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Sample records for calcium iron zinc

  1. Supplemental levels of iron and calcium interfere with repletion of zinc status in zinc-deficient animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, S; Platel, Kalpana

    2016-05-18

    Negative interactions between minerals interfering with each other's absorption are of concern when iron and calcium supplements are given to pregnant women and children. We have previously reported that supplemental levels of iron and calcium inhibit the bioaccessibility of zinc, and compromise zinc status in rats fed diets with high levels of these two minerals. The present study examined the effect of supplemental levels of iron and calcium on the recovery of zinc status during a zinc repletion period in rats rendered zinc-deficient. Iron and calcium, both individually and in combination, significantly interfered with the recovery of zinc status in zinc deficient rats during repletion with normal levels of zinc in the diet. Rats maintained on diets containing supplemental levels of these two minerals had significantly lower body weight, and the concentration of zinc in serum and organs was significantly lower than in zinc-deficient rats not receiving the supplements. Iron and calcium supplementation also significantly inhibited the activity of zinc-containing enzymes in the serum as well as liver. Both iron and calcium independently exerted this negative effect on zinc status, while their combination seemed to have a more prominent effect, especially on the activities of zinc containing enzymes. This investigation is probably the first systematic study on the effect of these two minerals on the zinc status of zinc deficient animals and their recovery during repletion with normal amounts of zinc. PMID:27101872

  2. The influence of fat, vitamin, zinc and calcium on iron availability from plant food with in vitro method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iron availability from plant food influenced by fat, vitamin, zinc and calcium has been studied using an in vitro method with the combination of 59Fe radioisotopic tracing. It can be concluded that the rational ingredients of meal is a key link in enhancing the bioavailability of nonhuman iron in food, such as vitamin C and moderate amount of cooking oil is favourable to iron absorption and the intensified food rich in zinc and calcium seems to inhibit the iron availability

  3. Phytate, calcium, iron, and zinc contents and their molar ratios in foods commonly consumed in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Guansheng; Jin, Ying; Piao, Jianhua; Kok, F.J.; Bonnema, A.B.; Jacobsen, E.

    2005-01-01

    A total of 60 food samples commonly consumed in China were analyzed for phytate using the anion-exchange method and for calcium, iron, and zinc using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The foods analyzed included those based on cereal grains and soybean. Phytate contents expressed on a wet weight

  4. Correlation of blood lead level with iron, zinc and calcium as well as neonatal neurobehavioral development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguang Li; Guoping Wang; Shenghui Li; Xianguo Wu; Chunru Qi; Yingyi Liang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell in brain of undeveloped fetus cannot inhibit entrance of lead so as to cause toxic effect. Over-accumulation of lead can cause toxic effect on children's growth and development, especially on development of nervous system. Lead in fetus body is mainly derived from its mother's; therefore, blood lead reflects the level of mother's lead.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlations among blood lead level, trace elements, mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of 3-month-old children. DESIGN: Contrast observation. SETTING: Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Shanxi Provincial Children Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 neonates with spontaneous delivery were provided by Shanxi Maternity and Child Care Hospital and Jiexiu Municipal Maternity and Child Care Hospital from September 2004 to January 2005. There were 76 boys and 52 girls. All subjects did not have history of ischemia and hypoxia during perinatal period and umbilical blood was accepted to be used in experiments. METHODS: ① Levels of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood: 0.5 mL umbilical blood and 2 mL blood samples were selected from neonates to measure lead content with graphite-oven atom absorption spectrum and contents of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood with atom absorption spectrum. ② Grouping: According to level of blood lead, neonates were divided into high-dosage lead group (blood lead ≥ 0.24 μmol/L) and low-dosage lead group (blood lead < 0.24 μmol/L). ③ Evaluation of neurobehavioral development: Neurobehavioral development of 3-month-old neonates was evaluated with Bayley scale, which was consisted of intelligence scale, motor scale and behavioral scale. Intelligence scale, which was expressed as intelligence development index, contained 163 items, such as adaptability, behavior, language, pilot activities, etc. Motor scale, which was expressed as mental motor development index, contained 81 items, such as vulgar

  5. Effect of Spirulina maxima Supplementation on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Status in Obese Patients with Treated Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliburska, J; Szulińska, M; Tinkov, A A; Bogdański, P

    2016-09-01

    The effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 50 obese subjects with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2 g of spirulina or a placebo daily for 3 months. At baseline and after treatment, the calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc concentration in plasma was assessed. It was found that 3 months of S. maxima supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the iron level in the plasma of obese patients. In conclusion, this is the first clinical study on the influence of spirulina supplementation on mineral status in obese patients with hypertension. Spirulina supplementation affects the iron status of obese Caucasians with well-treated hypertension. PMID:26779620

  6. Serum and tissue contents of copper, calcium, iron and magnesium elements in cases of acne vulgaris after zinc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of zinc therapy on some trace elements contents in serum and skin was studied in normal group (forty) and patients group with acne vulgaris (26 males and 14 females) with age ranged between 14-30 year. They were under medical treatment with 330 mg oral zinc sulfate for 12 weeks. Highly significant decreases in both serum and tissue contents of copper and calcium were detected, as well as, highly significant decrease in the serum content of magnesium was recorded. The serum content of iron was highly significantly increased and that for tissue content was slightly significantly increased. It could be concluded that zinc therapy could be valuable through modulation of copper. calcium, iron and magnesium in acne patients

  7. Determination of calcium, copper, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc in ethanol by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct determinacao of calcium, copper, chomium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc in ethanol by atomic absorption spectrometry with, air-acetylene flame is proposed. Effects of fuel/oxidant ratio, burner height and water content in the samples were investigated in detail. The method allows the determition of the elements with good precision (r.s.d. -1 for the elements tested. (author)

  8. Determination of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc and mercury in contaminated wheat and wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wheat and wheat flour samples from district Khairpur, were dissolved in acids and analyzed spectrophotometrically for mercury contents, using dithiozone method. Mercury was found in 0.92-5.8 mg/ kg range, above the safe limits for human consumption, samples were also analysed for sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc, after dry ashing, followed by acid dissolution and flame atomic absorption determination. Metal ions were found within the normal limits reported for wheat and wheat flour. (author)

  9. Dietary energy nutrient distribution, calcium, iron and zinc in young and old Asians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu-Tso, P.; Fuentes-Cano, M.; Tam, C.F. (California State Univ., Los Angeles (United States))

    1992-02-26

    The objective of this study is to examine whether ethnic eating patterns influence dietary nutrient intakes in young and old Asians. The authors experimental groups included young CSLA Asian students and their parents or close relatives. Most of them lived in the same households. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, and zinc by the Nutritionist III computer program and statistically analyzed using Mustat. No statistical difference was observed in the KCAL distribution of protein, fat, and carbohydrate and both groups met the guidelines of 20%, 30%, and 50%, respectively. However, mean KCAL intakes of both groups were found to be about 79% of NRC-RDA. No statistical difference was found in % RDA for Ca and Zn between groups, except % RDA for Fe. With respect to RDA, the older Asians consumed more Fe than the younger Asians. It is noteworthy that they did not meet the RDA requirements for Ca and Zn. Since recent Asian immigrants and refugees often suffer from a high incidence of infectious disease such as tuberculosis, these observations of low intakes of KCAL, Ca, and Zn, may, at least in part, contribute to disease.

  10. Zinc, iron and calcium are major limiting nutrients in the complementary diets of rural Kenyan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Elaine; Chege, Peter; Kimiywe, Judith; Wiesmann, Doris; Hotz, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Poor quality infant and young child (IYC) diets contribute to chronic under-nutrition. To design effective IYC nutrition interventions, an understanding of the extent to which realistic food-based strategies can improve dietary adequacy is required. We collected 24-h dietary recalls from children 6-23 months of age (n = 401) in two rural agro-ecological zones of Kenya to assess the nutrient adequacy of their diets. Linear programming analysis (LPA) was used to identify realistic food-based recommendations (FBRs) and to determine the extent to which they could ensure intake adequacy for 12 nutrients. Mean nutrient densities of the IYC diets were below the desired level for four to nine of the 10 nutrients analysed, depending on the age group. Mean dietary diversity scores ranged from 2.1 ± 1.0 among children 6-8 months old in Kitui County to 3.7 ± 1.1 food groups among children 12-23 months old in Vihiga County. LPA confirmed that dietary adequacy for iron, zinc and calcium will be difficult to ensure using only local foods as consumed. FBRs for breastfed children that promote the daily consumption of cows'/goats' milk (added to porridges), fortified cereals, green leafy vegetables, legumes, and meat, fish or eggs, 3-5 times per week can ensure dietary adequacy for nine and seven of 12 nutrients for children 6-11 and 12-23 months old, respectively. For these rural Kenyan children, even though dietary adequacy could be improved via realistic changes in habitual food consumption practices, alternative interventions are needed to ensure dietary adequacy at the population level. PMID:26778799

  11. The effect of calcium salts, ascorbic acid and peptic pH on calcium, zinc and iron bioavailabilities from fortified human milk using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Paz; Wallingford, John Charles; Miller, Dennis Dean; Glahn, Raymond Philip

    2005-05-01

    The calcium, zinc, and iron bioavailabilities of human milk with commercial and noncommercial human milk fortifiers (HMFs) were evaluated under a variety of conditions: peptic digestion at pH 2 and pH 4, supplementation of ascorbic acid, and addition of three calcium salts. The noncommercial HMFs consisted of casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), alpha-lactalbumin, colostrum, and hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate (WPC). They were mixed with human milk (HM) and calcium, zinc, and iron were added. Ascorbic acid (AA) was added in certain studies. The commercial HMFs were Nestlé FM-85, Similac HMF (SHMF), and Enfamil HMF (EHMF). All HMFs were compared to S-26/SMA HMF. Results showed that the peptic pH (2 vs. 4) had no effect on mineral bioavailability. Addition of different calcium salts had no effect on calcium cell uptake and cell ferritin levels (an indicator of iron uptake), however, the addition of calcium glycerophosphate/gluconate increased zinc uptake by Caco-2 cells. Addition of AA significantly increased ferritin levels, with no effect on calcium or zinc uptake. Among the commercial HMFs, FM-85 was significantly lower in zinc uptake than S-26/SMA, and HM+EHMF was significantly higher than HM+S-26/SMA. Cell ferritin levels were significantly higher for HM+S-26/SMA than for all other commercial fortifiers. None of the commercial HMFs were different from HM+S-26/SMA in calcium uptake. PMID:16028632

  12. Abundance and Significance of Iron, Zinc, Copper, and Calcium in the Hearts of Patients With Friedreich Ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Pamela C; Yang, Karl X; Parsons, Patrick J; Becker, Alyssa B; Feustel, Paul J; Koeppen, Arnulf H

    2016-07-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a frequent cause of death in patients with Friedreich ataxia (FA), and a characteristic pathological feature is the focal accumulation of iron (Fe) in cardiomyocytes. This restricted localization of the metal contrasts with the diffuse cardiac Fe overload in hemochromatosis and transfusion siderosis. Nevertheless, heart Fe in FA contributes to cardiomyocyte necrosis, inflammation, and scarring as the disease progresses. A putative mechanism of cardiomyopathy in FA is Fe-mediated oxidative damage. Two other transition metals zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), are diffusely distributed throughout normal hearts and the hearts of patients with FA. The myocardium in FA is also prone to deposits of calcium in the form of scattered concretions. In this study, heart tissues (left and right ventricular walls and ventricular septum) of 23 patients with genetically confirmed FA and 8 normal controls were obtained at autopsy and analyzed for Fe, Zn, Cu, and calcium. The principal assay methods were inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and plasma mass spectrometry. Total levels of Fe in bulk extracts were not significantly higher than normal, and the concentrations of Zn also remained in the normal range. Cu levels, however, were significantly lower in FA. In conclusion, the decrease of Cu may be important in consideration of the potential benefit of Cu supplements in FA cardiomyopathy. PMID:27189813

  13. In vitro solubility of calcium, iron and zinc in relation to phytic acid levels in rice-based consumer products in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, J; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hamer, R J

    2010-01-01

    In vitro solubility of calcium, iron and zinc in relation to phytic acid (PA) levels in 30 commercial rice-based foods from China was studied. Solubility of minerals and molar ratios of PA to minerals varied with degrees of processing. In primary products, [PA]/[Ca] values were less than 5 and [PA]/[Fe] and [PA]/[Zn] similarly ranged between 5 and 74, with most values between 20 and 30. [PA]/[mineral] molar ratios in intensively processed products were lower. Solubility of calcium ranged from...

  14. Speciation analysis of calcium, iron, and zinc in casein phosphopeptide fractions from toddler milk-based formula by anion exchange and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame atomic-absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miquel, Esther; Alegria, Amparo; Barbera, Reyes; Farre, Rosaura [University of Valencia, Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    Casein phosphopeptides (CPP) are phosphorylated casein-derived peptides that can be released by in-vitro or in-vivo enzymatic hydrolysis of {alpha}{sub s1}-casein, {alpha}{sub s2}-casein, and {beta}-casein (CN). Many of these peptides contain a highly polar acidic sequence of three phosphoseryl groups followed by two glutamic acid residues. These domains are binding sites for minerals such as calcium, iron, and zinc and play an important role in mineral bioavailability. The aim of this study was speciation analysis of calcium, iron, and zinc in CPP fractions from the soluble fraction of a toddler milk-based formula. Methods for CPP separation by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (AE-HPLC) were combined with CPP identification by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and determination of the calcium, iron, zinc, and phosphorus content of the fractions obtained by AE-HPLC. Calcium and phosphorus were detected in all the analyzed AE-HPLC fractions. Calcium and zinc could be bound to CPP derived from {alpha}{sub s1}-CN and {alpha}{sub s2}-CN in fraction 3. Iron could be bound to CPP in fraction 4 in which {beta}-CN(15-34)4P was present with the cluster sequence S(P)S(P)S(P)EE. The results obtained prove the different distribution of calcium, iron, and zinc in heterogeneous CPP fractions. (orig.)

  15. [Zinc, copper, iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of maternal milk during the first 3 weeks of lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itriago, A; Carrión, N; Fernández, A; Puig, M; Dini, E

    1997-03-01

    Zinc, Copper, Iron. Calcium Phosphorous and Magnesium contents were determined in early milk samples in 72 mothers from Caracas city. The samples were collected during three different lactation stages: calostro (3 days), transitional (7 days) and mature milk (21 days). The more significant changes in the concentration of the studied elements were observed during the first two weeks, them they stabilize during the third week. The Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, P and Mg average concentration found in calostro samples were 7.1 +/- 2.5 micrograms/ml; 0.52 +/- 0.15 microgram/ml; 0.49 +/- 0.14 microgram/ml; 214 +/- 62 micrograms/ml, 107 +/- 27 micrograms/ml and 33.3 +/- 7.5 micrograms/ml. respectively. For the transitional milk samples the average concentration found for the studied elements were: 4.0 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml; 0.50 +/- 0.10 microgram/ml; 0.38 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml, 292 +/- 62 micrograms/ml; 213 +/- 36 micrograms/ml and 30.4 +/- 5.2 micrograms/ml. For the mature milk samples the results were: 2.8 +/- 2.7 micrograms/ml; 0.47 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml; 0.36 +/- 0.09 microgram/ml; 244 +/- 49 micrograms/ml; 175 +/-35 micrograms/ml and 25.2 +/- 3.3 micrograms/ml. The concentration range for all trace elements studied (Cu, Fe and Zn) can be considered normal. For the major elements (Ca, P and Mg) the results obtained in our work are similar to those reported for other countries. These facts allows to conclude that the nutritional state of this mother population is adequate to satisfy the lactate's requirements during their first live stage. PMID:9429635

  16. Genetic control and transgressive segregation of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium accumulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Santos, C A; Boiteux, L S

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea crop, through combining a range of essential minerals with high quality proteins, plays an important role in providing nutritional security to human population living in semi-arid regions. Studies on genetics of biofortification with essential minerals are still quite scarce, and the major objective of the present study was to provide genetic information on development of cowpea cultivars with high seed mineral contents. Genetic parameters heritability and minimum number of genes were estimated for seed accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). Generation mean and variance analyses were conducted using contrasting parental lines, F₁, F₂, and backcross populations derived from IT97K-1042-3 x BRS Tapaihum and IT97K-1042-3 x Canapu crosses. High narrow-sense heritability (h²) values were found for accumulation of Fe (65-86%), P (74-77%), and K (77-88%), whereas moderate h(2) values were observed for accumulation of Ca (41-56%), Zn (51-83%), and Na (50-55%) in seeds. Significant additive genetic effects as well as parental mean effects were detected in both crosses for all minerals, whereas epistasis was important genetic component in Zn content. The minimum number of genes controlling the accumulation of minerals ranged from two (K) to 11 (P). Transgressive segregation was observed in F2 populations of both crosses for all minerals analyzed. The results suggest that, although under either oligogenic or polygenic control, the seed content of these six minerals in cowpea can be improved via standard breeding methods largely used for self-pollinated crops. PMID:25729958

  17. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Aleksandra; Tajber, Lidia; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Djurić, Zorica; Parojčić, Jelena; Corrigan, Owen I

    2014-03-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO4)2(Cl)2(ciprofloxacin)2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests. PMID:24670353

  18. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: Comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Aleksandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO42(Cl2(ciprofloxacin2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests.

  19. The concentration of heavy metals: zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intercomparative analysis of the concentration of heavy metals:zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people using the techniques of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPAS) has been undertaken. The percent relative standard deviation for each sample analysed using either of the techniques show good sensitivity and correlation between the techniques. The DPAS was found to be slightly sensitive than the AAs instrument used. The recalculated body burden rations of Cd to Zn, Pb to Fe reveal no unusual health impairement symptoms and suggest a relatively clean environment in Kenya.(author)

  20. Calcium, potassium, iron, copper and zinc concentrations in the white and gray matter of the cerebellum and corpus callosum in brain of four genetic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the central nervous system, metallic cations are involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelinogenesis. Moreover, the metallic cations have been associated with pathogenesis, particularly multiple sclerosis and malignant gliomas. The brain is vulnerable to either a deficit or an excess of available trace elements. Relationship between trace metals and myelinogenesis is important in understanding a severe human pathology : the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. One approach to understand this disease has used mutant or transgenic mice presenting myelin deficiency or excess. But to date, the concentration of trace metals and mineral elements in white and gray matter areas in wild type brain is unknown. The aim of this study is to establish the reference concentrations of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) in the white and gray matter of the mouse cerebellum and corpus callosum. The brains of four different genetic mouse strains (C57Black6/SJL, C57Black6/D2, SJL and C3H) were analyzed. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow PIXE (Proton-induced X-ray emission) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. The results obtained give the first reference values. Furthermore, one species out of the fours testes exhibited differences in calcium, iron and zinc concentrations in the white matter

  1. Calcium, potassium, iron, copper and zinc concentrations in the white and gray matter of the cerebellum and corpus callosum in brain of four genetic mouse strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M. H.; Devès, G.; Guillou, F.

    2005-04-01

    In the central nervous system, metallic cations are involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelinogenesis. Moreover, the metallic cations have been associated with pathogenesis, particularly multiple sclerosis and malignant gliomas. The brain is vulnerable to either a deficit or an excess of available trace elements. Relationship between trace metals and myelinogenesis is important in understanding a severe human pathology : the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. One approach to understand this disease has used mutant or transgenic mice presenting myelin deficiency or excess. But to date, the concentration of trace metals and mineral elements in white and gray matter areas in wild type brain is unknown. The aim of this study is to establish the reference concentrations of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) in the white and gray matter of the mouse cerebellum and corpus callosum. The brains of four different genetic mouse strains (C57Black6/SJL, C57Black6/D2, SJL and C3H) were analyzed. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow PIXE (Proton-induced X-ray emission) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. The results obtained give the first reference values. Furthermore, one species out of the fours testes exhibited differences in calcium, iron and zinc concentrations in the white matter.

