absorption by 18-27%, with the effect being stronger for high added calcium (P < 0.01). AA at a 2:1 or 4:1 molar ratio enhanced iron absorption by a factor of 2-4 and greatly overcompensated for the inhibitory effect of calcium on iron absorption in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.001). The dose-response effect tended to be stronger (P < 0.1) in the IDA group, and iron status was of far less influence on iron absorption than the enhancing effect of AA. When adding AA to iron-fortified milk products, care should be taken not to provide absorbable iron in excess of needs. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. The oxidation states and chemical environments of iron and zinc as potential indicators of brain tumour malignancy grade - preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandzilak, Aleksandra; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Wrobel, Pawel; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena; Radwanska, Edyta; Adamek, Dariusz; Lankosz, Marek

    2013-11-01

    Despite the enormous advances in medicine, brain tumours are still among the lesser-known types of tumours and carry the worst prognoses. Transition metals are believed to play an essential role in carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the average oxidation state and trends in the changes in the chemical environment of iron and zinc contained in healthy and neoplastic tissues of the human brain. For this purpose, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy was used, which enables the study of disordered matter. The samples were taken intraoperatively and then immediately frozen to slow down chemical processes. Sixteen tumour samples with various malignancy grades were studied as well as one control sample. For each sample four to eight spectra were recorded, with a shift between them not greater than 0.2 eV. In all of the samples, iron occurred in compounds with both Fe(2+) and Fe(3+). However, the ratio of Fe(ii) to Fe(iii) content in the tissue visibly increased with the tumour malignancy grade. The change in the oxidation state of iron did not correlate with the hypoxia level of the tissues. Analysis of EXAFS spectra of zinc atoms showed that the chemical environment of zinc atoms differed with the tumour malignancy grade. Additionally, cryogenic conditions were found to produce positive results in studies of biological samples, whose form under such conditions is close to their native state, without preparation-caused artefacts.

  17. Systemic Assessment of Calcium and Phosphorus Level after Implantation of Porous Iron in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siallagan, S. F.; Amelia, F.; Utami, N. D.; Ulum, M. F.; Boediono, A.; Estuningsih, S.; Hermawan, H.; Noviana, D.

    2017-07-01

    One of important aspects in bone healing process is physiological level of calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) that can be altered by implantation of biodegradable porous iron. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the concentration of Ca, P and Ca/P ratio in the peripheral blood during the implantation period up to 4 months. Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used and divided into 3 groups receiving different pore size of iron implants (pore size 450, 580, 800μm) and one group of sham. The implants (5x2x0.5mm) were inserted into flat bone defects at latero-medial of femoral bone. Blood sample was taken from ventral tail artery before and after 4 month of implantation. Calcium and P concentrations in the blood were determined by BA-88A Semi-Auto Chemistry Analyzer. Results showed that concentration of Ca and P are slightly higher after implantation than before implantation, except for the 450μm group. The Ca/P ratio before and after implantation was increased in the sham group, and decreased in the 450 and 800μm groups. Concentration of Ca, P and Ca/P ratio insignificantly change between before and 4 months after surgery in some groups.

  18. Structural and luminescence properties of Mn{sup 2+} ions doped calcium zinc borophosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Ming Hua, E-mail: wanminghua819@gmail.com [Phosphor Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Wong, Poh Sum, E-mail: pohsumwong@gmail.com [Phosphor Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Hussin, Rosli, E-mail: roslihussin@utm.my [Phosphor Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Lintang, Hendrik O., E-mail: hendrik@ibnusina.utm.my [Catalytic Science and Technology (CST) Research Group, Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Endud, Salasiah, E-mail: salasiah@kimia.fs.utm.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • FT-IR revealed that the network structures are from borate and phosphate network. • The PL spectrum exhibits a green emission band at 582 nm ({sup 4}T{sub 1g} → {sup 6}A{sub 1g}). • As the concentration of Mn{sup 2+} ions is increased, the emission band had been red shifted. • These glasses are found to have potential applications as luminescent optical materials. - Abstract: Calcium zinc borophosphate glasses (CaZnBP) doped with various concentrations of Mn{sup 2+} ions and borate and phosphate as variable were prepared using conventional melt quenching technique. The structure of obtained glasses were examined by means of use: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). XRD analysis confirmed amorphous nature of glass samples. The FT-IR spectra reveals the presence of both borate and phosphate vibrational modes in the prepared glasses. The doping of Mn{sup 2+} ions (2–10 mol%) shows no significant changes in the main IR vibrational bands. Optical properties were studied by measuring the near infrared photoluminescence (PL) spectra. CaZnBP glasses exhibited intense green emission peak (582 nm) (tetrahedral symmetry), which is assigned to a transition from the upper {sup 4}T{sub 1g} → {sup 6}A{sub 1g} ground state of Mn{sup 2+} ions. As the concentration of Mn{sup 2+} ions increases, the emission band increases from 582 nm to 650 nm and exhibited a red light emission (octahedral symmetry). The decay curves of {sup 4}T{sub 1g} level were examined for all concentrations and the measured lifetimes are found to depend strongly on Mn{sup 2+} concentrations. From the emission characteristic parameters of {sup 6}A{sub 1g} (S) level, it shows that the CaZnBP glasses could have potential applications as luminescent optical materials, visible lasers and fluorescent display devices.

  19. Bioavailability of arsenic, cadmium, iron and zinc in leafy vegetables amended with urban particulate matter suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremlová, Jana; Száková, Jiřina; Sysalová, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Urban particulate matter (PM) can affect green plants either via deposition on the above-ground biomass, where the contaminants can penetrate the leaf surface, or indirectly via soil-root interaction. This experiment assessed the potential risk of PM-derived risk elements contained in vegetables. The bioavailable portions of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in leafy vegetables amended by PM via soil and/or foliar application were investigated in a model pot experiment, in which lettuce and chard were cultivated. By using the physiologically based extraction test simulating in vitro human digestive processes in the stomach and small intestine, the bioavailable portions of toxic elements from PM-amended plant biomass were extracted. Extractable portions of elements by a simulated gastric solution from biomass decreased for lettuce in the order Zn > Cd > As > Fe; while for chard, the order was As > Zn > Cd > Fe. No significant effects of PM physical fractions or soil were observed. Although the bioavailable element portions in the PM samples were lower compared to plants, the bioavailable element contents in foliar PM-amended plant leaves exceeded the control and soil PM amendment levels, even after biomass washing. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Comparative Study of Serum Copper, Iron, Magnesium, and Zinc in Type 2 Diabetes-Associated Proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al Jameil, Noura; Arjumand, Sadia; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Tabassum, Hajera; Alenzi, Naif; Hijazy, Sereen; Alenzi, Samyah; Subaie, Sahar; Fatima, Sabiha

    2015-12-01

    Trace element (TE) disturbances are well noted in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its associated complications. In present study, the effect of proteinuria on serum copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) in T2DM patients with and without proteinuria was seen. Total subjects were aged between 30 and 90 years; 73 had proteinuria, 76 had T2DM with proteinuria, 76 had T2DM, and 75 were controls. Serum Cu(II), Fe(III), Mg(II), and Zn(II) were assayed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Urinary albumin estimation was performed by turbidimetric method. Other biochemical parameters were analyzed by ROCHE Module COBAS 6000 analyzer. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at Pproteinuria on TE. Serum Cu(II) level was increased in T2DM patients with proteinuria while Fe(III) was found elevated in T2DM (Pproteinuria, T2DM with proteinuria, and T2DM (Pproteinuria group and T2DM group (Pproteinuria group. Mg(II) was negatively linked with ACR Pproteinuria, T2DM with proteinuria, and T2DM group. TE were observed more disturbed in T2DM with proteinuria group, thus considered to be the part of T2DM routine checkup and restricts the disease towards its progression.

  1. Lentils (Lens culinaris Medikus Subspecies culinaris): a whole food for increased iron and zinc intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Sarker, Ashutosh; Vandenberg, Albert

    2009-06-24

    Micronutrient malnutrition, the hidden hunger, affects more than 40% of the world's population, and a majority of them are in South and South East Asia and Africa. This study was carried out to determine the potential for iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) biofortification of lentils ( Lens culinaris Medikus subsp. culinaris ) to improve human nutrition. Lentils are a common and quick-cooking nutritious staple pulse in many developing countries. We analyzed the total Fe and Zn concentrations of 19 lentil genotypes grown at eight locations for 2 years in Saskatchewan, Canada. It was observed that some genetic variation exists for Fe and Zn concentrations among the lentil lines tested. The total Fe and Zn concentrations ranged from 73 to 90 mg of Fe kg(-1) and from 44 to 54 mg of Zn kg(-1). The calculated percentages of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for Fe and Zn were within the RDA ranges from a 100 g serving of dry lentils. Broad-sense heritability estimates for Fe and Zn concentrations in lentil seed were 64 and 68%, respectively. It was concluded that lentils have great potential as a whole food source of Fe and Zn for people affected by these nutrient deficiencies. This is the first report on the genetic basis for Fe and Zn micronutrient content in lentils. These results provide some understanding of the genetic basis of Fe and Zn concentrations and will allow for the development of potential strategies for genetic biofortification.

  2. Marker-Trait Association Analysis of Iron and Zinc Concentration in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Hamid; Podder, Rajib; Caron, Carolyn T; Kundu, Shudhangshu S; Diapari, Marwan; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E

    2017-07-01

    Lentil ( Medik.) seeds are relatively rich in iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), making lentil a potential crop to aid in the global battle against human micronutrient deficiency. Understanding the genetic basis for uptake of seed Fe and Zn is required to increase sustainable concentrations of these minerals in seeds. The objectives of this study were to characterize genetic variation in seed Fe and Zn concentration and to identify molecular markers associated with these traits across diverse lentil accessions. A set of 138 cultivated lentil accessions from 34 countries were evaluated in four environments (2 sites × 2 yr) in Saskatchewan, Canada. The collection was genotyped using 1150 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that are distributed across the lentil genome. The germplasm tested exhibited a wide range of variation for seed Fe and Zn concentration. The marker-trait association analysis detected two SNP markers tightly linked to seed Fe and one linked to seed Zn concentration (-log10 ≥ 4.36). Additional markers were detected at -log10 ≥ 3.06. A number of putative candidate genes underlying detected loci encode Fe- and Zn-related functions. This study provides insight into the genetics of seed Fe and Zn concentration of lentil and opportunities for marker-assisted selection to improve micronutrient concentration as part of micronutrient biofortification programs. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  3. [Research advances in iron and zinc transfer from soil to plant in intercropping systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hai-yong; Xue, Yan-fang; Meng, Wei-wei; Yu, Li-min; Liu, Ling-yan; Zhang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Intercropping facilitates the efficient utilization of land, light, water and nutrients. It is, therefore, important to increase the biodiversity of farmland and to develop sustainable ecological agriculture in both theory and practice. Intercropping helps improve the mobilization and uptake of soil iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) and corresponding nutritional status in the plants, thus achieving grain micronutrient biofortification. In this review, phenomena of the improvement of Fe and Zn nutrition in dicotyledonous plants as affected by intercropping with gramineous plants (e.g. maize/peanut intercropping) were summarized. Moreover, the possible mechanisms in relation to interspecific rhizosphere molecular and physiological processes, as well as the changes in interspecific root morphology and distribution and microorganisms in the rhizosphere were elucidated. The accumulation, transfer and distribution of Fe and Zn in the plants in intercropping systems were also reviewed. The possible affecting factors on nutrients of Fe and Zn were analyzed. Based on the present advances in the mobilization and acquisition of soil Fe and Zn, and their accumulation and distribution in plants as well as the related management and environment influence factors, some new research questions were pointed out. Quantitative analysis, dynamic and systemic researches and field studies on Fe and Zn transfer from soil to plant in intercropping systems should be strengthened in the future.

  4. Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron- sufficient microcytosis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronin, D.; Strehl, F.; Human Resources

    1998-05-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is a required test under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's lead standard. However, there is no mention of the influence of hemoglobinopathy on the ZPP test value. We undertook a retrospective laboratory review of 382 employees at the Argonne National Laboratory who had been subjects in a lead surveillance program since 1982. A total of 321 samples were analyzed, after female subjects and samples with abnormally high bilirubin levels were excluded. A group with low mean red blood cell volume (MCV; less than 80.0 fL) was compared with a group with normal MCV (greater or equal to 80.0 fL). A statistically significant difference was noted in ZPP (P < 0.007) and total bilirubin (P< 0.0003) values of two groups. There was no statistically significant difference noted in age, lead levels, or iron levels between the two groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with hemoglobinopathies. Only a minor part of this elevation could be explained by the higher bilirubin levels.

  5. In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Sodium Zinc and Sodium Iron Chlorophyllins from Pine Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzhen Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll was extracted from pine needles, and then sodium zinc chlorophyllin (SZC and sodium iron chlorophyllin (SIC were synthesised by saponification, purification and substitution reaction, using sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC as a control. Their crystalline structures were verified by atomic absorbance spectroscopy, UV-VIS spectroscopy and HPLC. Moreover, their antioxidant activities were evaluated and compared with that of ascorbic acid through four biochemical assays: DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and O2– scavenging activity. SZC had better antioxidant properties at a lower dosage than SIC and SCC in all assays. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, EC50 of SZC, SIC and SCC was 0.04, 0.38 and 0.90 mg/mL, respectively, much lower than that of ascorbic acid (4.0 mg/mL. SZC showed a better result (p<0.05 than ascorbic acid in the O2 – scavenging activity assay. The results obtained from reducing power determination were also excellent: the absorbance values were all about 1.0 at 0.5 mg/mL, about half of that of ascorbic acid. In the investigation of DPPH radical scavenging activity, all chlorophyllins had lower activities than ascorbic acid. These results demonstrated the potential bioactivities of chlorophyll derivatives and supported their possible role in human health protection and disease prevention.

  6. Assessing plasma levels of selenium, copper, iron and zinc in patients of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Wen Zhao

    Full Text Available Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD. However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se, copper (Cu, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression.

  7. Assessing plasma levels of selenium, copper, iron and zinc in patients of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Wen; Lin, Jie; Wang, Xue-Bao; Cheng, Xing; Wang, Jian-Yong; Hu, Bei-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression.

  8. Assessing Plasma Levels of Selenium, Copper, Iron and Zinc in Patients of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xing; Wang, Jian-Yong; Hu, Bei-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression. PMID:24340079

  9. Influences of iron and calcium carbonate on wastewater treatment performances of algae based reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhimiao; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Yanping; Gong, Zhijie; Wang, Yuhui; Zhao, Yufeng; Chen, Yu; Mei, Mengyuan

    2016-09-01

    The influences of iron and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) addition in wastewater treatments reactors performance were investigated. Adding different concentrations of Fe(3+) (5, 10, 30 and 50mmol/m(3)), iron and CaCO3 powder led to changes in algal characteristics and physico-chemical and microbiological properties. According to the investigation results, nutrient removal efficiency in algae based reactors was obviously increased by the addition of 10mmol/m(3) Fe(3+), iron (5mmol/m(3)) and CaCO3 powder (0.2gm(-3)) and the removal efficiencies of BOD5, TN, and TP in Stage 2 were respectively increased by 28%, 8.9%, and 22%. The improvements in physico-chemical performances were verified by microbial community tests (bacteria quantity, activity and community measured in most probable number, extracellular enzymes activity, and Biolog Eco Plates). Microbial variations indicated the coexistence of Fe ions and carbonate-bicarbonate, which triggered the synergistic effect of physico-chemical action and microbial factors in algae based reactors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc concentrations in kidneys of grey wolves, Canis lupus, from Alaska, Idaho, Montana (USA) and the Northwest Territories (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, S R; Blunck, S A; Petersen, K N; Jones, E M; Koval, J C; Misek, R; Frick, J A; Cluff, H D; Sime, C A; McNay, M; Beckman, K B; Atkinson, M W; Drew, M; Collinge, M D; Bangs, E E; Harper, R G

    2010-11-01

    Cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc levels were measured in the kidneys of 115 grey wolves (Canis lupus) from Idaho, Montana and Alaska (United States), and from the Northwest Territories (Canada). No significant differences in the levels of iron or copper were observed between locations, but wolf kidneys from more northern locations had significantly higher cadmium levels (Alaska > Northwest Territories > Montana ≈ Idaho), and wolves from Alaska showed significantly higher zinc than other locations. Additionally, female wolves in Alaska had higher iron levels than males, and adult wolves in Montana had higher copper levels than subadults.

  11. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turn to calcium-fortified (or "calcium-set") tofu, soy milk, tempeh, soy yogurt, and cooked soybeans (edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. You can get decent ...

  12. Increased risk of iron deficiency and reduced iron absorption but no difference in zinc, vitamin A or B-vitamin status in obese women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle; Thankachan, Prashanth; Bose, Beena; Kurpad, Anura V

    2016-12-01

    Two objectives were investigated: (1) to assess the risk of micronutrient deficiencies in relation to weight status in Indian women with a focus on iron but also including zinc, vitamin A and B vitamins and (2) to compare fractional iron absorption between obese (OB) and normal weight (NW) women. Part 1 was a cross-sectional study including 146 healthy, middle-class women from Bangalore, India, with a BMI between 19 and 40 kg/m(2). Anthropometrics and blood pressure were measured, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for the analysis of vitamin and mineral status, hepcidin, blood lipids and glucose. In part 2, 16 OB and 13 NW women consumed a standardized test meal labeled with the stable iron isotope (57)Fe. Incorporation of the iron isotope into erythrocytes was measured 14 days later. In addition, iron status, hepcidin and inflammatory markers were determined. In part 1, compared to NW women, overweight/OB subjects had significantly higher C-reactive protein, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and hepcidin concentrations (p deficiencies was similar to NW women. Our results clearly demonstrate the importance of considering the double burden of malnutrition in the planning of prevention strategies especially in transition countries with emerging obesity epidemics.

  13. Identification of Ftr1 and Zrt1 as iron and zinc micronutrient transceptors for activation of the PKA pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep Schothort

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple types of nutrient transceptors, membrane proteins that combine a transporter and receptor function, have now been established in a variety of organisms. However, so far all established transceptors utilize one of the macronutrients, glucose, amino acids, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate or sulfate, as substrate. This is also true for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transceptors mediating activation of the PKA pathway upon re-addition of a macronutrient to glucose-repressed cells starved for that nutrient, re-establishing a fermentable growth medium. We now show that the yeast high-affinity iron transporter Ftr1 and high-affinity zinc transporter Zrt1 function as transceptors for the micronutrients iron and zinc. We show that replenishment of iron to iron-starved cells or zinc to zinc-starved cells triggers within 1-2 minutes a rapid surge in trehalase activity, a well-established PKA target. The activation with iron is dependent on Ftr1 and with zinc on Zrt1, and we show that it is independent of intracellular iron and zinc levels. Similar to the transceptors for macronutrients, Ftr1 and Zrt1 are strongly induced upon iron and zinc starvation, respectively, and they are rapidly downregulated by substrate-induced endocytosis. Our results suggest that transceptor-mediated signaling to the PKA pathway may occur in all cases where glucose-repressed yeast cells have been starved first for an essential nutrient, causing arrest of growth and low activity of the PKA pathway, and subsequently replenished with the lacking nutrient to re-establish a fermentable growth medium. The broadness of the phenomenon also makes it likely that nutrient transceptors use a common mechanism for signaling to the PKA pathway.

  14. Genetic Variability, Genotype × Environment Interaction, Correlation, and GGE Biplot Analysis for Grain Iron and Zinc Concentration and Other Agronomic Traits in RIL Population of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul M. Phuke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The low grain iron and zinc densities are well documented problems in food crops, affecting crop nutritional quality especially in cereals. Sorghum is a major source of energy and micronutrients for majority of population in Africa and central India. Understanding genetic variation, genotype × environment interaction and association between these traits is critical for development of improved cultivars with high iron and zinc. A total of 336 sorghum RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines were evaluated for grain iron and zinc concentration along with other agronomic traits for 2 years at three locations. The results showed that large variability exists in RIL population for both micronutrients (Iron = 10.8 to 76.4 mg kg−1 and Zinc = 10.2 to 58.7 mg kg−1, across environments and agronomic traits. Genotype × environment interaction for both micronutrients (iron and zinc was highly significant. GGE biplots comparison for grain iron and zinc showed greater variation across environments. The results also showed that G × E was substantial for grain iron and zinc, hence wider testing needed for taking care of G × E interaction to breed micronutrient rich sorghum lines. Iron and zinc concentration showed high significant positive correlation (across environment = 0.79; p < 0.01 indicating possibility of simultaneous effective selection for both the traits. The RIL population showed good variability and high heritabilities (>0.60, in individual environments for Fe and Zn and other traits studied indicating its suitability to map QTL for iron and zinc.

  15. Genetic parameters and breeding strategies for high levels of iron and zinc in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, S M; Melo, P G S; Faria, L C; Souza, T L P O; Melo, L C; Pereira, H S

    2016-06-10

    One of the current focus of common bean breeding programs in Brazil is to increase iron (FeC) and zinc content (ZnC) in grains. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for FeC and ZnC in common bean, verify the need for conducting multi-site evaluation tests, identify elite lines that combine high FeC and ZnC with good adaptability, stability, and agronomic potential, and examine the genetic association between FeC and ZnC. Elite lines (140) were evaluated for important agronomic traits in multiple environments. In one trial, FeC and ZnC were evaluated and genetic parameters were estimated. Based on the high heritability estimates and significant selection gains obtained, the conditions for a successful selection was favorable. Of the 140 evaluated lines, 17 had higher FeC and ZnC, and were included in the validation test (2013, five environments), specifically for the evaluation of FeC and ZnC. The line by environment interaction for FeC and ZnC was detected, but it was predominantly simple. The environmental effect strongly influenced FeC and ZnC . The environment Brasília/rainy season was selected as the best evaluation site for preliminary tests for FeC and ZnC, because it resulted in similar conclusions as the mean of the five environments. The lines CNFP 15701 and CNFC 15865 had higher FeC and ZnC and were highly adaptable and stable, and are recommended for utilization in breeding programs. The lines CNFC 15833, CNFC 15703, and CNFP 15676 showed excellent combined agronomic and nutritional traits, and were selected for the development of biofortified cultivars. Additionally, the genetic association between FeC and ZnC was detected.

  16. Impact of Maternal Helicobacter pylori Infection on Trace Elements (Copper, Iron and Zinc and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel I Akubugwo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: H. pylori infection has been suggested to interfere with micronutrient metabolism and influence pregnancy outcomes. Objectives: This study therefore seeks to document the prevalence of H. pylori seroposivity among pregnant women and to determine its impact on some trace element status and pregnancy outcomes. Materials and methods: Three hundred and forty nine consenting pregnant women aged 15-40 years (mean; 27. 04 ± 4. 75 years and gestational age ≤ 25 weeks (mean 21.77 ± 3.14 wks attending antenatal clinic at Federal Medical Centre, Abakaliki, between July 2007 and September 2008 participated in the study. H. Pylori antibody (IgG was determined by a new generation ELISA method. Plasma copper, iron and zinc were analysed using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Bulk Scientific AVG 210 Model while haemoglobin and albumin were analysed using standard haematological and biochemical techniques. Both maternal sociodemographic and anthropometric parameters were recorded at recruitment. The women were followed-up till delivery after which neonatal anthropometrics and other birth outcomes were recorded. Results: H. pylori seroprevalence of 24.1% (84/349 was recorded with higher prevalence in multiparous and older women. H. pylori infected women had significantly higher BMI (29.00 ± 3.89 vs. 26.86 ± 4.10, p = 0.020 and lower (p > 0.05 plasma levels of Cu, Fe, Zn, albumin, and haemoglobin when compared to non-infected women. Also H. pylori infected women had significantly (p < 0.05 higher rates of convulsion and concomitant illnesses than their non-infected counterparts, although there was no difference in the two groups for other pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion: H. pylori infection during pregnancy seems to interfere with trace element metabolism and contribute significantly to increased maternal morbidity. Prior to confirmation of these findings in a well controlled randomised trial, it is suggested that pregnant women be

  17. Microwave Synthesis of Fe2 O3 and ZnO Nanoparticles and Evaluation Its Application on Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and their Relationships to Grain Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Khaghani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fe2O3 and ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a fast microwave method. Nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction  and scanning electron microscopy. The goal of bio-fortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. The micronutrients magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn and copper (Cu, boron (B and calcium (Ca are essential for plants and the humans and animals that consume plants. Increasing the micronutrient density of staple crops, will greatly improve human nutrition on a global scale. In order to investigate the effect of Iron and Zinc on nutrient uptake of two line of wheat. The experimental design used for this research was a factorial experiment under complete randomized block design with three replications and two variety of wheat including Roshan back cross (V1 and C-78-14 line (V2, three levels of Iron from Fe-EDDHA (Sequestrene138 including no application (F0, Fe sulphate (F1 and Nano Fe2O3 (F2 and three Levels of  Zinc as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 including no application (Z0, 25 kg/ha-1 (Z1 and 50 kg/ha-1 (Z2 were used. The result is showed that application of nanoparticles increased the study of parameters such as magnesium, manganese, copper, boron and calcium. Highest levels of grain yield with 5.13 ton/ha-1 was obtained in C-78-14 variety.

  18. Gluten-free diet survey: are Americans with coeliac disease consuming recommended amounts of fibre, iron, calcium and grain foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T; Dennis, M; Higgins, L A; Lee, A R; Sharrett, M K

    2005-06-01

    This survey was conducted to assess nutrient intakes and food consumption patterns of adults with coeliac disease who adhere to a strict gluten-free diet. Three-day estimated self-reported food records were used to assess daily intakes of calories, percent daily calories from carbohydrates, dietary fibre, iron, calcium and grain food servings. Volunteers for this survey were recruited through notices placed in coeliac disease support group newsletters, as well as a national magazine for persons with coeliac disease. Forty-seven volunteers met all criteria for participation and returned useable food records. Group mean daily intake of nutrients by gender: Males (n = 8): 2882 calories; 55% carbohydrate; 24.3 g dietary fibre; 14.7 mg iron; 1288.8 mg calcium; 6.6 grain food servings. Females (n = 39): 1900 calories; 52% carbohydrate; 20.2 g dietary fibre; 11.0 mg iron; 884.7 mg calcium; 4.6 grain food servings. Recommended amounts of fibre, iron and calcium were consumed by 46, 44 and 31% of women and 88, 100 and 63% of men, respectively. Nutrition therapy for coeliac disease has centred around food allowed/not allowed on a gluten-free diet. Emphasis also should be placed on the nutritional quality of the gluten-free diet, particularly as it concerns the iron, calcium and fibre consumption of women. The use of the estimated food record as the dietary survey method may have resulted in the under-reporting of energy intake. Due to the small sample size and possible bias of survey participants, the findings of this survey may not be representative of the larger coeliac community.

  19. A Low-Cost Neutral Zinc-Iron Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Stationary Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Congxin; Duan, Yinqi; Xu, Wenbin; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-11-20

    Flow batteries (FBs) are one of the most promising stationary energy-storage devices for storing renewable energy. However, commercial progress of FBs is limited by their high cost and low energy density. A neutral zinc-iron FB with very low cost and high energy density is presented. By using highly soluble FeCl 2 /ZnBr 2 species, a charge energy density of 56.30 Wh L -1 can be achieved. DFT calculations demonstrated that glycine can combine with iron to suppress hydrolysis and crossover of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ . The results indicated that an energy efficiency of 86.66 % can be obtained at 40 mA cm -2 and the battery can run stably for more than 100 cycles. Furthermore, a low-cost porous membrane was employed to lower the capital cost to less than $ 50 per kWh, which was the lowest value that has ever been reported. Combining the features of low cost, high energy density and high energy efficiency, the neutral zinc-iron FB is a promising candidate for stationary energy-storage applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Enhanced effect of zinc and calcium supplementation on bone status in growth hormone-deficient children treated with growth hormone: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekbote, Veena; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Mughal, Zulf; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2013-06-01

    Reduced bone mineral content in growth hormone-deficient children (GHD) has been reported. Calcium, zinc, and vitamin D play an important role in bone formation. Hence, the aim of this pilot randomized controlled study was to evaluate the effect of calcium, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation in prepubertal GHD children treated with GH on bone health parameters. After 1 year of treatment with GH (20 mg/m(2)/week), 31 GHD (mean age 8.7 ± 2.8 years, 18 boys) prepubertal children were randomised to receive calcium (500 mg/day) and vitamin D (60,000 IU/3 months) [Group A] or a similar supplement of calcium, vitamin D, and zinc (as per Indian Recommended Allowance) [Group B] along with GH therapy for the next 12 months. The two groups were similar in anthropometric and body composition parameters at baseline (p > 0.1). After 1 year of GH therapy, height-adjusted % gain was similar in both groups, 48 % in bone mineral content (BMC) and 45 % in bone area (BA). Height-adjusted % increase in BMC was significantly (p children has the potential for enhancing bone mass accrual; this effect was further enhanced through the addition of zinc supplement.

  1. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of the earthworm Dendrobaena rubida on the solubility of lead, zinc, and calcium in heavy metal contaminated soil in Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ireland, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of lead, zinc, and calcium dissolved by various extraction techniques from soil, earthworm feces, and decayed earthworm (Dendrobaena rubida, Savigny) corpses have been studied. A small proportion of the total metals was water soluble and the amount of lead in feces was significantly higher than in soil. Putrified earthworm extracts gave by far the highest concentrations of all three metals. Acetic acid extractable lead was higher in soil than feces but putrified earthworm extracts gave the highest concentration of lead. The quantities of zinc and calcium extracted were lowest in soil, higher in feces, and much higher in decomposed earthworms. This particular species of earthworm can therefore be considered as a possible source of lead and zinc contamination in heavy metal polluted, acid soil.

  3. Blood compatibility of zinc-calcium phosphate conversion coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Wang, Qing-Zhao; Liu, Li-Jun; Xu, Qian-Qian; Wang, Chuang; Liu, Zhi-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium alloys as a new class of biomaterials possess biodegradability and biocompatibility in comparison with currently used metal implants. However, their rapid corrosion rates are necessary to be manipulated by appropriate coatings. In this paper, a new attempt was used to develop a zinc-calcium phosphate (Zn-Ca-P) conversion coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloys to increase the biocompatibility and improve the corrosion resistance. In vitro blood biocompatibility of the alloy with and without the Zn-Ca-P coating was investigated to determine its suitability as a degradable medical biomaterial. Blood biocompatibility was assessed from the hemolysis test, the dynamic cruor time test, blood cell count and SEM observation of the platelet adhesion to membrane surface. The results showed that the Zn-Ca-P coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloys had good blood compatibility, which is in accordance with the requirements for medical biomaterials.

  4. Plasma and erythrocyte magnesium, manganese, zinc, and plasma calcium levels in G-6-PD-deficient and normal male children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikcioglu, Süreyya Bilmen; Gümüslü, Saadet; Uysal, Nimet; Aksu, T Aslan

    2004-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy in the world. Trace elements are important for normal hematopoiesis and can play a role in acute hemolytic anemia induced by G-6-PD deficiency. For this purpose, we studied two groups consisting of 10 male children who are G-6-PD-deficient and 12 age-matched normal male children to compare plasma and erythrocyte magnesium, manganese, zinc, and plasma calcium levels between G-6-PD-deficient and normal children. All assays were performed under normal conditions free of any oxidative attack that may result in hemolytic crisis in G-6-PD-deficient subjects. All parameters in each group did not differ significantly except for erythrocyte G-6-PD activities. These data show that plasma and erythrocyte trace element contents of G-6-PD-deficient subjects do not differ in normal conditions.

  5. Success of pulpectomy with zinc oxide-eugenol vs calcium hydroxide/iodoform paste in primary molars: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trairatvorakul, Chutima; Chunlasikaiwan, Salinee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and radiographic success rates of zinc oxide-eugenol cement (ZOE) vs calcium hydroxide/iodoform paste (Vitapex) in pulpectomized primary molars at 6 and 12 months. Fifty-four mandibular primary molars from 42 children (average age 5.6 +/- 1.2 years) that met the inclusion criteria were allocated to either test material via block randomization. A 1-visit pulpectomy and stainless steel crown was performed by 1 investigator. The clinical and radiographic diagnoses were blindly assessed by another investigator with an intraexaminer reliability of 0.85 to 0.95 (kappa value). At 6 and 12 months, the ZOE success rates were 48% and 85%, respectively, and the Vitopex success rates were 78% and 89%. The difference in success rates between materials at 6 months was statistically significant, but at 12 months it was not. Vitapex appeared to resolve furcation pathology at a foster rate than zinc oxide-eugenol at 6 months, while at 12 months, both materials yielded similar results.

  6. Adsorption efficiencies of calcium (II ion and iron (II ion on activated carbon obtained from pericarp of rubber fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawan Sirichote

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of adsorption efficiencies of activated carbon from pericarp of rubber fruit for calcium (II ion and iron (II ion has been performed by flowing the solutions of these ions through a column of activated carbon. The weights of activated carbon in 500 mL buret column (diameter 3.2 cm for flowing calcium (II ion and iron (II ion solutions were 15 g and 10 g, respectively. The initial concentration of calcium ion was prepared to be about eight times more diluted than the true concentration found in the groundwater from the lower part of southern Thailand. Calcium (II ion concentrations were analysed by EDTA titration and its initial concentration was found to be 23.55 ppm. With a flow rate of 26 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 11.4 % with passed through volume 4.75 L. Iron (II ion concentrations were analysed by spectrophotometric method; its initial concentration was found to be 1.5565 ppm. At a flow rate of 22 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 0.42 % with passed through volume of 34.0 L.

  7. Investigations on Distribution and Quantity of Zinc in Prostate Cancer Using Synchrotron Radiation Microbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Takuo; Ide-Ektessabi, Ari; Sugimura, Kazurou; Kitamura, Yuri; Gotoh, Akinobu; Shirakawa, Toshiro

    2003-08-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) micro beams were used to investigate ultra-trace elements in a single cell. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy using SR was applied to determine the distribution and density of the ultra-trace elements in incubated prostate cancer cells. Metallic elements such as zinc, iron and copper play an important role in the metabolism and regulatory dynamics of cells. In this study, we focused on zinc because the prostate tissues contain the highest levels of zinc compared to any other tissues in the body and the level of zinc is a factor that influences the progress of malignancy. We measured two types of cells (LNCaP and C4-2) that were incubated in the normal culture medium, zinc-contained one or testosterone-contained one. The distribution and density of zinc, calcium, copper and iron have close relations to the existence of zinc and androgen in the culture medium.

  8. A novel role of the L-type calcium channel α1D subunit as a gatekeeper for intracellular zinc signaling: zinc wave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yamasaki

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that zinc ion (Zn can behave as an intracellular signaling molecule. We previously demonstrated that mast cells stimulated through the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI rapidly release intracellular Zn from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, and we named this phenomenon the "Zn wave". However, the molecules responsible for releasing Zn and the roles of the Zn wave were elusive. Here we identified the pore-forming α(1 subunit of the Cav1.3 (α(1D L-type calcium channel (LTCC as the gatekeeper for the Zn wave. LTCC antagonists inhibited the Zn wave, and an agonist was sufficient to induce it. Notably, α(1D was mainly localized to the ER rather than the plasma membrane in mast cells, and the Zn wave was impaired by α(1D knockdown. We further found that the LTCC-mediated Zn wave positively controlled cytokine gene induction by enhancing the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Consistent with this finding, LTCC antagonists inhibited the cytokine-mediated delayed-type allergic reaction in mice without affecting the immediate-type allergic reaction. These findings indicated that the LTCC α(1D subunit located on the ER membrane has a novel function as a gatekeeper for the Zn wave, which is involved in regulating NF-κB signaling and the delayed-type allergic reaction.

  9. Antibacterial activity of intracanal medications based on calcium hydroxide and zinc oxide micro- or nanoparticles: an ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Maria GUERREIRO-TANOMARU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Nanoparticles and associations to calcium hydroxide can be used to increase antimicrobial activity. Objective To evaluate antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and pH of intracanal medications (IM based on calcium hydroxide (CH and zinc oxide (ZnO micro- or nanoparticles, and their association with 0.4% chlorhexidine (CHX. Material and method Root canals from single-rooted human teeth were inoculated and incubated for 21 days. After sample (S1, the root canals were filled with the medications for 7 days and samples were collected immediately after medication (S2 and 7 days later (S3. Counting of CFU mL-1 was performed. Polyethylene tubes filled with the medications were used for the pH evaluation after 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p<0.05. Result All IM promoted elimination of E. faecalis immediately after medication (S2. All the pastes promoted a similar pH increase. Conclusion CH/ZnO micro- or nanoparticles associated with CHX promoted greater bacterial reduction in the root canals and similar pH.