  2. Microstructure, corrosion properties and bio-compatibility of calcium zinc phosphate coating on pure iron for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Erlin; Yang, Ke

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the biocompatibility and the corrosion resistance in the initial stage of implantation, a phosphate (CaZn2(PO4)2·2H2O) coating was obtained on the surface of pure iron by a chemical reaction method. The anti-corrosion property, the blood compatibility and the cell toxicity of the coated pure iron specimens were investigated. The coating was composed of some fine phosphate crystals and the surface of coating was flat and dense enough. The electrochemical data indicated that the corrosion resistance of the coated pure iron was improved with the increase of phosphating time. When the specimen was phosphated for 30min, the corrosion resistance (Rp) increased to 8006 Ω. Compared with that of the naked pure iron, the anti-hemolysis property and cell compatibility of the coated specimen was improved significantly, while the anti-coagulant property became slightly worse due to the existence of element calcium. It was thought that phosphating treatment might be an effective method to improve the biocompatibility of pure iron for biomedical application. PMID:24268250

  3. Observation on zinc,iron, calcium, content analysis in serum of children with cerebral palsy%脑性瘫痪患儿血清中锌、铁、钙测定观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟红印; 阴志强; 郭志宽; 夏冰

    2014-01-01

    To detect the Zinc , Iron, Calcium content in serum ,and analyse the relationship between the Zinc , Iron, Calci-um content and the movement disorders , Rehabilitation effect of Children With Cerebral Palsy .Methods:Measure the Zinc , Iron, Calcium content in serum of 230 children with cerebral palsy using ion spectroscopy .And measure again after a month of oral drugs .Results:The Zinc, Iron, Calcium content in serum of 230 children with cerebral palsy were below normal levels , although they were improved .And they were not returned to normal .Conclusion:The Zinc, Iron, Calcium content in serum of the children with cerebral palsy were below than the normal children,so the children with cerebral palsy need eat foods containing more Zinc , Iron and Calcium.%目的:通过测量脑瘫患儿血清锌、铁、钙的含量,观察脑瘫患儿运动功能障碍、康复疗效与血清锌、铁、钙含量的相关性。方法:采用比离子光谱法测量230例脑性瘫痪患儿血清中微量元素锌、铁、钙的含量。采用口服药物1个月后再次检测。结果:脑性瘫痪患儿血清微量元素锌、铁、钙含量低于正常水平,通过口服药物后锌、铁、钙虽然有提高,均未恢复到正常。结论:微量元素锌、铁、钙含量均低于正常儿童,锌、铁、钙通过治疗后均未恢复到正常,据此为脑瘫患儿加强饮食治疗,即饮食含锌、铁、钙元素较多食物提供一定依据。

  4. The effect of administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in drinking water on estimated intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognik, Katarzyna; Stępniowska, Anna; Cholewińska, Ewelina; Kozłowski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles used as a dietary supplement for poultry could affect the absorption of mineral elements. Hence the aim of the study was to determine the effect of administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in drinking water on intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, and calcium. The experiment was carried out on 126 chicks assigned to seven experimental groups of 18 birds each (3 replications of 6 individuals each). The control group (G-C) did not receive copper nanoparticles. Groups: Cu-5(7), Cu-10(7), and Cu-15(7) received gold nanoparticles in their drinking water in the amounts of 5 mg/L for group Cu-5(7), 10 mg/L for group Cu-10(7), and 15 mg/L for group Cu-15(7) during 8 to 14, 22 to 28, and 36 of 42 days of the life of the chicks. The birds in groups Cu-5(3), Cu-10(3), and Cu-15(3) received copper nanoparticles in the same amounts, but only during 8 to 10, 22 to 24, and 36 to 38 days of life. Blood for analysis was collected from the wing vein of all chicks at the age of 42 days. After the rearing period (day 42), six birds from each experimental group with body weight similar to the group average were slaughtered. The carcasses were dissected and samples of the jejunum were collected for analysis of absorption of selected minerals. Mineral absorption was tested using the in vitro gastrointestinal sac technique. Oral administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in the amount of 5, 10, and 15 mg/L led to accumulation of this element in the intestinal walls. The highest level of copper nanoparticles applied increased Cu content in the blood plasma of the birds. The in vitro study suggests that copper accumulated in the intestines reduces absorption of calcium and zinc, but does not affect iron absorption. PMID:27307476

  5. Method development for the determination of calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc in different types of breads by microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). Breads were dried at 100 °C for one day, ground thoroughly and then digested using nitric acid/hydrogen per oxide (3:1). The analytes in certified reference wheat flour and maize flour samples were determined in the uncertainty limits of the certified values as well as the analytes added to the mixture of ground bread and acid mixture prior to digestion were recovered quantitatively (>90%). Therefore, all determinations were made by linear calibration technique using aqueous standards. The LOD values for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were 13.1, 0.28, 4.47, 118, 1.10, 0.41, 7550 and 3.00 ng mL(-1), respectively. No spectral interference was detected at the working wavelengths of the analytes. PMID:26830585

  6. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: Comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Stojković Aleksandra; Tajber Lidia; Paluch Krzysztof J.; Djurić Zorica; Parojčić Jelena; Corrigan Owen I.

    2014-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution ...

  7. Calcium And Zinc Deficiency In Preeclamptic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Ferdousi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-eclampsia is the most common medical complication of pregnancy associated withincreased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Reduced serum calcium and zinc levels arefound associated with elevated blood pressure in preeclampsia. Objective: To observe serum calciumand zinc levels in preeclamptic women. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in theDepartment of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka betweenJuly 2009 to June 2010. In this study, 60 pregnant women of preeclampsia, aged 18-39 years withgestational period more than 20th weeks were included as the study (group B. For comparison ageand gestational period matched 30 normotensive pregnant women control (group A were also studied.All the subjects were selected from Obstetric and Gynae In and Out patient Department of BSMMUand Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Serum calcium was measured by Colorimetric method and serumzinc was measured by Spectrophotometric method. Data were analysed by independent sample t testand Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Results: Mean serum calcium and zinc levels weresignificantly (p<0.001 lower in study group than those of control group. Again, serum calcium andzinc showed significant negative correlation with SBP and DBP in preeclamptic women. Conclusion:This study concludes that serum calcium and zinc deficiency may be one of the risk factor ofpreeclampsia. Therefore, early detection and supplementation to treat this deficiency may reduce theincidence of preeclampsia.

  8. Oral iron and the bioavailability of zinc.

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, N J; Grainger, S L; Ruse, W; Keeling, P W; Thompson, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    The oral bioavailability of zinc was studied in nonpregnant adults before and 24 hours after two weeks of oral supplementation with iron and folic acid. Bioavailability was greatly reduced, and the shape of the plasma curves suggested that this was due to impairment of the intestinal absorption of zinc. The findings suggest that the reduced bioavailability of zinc occurs because of interelement competition in the bowel wall. This might induce zinc depletion.

  9. Fabrications of zinc-releasing biocement combining zinc calcium phosphate to calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shinya; Hiasa, Masahiro; Yasue, Akihiro; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Hamada, Kenichi; Asaoka, Kenzo; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Recently, zinc-releasing bioceramics have been the focus of much attention owing to their bone-forming ability. Thus, some types of zinc-containing calcium phosphate (e.g., zinc-doped tricalcium phosphate and zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite) are examined and their osteoblastic cell responses determined. In this investigation, we studied the effects of zinc calcium phosphate (ZCP) derived from zinc phosphate incorporated into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in terms of its setting reaction and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell responses. Compositional analysis by powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that HAP crystals were precipitated in the CPC containing 10 or 30wt% ZCP after successfully hardening. However, the crystal growth observed by scanning electron microscopy was delayed in the presence of additional ZCP. These findings indicate that the additional zinc inhibits crystal growth and the conversion of CPC to the HAP crystals. The proliferation of the cells and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were enhanced when 10wt% ZCP was added to CPC. Taken together, ZCP added CPC at an appropriate fraction has a potent promotional effect on bone substitute biomaterials. PMID:24090874

  10. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1 describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2 investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3 investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379. Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection, and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326. Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5 mg/day and 9.3 (3.8 mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range serum ferritin was 22 (12–38 μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD were 12.6 (1.7 μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0 μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340. Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  11. 生态葛根奶中铜、锌、铁、钙、镁含量测定%DETERMINATION OF COPPER, ZINC, IRON, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM IN ECOLOGICAL PUERARIA LOBA TA OHWI MILK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文静; 刘洁; 韩萍; 黄润平; 王旗

    2011-01-01

    测定生态葛根奶中矿物质的含量,探讨其营养价值.硝酸-高氯酸消解样品,用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定生态葛根奶(饲喂葛根4周)及未饲喂葛根的对照组奶样中铜、锌、铁、钙、镁的含量,应用F检验、SNK法和LSD-t检验对结果进行统计分析.测定方法的精密度介于0.04%~0.7%,平均回收率介于93.70%~106.20%.试验组和对照组比较:铜的含量差异没有统计学意义(F=2.702,P>0.05);锌的含量差异没有统计学意义(F=1.684,P>0.05);钙的含量差异没有统计学意义(F=2.253,P>0.05);铁的含量试验组(饲喂葛根1周、2周、3周)高于对照组且差异有统计学意义(F=9.369,P<0.05);镁的含量试验组(饲喂葛根1周、2周、4周)高于对照组且差异有统计学意义(F=4.142,P<0.05).生态葛根奶中铜、锌、钙含量与普通奶中含量无显著差异,铁、镁的含量较普通奶含量丰富.%In order to determine the content of minerals and discuss the nutritive value of ecological Pueraria lobata Ohwi milk, the paper determined the content of copper, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium in a milk sample of a test group (fed with Pueraria lobata Ohwi for four weeks) and in a control milk sample of a control group (produced by cows not fed with Pueraria lobata Ohwi) by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) using HNO3 and HC1O4 to digest the samples, and also analyzed the determination results by F test, SNK method and LSD-t test. The determination results of the test group and the control group showed that the differences in copper content, zinc content and calcium content had no statistical significance (F=2.702, /M).O5), (F=1.684, P>0.05)and (F=2.253, P>0.05); the iron content of the test group (fed with Pueraria lobata Ohwi for one week, two weeks and three weeks) was higher than that of the control group, and the difference in the iron content had statistical significance (F=9.369, P<0.05); and the magnesium

  12. Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Josele Neves de Brito

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group, and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group. Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001. However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001 and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia.

  13. Oral zinc supplementation decreases the serum iron concentration in healthy schoolchildren: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

    2014-09-01

    The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001). However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001) and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia. PMID:25192026

  14. Separation of Zinc from High Iron-Bearing Zinc Calcines by Reductive Roasting and Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bing; Peng, Ning; Min, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Hui; Li, Yanchun; Chen, Dong; Xue, Ke

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on the selective leaching of zinc from high iron-bearing zinc calcines. The FactSage 6.2 program was used for the thermodynamic analysis of the selective reduction and leaching, and the samples reduced by carbon and carbon monoxide were subjected to acid leaching for the separation of zinc from iron. It is shown that the generation of ferrous oxide should be avoided by modifying V CO ( P CO/( P CO + )) in the roasting process prior to the selective leaching of zinc. Gaseous roasting-leaching has a higher efficiency in the separation of zinc from iron than carbothermic reduction-leaching. The conversion of the zinc ferrite in high iron-bearing zinc calcines to zinc oxide and magnetite has been demonstrated by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic hysteresis loop characterization. This gaseous roast-leach process is technically feasible to separate zinc from iron without an iron precipitation process.

  15. Accelerating degradation rate of pure iron by zinc ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Pure iron has been considered as a promising candidate for biodegradable implant applications. However, a faster degradation rate of pure iron is needed to meet the clinical requirement. In this work, metal vapor vacuum arc technology was adopted to implant zinc ions into the surface of pure iron. Results showed that the implantation depth of zinc ions was about 60 nm. The degradation rate of pure iron was found to be accelerated after zinc ion implantation. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that the implanted zinc ions brought a slight increase on cytotoxicity of the tested cells. In terms of hemocompatibility, the hemolysis of zinc ion implanted pure iron was lower than 2%. However, zinc ions might induce more adhered and activated platelets on the surface of pure iron. Overall, zinc ion implantation can be a feasible way to accelerate the degradation rate of pure iron for biodegradable applications. PMID:27482462

  16. Iron and zinc nutrition in the economically-developed world: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Karen H C; Riddell, Lynn J; Nowson, Caryl A; Booth, Alison O; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2013-08-01

    This review compares iron and zinc food sources, dietary intakes, dietary recommendations, nutritional status, bioavailability and interactions, with a focus on adults in economically-developed countries. The main sources of iron and zinc are cereals and meat, with fortificant iron and zinc potentially making an important contribution. Current fortification practices are concerning as there is little regulation or monitoring of intakes. In the countries included in this review, the proportion of individuals with iron intakes below recommendations was similar to the proportion of individuals with suboptimal iron status. Due to a lack of population zinc status information, similar comparisons cannot be made for zinc intakes and status. Significant data indicate that inhibitors of iron absorption include phytate, polyphenols, soy protein and calcium, and enhancers include animal tissue and ascorbic acid. It appears that of these, only phytate and soy protein also inhibit zinc absorption. Most data are derived from single-meal studies, which tend to amplify impacts on iron absorption in contrast to studies that utilize a realistic food matrix. These interactions need to be substantiated by studies that account for whole diets, however in the interim, it may be prudent for those at risk of iron deficiency to maximize absorption by reducing consumption of inhibitors and including enhancers at mealtimes. PMID:23945676

  17. Iron and Zinc Nutrition in the Economically-Developed World: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison O. Booth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This review compares iron and zinc food sources, dietary intakes, dietary recommendations, nutritional status, bioavailability and interactions, with a focus on adults in economically-developed countries. The main sources of iron and zinc are cereals and meat, with fortificant iron and zinc potentially making an important contribution. Current fortification practices are concerning as there is little regulation or monitoring of intakes. In the countries included in this review, the proportion of individuals with iron intakes below recommendations was similar to the proportion of individuals with suboptimal iron status. Due to a lack of population zinc status information, similar comparisons cannot be made for zinc intakes and status. Significant data indicate that inhibitors of iron absorption include phytate, polyphenols, soy protein and calcium, and enhancers include animal tissue and ascorbic acid. It appears that of these, only phytate and soy protein also inhibit zinc absorption. Most data are derived from single-meal studies, which tend to amplify impacts on iron absorption in contrast to studies that utilize a realistic food matrix. These interactions need to be substantiated by studies that account for whole diets, however in the interim, it may be prudent for those at risk of iron deficiency to maximize absorption by reducing consumption of inhibitors and including enhancers at mealtimes.

  18. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron, manganese and zinc uptake by peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  19. Vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkhuizen, M. A.; Wieringa, F.T.

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was concerned with vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in infants. The effects of supplementation withβ-carotene, iron and zinc on micronutrient status, growth, pregnancy outcome and immune function, and interactions between micronutrients were investigated.Deficiencies of vitamin A, iron and zinc are prevalent worldwide. Vitamin A deficiency leads to increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and vitamin A supplementat...

  20. Concurrent repletion of iron and zinc reduces intestinal oxidative damage in iron-and zinc-deficient rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To understand the interactions between iron and zinc during absorption in iron- and zinc-deficient rats,and their consequences on intestinal oxidant-antioxidant balance.METHODS: Twenty-four weanling Wistar-Kyoto rats fed an iron- and zinc-deficient diet (< 6.5 mg Fe and 4.0 mg Zn/kg diet) for 4 wk were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8, each) and orally gavaged with 4 mg iron, 3.3 mg zinc, or 4 mg iron + 3.3 mg zinc for 2wk. At the last day of repletion, 3 h before the animals were sacrificed, they received either 37 mBq of 55Fe or 65Zn, to study their localization in the intestine, using microautoradiography. Hemoglobin, iron and zinc content in plasma and liver were measured as indicators of iron and zinc status. Duodenal sections were used for immunochemical staining of ferritin and metallothionein.Duodenal homogenates (mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions), were used to assess aconitase activity,oxidative stress, functional integrity and the response of antioxidant enzymes.RESULTS: Concurrent repletion of iron- and zinc-deficient rats showed reduced localization of these minerals compared to rats that were teated with iron or zinc alone;these data provide evidence for antagonistic interactions.This resulted in reduced formation of lipid and protein oxidation products and better functional integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Further, combined repletion lowered iron-associated aconitase activity and ferritin expression,but significantly elevated metallothionein and glutathione levels in the intestinal mucosa. The mechanism of interactions during combined supplementation and its subsequent effects appeared to be due to through modulation of cytosolic aconitase, which in turn influenced the labile iron pool and metallothionein levels, and hence reduced intestinal oxidative damage.CONCLUSION: Concurrent administration of iron and zinc corrects iron and zinc deficiency, and also reduces the intestinal oxidative damage associated with iron

  1. ICP-OES法同时测定燕麦片中的钾、钠、钙、镁、铁、锌%Simultaneous determination of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc in oatmeal with ICP-OES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽萍; 张素娟; 梁宝爱

    2015-01-01

    The determination method of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc in oatmeal was established by the optimization of ICP-AES instruments conditions, with three different digestion methods. The results show that the linear relationship of each element elements is good, the correlation coefficient is above 0.999 9, the relative standard deviation is 1.5%~3.3% and the recovery rate is 82.3%~ 109.4%. The method is operated conveniently, with high accuracy and good precision. The test results of both the method (ICP-OES) and the national standard method are consistent, with no significant difference, and suitable for determination of mineral element in oatmeal.%通过对ICP-OES仪器条件的优化,采用3种不同消解方法,建立了燕麦片中钾、钠、钙、镁、铁、锌各元素的测定方法。试验结果表明,该方法中各元素的线性关系良好,相关系数均在0.9999以上,其相对标准偏差为1.5%~3.3%,回收率为82.3%~109.4%。该方法操作便捷、准确度高、精密度好,与国标方法比较检测结果一致,无显著性差异,适用于燕麦片中矿物质元素的测定。

  2. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, calcium, iron, manganese and chromium (VI) levels in Nigeria and United States of America cement dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbileje, J O; Sadagoparamanujam, V-M; Anetor, J I; Farombi, E O; Akinosun, O M; Okorodudu, A O

    2013-03-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relative abundance of heavy metals in cement dust from different cement dust factories in order to predict their possible roles in the severity of cement dust toxicity. The concentrations of total mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) levels in cement dust and clinker samples from Nigeria and cement dust sample from the United States of America (USA) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAAS), while Zn and Ca were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), and Cr (VI) by colorimetric method. Total Cu, Ni and Mn were significantly higher in cement dust sample from USA (pcement dust compared with Nigeria cement dust or clinker (pcement dust and clinker (pMercury was more in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (pcement dust contain mixture of metals that are known human carcinogens and also have been implicated in other debilitating health conditions. Additionally, it revealed that metal content concentrations are factory dependent. This study appears to indicate the need for additional human studies relating the toxicity of these metals and their health impacts on cement factory workers. PMID:23261125

  3. Calcium and iron absorption: mechanism of action and nutritional importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Rossander-Hultén, L; Brune, M; Gleerup, A

    1992-05-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effect of calcium on iron absorption in 57 human subjects. Three studies suggested that the effect is not located in the gastrointestinal tract. The presence of phytate in a meal and formation of calcium-iron-phytate complexes is not a prerequisite for the inhibition. The relative increase in iron absorption by ascorbic acid was the same in meals with and without calcium, suggesting that calcium did not influence the balance between enhancing and inhibiting ligands in the gastrointestinal lumen. No inhibiting effect on iron absorption was seen when adding 3 mg calcium to 0.01 mg iron (molar ratio Ca/Fe = 420). Previous studies showing a marked inhibition by calcium had a lower molar ratio, but greater amounts of calcium were given. This suggests that a minimal concentration of calcium is needed to achieve an effect. The present results indirectly support our original hypothesis that the inhibitory effect of calcium on iron absorption is situated within the intestinal mucosal cells. The practical nutritional implications of the inhibitory effect of calcium are considerable since addition of milk, milkshake or cheese to common meals such as pizza or hamburger meals reduced iron absorption by 50-60%. It is recommended to reduce the intake of dairy products with the main meals providing most of the dietary iron, especially for those having the highest iron requirements i.e. children, teenagers and women at childbearing age. PMID:1600930

  4. Extrinsic labelling of zinc and calcium in bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the effect of different means of extrinsic administration of 65Zn and 47Ca in white wheat flour bread on the measured absorption. Eight healthy subjects were served 80 g of labelled bread as a standardized breakfast after an overnight fast on three occasions. Extrinsic labelling of the meals with 65Zn and 47Ca was done in three ways: (a) by adding the isotopes to the bread 16 h before it was served, (b) by adding the isotopes shortly before serving or (c) by adding the isotopes to the water used in dough making. Zinc and calcium chloride corresponding to 3.2 mg (49 μmol) zinc and 275 mg (6.9 mmol) calcium in one portion were added to the dough. Whole-body retention was measured by whole-body counting. The fractional absorption of zinc was (a) 0.243±0.122, (b) 0.217±0.101 and (c) 0.178±0.063 (mean±SD), and the fractional absorption of calcium (expressed as calcium retention on day 7) was (a) 0.351±0.108, (b) 0.357±0.131 and (c) 0.334±0.117 (mean±SD). No significant difference (p>0.05) was seen between the different ways for either zinc nor calcium

  5. CALCIUM CARBONATE REDUCES IRON ABSORPTION FROM IRON SULFATE, BUT NOT WHEN IRON IS PRESENTED AS AN ORGANIC COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. CONCEI�O

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Experimental and epidemiological evidences have demonstrated that calcium inhibits iron absorption; calcium carbonate being one of the most effective calcium sources to reduce iron absorption from dietary origin or from iron sulfate. In the present work, the short-term effect of calcium from calcium carbonate on iron absorption was studied in rats, using different iron compounds (monosodium ferric EDTA, iron-bys-glicine, iron peptide complex with iron sulfate as a control. Eighty (80 animals were divided into groups of 10 animals each with homogeneous weight. After 18h fast, the animals received by gavage 5 mL of a dispersion containing one of the iron compounds (1mg Fe/kg body weight, concomitantly or not with calcium carbonate at a molar ratio of 150:1 (Ca/Fe. Two hours after the administration, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected for serum iron determination (iron transfer rate from intestinal lumen to blood compartment. Additionally, the intestines were collected for soluble iron determination (available iron. The results demonstrated that calcium ion from calcium carbonate inhibits the iron absorption from iron sulfate, but not from organic iron (di- or trivalent complexes.

  6. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in fertilizers by microwave acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: single-laboratory validation of a modification and extension of AOAC 2006.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sharon; Bartos, James; Boles, Rhonda; Hasty, Elaine; Thuotte, Ethel; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in all major types of commercial fertilizer products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analysis. This validation study proposes an extension and modification of AOAC 2006.03. The extension is the inclusion of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, and the modification is incorporation of hydrochloric acid in the digestion system. This dual acid digestion utilizes both hydrochloric and nitric acids in a 3 to 9 mL volume ratio/100 mL. In addition to 15 of the 30 original validation materials used in the 2006.03 collaborative study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 695 and Magruder 2009-06 were incorporated as accuracy materials. The main benefits of this proposed method are a significant increase in laboratory efficiency when compared to the use of both AOAC Methods 965.09 and 2006.03 to achieve the same objective and an enhanced recovery of several metals. PMID:25051614

  7. 个性化膳食指导对壮族乳母膳食结构及乳汁钙铁锌含量影响的分析%Influence of Individual Diet Instruction on Thelastria Diettary Pattern and Calcium Iron Zinc Contents in Breast Milk in Zhuang Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫洁玲; 黄颖红; 周容; 韦兰荣; 袁梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨个性化膳食指导对乳母膳食结构和乳汁中钙、铁、锌含量的影响。方法将南宁市100例壮族乳母随机分为对照组和实验组,每组50例,实验组接受个性化膳食指导,对照组给予普通膳食指导,于干预前后调查两组膳食结构,测定乳汁中钙、铁、锌含量。结果两组乳母干预前膳食结构不均衡;干预后,对照组水果及奶类摄入量增加,其余膳食种类摄入量无明显变化;实验组禽肉类摄入量明显降低,除粮谷类、奶类和大豆坚果外,其余均达哺乳期妇女平衡膳食宝塔推荐值;对照组乳汁中锌含量增加,但钙、铁含量无明显变化;实验组乳汁中钙、锌含量增加,铁含量无明显变化。结论通过个性化膳食指导,可以改善乳母的膳食结构,增加营养素及矿物质的摄入量,提高乳汁中钙、锌的含量,但铁含量无明显变化。%Objective To study the effect of individual diet instruction on thelastria dietary pattern and calcium , iron,zinc contents in breast milk .Methods One hundred lactating women of Zhuang nationality in Nanning City were randomly divided into control group and experimental group ,50 cases in each group .The experimental group received the individual diet instruction while the control group received the ordinary diet instruction .To investigate the dietary patterns in two groups before and after intervention .The calcium,iron,zinc contents in breast milk were detected .Results The dietary patterns of lactating women showed an imbalance in both groups.After intervention,the intakes of fruit and milk increased in the control group,but the rest intakes showed no significant changes.The poultry intake reduced significantly in the experimental group,except for cereal ,milk and soy nuts intakes ,the rest intakes achieved the recommendation for lactating women from Chinese Nutrition Society .The zinc content in breast milk increased

  8. Selective removal of iron contaminations from zinc-chloride melts by cementation with zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devilee, R. A.; van Sandwijk, A.; Reuter, M. A.

    1999-08-01

    An investigation into the cementation of iron chloride from a zinc-chloride melt at 400 °C has been carried out with zinc powder. The variables studied include preparation of the chloride melt and the amount of zinc added. The effect of lead, copper, and cadmium on cementation of iron has also been investigated. According to the results, it is possible to reduce the iron concentration in zinc-chloride melts to 20 ppm with a small excess of zinc. The preparation of the melt proved to be very important. Insufficient purification of the melt with respect to oxides, hydroxides, and water resulted in a low reaction rate and high residual iron concentration.

  9. Dietary factors affecting calcium and zinc absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickets is common in Nigerian children and responds better to calcium (Ca) than to vitamin D supplementation. We reported in previous studies in which oral isotopes were given with maize pap that Ca intakes are similarly low and Ca absorption (abs) similarly high in rachitic and non-rachitic Nigeria...

  10. CALCIUM CARBONATE REDUCES IRON ABSORPTION FROM IRON SULFATE, BUT NOT WHEN IRON IS PRESENTED AS AN ORGANIC COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    E. C. CONCEI�O; Machado, A.A.; C. IZUMI; O. Freitas

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological evidences have demonstrated that calcium inhibits iron absorption; calcium carbonate being one of the most effective calcium sources to reduce iron absorption from dietary origin or from iron sulfate. In the present work, the short-term effect of calcium from calcium carbonate on iron absorption was studied in rats, using different ir...

  11. Iron and zinc availability in maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the Zn and Fe availability by phytic acid/Zn and phytic acid/Fe molar ratios, in 22 tropical maize inbred lines with different genetic backgrounds. The Zn and Fe levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the P through colorimetry method. Three screening methods for phytic acid (Phy analysis were tested and one, based on the 2,2'-bipyridine reaction, was select. There was significant variability in the contents of zinc (17.5 to 42 mg.kg-1, iron (12.2 to 36.7 mg.kg-1, phosphorus (230 to 400 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid (484 to 1056 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid P (140 to 293 mg.100 g-1 and available-P (43.5 to 199.5 mg.100 g-1, and in the available-P/total-P ratio (0.14 to 0.50, Phy/Zn (18.0 to 43.5 and Phy/Fe (16.3 to 45.5 molar ratios. Lines 560977, 560978 and 560982 had greater availability of Zn and lines 560975, 560977, 561010 and 5610111 showed better Fe availability. Lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 also showed better available-P/total-P ratio. Thus, the lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 were considered to have the potential for the development of cultivars of maize with high availability of Fe and/or Zn.

  12. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata;

    common beans. We used micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and proton backscattering analysis to localize and quantify zinc and iron in mature bean seeds. In addition the iron distribution in different P. vulgaris genotypes was studied using Perl's Prussian blue staining. We show  that the...

  13. Alkaline Leaching of Low Zinc Content Iron-Bearing Sludges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargul K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various types of waste materials containing zinc (e.g. dusts and sludges from gas dedusting process are obtained in steel industry. The contents of Zn in these materials may vary considerably. Even a low concentration of zinc in recirculated products precludes their recycling in ferrous metallurgy aggregates. Long storage of this type of material can lead to contamination of soil and water by zinc compounds which can be leached out by acid rain, for example. This paper focuses on research involving alkaline leaching tests of low zinc content iron-bearing materials. These tests were preceded by the analysis of the elemental, phase and grain size composition, and analysis of the thermodynamic conditions of the leaching process. The main aim of research was to decrease the content of the zinc in the sludge to the level where it is suitable as an iron-bearing material for iron production (~1% Zn. Leaching at elevated temperatures (368 K, 60 min has led to a decrease in the zinc content in the sludge of about 66%. The research revealed that long hour leaching (298 K, 100 hours carried out at ambient temperatures caused a reduction in zinc content by 60% to the value of 1.15-1.2% Zn.

  14. Apatite-forming ability and magnetic properties of glass-ceramics containing zinc ferrite and calcium sodium phosphate phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine particles of zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) and calcium sodium phosphate [NaCaPO4] were crystallized in bulk x(ZnO, Fe2O3)(65-x)SiO220(CaO, P2O5)15Na2O (6 ≤ x ≤ 21 mol %) glassy matrix by heat treatment. Initial magnetization curves reveal that samples with x = 6 and 9 mol % zinc-iron oxide exhibit both ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic contributions, whereas, samples with x > 9 mol % zinc-iron oxide exhibit only ferrimagnetic contribution. This observation is supported by the disappearance of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) absorption line centered at g ∼ 4.3 in samples with x > 9 mol % zinc-iron oxide. Apatite-forming ability of the glass-ceramic samples was investigated by examining apatite formation on the surface of the samples treated in simulated body fluid (SBF). Increase in apatite-forming ability was observed with an increase in zinc-iron oxide content. The results obtained have been used to understand the evolution of the apatite surface layer as a function of immersion time in SBF and glass-ceramic composition. A good correlation has also been observed between the magnetic nature of the samples and their apatite-forming ability. These materials are expected to find application as thermo-seeds in hyperthermia treatment of bone cancer.

  15. Physicochemical characterization of zinc-substituted calcium phosphates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DOROTA WALCZYK; DAGMARA MALINA; MILENA KRÓL; KLAUDIA PLUTA; AGNIESZKA SOBCZAK-KUPIEC

    2016-04-01

    Biocompatible and bioactive calcium phosphates can make chemical bonds with living bones. Improvement of their biological and physicochemical properties can be achieved by doping with various ions that are presented in natural apatites of bones. These substitutions influence lattice parameters, structure and morphology of apatites. In recent times great attention has been devoted to zinc ions that are the second most abundant trace element present in bones. Zinc embedded into calcium phosphate may enhance the bone formation and in addition exhibits antifungal and antibacterial properties. Therefore, it is rational to form structures incorporated with this ion. In this paper the incorporation of the Zn ions into natural and synthetic calcium phosphates has been reported.Natural hydroxyapatites (HAs) applied in this study were derived mainly from pork bones whereas both brushite and synthetic were formed using wet chemical methods. Ambient temperature synthesis leads to the formation ofbrushite, whereas the process performed at elevated temperature gives HA. Subsequently, attained structures were modified with Zn ions by using in situ or sorption procedures. Phase composition and morphology of obtained materials were determined by means of X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Introduced XRD patterns depict changes of the crystallinity of HA with the increase in the amount of embedded zinc ions. On the contrary, no changes of the crystallinity were observed for the brushite doped with Zn ions. Morphology of attained powders, visualized using scanningelectron microscopy exemplified structural changes between calcium phosphates conjugated with zinc ions. Many authors report that the addition of small amounts of Zn ions leads to loss of crystallinity and decrease of lattice parameters. Interestingly, upon addition of Zn ions to the natural and synthetic HAp by sorption

  16. Effect of consuming zinc-fortified bread on serum zinc and iron status of zinc-deficient women: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Badii; Niloufar Nekouei; Mohammad Fazilati; Mohammad Shahedi; Sajad Badiei

    2012-01-01

    After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fort...

  17. Isomorphous mixability of calcium, copper and zinc metavanadates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility boundaries for metavanadates of calcium, copper and zinc in their binary systems are determined by roentgenophase analysis. Availability of polymorphous transformations and affiliation to various structural types (Ca(VAO3)2, Zn(VO3)2) or crystal structures (Ca(VO3)2) of initial compounds prevents formation of continuous solid solutions between one another and leads to homogeneity area discontinuity in Ca(VO3)2-Zn(VO3)2 and Cu(VO3)2 systems and insignificant (2-4 mol.%) solubility in Ca(VO3)2-Cu(VO3)2 system

  18. Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc and iron

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKMAK, İsmail; Cakmak, Ismail; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang H.; McClafferty, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Ismail Cakmak,1,2 Wolfgang H. Pfeiffer,3 and Bonnie McClafferty4 ABSTRACT Cereal Chem. 86(0):000–000 Micronutrient malnutrition affects over 2 billion people in the developing world. Iron (Fe) deficiency alone affects >47% of all preschool aged children globally, often leading to impaired physical growth, mental development, and learning capacity. Zinc (Zn) deficiency, like iron, is thought to affect billions of people, hampering growth and development, and destroying imm...

  19. Zinc recovery from spent ZnO catalyst by carbon in the presence of calcium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hua-Ching; Lin, Chun-I.; Chen, Hsi-Kuei

    2004-02-01

    Zinc recovery from the spent zinc oxide catalyst by carbon in the presence of calcium carbonate was studied using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The spent zinc oxide catalyst was determined to be composed of 87.5 wt pct zinc oxide and 3.1 wt pct zinc sulfide. The results of X-ray diffractometry revealed that calcium carbonate decomposed to calcium oxide and carbon dioxide; zinc oxide and zinc sulfide were reduced to zinc vapor and carbon monoxide evolving from solid sample; and sulfur content was scavenged as calcium sulfide remained in the solid. Steps involved in this reaction system were summarized to explain the overall reaction. The experimental results of atomic absorption spectrometry showed that the initial rate of zinc recovery and final zinc recovery can be increased by increasing either the sample height, the reaction temperature or the initial bulk density. Furthermore, they were found to increase with decrease in either the argon flow rate, the molar ratio of Zntotal/C, the molar ratio of Zntotal/CaCO3, the grain size of the spent catalyst, the agglomerate size of carbon, or the agglomerate size of calcium carbonate. Empirical expressions of the initial rate of zinc recovery and final zinc recovery have been determined.

  20. Detection of serum iron and zinc levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their relationship with glucose and lipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yong Tang; Wan-Fen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the blood iron and zinc levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their relationship with glucose and lipid metabolism.Methods:Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in T2DM group and healthy people were enrolled in control group. T2DM patients were divided into low iron and zinc group and high iron and zinc group with the median of serum iron and zinc contents as the standard. Serum trace elements contents and glucose and lipid metabolism indicators were detected.Results:T2DM patients’ blood iron contents were significantly higher than those of the control group while the zinc contents were significantly lower than those of the control group. Copper, calcium and magnesium contents had no significant difference between two groups of patients. HbA1c%, glucagon and HOMA-IR as well as apoB, apoE, ApoM, leptin and vaspin contents in high iron group were higher than those in low iron group while serum insulin, GLP-1, GIP, ApoA1, APN and HOMA-β levels were lower than those in low iron group. HbA1c%, glucagon, HOMA-IR, apoB, apoE, ApoM, leptin and vaspin contents in high zinc group were lower than those in low zinc group while serum insulin, GLP-1, GIP, ApoA1, APN and HOMA-β levels were higher than those in low zinc group.Conclusions: the serum iron level was abnormally high and the zinc content was abnormally low in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum iron and zinc levels were closely related to the glucose and lipid metabolism.

  1. The Practical Realisation of Zinc-Iron CMA Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    1998-01-01

    A detailed study of the production opportunities for composition modulated alloy electrodeposits by pulsed current techniques with Zinc-Iron alloys is reported. It is shown that by using a chloride solution, with the additional capability of variable agitation rates, a full range of alloy...

  2. The Practical Realisation of Zinc-Iron CMA Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    1998-01-01

    A detailed study of the production opportunities for composition modulated alloy electrodeposits by pulsed current techniques with Zinc-Iron alloys is reported. It is shown that by using a chloride solution, with the additional capability of variable agitation rates, a full range of alloy composi...

  3. Women's zinc absorption is unaffected by dietary calcium, with or without high-phytate foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    While some have hypothesized that calcium increases the inhibitory effect of phytic acid on zinc absorption by forming insoluble Ca-Zn-phytate complexes, others have suggested that calcium may competitively bind phytic acid, reducing the phytic acid inhibition of zinc absorption. We tested the influ...

  4. Trace Elements Excluding Iron - Chromium and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    The percentage of middle-aged US adults who are participating in leisure-time physical activities is growing. These adults also seek credible information about specific supplements that the public press routinely describes as necessary to enable increases in physical performance. Chromium and zinc a...

  5. Textural and morphological studies on zinc-iron alloy electrodeposits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Kanagasabapathy; Sobha Jayakrishnan

    2011-05-01

    Zinc-iron alloy electrodeposits have industrial significance, since they provide better corrosion resistance and with improved mechanical properties when compared to pure zinc coatings. This is due to the unique phase structure of the alloy formed. But this deposition belongs to anomalous deposition, where the electrochemically less noble zinc deposits more preferentially, than the more noble iron. So the industrial process control over the deposition becomes difficult. So, this study correlates the effect of various deposition parameters over the deposition kinetics and deposited alloy characteristics. Transition and partial current densities were computed. Effect of hydrogen overpotential and surface coverage due to the adsorbed intermediates over anomalous deposition were explored. Plausible deposition mechanism and mathematical model was proposed to predict the anomalous electrodeposition characteristics. Textural, morphological and phase structural characteristics of the alloy was investigated. By the substitution of iron in the hcp lattice, c/a ratio was lowered and the lattice geometry was distorted. Intermetallic compounds of variable composition such as FeZn14, Fe5Zn33, Fe3Zn13 and FeZn3 with `' and `' phase structures were noted. Electrodeposition parameters were optimized and smooth, adherent, strain-free deposits with required iron content and hardness were obtained.

  6. Ion exchange method for calcium isolation from solutions of zinc, cadmium, and cobalt salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for isolating impurity amounts of calcium from zinc, cadmium and cobalt salts has been suggested. The method consists in dissolution of the above-mentioned metal salts in ammonia solution, selective sorption of calcium impurities from solutions prepared on carboxylic cationite with subsequent calcium desorption by mineral acid solution. 4 refs.; 2 figs

  7. Iron and zinc availability in maize lines

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz; Paulo Evaristo de Oliveira Guimarães; Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz; Estefânia de Oliveira Guedes; Vanessa Diniz Barcelos Vasconcelos; Lauro José Guimarães; Paulo Eduardo de Aquino Ribeiro; Robert Eugene Schaffert

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the Zn and Fe availability by phytic acid/Zn and phytic acid/Fe molar ratios, in 22 tropical maize inbred lines with different genetic backgrounds. The Zn and Fe levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the P through colorimetry method. Three screening methods for phytic acid (Phy) analysis were tested and one, based on the 2,2'-bipyridine reaction, was select. There was significant variability in the contents of zinc (17.5 to...

  8. Genetic Diversity of Brown Rice for Iron and Zinc Content

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendragouda Patil., Diwan J. R ., Nidagundi J. M., Lokesha R., Ravi. V, Boranayak M. B and Dikshith S

    2015-01-01

    Biofirtification is one of the sustainable approaches for improving the F2 and Zn content and their bioavailability in rice grain. Screening germplasm for Fe and Zn content is the initial step of biofortificaton. Sixty accessions of rice genotypes for Fe and Zn concentration. Iron concentration ranged from 3.38 ppm to 36.99 ppm and zinc from 3.32 ppm to 42.49 ppm. Genotypes having high Fe and Zn content are selected for further breeding programme.

  9. Zinc and iron speciation in the cereal grain

    OpenAIRE

    Schjoerring, Jan K.; Persson, Daniel P.; Hansen, Thomas H.; Laursen, Kristian H; Husted, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Phytic acid and proteins are believed to be important for the distribution and bio-availability of zinc and iron in the cereal grain, but little quantitative information is available on the relative importance of different organic ligands. We have used several chromatographic techniques including size exclusion chromatography (SEC) hyphenated to ICP-MS to analyse the molecular speciation of Fe and Zn in tissues of barley and rice seeds. The majority of Fe in barley embryos co-eluted with P as...