  10. Roles of Zinc and Iron on Bone Health in a Rat Model of Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Danhua

    Bone is one of the most vital organs in animals, serving as both structural and protective functions. Remodeling of bone is an important indicator of bone health, and disorders in bone remodeling may lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Osteoporosis increases risk of bone fracture and even death, and much more preferable to be happened in postmenopausal women due to great changes in hormones. Micronutrients, such as Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe), would as well influence bone health in different manners. That Zn would promote bone health is widely accepted, for the reasons Zn increases osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation, inhibits osteoclast cell activities, and forms alkaline phosphatase that does help to maintain bone metabolism. Diseases caused by Fe overload is usually related to osteoporosis. Ferric ion could facilitate osteoclast differentiation, inhibit osteoblast and alkaline phosphatase activities, and interfere with hydroxyapatite crystal growth and depositions. However, changes of concentrations and distributions for Zn and Fe in osteoporotic bones are seldom studied. In this thesis, ovariectomized rat femur bones are used as a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Rats from different ages and health conditions are categorized as 6 AM (6-month age matched control), 6 OVX (6-month ovariectomized control), 12 AM (12-month age matched control), 12 OVX (12-month ovariectomized control). The trace elements Zn and Fe is studied through Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence (SRXRF). Elemental maps are used to observe changes in distribution, and further quantitative analysis is used to discover changes in concentration among different animal groups. Both the decrease of Zn and the increase of Fe are significant from healthy to osteoporotic bones (p0.1) is also observed over age in healthy groups. Both elements show changes in distribution, that healthy animals present a more even distribution while in OVX groups the tendency of aggregation is

  11. Acceptability and solubility of iron and zinc contents of modified Moringa oleifera sauces consumed in the Far-north region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawouma, Saliou; Ponka, Roger; Mbofung, Carl Moses

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves is a local and inexpensive solution to iron and zinc deficiencies in the Far-north region of Cameroon. However, traditional household's cooking techniques result in sauces with high pH levels and low leaves incorporation rates that compromise the bioavailability of iron and zinc. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of modifying a standard Moringa sauce on consumer acceptability and the solubility of iron and zinc, which is an indicator of their bioavailability. Lime juice or tamarind pulp was added to a standard recipe in order to reduce the pH by about one unit, and Moringa leaf powder was incorporated in each acidulated sauce at three levels (1, 2, and 4 g/100 g of sauce). All the formulations were evaluated for their acceptability by 30 housewives using a five-point hedonic scale. The pH was measured by a digital electronic pH-meter. Moisture and ash were determined by AOAC methods. Total iron and zinc contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and soluble iron and zinc by HCl-extractability. The lime juice-acidulated sauce and the tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder were the most acceptable formulations with scores of 3.4 and 3.6, respectively. Their chemical analysis showed a reduced pH (6.4 and 6.1, respectively), compared to the Control (7.2). Lime juice-acidulated sauce improved iron and zinc solubility from 42.19 to 66.38% and 54.03 to 82.03%, respectively. Tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder showed a decrease in iron solubility from 42.19 to 38.26% and an increase in zinc solubility from 54.03 to 72.86%. These results confirm the beneficial effect of lime juice in improving iron and zinc bioavailability.

  12. The Effects of Zinc and Iron Oxide Nano-Particles on The Growth and Ion Content of Two Corn Cultivars in Different Soil Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of foliar application of nano-particles and ordinary bulk materials of zinc and iron oxide was studied in two corn genotypes (S.C 704 and seed mass in different soil salinity (0,75,150 mM NaCl. The experiment was arranged as factorial in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that in saline condition Leaf area, shoot and root dry matter, photochemical efficiency, the concentration of K, Fe and Zn in shoot decreased and that of Na and the Na/K ratio increased under saline condition. The interactions of salinity and genotype were significant on leaf area, shoot and root dry matter, Na/K ratio and photochemical efficiency. The application of nano-particles of iron and zinc oxide increased shoot dry matter to a greater degree as compared with ordinary bulk materials. Under saline condition, the application of iron oxide in the form of nano-particles had higher effect on iron uptake by corn plants. However, with an increase in salinity level the superiority of nano form decreased. The application of Nano-particles of iron and zinc as compared to ordinary bulk materials was more effective in alleviating the negative effects of salt stress on the accumulation of zinc in tested plants. This was not evidence in terms of iron accumulation. The results from this experiment showed that the application of nano-particles of iron and zinc promoted plant growth to a greater degree in comparison to ordinary materials of these nutrients. However, the application of nano particles had no advantage in alleviating the effects of salinity on plant growth.

  13. Effects of Iron Concentration Level in Extracting Solutions from Contaminated Soils on the Determination of Zinc by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Two Background Correctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Waterlot

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc and iron concentrations were determined after digestion, water, and three-step sequential extractions of contaminated soils. Analyses were carried out using flame absorption spectrometry with two background correctors: a deuterium lamp used as the continuum light source (D2 method and the high-speed self-reversal method (HSSR method. Regarding the preliminary results obtained with synthetic solutions, the D2 method often emerged as an unsuitable configuration for compensating iron spectral interferences. In contrast, the HSSR method appeared as a convenient and powerful configuration and was tested for the determination of zinc in contaminated soils containing high amounts of iron. Simple, fast, and interference-free method, the HSSR method allows zinc determination at the ppb level in the presence of large amounts of iron with high stability, sensitivity, and reproducibility of results. Therefore, the HSSR method is described here as a promising approach for monitoring zinc concentrations in various iron-containing samples without any pretreatment.

  14. Effect of calcium on adsorptive removal of As(III) and As(V) by iron oxide-based adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Uwamariya, V.

    2014-06-25

    The effects of calcium on the equilibrium adsorption capacity of As(III) and As(V) onto iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS) and granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) were investigated through batch experiments, rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCT) and kinetics modelling. Batch experiments showed that at calcium concentrations≤20 mg/L, high As(III) and As(V) removal efficiencies by IOCS and GFH are achieved at pH 6. An increase of the calcium concentration to 40 and 80 mg/L reversed this trend, giving higher removal efficiencies at higher pH (8). The adsorption capacities of IOCS and GFH at an equilibrium arsenic concentration of 10 g/L were found to be between 2.0 and 3.1 mg/g for synthetic water without calcium and between 2.8 and 5.3 mg/g when 80 mg/L of calcium was present at the studied pH values. After 10 hours of filter run in RSSCT, approximately 1000 empty bed volumes, the ratios of C/Co for As(V) were 26% and 18% for calcium-free model water; and only 1% and 0.2% after addition of 80 mg/L of Ca for filter columns with IOCS and GFH, respectively. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto GFH follows a second-order reaction, with and without addition of calcium. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto IOCS follows a first-order reaction without calcium addition, and moves to the second-reaction-order kinetics when calcium is added. Based on the intraparticle diffusion model, the main controlling mechanism for As(III) adsorption is intraparticle diffusion, while surface diffusion contributes greatly to the adsorption of As(V).

  15. Preparation of iron, aluminium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc humates for environmental applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříženecká, S.; Hejda, S.; Machovič, Vladimír; Trögl, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 11 (2014), s. 1443-1451 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : metal humates * humic substances characterisation * sorption Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  16. Effect of soaking and phytase treatment on phytic acid, calcium, iron and zinc in rice fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, J.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hamer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    With the aim to maximise phytic acid removal and minimise losses of dry matter and minerals (Ca, Fe, Zn) in rice, three products (whole kernels and flour milled from white and brown rice; and bran, all from the same batch of variety Kenjian 90-31) were soaked in demineralized water at 10 °C (SDW),

  17. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  18. Ostrich eggshell as calcium source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,J. R. M.; Louro,L. H. L.; Costa, A. M.; Campos, J. B; Silva,M. H. Prado da

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, hydroxyapatite and Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using ostrich eggshell as a calcium source. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the present phases, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative chemical analysis of the synthesized and heat treated powders. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used before and after heat trea...

  19. Comparative evaluation of Nano-Hydroxyapatite preparation and Calcium Sucrose Phosphate on microhardness of deciduous teeth after iron drop exposure - An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Nilesh; Baid, Rutika; Baliga, Sudhindra; Thosar, Nilima

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and compare the microhardness of deciduous teeth treated with nano-hydroxyapatite and calcium sucrose phosphate after iron drop exposure. Twenty healthy anterior deciduous teeth were collected and stored in 0.9% saline solution at room temperature. All the teeth were immersed in artificial saliva in an incubator shaker at 37° for an hour and then subjected to Vickers microhardness test at 100g load for 5 seconds. The teeth were then immersed in iron drop for 5 minutes, twice daily, rinsed with distilled water and kept in artificial saliva. This procedure was repeated for 7 days and teeth were subjected to microhardness testing. Further, the teeth were divided in two groups, each group containing 10 teeth. In group I, nanohydroxyapatite preparation and in group II, calcium sucrose phosphate were applied for 10 minutes, twice daily for 7 days and subjected again to microhardness testing again. Vickers microhardness analysis revealed that iron drop exposure to teeth caused significant decrease in microhardness (pcalcium sucrose phosphate in Group II showed significantly increased enamel microhardness (200.89) than that after iron drop exposure. Statistical difference was seen between the two groups, with nanohydroxyapatite preparation showing increased microhardness than calcium sucrose phosphate. Nanohydroxyapatite preparation and calcium sucrose phosphate have remineralizing effect over teeth affected by acid challenge of iron drops, nanohydroxyapatite preparation showing better results than calcium sucrose phosphate. Key words:Iron drops, Nanohydroxyapaptite, calcium sucrose phosphate, anticay.

  20. Hypochlorhydria from short-term omeprazole treatment does not inhibit intestinal absorption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium or zinc from food in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty-Lacrosniere, C; Wood, R J; Voytko, D; Saltzman, J R; Pedrosa, M; Sepe, T E; Russell, R R

    1995-08-01

    Low gastric pH is generally believed to be an important factor in intestinal mineral absorption. Thus, hypochlorhydria could be an important risk factor for mineral malabsorption and the development of marginal mineral status. We studied whether the hypochlorhydria associated with treatment with the anti-ulcer medication omeprazole, a potent gastric proton pump inhibition, would affect intestinal calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, or zinc absorption from food. Thirteen normal, healthy adults were assigned to either a control group (n = 5) receiving no drug treatment or an omeprazole treatment group (n = 8) to produce increased gastric pH. Omeprazole treatment of normal volunteers resulted in a significant change in postprandial gastric pH (pH 6.4 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.6 +/- 0.5 in control subjects, p hypochlorhydria resulting from short-term omeprazole treatment substantially increases the risk for developing calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, or zinc deficiencies due to mineral malabsorption.

  1. Genome-wide identification, cloning and functional analysis of the Zinc/Iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) gene family in trifoliate orange (poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Xing Zheng; Zhou, Xue; Xing, Fei; Ling, Li Li; Chun, Chang Pin; Cao, Li; Aarts, Mark G.M.; Peng, Liang Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) deficiency are widespread among citrus plants, but the molecular mechanisms regarding uptake and transport of these two essential metal ions in citrus are still unclear. In the present study, 12 members of the Zn/Fe-regulated transporter (ZRT/IRT)-related protein (ZIP)

  2. A Green Analytical Method Using Ultrasound in Sample Preparation for the Flow Injection Determination of Iron, Manganese, and Zinc in Soluble Solid Samples by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Yebra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid analytical method was developed for the determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid samples. The method is based on continuous ultrasonic water dissolution of the sample (5–30 mg at room temperature followed by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination. A good precision of the whole procedure (1.2–4.6% and a sample throughput of ca. 25 samples h–1 were obtained. The proposed green analytical method has been successfully applied for the determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid food samples (soluble cocoa and soluble coffee and pharmaceutical preparations (multivitamin tablets. The ranges of concentrations found were 21.4–25.61 μg g-1 for iron, 5.74–18.30 μg g-1 for manganese, and 33.27–57.90 μg g-1 for zinc in soluble solid food samples and 3.75–9.90 μg g-1 for iron, 0.47–5.05 μg g-1 for manganese, and 1.55–15.12 μg g-1 for zinc in multivitamin tablets. The accuracy of the proposed method was established by a comparison with the conventional wet acid digestion method using a paired t-test, indicating the absence of systematic errors.

  3. A Green Analytical Method Using Ultrasound in Sample Preparation for the Flow Injection Determination of Iron, Manganese, and Zinc in Soluble Solid Samples by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebra, M. Carmen

    2012-01-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method was developed for the determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid samples. The method is based on continuous ultrasonic water dissolution of the sample (5–30 mg) at room temperature followed by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination. A good precision of the whole procedure (1.2–4.6%) and a sample throughput of ca. 25 samples h–1 were obtained. The proposed green analytical method has been successfully applied for the determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid food samples (soluble cocoa and soluble coffee) and pharmaceutical preparations (multivitamin tablets). The ranges of concentrations found were 21.4–25.61 μg g−1 for iron, 5.74–18.30 μg g−1 for manganese, and 33.27–57.90 μg g−1 for zinc in soluble solid food samples and 3.75–9.90 μg g−1 for iron, 0.47–5.05 μg g−1 for manganese, and 1.55–15.12 μg g−1 for zinc in multivitamin tablets. The accuracy of the proposed method was established by a comparison with the conventional wet acid digestion method using a paired t-test, indicating the absence of systematic errors. PMID:22567553

  4. The usefulness of in vitro models to predict the bioavailability of iron and zinc: A consensus statement from the HarvestPlus expert consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairweather-Tait, S.; Lynch, S.; Hotz, C.; Hurrell, R.; Abrahamse, L.; Beebe, S.; Bering, S.; Bukhave, K.; Glahn, R.; Hambidge, M.; Hunt, J.; Lonnerdal, B.; Miller, D.; Mohktar, N.; Nestel, P.; Reddy, M.; Sandberg, A.S.; Sharp, P.; Teucher, B.; Trinidad, T.P.

    2005-01-01

    A combination of dietary and host-related factors determines iron and zinc absorption, and several in vitro methods have been developed as preliminary screening tools for assessing bioavailability. An expert committee has reviewed evidence for their usefulness and reached a consensus. Dialyzability

  5. Impact of brewing process operations on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in opaque sorghum beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beer is a significant component of the diet of millions of poor people in rural Africa. This study reports the effect of traditional brewing operations on its level of micronutrients, especially iron and zinc. The example of a West African sorghum beer, tchoukoutou, in Northern Benin

  6. Iron and zinc complexation in wild-type and ferritin-expressing wheat grain: implications for mineral transport into developing grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neal, Andrew L; Geraki, Kalotina; Borg, Søren

    2013-01-01

    We have used synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and absorption techniques to establish both metal distribution and complexation in mature wheat grains. In planta, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy reveals iron phytate and zinc phytate structures in aleurone cells and...

  7. Zinc Protoporphyrin-to-Heme Ratio and Ferritin as Measures of Iron Sufficiency in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Kendell; Vu, Phuong T; Grelli, Kimberly N; Denton, Christopher; Lee, Gina; Juul, Sandra E

    2017-12-04

    To evaluate ferritin and zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme (ZnPP/H) ratios as biomarkers of iron status in neonates, determine how specific clinical events affected these measures, and assess how iron status changed during hospitalization. We performed a retrospective study of all infants with paired ferritin and ZnPP/H measurements between October 2014 and May 2016. Concordance of these measurements, effects of sepsis, red blood cell transfusion, erythropoietin treatment, and iron supplementation were assessed. Iron status was measured over time. A total of 228 patients (mean birth weight 1.3 kg, median gestational age 29 weeks) were evaluated. Mean log ZnPP/H values in infants with and without sepsis were not significantly different (4.98 µmol/mol vs 4.97 µmol/mol, adjusted P = .103), whereas log-transformed ferritin values increased significantly during infection (5.23 ng/mL vs 4.04 ng/mL, adjusted P < .001). Ferritin also increased more significantly than ZnPP/H following red blood cell transfusion (ferritin: mean 5.03 ng/mL vs 4.0 ng/mL, P < .001; ZnPP/H: mean 4.85 µmol/mol vs 4.98 µmol/mol, P < .001). The mean iron supplementations at 30, 60, and 90 days were 5.4, 6.9, and 7.4 mg/kg/day, respectively. Ferritin values decreased with advancing postnatal age (adjusted P < .001), with 66% of ferritin values less than 76 ng/mL. Treatment with erythropoietin increased ZnPP/H, but not ferritin levels. Ferritin is more significantly affected by inflammatory events such as sepsis and transfusion than ZnPP/H, thus, ZnPP/H may be a more reliable marker of iron status in this population. Infants showed worsening iron sufficiency over time despite supplementation above American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have ...

  9. Evaluation of micronutrient (zinc, copper and iron) levels in periodontitis patients with and without diabetes mellitus type 2: a biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Biju; Gautam, Anshuman; Prasad, B Rajendra; Kumari, Suchetha

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal tissue destruction is caused by an inappropriate host response to microorganisms. Diabetes is a metabolic disease and most of its complications are due to hyperglycemia. Periodontitis is considered as its sixth complication. Micronutrients such as zinc, copper and iron are essential for human health. There is accumulating evidence that the metabolism of several trace elements is altered in diabetes mellitus and that these nutrients might have specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of this disease and its complication. An association between micronutrients and periodontitis has also been suggested by preliminary studies. However, till date there is a lack of relevant clinical data. This study was designed to estimate and compare the serum levels of zinc, copper and iron in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients and healthy individuals with and without periodontitis. Single centre case-control study. This study included 150 subjects, 50 in each group. Group 1 comprised of 50 subject with diabetes mellitus type 2 and periodontitis. Group 2 comprised of 50 subjects with chronic periodontitis and Group 3 comprised of 50 control subjects. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry method was used to measure clinical level of zinc and copper in serum. Estimation of serum iron levels was done by bathophenanthroline method. The results obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis by analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison tests using statistical software SPSS version 17. The results showed that the serum levels of zinc decreased and serum levels of iron and copper increased in diabetes patients with periodontitis compared to healthy individuals with and without periodontitis. Imbalance of Zinc, copper and iron levels in the serum can predispose an individual to the risk of developing periodontitis.

  10. Evaluation of micronutrient (zinc, copper and iron levels in periodontitis patients with and without diabetes mellitus type 2: A biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Periodontal tissue destruction is caused by an inappropriate host response to microorganisms. Diabetes is a metabolic disease and most of its complications are due to hyperglycemia. Periodontitis is considered as its sixth complication. Micronutrients such as zinc, copper and iron are essential for human health. There is accumulating evidence that the metabolism of several trace elements is altered in diabetes mellitus and that these nutrients might have specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of this disease and its complication. An association between micronutrients and periodontitis has also been suggested by preliminary studies. However, till date there is a lack of relevant clinical data. Aim: This study was designed to estimate and compare the serum levels of zinc, copper and iron in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients and healthy individuals with and without periodontitis. Setting and Design: Single centre case-control study. Subjects and Materials: This study included 150 subjects, 50 in each group. Group 1 comprised of 50 subject with diabetes mellitus type 2 and periodontitis. Group 2 comprised of 50 subjects with chronic periodontitis and Group 3 comprised of 50 control subjects. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry method was used to measure clinical level of zinc and copper in serum. Estimation of serum iron levels was done by bathophenanthroline method. Statistical analysis: The results obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis by analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison tests using statistical software SPSS version 17. Results: The results showed that the serum levels of zinc decreased and serum levels of iron and copper increased in diabetes patients with periodontitis compared to healthy individuals with and without periodontitis. Conclusion: Imbalance of Zinc, copper and iron levels in the serum can predispose an individual to the risk of developing periodontitis.

  11. Judd-Ofelt analysis and spectral properties of Dy3+ ions doped niobium containing tellurium calcium zinc borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, O.; Reddy, C. Madhukar; Reddy, B. Sudhakar; Deva Prasad Raju, B.

    2014-02-01

    Niobium containing tellurium calcium zinc borate (TCZNB) glasses doped with different concentrations of Dy3+ ions were prepared by the melt quenching method and their optical properties have been studied. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters Ωt (t=2, 4 and 6) were calculated using the least square fit method. Based on the magnitude of Ω2 parameter the hypersensitivity of 6H15/2→6F11/2 has also been discussed. From the evaluated J-O intensity parameters as well as from the emission and lifetime measurements, radiative transition properties such as radiative transition probability rates and branching ratios were calculated for 4F9/2 excited level. It is found that for Dy3+ ion, the transition 4F9/2→6H13/2 shows highest emission cross-section at 1.0 mol% TCZNB glass matrix. From the visible luminescence spectra, yellow to blue (Y/B) intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates were also estimated. The TCZNB glasses exhibit good luminescence properties and are suitable for generation of white light.

  12. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Response to Zinc, Magnesium, and Calcium Deficiency in Specific Cell Types of Arabidopsis Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Fukao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proteome profiles of specific cell types have recently been investigated using techniques such as fluorescence activated cell sorting and laser capture microdissection. However, quantitative proteomic analysis of specific cell types has not yet been performed. In this study, to investigate the response of the proteome to zinc, magnesium, and calcium deficiency in specific cell types of Arabidopsis thaliana roots, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics using GFP-expressing protoplasts collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Protoplasts were collected from the pGL2-GFPer and pMGP-GFPer marker lines for epidermis or inner cell lines (pericycle, endodermis, and cortex, respectively. To increase the number of proteins identified, iTRAQ-labeled peptides were separated into 24 fractions by OFFGFEL electrophoresis prior to high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, 1039 and 737 proteins were identified and quantified in the epidermal and inner cell lines, respectively. Interestingly, the expression of many proteins was decreased in the epidermis by mineral deficiency, although a weaker effect was observed in inner cell lines such as the pericycle, endodermis, and cortex. Here, we report for the first time the quantitative proteomics of specific cell types in Arabidopsis roots.

  13. Volume 10 No. 6 June 2010 2629 ß-CAROTENE, IRON AND ZINC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-06-06

    Jun 6, 2010 ... and iodine are important for brain development in utero [19]. By promoting consumption of bananas with ..... binding divalent cations and their depressive effect on mineral absorption has been demonstrated in humans [32]. Thus, further ... zinc in wheat and cassava. However, further studies in bananas, ...

  14. The assessment of soil availability and wheat grain status of zinc and iron in Serbia: Implications for human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Nikolic, Nina; Kostic, Ljiljana; Pavlovic, Jelena; Bosnic, Predrag; Stevic, Nenad; Savic, Jasna; Hristov, Nikola

    2016-05-15

    The deficiency of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) is a global issue causing not only considerable yield losses of food crops but also serious health problems. We have analysed Zn and Fe concentrations in the grains of two bread wheat cultivars along native gradient of micronutrient availability throughout Serbia. Although only 13% of the soil samples were Zn deficient and none was Fe deficient, the levels of these micronutrients in grain were rather low (median values of 21 mg kg(-1) for Zn and 36 mg kg(-1) for Fe), and even less adequate in white flour. Moreover, excessive P fertilization of calcareous soils in the major wheat growing areas strongly correlated with lower grain concentration of Zn. Our results imply that a latent Zn deficiency in wheat grain poses a high risk for grain quality relevant to human health in Serbia, where wheat bread is a staple food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of iron and calcium carbonate on contaminant removal efficiencies and microbial communities in integrated wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhimiao; Song, Xinshan; Zhang, Yinjiang; Zhao, Yufeng; Wang, Bodi; Wang, Yuhui

    2017-12-01

    In the paper, we explored the influences of different dosages of iron and calcium carbonate on contaminant removal efficiencies and microbial communities in algal ponds combined with constructed wetlands. After 1-year operation of treatment systems, based on the high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis of microbial communities, the optimal operating conditions were obtained as follows: the ACW10 system with Fe3+ (5.6 mg L-1), iron powder (2.8 mg L-1), and CaCO3 powder (0.2 mg L-1) in influent as the adjusting agents, initial phosphorus source (PO43-) in influent, the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus (N/P) of 30 in influent, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. Total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency were improved significantly. The hydrolysis of CaCO3 promoted the physicochemical precipitation in contaminant removal. Meanwhile, Fe3+ and iron powder produced Fe2+, which improved contaminant removal. Iron ion improved the diversity, distribution, and metabolic functions of microbial communities in integrated treatment systems. In the treatment ACW10, the dominant phylum in the microbial community was PLANCTOMYCETES, which positively promoted nitrogen removal. After 5 consecutive treatments in ACW10, contaminant removal efficiencies for TN and TP respectively reached 80.6% and 57.3% and total iron concentration in effluent was 0.042 mg L-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Overexpression of ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 Enhances Iron and Zinc Accumulation in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzhen Li

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are important micronutrients for both the growth and nutrient availability of crop plants, and their absorption is tightly controlled by a metal uptake system. Zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like proteins (ZIP, is considered an essential metal transporter for the acquisition of Fe and Zn in graminaceous plants. Several ZIPs have been identified in maize, although their physiological function remains unclear. In this report, ZmIRT1 was shown to be specifically expressed in silk and embryo, whereas ZmZIP3 was a leaf-specific gene. Both ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were shown to be localized to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmIRT1 or ZmZIP3 were generated, and the metal contents in various tissues of transgenic and wild-type plants were examined based on ICP-OES and Zinpyr-1 staining. The Fe and Zn concentration increased in roots and seeds of ZmIRT1-overexpressing plants, while the Fe content in shoots decreased. Overexpressing ZmZIP3 enhanced Zn accumulation in the roots of transgenic plants, while that in shoots was repressed. In addition, the transgenic plants showed altered tolerance to various Fe and Zn conditions compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, the genes associated with metal uptake were stimulated in ZmIRT1 transgenic plants, while those involved in intra- and inter- cellular translocation were suppressed. In conclusion, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 are functional metal transporters with different ion selectivities. Ectopic overexpression of ZmIRT1 may stimulate endogenous Fe uptake mechanisms, which may facilitate metal uptake and homeostasis. Our results increase our understanding of the functions of ZIP family transporters in maize.

  17. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei cluster 1 type VI secretion system gene expression is negatively regulated by iron and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtnick, Mary N; Brett, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes glanders in humans and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1) expressed by this organism is essential for virulence in hamsters and is positively regulated by the VirAG two-component system. Recently, we have shown that T6SS-1 gene expression is up-regulated following internalization of this pathogen into phagocytic cells and that this system promotes multinucleated giant cell formation in infected tissue culture monolayers. In the present study, we further investigated the complex regulation of this important virulence factor. To assess T6SS-1 expression, B. mallei strains were cultured in various media conditions and Hcp1 production was analyzed by Western immunoblotting. Transcript levels of several VirAG-regulated genes (bimA, tssA, hcp1 and tssM) were also determined using quantitative real time PCR. Consistent with previous observations, T6SS-1 was not expressed during growth of B. mallei in rich media. Curiously, growth of the organism in minimal media (M9G) or minimal media plus casamino acids (M9CG) facilitated robust expression of T6SS-1 genes whereas growth in minimal media plus tryptone (M9TG) did not. Investigation of this phenomenon confirmed a regulatory role for VirAG in this process. Additionally, T6SS-1 gene expression was significantly down-regulated by the addition of iron and zinc to M9CG. Other genes under the control of VirAG did not appear to be as tightly regulated by these divalent metals. Similar results were observed for B. pseudomallei, but not for B. thailandensis. Collectively, our findings indicate that in addition to being positively regulated by VirAG, B. mallei and B. pseudomallei T6SS-1 gene expression is negatively regulated by iron and zinc.

  18. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei cluster 1 type VI secretion system gene expression is negatively regulated by iron and zinc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N Burtnick

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes glanders in humans and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1 expressed by this organism is essential for virulence in hamsters and is positively regulated by the VirAG two-component system. Recently, we have shown that T6SS-1 gene expression is up-regulated following internalization of this pathogen into phagocytic cells and that this system promotes multinucleated giant cell formation in infected tissue culture monolayers. In the present study, we further investigated the complex regulation of this important virulence factor. To assess T6SS-1 expression, B. mallei strains were cultured in various media conditions and Hcp1 production was analyzed by Western immunoblotting. Transcript levels of several VirAG-regulated genes (bimA, tssA, hcp1 and tssM were also determined using quantitative real time PCR. Consistent with previous observations, T6SS-1 was not expressed during growth of B. mallei in rich media. Curiously, growth of the organism in minimal media (M9G or minimal media plus casamino acids (M9CG facilitated robust expression of T6SS-1 genes whereas growth in minimal media plus tryptone (M9TG did not. Investigation of this phenomenon confirmed a regulatory role for VirAG in this process. Additionally, T6SS-1 gene expression was significantly down-regulated by the addition of iron and zinc to M9CG. Other genes under the control of VirAG did not appear to be as tightly regulated by these divalent metals. Similar results were observed for B. pseudomallei, but not for B. thailandensis. Collectively, our findings indicate that in addition to being positively regulated by VirAG, B. mallei and B. pseudomallei T6SS-1 gene expression is negatively regulated by iron and zinc.

  19. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei Cluster 1 Type VI Secretion System Gene Expression Is Negatively Regulated by Iron and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtnick, Mary N.; Brett, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes glanders in humans and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1) expressed by this organism is essential for virulence in hamsters and is positively regulated by the VirAG two-component system. Recently, we have shown that T6SS-1 gene expression is up-regulated following internalization of this pathogen into phagocytic cells and that this system promotes multinucleated giant cell formation in infected tissue culture monolayers. In the present study, we further investigated the complex regulation of this important virulence factor. To assess T6SS-1 expression, B. mallei strains were cultured in various media conditions and Hcp1 production was analyzed by Western immunoblotting. Transcript levels of several VirAG-regulated genes (bimA, tssA, hcp1 and tssM) were also determined using quantitative real time PCR. Consistent with previous observations, T6SS-1 was not expressed during growth of B. mallei in rich media. Curiously, growth of the organism in minimal media (M9G) or minimal media plus casamino acids (M9CG) facilitated robust expression of T6SS-1 genes whereas growth in minimal media plus tryptone (M9TG) did not. Investigation of this phenomenon confirmed a regulatory role for VirAG in this process. Additionally, T6SS-1 gene expression was significantly down-regulated by the addition of iron and zinc to M9CG. Other genes under the control of VirAG did not appear to be as tightly regulated by these divalent metals. Similar results were observed for B. pseudomallei, but not for B. thailandensis. Collectively, our findings indicate that in addition to being positively regulated by VirAG, B. mallei and B. pseudomallei T6SS-1 gene expression is negatively regulated by iron and zinc. PMID:24146925

  20. Effect of Foliar Applications of Humic Acid, Iron and Zinc on some Characteristics of Negro (Guizotia abyssinica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tadayyon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important needs in farm planning is the evaluation of different systems of plant nutrition. By supplying the correct way of plant nutrition you can preserve the environment and increase efficiency of agricultural inputs. In order to investigate the effect of foliar application of organic fertilizers and micronutrients on some characteristics of neger, a field experiment was conducted in a complete randomized block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station of Shahrekord University in 2013-2014. Treatments consisted of control, three levels of humic acid (1, 3, and 6 liters/ha of humic acid, iron (4 per thousand, and zinc (4 per thousand. In this experiment traits like plant height, stem diameter, stem branch number, biological yield, seed yield, harvest index, and percent and oil yield were evaluated. The results showed that foliar application of these materials resulted in significant increase in the traits under study. Oil yield increased by 63 and 53 percent with the use of 6 liters humic acid and zinc respectively, as compared to the use of 1 liter per hectare. This may be the outcome of increased in oil yield and protein content. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of protein observed for tratment of 6 liters per hectare. The highest response of traits firstly obtained by use of 6 liters per hectare humic acid and then from spraying plants with the zinc which shows its limited absorption and/or probably the lack of this element in the soil where the experiment was conducted.

  1. Impact of rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on laboratory measurements of nutritional status of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Mattos Della Lucia

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortification of food constitutes an important strategy for the control of micronutrient deficiency and has advantages such as high population coverage and maintenance of eating habits. This study aimed to assess the impact of using fortified rice (Ultra Rice® - UR® on the nutritional status of preschoolers. Ninety-nine children enrolled in two philanthropic preschools participated of the study. Children of one of the preschools were offered UR® mixed with polished rice, as part of school meals (test group and the children of another preschool were offered pure polished rice (control group. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after 4 months of intervention. Dietary assessment and sensory evaluation of UR® mixed with polished rice were performed during the study. The fortified rice improved the concentrations of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The fortified rice showed good acceptability among preschoolers. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on the nutritional status of children.

  2. Comparative evaluation of Nano-Hydroxyapatite preparation and Calcium Sucrose Phosphate on microhardness of deciduous teeth after iron drop exposure - An in-vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baid, Rutika; Baliga, Sudhindra; Thosar, Nilima

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate and compare the microhardness of deciduous teeth treated with nano-hydroxyapatite and calcium sucrose phosphate after iron drop exposure. Material and Methods Twenty healthy anterior deciduous teeth were collected and stored in 0.9% saline solution at room temperature. All the teeth were immersed in artificial saliva in an incubator shaker at 37° for an hour and then subjected to Vickers microhardness test at 100g load for 5 seconds. The teeth were then immersed in iron drop for 5 minutes, twice daily, rinsed with distilled water and kept in artificial saliva. This procedure was repeated for 7 days and teeth were subjected to microhardness testing. Further, the teeth were divided in two groups, each group containing 10 teeth. In group I, nanohydroxyapatite preparation and in group II, calcium sucrose phosphate were applied for 10 minutes, twice daily for 7 days and subjected again to microhardness testing again. Results Vickers microhardness analysis revealed that iron drop exposure to teeth caused significant decrease in microhardness (pmicrohardness (206.90) than that after iron drop exposure. Similarly, application of calcium sucrose phosphate in Group II showed significantly increased enamel microhardness (200.89) than that after iron drop exposure. Statistical difference was seen between the two groups, with nanohydroxyapatite preparation showing increased microhardness than calcium sucrose phosphate. Conclusions Nanohydroxyapatite preparation and calcium sucrose phosphate have remineralizing effect over teeth affected by acid challenge of iron drops, nanohydroxyapatite preparation showing better results than calcium sucrose phosphate. Key words:Iron drops, Nanohydroxyapaptite, calcium sucrose phosphate, anticay. PMID:28469827

  3. Deficiency of Calcium-Independent Phospholipase A2 Beta Induces Brain Iron Accumulation through Upregulation of Divalent Metal Transporter 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goichi Beck

    Full Text Available Mutations in PLA2G6 have been proposed to be the cause of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 2. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying brain iron accumulation during the deficiency of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta (iPLA2β, which is encoded by the PLA2G6 gene. Perl's staining with diaminobenzidine enhancement was used to visualize brain iron accumulation. Western blotting was used to investigate the expression of molecules involved in iron homeostasis, including divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1 and iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and 2, in the brains of iPLA2β-knockout (KO mice as well as in PLA2G6-knockdown (KD SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, mitochondrial functions such as ATP production were examined. We have discovered for the first time that marked iron deposition was observed in the brains of iPLA2β-KO mice since the early clinical stages. DMT1 and IRP2 were markedly upregulated in all examined brain regions of aged iPLA2β-KO mice compared to age-matched wild-type control mice. Moreover, peroxidized lipids were increased in the brains of iPLA2β-KO mice. DMT1 and IRPs were significantly upregulated in PLA2G6-KD cells compared with cells treated with negative control siRNA. Degeneration of the mitochondrial inner membrane and decrease of ATP production were observed in PLA2G6-KD cells. These results suggest that the genetic ablation of iPLA2β increased iron uptake in the brain through the activation of IRP2 and upregulation of DMT1, which may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  5. Zinc and calcium alter the relationship between mitochondrial respiration, ROS and membrane potential in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Mahmoud S; Stevens, Don; Kamunde, Collins

    2017-08-01

    At excess levels, zinc (Zn) disrupts mitochondrial functional integrity and induces oxidative stress in aquatic organisms. Although much is known about the modulation of Zn toxicity by calcium (Ca) in fish, their interactions at the mitochondrial level have scarcely been investigated. Here we assessed the individual and combined effects of Zn and Ca on the relationship between mitochondrial respiration, ROS and membrane potential (ΔΨmt) in rainbow trout liver mitochondria. We tested if cation uptake through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is a prerequisite for Zn- and/or Ca-induced alteration of mitochondrial function. Furthermore, using our recently developed real-time multi-parametric method, we investigated the changes in respiration, ΔΨmt, and reactive oxygen species (ROS, as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) release associated with Ca-induced mitochondrial depolarization imposed by transient and permanent openings of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). We found that independent of the MCU, Zn precipitated an immediate depolarization of the ΔΨmt that was associated with relatively slow enhancement of H2O2 release, inhibition of respiration and reversal of the positive correlation between ROS and ΔΨmt. In contrast, an equitoxic dose of Ca caused transient depolarization, and stimulation of both respiration and H2O2 release, effects that were completely abolished when the MCU was blocked. Contrary to our expectation that mitochondrial transition ROS Spike (mTRS) would be sensitive to both Zn and Ca, only Ca suppressed it. Moreover, Zn and Ca in combination immediately depolarized the ΔΨmt, and caused transient and sustained stimulation of respiration and H2O2 release, respectively. Lastly, we uncovered and characterized an mPTP-independent Ca-induced depolarization spike that was associated with exposure to moderately elevated levels of Ca. Importantly, we showed the stimulation of ROS release associated with highly elevated but not

  6. Hybrid zero valent iron (ZVI)/H2O2 oxidation process for landfill leachate treatment with novel nanosize metallic calcium/iron composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Son Dong; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho

    2017-04-01

    A novel nanosize metallic calcium/iron dispersed reagent was synthesized and tested as coagulant/catalyst in a hybrid zero valent iron (ZVI)/H2O2 oxidation process to treat leachate. Two different types of leachates, one from municipal solid waste (MSW) tipping hall (MSWIL) and second from an MSW landfill site (MSWLL), were collected and characterized. The morphology, elemental composition, and mineral phases of the nano-Ca/CaO and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO were characterized by scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coagulation process with 2.5 g L-1 nano-Ca/CaO attained 64.0, 56.0, and 20.7% removal of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solids (TSS) in MSWLL. With only 1.0 g L-1 of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO, relatively high color, COD and TSS removal was achieved in MSWLL at 67.5, 60.2, and 37.7%, respectively. The heavy metal removal efficiency reached 91-99% after treatment with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO in both leachate samples. The coupling process, using 1.0 g L-1 of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO and 20 mM H2O2 doses, achieved enhancement removal of color, COD, and TSS, up to 95%, 96%, and 66%, respectively, without initial pH control. After this treatment, the color, COD, TSS, and heavy metals were significantly decreased, fitting the Korean discharge regulation limit. A hybrid coupled zero valent iron (ZVI)/H2O2 oxidation process with novel nanosized metallic calcium/iron dispersed reagent proved to be a suitable treatment for dealing with leachate samples. Conventional treatments (biological or physicochemical) are not sufficient anymore to reach the level of purification needed to fully reduce the negative impact of landfill leachates on the environment. This implies that new treatment alternatives species must be proposed. A coupled zero valent iron (ZVI)/H2O2 oxidation process proved to be a suitable treatment for dealing with leachate samples. Coagulation with nFe/Ca/CaO allows 91-99% of heavy

  7. Copper metabolism and its interactions with dietary iron, zinc, tin and selenium in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, S.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies on copper metabolism and its interactions with selected dietary trace elements in rats. The rats were fed purified diets throughout. High intakes of iron or tin reduced copper concentrations in plasma, liver and kidneys. The dietary treatments also

  8. Daily supplementation with iron plus folic acid, zinc, and their combination is not associated with younger age at first walking unassisted in malnourished preschool children from a deficient population in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K; Leclerq, Steven C; Mullany, Luke C; Yanik, Elizabeth L; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Siegel, Emily H; Tielsch, James M

    2010-07-01

    A community-based, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily zinc and/or iron+folic acid supplementation was conducted in rural southern Nepal to examine motor milestone attainment among 3264 children 1-36 mo of age between 2001 and 2006. Treatment groups included placebo, zinc (10 mg), iron+folic acid (12.5 mg iron + 50 microg folic acid), and zinc+iron+folic acid (10 mg zinc + 12.5 mg iron + 50 microg folic acid). Infants received half of these doses. The iron arms were stopped November 2003 by recommendation of the Data Safety and Monitoring Board; zinc and placebo continued until January 2006. A total of 2457 children had not walked at the time of entry into the trial and 1775 were followed through 36 mo. Mean age at first walking unassisted did not differ among groups and was 444 +/- 81 d (mean +/- SD) in the placebo group, 444 +/- 81 d in the zinc group, 464 +/- 85 d in the iron+folic acid group, and 446 +/- 87 d in the iron+folic acid+zinc group. Results were similar after adjustment for age at enrollment, asset ownership, maternal literacy, and prior child deaths in the household and in children who consumed at least 60 tablets. Compared with placebo, iron+folic acid was associated with an adjusted mean delay of 28.0 d (95% CI: 11.3, 44.7) in time to walking among infants and the delay was more pronounced with mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) < 9.5 cm [60.6 d, (95% CI: 28.5, 92.6)]. Risks and benefits of universal iron+folic acid supplementation of infants beyond improved hematologic status deserve further consideration.

  9. Preparation of ZnSO4·7H2O using filter cake enriched in calcium and magnesium from the process of zinc hydrometallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xuanbing; Wei, Yonggang; Wang, Hua; Hu, Guanglai

    2017-11-24

    ZnSO4∙7H2O was prepared using a filter cake enriched in calcium and magnesium that was generated during the process of zinc hydrometallurgy. The study was optimized to obtain process parameters. The results show that the optimal acid leaching parameters are a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:3.5, a sulfuric acid concentration of 16%, an acid leaching time of 20 min, a final pH of 4.1-4.4, a cooling and settling time of 120 min, an oxidation time of 20 min, a stirring speed of 300 r/min, a H2O2 dosage of 25 mL/L, a crystallization temperature of 20 °C, and a crystallization time of 60 min. The ZnSO4∙7H2O content in the product is 98.6%, and the zinc recovery efficiency is 97.5%. This process is characterized by simple flow and low cost, while the circulation and accumulation problems with calcium and magnesium ions in the zinc hydrometallurgy process are also solved.

  10. The effects of grafted mesenchymal stem cells labeled with iron oxide or cobalt-zinc-iron nanoparticles on the biological macromolecules of rat brain tissue extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotna, Bozena; Herynek, Vit; Rossner, Pavel; Turnovcova, Karolina; Jendelova, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    Rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) labeled with 1) poly-l-lysine-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles or 2) silica-coated cobalt-zinc-iron nanoparticles were implanted into the left brain hemisphere of rats, to assess their effects on the levels of oxidative damage to biological macromolecules in brain tissue. Controls were implanted with unlabeled rMSCs. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours or 4 weeks after the treatment, and the implantation site along with the surrounding tissue was isolated from the brain. At the same intervals, parallel groups of animals were scanned in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The comet assay with enzymes of excision DNA repair (endonuclease III and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase) was used to analyze breaks and oxidative damage to DNA in the brain tissue. Oxidative damage to proteins and lipids was determined by measuring the levels of carbonyl groups and 15-F2t-isoprostane (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). MRI displayed implants of labeled cells as extensive hypointense areas in the brain tissue. In histological sections, the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and CD68 was analyzed to detect astrogliosis and inflammatory response. Both contrast labels caused a similar response in the T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) image and the signal was clearly visible within 4 weeks after implantation of rMSCs. No increase of oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, or proteins over the control values was detected in any sample of brain tissue from the treated animals. Also, immunohistochemistry did not indicate any serious tissue impairment around the graft. Both tested types of nanoparticles appear to be prospective and safe labels for tracking the transplanted cells by MR.

  11. NIR fluorescence spectroscopic investigations of Er{sup 3+}-ions doped borate based tellurium calcium zinc niobium oxide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, O. [Department of Instrumentation, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Dhoble, S.J. [Department of Physics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India); Ramesh, B.; Devarajulu, G. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Reddy, C. Madhukar [Department of Physics, AP Model School, Yerravaripalem 517194 (India); Linganna, K. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Reddy, G. Rajasekhar [Department of Instrumentation, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Raju, B. Deva Prasad, E-mail: drdevaprasadraju@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Department of Future Studies, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)

    2015-08-15

    A series of Er{sup 3+} ions doped tellurium calcium zinc niobium borate glasses were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The prepared samples were investigated by optical absorption and near infrared fluorescence spectroscopic studies. The obtained Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters Ω{sub λ} (λ=2, 4 and 6) were determined through experimental and calculated oscillator strengths obtained from absorption spectra and their results are studied and compared with reported literature. The stark-level energies of {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} excited and {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} ground states were evaluated by using both the absorption and emission measurements. The effect of Er{sup 3+} ion concentration on the emission intensity of {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition was discussed. Intense and broad 1.53 µm infrared fluorescence is observed at 980 nm diode laser excitation. Photoluminescence (PL) and its decay behavior studies were carried out for the transition {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} at 1.53 µm emission. The broad emission together with higher values of the bandwidth (81 nm), stimulated emission cross-section (32.25×10{sup −22} cm{sup 2}) and lifetime (530 µs for 1.0 mol% of Er{sup 3+}) of level {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} make these glasses attractive for broadband amplifiers. From the analysis of spectroscopic data, the present glass is a prospective photonic material for practical applications in the visible and NIR region. - Highlights: • In this study we prepared TCZNB glasses doped with Er{sup 3+} ions. • Glasses are characterized with absorption, emission and lifetime analysis. • Judd–Ofelt theory is used to calculate radiative properties. • TCZNB glasses could be used as NIR lasers.

  12. Anticorrosive effects and in vitro cytocompatibility of calcium silicate/zinc-doped hydroxyapatite composite coatings on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yong, E-mail: xfpang@aliyun.com [College of Lab Medicine, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000 (China); Institute of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhang, Honglei [College of Chemistry Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071000 (China); Qiao, Haixia; Nian, Xiaofeng [College of Lab Medicine, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000 (China); Zhang, Xuejiao, E-mail: 527238610@qq.com [College of Lab Medicine, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000 (China); Wang, Wendong; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Chang, Xiaotong [College of Lab Medicine, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000 (China); Han, Shuguang [Institute of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Pang, Xiaofeng [Institute of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); International Centre for Materials Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110015 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • We developed a ZnHA/CS-coated Ti implant by using an ED method. • The obtained ZnHA/CS coatings presented a net-like micro-porous. • The ZnHA/CS coating possessed an excellent corrosion protection ability. • The composite coated CP-Ti possesses favourable cytocompatibility. - Abstract: This work elucidated the corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of electroplated Zn- and Si-containing bioactive calcium silicate/zinc-doped hydroxyapatite (ZnHA/CS) ceramic coatings on commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti). The formation of ZnHA/CS coating was investigated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma analyses. The XRD image showed that the reaction layer was mainly composed of HA and CaSiO{sub 3}. The fabricated ZnHA/CS coatings presented a porous structure and appropriate thickness for possible applications in orthopaedic surgery. Potentiodynamic polarization tests showed that ZnHA/CS coatings exhibited higher corrosion resistance than CP-Ti. Dissolution tests on the coating also revealed that Si{sup 4+} and Zn{sup 2+} were leached at low levels. Moreover, MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on ZnHA/CS featured improved cell morphology, adhesion, spreading, proliferation and expression of alkaline phosphatase than those cultured on HA. The high cytocompatibility of ZnHA/CS could be mainly attributed to the combination of micro-porous surface effects and ion release (Zn{sup 2+} and Si{sup 4+}). All these results indicate that ZnHA/CS composite-coated CP-Ti may be a potential material for orthopaedic applications.

  13. Food fortification with iron and zinc: pros and cons from a dietary and nutritional viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Boccio José; Monteiro Josefina Bressan

    2004-01-01

    La deficiencia nutricional de ciertos minerales como el hierro y zinc afectan a la población a escala mundial con graves efectos sobre la salud dependiendo fundamentalmente del grado de incidencia y de la magnitud de la deficiencia. La fortificación de alimentos ha resultado ser la estrategia más efectiva para corregir esta situación con inconvenientes que radican no solamente en la elección del alimento a utilizar como transporte para dichos nutrientes sino también en la correcta elección de...

  14. Influence of iron on crystallization behavior and thermal stability of the insulating materials - porous calcium silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Sonja; Yu, Donghong; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2017-01-01

    The properties of porous calcium silicate for high temperature insulation are strongly influenced by impurities. In this work we determine the influence of Fe3+ on the crystallization behavior and thermal stability of hydrothermally derived calcium silicate. We synthesize porous calcium silicate...... by XRD analysis. The thermal stability and compressive strength of the calcium silicates are seriously influenced by the changes of their crystal structure. Linear shrinkage of the reference sample is 1.3% at 1050°C, whereas the sample with Fe/Si =1.0% does by 30.4%. In conclusion, the presence of Fe3......+ modifies the crystal structure of porous calcium silicates, leading to a significant shrinkage in these materials....

  15. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos: resultados de la ENSANUT 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia was 11.8 and 4.6%, body iron deficiency 18.2 and 7.9% for females and males, respectively. Overall prevalence of tissue iron deficiency was 6.9%, low serum copper were14.4 and 12.25%; zinc 28.4 and 24.5%, magnesium 40 and 35.3%; for females and males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of mineral deficiency in Mexican adolescents; females were more prone to have more mineral deficiencies. Nutritional interventions are necessaries in order to reduce and control them.OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos en la encuesta probabilística ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La muestra incluyó 2447 adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad. Se tomó hemoglobina capilar y muestras de sangre venosa para medir las concentraciones séricas de ferritina, sTFR, CRP, zinc, hierro, cobre y magnesio. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística para evaluar el riesgo de deficiencia de minerales. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de anemia fue de 11.8% en mujeres y 4.6% en hombres. Las deficiencias de hierro fueron de 18.2 y 7.9% La deficiencia tisular de hierro fue 6.9%; la baja concentración de cobre fue de 14.4 y 12.25% la de zinc de 28.4 y 24.5%, la de magnesio fue 40 y 35.3% en mujeres y hombres, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una alta prevalencia de deficiencia de minerales en los adolescentes; las mujeres tuvieron mayor riesgo. Son necesarias

  16. Electrochemical deposition of iron sulfide thin films and heterojunction diodes with zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Shoichi, E-mail: shoichi-kawai@denso.co.jp; Sobue, Susumu; Okuno, Eiichi [DENSO CORP. Research Laboratories, Komenoki, Nissin, Aichi 470-0111 (Japan); Yamazaki, Ryuta; Ichimura, Masaya [Department of Engineering Physics, Electronics and Mechanics, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    Iron sulfide thin films were fabricated by the electrochemical deposition method from an aqueous solution containing FeSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The composition ratio obtained was Fe:S:O = 36:56:8. In the photoelectrochemical measurement, a weak negative photo-current was observed for the iron sulfide films, which indicates that its conduction type is p-type. No peaks were observed in X-ray diffraction pattern, and thus the deposited films were considered to be amorphous. For a heterojunction with ZnO, rectification properties were confirmed in the current-voltage characteristics. Moreover, the current was clearly enhanced under AM1.5 illumination.

  17. Oral administration of iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin-loaded ceramic nanocapsules for breast cancer therapy and influence on iron and calcium metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahidhara, Ganesh; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Roy, Kislay; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2015-01-01

    We determined the anticancer efficacy and internalization mechanism of our polymeric-ceramic nanoparticle system (calcium phosphate nanocores, enclosed in biodegradable polymers chitosan and alginate nanocapsules/nanocarriers [ACSC NCs]) loaded with iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) in a breast cancer xenograft model. ACSC-Fe-bLf NCs with an overall size of 322±27.2 nm were synthesized. In vitro internalization and anticancer efficacy were evaluated in the MDA-MB-231 cells using multicellular tumor spheroids, CyQUANT and MTT assays. These NCs were orally delivered in a breast cancer xenograft mice model, and their internalization, cytotoxicity, biodistribution, and anticancer efficacy were evaluated. Chitosan-coated calcium phosphate Fe-bLf NCs effectively (59%, P≤0.005) internalized in a 1-hour period using clathrin-mediated endocytosis (P≤0.05) and energy-mediated pathways (P≤0.05) for internalization; 3.3 mg/mL of ACSC-Fe-bLf NCs completely disintegrated (~130-fold reduction, P≤0.0005) the tumor spheroids in 72 hours and 96 hours. The IC50 values determined for ACSC-Fe-bLf NCs were 1.69 mg/mL at 10 hours and 1.62 mg/mL after 20 hours. We found that Fe-bLf-NCs effectively (P≤0.05) decreased the tumor size (4.8-fold) compared to the void NCs diet and prevented tumor recurrence when compared to intraperitoneal injection of Taxol and Doxorubicin. Receptor gene expression and micro-RNA analysis confirmed upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and transferrin receptor (liver, intestine, and brain). Several micro-RNAs responsible for iron metabolism upregulated with NCs were identified. Taken together, orally delivered Fe-bLf NCs offer enhanced antitumor activity in breast cancer by internalizing via low-density lipoprotein receptor and transferrin receptor and regulating the micro-RNA expression. These NCs also restored the body iron and calcium levels and increased the hematologic counts.

  18. Toward a better understanding of coagulation for dissolved organic nitrogen using polymeric zinc-iron-phosphate coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guocheng; Wang, Qian; Yin, Jun; Li, Zhongwu; Zhang, Peng; Ren, Bozhi; Fan, Gongduan; Wan, Peng

    2016-09-01

    The increase of agricultural related activities and the lack of effective waste control has led to an increase of organic nitrogen in water. The development of coagulants to effectively remove dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is a high priority in the water treatment industry. We developed a polymeric zinc-iron-phosphate (ZnFeP) coagulant and investigated its coagulation effect on DON removal. Optimum coagulant for coagulation for DON and TDN removals was characterized by the dense convex-concave packing structure differing from other zinc-based coagulant, polycrystalline structure and high content colloidal species, which could account up to 87% of the total colloidal species. Coagulation experiments showed the DON removal rate to vary greatly depending on principal components and their interaction with metals, phosphate and hydroxyl. DON removal efficiency increased with the increase of colloidal species. The coagulation was also dependent on coagulant dosage and water quality parameters: Coagulation efficiency increased with coagulant dosage in the investigated range of 1-16 mg/l, and a pH of 6 was found to be superior for the coagulation. DON removal efficiency was also higher than and linearly correlated with total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) removal, which implies that an effective coagulation for TDN is also effective for DON. The findings in this study indicate that coagulation of DON is largely influenced by coagulant composition and species. We also found the removal of DON by our newly developed polymeric ZnFeP coagulant to be effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of iron and calcium carbonate on the variation and cycling of carbon source in integrated wastewater treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhimiao, Zhao; Xinshan, Song; Yufeng, Zhao; Yanping, Xiao; Yuhui, Wang; Junfeng, Wang; Denghua, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Iron and calcium carbonate were added in wastewater treatments as the adjusting agents to improve the contaminant removal performance and regulate the variation of carbon source in integrated treatments. At different temperatures, the addition of the adjusting agents obviously improved the nitrogen and phosphorous removals. TN and TP removals were respectively increased by 29.41% and 23.83% in AC-100 treatment under 1-day HRT. Carbon source from dead algae was supplied as green microbial carbon source and Fe2+ was supplied as carbon source surrogate. COD concentration was increased to 30mg/L and above, so the problem of the shortage of carbon source was solved. Dead algae and Fe2+ as carbon source supplement or surrogate played significant role, which was proved by microbial community analysis. According to the denitrification performance in the treatments, dead algae as green microbial carbon source combined with iron and calcium carbonate was the optimal supplement carbon source in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Shaping optimal zinc coating on the surface of high-quality ductile iron casting. Part II – Technological formula and value of diffusion coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyciński D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The completed research presented in the first part of the article has allowed linking the manufacturing technology of ductile iron castings with the process of hot dip galvanizing. On the basis of these data simulations were carried out to examine the behaviour of zinc diffusion coefficient D in the galvanized coating. The adopted model of zinc coating growth helped to explain the cases of excessive growth of the intermetallic phases in this type of coating. The paper analyzes covered the relationship between the roughness and phase composition of the top layer of product and the thickness and kinetics of zinc coating growth referred to individual sub-layers of the intermetallic phases.Roughness and phase composition in the surface layer of product were next related to the diffusion coefficient D examined in respective sublayers of the intermetallic phases.

  1. Stability of Vitamin A, Iron and Zinc in Fortified Rice during Storage and Its Impact on Future National Standards and Programs—Case Study in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khov Kuong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortified rice holds great potential for bringing essential micronutrients to a large part of the world population. The present study quantified the losses of three different micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc in fortified rice that were produced using three different techniques (hot extrusion, cold extrusion, and coating and stored at two different environments (25 ± 5 °C at a humidity of 60% and 40 ± 5 °C at a humidity of 75% for up to one year. Fortified rice premix from the different techniques was mixed with normal rice in a 1:100 ratio. Each sample was analyzed in triplicate. The study confirmed the high stability of iron and zinc during storage while the retention of vitamin A was significantly affected by storage and the type of techniques used to make rice premix. Losses for iron and zinc were typically <10% for any type of rice premix. After 12 months at mild conditions (25 °C and humidity of 60%, losses for vitamin A ranged from 20% for cold extrusion, 30% for hot extruded rice 77% for coated rice premix. At higher temperatures and humidity, losses of vitamin A were 40%–50% for extruded premix and 93% for coated premix after 6 months. We conclude that storage does lead to a major loss of vitamin A and question whether rice is a suitable food vehicle to fortify with vitamin A. For Cambodia, fortification of rice with iron and zinc could be an effective strategy to improve the micronutrient status of the population if no other food vehicles are available.

  2. Survey of heavy metal pollution (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron and manganese) in drinking water resources of Nurabad city, Lorestan, Iran 2013

    OpenAIRE

    GHodratolah Shams Khorramabadi; Abdolah Dargahi; Lila Tabandeh; Hatam Godini; Parvin Mostafaee

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy water passes through the pipelines from supply resources to consuming places in which passing from these stages may cause some cases of contamination like heavy metal contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese) in water resources of Nurabad city of Lorestan in 2013. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, samples were collected from 7 wells of drinking...

  3. Evaluation of serum levels of zinc, copper, and Helicobacter pylori IgG and IgA in iron deficiency anemia cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacibekiroglu, T; Basturk, A; Akinci, S; Bakanay, S M; Ulas, T; Guney, T; Dilek, I

    2015-12-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common form of anemia. Impaired intake absorption and blood loss are the main factors in the etiology. Impaired absorption can be caused by a decrease in trace elements such as copper and zinc, which are found in the structure of enzymes that coordinate iron metabolism or act as a catalyst for them, and the existence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which inhibits iron absorption in the stomach. Serum levels of zinc, copper, and H. pylori antibodies were measured in IDA cases, and correlations with IDA were evaluated. The study group was composed of 115 IDA cases who were followed at hematology outpatient clinics, and the control group was composed of 92 gender- and age-matched healthy individuals. Patients were diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia according to hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and iron levels and total iron-binding capacity. Serum zinc, copper, H. pylori immunoglobulin A (HpIgA) and immunoglobulin G (HpIgG), vitamin B12, and folic acid levels were examined in the blood specimens collected. No statistically significant difference in zinc and copper serum levels between the study and control groups was observed (p > 0.05 for both groups). Although no difference was observed between the HpIgG levels of the two groups, patients with IDA had a statistically significant increase in HpIgA levels (p < 0.05). Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the zinc levels of the IDA group did not have a correlation with any parameters (p < 0.05 for all). Copper levels had a positive correlation with only the HpIgA level in the IDA group (r = 0.222, p = 0.017). Trace elements and H. pylori infection did not have a correlation with IDA. Elevated levels of HpIgA and positive correlation of HpIgA with copper levels were observed. The literature review clearly suggests that several points require further explanation, and extensive research with larger samples is required.

  4. [Iron deficiency towards the year 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layrisse, M

    1999-09-01

    This is a non-comprehensive overview of the latest 50 years about the evolution of iron metabolism and the methodology we currently have for the diagnosis of iron deficiency and its effects on human health. In the 40's iron absorption was determined by chemistry. The amount of iron absorbed was calculated as the difference between dietary iron and excreted iron. The other methods used to measure dietary iron was hemoglobin repletion. In the 70's the measurement of plasmatic ferritin was an important contribution to iron metabolism to assess iron deficiency and iron overload. In the same decade the extrinsic and intrinsic labelled methodology was an important advancement. The 70's and 80's were years where scientists aimed at finding iron absorption inhibitors, namely coffee, calcium, tea, zinc and fiber. The 80's and 90's were characterized for the emerging knowledge an iron absorption from a food, a meal and a complete diet and for the favorable effect of food iron fortification in developing countries. Also for the effect of iron excess in overall health and myocardial infarction in developed countries were studied.

  5. Solution NMR structure of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein U (IscU) with zinc bound at the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelot, Theresa A; Cort, John R; Goldsmith-Fischman, Sharon; Kornhaber, Gregory J; Xiao, Rong; Shastry, Ritu; Acton, Thomas B; Honig, Barry; Montelione, Gaetano T; Kennedy, Michael A

    2004-11-19

    IscU is a highly conserved protein that serves as the scaffold for IscS-mediated assembly of iron-sulfur ([Fe-S]) clusters. We report the NMR solution structure of monomeric Haemophilus influenzae IscU with zinc bound at the [Fe-S] cluster assembly site. The compact core of the globular structure has an alpha-beta sandwich architecture with a three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and four alpha-helices. A nascent helix is located N-terminal to the core structure. The zinc is ligated by three cysteine residues and one histidine residue that are located in and near conformationally dynamic loops at one end of the IscU structure. Removal of the zinc metal by chelation results in widespread loss of structure in the apo form. The zinc-bound IscU may be a good model for iron-loaded IscU and may demonstrate structural features found in the [Fe-S] cluster bound form. Structural and functional similarities, genomic context in operons containing other homologous genes, and distributions of conserved surface residues support the hypothesis that IscU protein domains are homologous (i.e. derived from a common ancestor) with the SufE/YgdK family of [Fe-S] cluster assembly proteins.

  6. Regional distributions of manganese, iron, copper, and zinc in the brains of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarohda, Tohru; Ishida, Yasushi; Kawai, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Amano, Ryohei

    2005-09-01

    Time courses of changes in manganese, iron, copper, and zinc concentrations were examined in regions of the brain of a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentrations were simultaneously determined in brain section at the level of the substantia nigra 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days after the 6-OHDA treatment and compared with those of control rats. The distributions of these elements were obtained for 18 regions of the sagittal section (1-mm thick). The ICP-MS results indicated that Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn levels of the 6-OHDA-induced parkinsonian brain were observed to increase in all regions that lay along the dopaminergic pathway. In the substantia nigra, the increase in Mn level occurred rapidly from 3 to 7 days and preceded those in the other elements, reaching a plateau in the 6-OHDA brain. Iron and Zn levels increased gradually until 7 days and then increased rapidly from 7 to 10 days. The increase in the copper level was slightly delayed. In other regions, such as the globus pallidus, putamen, and amygdala, the levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn increased with time after 6-OHDA treatment, although the time courses of their changes were region-specific. These findings contribute to our understanding of the roles of Mn and Fe in the induction of neurological symptoms and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the development of Parkinson's disease. Manganese may hold the key to disturbing cellular Fe homeostasis and accelerating Fe levels, which play the most important role in the development of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Comparative evaluation of Nano-Hydroxyapatite preparation and Calcium Sucrose Phosphate on microhardness of deciduous teeth after iron drop exposure - An in-vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Rathi, Nilesh; Baid, Rutika; Baliga, Sudhindra; Thosar, Nilima

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate and compare the microhardness of deciduous teeth treated with nano-hydroxyapatite and calcium sucrose phosphate after iron drop exposure. Material and Methods Twenty healthy anterior deciduous teeth were collected and stored in 0.9% saline solution at room temperature. All the teeth were immersed in artificial saliva in an incubator shaker at 37? for an hour and then subjected to Vickers microhardness test at 100g load for 5 seconds. The teeth were then immersed in iron...

  8. Zinc ions efflux from lymphocytes in vitro in the presence of a calcium and magnesium ionic environment and its changes following administration of verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubek, Sławomir

    2007-01-01

    The total and ouabain-dependent rate constants of efflux of zinc (Zn) ions from lymphocytes isolated from healthy subjects were measured in vitro in an environment containing calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) ions. Both the total (ERCt-Zn) and ouabain-dependent (ERCos-Zn) rate constants were higher in the presence of Mg2+, with the the oubain-dependent efflux significantly different 0.29+/-0.07 vs 0.13+/-0.02 with and without Mg2+, respectively (pERCE-Zn was observed in both ionic environments and was higher and statistically significant in the presence of Mg2+: 1.94+/-0.64 vs 2.97+/-1.16 (p<0.025). These results suggest that verapamil has an enhancing effect on Zn efflux from isolated lymphocytes, suggesting that calcium channel blockers might result in better Zn homeostatic regulation in diseases of the cardiovascular system.

  9. Characterization of calcium and zinc spatial distributions at the fibrocartilage zone of bone–tendon junction by synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongbin; Chen, Can; Wang, Zhanwen; Qu, Jin; Xu, Daqi [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Center of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Wu, Tianding; Cao, Yong [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Zhou, Jingyong; Zheng, Cheng [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Center of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Hu, Jianzhong, E-mail: jianzhonghu@hotmail.com [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Center of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China)

    2015-09-01

    Tendon attaches to bone through a functionally graded fibrocartilage zone, including uncalcified fibrocartilage (UF), tidemark (TM) and calcified fibrocartilage (CF). This transition zone plays a pivotal role in relaxing load transfer between tendon and bone, and serves as a boundary between otherwise structurally and functionally distinct tissue types. Calcium and zinc are believed to play important roles in the normal growth, mineralization, and repair of the fibrocartilage zone of bone–tendon junction (BTJ). However, spatial distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of BTJ and their distribution–function relationship are not totally understood. Thus, synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μXRF) in combination with backscattered electron imaging (BEI) was employed to characterize the distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of rabbit patella–patellar tendon complex (PPTC). For the first time, the unique distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of the PPTC were clearly mapped by this method. The distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of the PPTC were inhomogeneous. A significant accumulation of zinc was exhibited in the transition region between UF and CF. The highest zinc content (3.17 times of that of patellar tendon) was found in the TM of fibrocartilage zone. The calcium content began to increase near the TM and increased exponentially across the calcified fibrocartilage region towards the patella. The highest calcium content (43.14 times of that of patellar tendon) was in the transitional zone of calcified fibrocartilage region and the patella, approximately 69 μm from the location with the highest zinc content. This study indicated, for the first time, that there is a differential distribution of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of PPTC. These observations reveal new insights into region-dependent changes across the fibrocartilage

  10. Disponibilidad de cobre, hierro, manganeso, zinc en suelos del NO argentino Pant availability of copper, iron, manganesum and zinc in the north west of Agentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Roca

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cobre, hierro, manganeso y zinc son cuatro metales esenciales para el crecimiento vegetal. A pesar de las pequeñas cantidades requeridas por las plantas, los suelos agrícolas suelen ser deficitarios en uno o más micronutrientes de forma que su concentración en los tejidos de los vegetales cae por debajo de los niveles que permiten un crecimiento óptimo. La naturaleza del suelo juega un papel fundamental en la disponibilidad de micronutrientes y en su comportamiento a nivel suelo-planta. Los objetivos planteados en el presente estudio son: a establecer la relación entre los parámetros edáficos y la dinámica de los metales dentro del perfil del suelo, y b determinar la biodisponibilidad y zonas de deficiencia de micronutrientes en suelos agrícolas y suelos con riesgo de salinización. El porcentaje de materia orgánica es el factor determinante en el contenido y distribución de los micronutrientes en el suelo objeto de estudio, siendo el horizonte superficial el de mayor acumulación. Tanto CuDTPA, FeDTPA como MnDTPA tienen cierta movilidad en el perfil, mientras que ZnDTPA permanece adsorbido sin un desplazamiento vertical. El ZnDTPA es el único metal que además, muestra diferencias como consecuencia de la salinidad y granulometría de los suelos. No obstante, las condiciones geoquímicas del suelo implican una baja extractabilidad y una cierta dificultad de absorción de los micronutrientes por parte de las plantas.Copper, iron, manganese and zinc are among the essential elements for plant growth. Despite the small amounts required by plants, agricultural soils are usually deficient in one or more of these micronutrients. Therefore, their concentration in plant tissues falls below the optimum levels. Soil nature plays a fundamental role in the availability of micronutrients and their behavior at a soil-plant level. The aims of this paper were: a to establish the relationship between soil properties and micronutrient dynamics within

  11. Phytosiderophores determine thresholds for iron and zinc accumulation in biofortified rice endosperm while inhibiting the accumulation of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banakar, Raviraj; Alvarez Fernandez, Ana; Díaz-Benito, Pablo; Abadia, Javier; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2017-10-13

    Nicotianamine (NA) and 2'-deoxymugenic acid (DMA) are metal-chelating ligands that promote the accumulation of metals in rice endosperm, but it is unclear how these phytosiderophores regulate the levels of different metals and limit their accumulation. In this study, transgenic rice plants producing high levels of NA and DMA accumulated up to 4-fold more iron (Fe) and 2-fold more zinc (Zn) in the endosperm compared with wild-type plants. The distribution of Fe and Zn in vegetative tissues suggested that both metals are sequestered as a buffering mechanism to avoid overloading the seeds. The buffering mechanism involves the modulation of genes encoding metal transporters in the roots and aboveground vegetative tissues. As well as accumulating more Fe and Zn, the endosperm of the transgenic plants accumulated less cadmium (Cd), suggesting that higher levels of Fe and Zn competitively inhibit Cd accumulation. Our data show that although there is a strict upper limit for Fe (~22.5 µg g-1 dry weight) and Zn (~84 µg g-1 dry weight) accumulation in the endosperm, the careful selection of strategies to increase endosperm loading with essential minerals can also limit the accumulation of toxic metals such as Cd, thus further increasing the nutritional value of rice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Association mapping unveils favorable alleles for grain iron and zinc concentrations in lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Sharma, Vinay; Dikshit, Harsh Kumar; Aski, Muraleedhar; Kumar, Harish; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Patil, Basavanagouda S; Kumar, Shiv; Sarker, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Lentil is a major cool-season grain legume grown in South Asia, West Asia, and North Africa. Populations in developing countries of these regions have micronutrient deficiencies; therefore, breeding programs should focus more on improving the micronutrient content of food. In the present study, a set of 96 diverse germplasm lines were evaluated at three different locations in India to examine the variation in iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) concentration and identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that associate with the genetic variation. The genetic variation among genotypes of the association mapping (AM) panel was characterized using a genetic distance-based and a general model-based clustering method. The model-based analysis identified six subpopulations, which satisfactorily explained the genetic structure of the AM panel. AM analysis identified three SSRs (PBALC 13, PBALC 206, and GLLC 563) associated with grain Fe concentration explaining 9% to 11% of phenotypic variation and four SSRs (PBALC 353, SSR 317-1, PLC 62, and PBALC 217) were associated with grain Zn concentration explaining 14%, to 21% of phenotypic variation. These identified SSRs exhibited consistent performance across locations. These candidate SSRs can be used in marker-assisted genetic improvement for developing Fe and Zn fortified lentil varieties. Favorable alleles and promising genotypes identified in this study can be utilized for lentil biofortification.

  13. The effects of formalin fixation and tissue embedding of bovine liver on copper, iron, and zinc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Lamm, Catherine; Erb, Hollis N; Hillebrandt, Joseph R

    2008-03-01

    Veterinary analytical chemistry laboratories might be called upon to analyze formalin-fixed or paraffin-embedded tissue samples for trace minerals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether concentrations of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) are comparable among fresh or frozen, formalin-fixed, and paraffin-embedded bovine liver samples on an as-received basis. Three liver sample subtypes (fresh or frozen, formalin-fixed, and paraffin-embedded) from 12 cows were collected and analyzed for Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations. Concentrations were measured by using inductively coupled argon plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy. There was no significant difference in mineral measurements between fresh or frozen and formalin-fixed samples for Cu and Zn (both P > or = 0.052). The median concentration of Fe was lower in the fresh or frozen samples than in the formalin-fixed samples. However, for every pair of fresh or frozen and paraffin-embedded samples for all 3 minerals, the fresh or frozen sample had a lower measurement than the paraffin-embedded sample (all P = 0.005). Differences in mineral measurements associated with tissue processing did not result in differences in classification (within or outside the reference range) for Fe. However, the classification of Cu and Zn was different up to 25% of the time with fresh or frozen versus formalin-fixed or embedded liver. Although Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations attained from processed tissue may be useful, they must be evaluated with caution.

  14. Flow-Injection Solid Phase Partial Least-Squares Spectrophotometric Simultaneous Determination of Iron, Nickel and Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Leonardo S. G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A PLS-2 multivariate calibration method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of iron, nickel and zinc in ternary mixtures by solid phase spectrophotometry associated with flow injection analysis. Fe(II, Ni(II and Zn(II form color complexes with 1-(2-thiazolylazo-2-naphthol (TAN, immobilized on a C18 bonded silica support, at pH 6.4. The proposed procedure is based on the different reaction/retention ratios of the studied ions on the solid support. Bilinear spectrophotometric data of the analytes, fixed in the solid support, were recorded in the 400-800 nm wavelength range as a function of time and a partial least squares (PLS-2 algorithm was used to predict results of synthetic samples. The calibration set employed was integrated by 8 ternary mixture standards and a blank solution. Mixtures containing 0.040 to 0.20 mg L-1, of each species, were successfully resolved, using 3 factors for each analyte and a restricted number of absorbance data obtained in the wavelength range from 560 to 650 nm.

  15. Synovial fluid and plasma selenium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, M; Sarban, S; Kocyigit, A; Isikan, U E

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, a great number of studies have investigated the possible role of trace elements in the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoartritis (OA). We studied synovial fluid and plasma concentrations of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in patients with RA and OA and compared them with sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. Plasma albumin levels were measured as an index of nutritional status. Plasma Se, Cu, and Zn concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Fe concentrations were determined by the colorimetric method. Although plasma and synovial fluid Se concentration were found to be significantly lower (p 0.05). On the other hand, synovial fluid Cu and Fe concentrations were significantly higher in patients with OA than those of healthy subjects (p < 0.05). There was a significantly positive correlation between synovial fluid Se-Cu values and Zn-Fe values in patients with RA. Our results showed that synovial fluid and plasma trace element concentrations, excluding Zn, change in inflammatory RA, but not in OA. These alterations in trace element concentrations in inflammatory RA might be a result of the changes of the immunoregulatory cytokines.

  16. Dust Explosion Characteristics of Aluminum, Titanium, Zinc, and Iron-Based Alloy Powders Used in Cold Spray Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, K.; Tagomori, K.; Sugiyama, N.; Sasaki, S.; Shinya, Y.; Nanbu, T.; Kawashita, Y.; Narita, I.; Kuwatori, K.; Ikeda, T.; Hara, R.; Miyahara, H.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to conventional thermal spray coating, cold spray processing typically employs finer, smaller-diameter metal powders. Furthermore, cold-sprayed particles exhibit fewer surface oxides than thermally sprayed particles due to the absence of particle melting during spraying. For these reasons, it is important to consider the potential for dust explosions or fires during cold spray processing, for both industrial and R&D applications. This work examined the dust explosion characteristics of metal powders typically used in cold spray coating, for the purpose of preventing dust explosions and fires and thus protecting the health and safety of workers and guarding against property damage. In order to safely make use of the new cold spray technology in industrial settings, it is necessary to manage the risks based on an appropriate assessment of the hazards. However, there have been few research reports focused on such risk management. Therefore, in this study, the dust explosion characteristics of aluminum, titanium, zinc, carbonyl iron, and eutectoid steel containing chromium at 4 wt.% (4 wt.% Cr-eutectoid steel) powders were evaluated according to the standard protocols JIS Z 8818, IEC61241-2-3(1994-09) section 3, and JIS Z 8817. This paper reports our results concerning the dust explosion properties of the above-mentioned metal powders.

  17. Expression profiling reveals functionally redundant multiple-copy genes related to zinc, iron and cadmium responses in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jimeng; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Aarts, Mark G M; Wu, Jian

    2014-07-01

    Genes underlying environmental adaptability tend to be over-retained in polyploid plant species. Zinc deficiency (ZnD) and iron deficiency (FeD), excess Zn (ZnE) and cadmium exposure (CdE) are major environmental problems for crop cultivation, but little is known about the differential expression of duplicated genes upon these stress conditions. Applying Tag-Seq technology to leaves of Brassica rapa grown under FeD, ZnD, ZnE or CdE conditions, with normal conditions as a control, we examined global gene expression changes and compared the expression patterns of multiple paralogs. We identified 812, 543, 331 and 447 differentially expressed genes under FeD, ZnD, ZnE and CdE conditions, respectively, in B. rapa leaves. Genes involved in regulatory networks centered on the transcription factors bHLH038 or bHLH100 were differentially expressed under (ZnE-induced) FeD. Further analysis revealed that genes associated with Zn, Fe and Cd responses tended to be over-retained in the B. rapa genome. Most of these multiple-copy genes showed the same direction of expression change under stress conditions. We conclude that the duplicated genes involved in trace element responses in B. rapa are functionally redundant, making the regulatory network more complex in B. rapa than in Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Long distance electron transmission couples sulphur, iron, calcium and oxygen cycling in marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    Geochemical observations in marine sediment have recently documented that electric currents may intimately couple spatially separated biogeochemical processes (1). When marine sediment rich in iron sulphide was exposed to oxygen we observed how the electric currents resulted in significant...