  10. Inhibition of iron and copper uptake by iron, copper and zinc

    OpenAIRE

    MIGUEL ARREDONDO; RONNY MARTÍNEZ; Núñez, Marco T.; MANUEL RUZ; MANUEL OLIVARES

    2006-01-01

    Interactions of micronutrients can affect absorption and bioavailability of other nutrients by a number of mechanisms. In aqueous solutions, and at higher uptake levels, competition between elements with similar chemical characteristics and uptake process can take place. The consequences of these interactions may depend on the relative concentrations of the nutrients. In this work, we measure the effects of increasing concentrations of iron, zinc, and copper on iron and copper uptake in Caco-...

  11. Conductivity study of nitrogen-doped calcium zinc oxide prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Ting; Lan, Wen-How; Huang, Kai-Feng; Lin, Jia-Ching; Chang, Kuo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the spray pyrolysis method was used to prepare unintentionally doped and nitrogen-doped calcium zinc oxide films by using zinc acetate, calcium nitrate precursor, and ammonium acetate precursor. Morphological and structural analyses were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that film grain size decreased as the nitrogen doping was increased. Both calcium oxide and zinc oxide structures were identified in the unintentionally doped calcium zinc oxide. When nitrogen doping was introduced, the film mainly exhibited a zinc oxide structure with preferred (002) and (101) orientations. The concentration and mobility were investigated using a Hall measurement system. P-type films with a mobility and concentration of 10.6 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.8×1017 cm-3, respectively, were obtained. Moreover, according to a temperature-dependent conductivity analysis, an acceptor state with activation energy 0.266 eV dominated the p-type conduction for the unintentionally doped calcium zinc oxide. By contrast, a grain boundary with a barrier height of 0.274-0.292 eV dominated the hole conduction for the nitrogen-doped calcium zinc oxide films.

  12. Iron and Zinc Nutrition in the Economically-Developed World: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Alison O; Nowson, Caryl A.; Riddell, Lynn J.; Karen H. C. Lim; Ewa A. Szymlek-Gay

    2013-01-01

    This review compares iron and zinc food sources, dietary intakes, dietary recommendations, nutritional status, bioavailability and interactions, with a focus on adults in economically-developed countries. The main sources of iron and zinc are cereals and meat, with fortificant iron and zinc potentially making an important contribution. Current fortification practices are concerning as there is little regulation or monitoring of intakes. In the countries included in this review, the proportion...

  13. Clogging and Cementation Caused by Calcium or Iron Biogrouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V.; Chu, J.; Naeimi, M.

    2012-12-01

    Chemical grouts are often used to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of soil for seepage control purposes. However, chemical grouts can be expensive and environmentally unfriendly. Therefore, two new biogrouts were tested for their bioclogging and biocementation properties. The first was calcium-based biogrout, which contained urease-producing bacteria, calcium chloride and urea for the crystallization of calcite due to enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The second was iron-based biogrout, which consisted of urease-producing bacteria, ferric chelate, and urea for the precipitation of ferric hydroxide and carbonate due to enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The permeability of sand (P, 10^-5 m/s), treated with calcium-based biogrout, linearly decreased as a function of the content of precipitated calcium (C, % w/w) according to the following equation: P = 5.1 - 4.0 C. Meanwhile, the permeability of sand treated with iron-based biogrout dropped to 2.7x10^-6 m/s at content of precipitated iron (F, % w/w) about 0.35 % w/w , by the equation: P = 5.1 - 14.6 F , and then slowly decreased to 1.4x10^-7 m/s at content of precipitated iron 1.8% w/w by the following equation: P = 0.36 - 0.23F. Both biogrouts have approximately same efficiency in the reduction of permeability of sand to low values. However, the mechanisms of bioclogging are probably different because the reduction of permeability by calcium-based biogrout was described by linear function of precipitated calcium but the reduction of permeability by iron-based biogrout showed two steps of the clogging. Different functions and mechanisms were related probably to the different type of precipitates. The images of biogrouted sand samples show that calcium-based biogrout produced white amorphous or crystallised calcium carbonate, while iron-based biogrout produced gel-like brown precipitate without visible crystals. The unconfined compressive strengths of the sand treated with different biogrouts (Y, kPa) increased by power

  14. Comparison of Calcium Phosphate and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Dermal Penetration Enhancers for Albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Narges; Javar, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dermal drug delivery is highly preferred by patients due to its several advantages. Protein therapeutics have attracted huge attention recently. Since dermal delivery of proteins encounter problems, in this investigation, zinc oxide nanoparticles and calcium phosphate nanoparticles were compared as enhancers for dermal permeation of albumin. Albumin was applied simultaneously with zinc oxide nanoparticles or calcium phosphate nanoparticles on pieces of mouse skin. Skin permeation of albumin o...

  15. Leaching of lead from zinc leach residue in acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Mu, Wen-ning; Shen, Hong-tao; Liu, Shao-ming; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2015-05-01

    A process with potentially reduced environmental impacts and occupational hazards of lead-bearing zinc plant residue was studied to achieve a higher recovery of lead via a cost-effective and environmentally friendly process. This paper describes an optimization study on the leaching of lead from zinc leach residue using acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution. Six main process conditions, i.e., the solution pH value, stirring rate, concentration of CaCl2 aqueous solution, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time, were investigated. The microstructure and components of the residue and tailing were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). On the basis of experimental results, the optimum reaction conditions were determined to be a solution pH value of 1, a stirring rate of 500 r·min-1, a CaCl2 aqueous solution concentration of 400 g·L-1, a liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 7:1, a leaching temperature of 80°C, and a leaching time of 45 min. The leaching rate of lead under these conditions reached 93.79%, with an iron dissolution rate of 19.28%. Silica did not take part in the chemical reaction during the leaching process and was accumulated in the residue.

  16. Evaluation of Application Methods Efficiency of Zinc and Iron for Canola(Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of application method efficiency of zinc and iron microelements in canola, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station of Eastern Azerbaijan province in 2008. The experimental design was a RCBD with eight treatments (F1: control, F2: iron, F3: zinc, F4: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility, F5: iron, F6: zinc, F7: iron+ zinc in the form of solution foliar application, and F8: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility and foliar application. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among treatments on given traits, antioxidant enzymes activity, fatty acids percentage, plant height, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio, protein percentage, oil percentage, oil yield, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium percentage of leaves, zinc and iron content of leaves and capitulum diameters. The highest seed yield, oil yield, oil percentage, 1000 seed weight, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and protein percentage were obtained from the soil and foliar application of iron + zinc treatments (F8. Also, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentration in leaves were achieved from control treatment which was an indication of non-efficiency of iron and zinc on the absorption rate of these substances in the leaves. The correlation between effective traits on the seed yield, such as, capitalism diameter, number of seed rows in capitulum, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and 1000 seed weight were positively significant. In general, foliar and soil application of zinc and iron had the highest efficiency in aspect of seed production. The comparison of the various methods of fertilization showed that foliar application was more effective than soil application. Also, micronutrient foliar application increased concentration of elements, especially zinc and iron. Antioxidant enzymes activity was different in response to treatments also the

  17. Genetic Diversity of Brown Rice for Iron and Zinc Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendragouda Patil., Diwan J. R ., Nidagundi J. M., Lokesha R., Ravi. V, Boranayak M. B and Dikshith S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofirtification is one of the sustainable approaches for improving the F2 and Zn content and their bioavailability in rice grain. Screening germplasm for Fe and Zn content is the initial step of biofortificaton. Sixty accessions of rice genotypes for Fe and Zn concentration. Iron concentration ranged from 3.38 ppm to 36.99 ppm and zinc from 3.32 ppm to 42.49 ppm. Genotypes having high Fe and Zn content are selected for further breeding programme.

  18. Summary of ENDF/B-V evaluations for carbon, calcium, iron, copper, and lead and ENDF/B-V Revision 2 for calcium and iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, together with documents already published, describes the ENDF/B-V evaluations of the neutron and gamma-ray-production cross sections for carbon, calcium, iron, copper, and lead and the ENDF/B-V Revision 2 evaluations for calcium and iron

  19. BIOAVAILABILITY OF IRON, ZINC AND OTHER TRACE MINERALS FROM VEGETARIAN DIETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron and zinc are the trace minerals of greatest concern when considering the nutritional value of vegetarian diets. With elimination of meat and increased intake of phytate-containing legumes and whole grains, both iron and zinc absorption are reduced from vegetarian, compared with nonvegetarian di...

  20. BIOAVAILABILITY OF IRON, ZINC, AND OTHER TRACE MINERALS FROM VEGETARIAN DIETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron and zinc are the trace minerals of greatest concern when considering the nutritional value of vegetarian diets. With elimination of meat and increased intake of phytate-containing legumes and whole grains, both iron and zinc absorption are reduced from vegetarian, compared with nonvegetarian di...

  1. Recovery of iron from zinc leaching residue by selective reduction roasting with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The zinc ferrite was selectively transformed to ZnO and Fe3O4 under weak reduction atmosphere. ► An innovative technological process for simultaneously recovering iron and zinc is proposed. ► The iron grade reaches 58.6% with iron and zinc recovery of 68.4% and 86.4%, respectively. - Abstract: The recovery of iron from zinc leaching residue by selective reduction roasting with carbon was studied. The effects of roasting temperature, duration time and mass ratio of carbon to residue on decomposition of ZnFe2O4, iron recovery and iron grade were investigated based on thermodynamic calculation and phase composition analysis of zinc leaching residue. 58.6% of iron grade in magnetic concentrate and 68.4% of iron recovery were achieved after the residue roasted at 750 °C for 1 h under carbon to residue mass ratio of 4%. The phase composition of roasted residue indicated that the ZnFe2O4 decomposed in four stages: reduction of ZnFe2O4 to ZnO and Fe3O4, reduction of Fe3O4 to FeO, formation of Fe0.85−xZnxO and reduction of FeO to Fe. A technological process for simultaneously recovering iron and zinc from zinc leaching residue is proposed.

  2. The role of iron and zinc in chemotherapy-induced alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukavci, Mustafa; Gurol, Ali; Karabulut, Abdulhalik; Budak, Gokhan; Karacan, Mehmet

    2005-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a common and distressing side effect in children with cancer. Iron and zinc are the well known trace elements which are associated with hair shedding. In this study, we investigated the hair content of iron and zinc in children with cancer consists of two groups: group A, newly diagnosed patients; group B, the patients received a course of chemotherapy. We compared the results between each others and healthy controls. Hair content of iron and zinc was not different between the patient groups. Iron concentrations of patient samples, either at diagnosis or after chemotherapy, were significantly lower than healthy controls. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the zinc values. In conclusion, hair content of iron and zinc do not have a role in chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

  3. 不同时期母乳及母婴铁、锌和钙特点及相关性研究%Study on change characters and correlations of iron, zinc and calcium in milk and blood of mother and infant at different stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 何青; 任春惠; 林凤芝; 李海宏; 张巍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the change characters of mineral status in breast milk and blood of lactating mothers and infants at different postpartum stages, and to analyze the clinic significance of these changes in breastfeeding. Methods 50 mother-infant pairs at 6 weeks postpartum and 50 mother-infant pairs at 3 months postpartum were randomly selected, and the concentration of iron, zinc and calcium in milk and blood of mothers and infants were measured according to flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Compared the disparity of these minerals at different stages, and analyze the correlations of the ones among milk, blood of mothers and infants. Results the level of iron and zinc declined through lactation( Fe 0. 102 mg/lOOg vs 0. 0605 mg/lOOg, P <0. 05 ; Zn 0. 257 mg/lOOg vs 0. 171mg/100g,P <0. 05 ) . The level of iron ion in blood of infants declined with increasing age ( 392. 45 mg/L vs 356. 80 mg/L, P < 0. 05 ) . The level of iron, zinc and calcium ion in maternal blood was not associated with these minerals of milk, and separately positively associated with these minerals in blood of infan(r =0. 591、0. 362 and0. 435 ,P - 0. 000、0. 013 and 0.001). Conclusion The mammary mineral transport is likely an active process, and not apparently associated with maternal mineral status. The decline of milk iron through lactation may be one of the reasons for high prevalence of breast-fed infants ' physiologic anemia. Maternal mineral status during pregnancy may have an influence on the mineral levels of infants in early period.%目的 通过不同时期母乳、母亲及婴儿全血铁、锌、钙含量特点分析,评价哺乳期母乳及母婴矿物质含量变化特点.方法 随机选取产后6周及3月龄母亲及婴儿各50对,采用火焰原子吸收法检测母乳中及同期母亲、婴儿全血中铁、锌、钙离子水平,比较不同时期各矿物质水平差异,并分析母乳、母亲以及婴儿之间的相关关系.结果 母乳中铁、锌的水平随

  4. Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) after home cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia M. J. Carvalho; Corrêa, Mariana M.; Elenilda J. Pereira; Nutti, Marília R.; Carvalho, José L. V.; Ribeiro, Ediane M. G.; Freitas, Sidinéa C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives: This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris...

  5. Device for continuous radiometric determination of the calcium and iron content in raw slurry for cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristic iron and calcium-K series were excited using a Cd-109 isotope source. In order to determine the calcium and iron content in dry slurry, the Compton-effect scattered radiation of the Cd-109 source in the sample was used. A numerical process was worked out which allowed the elimination of the influence of changing contents of iron and water on the results of the calcium content determinations, and a device for continuous radiometric determination of calcium and iron in raw slurry was designed and constructed. The device was installed in the cement plant 'Przyjazn' under technical measuring conditions and its applicability was tested. (orig./LH)

  6. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin A from fortified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Diego; Biebinger, Ralf; Bruins, Maaike J; Hoeft, Birgit; Kraemer, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Several strategies appear suitable to improve iron and zinc bioavailability from fortified maize, and fortification per se will increase the intake of bioavailable iron and zinc. Corn masa flour or whole maize should be fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, and degermed corn flour should be fortified with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The choice of zinc fortificant appears to have a limited impact on zinc bioavailability. Phytic acid is a major inhibitor of both iron and zinc absorption. Degermination at the mill will reduce phytic acid content, and degermed maize appears to be a suitable vehicle for iron and zinc fortification. Enzymatic phytate degradation may be a suitable home-based technique to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from fortified maize. Bioavailability experiments with low phytic acid-containing maize varieties have suggested an improved zinc bioavailability compared to wild-type counterparts. The bioavailability of folic acid from maize porridge was reported to be slightly higher than from baked wheat bread. The bioavailability of vitamin A provided as encapsulated retinyl esters is generally high and is typically not strongly influenced by the food matrix, but has not been fully investigated in maize. PMID:24329552

  7. THE STUDY ON THE CHANGES OF ZINC,COPPER,CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM IN PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTES DURING CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿希刚; 李兆志; 李明; 师桃

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the changes and their influence factors involved of zinc, copper, calcium and magnesium in plasma and erythrocytes during cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB). Methods Zinc, copper, calcium and magnesium values in plasma and erythrocytes were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer during CPB. Results Zinc and copper levels in plasma were significantly elevated above preinduction level before perfusion, but calcium and magnesium levels did not change significantly; zinc, copper and calcium levels in plasma were significantly below preoperation level during CPB, but magnesium level in plasma was significantly increased above preoperation; zinc level in plasma was increased to preoperation level after CPB and began to decrease again at 8 hours after CPB, copper level in plasma was increased to preoperation level at 20 hours after CPB, calcium in plasma was increased significantly from beginning to 8 hours after CPB, magnesium level in plasma was decreased to preoperation level at 8 hours afterCPB. Concentration of zinc , copper, calcium and magnesium in erythrocytes did not change significantly. Conclusion During CPB, the changes of zinc, copper, calcium and magnesium had relation to hemodilution, operative wound, carrier protein, stress and component of priming solution and cardioplegic solution, but no relation to transfer from plasma erythrocytes. The results indicate that it is beneficial to patient's recovery to supplement zinc, copper, calcium and magnesium properly by different ways during cardiac perioperation.

  8. Effect of zinc and/or iron supplementations on ICF-level in prepubertal anaemic girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of iron and zinc supplementations separated or combined on levels of iron, zinc and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-) in prepuberal girls suffering from iron deficiency anaemia. Hematological and biochemical changes of thirty two anaemic prepubertal girls (mean age 10.5 ± 2.01 year) were compared with normal fifteen girls have the same age. The anaemic girls were divided into three groups according to treatment; groupA (iron, group B(zinc) and group C (iron+zinc)and received supplementations for 8 weeks. Significant decreases in erythrocytic counts (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit % (Hct%) and reticulocytes%(Rt%) were recorded in blood samples of the three groups before supplementations while non-significant differences were detected in the values of other blood indices. Significant decreases were detected in iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels while non-significant decrease in ferritin was detected in group (A). Erythropoietin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) showed significant increases in the same group. Total iron binding capacity, iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels showed significant decreases while there were significant increases in erythropoetin and ferritin in group (B). The results revealed that ferritin,iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels were significantly decreased while erythropoietin and TIBC were significantly increased in group (C). After treatment, group (B) showed sligh significant increases in the concentration of Hb, Hct% and Rt%. with non-significant increase in RBCs count but in group (C) the results revealed significant increases in RBCs count, Hb, Hct% and Rt%. Non- significant differences were detected in RBCs count, Hb and Hct% in group (A) while significant increase was detected in Rt% in the same group

  9. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of iron and zinc in compact cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis method is described for the determination of iron and zinc in compact eye shadow, compact face powder and compact rouge make-up cosmetic products. The steps of the procedure are: Irradiation of samples with thermal neutrons, counting of gamma-radioactivity of the radioisotopes of iron and zinc produced by this irradiation and calculation of the concentration of these elements from the gamma-ray spectra of samples and standards. Analysis of the I.A.E.A. standard reference material by this procedure give results in close agreement with certified values. The limit of quantitation is 45 μg for iron and 0.35 μg for zinc. The developed procedure could possibly be established as an official method for the simultaneous determination of iron and zinc in compact cosmetic products. (orig.)

  10. Histopathological data of iron and calcium in the mouse lung after asbestos exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Trevisan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains data related to the research article entitled, “Synchrotron X-ray microscopy reveals early calcium and iron interaction with crocidolite fibers in the lung of exposed mice” [1]. Asbestos fibers disrupt iron homeostasis in the human and mouse lung, leading to the deposition of iron (Fe onto longer asbestos fibers which forms asbestos bodies (AB [2]. Similar to Fe, calcium (Ca is also deposited in the coats of the AB. This article presents data on iron and calcium in the mouse lung after asbestos exposure detected by histochemical evaluation.

  11. The utilization of some iron and zinc compounds as regulators of catalase activity at Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Efremova, N.; E. Molodoi; Usatîi, A.; Fulga, L.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the impact of some zinc and iron compounds as oxidative stress factors on catalase activity, which is known to be important defense system of microorganisms to metal stress. For the investigation was used baker's yeast strain - Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-11 previously selected as a source of protein and catalase. The obtained results have revealed that compounds of iron and zinc with citrate and acetate contributes to the accumulation of yeast bi...

  12. Effect of exhausting exercise and calcium supplementation on potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc and calcium levels in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study was performed to determine four week calcium supplementation and athleticism exercise on plasma potassium, calcium, magnesium, cupper and zinc levels in resting and exhaustion. Research was carried out on 30 healthy male people. Group 1; Exercise, Group 2; Exercise + Calcium supplementation, Group 3; Sedentary + Calcium supplemented. All elements levels increased by exhausting exercise (P<0.05). Plasma K and Ca levels increased in exercise group after supplementation (P<0.05). Ca levels increased in exercise + supplemented group (P<0.05). This increase was much more in group three (P<0.05). Plasma Cu levels increased by Ca supplementation in sedentary (P<0.05). Exhausting exercise increased Zn levels in sedentary after supplementation (P<0.05). The results of present study show that calcium supplementation for 4 week does not have clear affect on potassium and Mg. However, calcium levels were increased by supplementation and Cu after the supplementation. It was also exhausting exercise that caused increase in all parameters. (author)

  13. The shaping of zinc coating on surface steels and ductile iron casting

    OpenAIRE

    D. Kopyciński

    2010-01-01

    The studies aimed at an analysis of the formation and growth kinetics of zinc coating on reactive silicon-killed steels in a zinc bath. The growth kinetics of the produced zinc coatings was evaluated basing on the power-law growth equation. As regards galvanizing of the surface of products, investigation was done for various steel grades and ductile iron (DI) taking into account the quality and thickness of coating. It has been proved that the chemical constitution of basis significantly infl...

  14. Bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets: Nutrient delivery technology salt fortification in human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), iron deficiency anaemia(IDA) and zinc deficiency are common problems in India. The discussions in this paper centers on the selection of the vehicles which could be used to successfully deliver essential nutrients into the daily diet of the general population of india and the identification of compounds which inhibit the intestinal absorption of zinc. 40 refs, 11 tabs

  15. Isotope - aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets consumed in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aims of the study were: 1) the evaluation of iron and zinc status in women of Lodz aged 18-45 years, 2) adaptation of the whole body counter to in vivo measurements absorption of iron given to the gastro-intestinal tract of volunteers and 3) in rat model estimation iron bioavailability from fortified wheat flour combined with products usually consumed in Poland. During five months investigations thirty seven women were examined each one twice in two months interval. Following variables were measured: iron and zinc in blood serum, in public and scalp hair and in food, taste acuity score, serum ferritin, hemoglobin, total iron binding capacity, red blood cells, mean corpuscular concentration and corpuscular volume. Prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficient anemia were assessed by two models in terms of the depression of serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations. 64 refs, 6 figs, 23 tabs

  16. Is iron and zinc nutrition a concern for vegetarian infants and young children in industrialized countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2014-07-01

    Well-planned vegetarian diets are considered adequate for all stages of the life cycle, despite limited data on the zinc status of vegetarians during early childhood. The bioavailability of iron and zinc in vegetarian diets is poor because of their higher content of absorption inhibitors such as phytate and polyphenols and the absence of flesh foods. Consequently, children as well as adult vegetarians often have lower serum ferritin concentrations than omnivores, which is indicative of reduced iron stores, despite comparable intakes of total iron; hemoglobin differences are small and rarely associated with anemia. However, data on serum zinc concentrations, the recommended biomarker for identifying population groups at elevated risk of zinc deficiency, are sparse and difficult to interpret because recommended collection and analytic procedures have not always been followed. Existing data indicate no differences in serum zinc or growth between young vegetarian and omnivorous children, although there is some evidence of low serum zinc concentrations in vegetarian adolescents. Some vegetarian immigrants from underprivileged households may be predisposed to iron and zinc deficiency because of nondietary factors such as chronic inflammation, parasitic infections, overweight, and genetic hemoglobin disorders. To reduce the risk of deficiency, the content and bioavailability of iron and zinc should be enhanced in vegetarian diets by consumption of fortified cereals and milk, by consumption of leavened whole grains, by soaking dried legumes before cooking and discarding the soaking water, and by replacing tea and coffee at meals with vitamin C-rich drinks, fruit, or vegetables. Additional recommended practices include using fermented soy foods and sprouting at least some of the legumes consumed. Fortified foods can reduce iron deficiency, but whether they can also reduce zinc deficiency is less certain. Supplements may be necessary for vegetarian children following very

  17. Isotope aided studies on the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets consumed in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total iron, and zinc, in-vitro ionizable iron and soluble zinc were estimated by the chemical and extrinsic isotope tag methods for comparison in various foodstuffs as such, and after processing, and also in diets. It has been observed that the values got were more or less similar by both the procedures. The in-vitro ionizable iron in groundnut was low with low total iron as well. Total iron and ionizable iron were also estimated in commonly consumed breakfast preparations. The effect of tea on ionizable iron when taken along with breakfast was also investigated. It was found that different breakfast preparations varied narrowly with regards to total iron (4.6-7.2 mg) and percent ionizable iron (25%-33%). However, tea had a pronounced effect on ionizable iron resulting in inhibition to various extents. Total and soluble zinc were analyzed in green leafy vegetables and groundnut. Though the total zinc was low and similar in both foodstuffs, the percent soluble Zn was found to be high in green leafy vegetables as compared to groundnut. Tannin and ascorbic acid contents were estimated in a few foodstuffs. Tannin content in green leafy vegetables was found to be about 150 mg. Ascorbic acid concentration was high in cereals (except in rice) and whole pulses. The split pulses (dals) were found to be poor sources of ascorbic acid. Ionizable iron and soluble zinc were found to increase to various extents on processing. Germination was found to increase ascorbic acid, whereas it had no effect on tannin. (author). 4 figs, 8 tabs

  18. Diagnostic utility of zinc protoporphyrin to detect iron deficiency in Kenyan pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, M.N.; Maskey, S.; Andang'o, P.E.A.; Shinali, N.K.; Roth, J.M.; Trijsburg, L.; Mwangi, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Iron-deficient erythropoiesis results in excess formation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), which can be measured instantly and at low assay cost using portable haematofluorometers. ZPP is used as a screening marker of iron deficiency in individual pregnant women and children, but also to assess populat

  19. Absorption of zinc and iron by rats fed meals containing sorghum food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc and iron absorption from freeze-dried traditionally-prepared sorghum food products was studied in rats. After a period of marginal zinc or iron depletion, rats were fed test meals containing 1 of 4 sorghum foods cooked maize gruel or an inorganic mineral each of which was extrinsically labeled with either 65Zn or 59Fe before being added to the diets. Absorption was determined by whole body percent retention of the initial radioisotope dose over a period of 19 days. Iron was highly available from all products tested (75-83%) with no significant differences in absorption among groups (p>0.05). Zinc from fermented Aceta (97%) was more available than that from the other sorghum products (69-78%) or maize gruel (76%). Zinc from acid To (78%) and Aceta (97%) was as available as that from zinc oxide in the control diet (93%) (p>0.05). There were no significant differences in zinc absorption among groups fed Acid To (78%), neutral To (76), alkali To (69%) or maize gruel (76%) (p<0.05). Phytate in the fermented Aceta was 33% lower than in the other sorghum foods. Iron and zinc were highly available from all sorghum foods. Reduction phytate by fermentation increased Zn availability

  20. Biofortification of wheat grain with iron and zinc: integrating novel genomic resources and knowledge from model crops

    OpenAIRE

    Borrill, Philippa; Connorton, James M.; Balk, Janneke; Miller, Anthony J.; Sanders, Dale; Uauy, Cristobal

    2014-01-01

    Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of the essential micronutrients iron and zinc. Up to two billion people worldwide suffer from iron and zinc deficiencies, particularly in regions with predominantly cereal-based diets. Although wheat flour is commonly fortified during processing, an attractive and more sustainable solution is biofortification, which requires developing new varieties of wheat with inherently higher iron and zinc content in their grains. Until now most ...

  1. Influence of calcium depletion on iron-binding properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, V A; Ellis, A; Ye, A; Das, S; Singh, H

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the effects of calcium depletion on the binding of iron in milk. A weakly acidic cation-exchange resin was used to remove 3 different levels (18-22, 50-55, and 68-72%) of calcium from milk. Five levels of iron (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mM) were added to each of these calcium-depleted milks (CDM) and the resultant milks were analyzed for particle size, microstructure, and the distribution of protein and minerals between the colloidal and soluble phases. The depletion of calcium affected the distribution of protein and minerals in normal milk. Iron added to normal milk and low-CDM (~20% calcium depletion) bound mainly to the colloidal phase (material sedimented at 100,000 × g for 1 h at 20 °C), with little effect on the integrity of the casein micelles. Depletion of ~70% of the calcium from milk resulted in almost complete disintegration of the casein micelles, as indicated by all the protein remaining in the soluble phase upon ultracentrifugation. Addition of up to ~20 mM iron to high CDM resulted in the formation of small fibrous structures that remained in the soluble phase of milk. It appeared that the iron bound to soluble (nonsedimentable) caseins in high-CDM. We observed a decrease in the aqueous phosphorus content of all milks upon iron addition, irrespective of their calcium content. We considered the interaction between aqueous phosphorus and added iron to be responsible for the high iron-binding capacity of the proteins in milk. The soluble protein-iron complexes formed in high-CDM (~70% calcium depletion) could be used as an effective iron fortificant for a range of food products because of their good solubility characteristics. PMID:25648803

  2. Serum calcium response following oral zinc oxide administrations in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Thilsing, Trine

    2001-01-01

    lactating cows dropped dramatically indicating the existence of an antagonistic effect between Zn and Ca. The first Zn induced hypocalcaemic episode in the lactating cows was followed by a rise in serum calcium to a level above the pre-dosing level and above the mean value of the control group. The depth of...... the hypocalcaemic response decreased with the number of zinc oxide dosings. This effect was explained as a response from the stimulation of the calcium homeostatic mechanisms. In the Zn dosed non-lactating cows responses were similar but less clear. The perspective of these findings is discussed in...

  3. Iron, copper and zinc isotopic fractionation up mammal trophic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Pons, Marie-Laure; Balter, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that some non-traditional elements exhibit stable isotope compositions that are distinct in botanical and animal products, providing potential new tracers for diet reconstructions. Here, we present data for iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) stable isotope compositions in plants and bones of herbivores and carnivores. The samples come from trophic chains located in the Western Cape area and in the Kruger National Park in South Africa. The Fe, Cu and Zn isotope systematics are similar in both parks. However, local Cu, and possibly Zn, isotopic values of soils influence that of plants and of higher trophic levels. Between plants and bones of herbivores, the Zn isotope compositions are 66Zn-enriched by about 0.8‰ whereas no significant trophic enrichment is observed for Fe and Cu. Between bones of herbivores and bones of carnivores, the Fe isotope compositions are 56Fe-depleted by about 0.6‰, the Cu isotope compositions are 65Cu-enriched by about 1.0‰, and the Zn isotope compositions are slightly 66Zn-depleted by about 0.2‰. The isotopic distributions of the metals in the body partly explain the observed trophic isotopic systematics. However, it is also necessary to invoke differential intestinal metal absorption between herbivores and carnivores to account for the observed results. Further studies are necessary to fully understand how the Fe, Cu and Zn isotope values are regulated within the ecosystem's trophic levels, but the data already suggests significant potential as new paleodietary and paleoecological proxies.

  4. Relation between Omega 3 Fatty Acid, Iron, Zinc and Treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shalileh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In some studies, it is suggested that a number of dietary factors including essential fatty acid, iron and zinc deficiency, may be linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD. However, the exact mechanism of this relationship is yet unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc, and iron in etiopathology and management of ADHD. For the purpose of this study, Science Direct, PubMed, and Medline databases were explored and thirty-four relevant articles in english language were collected. Eighteen out of twenty-two studies confirmed the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid and ADHD. In addition, the role of insufficient store of iron in developing ADHD symptoms and the positive effect of iron supplement in improvement of ADHD behavioral symptoms have been shown. Also, plasma zinc concentration in children with ADHD was lower than the normal population, and the effect of zinc supplement on reducing on attentive-deficit symptoms was contradictory. Although polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and iron supplements are not suggested as main treatment for ADHD, but if future studies confirm the positive results of that, use of these supplements as complementary treatment will affect ADHD symptoms. Considering the little amount of studies on zinc, more research is necessary.

  5. Alkaline Leaching of Low Zinc Content Iron-Bearing Sludges

    OpenAIRE

    Gargul K.; Jarosz P.; Małecki S.

    2016-01-01

    Various types of waste materials containing zinc (e.g. dusts and sludges from gas dedusting process) are obtained in steel industry. The contents of Zn in these materials may vary considerably. Even a low concentration of zinc in recirculated products precludes their recycling in ferrous metallurgy aggregates. Long storage of this type of material can lead to contamination of soil and water by zinc compounds which can be leached out by acid rain, for example. This paper focuses on research in...

  6. Study of belite calcium sulfo-aluminate cement potential for zinc conditioning: From hydration to durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium silicate cements are widely used for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste conditioning. However, wastes produced by nuclear activities are very diverse and some of their components may chemically react with cement phases. For instance, ashes resulting from the incineration of technological wastes including neoprene and polyvinylchloride may contain substantial amounts of soluble zinc chloride. This compound is known to strongly delay or inhibit Portland cement setting. One approach to limit adverse cement-waste interactions is to select a binder showing a better compatibility with the waste while keeping cement matrix advantages (low cost, simple process, hydration with water provided by the waste...). This work thus investigates the potential of calcium sulfo-aluminate cement for zinc Zn(II) immobilization. Four aspects were considered: hydration (kinetics and products formed), properties of hydrated binders, mechanisms of zinc retention and durability of the cement pastes (based on leaching experiments and modelling). The influence of three main parameters was assessed: the gypsum content of the cement, the concentration of ZnCl2 and the thermal evolution at early age. It follows that materials based on a calcium sulfo-aluminate cement containing 20% gypsum are interesting candidates for zinc Zn(II) stabilization/solidification: there is no delay in hydration, mineralogy of the hydrated phases is slightly dependent on thermal history, mechanical strength is high, dimensional changes are limited and zinc Zn(II) is well immobilized, even if the cement paste is leached by pure water during a long period (90 d). (author)

  7. Short-term in vivo evaluation of zinc-containing calcium phosphate using a normalized procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calasans-Maia, Monica, E-mail: monicacalasansmaia@gmail.com [Dental Clinical Research Center, Dentistry School, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Calasans-Maia, José, E-mail: josecalasans@gmail.com [Dental Clinical Research Center, Dentistry School, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santos, Silvia, E-mail: silviaquimica@gmail.com [LABIOMAT, Brazilian Center for Physics Research, CBPF, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mavropoulos, Elena, E-mail: elena@cbpf.br [LABIOMAT, Brazilian Center for Physics Research, CBPF, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Farina, Marcos, E-mail: mfarina@anato.ufrj.br [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lima, Inayá, E-mail: inayacorrea@gmail.com [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rossi, Alexandre, E-mail: rossi@cbpf.br [LABIOMAT, Brazilian Center for Physics Research, CBPF, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Granjeiro, José Mauro, E-mail: jmgranjeiro@gmail.com [Dental Clinical Research Center, Dentistry School, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bioengineering Division, National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    The effect of zinc-substituted calcium phosphate (CaP) on bone osteogenesis was evaluated using an in vivo normalized ISO 10993-6 protocol. Zinc-containing hydroxyapatite (ZnHA) powder with 0.3% by wt zinc (experimental group) and stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (control group) were shaped into cylindrical implants (2 × 6 mm) and were sintered at 1000 °C. Thermal treatment transformed the ZnHA cylinder into a biphasic implant that was composed of Zn-substituted HA and Zn-substituted β-tricalcium phosphate (ZnHA/βZnTCP); the hydroxyapatite cylinder was a highly crystalline and poorly soluble HA implant. In vivo tests were performed in New Zealand White rabbits by implanting two cylinders of ZnHA/βZnTCP in the left tibia and two cylinders of HA in the right tibia for 7, 14 and 28 days. Incorporation of 0.3% by wt zinc into CaP increased the rate of Zn release to the biological medium. Microfluorescence analyses (μXRF-SR) using synchrotron radiation suggested that some of the Zn released from the biomaterial was incorporated into new bone near the implanted region. In contrast with previous studies, histomorphometric analysis did not show significant differences between the newly formed bone around ZnHA/βZnTCP and HA due to the dissolution profile of Zn-doped CaP. Despite the great potential of Zn-containing CaP matrices for future use in bone regeneration, additional in vivo studies must be conducted to explain the mobility of zinc at the CaP surface and its interactions with a biological medium. - Highlights: • We produced a hydroxyapatite containing a low concentration (0.3 wt.%) of zinc. • The biomaterial underwent characterization before and after in vivo implant. • In vivo tests were performed according to ISO 10993-6. • Zinc-containing calcium phosphate promotes osteoconduction and bone regeneration. • Zinc-containing calcium phosphate may be useful for clinical applications.

  8. Short-term in vivo evaluation of zinc-containing calcium phosphate using a normalized procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of zinc-substituted calcium phosphate (CaP) on bone osteogenesis was evaluated using an in vivo normalized ISO 10993-6 protocol. Zinc-containing hydroxyapatite (ZnHA) powder with 0.3% by wt zinc (experimental group) and stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (control group) were shaped into cylindrical implants (2 × 6 mm) and were sintered at 1000 °C. Thermal treatment transformed the ZnHA cylinder into a biphasic implant that was composed of Zn-substituted HA and Zn-substituted β-tricalcium phosphate (ZnHA/βZnTCP); the hydroxyapatite cylinder was a highly crystalline and poorly soluble HA implant. In vivo tests were performed in New Zealand White rabbits by implanting two cylinders of ZnHA/βZnTCP in the left tibia and two cylinders of HA in the right tibia for 7, 14 and 28 days. Incorporation of 0.3% by wt zinc into CaP increased the rate of Zn release to the biological medium. Microfluorescence analyses (μXRF-SR) using synchrotron radiation suggested that some of the Zn released from the biomaterial was incorporated into new bone near the implanted region. In contrast with previous studies, histomorphometric analysis did not show significant differences between the newly formed bone around ZnHA/βZnTCP and HA due to the dissolution profile of Zn-doped CaP. Despite the great potential of Zn-containing CaP matrices for future use in bone regeneration, additional in vivo studies must be conducted to explain the mobility of zinc at the CaP surface and its interactions with a biological medium. - Highlights: • We produced a hydroxyapatite containing a low concentration (0.3 wt.%) of zinc. • The biomaterial underwent characterization before and after in vivo implant. • In vivo tests were performed according to ISO 10993-6. • Zinc-containing calcium phosphate promotes osteoconduction and bone regeneration. • Zinc-containing calcium phosphate may be useful for clinical applications

  9. Preparation of calcium silicate absorbent from iron blast furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodnax, L F; Rochelle, G T

    2000-09-01

    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) solids were prepared from hydrated lime and iron blast furnace slag in an aqueous agitated slurry at 92 degrees C. While it was hoped a minimal lime/slag ratio could be used to create near-amorphous CSH, the surface area of the product improved by increasing the lime/slag weight ratio to 2. The addition of gypsum to the lime/slag system dramatically improved the formation of surface area, creating solids with 139 m2/g after 30 hr of reaction when only a minimal amount of lime was present. The SO2 reactivity of solids prepared with gypsum greatly exceeded that of hydrated lime, achieving greater than 70-80% conversion of the alkalinity after 1 hr of reaction with SO2. The use of CaCl2 as an additive to the lime/slag system, in lieu of gypsum, also produced high-surface-area solids, 115 m2/g after 21 hr of reaction. However, the SO2 reactivity of these sorbents was relatively low given the high surface area. This emphasized that the correlation between surface area and SO2 reactivity was highly dependent on the solid phase, which was subsequently dependent on slurry composition. PMID:11055162

  10. Iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated cereals and legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem in the Philippines especially in infants, children and pregnant women. The immediate cause is inadequate intake of available iron to meet increased iron requirements. Iron supplementation studies on pregnant women showed improvement in haemoglobin level and reduction of prevalence of anaemia. A project on iron fortification of rice with ferrous sulphate is going on. It is proposed to study iron and zinc absorption from weaning food prepared from germinated rice: mungbean, germinated rice: cowpea, and germinated corn:mungbean to support the finding that these formulations will alleviate not only protein-energy malnutrition but contribute to improvement of iron status as well since iron contents are higher and anti-nutritional factors (phytates and tannin) are either reduced or eliminated. This study aims to measure the iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated rice-mungbean, germinated rice-cowpea, and germinated corn-mungbean and to indicate usefullness of modifying local foods to improve iron absorption. 24 refs, 4 figs

  11. Iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status and immune response in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships of iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status to cell-mediated immune response were investigated among 125 healthy, elderly persons (60-87 years of age). Plasma ferritin, plasma and red cell folate, and plasma vitamin B12 levels were assayed immuno-radiometrically. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (con A), and in mixed lymphocyte reaction. Deficiencies of iron, folacin vitamin B12 and zinc were each associated (independently) with significantly lower lymphocyte responses to PHA and con A, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (P 12 or zinc. Further, they suggest that deficiencies of these nutrients may play a role in the depression of cell-mediated immunity with age, which in turn may lead to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and cancer in the elderly

  12. Determination of metallic iron in a mixture of lime, calcium sulphide and pyrrhotite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastri, V S

    A method is described for the determination of metallic iron in a complex matrix consisting of calcium oxide, calcium sulphide, carbon and pyrrhotite. The procedure consists of leaching the sample with 5% ammonium chloride solution (10% sucrose solution in some cases) followed by treatment with mercury(II) chloride solution and titration with dichromate solution. PMID:18962353

  13. The utilization of some iron and zinc compounds as regulators of catalase activity at Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremova, N.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the impact of some zinc and iron compounds as oxidative stress factors on catalase activity, which is known to be important defense system of microorganisms to metal stress. For the investigation was used baker's yeast strain - Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-11 previously selected as a source of protein and catalase. The obtained results have revealed that compounds of iron and zinc with citrate and acetate contributes to the accumulation of yeast biomass and have beneficial effect on the catalase activity at selected yeast strain. The maximum increase of catalase activity in yeast biomass was established in case of iron and zinc citrate supplementation to the nutritive medium in optimal concentration of 15.0 mg/l. Results of the present study could be used for the elaboration of new procedures of catalase obtaining by directed synthesis with the utilization of selected metal compounds.