  19. Oral phosphate binders: phosphate binding capacity of iron (III) hydroxide complexes containing saccharides and their effect on the urinary excretion of calcium and phosphate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Baxter, J G; Maebashi, N; Asano, T

    1999-09-01

    Phosphate binders that contain aluminum or calcium are frequently prescribed to treat hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but an accumulation of aluminum can lead to encephalopathy, aluminum-related bone disease (ARBD) such as osteomalacia, anaemia, and resistance to erythropoietin, and calcium accumulation can lead to hypercalcaemia. High phosphate concentrations are reduced in vitro and in vivo by a phosphate adsorption pill, which is synthesized by hydrolyzing ferrous sulfate in the presence of saccharides, to form an iron (III)-saccharide complex that is acid resistant and binds phosphate greater than iron (III) hydroxide alone. Under in vitro conditions, containing 3.26 mg P/dL, the iron (III)-sucrose complex showed the highest phosphate adsorption capacity at pH 2 with artificial gastric juice, 58.9 mg P/g binder. For the 7 day in vivo study, 0% (Group 1), 1% (Group 2), 4% (Group 3), and 8% (Group 4) iron (III)-sucrose complex was admixed into the rodent chow by weight and fed to 15 male Wistar rats. The weight and volume of the feces and urine, and the calcium, iron, and phosphorus excretions in the feces and urine samples were monitored for any signs of irregularity. Total urine outflow was collected during a 24-h period to determine the amount of phosphate recovered, which indicates the ability of the phosphate binder to reduce gastrointestinal phosphate absorption. The fecal iron excretion was significantly effected by the amount of binder ingested throughout the study for Group 2 (p calcium excretion (mg/rat/24-h) significantly increased by the 7th day for Group 2 (p calcium containing phosphate-binding agents for combating hyperphosphataemia.

  20. Structural and luminescence study of antimony-zinc borophosphate glass doped with iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xie Guan; Eeu, Tien Yew; Leow, Ting Qiao; Shamsuri, Wan Nurulhuda Wan; Hussin, Rosli

    2013-05-01

    Antimony zinc borophosphate glass were prepared with the composition of 20ZnO-30B2O3-xP2O5-(50-x)Sb2O3-2Fe2O3 (0≤x≤50 mol%) using the melt quenching method. The starting materials were mixed and preheat for 30 minutes and transfer into high temperature furnace for melting. The structure of samples were measured using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy. The spectra showed that network structure in the samples are mainly based on P=O, PO2, P-O, B-O-B and B-O units. With increasing P2O5 content, the vibration of P-O tends to shift towards lower wavenumber. Meanwhile, the luminescence was studied using Photoluminescence (PL) Spectroscopy. The samples were excited at specific wavelengths (265 - 300 nm). The emission profiles were obtained to study the energy transfer process. Luminescence of violet colour from samples were also recorded to correlate with PL results.

  1. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to present...... and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...

  2. Light-induced charge-transport properties of photorefractive barium-calcium-titanate crystals doped with iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhuis, H.; Börger, T.; Buse, K.; Kuper, C.; Hesse, H.; Krätzig, E.

    2000-07-01

    Nominally pure and iron doped, as-grown, and thermally annealed photorefractive barium-calcium-titanate crystals of the congruently melting composition Ba0.23Ca0.77TiO3 (BCT) are investigated by holographic and conventional electrical techniques. Refractive-index changes, two-beam-coupling gains, photoconductivities, dark conductivities, and bulk-photovoltaic current densities are measured. As-grown and oxidized crystals are hole conductive and at usual illumination conditions (light wavelength 514.5 nm, light intensity between 0.1 and 1 W/cm2) all measured properties are excellently described by an one-center charge-transport model. The effective electrooptic coefficient r333 is only about 30 pm/V and thus much smaller than the value obtained from interferometric measurements. Two-beam-coupling gains as high as 7 cm-1 are achieved. Doping with iron increases considerably the effective trap density, and bulk-photovoltaic fields of the order of some kilovolts per centimeter are observed in iron-doped crystals. Typical response times of iron-doped, as-grown, or oxidized crystals are about 0.5 s at 1 W/cm2. Reduction yields electron-conductive BCT. The dark storage time increases from 6 min in the as-grown state to 3 h upon a slight reduction treatment, but decreases for strongly reduced samples. The investigation reveals that BCT will become a very promising alternative to barium-titanate crystals (BaTiO3) for many applications.

  3. Effects of preparation methods of mixed calcium and zinc thermal stabilizers derived from dimer fatty acid and tung-oil based C22 triacid on properties of PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and zinc salts of dimer fatty acids (DFA-Ca and DFA-Zn were synthesized using direct neutralization and metathesis technologies, respectively. The adduct of maleic anhydride and methyl eleostearate (MAME was also converted to the corresponding zinc soap (C22TA-Zn and calcium soap (C22TA-Ca by the two different synthetic routes. Mixed Ca/Zn salts between DFA-Ca and DFA-Zn, and between C22TA-Zn and C22TA-Ca were used as thermal stabilizers for poly(vinyl chloride (PVC. The PVC thermal stability was determined using Congo red test, discoloration test, torque rheological analysis and TGA. Dynamic mechanical properties were also tested. Results indicated that the DFA-Ca/DFA-Zn thermal stabilizer from direct neutralization technology was found to be superior to that of the metathesis product. The C22TA-Ca/C22TA-Zn thermal stabilizer from direct neutralization method had overall superior thermal stability, and displayed modulus and glass transition comparable to that of metathesis product. Direct neutralization method was more excellent and convenient than metathesis technology.

  4. Iron, Zinc, Folate, and Vitamin B-12 Status Increased among Women and Children in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon, 1 Year after Introducing Fortified Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Nankap, Martin; Ndjebayi, Alex O; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Hampel, Daniela; Killilea, David W; Gimou, Marie-Madeleine; Houghton, Lisa A; Friedman, Avital; Tarini, Ann; Stamm, Rosemary A; Brown, Kenneth H

    2017-07-01

    Background: Few data are available on the effectiveness of large-scale food fortification programs.Objective: We assessed the impact of mandatory wheat flour fortification on micronutrient status in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon.Methods: We conducted representative surveys 2 y before and 1 y after the introduction of fortified wheat flour. In each survey, 10 households were selected within each of the same 30 clusters (n = ∼300 households). Indicators of inflammation, malaria, anemia, and micronutrient status [plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), zinc, folate, and vitamin B-12] were assessed among women aged 15-49 y and children 12-59 mo of age.Results: Wheat flour was consumed in the past 7 d by ≥90% of participants. Postfortification, mean total iron and zinc concentrations of flour samples were 46.2 and 73.6 mg/kg (target added amounts were 60 and 95 mg/kg, respectively). Maternal anemia prevalence was significantly lower postfortification (46.7% compared with 39.1%; adjusted P = 0.01), but mean hemoglobin concentrations and child anemia prevalence did not differ. For both women and children postfortification, mean plasma concentrations were greater for ferritin and lower for sTfR after adjustments for potential confounders. Mean plasma zinc concentrations were greater postfortification and the prevalence of low plasma zinc concentration in women after fortification (21%) was lower than before fortification (39%, P 50% greater postfortification.Conclusion: Although the pre-post survey design limits causal inference, iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin B-12 status increased among women and children in urban Cameroon after mandatory wheat flour fortification.

  5. Avaliação do uso de ervas medicinais como suplemento nutricional de ferro, cobre e zinco Evaluation of the use of medicinal grass as nutritional supplement of iron, copper and zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édira Castello Branco de Andrade

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O cobre, ferro e zinco, considerados elementos essenciais ao corpo humano, apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função da forma química que se encontram em um alimento. As ervas medicinais, amplamente utilizadas, podem apresentar novas indicações quanto a suplementação destes metais. Este trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar os teores de cobre, ferro e zinco em ervas medicinais, pós e ervas secas, e promover a extração seqüencial visando a biodisponibilidade. Os teores de cobre, ferro e zinco foram determinados através da espectroscopia de absorção atômica. A extração seqüencial foi aplicada com os extratores cloreto de cálcio 1,0M; ácido acético 0,1M com acetato de amônio 5% (pH=5,0; ácido acético 0,5M e HCl 0,5M. Os resultados apresentaram teores altos de cobre, ferro e zinco, quando comparados com outras fontes alimentícias destes metais, além de indicar que os mesmos se apresentam sob, no mínimo, 4 espécies químicas distintas nas ervas analisadas. O extrator I foi o de melhor eficiência para os três metais. Considerando que o consumo destas ervas é feito com visão farmacológica, acredita-se que uso das mesmas em preparos de alimentos pode favorecer a suplementação dos metais cobre, ferro e zinco.Copper, iron and zinc, considered essential elements in the human body, present changeable biodisponibility in chemical form more than if found in a food. Medicinal plants, widely used, can present new indications as to how much the suplementation of these metals, aiming at such an objective, can be shown to evaluate the amounts of copper, iron, and zinc in medicinal plants, powder and dry grass, and to promote the extraction sequencial aiming at the biodisponibility. The copper amount, iron and zinc had been determined through the spectroscopy of atomic absorption. The extraction sequencial was applied with the extractors calcium chloride 1,0M; acetic acid 0,1M with ammonium acetate 5% ( pH=5,0 ; acetic acid 0

  6. Dietary zinc intake of vegetarian and nonvegetarian patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, R; Birmingham, C L; Aeberhardt, L; Goldner, E M

    1993-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and zinc deficiency, found most frequently in young females, have a number of symptoms in common. These include weight loss, alterations in taste and appetite, depression, and amenorrhea. Approximately half of anorexia nervosa patients (ANs) are vegetarian (VANs), a practice that may increase their risk for zinc deficiency. This study compared the dietary intake of zinc and related nutrients in 9 outpatient VANs with that of 11 outpatient nonvegetarian patients with anorexia nervosa (NVANs). VANs reported significantly lower (p < .05) dietary intakes of zinc, fat, and protein, and a significantly higher (p < .05) intake of calories from carbohydrates than NVANs. There were no significant differences between the groups in dietary intake of calories, calcium, copper, iron, or magnesium. These findings indicate that zinc intake should be routinely assessed in VANs and that zinc supplementation of their diets may be indicated.

  7. Effect of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA as growth regulator along with chelated zinc and iron on the availability of manganese, zinc, copper and iron in Mentha piperita Linn cultivar Kukrail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Prasad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was displayed at the research plot of chemistry Department of Allahabad Agricultural Institute Deemed University, Allahabad to study the effect of NAA along with chelated Zinc and Iron on the availability of micronutrients of Mentha piperrita cultivar Kukrail during winter season. It is quite obvious that Mn was influenced significantly by application of NAA and Zn/Fe EDTA through foliar spray. The concentration of Mn increased with increasing levels of NAA with or without application of Zn/Fe EDTA and markedly higher in Mentha plants at 60 ppm NAA with 10ppm Zn/Fe EDTA. The higher concentration of NAA suppressed the uptake of nutrients above 60 ppm. However, the intake of Mn, Zn and Cu was much higher in second year trial with NAA and Zn while Fe obtained higher uptake in first year than that of second year experiment. The application of NAA was found to increase the Cu uptake with increasing doses till 60ppm with or without the incorporation of Zn/Fe and then gradually a fall at higher concentrations. The second cutting value in second year trial was higher than the corresponding year cutting affected by NAA with Zn. The result was found significant over control due to foliar application of NAA and Fe separately in second year experiment. Fe uptake in mint plants grown with different doses of NAA and Fe in second year trial was greater than first year trial. The Fe uptake in menta piperita plants in both trials were found higher over control. But the Fe uptake in mint plants narrowed down above 60ppm of NAA application with or without Zn/Fe EDTA spray.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10636 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 238-245

  8. Are Low Intakes and Deficiencies in Iron, Vitamin A, Zinc, and Iodine of Public Health Concern in Ethiopian, Kenyan, Nigerian, and South African Children and Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harika, Rajwinder; Faber, Mieke; Samuel, Folake; Mulugeta, Afework; Kimiywe, Judith; Eilander, Ans

    2017-09-01

    To perform a systematic review to evaluate iron, vitamin A, zinc, and iodine status and intakes in children and adolescents (0-19 years) in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa. Both national and subnational data published from the year 2005 to 2015 were searched via MEDLINE, Scopus, and national public health websites. For each micronutrient and country, status data from relevant studies and surveys were combined into an average prevalence and weighted by sample size (WAVG). Inadequate intakes were estimated from mean (SD) intakes. This review included 55 surveys and studies, 17 from Ethiopia, 11 from Kenya, 12 from Nigeria, and 16 from South Africa. The WAVG prevalence of anemia ranged from 25% to 53%, iron deficiency from 12% to 29%, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) from 14% to 42%, zinc deficiency from 32% to 63%, and iodine deficiency from 15% to 86% in children aged 0 to 19 years from 4 countries. Generally, children 15 ppm) salt ranged from 2% in Kenya to 96% in Ethiopia. With large variation within the 4 African countries, our data indicate that anemia and vitamin A, zinc, and iodine deficiencies are problems of public health significance. Effective public health strategies such as dietary diversification and food fortification are needed to improve micronutrient intake in both younger and older children.

  9. XRD and EPR structural investigation of some zinc borate glasses doped with iron ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Razvan; Pascuta, Petru; Popa, Adriana; Raita, Oana; Indrea, Emil; Culea, Eugen

    2012-02-01

    Glasses in the system xFe2O3·(100-x) [45ZnO·55B2O3] (0≤x≤10 mol%) have been prepared by melting at 1200 °C and rapidly cooling at room temperature. The obtained samples were submitted to an additional thermal treatment at 570 °C for 12 h in order to relax the glass structure as well as to improve the local order. The as cast and heat treated samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. The XRD patterns of all the studied samples show their vitreous nature. Structural modifications occurring in the heat treated samples compared to the untreated ones have been pointed out. EPR spectra of untreated and heat treated samples revealed resonance absorptions centered at g≈2.0, g≈4.3 and g≈6.4. The compositional variation of the line intensity and linewidth of the absorptions from g≈4.3 and g≈2.0 have been interpreted in terms of the variation in the concentration of the Fe3+ ions and the interaction between the iron ions. The EPR spectra of the untreated samples containing 5 mol% Fe2O3 have been studied at different temperatures (110-290 K). The line intensity of the resonance signals decreases with increase in temperature whereas the linewidth is found to be independent of temperature. It was also found that the temperature variation of reciprocal line intensity obeys the Boltzmann law.

  10. Influence of dissolved inorganic carbon and calcium on gas formation and accumulation in iron permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Aki S; Weber, Anne; Jekel, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Uncertainties in long-term reactivity and gas accumulation in Fe(0) permeable reactive barriers still hinder a broad application of this groundwater remediation technology. In this study long-term column experiments were conducted under varying geochemical conditions. Generation of hydrogen by anaerobic corrosion in Fe(0) reactive filters was mainly influenced by the mass flux of dissolved inorganic carbon. Both increased concentrations and volume flows led to a substantial rise in gas generation but only to slight differences of gas accumulation within the pores of the reactive filter. Comparisons of columns with different lengths showed higher averaged corrosion rates in the shorter and lower corrosion rates in the longer columns. Calcium in conjunction with dissolved inorganic carbon formed compact and localized aragonite minerals, while in the absence of calcium chukanovite dominated, which covered and passivated the reactive surface to a higher extent. Magnetite was the major crystalline corrosion product in the absence of carbonate and no decline in long term corrosion rates was observed within up to 700 days of operation. Total gas yields of columns were restricted by passivation and approached a volume of approximately 13.5 mL/g granulated cast iron. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Copper Uptake Requirement in Response to Nitrogen Supply and the Increased Grain Yield of Summer Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yanfang; Yue, Shanchao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Dunyi; Cui, Zhenling; Chen, Xinping; Ye, Youliang; Zou, Chunqin

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain). Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N) levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1and 5.3 g, respectively) were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60%) and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease) and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg−1) rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively). The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield. PMID:24705926

  12. Genome-wide identification, in silico characterization and expression analysis of ZIP-like genes from Trichomonas vaginalis in response to Zinc and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martín, K G; Alvarez-Sánchez, M E; Arana-Argáez, V E; Alvarez-Sánchez, L C; Lara-Riegos, J C; Torres-Romero, J C

    2017-10-01

    Trace elements such as Zinc and Iron are essential components of metalloproteins and serve as cofactors or structural elements for enzymes involved in several important biological processes in almost all organisms. Because either excess or insufficient levels of Zn and Fe can be harmful for the cells, the homeostatic levels of these trace minerals must be tightly regulated. The Zinc regulated transporter, Iron regulated transporter-like Proteins (ZIP) comprise a diverse family, with several paralogues in diverse organisms and are considered essential for the Zn and Fe uptake and homeostasis. Zn and Fe has been shown to regulate expression of proteins involved in metabolism and pathogenicity mechanisms in the protozoan pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, in contrast high concentrations of these elements were also found to be toxic for T. vaginalis trophozoites. Nevertheless, Zn and Fe uptake and homeostasis mechanisms is not yet clear in this parasite. We performed a genome-wide analysis and localized the 8 members of the ZIP gene family in T. vaginalis (TvZIP1-8). The bioinformatic programs predicted that the TvZIP proteins are highly conserved and show similar properties to the reported in other ZIP orthologues. The expression patterns of TvZIP1, 3, 5 and 7 were diminished in presence of Zinc, while the rest of the TvZIP genes showed an unchanged profile in this condition. In addition, TvZIP2 and TvZIP4 showed a differential expression pattern in trophozoites growth under different Iron conditions. These results suggest that TvZIP genes encode membrane transporters that may be responsible for the Zn and Fe acquisition in T. vaginalis.

  13. Contribution of meat to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc intakes in five ethnic groups in the U.S.: Implications for developing food-based dietary guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangita; Sheehy, Tony; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2016-01-01

    Background To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Methods Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects aged 45–75 years at baseline (1993–1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American (JpAm), Native Hawaiian (NH) and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the USDA recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc were determined. Results Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3–14.3%), except for NH and JpAm men, and JpAm women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1–29.3%) and vitamin B-12 (19.7–40%), and to a lesser extent for iron (4.3–14.2%). Conclusions This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the U.S. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption to improve dietary quality among these groups. PMID:23398393

  14. Contribution of meat to vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc intakes in five ethnic groups in the USA: implications for developing food-based dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Sheehy, T; Kolonel, L N

    2013-04-01

    To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects, aged 45-75 years at baseline (1993-1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the US Department of Agriculture recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc were determined. Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3-14.3%), except for Native Hawaiian and Japanese American men, and Japanese American women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables, respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1-29.3%) and vitamin B₁₂ (19.7-40%) and, to a lesser extent, for iron (4.3-14.2%). This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the USA. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption aiming to improve dietary quality among these groups. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Zinc, Iron and Vitamins A, C and E Are Associated with Obesity, Inflammation, Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in Mexican School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Patricia García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient status and obesity, lipids, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in children. Weight, height, waist circumference and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA were determined in 197 school-aged children. Lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP, zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and E were analyzed in blood. Vitamin C and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with Body Mass Index (BMI, waist-to-height ratio (WHR and body and abdominal fat (p < 0.05. Vitamin A was positively associated with BMI, BMI-for-age, WHR and abdominal fat (p < 0.05. Iron and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with insulin (p < 0.05. Vitamins A, C and E and iron were negatively associated with CRP (p < 0.05. Interaction analysis showed that children who were overweight and obese who also had low concentrations of vitamin A had higher CRP and lower triglycerides (p < 0.1, children with low vitamin E had significantly lower glucose and triglycerides (p < 0.1 and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL concentrations (p < 0.05, and children with low zinc concentrations had higher insulin resistance compared with children with adequate weight (p < 0.05. In conclusion, low vitamin C concentration and vitamin E:lipids were associated with obesity. Furthermore, low concentrations of zinc, vitamins A and E in children who were overweight and obese were associated with lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  16. Calcium polyuronate dressing supplemented with zinc and manganese (trionic®) in necrotizing dermohypodermitis of the extremities: a randomized multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, A M; Guberman, S; Mondié, J-M; Jebrane, A; Servant, J-M

    2010-06-30

    Background. For the burn surgeon, the treatment of necrotizing soft tissue infections is one of the most demanding surgical emergencies, requiring "radical excisions" of the infected tissue and reconstruction. During the infection period, the excised sites are treated with application of gauzes soaked in saline solution. When the septic period is over, the excision sites are usually covered by sterile paraffin gauze dressing. Our aim was to evaluate a new calcium polyuronate dressing enriched with zinc and manganese ions (test group) versus the reference therapeutic combination (control group) from the septic period to the grafting of skin. Materials and methods. A multicentre, prospective, controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted from November 2003 to July 2005. The primary endpoint was the waiting period for carrying out the skin graft and the percentage of grafted patients at 28 days after the last excision. The secondary endpoints were blood loss, exudates amounts, and pain during dressing changes. Results. Twenty-five patients were included, 14 with the new dressing and 11 with the reference therapeutic combination. The average waiting period for skin graft was 18 days in the test group versus 27.1 days in the control group (p = 0.128). All the patients in the test group received their grafts within 28 days after the last excision, compared with 60% (p = 0.043) in the control group. Bleeding during dressing change was statistically lower in the test group: 45.5% of the patients did not bleed compared with 0% in the control group (p = 0.045). Treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion. The properties of this new calcium polyuronate enriched with zinc and manganese ions seem to accelerate granulation tissue development, allowing skin grafting earlier in favourable conditions with less bleeding and less pain during dressing renewal.

  17. Effects of soil and foliar applications of iron and zinc on flowering and essential oil of chamomile at greenhouse conditions

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    Yousef NASIRI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of soil and foliar applications of iron (Fe and zinc (Zn on flowering, flower yield and essential oil production of German chamomile a pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. The experiment was arranged as completely randomized design with 12 treatments and three replications. Treatments were as follow: T1: control – without Fe or Zn fertilizers, T2: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T3: 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T4: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O + 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T5: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (3.5 g L-1, T6: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (7.0 g L-1, T7: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (2.5 g L-1, T8: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (5.0 g L-1, T9: T5+T7, T10: T5+T8, T11: T6+T7, T12: T6+T8. The foliar spraying was done two times during the growing period. The results revealed that the flower number, flower yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield were significantly increased by soil and foliar applications of Fe + Zn, compared with the control (untreated. The highest flower number (477 plant-1, flower yield (11.6 g pot-1, essential oil content (0.88 % and essential oil yield (119 mg pot-1 were recorded for the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4 by 58, 68, 21.4 and 105 % increment compared to the control, respectively. Foliar application of Fe + Zn (T12 was placed at the next rank; however this treatment had no significant difference with the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4. Other treatments did not show significant differences with the control. Generally, the results showed that soil or foliar application of Fe + Zn can be effective on increase or improve of quantity and quality of chamomile yield. Moreover, use of foliar application as a low cost method especially in areas with alkaline or calcareous soils can be recommended.

  18. Improvement the nutritional status of pre-school children following intervention with a supplement containing iron, zinc, copper, vitamin A, vitamin C and prebiotic

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    Luiza Carla Vidigal Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of a vitamin and mineral fortified powder product supplemented with inulin, on the iron and vitamin A status of 110 pre-schools childrens in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The 2 to 5-year-old children were submitted to anthropometric (weight and height, biochemical (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume – MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin - MCH, serum iron, ferritin and serum retinol and dietary (direct food weighing, 24 h recall, and food intake record evaluations, at the beginning and at the end of a 45-day intervention. The supplement (30 g was provided daily as part of the afternoon snack, diluted in 100 mL of water, 5 times/week and it supplied 30% of the recommended daily doses of iron, zinc, copper and vitamins A and C. Dietary and biochemical data was compared by the Wilcoxon test, and anthropometric data by the paired t-test. Values of z-scores for weight and height, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH and ferritin were significantly higher after intervention; no change was observed in serum retinol. The prebiotic-containing supplement significantly increased the intake of energy, macro and micronutrients, and was effective in improving the iron and anthropometric status.

  19. Calcium, iron and essential fatty acid composition of bengali mother’s milk: a population based cross-sectional study

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    Susmita Roy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive literature is available that highlights only a healthy mother ensures the optimal growth of an infant. Human milk fatty acid is the only component which is influenced more by maternal diet. Beside the lipid fraction of maternal milk, micro and macro elements play major roles in execution of development of new-born. Aims and Objectives: For the first time, the present study entails to exhibit the relative concentration of essential nutrients of human milk of Bengali mothers with typical Bengali food habit with aims to observe (i the level of Calcium (Ca, Iron (Fe (ii the composition of lipid in Bengali mothers’ milk and (iii maternal dietary habit and its influence on these nutrients. Materials and Methods: 19 colostrum, 14 transitional milk and 16 matured milk samples were collected from Bengali mothers, belonging to higher income group (HIG and medium income income group (MIG. Milk lipid was extracted, and then converted to fatty acid methyl ester to analyse by gas liquid chromatography. Phospholipid content was determined spectrophotometrically. Ca and Fe contents were determined by atomic absorption microscopy. Results: Ca content changed in an ascending order throughout the lactation period in both HIG and MIG mothers, so as the lipid content of HIG mothers. Daily intake of Ca is higher in HIG mothers than MIG, but not Fe. Ca content is linearly correlated with maternal age and BMI. Conclusion: Ca, Fe and fatty acid composition of mothers’ milk are influenced by maternal dietary intake. Linear correlation signifies that demand of calcium to neonate increases as maternal age progress. Eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are of great importance for neonatal growth which is solely dependent on maternal fish intake. Consumption of mustard oil results in a significant amount of nervonic acid which is an imperative component of nerve tissue.

  20. Effects of iron, manganese and zinc on the corrosion behaviour of GD-AlSi9Cu3. Einfluss von Eisen, Mangan und Zink auf das Korrosionsverhalten von GD-AlSi9Cu3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, E.; Meissner, H. (Aluminium Ranshofen GmbH (Austria))

    1992-01-01

    The influence of iron, manganese and zinc on the corrosion behaviour of the pressure diecasting alloy GD-AlSi9Cu3 was investigated using a variety of laboratory tests. The testpieces were individually pressure-diecast test bars. Corrosion tests were carried out in condensation water containing SO{sub 2}, in salt-spray cabinets, and by continuous and intermittent immersion in waters with various chloride concentrations. Zinc and iron increased the corrosion attack (greater weight loss), while manganese showed no significant influence. The corrosion-stimulating effects showed no apparent additivity. (orig.).

  1. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years Estado nutricio de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en niños mexicanos de 1 a 11 años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Carmen Morales-Ruán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006 and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were used (n=5 060 to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. RESULTS: Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC, were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61 or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97 were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32 and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97 were protective against MLSC. CONCLUSIONS: Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Describir el estado nutricio de micronutrimentos en niños de 1-11 años de edad de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 y su asociación con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se usaron muestras séricas (n=5060 para medir las concentraciones de ferritina, receptor de transferrina, zinc, cobre y magnesio. RESULTADOS: La prevalencias de deficiencias en niños de 1-4 y de 5 a 11 años fueron para ferritina, 26.0 y 13%; zinc, 28.1 y 25.8% respectivamente y cobre ≈30% en ambos grupos. Las concentraciones bajas de magnesio (CBM fueron 12.0 y 28.4%, respectivamente. Ser beneficiario de Liconsa (RM=0.32; IC 95%: 0.17-0.61 y pertenecer al nivel socioeconómico alto (RM=0.63; IC, 95%: 0.41-0.97 fueron protectores para deficiencia de hierro. La edad (RM=1.26; IC, 95%: 1.19-1.32 y vivir en la región Centro (RM=0.59; IC, 95

  2. Biochemistry of the normal dura mater of the human brain determination of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur and nitrogen contents

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    Horacio M. Canelas

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur, and nitrogen were determined in samples of apparently normal dura mater removed from 18 subjects recently dead by craniocerebral trauma. The average concentrations expressed in dry weight were: water 79.55 g/100 g ± 2.52; sodium 1.63 mequiv/100 g ±0.27; potassium 3.68 mequiv/100 g ± 0.66; calcium 119.84 mg/100 g ± 107.40; phosphorus 68.2 mg/100 g ± 34.5; magnesium 0.61 mequiv/100 g ± 0.37; copper 249.8 /xg/100 g ± 109.4; iron 0.82 mg/100 g ± 0.28; sulfur 490.7 mg/100 g ± 22.5; nitrogen 3.33 g/100 g ± 0.17.

  3. Interactions of manganese with iron, zinc, and copper in neonatal C57BL/6J and parkin mice following developmental oral manganese exposure

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    Melanie L. Foster

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High dose manganese (Mn exposure can result in changes in tissue concentrations of other essential metals due to Mn-induced alterations in metal absorption and competition for metal transporters and regulatory proteins. We evaluated responses in mice with a Parkin gene defect (parkin mice and a wildtype strain (C57BL/6J following neonatal Mn exposure. Neonatal parkin and C57BL/6J littermates were randomly assigned to 0, 11, or 25 mg Mn/kg-day dose groups with oral exposures occurring from postnatal day (PND 1 through PND 28. We report liver, femur, olfactory bulb, striatum, and frontal cortex iron, copper, and zinc concentrations and changes in hepatic gene expression of different metal transporters in PND 29 parkin and C57BL/6J mice. A companion manuscript (Foster et al., 2017 [1] describes the primary study findings. This data provides insights into strain differences in the way Mn interacts with other trace metals in mice. Keywords: Copper, Zinc, Iron, Manganese Toxicity, Mouse

  4. Determination of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, selenium and iron by ICP-OES in mushroom samples from around thermal power plant in Muğla, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Ibrahim; Solak, M Halil; Uğurlu, Mehmet; Işıloğlu, Mustafa; Arslan, Yasin

    2011-09-01

    Scleroderma verrucosum, Stropharia coronilla, Lactarius deterrimus, Chroogomphus rutilus, Russula delica, Laccaria laccata, Clitocybe odora var. alba, Lyophyllum decastes, Coprinus comatus, Helvella leucomelaena, Melanoleuca cognata, Melanoleuca cognata, Paxina acetabulum, Clitocybe vermicularis, Sarcosphaera crassa, Rhizopogon roseolu and Thelephora caryophyllea were collected from different localities in Muğla-Yatağan region of Turkey. Their trace metals concentrations were determined by ICPOES after microwave digestion. The results were 0.37 ± 0.01-5.28 ± 0.21 for cadmium, 467 ± 19-3,280 ± 131 for iron, 0.69 ± 0.03-9.15 ± 0.37 for lead, 18.70 ± 0.75-67.10 ± 2.68 for selenium, 75 ± 3-213 ± 8 for zinc and 0.15 ± 0.01-0.55 ± 0.01 for mercury (as μg/g). The detection limits for ICPOES were found as 0.25 for Cadmium, 0.2 for iron, 0.1 for lead, 0.5 for selenium, 0.2 for zinc and 0.03 for mercury (as mg L(-1)). The Relatively Standard Deviations (R.S.D.) were found below 4.0%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference material.

  5. Zinc, gravida, infection, and iron, but not vitamin B-12 or folate status, predict hemoglobin during pregnancy in Southern Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Abebe, Yewelsew; Stabler, Sally; Allen, Robert H; Westcott, Jamie E; Stoecker, Barbara J; Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K Michael

    2008-01-01

    ...) or fermented enset (Enset ventricosum) (n = 31) as their major energy source. Blood samples were analyzed for a complete blood count, vitamin B-12 and folate status, plasma ferritin, retinol, zinc, albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP...

  6. Studies on calcium phosphate precipitation: effects of metal ions used in dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Y; Hidaka, S

    1994-12-01

    The effects of 26 metal ions, of which 23 are used in dental materials, on the conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to hydroxyapatite (HAP) in vitro were studied. From the effects on both the rate of HAP transformation and induction time, effects of metal ions were classified into three types; inhibitory (in the order: nickel, tin, cobalt, manganese, copper, zinc, gallium, thallium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, magnesium, and mercury); ineffective (cesium, titanium, chromium, iron [ferrous], iridium, palladium, platinum, silver, gold, aluminum, and lead); and stimulatory (iron [ferric] and indium). These results suggest that metal ions used in dental materials may modify the precipitation of oral calcium phosphate.

  7. Diel cycles in dissolved barium, lead, iron, vanadium, and nitrite in a stream draining a former zinc smelter site near Hegeler, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, R.T.; Groschen, G.E.; Cygan, G.; Dupre, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Diel variations in the concentrations of a number of constituents have the potential to substantially affect the appropriate sampling regimen in acidic streams. Samples taken once during the course of the day cannot adequately reflect diel variations in water quality and may result in an inaccurate understanding of biogeochemical processes, ecological conditions, and of the threat posed by the water to human health and the associated wildlife. Surface water and groundwater affected by acid drainage were sampled every 60 to 90. min over a 48-hour period at a former zinc smelter known as the Hegeler Zinc Superfund Site, near Hegeler, Illinois. Diel variations related to water quality in the aquifer were not observed in groundwater. Diel variations were observed in the temperature, pH, and concentration of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, barium, iron, lead, vanadium, and possibly uranium in surface water. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, barium, lead, and uranium generally attained maximum values during the afternoon and minimum values during the night. Iron, vanadium, and pH generally attained minimum values during the afternoon and maximum values during the night. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen were affected by the intensity of photosynthetic activity and respiration, which are dependent upon insolation. Nitrite, an intermediary in many nitrogen reactions, may have been formed by the oxidation of ammonium by dissolved oxygen and converted to other nitrogen species as part of the decomposition of organic matter. The timing of the pH cycles was distinctly different from the cycles found in Midwestern alkaline streams and likely was the result of the photoreduction of Fe3+ to Fe 2+ and variations in the intensity of precipitation of hydrous ferric oxide minerals. Diel cycles of iron and vanadium also were primarily the result of variations in the intensity of precipitation of hydrous ferric oxide minerals. The diel variation in the concentrations of lead, uranium

  8. Digestión en horno de microondas para determinación de contenido de hierro y zinc totales en alimentos Microwave digestion for determination of iron and zinc content of total food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Silva Trejos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se optimizó el procedimiento de digestión de alimentos por medio de un horno de microondas, para cuantificar el hierro y el zinc totales en diferentes matrices por espectroscopía de absorción atómica. Se analizó la cantidad óptima de HNO3 concentrado al 65% para digerir determinada masa de muestra por evaluación del porcentaje de recuperación obtenido con diferente cantidad de HNO3. Los resultados no difieren de los obtenidos por los métodos recomendados oficialmente de digestión ácida en sistemas abiertos y de calcinación.In this study, the procedure was optimized digestion of food by means of a microwave oven, to quantify the total iron and zinc in different matrices by atomic absorption spectroscopy. We analyzed the optimal amount of 65% concentrated HNO3 to digest sample mass determined by evaluating the percent recover y obtained with different amounts of HNO3.The results are similar to those obtained by the methods recommended officially acid digestion in open systems and calcination.

  9. Iron and Zinc Complexes of Bulky Bis-Imidazole Ligands : Enzyme Mimicry and Ligand-Centered Redox Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkertsma, E.

    2016-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is directed to the development of cheap and non-toxic iron-based homogeneous catalysts, using enzyme models and redox non-innocent ligands. Inspired by nature, the first approach focuses on the synthesis of structural models of the active site of non-heme iron

  10. The effects of a lipid-based nutrient supplement and antiretroviral therapy in a randomized controlled trial on iron, copper, and zinc in milk from HIV+ Malawian mothers and associations with maternal and infant biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on iron, copper and zinc in milk of exclusively breastfeeding HIV-infected Malawian mothers, and their correlations with maternal and infant biomarkers. Breast milk at 2, 6, and 24 weeks (wk) postpartum a...

  11. X-Ray Microanalytic Concentration Measurements in Unsectioned Specimens: a Technique and its Application to Zinc, Manganese, and Iron Enriched Mechanical Structures of Organisms from Three Phyla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Robert M. S.

    A method for measuring concentrations of minor elements in microscopic volumes of heterogeneous, unsectioned biological specimens using an ion microprobe is developed. The element quantity is obtained from PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and the total quantity of material is derived from STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) energy loss measurements. Sources of error, including changes in x-ray production cross section with proton energy and absorption of induced x-rays, are discussed and a method of calculating the total measurement uncertainty, typically about 25% here, is developed. The measurement accuracy is shown to be improved for symmetric specimens, and a method of using the bremsstrahlung background to correct for x-ray attenuation within irregular specimens is developed. Methods for measuring local concentrations in internal features are also discussed. With this technique, scorpions were found to contain cuticular accumulations of one or more heavy metals (manganese up to 5% of dry weight, iron up to 8%, zinc up to 24%) in the chelicera, pedipalp denticles, tarsal claws, and stingers; different region soften contained different metals. The stingers are argued to be of particular interest because they are not homologous to legs. Similar accumulations were found in spiders, some other chelicerates and crustaceans. Previous reports of manganese and zinc accumulations in insect and worm mouth parts were augmented with local concentration measurements and with the detection of other enrichment features (such as 6% iron in the paragnaths of the worm Nereis vexillosa). Zinc accumulations (up to only 0.1%) were also found in the tips of the teeth of a hagfish, Myxine + glutinosa. X-ray images of several of these features are presented. It is argued that the extreme magnitude of some concentration values suggests that some metals are incorporated in unusual biominerals rather than organically bound. Results of x-ray diffractometry and Vickers

  12. Effect of calcium oxide on the efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation during ferrous ion oxidation in simulated acid mine drainage treatment with inoculation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Jin, Tongjun; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide was added into ferrous ion oxidation system in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at concentrations of 0-4.00 g/L. The pH, ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and phase of the solid minerals harvested from different treatments were investigated during the ferrous ion oxidation process. In control check (CK) system, pH of the solution decreased from 2.81 to 2.25 when ferrous ions achieved complete oxidation after 72 h of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans incubation without the addition of calcium oxide, and total iron precipitation efficiency reached 20.2%. Efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation was significantly improved when the amount of calcium oxide added was ≤1.33 g/L, and the minerals harvested from systems were mainly a mixture of jarosite and schwertmannite. For example, the ferrous ion oxidation efficiency reached 100% at 60 h and total iron precipitation efficiency was increased to 32.1% at 72 h when 1.33 g/L of calcium oxide was added. However, ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation for jarosite and schwertmannite formation were inhibited if the amount of calcium oxide added was above 2.67 g/L, and large amounts of calcium sulfate dihydrate were generated in systems.