  14. ARTICLE - Path analysis of iron and zinc contents and others traits in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Oliveira Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of agronomic and culinary traits on iron and zinc contents in 11 cowpea populations. Correlations between traits were estimated and decomposed into direct and indirect effects using path analysis. For the study populations, breeding for larger grain size, higher number of grains per pod, grain yield, reduced cooking time, and number of days to flowering can lead to decreases in the levels of iron and zinc in the grain. Genetic gains for the iron content can be obtained by direct selection for protein content by indirect effects on the number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield. The positive direct effect of grain size and protein content on the zinc content indicates the possibility of simultaneous gain by combined selection of these traits.

  15. Effect of oral drenching with zinc oxide or synthetic zeolite A on total blood calcium in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R J; Hansen, T; Jensen, M L;

    2001-01-01

    values. Oral drenching with a single dose of zinc oxide of 100 mg/kg of body weight as well as with zeolite in doses of 500 g of zeolite/cow twice a day for 2.5 d was reflected in serum calcium levels. In the group given zeolite A, there was a depression in evening values of total serum calcium although...

  16. Combined zinc and iron compared with iron supplementation of diets of 6- to 12-year old village schoolchildren in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahloudji, M; Reinhold, J G; Haghshenass, M; Ronaghy, H A; Fox, M R; Halsted, J A

    1975-07-01

    The effects of supplementation of the diets of 6- to 12-year-old children in a village near Shiraz in Iran with zinc plus iron or iron alone, together with the indispensable amino acids in the form of egg white protein, vitamins, minerals, and corn oil have been evaluated. Initially 48 of 59 children had zinc concentrations below the minimum found in well-nourished persons. Eight months of supplementation with zinc plus iron (20 mg daily of elemental zinc as carbonate and 20 mg ferrous iron as fumarate) failed to stimulate growth or bone development or to bring about an increase in plasma zinc concentrations. However, supplementation with iron in the above amount was associated with an acceleration of growth in height and weight. The persistence of low concentrations of zinc in plasma and the failure of supplemental zinc to stimulate growth are attributed to the poor availability of both dietary and supplemental zinc resulting from sequestering action of fiber and phytate present in large amounts in the unleavened whole meal bread consumed by villagers. In addition, the results suggest that simultaneous administration of iron and zinc supplements may impair utilization of the metals. PMID:1146725

  17. Multimicronutrient Slow-Release Fertilizer of Zinc, Iron, Manganese, and Copper

    OpenAIRE

    Siladitya Bandyopadhyay; Kunal Ghosh; Chandrika Varadachari

    2014-01-01

    The process for the production of a slow-release micronutrient fertilizer is described. The compound contains zinc, iron, manganese, and copper as micronutrients and is produced by polymerizing a system containing phosphoric acid, zinc oxide, hematite, pyrolusite, copper sulfate, and magnesium oxide followed by neutralization of the polyphosphate chain with ammonium hydroxide. Changes in temperature, density, and viscosity of the reaction system during polymerization were studied. Reaction ki...

  18. Na2EDTA enhances the absorption of iron and zinc from fortified rice flour in Sri Lankan children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice flour was proposed as a vehicle for iron and zinc fortification in Sri Lanka. Although widely consumed, rice flour has not been evaluated as a fortified food, and the absorption of minerals including iron and zinc from this flour is unknown. Determination of the bioavailability of these nutrien...

  19. NA2EDTA ENHANCES THE ABSORPTION OF IRON AND ZINC FROM FORTIFIED RICE FLOUR IN SRI LANKAN CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice flour was proposed as a vehicle for iron and zinc fortification in Sri Lanka. Although widely consumed, rice flour has not been evaluated as a fortified food, and the absorption of minerals including iron and zinc from this flour is unknown. Determination of the bioavailability of these nutrien...

  20. Pituitary gland levels of mercury, selenium, iron, and zinc in an Alzheimer`s disease study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornett, C.R.; Markesbery, W.R.; Wekstein, D.R.; Ehmann, W.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Mercury, iron, selenium, and zinc imbalances have been observed in comparisons between Alzheimer`s disease (AD) and control subject brains. Analyses of the pituitary gland have demonstrated that this organ retains relatively high concentrations of trace elements, including mercury, iron, and zinc. Our previous work has shown that the pituitary glands of AD and control subjects are typically higher in these trace elements than brain samples from the same subject. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to compare the pituitary trace element levels of AD and control subjects. This study also describes the intrasubject relationships of brain trace element levels to those in the pituitary gland of AD and control subjects.

  1. Combined iron and folic acid supplementation with or without zinc reduces time to walking unassisted among Zanzibari infants 5-11 months old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron and zinc deficiencies have been associated with delayed motor development in nutritionally at-risk children, albeit inconsistently. In this community-based, randomized double-blind trial, iron+folic acid (FeFA) (12.5 mg Fe + 50 'g folic acid), zinc (Zn) (10 mg), and iron+folic acid+zinc (FeFA+Z...

  2. Calcium channel blockers ameliorate iron overload-associated hepatic fibrosis by altering iron transport and stellate cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Xin; Chang, Yanzhong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chu, Xi; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Zhenyi; Guo, Hui; Wang, Na; Gao, Yonggang; Zhang, Jianping; Chu, Li

    2016-06-15

    Liver fibrosis is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with iron overload. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can antagonize divalent cation entry into renal and myocardial cells and inhibit fibrogenic gene expression. We investigated the potential of CCBs to resolve iron overload-associated hepatic fibrosis. Kunming mice were assigned to nine groups (n=8 per group): control, iron overload, deferoxamine, high and low dose verapamil, high and low dose nimodipine, and high and low dose diltiazem. Iron deposition and hepatic fibrosis were measured in mouse livers. Expression levels of molecules associated with transmembrane iron transport were determined by molecular biology approaches. In vitro HSC-T6 cells were randomized into nine groups (the same groups as the mice). Changes in proliferation, apoptosis, and metalloproteinase expression in cells were detected to assess the anti-fibrotic effects of CCBs during iron overload conditions. We found that CCBs reduced hepatic iron content, intracellular iron deposition, the number of hepatic fibrotic areas, collagen expression levels, and hydroxyproline content. CCBs rescued abnormal expression of α1C protein in L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (LVDCC) and down-regulated divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1) expression in mouse livers. In iron-overloaded HSC-T6 cells, CCBs reduced iron deposition, inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). CCBs are potential therapeutic agents that can be used to address hepatic fibrosis during iron overload. They resolve hepatic fibrosis probably correlated with regulating transmembrane iron transport and inhibiting HSC growth. PMID:27095094

  3. Copper metabolism and its interactions with dietary iron, zinc, tin and selenium in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, S.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies on copper metabolism and its interactions with selected dietary trace elements in rats. The rats were fed purified diets throughout. High intakes of iron or tin reduced copper concentrations in plasma, liver and kidneys. The dietary treatments also reduced biliary copper excretion through inhibition of intestinal copper absorption. When rats were fed on diets with moderately elevated iron and/or zinc concentrations, only copper concentrations in plasma we...

  4. Zinc transporter ZIP14 functions in hepatic zinc, iron and glucose homeostasis during the innate immune response (endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolunay Beker Aydemir

    Full Text Available ZIP14 (slc39A14 is a zinc transporter induced in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. ZIP14 induction accompanies the reduction in serum zinc (hypozincemia of acute inflammation. ZIP14 can transport Zn(2+ and non-transferrin-bound Fe(2+ in vitro. Using a Zip14(-/- mouse model we demonstrated that ZIP14 was essential for control of phosphatase PTP1B activity and phosphorylation of c-Met during liver regeneration. In the current studies, a global screening of ZIP transporter gene expression in response to LPS-induced endotoxemia was conducted. Following LPS, Zip14 was the most highly up-regulated Zip transcript in liver, but also in white adipose tissue and muscle. Using ZIP14(-/- mice we show that ZIP14 contributes to zinc absorption from the gastrointestinal tract directly or indirectly as zinc absorption was decreased in the KOs. In contrast, Zip14(-/- mice absorbed more iron. The Zip14 KO mice did not exhibit hypozincemia following LPS, but do have hypoferremia. Livers of Zip14-/- mice had increased transcript abundance for hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin and transferrin receptor-1 and greater accumulation of iron. The Zip14(-/- phenotype included greater body fat, hypoglycemia and higher insulin levels, as well as increased liver glucose and greater phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and increased GLUT2, SREBP-1c and FASN expression. The Zip14 KO mice exhibited decreased circulating IL-6 with increased hepatic SOCS-3 following LPS, suggesting SOCS-3 inhibited insulin signaling which produced the hypoglycemia in this genotype. The results are consistent with ZIP14 ablation yielding abnormal labile zinc pools which lead to increased SOCS-3 production through G-coupled receptor activation and increased cAMP production as well as signaled by increased pSTAT3 via the IL-6 receptor, which inhibits IRS 1/2 phosphorylation. Our data show the role of ZIP14 in the hepatocyte is multi-functional since zinc and iron trafficking are

  5. Zinc Transporter ZIP14 Functions in Hepatic Zinc, Iron and Glucose Homeostasis during the Innate Immune Response (Endotoxemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beker Aydemir, Tolunay; Chang, Shou-Mei; Guthrie, Gregory J.; Maki, Alyssa B.; Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Karabiyik, Afife; Cousins, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    ZIP14 (slc39A14) is a zinc transporter induced in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. ZIP14 induction accompanies the reduction in serum zinc (hypozincemia) of acute inflammation. ZIP14 can transport Zn2+ and non-transferrin-bound Fe2+ in vitro. Using a Zip14−/− mouse model we demonstrated that ZIP14 was essential for control of phosphatase PTP1B activity and phosphorylation of c-Met during liver regeneration. In the current studies, a global screening of ZIP transporter gene expression in response to LPS-induced endotoxemia was conducted. Following LPS, Zip14 was the most highly up-regulated Zip transcript in liver, but also in white adipose tissue and muscle. Using ZIP14−/− mice we show that ZIP14 contributes to zinc absorption from the gastrointestinal tract directly or indirectly as zinc absorption was decreased in the KOs. In contrast, Zip14−/− mice absorbed more iron. The Zip14 KO mice did not exhibit hypozincemia following LPS, but do have hypoferremia. Livers of Zip14−/− mice had increased transcript abundance for hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin and transferrin receptor-1 and greater accumulation of iron. The Zip14−/− phenotype included greater body fat, hypoglycemia and higher insulin levels, as well as increased liver glucose and greater phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and increased GLUT2, SREBP-1c and FASN expression. The Zip14 KO mice exhibited decreased circulating IL-6 with increased hepatic SOCS-3 following LPS, suggesting SOCS-3 inhibited insulin signaling which produced the hypoglycemia in this genotype. The results are consistent with ZIP14 ablation yielding abnormal labile zinc pools which lead to increased SOCS-3 production through G-coupled receptor activation and increased cAMP production as well as signaled by increased pSTAT3 via the IL-6 receptor, which inhibits IRS 1/2 phosphorylation. Our data show the role of ZIP14 in the hepatocyte is multi-functional since zinc and iron trafficking are

  6. Optimization Study on the Leaching of High Iron-Bearing Zinc Calcine After Reduction Roasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junwei; Liu, Wei; Qin, Wenqing; Zheng, Yongxing; Luo, Honglin

    2016-02-01

    The selective leaching of zinc from high iron-bearing zinc calcine after reduction roasting was optimized by Taguchi experimental design method. The experimental parameters and their ranges were 303 to 343 K (30 to 70 °C) for leaching temperature ( T), 7 to 15 mL/g for liquid/solid ratio ( L/ S), 70 to 150 g/L for H2SO4 concentration ( C), 5 to 25 minutes for time ( t), and 100 to 500 rpm for stirring speed ( R). The results show that the optimum conditions were 303 K (30 °C), 9 mL/g, 110 g/L, 20 minutes, and 400 rpm, respectively. Under these conditions, about 92.81 pct Zn was extracted and more than 86 pct Fe was reported into the leach residue. L/ S and C had significant effects on the extractions of zinc and iron, while t and R had no significant effects, and T had significant effect on iron extraction but negligible effect on zinc extraction. This indicates that diffusion was not a major control step of the leaching process, and the dissolution of iron was controlled by chemical reaction. The interactive effects of parameters were negligible. The leach residue was mainly composed of Fe3O4 and ZnS, and its particle size was very fine.

  7. Iron and zinc deficiencies in China: existing problems and possible solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guansheng Ma,

    2007-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies affect the health and development of the population of China as well as its socia] and economic development. Iron and zinc deficiencies are quite prevalent, while insufficient intake and poor bioavailability are the major causes. Phytate is be!ieved to bc a potent inhibito

  8. A Study on Zinc-Iron Alloy Electrodeposition from a Chloride Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The electrodeposition of zinc-iron alloys from a chloride-based electrolyte has been studied using electrochemical polarisation techniques, Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) and Computer Assisted Pulse Plating (CAPP). A...

  9. Iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated cereals and legumes using isotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron bioavailability from weaning foods prepared from 70:30 combination of germinated rice:mungbean (GRM); germinated rice: cowpea (GRC) and germinated corn:mungbean (GCM) was determined by radioisotopic measurements of iron absorption in human subjects. The gruels were prepared as plain with sugar and flavoring labeled by the extrinsic tag method, and served as hot porridge. It was estimated that iron-deficient infants would absorb 3.5% from GRM, 4.9% from GRC and 5.6% from GCM. Differences between absorption among the weaning foods were not statistically significant. Planning of diets for these age group should include other sources of iron especially heme. Zinc absorption from the weaning food formulations will be studied by the in vitro and in vivo methods. For the in vivo method on human subjects, the absorption of zinc will be determined from the measurement of the whole body retention of the isotope 14 days after intake of the labeled mean. Serum zinc level will be determined to assess the zinc status of the subjects. (author). 23 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  10. Iron and zinc bioavailabilities to pigs from red and white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are similar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common beans contain relatively high concentrations of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) but are also high in polyphenols and phytates, factors that may inhibit Fe and Zn absorption. In vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (pigs) models were used to compare Fe and Zn bioavailabilities between red and white beans,...

  11. Biofortified indica rice attains iron and zinc nutrition dietary targets in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies are the most prevalent micronutrient malnutrition globally1. Fe in rice has proven efficacious in improving serum ferritin concentration and body Fe levels2. Rapid progress in biofortification demonstrates the feasibility to enhance Fe in polished rice by expre...

  12. Day-to-Day Variations in Iron, Zinc and Copper in Breast Milk of Guatemalan Mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; West, C.E.; Schümann, K.; Bulux-Hernandes, J.; Solomons, N.W.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the within-subject and between-subject coefficients of variation (CV) of iron, zinc and copper concentrations in the milk of Guatemalan mothers. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in lactating women who had delivered a healthy infant 1 to 6 months previously in two lo

  13. A construction of novel iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable scaffold material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhaohui; Zhang, Liming; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Changjun; Dai, Changsong

    2013-04-01

    Slow corrosion rate and poor bioactivity restrict iron-based implants in biomedical application. In this study, we design a new iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable composites offering a priority mechanical and bioactive property for bone tissue engineering through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by a conversion process into a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Tensile test results showed that the mechanical property of iron foam could be regulated through altering the construction of polyurethane foam. The priority coatings were deposited from 40% nano hydroxyapatite (nHA)/ethanol suspension mixed with 60% nHA/chitosan-acetic acid aqueous solution. In vitro immersion test showed that oxidation-iron foam as the matrix decreased the amount of iron implanted and had not influence on the bioactivity of this implant, obviously. So, this method could also be a promising method for the preparation of a new calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on foam construction. PMID:23827538

  14. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  15. Replacing electrolytic iron in a fortification-mix with NaFeEDTA increases both iron and zinc availabilities in traditional African maize porridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Johanita

    2016-08-15

    While replacing electrolytic iron with NaFeEDTA in multi-micronutrient fortification-mixes is a popular option, there is no information about the effect on the iron and zinc availabilities in African staple foods. This study evaluated the effects of adding a multi-micronutrient fortification-mix, with no iron, electrolytic iron or NaFeEDTA on the availabilities of iron and zinc from thick and fermented special-grade maize porridges using a Caco-2 cell model. Replacing electrolytic iron with NaFeEDTA significantly (p⩽0.05) increased iron and, importantly zinc, availabilities in both the thick (2.16% vs. 1.45% and 2.51% vs. 2.29%, respectively) and fermented (3.35% vs. 2.66% and 3.04% vs. 2.61%, respectively) porridges. Some of the NaFeEDTA complexes perhaps partially dissociated because of pH changes during simulated digestion, binding with zinc and increasing its availability. NaFeEDTA in a multi-micronutrient fortification-mix, added to less refined, high phytate maize meal, would be more effective than electrolytic iron in addressing both iron and zinc deficiencies in low socio-economic populations of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27006207

  16. Growth of epitaxial iron nitride ultrathin film on zinc-blende gallium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the growth of iron nitride on zinc-blende gallium nitride using molecular beam epitaxy. First, zinc-blende GaN is grown on a magnesium oxide substrate having (001) orientation; second, an ultrathin layer of FeN is grown on top of the GaN layer. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction is used to monitor the surface during growth, and a well-defined epitaxial relationship is observed. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy is used to reveal the epitaxial continuity at the gallium nitride-iron nitride interface. Surface morphology of the iron nitride, similar to yet different from that of the GaN substrate, can be described as plateau valley. The FeN chemical stoichiometry is probed using both bulk and surface sensitive methods, and the magnetic properties of the sample are revealed.

  17. Zinc bioleaching from an iron concentrate using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain from Hercules Mine of Coahuila, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Ramírez, Diola Marina; Solís-Soto, Aquiles; López-Miranda, Javier; Pereyra-Alférez, Benito; Rutiaga-Quiñónes, Miriam; Medina-Torres, Luis; Medrano-Roldán, Hiram

    2011-10-01

    The iron concentrate from Hercules Mine of Coahuila, Mexico, which mainly contained pyrite and pyrrhotite, was treated by the bioleaching process using native strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ( A. ferrooxidans) to determine the ability of these bacteria on the leaching of zinc. The native bacteria were isolated from the iron concentrate of the mine. The bioleaching experiments were carried out in shake flasks to analyze the effects of pH values, pulp density, and the ferrous sulfate concentration on the bioleaching process. The results obtained by microbial kinetic analyses for the evaluation of some aspects of zinc leaching show that the native bacteria A. ferrooxidans, which is enriched with a 9K Silverman medium under the optimum conditions of pH 2.0, 20 g/L pulp density, and 40 g/L FeSO4, increases the zinc extraction considerably observed by monitoring during15 d, i.e., the zinc concentration has a decrease of about 95% in the iron concentrate.

  18. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers What is zinc and what does it do? Zinc is a ... find out more about zinc? Disclaimer How much zinc do I need? The amount of zinc you ...

  19. Hydration behavior of iron doped calcium sulfoaluminate phase at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damidot D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Different samples of calcium sulfoaluminate phase doped with iron, (Ca4Al(6-2xFe2xSO16 with x = 0, 0.2 and 0.5, were synthesized at 1350°C. The hydration kinetics of the resulted phases was investigated by calorimetric and conductimetric techniques. The hydrated samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate was slightly modified by inclusion of iron in its structure. Dissolution rate of calcium sulfoaluminate phase doped with iron appeared to be slowed down such as the nucleation rate during the induction period while the percentage of reaction after 1 day was slightly increased. The analysis of hydrates indicated the formation of the same hydrates, ettringite and calcium monosulfoaluminate and the gibbsite, with or without iron replacement. Gibbsite played a major role in the kinetics of the induction period and thus the presence of iron may decrease its nucleation rate forming (A, FH3 instead of AH3.