  13. Up-gradation of MoO{sub 3} and separation of copper, iron, zinc from roasted molybdenum ore by a leaching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin-Young, Lee; Jyothi Rajesh, Kumar; Ho-Seok, Jeon; Joon-Soo, Kim, E-mail: rajeshkumarphd@rediffmail.com, E-mail: rkumarphd@kigam.re.kr [Extractive Metallurgy Department, Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    The present research paper deals with the oxidation process of molybdenum ore. The main target of the present study is the up-gradation of MoO{sub 3} from roasted molybdenum ore by a leaching process without waste generation. The most important application of hydrometallurgical processing is the leaching process of the ore and it is the primary process to make pure metal from ore. The present investigations optimize the following experimental parameters to improve the concentration of MoO{sub 3} as well as the separation of copper, iron and zinc in roasted molybdenum ore: effect of acid concentration, temperature, pulp density and leaching time were studied systematically. The temperature study was carried out at 550-595 Degree-Sign C for the oxidation process. The XRD result shows that oxidation process of molybdenum ore and SEM pictures were taken for particles before and after the oxidation process at 585 Degree-Sign C for 360 min. (author)

  14. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and iron and zinc dialyzability in selected Greek varieties of table olives, tomatoes and legumes from conventional and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakou, Marina; Birmpa, Angeliki; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Komaitis, Michael; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to compare 10 types of table olives, 11 types of tomatoes and tomato products and 18 types of legumes from conventional or organic farming for selected nutritional properties. All products were tested for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Tomatoes and legumes were further tested for iron and zinc dialyzability after in vitro digestion. Ascorbic acid content of tomatoes was also measured. The study resulted that the nutritional properties of olives, tomatoes and legumes tested were different among the various cultivars but, in most cases, not between products from organic or conventional farming. Natural black olives, cherry and santorini tomatoes and lentils exhibited superior nutritional properties.

  15. Survey of heavy metal pollution (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron and manganese in drinking water resources of Nurabad city, Lorestan, Iran 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHodratolah Shams Khorramabadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy water passes through the pipelines from supply resources to consuming places in which passing from these stages may cause some cases of contamination like heavy metal contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese in water resources of Nurabad city of Lorestan in 2013. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, samples were collected from 7 wells of drinking water and 2 water storage tanks during 6 months in Nurabad. So that, heavy metal parameters such as copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese were measured using an atomic absorption device and also electrical conductivity, sulfate, chloride and total dissolved solids were also measured in accordance with standard methods. Results: Results indicated that the concentration of studied metals in water sources was lower than the national standards and World Health Organization standard, and in the water supply system the concentration of some metals was more than standard level. Moreover, the results showed that the concentration of studied heavy metals were more in winter than in autumn. Conclusion: Generally, in the water resources of Nurabad city the concentration of studied heavy metals was lower than the national standards and World Health Organization standard and there are not problems for water consumers. However, due to public health and the presence of a high concentration of these metals in the distribution supply, the heavy metal concentration in drinking water of this region should be monitored regularly by responsible organizations.

  16. Nanosized zero-valent iron as Fenton-like reagent for ultrasonic-assisted leaching of zinc from blast furnace sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.mikhailov@misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, 4 Leninskiy prospekt, Moscow, 119049 (Russian Federation); Komarov, Sergey [Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8576 (Japan); Levina, Vera; Gusev, Alexander; Issi, Jean-Paul; Kuznetsov, Denis [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, 4 Leninskiy prospekt, Moscow, 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • nZVI is used as Fenton-like reagent for activation of Zn leaching from the BFS. • nZVI has positive effect on kinetics of Zn leaching though with some loss of efficiency. • A complex ultrasonic-assisted method for BFS recycling is proposed. - Abstract: Ultrasonic-assisted sulphuric acid leaching combined with a Fenton-like process, utilizing nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI), was investigated to enhance the leaching of zinc from the blast furnace sludge (BFS). The leaching of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) from the sludge was investigated using Milli-Q water/BFS ratio of 10 and varying the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, sulphuric acid, the temperature, the input energy for ultrasound irradiation, and the presence or absence of nZVI as a Fenton reagent. The results showed that with 1 g/l addition of nZVI and 0.05 M of hydrogen peroxide, the kinetic rate of Zn leaching increased with a maximum dissolution degree of 80.2%, after 5 min treatment. In the absence of nZVI, the maximum dissolution degree of Zn was 99.2%, after 15 min treatment with 0.1 M of hydrogen peroxide. The rate of Zn leaching at several concentrations of hydrogen peroxide is accelerated in the presence of nZVI although a reduction in efficiency was observed. The loss of Fe was no more than 3%. On the basis of these results, the possible route for BFS recycling has been proposed (BFS slurry mixed with sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide is recirculated under ultrasonic irradiation then separated).

  17. Thermodynamics of the nickel, cobalt and zinc removal from ethanolic solution by p-aminobenzoic acid intercalated on layered calcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fernando M. de; Dias, Ana Paula B.; Babeto, Beatriz; Pelisson, Scarlet [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Lazarin, Angélica M., E-mail: amlazarin2@uem.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, E.I.S. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Intercalation scheme for p-aminobenzoic acid inside the free inorganic host cavity. • The p-aminobenzoic acid is perpendicular orientation to the inorganic layer. • Forming a bilayer arrangement in the cavity. • The metallic ions were adsorbed on intercalated crystalline lamellar compound. - Abstract: Crystalline lamellar calcium phosphate retained p-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 6.44, 3.34 and 1.62 mmol g{sup −1} for nickel, cobalt and zinc, respectively. The energetic effects caused by metallic cation interactions were determined through calorimetric titration at the solid/liquid interface and gave a net thermal effect that enabled enthalpy and equilibrium constant calculations. Complete thermodynamic data composed of exothermic enthalpy, negative free Gibbs energy and positive entropy conformed to a set of favorable cation/basic center interactions, to indicate that these materials could be useful tools to eliminate undesirable cations from ethanolic systems.

  18. Influences of mesoporous zinc-calcium silicate on water absorption, degradability, antibacterial efficacy, hemostatic performances and cell viability to microporous starch based hemostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yu; Xia, Yan; Pan, Yongkang; Tang, Songchao; Sun, Xiaofei; Xie, Yang; Guo, Han; Wei, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Efficacious hemostatic agents have significant potential application in visceral organ or large vessel arterial injure. In this study, mesoporous zinc-calcium silicate (m-ZCS) was synthesized, and microporous starch (MS) based hemostatic agents of m-ZCS/MS composites for hemorrhage control was fabricated. The results showed that the incorporation of m-ZCS into MS significantly enhanced the water absorption and degradability of the composites, which were dependent on the m-ZCS content. Moreover, the composites with antibacterial property could inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the antibacterial ratios increased with the m-ZCS content. The in vitro coagulation evaluation by using activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) revealed that the composites significantly activated the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of coagulation cascade. In addition, for the animal model of rabbits in ear vein, skin, arterial and liver injuries, the hemostatic time of the composites obviously reduced with the increase of m-ZSC content, in which the composite with 15wt% m-ZCS content (15mZSC) showed remarkable efficacy on bleeding control. The composites could promote the viability of L929 cells, indicating no cytotoxicity of the composites. The results suggested that the m-ZCS/MS composites with excellent hemostatic and antibacterial properties might be a candidate for controlling bleeding and infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The impact of selected preparations of trace elements - magnesium, potassium, calcium, and zinc on the release of diclofenac sodium from enteric coated tablets and from sustained release capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Paweł; Musiał, Witold; Gosławska, Dorota; Pluta, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    In an aging society, many patients require long-term treatment. This fact is associated clearly with the simultaneous occurrence of lifestyle diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and even osteoarthritis. Concomitant medications, which are a common practice, pose a major threat of an interaction between these drugs. Very popular now "fast way of life" that makes people have less and less time to prepare well-balanced meals of high nutritional value. The result of this lifestyle is an increased need for supplementation preparations necessary vitamins and minerals. Given the wide availability of dietary supplements (shops, kiosks, petrol stations) raises the question about the possibility of an interaction between the uncontrolled intake of dietary supplements and medications received in the most common diseases of civilization. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the most important minerals (magnesium, potassium, calcium, zinc) contained in the popular nutritional supplements, the release also often used as an anti-pain, anti-inflammatory, diclofenac sodium from the different formulations. Among the many as sodium diclofenac selected two most common: film-coated tablets and sustained release capsules. The study showed a significant effect of minerals on the release of diclofenac sodium and differences that impact, depending on the test form of the drug.

  20. An electrochemical and surface analysis study of the influence of phosphorus on the corrosion of iron in calcium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Baer, D.R.; Jones, R.H.; Engelhard, M.H.

    1990-10-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of metallic alloys including iron is strongly influenced by the presence of grain boundary impurities such as phosphorus. In this study to determine how phosphorus affects the corrosion of iron, electrochemical polarization methods were used in conjunction with surface analyses employing ultra-high vacuum transfer. Specifically, these methods were used to examine the corrosion of iron, iron/phosphorus alloys, and iron implanted with phosphorus in deaerated 55 wt % Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solutions at 60{degree}C. 18 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Translating formative research findings into a behaviour change strategy to promote antenatal calcium and iron and folic acid supplementation in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie L; Seim, Gretchen L; Wawire, Salome; Chapleau, Gina M; Young, Sera L; Dickin, Katherine L

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization now recommends integrating calcium supplements into antenatal micronutrient supplementation programmes to prevent pre-eclampsia, a leading cause of maternal mortality. As countries consider integrating calcium supplementation into antenatal care (ANC), it is important to identify context-specific barriers and facilitators to delivery and adherence. Such insights can be gained from women's and health workers' experiences with iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 pregnant and post-partum women and 20 community-based and facility-based health workers in Kenya to inform a calcium and IFA supplementation programme. Interviews assessed awareness of anaemia, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia; ANC attendance; and barriers and facilitators to IFA supplement delivery and adherence. We analyzed interviews inductively using the constant comparative method. Women and health workers identified poor diet quality in pregnancy as a major health concern. Neither women nor health workers identified pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, anaemia or related symptoms as serious health threats. Women and community-based health workers were unfamiliar with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and considered anaemia symptoms normal. Most women had not received IFA supplements, and those who had received insufficient amounts and little information about supplement benefits. We then developed a multi-level (health facility, community, household and individual) behaviour change strategy to promote antenatal calcium and IFA supplementation. Formative research is an essential first step in guiding implementation of antenatal calcium supplementation programmes to reduce pre-eclampsia. Because evidence on how to implement successful calcium supplementation programmes is limited, experiences with antenatal IFA supplementation can be used to guide programme development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. In-situ observation of zinc electrodeposition on iron single crystal using synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosaki, M; Kawasaki, K

    2002-01-01

    Continuous in-situ observations of changes in crystal orientation during zinc electrodeposition were performed using novel electrolysis cell that secure uniform current distribution through thin electrolyte layer. It has been clarified that electrodeposition can be separated into the two regions. First one is epitaxial deposition region in which orientations of deposited zinc and substrate keep following relations; Fe(100)//Zn(10 centre dot 1) Fe(110)//Zn(00 centre dot 2), Fe(111)//Zn(00 centre dot 2). This region continued until the thickness of the deposit became about 0.5 mu m. Second one is bulk deposition region, in which the overpotential settled by electrolysis conditions determines the crystal orientation. Low overpotential leads to promoting Zn(00 centre dot 2) deposition, and higher overpotential Zn(10 centre dot 1) and Zn(11 centre dot 0). Influences of the current density changes on the crystal orientation were also clarified. The use of an adsorbing organic additive influences both on the epitaxi...

  3. Iron, Copper, and Zinc Concentration in Aβ Plaques in the APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease Correlates with Metal Levels in the Surrounding Neuropil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Simon A; Churches, Quentin I; de Jonge, Martin D; Birchall, Ian E; Streltsov, Victor; McColl, Gawain; Adlard, Paul A; Hare, Dominic J

    2017-03-15

    The metal ions of iron, copper, and zinc have long been associated with the aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in Alzheimer's disease; an interaction that has been suggested to promote increased oxidative stress and neuronal dysfunction. We examined plaque metal load in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice using X-ray fluorescence microscopy to assess how the anatomical location of Aβ plaques was influenced by the metal content of surrounding tissue. Immunohistochemical staining of Aβ plaques colocalized with areas of increased X-ray scattering power in unstained tissue sections, allowing direct X-ray based-assessment of plaque metal levels in sections subjected to minimal chemical fixation. We identified and mapped 48 individual plaques in four subregions of the hippocampus from four biological replicates. Iron, Cu, and Zn areal concentrations (ng cm-2) were increased in plaques compared to the surrounding neuropil. However, this elevation in metal load reflected the local metal makeup of the surrounding neuropil, where different brain regions are enriched for different metal ions. After correcting for tissue density, only Zn levels remained elevated in plaques. This study suggests that the in vivo binding of Zn to plaques is not simply due to increased protein deposition.

  4. [Reference values of iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, copper, molybdenum, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, carotenoids and polyphenols for the Venezuelan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Landaeta, Maritza; Adrianza de Baptista, Gertrudis; Murillo, Carolain; Rincón, Mariela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Bilbao, Arantza; Anderson, Hazel; García, Doris; Franquiz, Julia; Puche, Rafael; Garcia, Omar; Quintero, Yurimay; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The review on iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, copper, molybdenum, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, carotenoids and polyphenols recommendations for Venezuela comprise the definitions adopted worldwide known as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) that include Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL). The RDA for iron: 11 mg/day for infants Vitamin C: 40-50 mg/day for infants, 15-45 mg/ day for children, 75 mg/day for male adolescents, 65 mg/day for female adolescents, 90 mg/day for adult males, 75 mg/day for adult females, 80-85 mg/day during pregnancy and 115-120 mg/day during lactation. Recommendations for copper, selenium, molybdenum, vitamins E, K, carotenoids and polyphenols are also presented. These recommendations will help to design adequate and efficient policies that could help to avoid or to treat the consequences derived from the deficiency or the excess of these nutrients.

  5. Trends in Iron, Zinc, and Vitamin A Status Biomarkers Among Colombian Children: Results From 2 Nationally Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenchao; Herrán, Oscar F; Villamor, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent in countries undergoing the nutrition transition, but nationally representative data documenting their burden in children are exceedingly rare. To examine the distribution and recent trends in micronutrient status biomarkers of Colombian children. We compared the distributions of plasma ferritin, serum zinc, and vitamin A in Colombian children between 2005 and 2010 using 2 cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys overall and by categories of sociodemographic variables. Analysis for ferritin included boys and nonpregnant girls aged 1 to 17 years. Analyses for zinc and vitamin A included children aged 1 to 4 years. The mean 2010 to 2005 differences in ferritin, zinc, and vitamin A were 2.5 µg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3 to 3.7), -34.9 µg/dL (95% CI: -39.6 to -30.2), and -11.5 µg/dL (95% CI: -12.3 to -10.7), respectively, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. These differences varied significantly by region of residence. In 2010, region of residence was a significant correlate for all 3 micronutrients. Other important correlates included age and maternal education for ferritin and body mass index-for-age Z score, maternal education, wealth index, food insecurity, and urbanicity for vitamin A. Plasma ferritin was slightly higher in 2010 than in 2005, whereas serum zinc and vitamin A were substantially lower in 2010. In the absence of obvious causal explanations, it is uncertain whether this decline represents a worsening of micronutrient status in Colombian children or an artifact due to systematic laboratory or data management errors incurred in the surveys.

  6. Vitamin A, vitamin E, iron and zinc status in a cohort of HIV-infected mothers and their uninfected infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Pontes Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We hypothesized that nutritional deficiency would be common in a cohort of postpartum, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected women and their infants. Methods Weight and height, as well as blood concentrations of retinol, α-tocopherol, ferritin, hemoglobin, and zinc, were measured in mothers after delivery and in their infants at birth and at 6-12 weeks and six months of age. Retinol and α-tocopherol levels were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography, and zinc levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The maternal body mass index during pregnancy was adjusted for gestational age (adjBMI. Results Among the 97 women 19.6% were underweight. Laboratory abnormalities were most frequently observed for the hemoglobin (46.4%, zinc (41.1%, retinol (12.5% and ferritin (6.5% levels. Five percent of the women had mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations < 31g/dL. The most common deficiency in the infants was α-tocopherol (81% at birth; however, only 18.5% of infants had deficient levels at six months of age. Large percentages of infants had zinc (36.8% and retinol (29.5% deficiencies at birth; however, these percentages decreased to 17.5% and 18.5%, respectively, by six months of age. No associations between infant micronutrient deficiencies and either the maternal adjBMI category or maternal micronutrient deficiencies were found. Conclusions Micronutrient deficiencies were common in HIV-infected women and their infants. Micronutrient deficiencies were less prevalent in the infants at six months of age. Neither underweight women nor their infants at birth were at increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies.

  7. Guanosine 5′-monophosphate-chelated calcium and iron feed additives maintains egg production and prevents Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected layers

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Hye-Ji; Kim, Heekyong; Heo, Su Jeong; Cho, Hyang Hyun; Koh, Hong Bum

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of guanosine 5′-monophosphate (GMP)-chelated calcium and iron (CaFe-GMP) on health and egg quality in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella Gallinarum. In this study, a CaFe-GMP feed additive was added to a commercial layer feed and fed to layers over a four-week period. All were inoculated with Salmonella Gallinarum. Body weight, mortality, clinical symptoms, and poultry production including feed intake, egg production, egg loss, and feed conversion rate wer...

  8. Determination of Iron (Fe) and Calcium (Ca) in NIST SRM 1566b (Oyster tissue) using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (F-AAS) by Standard Addition Method

    OpenAIRE

    Fitri Dara; Y Susanto Ridwan

    2017-01-01

    NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 1566b) was employed for the determination of Iron (Fe) andCalcium (Ca) as nutrients in food matrix using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (F-AAS). Thecertified value of SRM 1566b for Fe and Ca are 205.8 ± 6.8 mg/kg and 0.0838 ± 0.0020 (%) or 838 ±20 mg/kg, respectively. This certified values are based on results obtained by single primary method(Isotope Dilution Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry) at NIST with confirmation by othermethods at ...

  9. Prevalence of anemia and deficiency of iron, folic acid, and zinc in children younger than 2 years of age who use the health services provided by the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Unzaga Marco

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Mexico, as in other developing countries, micronutrient deficiencies are common in infants between 6 and 24 months of age and are an important public health problem. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and of iron, folic acid, and zinc deficiencies in Mexican children under 2 years of age who use the health care services provided by the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS. Methods A nationwide survey was conducted with a representative sample of children younger than 2 years of age, beneficiaries, and users of health care services provided by IMSS through its regular regimen (located in urban populations and its Oportunidades program (services offered in rural areas. A subsample of 4,955 clinically healthy children was studied to determine their micronutrient status. A venous blood sample was drawn to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin, percent of transferrin saturation, zinc, and folic acid. Descriptive statistics include point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the sample and projections for the larger population from which the sample was drawn. Results Twenty percent of children younger than 2 years of age had anemia, and 27.8% (rural to 32.6% (urban had iron deficiency; more than 50% of anemia was not associated with low ferritin concentrations. Iron stores were more depleted as age increased. Low serum zinc and folic acid deficiencies were 28% and 10%, respectively, in the urban areas, and 13% and 8%, respectively, in rural areas. The prevalence of simultaneous iron and zinc deficiencies was 9.2% and 2.7% in urban and rural areas. Children with anemia have higher percentages of folic acid deficiency than children with normal iron status. Conclusion Iron and zinc deficiencies constitute the principal micronutrient deficiencies in Mexican children younger than 2 years old who use the health care services provided by IMSS. Anemia not associated with low ferritin values

  10. Single-Site Active Iron-Based Bifunctional Oxygen Catalyst for a Compressible and Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Longtao; Chen, Shengmei; Pei, Zengxia; Huang, Yan; Liang, Guojin; Mo, Funian; Yang, Qi; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua; Zapien, Juan Antonio; Zhi, Chunyi

    2018-02-27

    The exploitation of a high-efficient, low-cost, and stable non-noble-metal-based catalyst with oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) simultaneously, as air electrode material for a rechargeable zinc-air battery is significantly crucial. Meanwhile, the compressible flexibility of a battery is the prerequisite of wearable or/and portable electronics. Herein, we present a strategy via single-site dispersion of an Fe-N x species on a two-dimensional (2D) highly graphitic porous nitrogen-doped carbon layer to implement superior catalytic activity toward ORR/OER (with a half-wave potential of 0.86 V for ORR and an overpotential of 390 mV at 10 mA·cm -2 for OER) in an alkaline medium. Furthermore, an elastic polyacrylamide hydrogel based electrolyte with the capability to retain great elasticity even under a highly corrosive alkaline environment is utilized to develop a solid-state compressible and rechargeable zinc-air battery. The creatively developed battery has a low charge-discharge voltage gap (0.78 V at 5 mA·cm -2 ) and large power density (118 mW·cm -2 ). It could be compressed up to 54% strain and bent up to 90° without charge/discharge performance and output power degradation. Our results reveal that single-site dispersion of catalytic active sites on a porous support for a bifunctional oxygen catalyst as cathode integrating a specially designed elastic electrolyte is a feasible strategy for fabricating efficient compressible and rechargeable zinc-air batteries, which could enlighten the design and development of other functional electronic devices.

  11. Optimization of Lead and Silver Extraction from Zinc Plant Residues in the Presence of Calcium Hypochlorite Using Statistical Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnajady, Bahram; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-12-01

    In this work, a chloride/hypochlorite leaching process was performed for zinc plant residues. Sodium chloride and calcium hypochlorite were used as leaching and oxidizing agents, respectively. Fractional factorial method has been used to test main effects, and interactions among factors were investigated. The statistical software named Design-Expert 7 has been utilized to design experiments and subsequent analysis. Parameters and their levels were reaction time ( t = 16 and 120 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 303 K and 343 K (30 °C and 70 °C)], solid-to-liquid ratio ( S/ L = 1/6 and 1/38), pH (pH = 0.5 and 2), and Ca(OCl)2 concentration ( C = 0.6 and 3 g/L). Analysis of variance was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. Results showed that reaction temperature and pH were significant parameters for both lead and silver extractions but solid-to-liquid ratio had significant effect only on lead extraction. Increasing pH reduced leaching efficiency of lead and silver. However, increasing reaction temperature promoted the extraction of lead and silver. Ultimate optimum conditions from this study were t 1: 16 min, T 2: 343 K (70 °C), ( S/ L)2: 1/38, pH1: 0.5, and C 1: 0.6 g/L. Under these conditions, extractions of lead and silver were 93.60 and 49.21 pct, respectively.

  12. Hair iron and other minerals' level in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Sang-Man; Jung, Yong-Sik; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about hair minerals in cancer patients, and serum iron level has been shown to be elevated in breast cancer patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate hair iron and hair minerals' level related to hair iron in breast cancer patients compared to controls. We compared hair mineral analysis data of 40 breast cancer subjects with age and body mass index-matched normal control data (n = 144) by cross-sectional analysis. All breast cancer patients were newly diagnosed at one Breast Cancer Center in Ajou University and had their hair cut before anti-cancer chemotherapy, and the normal controls (without breast cancer) also had their hair cut for various reasons in out-patient clinics of the Department of Family Practice and Community Health. Breast cancer patients had low calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, manganese, and zinc, whereas they had high arsenic, sodium, and potassium compared with the normal control. The hair iron level was positively correlated with hair calcium (r = 0.761, P arsenic (r = -0.537, P breast cancer patients compared to normal controls. Especially, hair iron level was significantly reduced and associated with hair calcium and manganese levels.

  13. Extração seqüencial de cobre, ferro e zinco em ervas medicinais Sequential extraction of copper, iron and zinc in medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édira Castello Branco de Andrade

    2005-12-01

    initially for the pharmacists, indicates the ratio of the nutrient that is absorbed and used by the organism. This way, the determination of the total content of the metal ingested by the organism does not make possible to trace a profile of the efficiency of its absorption. Techniques of chemical speciation, as the sequential extraction, can assist in the evaluation of the bioavailability of minerals. Samples of medicinal grass of two lots were analyzed in relation to the total content of copper, iron and zinc for spectroscopy of atomic absorption in the flame, and the sequential extraction was applied. F, Dixon and t-student tests were used. One observed that, in average, the samples presented copper, iron and zinc total content of respectively 1.37 mg%, 5.13 mg% and 2.96 mg%. When comparing these values with the content of these metals in foods of vegetal origin, it can be verified that the analyzed medicinal grass can be considered a good source of metals. It was still observed that the metals have copper, iron and zinc can be found in the samples under at least four distinct chemical species and that extractors I and Iv were more efficient. Techniques of chemical speciation that can identify the compounds obtained from different extractors can assist in the evaluation of their bioavailability, as well as in the absorption processes.

  14. Recovery of iron, carbon and zinc from steel plant waste oxides using the AISI-DOE postcombustion smelting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, B. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States); Downing, K.B. [Fluor Daniel, Greenville, SC (United States); Aukrust, E.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes a process to recover steel plant waste oxides to be used in the production of hot metal. The process flowsheet used at the pilot plant. Coal/coke breeze and iron ore pellets/waste oxides are charged into the smelting reactor. The waste oxides are either agglomerated into briquettes (1 inch) using a binder or micro-agglomerated into pellets (1/4 inch) without the use of a binder. The iron oxides dissolve in the slag and are reduced by carbon to produce molten iron. The gangue oxides present in the raw materials report to the slag. Coal charged to the smelter is both the fuel as well as the reductant. Carbon present in the waste oxides is also used as the fuel/reductant resulting in a decrease in the coal requirement. Oxygen is top blown through a central, water-cooled, dual circuit lance. Nitrogen is injected through tuyeres at the bottom of the reactor for stirring purposes. The hot metal and slag produced in the smelting reactor are tapped at regular intervals through a single taphole using a mudgun and drill system. The energy requirements of the process are provided by (i) the combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide, referred to as primary combustion and (ii) the combustion of CO and H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, known as postcombustion.

  15. Thermal Decomposition of Calcium Perchlorate/Iron-Mineral Mixtures: Implications of the Evolved Oxygen from the Rocknest Eolian Deposit in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, A. M.; Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    A major oxygen release between 300 and 500 C was detected by the Mars Curiosity Rover Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument at the Rocknest eolian deposit. Thermal decomposition of perchlorate (ClO4-) salts in the Rocknest samples are a possible explanation for this evolved oxygen release. Releative to Na-, K-, Mg-, and Fe-perchlorate, the thermal decomposition of Ca-perchlorate in laboratory experiments released O2 in the temperature range (400-500degC) closest to the O2 release temperatures observed for the Rocknest material. Furthermore, calcium perchlorate could have been the source of Cl in the chlorinated-hydrocarbons species that were detected by SAM. Different components in the Martian soil could affect the decomposition temperature of calcium per-chlorate or another oxychlorine species. This interaction of the two components in the soil could result in O2 release temperatures consistent with those detected by SAM in the Rocknest materials. The decomposition temperatures of various alkali metal perchlorates are known to decrease in the presence of a catalyst. The objective of this work is to investigate catalytic interactions on calcium perchlorate from various iron-bearing minerals known to be present in the Rocknest material

  16. Micronutrient Status and Dietary Intake of Iron, Vitamin A, Iodine, Folate and Zinc in Women of Reproductive Age and Pregnant Women in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa: A Systematic Review of Data from 2005 to 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Rajwinder Harika; Mieke Faber; Folake Samuel; Judith Kimiywe; Afework Mulugeta; Ans Eilander

    2017-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the status and intake of iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate and zinc in women of reproductive age (WRA) (≥15–49 years) and pregnant women (PW) in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. National and subnational data published between 2005 and 2015 were searched via Medline, Scopus and national public health websites. Per micronutrient, relevant data were pooled into an average prevalence of deficiency, weighted by sample size (WAVG). Inadequate in...

  17. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remained constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.

  18. The response of various ecotypes of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia L. to the foliar application of nitrogen, iron and zinc in a cold climate of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali tadayon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia L. is a forage crop belonging to the legume family. The crop is characterized by numerous favorable criteria such as the capability to fix atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically. In order to study the response of various ecotypes of common sainfoin to the foliar application of nitrogen and micronutrients, such as iron and zinc, two separate field experiments were conducted using a spilt-plot design with completely randomized block replicated three times. In the first experiment, the main plots included five different ecotypes of common sainfoin, and the sub-plots included four rates of urea application (0, 15, 30 and 45 kg N/ha. In the second experiment, the main plots included seven different ecotypes of common sainfoin, and the sub-plots included four rates of micronutrients (0, 0.04 % Fe, 0.04 % Zn and 0.04 % Fe + 0.04 % Zn. The foliar application of urea, Fe and Zn with increasing nutrient concentrations had a statistically significant (p

  19. Fabrication of a solution-gated transistor based on valinomycin modified iron oxide nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanorods for potassium detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Min-Sang; Ahmad, Rafiq; Bhat, Kiesar Sideeq; Yoo, Jin-Young; Mahmoudi, Tahmineh; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2018-02-14

    There are considerable interests to detect and monitor the abnormal level of minerals in water for avoiding/preventing any toxic effects after consumption. Herein, we report the fabrication of solution-gated field-effect-transistor (FET) based potassium sensor using iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe 2 O 3 NPs) modified directly grown zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs). The Fe 2 O 3 NPs modification of ZnO NRs provided stability to nanorods surface and improved surface area for valinomycin immobilization. As-fabricated potassium sensor (valinomycin-Fe 2 O 3 NPs-ZnO NRs/SiO 2 /Si) provided enhanced current response with increasing potassium concentration. During sensing measurements, FET sensor showed high sensitivity (4.65 μA/μM/cm 2 ) in the linear range of 0.1 μM to 125 μM, low limit of detection (∼0.04 μM), good stability, excellent reproducibility, and favorable selectivity. Thus, good sensing performance of the FET based potassium sensor presents it as simple, low-cost, and convenient device for selective detection of potassium in solution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [ZINK IS ACTIVATOR OF ENTERAL CALCIUM METABOLISM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, E P; Ksenofontov, D A; Revyakin, A O; Ivanov, A A

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on goats and rabbits showed that zinc supplement to the diet leads to calcium concentration rise in muscle, bone and blood of animals. However, this rise was not adequate to increase in.zinc consumption. The bulk of alimentary zinc stayed in soluble fraction, dense endogen fraction and infusoria fraction of digesta and stimulated calcium release from food particles, it's accumulation in digesta fractions and calcium utilization on the whole. Authors estimate animal digesta as homeostatic, spatial organized, endogenic formation in which zinc and calcium are functionally dependent through enteral mucosa.

  1. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  2. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  3. Study of granitic biotites by X-ray fluorescence analysis: determination of iron, manganese, titanium, calcium, potassium, silicon and aluminium; Estudio de biotitas graniticas por fluorescencia de rayos X: Determinacion de hierro, manganeso, titanio, calcio, potasio, silicio y aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toubes, R. O.; Bermudez Polonio, J.

    1968-07-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of iron, manganese, titanium, calcium potassium, silicon, and aluminium, is reported, Sample preparation is carried out by the miniature flux technique, and rubidium is used as internal standard for silicon and aluminium. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. Zinc, the brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, C C; Braverman, E R

    1982-04-01

    The total content of zinc in the adult human body averages almost 2 g. This is approximately half the total iron content and 10 to 15 times the total body copper. In the brain, zinc is with iron, the most concentrated metal. The highest levels of zinc are found in the hippocampus in synaptic vesicles, boutons, and mossy fibers. Zinc is also found in large concentrations in the choroid layer of the retina which is an extension of the brain. Zinc plays an important role in axonal and synaptic transmission and is necessary for nucleic acid metabolism and brain tubulin growth and phosphorylation. Lack of zinc has been implicated in impaired DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis during brain development. For these reasons, deficiency of zinc during pregnancy and lactation has been shown to be related to many congenital abnormalities of the nervous system in offspring. Furthermore, in children insufficient levels of zinc have been associated with lowered learning ability, apathy, lethargy, and mental retardation. Hyperactive children may be deficient in zinc and vitamin B-6 and have an excess of lead and copper. Alcoholism, schizophrenia, Wilson's disease, and Pick's disease are brain disorders dynamically related to zinc levels. Zinc has been employed with success to treat Wilson's disease, achrodermatitis enteropathica, and specific types of schizophrenia.

  5. Effect of mercury vapour exposure on urinary excretion of calcium, zinc and copper: relationship to alterations in functional and structural integrity of the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, Ibrahim A M; Gadallah, Mohsen; Shafik, Ahmed; Shouman, Ahmed E

    2002-09-01

    The kidney has a remarkable capacity to concentrate mercury (Hg) and as such is a primary target organ when exposure to Hg occurs, and it is also an organ for Hg excretion. The present work aims to investigate the effect of occupational Hg vapour exposure on the urinary excretion of calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), and the possible association of this excretion to work duration as well as renal alterations. 83 non-smoker participants (36 referents, age: 35.6 +/- 9.5 years; 27 Hg vapour-exposed workers with or = 11 years work duration, age: 39.50 +/- 8.50 years) were included in the present study. Urinary levels of microalbumin (U-Malb) and retinol-binding protein (U-RBP) as well as cytosolic glutathione S-transferase activity (U-GST) were measured to assess the glomerular and proximal tubular reabsorption functions as well as structural integrity of proximal tubules; respectively. In addition, blood Hg (B-Hg), serum levels of Hg (S-Hg) and Ca (S-Ca), and urinary levels of Hg (U-Hg), Ca (U-Ca), Zn (U-Zn), Cu (U-Cu) and creatinine (U-cr) were estimated. In comparison to referents, all investigated parameters showed significant increase (except S-Ca and U-Zn/U-Cu ratio that significantly decreased among the workers as one group, S-Ca and U-Zn/U-Cu ratio that significantly and nonsignificantly decreased; respectively among workers with or = 11 years work duration). In addition, B-Hg was nonsignificantly increased and S-Ca was significantly decreased; also, both U-Hg and U-Zn/U-Cu were nonsignificantly decreased among workers with > or = 11 years work duration in comparison to those with < or = 10 years work duration. Also, each of U-Hg, U-Ca, U-Zn and U-Cu was related to one another, while each of U-Ca, U-Zn and U-Cu was related to each of U-Malb, U-RBP and U-GST (except U-Zn was not related to U-GST). Hg vapour exposure leads to renal alterations which may parallel the change in proteinuria and enzymuria as well as the increased loss in urine of each of Ca, Zn

  6. Proteomic analysis of human bladder epithelial cells by 2D blue native SDS-PAGE reveals TCDD-induced alterations of calcium and iron homeostasis possibly mediated by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nisha; Pink, Mario; Petrat, Frank; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schmitz-Spanke, Simone

    2015-01-02

    A proteomic analysis of the interaction among multiprotein complexes involved in 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated toxicity in urinary bladder epithelial RT4 cells was performed using two-dimensional blue native SDS-PAGE (2D BN/SDS-PAGE). To enrich the protein complexes, unexposed and TCDD-exposed cells were fractionated. BN/SDS-PAGE of the resulting fractions led to an effective separation of proteins and protein complexes of various origins, including cell membrane, mitochondria, and other intracellular compartments. Major differences between the proteome of control and exposed cells involved the alteration of many calcium-regulated proteins (calmodulin, protein S100-A2, annexin A5, annexin A10, gelsolin isoform b) and iron-regulated proteins (ferritin, heme-binding protein 2, transferrin). On the basis of these findings, the intracellular calcium concentration was determined, revealing a significant increase after 24 h of exposure to TCDD. Moreover, the concentration of the labile iron pool (LIP) was also significantly elevated in TCDD-exposed cells. This increase was strongly inhibited by the calmodulin (CaM) antagonist W-7, which pointed toward a possible interaction between iron and calcium signaling. Because nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly enhanced in TCDD-exposed cells and was also inhibited by W-7, we hypothesize that alterations in calcium and iron homeostasis upon exposure to TCDD may be linked through NO generated by CaM-activated nitric oxide synthase. In our model, we propose that NO produced upon TCDD exposure interacts with the iron centers of iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) that modulate the alteration of ferritin and transferrin, resulting in an augmented cellular LIP and, hence, increased toxicity.

  7. Iron and zinc isotope fractionation during uptake and translocation in rice (Oryza sativa) grown in oxic and anoxic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tim; Markovic, Tamara; Kirk, Guy J. D.; Schönbächler, Maria; Rehkämper, Mark; Zhao, Fangjie J.; Weiss, Dominik J.

    2015-11-01

    Stable isotope fractionation is emerging quickly as a powerful novel technique to study metal uptake and translocation in plants. Fundamental to this development is a thorough understanding of the processes that lead to isotope fractionation under differing environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated Zn and Fe isotope fractionation in rice grown to maturity in anaerobic and aerobic soils under greenhouse conditions. The overall Zn isotope fractionation between the soil and above ground plant material was negligible in aerobic soil but significant in anaerobic soil with isotopically lighter Zn in the rice plant. The observed range of fractionation is in line with previously determined fractionations of Zn in rice grown in hydroponic solutions and submerged soils and emphasizes the effect of taking up different chemical forms of Zn, most likely free and organically complexed Zn. The Zn in the grain was isotopically lighter than in the rest of the above ground plant in rice grown in aerobic and anaerobic soils alike. This suggests that in the course of the grain loading and during the translocation within the plant important biochemical and/or biophysical processes occur. The isotope fractionation observed in the grains would be consistent with an unidirectional controlled transport from shoot to grain with a fractionation factor of α ≈ 0.9994. Iron isotopes showed an isotopic lighter signature in shoot and grain compared to the bulk soil or the leachate in aerobic and anaerobic soils alike. The negative direction of isotopic fractionation is consistent with possible changes in the redox state of Fe occurring during the uptake and translocation processes. The isotope fractionation pattern between shoots and grain material are different for Zn and Fe which finally suggests that different mechanisms operate during translocation and grain-loading in rice for these two key micronutrients.

  8. [Cloning and expression analysis of a zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein encoding gene in Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Li, Yi-Min; Li, Biao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein (ZIP) plays an important role in the growth and development of plant. In this study, a full length cDNA of ZIP encoding gene, designed as DoZIP1 (GenBank accession KJ946203), was identified from Dendrobium officinale using RT-PCR and RACE. Bioinformatics analysis showed that DoZIP1 consisted of a 1,056 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoded a 351-aa protein with a molecular weight of 37.57 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.09. The deduced DoZIP1 protein contained the conserved ZIP domain, and its secondary structure was composed of 50.71% alpha helix, 11.11% extended strand, 36.18% random coil, and beta turn 1.99%. DoZIP1 protein exhibited a signal peptide and eight transmembrane domains, presumably locating in cell membrane. The amino acid sequence had high homology with ZIP proteins from Arabidopsis, alfalfa and rice. A phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that DoZIP1 was closely related to AtZIP10 and OsZIP3, and they were clustered into one clade. Real time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of DoZIP1 in D. officinale roots was the highest (4.19 fold higher than that of stems), followed by that of leaves (1.12 fold). Molecular characters of DoZIP1 will be useful for further functional determination of the gene involving in the growth and development of D. officinale.

  9. Characterization and identification of the sources of chromium, zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel, manganese and iron in PM10 particulates at the two sites of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karar, Kakoli; Gupta, A K; Kumar, Animesh; Biswas, Arun Kanti

    2006-09-01

    Monitoring of ambient PM10 (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 microm aerodynamic diameter) has been done at residential (Kasba) and industrial (Cossipore) sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003 to November 2004. These sites were selected depending on the dominant anthropogenic activities. Metal constituents of atmospheric PM10 deposited on glass fibre filter paper were estimated using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). Chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are the seven toxic trace metals quantified from the measured PM10 concentrations. The 24 h average concentrations of Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn and Fe from ninety PM10 particulate samples of Kolkata were found to be 6.9, 506.1, 79.1, 3.3, 7.4, 2.4 and 103.6 ng/m3, respectively. The 24 h average PM10 concentration exceeded national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) as specified by central pollution control board, India at both residential (Kasba) and industrial (Cossipore) areas with mean concentration of 140.1 and 196.6 microg/m3, respectively. A simultaneous meteorology study was performed to assess the influence of air masses by wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, relative humidity and temperature. The measured toxic trace metals generally showed inverse relationship with wind speed, relative humidity and temperature. Factor analysis, a receptor modeling technique has been used for identification of the possible sources contributing to the PM10. Varimax rotated factor analysis identified four possible sources of measured trace metals comprising solid waste dumping, vehicular traffic with the influence of road dust, road dust and soil dust at residential site (Kasba), while vehicular traffic with the influence of soil dust, road dust, galvanizing and electroplating industry, and tanning industry at industrial site (Cossipore).

  10. Micronutrient Status and Dietary Intake of Iron, Vitamin A, Iodine, Folate and Zinc in Women of Reproductive Age and Pregnant Women in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa: A Systematic Review of Data from 2005 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwinder Harika

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the status and intake of iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate and zinc in women of reproductive age (WRA (≥15–49 years and pregnant women (PW in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. National and subnational data published between 2005 and 2015 were searched via Medline, Scopus and national public health websites. Per micronutrient, relevant data were pooled into an average prevalence of deficiency, weighted by sample size (WAVG. Inadequate intakes were estimated from mean (SD intakes. This review included 65 surveys and studies from Ethiopia (21, Kenya (11, Nigeria (21 and South Africa (12. In WRA, WAVG prevalence of anaemia ranged from 18–51%, iron deficiency 9–18%, and iron deficiency anaemia at 10%. In PW, the prevalence was higher, and ranged from 32–62%, 19–61%, and 9–47%, respectively. In WRA, prevalence of vitamin A, iodine, zinc and folate deficiencies ranged from 4–22%, 22–55%, 34% and 46%, while in PW these ranged from 21–48%, 87%, 46–76% and 3–12% respectively. Inadequate intakes of these micronutrients are high and corresponded with the prevalence figures. Our findings indicate that nationally representative data are needed to guide the development of nutrition interventions and public health programs, such as dietary diversification, micronutrient fortification and supplementation.

  11. Micronutrient Status and Dietary Intake of Iron, Vitamin A, Iodine, Folate and Zinc in Women of Reproductive Age and Pregnant Women in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa: A Systematic Review of Data from 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harika, Rajwinder; Faber, Mieke; Samuel, Folake; Kimiywe, Judith; Mulugeta, Afework; Eilander, Ans

    2017-10-05

    A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the status and intake of iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate and zinc in women of reproductive age (WRA) (≥15-49 years) and pregnant women (PW) in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. National and subnational data published between 2005 and 2015 were searched via Medline, Scopus and national public health websites. Per micronutrient, relevant data were pooled into an average prevalence of deficiency, weighted by sample size (WAVG). Inadequate intakes were estimated from mean (SD) intakes. This review included 65 surveys and studies from Ethiopia (21), Kenya (11), Nigeria (21) and South Africa (12). In WRA, WAVG prevalence of anaemia ranged from 18-51%, iron deficiency 9-18%, and iron deficiency anaemia at 10%. In PW, the prevalence was higher, and ranged from 32-62%, 19-61%, and 9-47%, respectively. In WRA, prevalence of vitamin A, iodine, zinc and folate deficiencies ranged from 4-22%, 22-55%, 34% and 46%, while in PW these ranged from 21-48%, 87%, 46-76% and 3-12% respectively. Inadequate intakes of these micronutrients are high and corresponded with the prevalence figures. Our findings indicate that nationally representative data are needed to guide the development of nutrition interventions and public health programs, such as dietary diversification, micronutrient fortification and supplementation.

  12. Hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from CaO treated EAF dust in ammonium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Takahiro; Chairaksa-Fujimoto, Romchat; Maruyama, Katsuya; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2016-01-25

    Zinc in Electric Arc Furnace dust or EAF dust mainly exists as ZnFe2O4 and ZnO. While ZnO can be simply dissolved into either an acidic or alkaline solution, it is difficult to dissolve ZnFe2O4. In our previous work, we introduced a process called "CaO treatment", a preliminary pyrometallurgical process designed to transform the ZnFe2O4 in the EAF dust into ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5. The halogens and others heavy metals were favorably vaporized during CaO treatment with no essential evaporation loss of zinc and iron, leaving CaO treated dust which consisted mainly of ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5 and no problematic ZnFe2O4 compound. In this work, the selective leaching of zinc over iron and calcium in the CaO treated dust was investigated using an NH4Cl solution. The effects of temperature, reaction time and NH4Cl concentration on dissolution behavior were examined. While most of the zinc in the CaO treated dust was extracted after 2 h at 70 °C with 2 M NH4Cl, only about 20% of calcium was leached in NH4Cl solution. However, the iron did not dissolve and remained as Ca2Fe2O5 in residue. It was confirmed that zinc can be effectively recovered using NH4Cl solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum zinc reference intervals and its relationship with dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators in 6- to 9-year-old healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Camila Xavier; de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; Vermeulen, Karina Marques; Dantas Lopes, Márcia Marília Gomes; França, Mardone Cavalcante; Bruno, Selma Sousa; Almeida, Maria das Graças; Brandão-Neto, José

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an important cause of morbidity, particularly among young children. The dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators should be used to assess zinc status and to indicate the need for zinc interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine the zinc status and reference intervals for serum zinc concentration considering dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators in apparently healthy children in the Northeast Region of Brazil. The cross-sectional study included 131 healthy children: 72 girls and 59 boys, aged between 6 and 9 years. Anthropometric assessment was made by body mass index (BMI) and age; dietary assessment by prospective 3-day food register, and an evaluation of total proteins was performed. Zinc in the serum samples was analyzed in triplicate in the same assay flame, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. With respect to dietary assessment, only the intake of fiber and calcium was below the recommendations by age and gender. All subjects were eutrophic according to BMI and age classification. Zinc intake correlated with energy (p=0.0019), protein (p=0.0054), fat (p<0.0001), carbohydrate (p=0.0305), fiber (p=0.0465), calcium (p=0.0006), and iron (p=0.0003) intakes. Serum zinc correlated with protein intake (p=0.0145) and serum albumin (p=0.0141), globulin (p=0.0041), and albumin/globulin ratio (p=0.0043). Biochemical parameters were all within the normal reference range. Reference intervals for basal serum zinc concentration were 0.70-1.14 µg/mL in boys, 0.73-1.17 µg/mL in girls, and 0.72-1.15 µg/mL in the total population. This study presents pediatric reference intervals for serum zinc concentration, considering dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators, which are useful to establish the zinc status in specific groups. In this regard, there are few studies in the literature conducted under these conditions, which make it an innovative methodology.

  14. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in many things, including: Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ointments Rust prevention coatings Vitamin and mineral supplements Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc ...

  15. Urinary metals in a spontaneous canine model of calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Furrow

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is a common and painful condition in people. The pathogenesis of this disease is complex and poorly understood. Laboratory animal and in vitro studies have demonstrated an effect of multiple trace metals in the crystallization process, and studies in humans have reported relationships between urinary metal concentrations and stone risk. Dogs are a spontaneous model of calcium oxalate urolithiasis, and the metal content of canine calcium oxalate stones mirrors that of human stones. The aim of this study was to test for a relationship between urinary metals and calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs. We hypothesized that urinary metals would differ between dogs with and without calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Urine from 122 dogs (71 cases and 51 stone-free controls was analyzed for calcium and 12 other metals. The cases had higher urinary calcium, copper, iron, and vanadium and lower urinary cobalt. Higher urinary vanadium in the cases was associated with being fed a therapeutic stone-prevention diet. Urinary calcium had a strong positive correlation with strontium and moderate positive correlations with chromium, nickel, and zinc. The results of this study complement the findings of similar human studies and suggest a potential role of trace metals in calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Further investigation into how trace metals may affect stone formation is warranted.

  16. Synthesis and application of iron and zinc doped biochar for removal of p-nitrophenol in wastewater and assessment of the influence of co-existed Pb(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Tang, Lin, E-mail: tanglin@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Wei, Xue [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Zeng, Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Zhou, Yaoyu [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Deng, Yaocheng; Wang, Jingjing; Xie, Zhihong; Fang, Wei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Iron and zinc doped biochar was developed with larger specific surface area, new generated hydroxyl groups, and beneficial magnetism compared with pristine biochar. • Fe/Zn-biochar presented good performance both for PNP and Pb(II) adsorption as well as their simultaneous removal. • Mechanism of the enhanced adsorption for low concentrations of co-existing PNP and Pb(II) was proposed. - Abstract: The modification of biochar as a low-cost adsorbent is essential to improve its surface properties and shows great potential in water decontamination. The iron and zinc doped sawdust biochar (Fe/Zn-biochar) with large apparent surface area (518.54 m{sup 2}/g) proposed in this work showed good performance for p-nitrophenol (PNP) removal compared with the pristine biochar (P-biochar), iron doped biochar (Fe-biochar) and zinc doped biochar (Zn-biochar) respectively. The batch experiments turned out that Fe/Zn-biochar exhibited larger PNP adsorption capacity under acidic pH solution, and the ionic strength had slightly negative impact on PNP adsorption. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were discussed, and the experimental data fitted well the Pseudo-second-order equation and Langmuir model. The thermodynamic study indicated that the PNP adsorption was a spontaneous endothermic process. Furthermore, the simultaneous removal for PNP and Pb(II) by Fe/Zn-biochar was investigated. It implied that the adsorption of PNP and Pb(II) at their low concentration might be enhanced by the complexing-bridging mechanism of PNP and Pb(II) ascribing to the affinity between PNP and hydrophobic sites, in addition to the affinity between Pb(II) and oxygen-containing hydrophilic sites on Fe/Zn-biochar surface. However, the predominated competition between PNP and Pb(II) at their high concentrations with Fe/Zn-biochar suppressed their adsorption.

  17. Synergic effect of salinity and zinc stress on growth and photosynthetic responses of the cordgrass, Spartina densiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Andrades-Moreno, Luis; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Parra, Raquel; Valera-Burgos, Javier; Aroca, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Spartina densiflora is a C4 halophytic species that has proved to have a high invasive potential which derives from its physiological plasticity to environmental factors, such as salinity. It is found in coastal marshes of south-west Spain, growing over sediments with between 1 mmol l−1 and 70 mmol l−1 zinc. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the synergic effect of zinc from 0 mmol l−1 to 60 mmol l−1 at 0, 1, and 3% NaCl on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of S. densiflora by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and gas exchange, and its recovery after removing zinc. Antioxidant enzyme activities and total zinc, sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen concentrations were also determined. Spartina densiflora showed the highest growth at 1 mmol l−1 zinc and 1% NaCl after 90 d of treatment; this enhanced growth was supported by the measurements of net photosynthetic rate (A). Furthermore, there was a stimulatory effect of salinity on accumulation of zinc in tillers of this species. Zinc concentrations >1 mmol l−1 reduced growth of S. densiflora, regardless of salinity treatments. This declining growth may be attributed to a decrease in A caused by diffusional limitation of photosynthesis, owing to the modification of the potassium/calcium ratio. Also, zinc and salinity had a marked overall effect on the photochemical (photosystem II) apparatus, partially mediated by the accumulation of H2O2 and subsequent oxidative damage. However, salinity favoured the recovery of the photosynthetic apparatus to the toxic action of zinc, and enhanced the nutrient uptake. PMID:21841175

  18. Matrix effects for calcium and potassium K-X-rays, in fenugreek plants grown in iron rich soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, Kanan; Rao, Preeti; Bansal, Himani; Mittal, Raj

    2014-08-01

    The present work comprises the matrix effects study of the plant system (plant and soil) for macronutrients Ca and K with elevated levels of iron in the soil. The earlier derived matrix effect terms from fundamental relations of intensities of analyte and substrate elements with basic atomic and experimental setup parameters had led to iterative determination of enhanced elements rather than avoiding their enhancement. The relations also facilitated the evaluations of absorption for close Z interfering constituents (like Ca and K) in samples of a lot of particular category with interpolation of matrix terms with elemental amounts. The process has already been employed successfully for potato, radish, rice and maize plants. On similar lines, the observed prominent change in interpolation parameters for the plants in the present experiment serves as a tool to check the toxicity/contamination of the growing medium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous iron, zinc, sulfur and phosphorus speciation analysis of barley grain tissues using SEC-ICP-MS and IP-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Daniel P; Hansen, Thomas H; Laursen, Kristian H; Schjoerring, Jan K; Husted, Søren

    2009-09-01

    The increasing prevalence of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies in human populations worldwide has stressed the need for more information about the distribution and chemical speciation of these elements in cereal products. In order to investigate these aspects, barley grains were fractionated into awns, embryo, bran and endosperm and analysed for Fe and Zn. Simultaneously, phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) were determined since these elements are major constituents of phytic acid and proteins, respectively, compounds which are potentially involved in Fe and Zn binding. A novel analytical method was developed in which oxygen was added to the octopole reaction cell of the ICP-MS. This approach greatly improved the sensitivity of sulfur, measured as (48)SO(+). Simultaneously, Fe was measured as (72)FeO(+), P as (47)PO(+), and Zn as (66)Zn(+), enabling sensitive and simultaneous analysis of these four elements. The highest concentrations of Zn, Fe, S and P were found in the bran and embryo fractions. Further analysis of the embryo using SEC-ICP-MS revealed that the speciation of Fe and Zn differed. The majority of Fe co-eluted with P as a species with the apparent mass of 12.3 kDa, whereas the majority of Zn co-eluted with S as a 3 kDa species, devoid of any co-eluting P. Subsequent ion pairing chromatography of the Fe/P peak showed that phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate: IP(6)) was the main Fe binding ligand, with the stoichiometry Fe(4)(IP(6))(18). When incubating the embryo tissue with phytase, the enzyme responsible for degradation of phytic acid, the extraction efficiency of both Fe and P was doubled, whereas that of Zn and S was unaffected. Protein degradation on the other hand, using protease XIV, boosted the extraction of Zn and S, but not that of Fe and P. It is concluded that Fe and Zn have a different speciation in cereal grain tissues; Zn appears to be mainly bound to peptides, while Fe is mainly associated with phytic acid.

  20. Expression and Regulation of the sodF Gene Encoding Iron- and Zinc-Containing Superoxide Dismutase in Streptomyces coelicolor Müller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ja; Chung, Hye-Jung; Suh, Bumsu; Hah, Yung Chil; Roe, Jung-Hye

    1998-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor Müller contains two superoxide dismutases (SODs), nickel-containing (NiSOD) and iron- and zinc-containing SOD (FeZnSOD). The sodF gene encoding FeZnSOD was isolated by using PCR primers corresponding to the N-terminal peptide sequence of the purified FeZnSOD and a C-terminal region conserved among known FeSODs and MnSODs. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited highest similarity to Mn- and FeSODs from Propionibacterium shermanii and Mycobacterium spp. The transcription start site of the sodF gene was determined by primer extension. When the sodF gene was cloned in pIJ702 and introduced into Streptomyces lividans TK24, it produced at least 30 times more FeZnSOD than the control cells. We disrupted the sodF gene in S. lividans TK24 and found that the disruptant did not produce any FeZnSOD enzyme activity but produced more NiSOD. The expression of the cloned sodF gene in TK24 cells was repressed significantly by Ni, consistent with the regulation pattern in nonoverproducing cells. This finding suggests that the cloned sodF gene contains the cis-acting elements necessary for Ni regulation. When the sodF mRNA in S. coelicolor Müller cells was analyzed by S1 mapping of both 5′ and 3′ ends, we found that Ni caused a reduction in the level of monocistronic sodF transcripts. Ni did not affect the stability of sodF mRNA, indicating that it regulates transcription. S. lividans TK24 cells overproducing FeZnSOD became more resistant to oxidants such as menadione and lawsone than the control cells, suggesting the protective role of FeZnSOD. However, the sodF disruptant survived as well as the wild-type strain in the presence of these oxidants, suggesting the complementing role of NiSOD increased in the disruptant. PMID:9555880

  1. Guanosine 5'-monophosphate-chelated calcium and iron feed additives maintains egg production and prevents Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hye-Ji; Kim, HeeKyong; Heo, Su Jeong; Cho, Hyang Hyun; Koh, Hong Bum

    2017-09-30

    We evaluated the effects of guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP)-chelated calcium and iron (CaFe-GMP) on health and egg quality in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella Gallinarum. In this study, a CaFe-GMP feed additive was added to a commercial layer feed and fed to layers over a four-week period. All were inoculated with Salmonella Gallinarum. Body weight, mortality, clinical symptoms, and poultry production including feed intake, egg production, egg loss, and feed conversion rate were observed, and Salmonella Gallinarum was re-isolated from the liver, spleen, and cecum of the layers. All tested internal organs for the CaFe-GMP additive group exhibited significantly lower re-isolation numbers of Salmonella Gallinarum and less severe pathological changes than those in the control group, indicating that the CaFe-GMP feed supplement induced bacterial clearance and increased resistance to Salmonella Gallinarum. Additionally, due to the inhibitory action of CaFe-GMP on the growth of Salmonella Gallinarum, the CaFe-GMP additive group exhibited better egg production, including a higher laying rate and fewer broken eggs. The results suggest that a 0.16% CaFe-GMP additive may help prevent salmonellosis in the poultry industry.

  2. Guanosine 5′-monophosphate-chelated calcium and iron feed additives maintains egg production and prevents Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hye-Ji; Kim, HeeKyong; Heo, Su Jeong; Cho, Hyang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of guanosine 5′-monophosphate (GMP)-chelated calcium and iron (CaFe-GMP) on health and egg quality in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella Gallinarum. In this study, a CaFe-GMP feed additive was added to a commercial layer feed and fed to layers over a four-week period. All were inoculated with Salmonella Gallinarum. Body weight, mortality, clinical symptoms, and poultry production including feed intake, egg production, egg loss, and feed conversion rate were observed, and Salmonella Gallinarum was re-isolated from the liver, spleen, and cecum of the layers. All tested internal organs for the CaFe-GMP additive group exhibited significantly lower re-isolation numbers of Salmonella Gallinarum and less severe pathological changes than those in the control group, indicating that the CaFe-GMP feed supplement induced bacterial clearance and increased resistance to Salmonella Gallinarum. Additionally, due to the inhibitory action of CaFe-GMP on the growth of Salmonella Gallinarum, the CaFe-GMP additive group exhibited better egg production, including a higher laying rate and fewer broken eggs. The results suggest that a 0.16% CaFe-GMP additive may help prevent salmonellosis in the poultry industry. PMID:28057911

  3. Determination of Iron (Fe and Calcium (Ca in NIST SRM 1566b (Oyster tissue using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (F-AAS by Standard Addition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Dara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 1566b was employed for the determination of Iron (Fe andCalcium (Ca as nutrients in food matrix using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (F-AAS. Thecertified value of SRM 1566b for Fe and Ca are 205.8 ± 6.8 mg/kg and 0.0838 ± 0.0020 (% or 838 ±20 mg/kg, respectively. This certified values are based on results obtained by single primary method(Isotope Dilution Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry at NIST with confirmation by othermethods at National Metrology Institute of P.R. China. This paper proposed a method fordetermination of Fe and Ca in food matrix as recommended by AOAC official with a littlemodification. The method was commenced from the destruction of all organic matter by dry oxidationbefore analysis by standard addition. Under optimum condition, the results of the determination of Feand Ca in SRM 1566b were agreed well with the certificate value. This method would be useful forroutine analysis in food testing laboratories.

  4. Combination effect of sponge iron and calcium nitrate on severely eutrophic urban landscape water: an integrated study from laboratory to fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Bai; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Ying

    2018-01-06

    In this study, the in situ restoration of urban landscape water through the combined application of sponge iron (SI) and calcium nitrate (CN) was conducted in the Xi'an Moat of China. The combination effect of SI and CN on the phosphorus (P) control was explored through laboratory and field experiments. Results showed that the optimum mass ratio of SI and CN was 4:1, and the optimum dosage of combined SI and CN was 1.4 g/L for controlling eutrophication in the water body at Xi'an Moat. The field experiment demonstrated that SI and CN efficiently controlled P concentration in overlying and interstitial water and obtained a maximum efficiency of 88.6 and 65.2% in soluble reactive P locking, respectively. The total P, organic P, and Ca-bound P contents in sediment simultaneously increased by 7.7, 15.2, and 2.4%, respectively, after 56 days. Therefore, the combined application of SI and CN achieved the goal of transferring the P from overlying and interstitial water to the sediment. Considering the environmental effect and economic investment, the combined application of SI and CN at a mass ratio of 4:1 and dosage of 1.4 g/L is an excellent choice for the in situ rehabilitation of eutrophic water with a high internal P load.

  5. Effect of radiation and/or traditional processings on antinutrients and HCl extractability of calcium, phosphorus and iron of sorghum cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ismat G; Ahmed, Khogali E; Abdelbagi, Azhari O; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2015-03-01

    Whole flours of sorghum cultivars Dabar, WadAhmed and Karamaka were irradiated and then fermented and/or cooked. Tannin and phytic acid contents were assayed for all treatments. Traditional processings (fermentation and cooking) were significantly (P ≥ 0.05) decreased tannin and phytate of the cultivars and further reduction was observed when the flour was irradiated before processing for all cultivars. Radiation process alone had no great effect on tannin and phytate contents but when followed by traditional processing the reduction level was significant (P ≥ 0.05) for all cultivars. Radiation alone had no significant (P ≥ 0.05) effect in increment of total and extractable calcium (Ca). However, radiation followed by fermentation and/or cooking significantly (P ≥ 0.05) increased both total and extractable Ca. Total phosphorus (P) was not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) increased at all levels of radiation and/or processing but the extractable P was increased. Total iron (Fe) was not affected by radiation and/or processings but the extractable Fe was increased significantly (P ≥ 0.05) with the radiation dose for all cultivars.

  6. Evaluation of status of zinc, copper, and iron levels in biological samples of normal children and children with night blindness with age groups of 3-7 and 8-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Shah, Faheem; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Sirajuddin

    2011-09-01

    The causes of night blindness in children are multifactorial, and particular consideration has been given to childhood nutritional deficiency, which is the most common problem found in underdeveloped countries. Such deficiency can result in physiological and pathological processes that in turn influence hair composition. This study was designed to compare the levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in scalp hair, blood, and urine of both genders of children with night blindness with age range of 3-7 and 8-12 years, comparing them to sex- and age-matched controls. A microwave-assisted wet acid digestion procedure was developed as a sample pretreatment, for the determination of zinc, copper, and iron in biological samples of children with night blindness. The proposed method was validated by using conventional wet digestion and certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The digests of all biological samples were analyzed for Cu, Fe, and Zn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using an air/acetylene flame. The results indicated significantly lower levels of Fe, Cu, and Zn in the biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of male and female children with night blindness, compared with control subjects of both genders. These data present guidance to clinicians and other professionals investigating the deficiency of essential trace metals in biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of children with night blindness.

  7. Synthesis and application of iron and zinc doped biochar for removal of p-nitrophenol in wastewater and assessment of the influence of co-existed Pb(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Tang, Lin; Wei, Xue; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Yaoyu; Deng, Yaocheng; Wang, Jingjing; Xie, Zhihong; Fang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The modification of biochar as a low-cost adsorbent is essential to improve its surface properties and shows great potential in water decontamination. The iron and zinc doped sawdust biochar (Fe/Zn-biochar) with large apparent surface area (518.54 m2/g) proposed in this work showed good performance for p-nitrophenol (PNP) removal compared with the pristine biochar (P-biochar), iron doped biochar (Fe-biochar) and zinc doped biochar (Zn-biochar) respectively. The batch experiments turned out that Fe/Zn-biochar exhibited larger PNP adsorption capacity under acidic pH solution, and the ionic strength had slightly negative impact on PNP adsorption. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were discussed, and the experimental data fitted well the Pseudo-second-order equation and Langmuir model. The thermodynamic study indicated that the PNP adsorption was a spontaneous endothermic process. Furthermore, the simultaneous removal for PNP and Pb(II) by Fe/Zn-biochar was investigated. It implied that the adsorption of PNP and Pb(II) at their low concentration might be enhanced by the complexing-bridging mechanism of PNP and Pb(II) ascribing to the affinity between PNP and hydrophobic sites, in addition to the affinity between Pb(II) and oxygen-containing hydrophilic sites on Fe/Zn-biochar surface. However, the predominated competition between PNP and Pb(II) at their high concentrations with Fe/Zn-biochar suppressed their adsorption.

  8. Influence of Water Deficit on Iron and Zinc Uptake by Matricaria chamomilla L. Influencia del Deficit Hídrico en la Absorción de Hierro y Zinc por Matricaria chamomilla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pirzad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc deficiency are a yield-limiting factor with major implications for field crop production in many agricultural regions of the world; this production is essential source of Fe and Zn in human and animal diets. Two experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to evaluate Fe and Zn uptake by German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. grown under several drought conditions. Treatments were arranged in four irrigation regimes (95%, 80%, 65%, and 50% field capacity and six irrigation disruptions (stem formation, flower onset, full bloom, first harvest, second harvest, and control without disruption based on a randomized complete block design with five and four replicates in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In Experiment 1, the irrigation regimes had no significant effect on Fe and Zn uptake by German chamomile, which reached total means of Fe (39.68 mg kg4 and Zn (29.15 mg kg4. In Experiment 2, the highest amount of Fe (39.0 mg kg4 was obtained from irrigation disruption at first harvest; this is similar to the results of irrigation disruption at flower onset and full bloom. However, irrigation disruption in stem formation (21.3 mg kg4, second harvest (12.95 mg kg4, and the control (7.79 mg kg4 had a decreasing trend of Fe uptake. The maximum value of Zn (40.0 mg kg4 occurred at irrigation disruption at the full bloom stage, which was also similar to irrigation disruption at flower onset and stem formation. However, later irrigation disruptions at the first and second harvest stages caused lower amounts of Zn uptake by chamomile. Therefore, the lowest Zn values were obtained from irrigation disruption at second harvest (5.0 mg kg4 and the control (5.5 mg kg4. Regressions between both Fe or Zn uptake and irrigation showed a binomial function.La deficiencia de hierro y zinc es un factor limitante de la producción con grandes implicaciones para producción de cultivo en terreno en muchas regiones agrícolas del mundo como

  9. Iron losses during desulphurisation of hot metal

    OpenAIRE

    Magnelöv, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    After injection of calcium carbide and magnesium during desulphurisation of hot metal, the slag is normally solid and contains large amounts of iron. Besides the enclosed iron droplets in the slag, drawn-off hot metal during slag skimming also accounts for iron losses during desulphurisation of hot metal. Iron losses during hot metal desulphurisation using both calcium carbide (mono-injection), and calcium carbide and magnesium (co-injection), have been studied by large-scale investigations o...

  10. Relationship of dietary factors with dialyzable iron and in vitro iron bioavailability in the meals of farm women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anamika; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Hapreet

    2016-04-01

    Sixty rural women with age varying between 25 and 35 were selected randomly to determine the role of dietary factors on bioavailability of iron in their diets. Food samples of selected subjects were collected for three major meals i.e. breakfast, lunch and dinner for three consecutive days. The samples were analyzed for meal constituents associated with iron absorption as well as for total and dialyzable iron. Based on dietary characteristics, the diets of the farm women were in the class of intermediate diets as per FAO/WHO classification with iron bioavailability of 8.11 %. The statistical analysis revealed that the meal constituents which were found to influence iron absorption positively were ascorbic acid and β-carotene in breakfast and only β-carotene in dinner. The meal constituents which affected iron absorption negatively were zinc and calcium in breakfast as well as lunch and phytates and NDF in dinner, however, polyphenols present in the meals of the subjects did not show any relationship with iron absorption.

  11. Nutrient composition of banked human milk in Brazil and influence of processing on zinc distribution in milk fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, Heloísa C A; Torres, Alexandre G; Donangelo, Carmen M; Trugo, Nadia M F

    2002-01-01

    We measured the contents of fat, protein, lactose, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, copper, and vitamin A in processed mature milk samples (individual, n = 60, and pooled, n = 10) from a reference human milk bank in Brazil and assessed the effect of pasteurization followed by freezing on the nutrient composition and the pattern of zinc distribution in fractions (fat, whey, and casein) of milk samples (n = 15). Mean nutrient concentrations were within expected ranges in mature milk from healthy women, except fat, which was lower. Interindividual variability of nutrient concentrations was high (coefficient of variation, 21-62%) but reduced overall in pooled samples. Processing of milk samples did not affect the nutrient contents but did cause a significant shift (P milk banks may reduce zinc bioavailability to the infant.

  12. Synchrotron X-ray microscopy and spectroscopy analysis of iron in hemochromatosis liver and intestines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, J .Y. Peter; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Chakrabarti, Subrata; Adams, Paul C.; (UWO)

    2009-12-01

    Hemochromatosis is a genetic disorder that causes body to store excess iron in organs such as heart or liver. Distribution of iron, as well as copper, zinc and calcium, and chemical identity of iron in hemochromatosis liver and intestine were investigated by X-ray microprobe experiments, which consist of X-ray microscopy and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure. Our results show that iron concentration in hemochromatosis liver tissue is high, while much less Fe is found in intestinal tissue. Moreover, chemical identity of Fe in hemochromatosis liver can be identified. X-ray microprobe experiments allows for examining elemental distribution at an excellent spatial resolution. Moreover, chemical identity of element of interest can be obtained.

  13. Silicon, iron and titanium doped calcium phosphate-based glass reinforced biodegradable polyester composites as bone analogous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Mohammadi, Maziar

    Bone defects resulting from disease or traumatic injury is a major health care problem worldwide. Tissue engineering offers an alternative approach to repair and regenerate bone through the use of a cell-scaffold construct. The scaffold should be biodegradable, biocompatible, porous with an open pore structure, and should be able to withstand the applied forces. Phosphate-based glasses (PGs) may be used as reinforcing agents in degradable composites since their degradation can be predicted and controlled through their chemistry. This doctoral dissertation describes the development and evaluation of PGs reinforced biodegradable polyesters for intended applications in bone augmentation and regeneration. This research was divided into three main objectives: 1) Investigating the composition dependent properties of novel PG formulations by doping a sodium-free calcium phosphate-based glass with SiO2, Fe2O3, and TiO2. Accordingly, (50P2 O5-40CaO- xSiO2-(10-x)Fe2O3, where x = 10, 5 and 0 mol.%) and (50P2O5-40CaO-xSiO 2-(10-x)TiO2 where x = 10, 7, 5, 3 and 0 mol.%) formulations were developed and characterised. SiO2 incorporation led to increased solubility, ion release, pH reduction, as well as hydrophilicity, surface energy, and surface polarity. In contrast, doping with Fe2O 3 or TiO2 resulted in more durable glasses, and improved cell attachment and viability. It was hypothesised that the presence of SiO 2 in the TiO2-doped formulations could up-regulate the ionic release from the PG leading to higher alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. 2) Incorporating Si, Fe, and Ti doped PGs as fillers, either as particulates (PGPs) or fibres (PGFs), into biodegradable polyesters (polycaprolactone (PCL) and semi-crystalline and amorphous poly(lactic acid) (PLA and PDLLA)) with the aim of developing degradable bone analogous composites. It was found that PG composition and geometry dictated the weight loss, ionic release, and mechanical properties of the composites. It

  14. Calcium Polyuronate Dressing Supplemented with Zinc and Manganese (Trionic®) in Necrotizing Dermohypodermitis of the Extremities: a Randomized Multicentre Study

    OpenAIRE

    Danino, A.M.; Guberman, S.; Mondié, J.-M.; Jebrane, A.; Servant, J.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. For the burn surgeon, the treatment of necrotizing soft tissue infections is one of the most demanding surgical emergencies, requiring "radical excisions" of the infected tissue and reconstruction. During the infection period, the excised sites are treated with application of gauzes soaked in saline solution. When the septic period is over, the excision sites are usually covered by sterile paraffin gauze dressing. Our aim was to evaluate a new calcium polyuronate dressing enriched...

  15. Nut traits and nutritional composition of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) as influenced by zinc fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özenç, Nedim; Özenç, Damla Bender

    2015-07-01

    Zinc is an essential element for plants and its deficiency is a widespread problem throughout the world, causing decreased yields and nutritional quality. In this study the effect of zinc fertilization on some nut traits and the nutritional composition of 'Tombul' hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) variety cultivated in the Black Sea region of Turkey was investigated and the contribution of this nut to human nutrition determined. Trials were carried out at 'Tombul' hazelnut orchards, and zinc fertilizers were applied at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kg Zn ha(-1) in three consecutive years. Significant differences in some nut traits and mineral composition (protein, total oil, ash, kernel percentage, empty and wrinkled nuts, copper, boron, manganese and molybdenum) were observed with zinc fertilizer applications. In terms of daily nutritional element requirements, 100 g of hazelnut provided about 44.74% phosphorus, 13.39% potassium, 19.32% calcium, 37.49% magnesium, 0.19% sodium, 51.63% iron, 25.73% zinc and 14.05% boron of the recommended daily amounts (RDAs), while copper, manganese and molybdenum contents exceeded their RDAs. In order to improve some nut traits and the mineral composition of hazelnut, 0.8 and 1.6 kg Zn ha(-1) fertilizations could be recommended in practice. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Renal functional and structural integrity in infants with iron deficiency anemia: relation to oxidative stress and response to iron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shimi, Mohamed S; El-Farrash, Rania A; Ismail, Eman A; El-Safty, Ibrahim A; El-Safty, A; Nada, Ahmed S; El-Gamel, Omayma A; Salem, Yomna M; Shoukry, Sara M

    2015-10-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare renal functional and structural integrity in 50 infants with IDA and 50 healthy controls and to assess the relation between IDA and oxidative stress and response to iron therapy. This was a prospective study in which peripheral blood samples were collected from all study subjects and the following laboratory investigations performed: serum iron profile, urinary microalbumin, urinary leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa), serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), serum and urinary trace elements (iron, copper, zinc, calcium and magnesium). All patients received oral iron therapy and were followed-up for 3 months. The levels of baseline urinary markers were higher among the patients with IDA than among the controls (p < 0.05). Patients had a lower pre-therapy TAC and lower serum zinc and magnesium levels than controls as well as higher MDA and serum copper levels (p < 0.05). MDA level was positively correlated to microalbumin and LAP level (p < 0.05). Urinary LAP concentration was positively correlated to urinary trace element concentrations (p < 0.05). A significant decrease in microalbumin, LAP, FeNa, and urinary trace elements was observed post-iron therapy while hemoglobin and ferritin levels were increased (p < 0.05). Among the study subjects, IDA had an adverse influence on renal functional and structural integrity which could be reversed with iron therapy. Oxidative stress played an important role in the pathogenesis of renal injury in IDA.