  20. Quasiparticles in calcium doped yttrium-iron garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In yttrium-iron garnets an electrical charge is carried by quasiparticles based on compensating holes which move either at oxygen or iron ions of the tetragonal sublattice. The quasiparticles can also get localized because of their coupling to optical phonons on the iron sites. A multi-band model of holes coupled to phonons is applied to find additional energy levels in the gap between the lower of the narrow 3d bands and the wide 2p band, whose occurrence plays a crucial role in the conductivity mechanism. The density of states is considerably modified by the interaction between the holes and local distortion of the lattice. (author)

  1. Isolation and characterization of Lotus japonicus genes involved in iron and zinc homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Jensen, Winnie; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard; Jensen, Dorthe Bødker; Busk, Hanne; Husted, Søren; Stougaard, Jens; Jensen, Erik Østergaard

    The goal of this project is to find ways to improve the nutritional value of legumes by identifying genes and proteins important for iron and zinc regulation in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Legumes are important staples in the developing world and are a major source of nutrients in many areas....... Legumes are frequently grown in soil with limited nutrient availability. Plants use finely tuned mechanisms to keep appropriated levels of iron and zinc in each of their organs. Several genes involved in iron and zinc homeostasis have been described in yeast, and a few orthologs have been studied in...... plants. We have used these sequences to search for L. japonicus ESTs and genomic loci that are likely to be involved in iron and zinc metabolism. We have identified sequences corresponding to ferritins, ferric reductases, metal transport proteins of the ZIP family, and cation transporters of the NRAMP...

  2. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun Kyung; Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon; Kim, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the huma...

  3. Evaluation of calcium, magnesium, zinc, aluminum and manganese deposition in bones and CNS of rats fed calcium-deficient diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term intake of unbalanced mineral diets has been reported to be one of the pathogenetic factors of central nervous system (CNS) degeneration, and the unbalanced mineral distribution in the bones clinically is expressed as a metabolic bone disorder or deposition of neurotoxic minerals/metals. The unbalanced mineral or metal diets in animals provoke the unbalanced mineral distribution in bones and soft tissues. In this study, the calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) contents in the CNS and the bones of rats maintained on unbalanced mineral diets were analyzed to investigate the roles of bone on CNS degeneration. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 90 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca-Mg diet, (D) low Ca-Mg diet with high Al. Al and Mn contents were determined in the frontal cortex, spinal cord, lumbar spine and femur using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) for Ca, Mg and Zn, and neutron activation analysis (NAA) for Al and Mn. Intake of low Ca and Mg with added Al in rats led to the abnormal distribution of metals or minerals in the bones and in the CNS. These results illustrate that unbalanced mineral diets and metal-metal interactions may lead to the irregular deposition of Al and Mn in the bones and ultimately in the CNS, thus inducing CNS degeneration. (author)

  4. Increasing iron and zinc in pre-menopausal women and its effects on mood and cognition: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomagno, Karla A; Hu, Feifei; Riddell, Lynn J; Booth, Alison O; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Nowson, Caryl A; Byrne, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition. PMID:25405366

  5. Use of tridecylamine for extraction-chromatographic separation of indium, cadmium, zinc, iron and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction and the chromatographic behaviour of indium, cadmium, zinc, lead, and iron (3) in the system tridecylamine TDA)-toluene-HCl are studied. These data are used to determine the Me:TDA ratio in the ion associates extracted. A scheme of extraction-chromatographic concentration of indium against the background of macrocomponents and a scheme of separation of mixtures of the elements investigated are proposed

  6. Corrosion protection of iron using composite coatings based on zinc and zinc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrodeposition conditions of mono- and bi-layer protective systems consisting of galvanic zinc and Zn-Co alloy additionally treated with chromating solutions are described and discussed. Some of the separate layers contain electrophoretically included nanoparticles (size 300 - 700 nm) of copolymers. The latter are prepared using special modeling process and consist of polypropylene oxide - PPO - and polyethylene oxide - PEO. These composite layers and their peculiarities are investigated using SEM studies before and after corrosion treatment in 5% NaCl. An important effect was established - some nanoparticles hold back metal ions during the electro crystallization and after the chemical passivation take part in the microstructure of the chromating film forming a net of micropores on the whole surface. The latter leads to the conclusion about increased protective ability of the multi-layer coating containing zinc as a final layer. (Original)

  7. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Huiying [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Kuanyu, E-mail: likuanyu@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Hang, Chun-Hua, E-mail: hang_neurosurgery@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • Iron accumulation was involved in the acute phase following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could attenuate cellular iron accumulation following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could decrease ROS generation and improve cell energy supply following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could alleviate apoptosis and brain injury following SAH. - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH + RR, and SAH + Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron–sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  8. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Iron accumulation was involved in the acute phase following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could attenuate cellular iron accumulation following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could decrease ROS generation and improve cell energy supply following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could alleviate apoptosis and brain injury following SAH. - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH + RR, and SAH + Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron–sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH

  9. Zinc detoxification by a cyanobacterium from a metal contaminated bay in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Andrade; Keim, Carolina N.; Marcos Farina; Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer

    2004-01-01

    We describe here the trapping of zinc in polyphosphate granules of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis aquatilis NPBS-3. Cells were cultured in 25 µM of zinc chloride and prepared for electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Some ultrastructural features were changed by zinc exposure, the increase of glycogen granules number being the main change. The polyphosphate granules contained phosphorus, sulphur, calcium, iron and zinc. The trapping of zinc in polyphosphate granules seem...

  10. Combined in situ zymography, immunofluorescence, and staining of iron oxide particles in paraffin-embedded, zinc-fixed tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeckel, Akvile; Schoenzart, Lena; Appler, Franziska; Schnorr, Joerg; Taupitz, Matthias; Hamm, Bernd; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles are used as potent contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In histology, these particles are frequently visualized by Prussian blue iron staining of aldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Recently, zinc salt-based fixative was shown to preserve enzyme activity in paraffin-embedded tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that zinc fixation allows combining in situ zymography with fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) and iron staining for advanced biologic investigation of iron oxide particle accumulation. Very small iron oxide particles, developed for magnetic resonance angiography, were applied intravenously to BALB/c nude mice. After 3 hours, spleens were explanted and subjected to zinc fixation and paraffin embedding. Cut tissue sections were further processed to in situ zymography, IHC, and Prussian blue staining procedures. The combination of in situ zymography as well as IHC with subsequent Prussian blue iron staining on zinc-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues resulted in excellent histologic images of enzyme activity, protease distribution, and iron oxide particle accumulation. The combination of all three stains on a single section allowed direct comparison with only moderate degradation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled substrate. This protocol is useful for investigating the biologic environment of accumulating iron oxide particles, with excellent preservation of morphology. PMID:22954182

  11. Development of iron and zinc enriched mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars with agronomic traits in consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R.

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition in India, particularly among women, children and adolescents is an emergency that needs immediate attention in this fast growing and developing country. Micronutrient deficiencies are threatening public health in India more and more. Deficiencies of micronutrients drastically affect growth, metabolism and reproductive phase in humans as it does in plants and animals. Cereal and pulse based Indian diets are qualitatively deficient in micronutrients such as iron, calcium, vitamin A...

  12. Synergistic effect of calcium and zinc on glucose/xylose utilization and butanol tolerance of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Youduo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Lijie; Yuan, Wenjie; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-03-01

    Biobutanol outperforms bioethanol as an advanced biofuel, but is not economically competitive in terms of its titer, yield and productivity associated with feedstocks and energy cost. In this work, the synergistic effect of calcium and zinc was investigated in the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum using glucose, xylose and glucose/xylose mixtures as carbon source(s). Significant improvements associated with enhanced glucose/xylose utilization, cell growth, acids re-assimilation and butanol biosynthesis were achieved. Especially, the maximum butanol and ABE production of 16.1 and 25.9 g L(-1) were achieved from 69.3 g L(-1) glucose with butanol/ABE productivities of 0.40 and 0.65 g L(-1) h(-1) compared to those of 11.7 and 19.4 g/L with 0.18 and 0.30 g L(-1) h(-1) obtained in the control respectively without any supplement. More importantly, zinc was significantly involved in the butanol tolerance based on the improved xylose utilization under various butanol-shock conditions (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g L(-1) butanol). Under the same conditions, calcium and zinc co-supplementation led to the best xylose utilization and butanol production. These results suggested that calcium and zinc could play synergistic roles improving ABE fermentation by C. acetobutylicum. PMID:26850441

  13. Nanocompounds of iron and zinc: their potential in nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B.; Hilty, Florentine M.

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies suggest nanostructured oxides and phosphates of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn may be useful for nutritional applications. These compounds may have several advantages over existing fortificants, such as ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), NaFeEDTA and electrolytic iron. Because of their very low solubility and formation of soft agglomerates of micron size at neutral pH as well as their light native color, they tend to be less reactive in difficult-to-fortify foods and thus have superior sensory performance. At gastric pH the soft agglomerates break up and the Fe compounds rapidly and completely dissolve due to their very high surface area. This results in in vitro solubility and in vivo bioavailability comparable to FeSO4. Doping with Mg and/or Ca may increase solubility and improve sensory characteristics by lightening color. Feeding the nanostructured compounds at 150-400 µg Fe day-1 for 15 days to weanling rats in two studies did not induce measurable histological or biochemical adverse effects. No significant Fe was detected in the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract or lymphatic tissues, suggesting that the nanosized Fe is absorbed through usual non-heme Fe absorption pathways. Thus, these novel compounds show promise as food fortificants or supplements.

  14. Multimicronutrient Slow-Release Fertilizer of Zinc, Iron, Manganese, and Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siladitya Bandyopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process for the production of a slow-release micronutrient fertilizer is described. The compound contains zinc, iron, manganese, and copper as micronutrients and is produced by polymerizing a system containing phosphoric acid, zinc oxide, hematite, pyrolusite, copper sulfate, and magnesium oxide followed by neutralization of the polyphosphate chain with ammonium hydroxide. Changes in temperature, density, and viscosity of the reaction system during polymerization were studied. Reaction kinetics was studied at three different temperatures. Rate curves revealed a multistage process with essentially linear rates at each stage. Thus, each stage displayed zero order kinetics. The product was crystalline and revealed ordering of P-O-P chains. It had low solubility in water but high solubility in 0.33 M citric acid and 0.005 M DTPA. Three different field trials showed significant yield increments using the slow-release micronutrient fertilizer compared to the conventional micronutrients. Yield increments in rice were in the range of 10–55% over control (with no micronutrient and up to 17% over the conventional micronutrient fertilizers. There were significant increases in total uptake of zinc, iron, and manganese in the grain. Slow-release fertilizers also produced significant yield increases in potato as well as significant increase in vitamin C content of the tuber.

  15. Limited proteolysis of myoglobin opens channel in ferrochelatase-globin complex for iron to zinc transmetallation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, Marcella O; Grossi, Alberto B; Dores-Silva, Paulo R; Borges, Julio C; Cardoso, Daniel R; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-11-01

    Recombinant ferrochelatase (BsFECH) from Bacillus subtilis expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) was found by UV-visible spectroscopy to bind the model substrate tetraphenylporphyrin-sulfonate, TPPS, with Ka=3.8 10(5)mol/L in aqueous phosphate buffer pH 5.7 at 30°C, and to interact with metmyoglobin with Ka=1.07±0.13 10(5)mol/L at 30°C. The iron/zinc exchange in myoglobin occurring during maturation of Parma hams seems to depend on such substrate binding to BsFECH and was facilitated by limited pepsin proteolysis of myoglobin to open a reaction channel for metal exchange still with BsFECH associated to globin. BsFECH increased rate of zinc insertion in TPPS significantly and showed saturation kinetics with an apparent binding constant of Zn(II) to the [enzyme-TPPS] complex of 1.3 10(4)mol/L and a first-order rate constant of 6.6 10(-1)s(-1) for dissociation of the tertiary complex, a similar pattern was found for zinc/iron transmetallation in myoglobin. PMID:27211675

  16. Implication of Micronutrients in Agriculture and Health with Special Reference to Iron and Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Govindaraj,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The green revolution fulfilled the food demand of crowdedmillions. From the time of green revolution to till date highyielding and fertilizer responsive varieties have evolved toincrease the production per unit area. To improve the productivityonly major nutrients are concentrated almost in all crops. Thoughthe importance of micronutrient realized during past decades inmost of the crops but it is not effectively materialized in generalcrop cultivation practices. The micronutrient deficiencies in soilare not only hamper crop productivity but also deteriorating theproduce quality. World health organization (WHO has estimatedthat over 3 billion people in the globe suffer from the micronutrientmalnutrition and about 2 billion people of these have irondeficiency. Iron is one of the 16 essential elements needed forplant growth. Iron is used for the synthesis of chlorophyll and isessential for the function of chloroplasts. Zinc is involved inmembrane integrity, enzyme activation, and gene expression.Rice, sorghum and corn are Zn sensitive and sorghum, sugarcane,groundnut, soyabean, beans, grapes, vegetables and citrus arehighly Fe sensitive crops. To overcome these problems foliarspray is being recommended but it is not crop specific or soilspecific recommendation. Keeping these problems in the view,recently development of micronutrient efficient genotypes,creating awareness of micronutrient dose, crop specific micronutrient uptake and accumulation are vital to improve productivity and to address human health problems. In this paperwe discussed the importance of iron and zinc in agriculture andtheir role in crop plants and ways to improve the crop productivityas well as human health

  17. Bioavailability of iron and zinc in green leafy vegetables growing in river side and local areas of Allahabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs are the treasure trove of many micronutrients.Objective: The aim of the study is to find out the commonly growing vegetables in river side and local areas of Allahabad district and to access the bioavailability of iron and zinc in selected green leafy vegetables of river side and local areas of Allahabad district.Methods: Five to four commonly grown green leafy vegetables were selected from the Arailghat, Baluaghat, Gaughat, Mahewa, Muirabad, Rajapur, Rasullabad for the study. Total iron and zinc in sample were estimated by AOAC (2005 and bioavailability of zinc and iron from various food samples was determined in vitro method described by Luten (1996. Appropriate statistical technique was adopted for analysis of study.Result: Soya leaves, Radish leaves, Amaranth, Spinach were grown in both the areas except Kulpha and Karamwa, which are commonly grown in river side area. There was a significant difference between the bioavailability of iron and zinc in GLV grown in local and river side area.Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded that there is a contamination of heavy metals which binds with the iron and zinc and make them less bioavailable in the selected GLV.

  18. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Kyung; Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon; Kim, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  19. Characterisation of iron inclusion during the formation of calcium sulfoaluminate phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iron distribution among the sulfoaluminate clinker phases and its ability to enter the calcium sulfoaluminate lattice in solid solution can have a significant influence on manufacturing process and reactivity of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Moessbauer spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (EDAX) and infrared spectroscopy were used to identify the mineralogical conditions of iron inclusion during the formation of calcium sulfoaluminate (C4A3S) phase from different mixtures in the CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-SO3 system. The mixtures, heated in a laboratory electric oven, contained stoichiometric amounts of reagent grade CaCO3, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and CaSO4.2H2O for the synthesis of Ca4Al(6-2x)Fe2xSO16, where x, comprised between 0 and 3, is the mole number of Al2O3 substituted by Fe2O3. With x increasing from 0 to 1.5, both the iron content of C4A3S phase and the amounts of side components such as C2F and CS increased. For x values included in the range of 1.5-3.0, at temperatures higher than 1200 oC, melting phenomena were observed and, instead of the C4A3S solid solution, ferritic phases and anhydrite were formed.

  20. Effect of Calcium Oxide Additive on the Performance of Iron Oxide Sorbent for High-Temperature Coal Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiling Fan; Kechang Xie; Ju Shangguan; Fang Shen; Chunhu Li

    2007-01-01

    The effect of calcium oxide additive in iron oxide sorbent for hot gas desulfurization was investigated by XRD and TPR techniques. XRD characterization showed that CaO was highly dispersed after the calcination of sorbents. Calcium sulfate formed in the desulfurization was decomposed and regenerated to CaO by reacting with CO before the next sulfidation process. Calcium participated in every sulfidation/regeneration cycle and contributed to the enhancement of sulfur capacity. The TPR results showed that the reduction temperature of the sorbent increased with the increase of the content of calcium. Calcium played a role of retarding reduction. Therefore, the addition of calcium oxide additive will benefit the utilization of iron oxide sorbent in strongly reducing atmospheres.

  1. Iron and Zinc Deficiencies in Selected Calcareous Soils of Southern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Schnitzer, E. Frank

    1980-01-01

    The response of field corn to iron and zinc fertilization was studied using a split plot experimental design in Millard County, Utah, in cooperation with the Utah Stat e University Extension Agent and a local farmer. ~!ainp l ot treatment applications consisted, on an acre basis, of (1) 5 t ons of sulfuric acid, (2) 1 ton sulfuric acid, (3) 1.8 tons gypsum, (4) check plot. Subplot treatments were (1) Fe at 5 lbs/Ac, (2) Zn at 10 lbs/Ac, (3) Fe and Zn at 5 and 10 lb / Ac, respectively, (4) che...

  2. Copper electrodeposition from cuprous chloride solutions containing lead, zinc or iron ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Tchoumou; M. Roynette Ehics

    2005-01-01

    Cuprous chloride hydrochloric acid solutions were electrolysed in a two compartments cell without agitation for copper extraction. It is found that the current density affects the colour and the size of copper deposits. During electrodeposition of copper from cuprous solution in the presence of various concentrations of lead, zinc or iron ions at different current densities, it is observed that lead is codeposited with copper by increasing current density.In all experiments, the current efficiency for the copper deposition reaction fluctuates between 88.50% and 95.50%.

  3. Assessment of natural variation of iron and zinc isotope ratios during an iron intervention study in lactating women of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high proportion of people living in developing countries are deficient in Fe and Zn. Accurate markers for Fe status are available, but we lack effective markers to measure Zn status. Due to limitations of any single reliable method to determine zinc status, specific information on the prevalence of deficiency in particular settings is still lacking. State of art research indicates that the isotope ratios of Zn in human tissues are not in isotopic equilibrium. Differences in readings are expected to vary by up to 20 per mille in human tissues. In this study, we will examine natural variations in Fe and Zn isotope ratios in biological samples to provide new tools to assess Fe and Zn status of individuals. During the first 18 months a pilot study will be conducted with 16 lactating women in Bangladesh. Specific objectives of this study are (a) to assess the variation in the natural isotopic composition of iron and zinc isotopes in human biological samples before and after a three-month iron supplementation period and (b) to determine the natural variation of Fe and Zn isotopes in Bangladesh diet. There will be two study groups: One malnourished and one well-nourished group. Each group will consist of mothers in two subgroups: (1) iron supplementation, (2) no supplementation. Natural variation of Fe and Zn isotope will be determined in both well-nourished and malnourished women. Fe and Zn levels in blood, faeces, urine, hair and nails, will be determined. Hemoglobin, serum ferritin and serum transferrin receptor level will be measured to determine iron status. Subjects will be followed up at home weekly to ensure the continuity of supplementation. Blood, urine, stool, hair, and nail samples will be collected on in regular intervals from day 0 to 80 with special care to limit contamination, as Zn is especially prone to environmental contamination. Representative samples of Bangladeshi foods (meat, fish, vegetables, pulses, rice) will be collected from each of the two

  4. Effects of Zinc Sulfate Supplementation in Treatment of Iron Defi ciency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Gülşan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to compare the effect(s of zinc sulphate on growth and serum iron variables when it is given with ferrous sulphate in iron deficiency anemia (IDA. METHODS: Patients (n=79 were randomly divided into two groups. In one group (n=40 4 mg/kg/d ferrous sulfate was given orally. In the other group (n=39, in addition to ferrous sulfate, 5 mg/d oral zinc sulfate was given. RESULTS: Compared to the initial values statistically significant increase in mean height, weight, and head circumference has been observed in both groups after 3 months. However, there was no statistical difference between two groups concerning mean height, weight, and head circumference at the beginning (83.43±11.3 cm vs 84.62±12.77 cm; 12.36±3.08 kg vs 12.72±3.87 kg; 47.33±2.15 cm vs 47.26±2.73 cm, respectively, at the first month, (84.82±10.97 vs 85.97±12.28; 12.78±3.09 vs 13.09±3.87; 47.76±2.10 vs 47.61±2.67, respectively, and at the third month, (86.4±11.12 vs 87.69±12.13; 12.9±3.06 vs 13.35±3.81; 48.22±1.89 vs 48.07±2.45, respectively. There were no statistical differences between mean hematological parameters of the groups at the beginning, at the first month, and at the third month, either (mean hb of Group 1: 8.78±1.12 g/dL; 11.27±1.09 g/ dL; 12.05±1.00 g/dL respectively and of Group 2: 9.10±1.07 g/dL; 11.12±0.85 g/dL; 11.80±0.79 g/dL, respectively. Mean ferritin and zinc values of the groups were statistically insignificant at the beginning (Mean ferritin: 4.96±4.03 μg/dL vs 4.52±2.94 μg/dL, zinc: 88.64±15.35 ng/mL vs 86.84±17.34 ng/mL. Their increase was statistically significant at the third month (mean ferritin: 15.91±9.57 μg/dL vs 15.25±10.47 μg/dL; zinc: 88.02±15.10 ng/mL vs 95.25±16.55 ng/mL. CONCLUSION: In our study neither positive nor negative effect of zinc administration on IDA treatment was demonstrated. Therefore, in the treatment of IDA zinc together with iron should be used at different

  5. Rankings of iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in relation to maternal characteristics of pregnant Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Weiler, Hope A; Dubois, Lise; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Dodds, Linda; Massarelli, Isabelle; Vigneault, Michel; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D

    2016-07-01

    Iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in the prenatal period are important determinants of maternal and fetal health. The objective of this study was to examine iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes from diet and supplements in relation to maternal characteristics. Data were collected in a subsample of 1186 pregnant women from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a cohort study including pregnant women recruited from 10 Canadian sites between 2008 and 2011. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to obtain rankings of iron, calcium, and vitamin D intake (16-21 weeks of pregnancy). Intakes from supplements were obtained from a separate questionnaire (6-13 weeks of pregnancy). Women were divided into 2 groups according to the median total intake of each nutrient. Supplement intake was an important contributor to total iron intake (median 74%, interquartile range (IQR) 0%-81%) and total vitamin D intake (median 60%, IQR 0%-73%), while the opposite was observed for calcium (median 18%, IQR 0%-27%). Being born outside of Canada was significantly associated with lower total intakes of iron, vitamin D, and calcium (p ≤ 0.01 for all). Consistent positive indicators of supplement use (iron, vitamin D, and calcium) were maternal age over 30 years and holding a university degree. In conclusion, among Canadian women, the probability of having lower iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes is higher among those born outside Canada; supplement intake is a major contributor to total iron and vitamin D intakes; and higher education level and age over 30 years are associated with supplement intake. PMID:27324651

  6. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Young, Scott D.; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R.