  17. The effect of zinc and phytoestrogen supplementation on the changes in mineral content of the femur of rats with chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrajnowska, Dorota; Korczak, Barbara Bobrowska-; Tokarz, Andrzej; Kazimierczuk, Agata; Klepacz, Marta; Makowska, Justyna; Gadzinski, Blazej

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess skeletal effects of zinc or zinc with phytoestrogen (resveratrol or genistein) supplementation in an animal model of rats with DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis. The changes in bone parameters such as the length and mass were examined, as well as the changes in concentrations of selected minerals: calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and phosphorus. Moreover, the investigations focused on finding the differences between the levels of iron and zinc in other tissues: the liver, spleen and serum of the examined rats. Fifty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats, 40 days old, were divided into four groups, regardless of the diets: standard (77mg Zn kg/food), zinc (4.6mg/mL via gavage), zinc (4.6mg/mL) plus resveratrol (0.2mg/kgbw), and zinc (4.6mg/mL) plus genistein (0.2mg/kgbw) for a period from 40 days until 20 weeks of age. The study rats were also treated with 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to induce mammary carcinogenesis. The applied diet and the advanced mammary cancer did not affect macrometric parameters of the rats' bones, but they strongly affected their mineral content. It was found that mammary cancer, irrespectively of the applied diet, significantly modified the iron level in the femur, liver, spleen and serum of the examined rats. In addition, zinc supplementation significantly lowered the levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the femur of rats with mammary cancer as compared with respective levels in the control group. So, it was found that additional supplementation with zinc, which is generally considered to be an antioxidant, with the co-existing mammary carcinoma, increased the unfavorable changes as concerns the stability of bone tissue. The appropriate combination of zinc and phytoestrogens (resveratrol or genistein) could help prevent or slow bone loss associated with a range of skeletal disorders in breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc, and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Paz; Grusak, Michael A.; Fleige, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM)™, and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a discussion of how these methods have been applied to generate data for a range of nutrients, carotenoids, and polyphenols. Recommendations are given regarding which methods are most justified for answering bioaccessibility or bioavailability related questions for specific nutrients. The need for more validation studies in which in vivo results are compared to in vitro results is also discussed. PMID:22934067

  19. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM), and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a disc...

  20. Effects on the accumulation of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc of adding the two inorganic forms of selenium to solution cultures of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longchamp, M; Angeli, N; Castrec-Rouelle, M

    2016-01-01

    The addition of selenate or selenite to common fertilizers for crop production could be an effective way of producing selenium-rich food and feed. However, this would be feasible only if the increase in plant selenium (Se) content did not negatively influence the uptake of other essential elements. We therefore need to understand the interactions between Se and other major and trace elements during uptake by the plant. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of inorganic forms of Se on the accumulation of selected macronutrients (Ca and Mg) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu). Those essential elements are involved in the oxidative balance of cells. Zea mays seedlings were grown hydroponically in growth chambers in nutrient solutions to which we added 10, 50 or 1000 μg.L(-1) of selenate and/or selenite. Cation accumulation was significantly affected by the addition of 50 μg.L(-1) or 1000 μg.L(-1) Se, but not by the presence of 10 μg.L(-1) of Se in the nutrient solution. The highest concentration (1000 μg.L(-1)) of Se in the nutrient solution affected the accumulation of essential cations in Zea mays: selenate tended to increase the accumulation of Mg, Zn and Mn, whereas a selenate/selenite mixture tended to decrease the accumulation of Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn. Only Fe accumulation was unaffected by Se whatever its form or concentration. Selenium may also affect the distribution of cations on Zea mays. For example, levels of Mg and Zn translocation to the shoots were lower in the presence of selenite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Atomic force microscopic comparison of remineralization with casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste, acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and iron supplement in primary and permanent teeth: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Nikita; Shashikiran, N D; Singla, Shilpy; Ravi, K S; Kulkarni, Vinaya Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Demineralization of tooth by erosion is caused by frequent contact between the tooth surface and acids present in soft drinks. The present study objective was to evaluate the remineralization potential of casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel and iron supplement on dental erosion by soft drinks in human primary and permanent enamel using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Specimens were made from extracted 15 primary and 15 permanent teeth which were randomly divided into three treatment groups: CPP-ACP paste, APF gel and iron supplement. AFM was used for baseline readings followed by demineralization and remineralization cycle. Almost all group of samples showed remineralization that is a reduction in surface roughness which was higher with CPP-ACP paste. Statistical analysis was performed using by one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-test with P paste is effective on preventing dental erosion from soft drinks.

  2. The effect of dietary zinc - and polyphenols intake on DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

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    Bobrowska-Korczak Barbara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with zinc and polyphenol compounds, i.e. resveratrol and genistein, on the effectiveness of chemically induced mammary cancer and the changes in the content of selected elements (Zn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Ca in tumors as compared with normal tissue of the mammary gland. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into study groups which, apart from the standard diet and DMBA (7,12-dimethyl-1,2- benz[a]anthracene, were treated with zinc ions (Zn or zinc ions + resveratrol (Zn + resveratrol or zinc ions + genistein (Zn + genistein via gavage for a period from 40 days until 20 weeks of age. The ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry technique was used to analyze the following elements: magnesium, iron, zinc and calcium. Copper content in samples was estimated in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results Regardless of the diet (standard; Zn; Zn + resveratrol; Zn + genistein, DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was not inhibited. On the contrary, in the Zn + resveratrol supplemented group, tumorigenesis developed at a considerably faster rate. On the basis of quantitative analysis of selected elements we found - irrespectively of the diet applied - great accumulation of copper and iron, which are strongly prooxidative, with a simultaneous considerable decrease of the magnesium content in DMBA-induced mammary tumors. The combination of zinc supplementation with resveratrol resulted in particularly large differences in the amount of the investigated elements in tumors as compared with their content in normal tissue. Conclusions Diet supplementation with zinc and polyphenol compounds, i.e. resveratrol and genistein had no effect on the decreased copper level in tumor tissue and inhibited mammary carcinogenesis in the rat. Irrespectively of the applied diet, the development of the neoplastic process in rats resulted in changes of

  3. Immobilization and volume reduction of heavy metals in municipal solid waste fly ash using nano-size calcium and iron-dispersed reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian; Lee, Byoung Ho

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the synthesis and application of novel nano-size calcium/iron-based composite material as an immobilizing and separation treatment of the heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration. After grinding with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO and with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO₄], approximately 30 wt% and 25 wt% of magnetic fraction fly ash were separated. The highest amount of entrapped heavy metals was found in the lowest weight of the magnetically separated fly ash fraction (i.e., 91% in 25% of treated fly ash). Heavy metals in the magnetic or nonmagnetic fly ash fractions were about 98% and 100% immobilized, respectively. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) observations indicate that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on treated fly ash includes Ca/PO₄-associated crystalline complexes. After nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO₄] treatment, the heavy metal concentrations in the fly ash leachate were much lower than the Japan standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. These results appear to be extremely promising. The addition of a nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/PO₄mixture with simple grinding technique is potentially applicable for the remediation and volume reduction of fly ash contaminated by heavy metals. After grinding with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO₄], approximately 30 wt% and 25 wt% of magnetic fraction fly ash were separated. The highest amount of entrapped heavy metals was found in the lowest weight of the magnetically separated fly ash fraction (i.e., 91% in 25% of treated fly ash), whereas heavy metals either in the magnetic or nonmagnetic fly ash fractions were about 98% and 100% immobilized. These results appear to be very promising, and the addition of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/PO₄mixture with simple grinding technique may be considered potentially applicable for the remediation and volume reduction of contaminated fly ash by heavy metals.

  4. The use of Apatite II™ to remove divalent metal ions zinc(II), lead(II), manganese(II) and iron(II) from water in passive treatment systems: column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Josep; De Pablo, Joan; Cortina, José-Luis; Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carlos

    2010-12-15

    The conventional passive treatments for remediation of acid mine drainage using calcite are not totally efficient in the removal of certain heavy metal ions. Although pH increases to 6-7 and promotes the precipitation of trivalent and some divalent metals as hydroxides and carbonates, the remaining concentrations of some divalent metals ions do not fulfill the environmental regulations. In this study, Apatite II™, a biogenic hydroxyapatite, is used as an alternative reactive material to remove Zn(II), Pb(II), Mn(II) and Fe(II). Apatite II™ reacted with acid water releasing phosphate and increasing pH up to 6.5-7, inducing metals to precipitate mainly as metal-phosphates: zinc precipitated as hopeite, Zn(3)(PO(4))(2)·4H(2)O, lead as pyromorfite, Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)OH, manganese as metaswitzerite, Mn(3)(PO(4))(2)·4H(2)O and iron as vivianite, Fe(3)(PO(4))(2)·8H(2)O. Thus, metal concentrations from 30 to 75 mg L(-1) in the inflowing water were depleted to values below 0.10 mg L(-1). Apatite II™ dissolution is sufficiently fast to treat flows as high as 50 m/a. For reactive grain size of 0.5-3mm, the treatment system ends due to coating of the grains by precipitates, especially when iron and manganese are present in the solution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  6. Zoning and contamination rate of magnesium and heavy metals of iron, zinc and copper in the north and northwest aquifer of Khoy (Zourabad based on GIS and determining the contaminated source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khodadadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heavy metals are the most toxic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. This contamination can result from the release of heavy metal elements during alteration and weathering of ultramafic and mafic rocks (ophiolite zones. Among the important metals and pollutants in the ophiolite; chromium, cobalt, nickel, iron, magnesium, manganese, zinc and copper could be noted. Basically, a mass of serpentine consists of serpentine, amphibole, talc, chlorite, magnetite, and the remainder of olivine, pyroxene and spinel (Kil et al., 2010. In such areas, the prevailing cold climate, during the serpentinization, chloritization and epidotiization, the activity of the solvent, such as chloride, fluoride, carbonates, sulfide, sulfosalt would be able to import the elements such as magnesium and iron, copper and zinc into the soil and groundwater. The study area is located in northwestern Iran. This area is located in the northwest of the city of Khoy. Because of the proximity to the north and northwest Khoy plains with ophiolite rocks, the soil of this region could possibly show the potential of contamination with heavy metals. Due to the toxicity and disease of unauthorized grades of these elements in groundwater in the study area, this study is focused on the more contaminated groundwater of the areas. Materials and methods In this study, over a period of 5 days, sampling from 42 water sources, including fountains, aqueducts, wells, piezometers and wells in operation, was performed. The container was washed with acid and then rinsed 3 times with the water sample. The pH and temperature of the water in the samples was measured in the field. Then to each of the samples was taken from 2 to 5 ml of concentrated nitric acid (This causes that the metal elements would not adsorbed or precipitated by these particles and pH of the samples was measured with litmus paper to reach level 2. This was done to ensure the consolidation of the water samples. Analysis of

  7. Reducing mineral usage in feedlot diets for Nellore cattle: II. Impacts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc contents on intake, performance, and liver and bone status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, L F; Sathler, D F T; Silva, B C; Zanetti, D; Valadares Filho, S C; Alhadas, H M; Detmann, E; Santos, S A; Mariz, L D S; Chizzotti, M L

    2017-04-01

    Weaned Nellore bulls ( = 36; 274 ± 34 kg) were used in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate intake, fecal excretion, and performance with different concentrations of minerals. Experimental diets were formulated with 2 concentrations of Ca and P (macromineral factor; diet supplying 100% of Ca and P according to BR-CORTE () [CaP+] or diet without limestone and dicalcium phosphate [CaP-]) and 2 concentrations of microminerals (micromineral factor; diet with supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn+] or diet without supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn-]). The factor CaP- was formulated without the addition of limestone and dicalcium phosphate, and the factor CuMnZn- was formulated without inorganic supplementation of microminerals (premix). The diets were isonitrogenous (13.3% CP). Intake was individually monitored every day. Indigestible NDF was used as an internal marker for digestibility estimates. The bulls were slaughtered (84 or 147 d on feed), and then carcass characteristics were measured and liver and rib samples were collected. Feed, feces, rib bones, and liver samples were analyzed for DM, ash, CP, ether extract (EE), Ca, P, Zn, Mn, and Cu. There were no significant interactions ( ≥ 0.06) between macro- and micromineral supplementation for any variables in the study. Calcium, P, and micromineral concentrations did not affect ( ≥ 0.20) intake of DM, OM, NDF, EE, CP, TDN, and nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC). Calcium and P intake were affected ( < 0.01) by macromineral factor. Animals fed without Ca and P supplementation consumed less of these minerals. Dry matter and nutrient fecal excretion (OM, NDF, EE, CP, and NFC) were similar ( ≥ 0.23) among all factors. Performance and carcass characteristics were similar ( ≥ 0.09) among diets. The content of ash in rib bones was not affected by diets ( ≥ 0.06). Plasma P and phosphatase alkaline concentrations were similar (

  8. Iron, zinc and iodide status in Mexican children under 12 years and women 12-49 years of age: a probabilistic national survey Estado de hierro, zinc y yodo en niños menores de 12 años y en mujeres de 12-49 años de edad en México: una encuesta probabilística nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Villalpando

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of iron, zinc and iodide deficiencies in a probabilistic sample of Mexican women and children and explore its association with some dietary and socio-demographic variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out in 1999 an epidemiological description of iron (percent transferrin saturation, PTS, OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiología de las deficiencias de hierro, zinc y yodo en una muestra probabilística de mujeres y niños mexicanos y analizar algunas asociaciones con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Descripción epidemiológica de las deficiencias de hierro (Porcentaje de saturación de transferrina <16%, zinc (<65ug/dl y yodo (<50ug/l orina en una muestra probabilística de 1363 niños y 731 mujeres. Las concentraciones séricas de hierro, y la capacidad total de saturación de hierro y zinc se midieron por espectrometría de absorción atómica, y el yodo por un método colorimétrico. Los determinantes de tales deficiencias se estudiaron mediante modelos de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La deficiencia de hierro fue mayor (67% en niños <2 años de edad. La prevalencia disminuyó en los escolares (34-39%. La prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro en mujeres fue de 40%. La deficiencia de zinc fue mayor en niños <2 años de edad (34% que en escolares (19-24%. La prevalencia en mujeres fue de 30%, sin diferencia rural/urbana. La probabilidad de tener deficiencia de hierro en mujeres disminuyó con el nivel socio-económico (p=0.04 y aumentó con la ingestión de cereales (p=0.01. La probabilidad de tener concentraciones bajas de zinc sérico fueron mayores en mujeres de nivel socioeconómico (SES bajo (p=0.02 y p=0.001. La prevalencia de deficiencia de yodo fue casi inexistente tanto en niños como en mujeres. CONCLUSIONES: Los datos demuestran una alta prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro, especialmente en niños de 12 a 24 meses de edad. Se sugiere que en niños mayores

  9. Lasing transition at 1.06 μm emission in Nd(3)(+) -doped borate-based tellurium calcium zinc niobium oxide glasses for high-power solid-state lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, O; Prasad, K; Jain, Rajiv; Venkataswamy, M; Chaurasia, Shivanand; Deva Prasad Raju, B

    2017-08-01

    The spectroscopic properties of Tellurium Calcium Zinc Niobium oxide Borate (TCZNB) glasses of composition (in mol%) 10TeO2  + 15CaO + 5ZnO + 10 Nb2 O5  + (60 - x)B2 O3  + Nd2 O3 (x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mol%) have been investigated experimentally. The three phenomenological intensity parameters Ω2 , Ω4, Ω6 have been calculated using the Judd-Ofelt theory and in turn radiative properties such as radiative transition probabilities, emission cross-sections, branching ratios and radiative lifetimes have been estimated. The trend found in the JO intensity parameter is Ω2  > Ω6  > Ω4 If Ω6  > Ω4 , the glass system is favourable for the laser emission (4) F3/2  → (4) I11/2 in the infrared (IR) wavelength. The experimental values of branching ratio of (4) F3/2  → (4) I11/2 transition indicate favourable lasing action with low threshold power. The evaluated total radiative transition probabilities (AT ), stimulated emission cross-section (σe ) and gain bandwidth parameters (σe  × Δλp ) were compared with earlier reports. An energy level analysis has been carried out considering the experimental energy positions of the absorption and emission bands. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Zinc and osteoporosis in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohry, A; Shemesh, Y; Zak, R; Herzberg, M

    1980-06-01

    Thirty-eight patients (8 women and 30 men) with spinal cord injury were investigated. All had been immobilised after the traumatic event. The time elapsed since their accidents varied from 2 to 74 weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected to investigated calcium, zinc, magnesium, sodium, alkaline phosphate, phosphore, haemoglobin, creatinine, uric acid and proteins in blood, and the urinary excretion of phosphore, hydroxyproline, creatinine, amino acids, calcium, calcium, magnesium and zinc. The methods were estimately by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The serum zinc levels did not differ statistically from normal and the calcium and magnesium levels in the serum were lower among the patients than in normal controls. The urinary excretion of zinc, calcium, phosphore and hydroxyproline was higher among the patients without correlation to the patients' age. The zinc excretion is negatively correlated to the time elapsed since the injury, but it is still high 3 months after trauma. The highly significant correlation between urinary zinc and hydroxyproline excretion, together with increased calcium and phosphore excretion, suggests that zinc may be involved in the process of osteoporosis in patients with spinal cord injury.

  11. Iron, copper, zinc, and manganese transport and regulation in pathogenic Enterobacteria: correlations between strains, site of infection and the relative importance of the different metal transport systems for virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcheron, Gaëlle; Garénaux, Amélie; Proulx, Julie; Sabri, Mourad; Dozois, Charles M

    2013-01-01

    For all microorganisms, acquisition of metal ions is essential for survival in the environment or in their infected host. Metal ions are required in many biological processes as components of metalloproteins and serve as cofactors or structural elements for enzymes. However, it is critical for bacteria to ensure that metal uptake and availability is in accordance with physiological needs, as an imbalance in bacterial metal homeostasis is deleterious. Indeed, host defense strategies against infection either consist of metal starvation by sequestration or toxicity by the highly concentrated release of metals. To overcome these host strategies, bacteria employ a variety of metal uptake and export systems and finely regulate metal homeostasis by numerous transcriptional regulators, allowing them to adapt to changing environmental conditions. As a consequence, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper uptake systems significantly contribute to the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria. However, during the course of our experiments on the role of iron and manganese transporters in extraintestinal Escherichia coli (ExPEC) virulence, we observed that depending on the strain tested, the importance of tested systems in virulence may be different. This could be due to the different set of systems present in these strains, but literature also suggests that as each pathogen must adapt to the particular microenvironment of its site of infection, the role of each acquisition system in virulence can differ from a particular strain to another. In this review, we present the systems involved in metal transport by Enterobacteria and the main regulators responsible for their controlled expression. We also discuss the relative role of these systems depending on the pathogen and the tissues they infect.

  12. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  13. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  14. Comparative Assessment of Copper, Iron, and Zinc Contents in Selected Indian (Assam) and South African (Thohoyandou) Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Samples and Their Infusion: A Quest for Health Risks to Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Kutu, Funso Raphael; Mehra, Aradhana; Khare, Puja; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Bora, Krishnamoni; Boruah, Romesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The current study aims to assess the infusion pattern of three important micronutrients namely copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) contents from black tea samples produced in Assam (India) and Thohoyandou (South Africa). Average daily intakes and hazardous quotient were reported for these micronutrients. Total content for Cu, Fe, and Zn varied from 2.25 to 48.82 mg kg(-1), 14.75 to 148.18 mg kg(-1), and 28.48 to 106.68 mg kg(-1), respectively. The average contents of each of the three micronutrients were higher in tea leaves samples collected from South Africa than those from India while the contents in tea infusions in Indian samples were higher than in South African tea samples. Results of this study revealed that the consumption of 600 mL tea infusion produced from 24 g of made tea per day may be beneficial to human in terms of these micronutrients content. Application of nonparametric tests revealed that most of the data sets do not satisfy the normality assumptions. Hence, the use of both parametric and nonparametric statistical analysis that subsequently revealed significant differences in elemental contents among Indian and South African tea.

  15. Serum zinc reference intervals and its relationship with dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators in 6- to 9-year-old healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Xavier Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an important cause of morbidity, particularly among young children. The dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators should be used to assess zinc status and to indicate the need for zinc interventions. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the zinc status and reference intervals for serum zinc concentration considering dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators in apparently healthy children in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Design: The cross-sectional study included 131 healthy children: 72 girls and 59 boys, aged between 6 and 9 years. Anthropometric assessment was made by body mass index (BMI and age; dietary assessment by prospective 3-day food register, and an evaluation of total proteins was performed. Zinc in the serum samples was analyzed in triplicate in the same assay flame, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: With respect to dietary assessment, only the intake of fiber and calcium was below the recommendations by age and gender. All subjects were eutrophic according to BMI and age classification. Zinc intake correlated with energy (p=0.0019, protein (p=0.0054, fat (p<0.0001, carbohydrate (p=0.0305, fiber (p=0.0465, calcium (p=0.0006, and iron (p=0.0003 intakes. Serum zinc correlated with protein intake (p=0.0145 and serum albumin (p=0.0141, globulin (p=0.0041, and albumin/globulin ratio (p=0.0043. Biochemical parameters were all within the normal reference range. Reference intervals for basal serum zinc concentration were 0.70–1.14 µg/mL in boys, 0.73–1.17 µg/mL in girls, and 0.72–1.15 µg/mL in the total population. Conclusions: This study presents pediatric reference intervals for serum zinc concentration, considering dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators, which are useful to establish the zinc status in specific groups. In this regard, there are few studies in the literature conducted under these conditions, which make it an innovative methodology.

  16. Vitamin B-12 Deficiency in Children Is Associated with Grade Repetition and School Absenteeism, Independent of Folate, Iron, Zinc, or Vitamin A Status Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh-Cam; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-07-01

    Micronutrients are essential to neurocognitive development; yet their role in educational outcomes is unclear. We examined the associations of micronutrient status biomarkers with the risk of grade repetition and rates of school absenteeism in a cohort of school children. We recruited 3156 children aged 5-12 y from public schools in Bogota, Colombia. Circulating ferritin, hemoglobin, zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12; erythrocyte folate; and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were measured in blood samples obtained at the beginning of the year. Absenteeism was recorded weekly during the school year, and grade repetition was determined the next year. Risk ratios for grade repetition and rate ratios for absenteeism were estimated by categories of micronutrient status indicators with use of Poisson regression, adjusting for potential confounders. The risk of grade repetition was 4.9%, and the absenteeism rate was 3.8 d per child-year of observation. Vitamin B-12 deficiency (Vitamin B-12 deficiency was also associated with school absenteeism rates. Compared with children with plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations ≥148 pmol/L, vitamin B-12-deficient children had a 1.89-times higher adjusted rate (95% CI: 1.53, 2.34; P Vitamin B-12 deficiency was associated with risk of grade repetition and school absenteeism rates in school children from Bogota, Colombia. The effects of correcting vitamin B-12 deficiency on educational outcomes and neurocognitive development of school children need to be determined in intervention studies. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Tuning the Redox Properties of a Nonheme Iron(III)-Peroxo Complex Binding Redox-Inactive Zinc Ions by Water Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Min; Bang, Suhee; Yoon, Heejung; Bae, Seong Hee; Hong, Seungwoo; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Nam, Wonwoo

    2015-07-20

    Redox-inactive metal ions play important roles in tuning chemical properties of metal-oxygen intermediates. Herein we report the effect of water molecules on the redox properties of a nonheme iron(III)-peroxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions. The coordination of two water molecules to a Zn(2+) ion in (TMC)Fe(III) -(O2 )-Zn(CF3 SO3 )2 (1-Zn(2+) ) decreases the Lewis acidity of the Zn(2+) ion, resulting in the decrease of the one-electron oxidation and reduction potentials of 1-Zn(2+) . This further changes the reactivities of 1-Zn(2+) in oxidation and reduction reactions; no reaction occurred upon addition of an oxidant (e.g., cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN)) to 1-Zn(2+) , whereas 1-Zn(2+) coordinating two water molecules, (TMC)Fe(III) -(O2 )-Zn(CF3 SO3 )2 -(OH2 )2 [1-Zn(2+) -(OH2 )2 ], releases the O2 unit in the oxidation reaction. In the reduction reactions, 1-Zn(2+) was converted to its corresponding iron(IV)-oxo species upon addition of a reductant (e.g., a ferrocene derivative), whereas such a reaction occurred at a much slower rate in the case of 1-Zn(2+) -(OH2 )2 . The present results provide the first biomimetic example showing that water molecules at the active sites of metalloenzymes may participate in tuning the redox properties of metal-oxygen intermediates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Dietary fiber intake increases the risk of zinc deficiency in healthy and diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meika; Karra, Michelle; Picone, Tegan; Chu, Anna; Hancock, Dale P; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2012-11-01

    Phytic acid is a major determinant of zinc bioavailability. Little is known about phytic acid intakes or indices of zinc bioavailability in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), a condition that predisposes to zinc deficiency. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to measure and explore the relationships among phytic acid intake, zinc bioavailability, and molecular markers of zinc homeostasis in 20 women with DM compared to 20 healthy women. The phytate/zinc, (calcium)(phytate)/zinc, and (calcium + magnesium)(phytate)/zinc molar ratios were used to indicate zinc bioavailability. Plasma zinc concentrations and zinc transporter (ZnT1, ZnT8, and Zip1) gene expression in mononuclear cells were measured. Participants with DM consumed 1,194 ± 824 mg/day (mean ± SD) phytic acid, an amount similar to the intake of healthy women (1,316 ± 708 mg/day). Bread products and breakfast cereals contributed more than 40 % of the phytic acid intake in each group. A positive relationship was observed in all participants between phytic acid and dietary fiber (r = 0.6, P dietary fiber and the (calcium)(phytate)/zinc ratio (r = 0.5, P diabetic women consume phytic acid in amounts that are likely to decrease the bioavailability of dietary zinc. Recommendations to consume greater amounts of dietary fiber, much of which is associated with phytate, increase the risk of zinc deficiency.

  19. Cluster-randomized non-inferiority trial to compare supplement consumption and adherence to different dosing regimens for antenatal calcium and iron-folic acid supplementation to prevent preeclampsia and anaemia: rationale and design of the Micronutrient Initiative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshood O. Omotayo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To prevent pre-eclampsia in populations with insufficient dietary calcium (Ca intake, the World Health Organisation (WHO recommends routine Ca supplementation during antenatal care (ANC. WHO guidelines suggest a complex dosing regimen, requiring as many as 5 pill-taking events per day when combined with iron and folic acid (IFA supplements. Poor adherence may undermine public health effectiveness, so simpler regimens may be preferable. This trial will compare the effect of the WHO-recommended (higher-dose regimen vs. a simpler, lower-dose regimen on supplement consumption and pill-taking behaviours in Kenyan ANC clients. Design and methods: This is a parallel, non-inferiority, cluster-randomized trial; we examined 16 primary care health facilities in Kenya, 1047 pregnant women between 16-30 weeks gestational age. Higher-dose regimen: 1.5 g elemental calcium in 3 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill and IFA (60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid taken with evening dose. Lower-dose regimen: 1.0 g calcium in 2 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill with IFA taken as above. Measurements: Primary outcome is Ca pills consumed per day, measured by pill counts. Secondary outcomes include IFA pills consumed per day, client knowledge, motivation, social support, and satisfaction, measured at 4 to 10 weeks post-enrolment. Statistical analyses: Unit of randomization is the health-care facility; unit of analysis is individual client. Intent-to-treat analysis will be implemented with multi-level models to account for clustering. Expected public health impact: If pregnant women prescribed lower doses of Ca ingest as many pills as women prescribed the WHO-recommended regimen, developing a lower-dose recommendation for antenatal Ca and IFA supplementation programs could save resources.

  20. Atomic force microscopic comparison of remineralization with casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste, acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and iron supplement in primary and permanent teeth: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Demineralization of tooth by erosion is caused by frequent contact between the tooth surface and acids present in soft drinks. Aim: The present study objective was to evaluate the remineralization potential of casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel and iron supplement on dental erosion by soft drinks in human primary and permanent enamel using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Materials and Methods: Specimens were made from extracted 15 primary and 15 permanent teeth which were randomly divided into three treatment groups: CPP-ACP paste, APF gel and iron supplement. AFM was used for baseline readings followed by demineralization and remineralization cycle. Results and Statistics: Almost all group of samples showed remineralization that is a reduction in surface roughness which was higher with CPP-ACP paste. Statistical analysis was performed using by one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-test with P < 0.05. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the application of CPP-ACP paste is effective on preventing dental erosion from soft drinks.

  1. Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Plasma Mineral Concentration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals should be supplemented with minerals known to be deficient. The bioavailability of common supplements and their possible undesirable effects are hardly known. This study was conducted to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on plasma zinc, calcium and inorganic phosphate in East African local goats.

  2. Production of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite using various precipitation routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, David; Best, Serena M

    2013-04-01

    Substituted hydroxyapatites have been investigated for use as bone grafts and have been investigated for many years. Zinc is of interest due to its potential to reduce bone resorption and antibacterial properties. However, it has proven problematic to substitute biologically significant levels of zinc into the crystal structure through wet chemical routes, whilst retaining the high temperature phase stability required for processing. The aim of this study is to investigate two different precipitation routes used to synthesize zinc substituted hydroxyapatite and to explore the effects of ammonia used in the reactions on the levels of zinc substituted into the crystal lattice. It was found that considerable amounts of ammonia are required to maintain a pH sufficiently high for the production of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite using a reaction between calcium nitrate, zinc nitrate and ammonium phosphate. X-ray fluorescence analysis showed that a significant proportion of the zinc added did not substitute into the hydroxyapatite lattice. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the existence of a zinc-ammonia complex that, it is proposed, inhibits zinc substitution for calcium. It was found that by reacting orthophosphoric acid with calcium nitrate and zinc nitrate, the volume of ammonia required in the reaction was reduced and higher levels of zinc substitution were achieved, with up to 0.58 wt% incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice. The resulting products were found to be stoichiometric hydroxyapatite and did not appear to contain any extraneous calcium phosphate phases after heat treatment up to 1100 °C. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis revealed that the effect of substituting zinc into the HA lattice was to decrease the a-lattice parameter whilst increasing the c-lattice. Transmission electron microscopy also showed that the incorporation of zinc reduced both the length and width of the precipitated crystals.

  3. Iron Chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Menu Donate Treatments Therapies Iron Chelation Iron chelation therapy is the main treatment ... have iron overload and need treatment. What is iron overload? Iron chelation therapy is used when you ...

  4. Sulfur dioxide leaching of spent zinc-carbon-battery scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamides, J.; Senanayake, G.; Clegg, R.

    Zinc-carbon batteries, which contain around 20% zinc, 35% manganese oxides and 10% steel, are currently disposed after use as land fill or reprocessed to recover metals or oxides. Crushed material is subjected to magnetic separation followed by hydrometallurgical treatment of the non-magnetic material to recover zinc metal and manganese oxides. The leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide recovers 93% Zn and 82% Mn at 25 °C. Alkaline leaching with 6 M NaOH recovers 80% zinc. The present study shows that over 90% zinc and manganese can be leached in 20-30 min at 30 °C using 0.1-1.0 M sulfuric acid in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The iron extraction is sensitive to both acid concentration and sulfur dioxide flow rate. The effect of reagent concentration and particle size on the extraction of zinc, manganese and iron are reported. It is shown that the iron and manganese leaching follow a shrinking core kinetic model due to the formation of insoluble metal salts/oxides on the solid surface. This is supported by (i) the decrease in iron and manganese extraction from synthetic Fe(III)-Mn(IV)-Zn(II) oxide mixtures with increase in acid concentration from 1 M to 2 M, and (ii) the low iron dissolution and re-precipitation of dissolved manganese and zinc during prolonged leaching of battery scrap with low sulfur dioxide.

  5. COMPOSITION, MINERAL SAFETY INDEX, CALCIUM, ZINC AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    10] using the. Technicon ... were close on parameter basis with the exception of ash whose CV % was 90.1; the CV % in moisure was just 5.4. ... cells and in the blood as soluble phosphate ion, as well as in lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and.

  6. Physicochemical characterization of zinc-substituted calcium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tionally, HA powder is often employed in dentistry (e.g., in the treatment of dental pulp and dentine hypersensitiv- ity) and moreover is connected with the exposure of dentinal tubules [18]. Notably, HA present in toothpastes and dental gels, reduces the deposition of accretions on teeth. It can also be used as a component of ...

  7. COMPOSITION, MINERAL SAFETY INDEX, CALCIUM, ZINC AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Zn might have some deleterious effects. Two independent experiments were ... For doughnut, ingredients were: wheat flour, baking powder, baking yeast, granulated sugar, hot tap water and butter. ..... in which brain damage and early death can be avoided by a diet low in isoleucine and two other. EAA, leucine and valine ...

  8. Crystal structure of a sodium, zinc and iron(III-based non-stoichiometric phosphate with an alluaudite-like structure: Na1.67Zn1.67Fe1.33(PO43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Khmiyas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The new title compound, disodium dizinc iron(III tris(phosphate, Na1.67Zn1.67Fe1.33(PO43, which belongs to the alluaudite family, has been synthesized by solid-state reactions. In this structure, all atoms are in general positions except for four, which are located on special positions of the C2/c space group. This structure is characterized by cation substitutional disorder at two sites, one situated on the special position 4e (2 and the other on the general position 8f. The 4e site is partially occupied by Na+ [0.332 (3], whereas the 8f site is entirely filled by a mixture of Fe and Zn. The full-occupancy sodium and zinc atoms are located at the Wyckoff positions on the inversion center 4a (-1 and on the twofold rotation axis 4e, respectively. Refinement of the occupancy ratios, bond-valence analysis and the electrical neutrality requirement of the structure lead to the given composition for the title compound. The three-dimensional framework of this structure consists of kinked chains of edge-sharing octahedra stacked parallel to [10-1]. The chains are formed by a succession of trimers based on [ZnO6] octahedra and the mixed-cation FeIII/ZnII [(Fe/ZnO6] octahedra [FeIII:ZnIII ratio 0.668 (3/0.332 (3]. Continuous chains are held together by PO4 phosphate groups, forming polyhedral sheets perpendicular to [010]. The stacked sheets delimit two types of tunnels parallel to the c axis in which the sodium cations are located. Each Na+ cation is coordinated by eight O atoms. The disorder of Na in the tunnel might presage ionic mobility for this material.

  9. Experimental phasing using zinc and sulfur anomalous signals measured at the zinc absorption peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Min-Kyu; Ji, Chang-Jun; Lee, Jin-Won; Cha, Sun-Shin

    2013-10-01

    Iron is an essential transition metal required for bacterial growth and survival. Excess free iron can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species that can cause severe damage to cellular functions. Cells have developed iron-sensing regulators to maintain iron homeostasis at the transcription level. The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is an iron-responsive regulator that controls the expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis, bacterial virulence, stress resistance, and redox metabolism. Here, we report the expression, purification, crystallization, and phasing of the apo-form of Bacillus subtilis Fur (BsFur) in the absence of regulatory metal ions. Crystals were obtained by microbatch crystallization method at 295 K and diffraction data at a resolution of 2.6 Å was collected at the zinc peak wavelength (λ=1.2823 Å). Experimental phasing identified the positions of one zinc atom and four sulfur atoms of cysteine residues coordinating the zinc atom, indicating that the data contained a meaningful anomalous scattering originating from the ordered zinc-coordinating sulfur atoms, in spite of the small anomalous signals of sulfur atoms at the examined wavelength.

  10. LEAD AND ZINC LEACHING IN SOIL TREATED WITH IRON SMELTING RESIDUES LIXIVIAÇÃO DE CHUMBO E ZINCO EM SOLO TRATADO COM RESÍDUOS DE SIDERURGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leônidas Paixão Passos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to evaluate the dynamics of Zn and Pb in the soil, a greenhouse experiment was set up in pots filled with soil samples (Typic Hapludox treated with increasing doses of iron smelting residues. It was set under a completely randomized design, in a 3×5 factorial scheme, with three replications, combining three iron smelting residues (mill scale, filter press mud, and phosphate mud, with five doses for each residue (0 t ha-1, 1 t ha-1, 2 t ha-1, 4 t ha-1, and 8 t ha-1. Elephant grass was cultivated during 120 days, followed by common beans, for 75 days. In that period, contents of Zn and Pb were determined in the leachate. No Pb was found in the leachate, but Zn proved to be quite mobile in this soil. In soils treated with mill scale and filter press mud, no risk of groundwater contamination was observed, however, the 8 t ha-1 phosphate mud rate increased Zn contents in the leachate above the maximum allowed by environmental regulations. This fact limits the use of such residue for agricultural purposes. The other two residues should be evaluated in field-scale tests aiming their agricultural use.

    KEY-WORDS: Industrial residue; heavy metal; mill scale; filter press mud; phosphate mud.

  11. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: caltary@gmail.com [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Jianglin [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Shengmin, E-mail: smzhang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); China-Korea Center for Biomaterials and Nano-biotechnology, Life Science Building, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-12-01

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  12. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stoichiometric quantities of aqueous solutions of calcium maleate, iron(III) maleate and maleic acid. The reaction mixture was concentrated on a water bath until a brown coloured product formed after the addition of excess of acetone. The complex was vacuum dried and its identity was established by chemical analysis.

  13. High-Zinc Recovery from Residues by Sulfate Roasting and Water Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming; Peng, Bing; Chai, Li-yuan; Li, Yan-chun; Peng, Ning; Yuan, Ying-zhen; Chen, Dong

    2015-09-01

    An integrated process for the recovery of zinc that is generated from zinc hydrometallurgy in residues was developed. A mixture of residue and ferric sulfate was first roasted to transform the various forms of zinc in the residue, such as ferrite, oxide, sulfide, and silicate, into zinc sulfate. Next, water leaching was conducted to extract the zinc while the iron remained in the residue as ferric oxide. The effects of the roasting and leaching parameters on zinc recovery were investigated. A maximum zinc recovery rate of 90.9% was achieved for a mixture with a ferric sulfate/residue weight ratio of 0.05 when roasting at 640°C for 30 min before leaching with water at room temperature for 20 min using a liquid/solid ratio of 10. Only 0.13% of the iron was dissolved in the water. Thus, the leaching liquor could be directly returned for zinc smelting.

  14. Prevalence of vitamin a, zinc, iodine deficiency and anaemia among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are the most nutritionally vulnerable group of society as children are dependants and they are also at a critical stage of the growing process. They need adequate vitamin A, zinc, iron and iodine for their development and school performance. Most often iron deficiency causes anaemia with resultant fatigue and low ...

  15. Synthesis and crystal structure of calcium dizinc iron(III tris(orthophosphate, CaZn2Fe(PO43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Khmiyas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compound, CaZn2Fe(PO43, were synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction. In the asymmetric unit, all atoms are located in fully occupied general positions of the P21/c space group. The zinc atoms are located on two crystallographically independent sites with tetrahedral and distorted triangular-based bipyramidal geometries. Two edge-sharing triangular bipyramidal ZnO5 units form a dimer, which is linked to slightly deformed FeO6 octahedra via a common edge. The resulting chains are interconnected through PO4 tetrahedra to form a layer perpendicular to the b axis. Moreover, the remaining PO4 and ZnO4 tetrahedra are linked together through common vertices to form tapes parallel to the c axis and surrounding a chain of Ca2+ cations to build a sheet, also perpendicular to the b axis. The stacking of the two layers along the b axis leads to the resulting three-dimensional framework, which defines channels in which the Ca2+ cations are located, each cation being coordinated by seven oxygen atoms.

  16. Zinc in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell growth, wound healing, and the breakdown of carbohydrates . Zinc is also needed for the senses of smell and taste. During pregnancy, infancy, and childhood the body needs zinc to grow and develop properly. Zinc also ...

  17. Dialysis anaemia caused by subacute zinc toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, J J; Row, P G

    1977-06-04

    Nine out of ten patients dialysed in a satellite dialysis unit became severely anaemic over a 2-month period. The onset of anaemia coincided with the installation of a new galvanised-iron water softener in the dialysate water-supply system. An activated carbon filter was installed and haemoglobin levels returned towards previous values. Two patients on home dialysis showed similar falls in haemoglobin after the installation of galvanised iron piping in their dialysate water-supply systems; these problems also resolved after carbon filtration of the dialysis water. It is suggested that elution of zinc from galvanised iron can cause anaemia in dialysis patients. Carbon filtration removes of 95-99% of the zinc eluted.

  18. Effect of pH and Calcium on the Adsorptive Removal of Cadmium and Copper by Iron Oxide–Coated Sand and Granular Ferric Hydroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Uwamariya, V.

    2015-08-17

    Iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS) and granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) were used to study the effect of Ca2+ and pH on the adsorptive removal of Cu2+ and Cd2+ from groundwater using batch adsorption experiments and kinetic modeling. It was observed that Cu2+ and Cd2+ were not stable in synthetic waters. The extent of precipitation increased with increasing pH. Removal of Cu2+ and Cd2+ was achieved through both precipitation and adsorption, with IOCS showing higher adsorption efficiency. Increase of pH (from 6 to 8) resulted in a higher overall removal efficiency of both Cu2+ and Cd2+, with precipitation as predominant removal mechanisms at higher pH values, especially for Cu2+. An increase in Ca2+ concentration increased the precipitation of Cu2+ [as Cu2(OH)2CO3 and Cu3(OH)2(CO3)2] and Cd2+ [as Cd(OH)2 and CdCO3]. In addition, Ca2+ competes with Cu2+ and Cd2+ for surface adsorption sites on IOCS and GFH, and reduces their adsorption capacity. The kinetic modeling revealed that the adsorption of Cd2+ onto IOCS is a complex process, with limited contribution of chemisorption that increases in the presence of Ca2+. © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  19. Comparative studies on acid leaching of zinc waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnik, Ewa; Włoch, Grzegorz; Szatan, Leszek

    2017-11-01

    Three industrial waste materials were characterized in terms of their elemental and phase compositions, leaching behaviour in 10% sulfuric acid solution as well as leaching thermal effects. Slag from melting of mixed metallic scrap contained about 50% Zn and 10% Pb. It consisted mainly of various oxides and oxy-chlorides of metals. Zinc spray metallizing dust contained about 77% Zn in form of zinc and/or zinc-iron oxides, zinc metal and Zn-Fe intermetallic. Zinc ash from hot dip galvanizing was a mixture of zinc oxide, metallic zinc and zinc hydroxide chloride and contained about 80% Zn. Dissolution efficiency of zinc from the first material was 80% (independently on the solid to liquid ratio, 50–150 kg/m3), while decrease of the efficacy from 80% to 60% with increased solid to liquid ratio for the two remaining materials was observed. Both increase in the temperature (20 °C to 35 °C) and agitation rate (300 rpm to 900 rpm) did not improve seriously the leaching results. In all cases, transfer of zinc ions to the leachate was accompanied by different levels of solution contamination, depending on the type of the waste. Leaching of the materials was exothermic with the similar reaction heats for two high oxide-type products (slag, zinc ash) and higher values for the spray metallizing dust.

  20. Bioavailability of zinc in Wistar rats fed with rice fortified with zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Sant'Ana, Helena Maria Pinheiro

    2014-06-13

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification.

  1. Interaction genotype by season and its influence on the identification of beans with high content of zinc and iron Interação genótipos x ambiente e sua influência na identificação de linhagens de feijão comum com alto teor de zinco e ferro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Andrade Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral contents in common bean seeds are influenced, in addition to genetic variation, by environmental crop conditions, especially by the soil type and chemical composition and by the genotype x environment interaction. This study was carried out to verify if the zinc and iron contents are affected by the crop growing period. Ten lines with high iron and zinc contents and ten with low contents were assessed in three seasons: "wet season" of 2009/2010 (sowing in November; "dry season" of 2010 (sowing in February and "winter season" of 2010 (sowing in July, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with three replications and plots consisting of two rows of two meters, with a spacing of 0.50 m. The seeds harvested were assessed in regard to iron and zinc mineral contents. The greatest contents were observed in the winter season and the smallest ones in the dry season, with sowing in February. It was observed that in the mean of the three harvests, the lines classified as having high iron and zinc content exhibited an iron quantity 11.0% and a zinc quantity 6.8% above those of low content. The lines by seasons interaction occurs. However, its interference in identification of the groups with high and low content of the two nutrients is not great.Os teores de minerais nas sementes de feijão comum são influenciados, além da variação genética, pelas condições ambientais de cultivo, especialmente pelo tipo e pela composição química do solo e pela interação genótipos x ambientes. Assim, este trabalho foi realizado para verificar se os teores de zinco e ferro são afetados pela safra de cultivo. Dez linhagens com teores elevados de ferro e zinco e dez com baixos teores foram avaliadas durante três safras: "águas" de 2009/2010 (semeadura em novembro; "seca" de 2010 (semeadura em fevereiro e "inverno" de 2010 (semeadura em julho, em Lavras (MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o

  2. Influence of calcium ions on the colloidal stability of surface-modified nano zero-valent iron in the absence or presence of humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haoran; Lo, Irene M C

    2013-05-01

    To decrease aggregation and enhance the mobility of nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) used for in-situ groundwater remediation, the surface of such NZVI must be modified using organic stabilizers, which can provide electrostatic repulsion, and steric or electrosteric stabilization. However, the stability of the nanoparticles can also be affected by groundwater components such as cations and humic acid (HA). In this study, the effect of Ca(2+) on the colloidal stability of NZVI coated with three types of stabilizers (i.e., polyacrylic acid (PAA), Tween-20 and starch) was evaluated in the absence or presence of HA. Differing stability behavior was observed for different surface-modified NZVIs. The presence of Ca(2+) exerted a slight influence on the settling of NZVI modified with PAA or Tween-20, in the absence or presence of HA. However, the presence of Ca(2+) caused significant aggregation and sedimentation for starch-modified NZVI in the absence of HA, and induced an even higher degree of aggregation and sedimentation in the presence of HA. It is presumed that, in the absence of HA, starch-modified NZVI particles undergo attachment with each other via Ca(2+) complexation with the coated starch molecules on the surface of the particles, thus enhancing the aggregation and the following sedimentation of starch-modified NZVI. However, in the presence of HA, spectroscopic analysis of the starch-modified NZVI aggregates indicated that the bridging interaction of HA with Ca(2+) was the predominant mechanism for the enhanced aggregation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Zinc and Ferritin Levels on Parent and Teacher Reported Symptom Scores in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Ozgur; Oner, Pinar; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Odabas, Elif; Keser, Nilufer; Karadag, Hasan; Kizilgun, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Objective: It has been suggested that both low iron and zinc levels might be associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, the association of zinc and iron levels with ADHD symptoms has not been investigated at the same time in a single sample. Method: 118 subjects with ADHD (age = 7-14 years, mean = 9.8,…

  4. The importance of zinc on osteoporotic bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I.; Lopes, R.T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; inaya@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Farias, M.L.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario. Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: fleiuss@hucff.ufrj.br; Rosenthal, D. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Endocrina]. E-mail: doris@biof.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    Zinc is an essential element that can be found in bones, such as calcium and phosphorus. It seems to have effects on growth, bone turnover and mineralization making its relationship with bones still opening. The goal of this study is, by XRF analysis, characterized bone samples, with and without pathology, in the trabecular region. For that purpose, it was used an XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results show that the profile of the zinc distribution and its concentration on femoral heads are strongly related to the associated pathology. (author)

  5. Iron and Mechanisms of Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of transition metals (e.g., copper, zinc, and iron and the dysregulation of their metabolism are a hallmark in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. This paper will be focused on the mechanism of neurotoxicity mediated by iron. This metal progressively accumulates in the brain both during normal aging and neurodegenerative processes. High iron concentrations in the brain have been consistently observed in Alzheimer's (AD and Parkinson's (PD diseases. In this connection, metalloneurobiology has become extremely important in establishing the role of iron in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurons have developed several protective mechanisms against oxidative stress, among them, the activation of cellular signaling pathways. The final response will depend on the identity, intensity, and persistence of the oxidative insult. The characterization of the mechanisms mediating the effects of iron-induced increase in neuronal dysfunction and death is central to understanding the pathology of a number of neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Effect of different iron compounds on rheological and technological parameters as well as bioaccessibility of minerals in whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebellato, Ana Paula; Bussi, Jéssica; Silva, Joyce Grazielle Siqueira; Greiner, Ralf; Steel, Caroline Joy; Pallone, Juliana Azevedo Lima

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of iron compounds used in whole wheat flour (WWF) fortification, both on rheological properties of the dough and on bread technological quality. Furthermore, bioaccessibility of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) in the final breads was determined. Rheological properties (mainly dough development time, stability, mixing tolerance index, resistance to extension and ratio number) of the dough and the technological quality of bread (mainly oven spring and cut opening) were altered. However, producing roll breads fortified with different iron compounds was still possible. NaFeEDTA (ferric sodium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid) proved to be the most effective iron compound in the fortification of WWF, since it presented the highest levels of solubility (44.80%) and dialysability (46.14%), followed by microencapsulated ferrous fumarate (FFm). On the other hand, the microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (FSm) and reduced iron presented the lowest solubility (5.40 and 18.30%, respectively) and dialysability (33.12 and 31.79%, respectively). Zn dialysis was positively influenced by NaFeEDTA, FSm, and ferrous fumarate. As for Ca, dialysis was positively influenced by FSm and negatively influenced by FFm. The data indicated that there is a competitive interaction for the absorption of these minerals in whole wheat roll breads, but all studied minerals can be considered bioaccessible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Change in hen sciatic nerve calcium after a single oral dose of tri-o-tolyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, W E; Olajos, E J; Pleban, P A

    1993-02-01

    Six trace elements were monitored in neural tissue homogenates from White Leghorn hens orally dosed with tri-o-tolyl phosphate (TOTP) or tri-m-tolyl phosphate (TMTP) (200 mg/kg). Treated birds were monitored daily for development of delayed neurotoxicity, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc were measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy at the time of maximal locomotor impairment (27-35 days postdosing). TOTP-treated birds manifested motor deficit by 15 days postdosing, while hens administered TMTP exhibited no signs of delayed neurotoxicity. Total calcium content in the sciatic nerve homogenates from TOTP-dosed hens was significantly less (P < 0.05) at the time of maximal locomotor impairment, while no shifts in the other trace elements were found. Therefore, the ortho isomer of tritolylphosphate elicited symptoms of delayed neurotoxicity in the hen (i.e., organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity or OPIDN) and caused a decrease in total calcium content in the sciatic nerve homogenates, in contrast to effects of the meta isomer. Analysis of neural homogenates at time of maximal locomotor impairment reflected secondary events in the degradative processes, since the initial assault of TOTP happens early after administration. Therefore, at fully developed OPIDN alteration of calcium balance in sciatic nerves is an indicator of axonopathy in a degenerated nerve following chemical injury.

  8. Zinc and infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, M Leigh; Michalczyk, Agnes A

    2016-12-01

    Zinc is essential for a wide variety of cellular processes in all cells. It is a critical dietary nutrient, particularly in the early stages of life. In the early neonatal period, adequate sources of zinc can be obtained from breast milk. In rare circumstances, the mammary gland produces zinc deficient milk that is potentially lethal for exclusively breast-fed infants. This can be overcome by zinc supplementation to the infant. Alterations to key zinc transporters provide insights into the mechanisms of cellular zinc homeostasis. The bioavailability of zinc in food depends on the presence of constituents that may complex zinc. In many countries, zinc deficiency is a major health issue due to poor nourishment. Young children are particularly affected. Zinc deficiency can impair immune function and contributes to the global burden of infectious diseases including diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria. Furthermore, zinc deficiency may extend its influence across generations by inducing epigenetic effects that alter the expression of genes. This review discusses the significance of adequate zinc nutrition in infants, factors that influence zinc nutrition, the consequences of zinc deficiency, including its contribution to the global burden of disease, and addresses some of the knowledge gaps in zinc biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. RESIDUAL CONCENTRATION OF COPPER, IRON, MANGANESE AND ZINC IN EUTROPHIC 'LATOSSOLO ROXO’ UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL MANAGEMENTS CONCENTRAÇÕES RESIDUAIS DE COBRE, FERRO, MANGANÊS E ZINCO EM LATOSSOLO ROXO EUTRÓFICO SOB DIFERENTES TIPOS DE MANEJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durval Dourado Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The removal of micronutrients from soil by grains and burning of cultural remains constitute the main means of soilexhaustion. The correction of soil fertility and the adapted soilmanagement have been the means used to maintain the grainproduction. The soybean, corn, rice and common bean crops were developed in an eutrophic ‘latossolo roxo’, submitted to fourmanagement systems: 1 no-till, 2 deep moldboard plowing, 3shallow harrow plowing and 4 deep stirring, using a chiseling plower and three level of fertilization: 1 Check (natural soil fertility, 2 Goiás State recommendation and 3 Fertilizers to cover the nutrients extracted by grain exportation. Larger values of the pH were observed in the superficial layer of soil submitted to deep moldboard plowing in relation to no-till, shallow harrow plowing and deep stirring. Uniform distributions of iron, manganese and zinc were observed in areas submitted to deep moldboard plowing. The 40-60 cm layer presented similar concentrations in all types of soil management. Copper tried in the superficial layer and at deepest layers can be explained by the larger concentration of organic matter and origin of the soil. No variation was observed in relation to fertilizers application.

    KEY-WORDS: Micronutrients; no till system; cerrado soil.

    A exportação dos micronutrientes do solo pelos grãos e a queima dos restos culturais constituem os principais meios de esgotamento do solo. A correção da fertilidade e o manejo adequado do solo têm sido os meios usados para manter a produção de grãos. Desenvolveram-se culturas de soja, milho, arroz e feijão em um latossolo roxo eutrófico, submetidas a quatro sistemas de manejo: 1 plantio direto; 2 escarificação profunda; 3 grade aradora; e 4 aração profunda, e a três níveis de adubação: 1

  10. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and zinc in the tissues of the largemouth yellowfish, Labeobarbus kimberleyensis (Gilchrist and Thompson, 1913), from the Vaal Dam, South Africa, and associated consumption risks.

  11. Development of gluten-free cookie from medicinal plants (Guaraná - Paullinea cupana and Catuaba - Anemopaegma mirandum aiming at copper, iron, and zinc supplementation Elaboração de biscoito sem glúten a base de ervas medicinais (Guaraná - Paullinea cupana e Catuaba - Anemopaegma mirandum visando suplementação de cobre, ferro e zinco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Emerick de Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two flavors of cookies were developed (savory and peppery containing a mixture of plants such as "guaraná" (Paullinia cupana and "catuaba" (Anemopaegma mirandum. A test of acceptance and buying intention was applied to 48 consumers through a structured hedonic scale of 9 points. Afterwards, the centesimal compositions of these cookies were obtained as well as their total contents of copper, iron, and zinc through the method of atomic absorption spectrometry with flame. Sensorial tests indicated that the cookies presented good acceptance with potential to sensorial growth. The amount of fibers in the samples, 3 g/100 g, surpassed expectations since the product was not invented with the intention of being a source of this nutrient. The total amount of copper (0.41 mg.100 g-1, iron (4.50 mg.100 g-1, and zinc (1.32 mg.100 g-1 was considered good. The cookies produced can be considered good sources of fibers, copper, iron, and zinc. Furthermore, they are beneficial to people affected by celiac disease because they lack gluten. They also present functional properties. In addition, the medicinal plants used are considered energetic.Foram elaborados dois biscoitos (salgado e apimentado à base de guaraná e catuaba. Testes de aceitação e de intenção de compra foram aplicados em 48 consumidores. Determinou-se a composição centesimal dos produtos elaborados bem como os teores totais de cobre, ferro e zinco através da espectrometria de absorç��o atômica em chama. Os testes sensoriais indicaram que os biscoitos apresentam boa aceitação com potencial de crescimento sensorial. O teor de fibras encontrado nos biscoitos, 3 g/100 g, ultrapassou as expectativas, pois não foram inicialmente elaborados com esta finalidade. Os teores totais de cobre (0,41 mg.100 g-1, ferro (4,50 mg.100 g-1 e zinco (1,32 mg.100 g-1 permitem que o produto possa ser considerado fonte destes minerais. O produto obtido, além de ter a ação "energética" das plantas

  12. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  13. Selective zinc ion detection by functionalised ZnO nanorods with ionophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Z. H.; Usman Ali, Syed M.; Chey, C. O.; Khun, K.; Nur, O.; Willander, Magnus

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, highly dense and well aligned single-crystal zinc oxide nanorods were grown along the c-axis on a gold coated glass substrate using a low temperature aqueous chemical growth approach. The prepared ZnO nanorods were functionalized with plastic membrane coatings containing specific ionophore (12-crown-4) which is highly selective to zinc ions (Zn+2). The electrochemical response of the sensor was found to be linear over a relatively wide logarithmic concentration range from 1 μM to 100 mM. The proposed sensor showed a good linearity with a high sensitivity of ˜35 mV/decade for sensing Zn+2 ions. A fast response time of less than 5 s with a good selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility, and negligible response to common interferents ions such as calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), or potassium (K+), and iron (Fe+3) and copper (Cu+2) was also demonstrated. Moreover, the proposed sensor showed good stoichiometric results for potentiometric titration.

  14. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  15. The triad of Iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A triad of iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and growth retardation occurring in tandem with zinc deficiency has been reported in the past as components of either Prasad's syndrome or hypopituitarism. There are no documented cases of such triad occurring in the presence of normal serum zinc levels. We report ...

  16. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2006-06-27

    Reduced sulfur gas species (e.g., H.sub.2S, COS and CS.sub.2) are removed from a gas stream by compositions wherein a zinc titanate ingredient is associated with a metal oxide-aluminate phase material in the same particle species. Nonlimiting examples of metal oxides comprising the compositions include magnesium oxide, zinc oxide, calcium oxide, nickel oxide, etc.

  17. Iron fortification of banana by the expression of soybean ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gujulla B Sunil; Srinivas, Lingam; Ganapathi, Thumballi Ramabhatta

    2011-08-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the serious ailments related to nutrition in the developing countries. Fruit and vegetable crops favor the bioavailability of iron. Banana is consumed as a staple food in the tropics. Iron-fortified bananas provide an effective means of controlling the iron deficiency. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) were transformed with soybean ferritin cDNA using two different expression cassettes pSF and pEFE-SF to express ferritin. Transgenic nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by PCR. Transgenic plants were regenerated and analyzed through PCR and PCR-Southern analysis. The expression of ferritin was confirmed by RT-PCR. Iron and zinc levels in the transgenic and control plants were estimated by atomic absorption spectroscopy. A 6.32-fold increase in iron accumulation and a 4.58-fold increase in the zinc levels were noted in the leaves of transgenic plants. Thus, iron- and zinc-fortified bananas could be developed as a functional food to overcome the malnutrition-related iron deficiency. This is the first report on the iron and zinc fortification of banana.

  18. Zinc oxide overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used to prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of these ...

  19. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, A.C.; Zheng, W.; Haacke, E.M.; Webb, S.; Nichol, H.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  20. The effect of antacids on the absorption of simultaneously ingested iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil-Cutting, M A; Crosby, W H

    1986-03-21

    Most discussions of iron therapy include a statement about the ineffectiveness of iron ingested simultaneously with antacids. This study was designed to determine whether or not antacids inhibit iron absorption. A small-dose iron tolerance test was used to compare absorption of iron with and without various antacids. Liquid antacid containing aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide did not significantly decrease iron absorption. Sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate caused the plasma iron increase to be 50% and 67% less than the control values, respectively. However, when calcium carbonate was present in a multivitamin-plus-minerals tablet, the plasma iron change was not significantly different from control trials. Presumably the competitive binding of iron by ascorbic acid in the vitamin pill allowed uninhibited absorption of the iron. Our results suggest that certain antacids may be combined with iron therapy without reducing the efficacy of the iron.

  1. A field investigation of the relationship between zinc and acid volatile sulfide concentrations in freshwater sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Liber, Karsten; Call, Daniel J.; Markee, Thomas P.; Canfield, Timothy J.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    1996-01-01

    Understanding relationships between cationic metals such as cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc, and amorphous iron sulfides, measured as acid volatile sulfide (AVS), is key to predicting metal bioavailability and toxicity insediments. The objective of the present study was to assess seasonal and spatial variations of AVS in freshwater sediments contaminated with zinc. Sediments were sampled from three streams with varying levels of zinc contamination at two different times, March and June of 1995, representing cold- and warm-weather situations. Interstitial (pore) water concentrations of zinc, and solid phase concentrations of AVS and zinc were measured in surficial and deep sediment horizons. Toxicity tests (10-d) with the amphipodHyalella azteca were conducted using intact cores. Sediment zinc concentrations from six sites within the primary test stream differed by about five-fold, and also varied seasonally. Acid volatile sulfide concentrations were generally lower than those of zinc, and pore water zinc concentrations typically were elevated. There was a positive correlation between solid-phase AVS and zinc concentrations, suggesting that the system was dominated by zinc, as opposed to iron sulfides. In contrast to expectations arising from some studies of seasonal variations of AVS in iron-dominated systems, AVS concentrations were smaller in June than in March. However, this was likely due to a major storm event and associated sediment scouring before the June sampling, rather than to seasonal processes related to variations in temperature and dissolved oxygen. Based upon an indirect analysis of depth variations in AVS, there was some indication that zinc sulfide might be less prone to oxidation than iron sulfide. There was a strong correlation between toxicity of the sediment samples toH. azteca and interstitial water concentrations of zinc; however, the possible contribution of other contaminants to sediment toxicity cannot be dismissed.

  2. Zinc plus ß-carotene supplementation of pregnant women is superior to ß-carotene supplementation alone in improving vitamin A status in both mothers and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Wieringa, F.T.; West, C.E.; Muhilal,

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and zinc are prevalent in women and infants in developing countries. Supplementation during pregnancy can benefit mother and infant. Objective: We examined whether supplementation during pregnancy with iron and folic acid plus beta-carotene or zinc or

  3. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of iron(III), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes of salicylidene- N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H 2L 1) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene- N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H 2L 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouEl-Enein, S. A.; El-Saied, F. A.; Kasher, T. I.; El-Wardany, A. H.

    2007-07-01

    Salicylidene- N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H 2L 1) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene- N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H 2L 2) and their iron(III), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by IR, electronic spectra, molar conductivities, magnetic susceptibilities and ESR. Mononuclear complexes are formed with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (M:L). The IR studies reveal various modes of chelation. The electronic absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the iron(III), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of H 2L 1 have octahedral geometry. While the cobalt(II) complexes of H 2L 2 were separated as tetrahedral structure. The copper(II) complexes have square planar stereochemistry. The ESR parameters of the copper(II) complexes at room temperature were calculated. The g values for copper(II) complexes proved that the Cu sbnd O and Cu sbnd N bonds are of high covalency.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of iron(III), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes of salicylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H2L1) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H2L2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouEl-Enein, S A; El-Saied, F A; Kasher, T I; El-Wardany, A H

    2007-07-01

    Salicylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H(2)L(1)) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H(2)L(2)) and their iron(III), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by IR, electronic spectra, molar conductivities, magnetic susceptibilities and ESR. Mononuclear complexes are formed with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (M:L). The IR studies reveal various modes of chelation. The electronic absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the iron(III), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of H(2)L(1) have octahedral geometry. While the cobalt(II) complexes of H(2)L(2) were separated as tetrahedral structure. The copper(II) complexes have square planar stereochemistry. The ESR parameters of the copper(II) complexes at room temperature were calculated. The g values for copper(II) complexes proved that the Cu-O and Cu-N bonds are of high covalency.

  6. Influence of malaria on the serum levels of vitamin A, zinc and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... Malaria is an endemic parasitic disease that prevails particularly in warm tropical regions of the world. Micronutrient ... micronutrient status (vitamin A, zinc and calcium) and malaria infection among children in Douala town. (Cameroon) ..... First world congress on calcium and vitamin D; Rome, Italy pp. 8-12.

  7. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  8. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  9. Hair Zinc Level Analysis and Correlative Micronutrients in Children Presenting with Malnutrition and Poor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae Hwan; Lee, Jin; Kim, Yong Joo

    2016-12-01

    Zinc deficiency can induce serious clinical problems in the gastrointestinal (GI) system and immune system and can affect growth and development. It is more severe in younger patients. Chronic zinc deficiency is reflected more precisely in hair than in serum. We studied hair zinc levels and other hair and serum micronutrients in chronic malnourished children to identify which micronutrients are affected or correlated with the other ones. Hair mineral analyses were performed in 56 children (age, 1-15 years) presenting with malnutrition, poor growth, poor appetite, anorexia, with/without other GI symptoms (diarrhea, abdominal pain, constipation) from August 2012 to March 2015. Biochemical studies for macronutrients and major micronutrients were also conducted. Hair zinc deficiency was diagnosed in 88%, and serum zinc deficiency was diagnosed in 55% of the children. There was no statistical correlation between serum and tissue zinc level. Hair zinc levels were highly correlated with serum vitamin D (r=-0.479, p=0.001), which also showed correlation with hair levels of magnesium and calcium. (r=0.564, 0.339, p=0.001, 0.011). Hair calcium level was correlated with serum pre-albumin (r=0.423, p=0.001). These correlations may explain the phenomenon that the major clinical manifestation of zinc deficiency is poor body growth. Clinical symptoms were resolved in most children after zinc supplementation. Hair zinc and mineral analyses are useful as a therapeutic guide in the clinical investigation of children with malnutrition and poor growth.

  10. Cosmic ray source abundance of calcium

    CERN Document Server

    Perron, C

    1978-01-01

    Re-examines the results of experiments in which ultra-high purity iron targets were irradiated by protons from the two CERN accelerators (600 MeV and 21 GeV); the spallation products were then chemically separated, and their isotopic composition determined by mass spectrometry. Ratios of cross-sections for calcium production by spallation of iron show that /sup 42/Ca, /sup 43/Ca and /sup 44/Ca have about the same abundance, about 10-15% that of iron, confirming earlier studies. (11 refs).

  11. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    , a situation unique in the Solar System. In such a world, iron metal is unstable and, as we all know, oxidizes to the ferric iron compounds we call 'rust'. If we require iron metal it must be produced at high temperatures by reacting iron ore, usually a mixture of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) oxides (Fe2O3......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost...... unique examples of iron metal, otherwise called 'native iron' or 'telluric iron', occur naturally....

  12. Iron Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adrenocorticotropic hormone) can decrease them. Stress and sleep deprivation can temporarily decrease serum iron levels. Is iron ... Home About This Site Contact Us Terms Of Use In The News Policies Editorial Review Board Partner | ...

  13. Effect of irrigation water salinity and zinc application on yield, yield components and zinc accumulation of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad ahmadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the most important problems of agriculture in crop production in arid and semi arid regions. Under these conditions, in addition to management strategies, proper and adequate nutrition also has an important role in crop improvement. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of 4 different irrigation water salinities (blank, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1, prepared with 1:1 molar ratio of chlorides of calcium and sodium and magnesium sulphate salts. and 5 different zinc applications (0, 10, 20, 30 mg Kg-1 soil and foliar application of salt of zinc sulphate on yield, yield components and zinc concentration of wheat, using a completely randomized design, factorial with three replications. Plant height, spike length, 1000 grain weight, number of grain per spike, grain and straw yield was decreased by Irrigation water salinity. And all of these parameters were improved by zinc application except 1000 grain weight. Zinc absorption and concentration in straw and grain was decreased by Saline water compared to blank. And concentration of zinc significantly was increased in straw and grain by increase zinc application. The results indicated that, zinc application under low to medium salinity conditions improved growth and yield of wheat due to decreasing the impacts salinity.

  14. Prediction of the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements in foods : the influence of dietary fibre, phytic acid and other food components on the in vitro availability of calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, M.G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Minerals and trace elements play essential roles in numerous biochemical and physiological processes in animals and man. A deficiency, an overdose or imbalances between minerals or trace elements will exert a negative effect on health. Generally, it is not the ingested dose of minerals and

  15. Catalytic iron oxide for lime regeneration in carbonaceous fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ming-Shing; Yang, Ralph T.

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides absorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. It is found that iron oxide present in the spent limestone acts as a catalyst to regenerate the spent limestone in a reducing environment. With only small quantities of iron oxide the calcium can be recycled at a significantly increased rate.

  16. Chemical interaction of 10-MDP (methacryloyloxi-decyl-dihydrogen-phosphate) in zinc-doped self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Victor P; Pomacóndor-Hernández, César; Ogliari, Fabrício A; Leal, Fernanda; Correr, Américo B; Sauro, Salvatore

    2014-03-01

    Zinc-doped dentine adhesives have been recently advocated to interfere with metallo-proteinases-mediated collagen degradation. Nevertheless, there is a little information about the effects of zinc ions on the chemical interaction of self-etch functional monomers to dentine. The aim of this study was to assess if the inclusion of zinc into the primers of self-etch adhesives containing MDP (10-methacryloyloxi-decyl-dihydrogen-phosphate) may interfere with their chemical interaction to calcium/dentine. Caries-free human molars were bonded using two commercial self-etching adhesives [Clearfil SE bond (CSE) and S3 bond (S3)] doped with zinc nitrate and submitted to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and interface nanoleakage evaluation. Moreover, MDP was synthesised to evaluate the chemical interaction with calcium/dentine through atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and SEM-EDX in the presence or absence of zinc ions. AAS showed increasing formation of MDP-zinc rather than MDP-calcium salts (p=0.002) in the presence of zinc. SEM-EDX confirmed the formation of zinc-rich phosphate deposits that were probably responsible for the significant reduction in μTBS and increased interfacial nanoleakage attained with zinc-doped CSE and S3. These outcomes demonstrated that the excessive presence of zinc ions may jeopardise the bonding performance of MDP-containing self-etch adhesives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Young children feeding and Zinc levels of complementary foods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition among young children in Cameroon starts during complementary feeding or the transition period. Last nutritional surveys indicated high prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, iron deficiency anemia and Vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6 to 59 months. No data on appropriate feeding and zinc content in ...

  18. Adsorption studies of iron (III) on chitin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of anions like chloride, nitrate and sulphate and also of cations like zinc, chromium and copper on the adsorption of iron(III) was determined. The time dependence of fraction of adsorption, , at varying particle sizes and doses of chitin and the intraparticle diffusion rate constants, , of the adsorption process ...

  19. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  20. Evaluation of Zinc Supplementation Effect on Fetal Outcomes in Pregnant Women with Lower-than-Median Serum Zinc Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Norrozi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Zinc is the second main element in the body after iron. Its importance in pregnancy is related to role in DNA and protein synthesis and consequently the necessity of its availability for the appropriate growth and development of the fetus and neonate. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of zinc supplement on fetal outcomes (height, weight, head and chest circumference of the fetus, low birth weight, and pre-term birth in pregnant women with lower-than-median serum zinc.Materials and methods: Participants of this experimental double-blind clinical trial study were 263 healthy singleton pregnant women with a mean age of 26.46 (±4.52 years and gestational age of 14.52 (±4.51 weeks whose (non-fasting serum zinc levels were lower than median of the study population. All eligible individuals were randomly divided into two groups of zinc supplement and placebo. Individuals in the zinc supplement group (128 participants took one zinc supplement capsule including 25 mg elemental zinc and participants in the placebo group (135 people took one placebo capsule per day until the end of pregnancy. All women were under control and supervision until the end of the pregnancy and their information about labor, delivery, and neonate measures were collected through their obstetric records and then compared.Results: Findings of this study showed no significant difference in fetal measures at birth (weight, height, head and chest circumference, pre-term delivery, and low birth weight between zinc supplement and placebo groups.Conclusion: According to our findings, administration of 25mg elemental zinc per day does not improve fetal measures in pregnant women with lower-than-median serum zinc concentration; however, more in-depth studies with larger sample sizes are recommended to achieve more reliable results.

  1. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Summary: High expression of zinc (Zn)-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes increases root Zn uptake in dicots, leading to high accumulation of Zn in shoots. However, none of the ZIP genes tested previously in monocots could enhance shoot Zn accumulation. In this report, ...

  2. Iron biofortification and homeostasis in transgenic cassava roots expressing an algal iron assimilatory protein, FEA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzoma eIhemere

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have engineered the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory protein, FEA1, in roots to enhance its nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 gm meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 protein did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe(III chelate reductase activity and gene expression levels consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in FEA1 transgenic plants. We also show that genes involved in iron homeostasis in cassava have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in transgenic plants. Steady state transcript levels of the metal-chelate transporter MeYSL1, and the iron storage proteins, MeFER2 and MeFER6, were elevated in various tissues of FEA1 transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. These results suggest that these gene products play a role in iron translocation and homeostasis in FEA1 transgenic cassava plants. These results are discussed in terms of enhanced strategies for the iron biofortification of plants.

  3. Elemental analysis of lung tissue particles and intracellular iron content of alveolar macrophages in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkubo Takeru

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a rare disease occurred by idiopathic (autoimmune or secondary to particle inhalation. The in-air microparticle induced X-ray emission (in-air micro-PIXE system performs elemental analysis of materials by irradiation with a proton microbeam, and allows visualization of the spatial distribution and quantitation of various elements with very low background noise. The aim of this study was to assess the secondary PAP due to inhalation of harmful particles by employing in-air micro-PIXE analysis for particles and intracellular iron in parafin-embedded lung tissue specimens obtained from a PAP patient comparing with normal lung tissue from a non-PAP patient. The iron inside alveolar macrophages was stained with Berlin blue, and its distribution was compared with that on micro-PIXE images. Results The elements composing particles and their locations in the PAP specimens could be identified by in-air micro-PIXE analysis, with magnesium (Mg, aluminum (Al, silicon (Si, phosphorus (P, sulfur (S, scandium (Sc, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, titanium (Ti, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, manganase (Mn, iron (Fe, and zinc (Zn being detected. Si was the major component of the particles. Serial sections stained by Berlin blue revealed accumulation of sideromacrophages that had phagocytosed the particles. The intracellular iron content of alveolar macrophage from the surfactant-rich area in PAP was higher than normal lung tissue in control lung by both in-air micro-PIXE analysis and Berlin blue staining. Conclusion The present study demonstrated the efficacy of in-air micro-PIXE for analyzing the distribution and composition of lung particles. The intracellular iron content of single cells was determined by simultaneous two-dimensional and elemental analysis of paraffin-embedded lung tissue sections. The results suggest that secondary PAP is associated with exposure to inhaled particles and accumulation of iron in

  4. Iron limitation of microbial phosphorus acquisition in the tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Thomas; Achterberg, Eric; Yong, Jaw Chuen; Rapp, Insa; Utermann, Caroline; Engel, Anja; Moore, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Growth-limitation of marine phytoplankton by fixed nitrogen (N) has been demonstrated for most of the low-latitude oceans; however, in the (sub)tropical North Atlantic enhanced N2 fixation leads to secondary/(co-)limitation by phosphorus (P). The dissolved organic P pool is rarely fully depleted in the modern ocean and potentially represents a substantial additional P source. Microbes can use a variety of alkaline phosphatase enzymes to access P from a major fraction of this pool. In contrast to the relatively well studied PhoA family of alkaline phosphatases that utilize zinc (Zn) as a cofactor, the recent discovery of iron (Fe) as a cofactor in the more widespread PhoX[1] and PhoD[2] enzymes imply potential for a complex, biochemically-dependant interplay between oceanic Zn, Fe and P cycles. Here we demonstrate enhanced natural community alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) following Fe amendment within the low Zn and moderately low Fe western tropical North Atlantic. In contrast, beneath the Saharan dust plume in the Eastern Atlantic no APA response to trace metal addition was observed. This is the first demonstration of intermittent Fe limitation of microbial P acquisition, providing an additional facet in the argument for Fe control of the coupling between oceanic N and P cycles. 1. Yong, S. C. et al. A complex iron-calcium cofactor catalyzing phosphotransfer chemistry. Science 345, 1170-3 (2014). 2. Rodriguez, F. et al. Crystal structure of the Bacillus subtilis phosphodiesterase PhoD reveals an iron and calcium-containing active site. J. Biol. Chem. 289, 30889-30899 (2014).

  5. Chemical state mapping of heterogeneous reduction of iron ore sinter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M.; Takeichi, Y.; Murao, R.; Obayashi, I.; Hiraoka, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Iron ore sinter constitutes the major component of the iron-bearing burden in blast furnaces, and its reduction mechanism is one of the keys to improving the productivity of ironmaking. Iron ore sinter is composed of multiple iron oxide phases and calcium ferrites (CFs), and their heterogeneous reduction was investigated in terms of changes in iron chemical state: FeIII, FeII, and Fe0 were examined macroscopically by 2D X-ray absorption and microscopically by 3D transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM). It was shown that the reduction starts at iron oxide grains rather than at calcium ferrite (CF) grains, especially those located near micropores. The heterogeneous reduction causes crack formation and deteriorates the mechanical strength of the sinter. These results help us to understand the fundamental aspects of heterogeneous reduction schemes in iro