    2015-06-01

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita-1 d-1 (±SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge.

  7. Inclusion of guava enhances non-heme iron bioavailability but not fractional zinc absorption from a rice-based meal in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the bioavailability of non-heme iron and zinc is essential for recommending diets that meet the increased growth-related demand for these nutrients. We studied the bioavailability of iron and zinc from a rice-based meal in 16 adolescent boys and girls, 13–15 y of age, from 2 government-run...

  8. SOY YOGURT FORTIFIED WITH IRON AND CALCIUM: STABILITY DURING THE STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA CARDOSO UMBELINO CAVALLINI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to prepare a soy yogurt, fortifi ed with microencapsulated FeSO4.7H2O (12mg of iron/l and calcium citrate (600mg of calcium/l, and evaluate the stability of the fi nal product during the storage at 10°C. The soy yogurt without addition of iron and calcium was used as control. Analysis of these samples was done once a week, during 28 days, for: pH, titratable acidity, rheological properties (viscosity and consistency, sensory characteristics (acceptance test and enumeration of viable cells (L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. The pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, consistency and acceptance test data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey’s test. During the storage was observed a decrease in the pH and increase in the titratable acidity, due to the lactic cultures to be continue viable (107CFU/g in the product. The fortifi ed yogurt exhibited lower viscosity, but this parameter did not change signifi cantly (p0,05 during the storage time. The acceptance test results showed that the control and fortifi ed samples did not exhibit signifi cant differences (p0,05, during the studied period, in relation to the all sensory attributes evaluated. In conclusion, the present work enabled the development of a iron and calcium fortifi ed soy yogurt, stable during 28 days at 10°C, that could be used in the prevention and control of mineral defi ciencies in general population.

  9. Genetic variability for iron and zinc content in common bean lines and interaction with water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, H S; Del Peloso, M J; Bassinello, P Z; Guimarães, C M; Melo, L C; Faria, L C

    2014-01-01

    The common bean is an important source of iron and zinc in humans. Increases in the contents of these minerals can combat mineral deficiencies, but these contents are influenced by environmental conditions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the interaction between common bean lines and water availability on iron and zinc contents (CFe and CZn, respectively), identify superior lines with stable CFe and CZn, and test for a genetic relationship between CFe and CZn. Six crop trials were performed using a randomized block design with three replications. The trials were performed during the winter sowing period for three different combinations of year and site in Brazil. For each combination, 53 lines were evaluated across two parallel trials; one trial was irrigated according to the crop requirements, and the other trial operated under a water deficit. Interaction was detected between lines and environments, and between lines and water availability for CFe and CZn. However, some lines exhibited high CFe and CZn in both conditions. Lines G 6492 and G 6490 exhibited high mean values, stability, and adaptability for both minerals. Other lines exhibited high CFe (Xamego) or CZn (Bambuí and Iapar 65). A moderate genetic correlation (0.62) between CFe and CZn was detected. Water availability during the common bean cycle had an effect on CFe and CZn; however, lines with high CFe and CZn in different conditions of water availability and environment were detected. PMID:25177957

  10. Isotope-aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets consumed in Chile and Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently it is accepted that iron absorbed from infant formulas is less than 10%. However, the composition of such formulas has changed considerably and there is no recent information on the effects of these modifications. Iron bioavailability from infant formulas with different levels of iron fortification (8 and 12 mg of iron/L) and from a standard meal based on a wheat cream (''farina'' flour) was measured by a double radioisotopic technique (Eakins and Brown) in 13 adult female volunteers. Iron bioavailability in infant formulas was very high. Eighteen and 20.6 percent of the iron was absorbed in the 8 and 12 mg iron/L fortified formulas respectively (geometric means corrected to 40% of reference dose absorption). The corresponding value for iron absorption from the standard meal was 6.7%. These high and non significant differences in iron bioavailability from the two formulas and the fact that daily consumption of 750 ml of formula supplies more iron than recommended would permit a lowering of the current iron fortification level of 12 mg/L. Iron availability of the Standard Meal measured with FLAIR modifications of Miller's in vitro technique was 4.42%. The percentage of dialyzable zinc was 2.04%. Research activities for next year will be based on the validation and application of the in vitro technique in Chilean and Ecuadorian foods. (author). 26 refs, 4 tabs

  11. Quantification of iron in the presence of calcium with dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in an ex vivo porcine plaque model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Garg, Nitin; Duan, Xinhui; Liu, Yu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Ritman, Erik L.; Kantor, Birgit; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2011-11-01

    Iron deposits secondary to microbleeds often co-exist with calcium in coronary plaques. The purpose of this study was to quantify iron in the presence of calcium in an ex vivo porcine arterial plaque model using a clinical dual-energy CT (DECT) scanner. A material decomposition method to quantify the mass fractions of iron and calcium within a mixture using DECT was developed. Mixture solutions of known iron and calcium concentrations were prepared to calibrate and validate the DECT-based algorithm. Simulated plaques with co-existing iron and calcium were created by injecting the mixture solutions into the vessel wall of porcine carotid arteries and aortas. These vessel regions were harvested and scanned using a clinical DECT system and iron mass fraction was calculated for each sample. Iron- and calcium-specific staining was conducted on 5 µm thick histological sections of vessel samples to confirm the co-existence of iron and calcium in the simulated plaques. The proposed algorithm accurately quantified iron and calcium amounts in mixture solutions. Maps of iron mass fraction of 60 artery segments were obtained from CT images at two energies. The sensitivity for detecting the presence of iron was 83% and the specificity was 92% using a threshold at an iron mass fraction of 0.25%. Histological analysis confirmed the co-localization of iron and calcium within the simulated plaques. Iron quantification in the presence of calcium was feasible in excised arteries at an iron mass fraction of around 1.5% or higher using current clinical DECT scanners.

  12. Iron and Vitamin C Co-Supplementation Increased Serum Vitamin C Without Adverse Effect on Zinc Level in Iron Deficient Female Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khoshfetrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron supplementation can decrease the absorption of zinc and influence other antioxidants levels such as vitamin C. This study aimed to investigate the effect of iron supplements alone and in combination with vitamin C on zinc and vitamin C status in iron deficient female students. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trail, 60 iron deficient students were selected from 289 volunteers residing in dormitory. After matching, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Group I (50 mg elemental iron supplements and Group II (50 mg elemental iron + 500 mg ascorbic acid. Serum ferritin, iron, serum zinc, and plasma vitamin C concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, spectrophotometer, atomic absorption spectrometer, and colorimeter, respectively after 6 and 12 weeks supplementation. Student′s t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data using SPSS software. Results: Serum zinc levels had no significant differences between 2 groups at the baseline; however, its concentration decreased from 80.9 ± 4.2-68.9 ± 2.7 μg/dl to 81.2 ± 4.5-66.1 ± 2.9 μg/dl (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively after 6 weeks of supplementation. Continuous supplementation increased serum zinc concentration to baseline levels (79.0 ± 2.9 μg/dl; P < 0.01 in Group I and 70.5 ± 3.1 μg/dl in Group II following 12 weeks of supplementation. Plasma vitamin C increased from 3 ± 0/1-3.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl to 2.7 ± 0. 1-4.2 ± 0.2 mg/dl (P < 0.01 in Groups I and II, respectively. At the end of study, plasma vitamin C significantly increased from 3.3 ± 0.3-4.7 ± 0.3 (P < 0.01 to 4.2 ± 0.2-7.1 ± 0.2 (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Iron supplementation with and without vitamin C led to reduction in serum Zn in iron-deficient female students after 6 weeks. However, the decreasing trend stops after repletion of iron stores and Zn levels returned to the

  13. Maternal Body Mass Index, Dietary Intake and Socioeconomic Status: Differential Effects on Breast Milk Zinc, Copper and Iron Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Nikniaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As breast milk micronutrients content are essential for health and growth of the infants, this study was conducted to determine the breast milk zinc, copper and iron concen-trations and their possible correlations with maternal nutritional status, dietary intakes as well as socioeconomic status.Methods: Breast milk samples and information on maternal anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake were collected from 90 Iranian lactating women with 3 different socioeco-nomic status who exclusively breastfed their infants. Concentrations of trace elements were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nutritionist III program, Multiple Re-gression and ANOVA test were used for data analyses.Results: The mean milk zinc, copper, and iron concentrations were 1.93 ± 0.71, 0.58 ± 0.32, and 0.81 ± 0.2 mg/l, respectively. In all three SES groups only zinc mean level was lower than the recommended range. A significant difference was observed in breast milk zinc, copper and iron concentration between high and low SES groups (Zn (P<0.001, Cu (P<0.001 and Fe (P<0.044 and also moderate and low SES groups (Zn (P<0.03, Cu (P<0.001 and Fe (P<0.049. After adjusting for maternal body mass index (BMI, socioeconomic status, mean dietary energy, zinc, copper, and iron intakes, there was a negative and significant association between maternal age and breast milk zinc (β=-0.28, P<0.034, copper (β=-0.18, P<0.048, and iron (β=-0.22, P<0.04 concentrations.Conclusion: In low socioeconomic group with lower mean age, breast milk mineral levels were higher than others and there was no significant correlation between mineral levels and dietary intake. Hence it is supposed that maternal age may be better predictor of breast milk mineral levels.

  14. Structural and luminescence properties of Mn2+ ions doped calcium zinc borophosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • FT-IR revealed that the network structures are from borate and phosphate network. • The PL spectrum exhibits a green emission band at 582 nm (4T1g → 6A1g). • As the concentration of Mn2+ ions is increased, the emission band had been red shifted. • These glasses are found to have potential applications as luminescent optical materials. - Abstract: Calcium zinc borophosphate glasses (CaZnBP) doped with various concentrations of Mn2+ ions and borate and phosphate as variable were prepared using conventional melt quenching technique. The structure of obtained glasses were examined by means of use: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). XRD analysis confirmed amorphous nature of glass samples. The FT-IR spectra reveals the presence of both borate and phosphate vibrational modes in the prepared glasses. The doping of Mn2+ ions (2–10 mol%) shows no significant changes in the main IR vibrational bands. Optical properties were studied by measuring the near infrared photoluminescence (PL) spectra. CaZnBP glasses exhibited intense green emission peak (582 nm) (tetrahedral symmetry), which is assigned to a transition from the upper 4T1g → 6A1g ground state of Mn2+ ions. As the concentration of Mn2+ ions increases, the emission band increases from 582 nm to 650 nm and exhibited a red light emission (octahedral symmetry). The decay curves of 4T1g level were examined for all concentrations and the measured lifetimes are found to depend strongly on Mn2+ concentrations. From the emission characteristic parameters of 6A1g (S) level, it shows that the CaZnBP glasses could have potential applications as luminescent optical materials, visible lasers and fluorescent display devices

  15. Plants sensitivity on nickel under different conditions of iron or calcium concentration in the nutrient medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Matraszek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of six vegetable plants on nickel at early stages of their growth was investigated by index of tolerance. Besides the possibility of nickel fitostabilization by additional application of iron or calcium was tested. The experiment was conducted on Petri dishes. Different concentrations of nickel (0; 0,03; 0,06mM Ni as nickel sulphate, iron (0,05; O,OlmM Fe as Fe2+ citrate and calcium (0,50; 0,75; lmM Ca as calcium carbonate were added. Taking into consideration the sensitivity, investigated vegetables can be ordered in the following way: Cucurbita pepo conv. giromontiina L.>Lactuca sativa L.>Sinapis alba L.>Spinacia oleracea L.=Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke.>Phaseolus vulgaris L. Positive, statistically significant effect ofnickel fitostabilization (0,03 or 0,06mM Ni on elongative growth by the iron application (0,10mM Fe was shown for Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke independently of Ni concentration in the nutrient medium as well as for Sinapis alba L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. in 0,06mM Ni. Addition as much as 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,03mM Ni had positive result on Sinapis alba L and Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings as well as on Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke and Lactuca sativa L. roots and Cucurbita pepo convar. giromontiina L. shoots. Addition of 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,06mM Ni promoted elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke seedlings. Application lmM Ca resulted in the promotion of elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke. roots (0,03mM Ni as well as Spinacia oleracea L. roots (0,06mM Ni.

  16. Expression profiling reveals functionally redundant multiple-copy genes related to zinc, iron and cadmium responses in Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Liu, B.; Cheng, F.; Wang, X.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Wu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Genes underlying environmental adaptability tend to be over-retained in polyploid plant species. Zinc deficiency (ZnD) and iron deficiency (FeD), excess Zn (ZnE) and cadmium exposure (CdE) are major environmental problems for crop cultivation, but little is known about the differential expression of

  17. Solid-phase extraction of copper, iron and zinc ions on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis loaded on Dowex optipore V-493

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis loaded on Dowex optipore V-493 as new adsorbent for the separation-preconcentration of heavy metal ions has been proposed. The analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of copper(II), iron(III) and zinc(II) including pH, amounts of adsorbent, sample volume, etc. were investigated. The influences of alkaline and earth alkaline ions were also reported. The recovery values for the analytes are generally higher than 95%. The preconcentration factor was 37. The limit of detections of the analyte ions (k = 3, N = 21) were 1.14 μg L-1 for copper, 2.01 μg L-1 for iron and 0.14 μg L-1 for zinc. The relative standard deviations of the determinations were found to be lower than 9%. The procedure was validated by analyzing copper, iron and zinc contents in two certified reference materials, NRCC-SLRS-4 Riverine water and NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves. Agreements between the obtained results and the certified values were achieved. The developed preconcentration method was applied in the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper, iron and zinc in several samples including a multivitamin-multimineral tablet, dialysis solutions, natural waters and some food samples

  18. Impact of sorghum processing on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in thick porridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study focussed on the impact of process variables on levels of phytate and phenolic compounds, and in vitro solubility of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in sorghum porridges, a major staple in semi-arid tropics. The aim was to identify practices that enhance the mineral availability in this type of st

  19. Regional Distribution of Copper, Zinc and Iron in Brain of Wistar Rat Model for Non-Wilsonian Brain Copper Toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amit; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    In previous studies, we have reported first in vivo evidence of copper deposition in the choroid plexus, cognitive impairments, astrocytes swelling (Alzheimer type II cells) and astrogliosis (increase in number of astrocytes), and degenerated neurons coupled with significant increase in the hippocampus copper and zinc content in copper-intoxicated Wistar rats. Nonetheless, hippocampus iron levels were not affected by chronic copper-intoxication. Notwithstanding information on distribution of copper, zinc and iron status in different regions of brain due to chronic copper exposure remains fragmentary. In continuation with our previous study, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneally injected copper lactate (0.15 mg Cu/100 g body weight) daily for 90 days on copper, zinc and iron levels in different regions of the brain using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Copper-intoxicated group showed significantly increased cortex, cerebellum and striatum copper content (76, 46.8 and 80.7 % increase, respectively) compared to control group. However, non-significant changes were observed for the zinc and iron content in cortex, cerebellum and striatum due to chronic copper exposure. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that chronic copper toxicity causes differential copper buildup in cortex, cerebellum and striatum region of central nervous system of male Wistar rats; signifying the critical requirement to discretely evaluate the effect of copper neurotoxicity in different brain regions, and ensuing neuropathological and cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:26855494

  20. Solid-phase extraction of copper, iron and zinc ions on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis loaded on Dowex optipore V-493

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Melek, Esra [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: msoylak@gmail.com

    2008-11-30

    Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis loaded on Dowex optipore V-493 as new adsorbent for the separation-preconcentration of heavy metal ions has been proposed. The analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of copper(II), iron(III) and zinc(II) including pH, amounts of adsorbent, sample volume, etc. were investigated. The influences of alkaline and earth alkaline ions were also reported. The recovery values for the analytes are generally higher than 95%. The preconcentration factor was 37. The limit of detections of the analyte ions (k = 3, N = 21) were 1.14 {mu}g L{sup -1} for copper, 2.01 {mu}g L{sup -1} for iron and 0.14 {mu}g L{sup -1} for zinc. The relative standard deviations of the determinations were found to be lower than 9%. The procedure was validated by analyzing copper, iron and zinc contents in two certified reference materials, NRCC-SLRS-4 Riverine water and NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves. Agreements between the obtained results and the certified values were achieved. The developed preconcentration method was applied in the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper, iron and zinc in several samples including a multivitamin-multimineral tablet, dialysis solutions, natural waters and some food samples.

  1. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also appears to be effective. AIDS diarrhea-wasting syndrome. Taking zinc by mouth together with vitamins does not seem to improve ... effects. Using zinc on broken skin may cause burning, stinging, itching, and ... is POSSIBLY SAFE when taking by mouth in doses greater than 40 mg daily. There ...

  2. Deficiency of Calcium-Independent Phospholipase A2 Beta Induces Brain Iron Accumulation through Upregulation of Divalent Metal Transporter 1

    OpenAIRE

    Goichi Beck; Koei Shinzawa; Hideki Hayakawa; Kousuke Baba; Toru Yasuda; Hisae Sumi-Akamaru; Yoshihide Tsujimoto; Hideki Mochizuki

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in PLA2G6 have been proposed to be the cause of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 2. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying brain iron accumulation during the deficiency of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta (iPLA2β), which is encoded by the PLA2G6 gene. Perl's staining with diaminobenzidine enhancement was used to visualize brain iron accumulation. Western blotting was used to investigate the expression of molecules involved in iron hom...

  3. A Study on Zinc-Iron Alloy Electrodeposition from a Chloride Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The electrodeposition of zinc-iron alloys from a chloride-based electrolyte has been studied using electrochemical polarisation techniques, Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) and Computer Assisted Pulse Plating (CAPP). A...... change in the electrodeposition mechanism from equilibrium codeposition to anomalous codeposition with a change in cathodic current density has been observed. Zn-Fe alloys with compositions ranging from 5 wt-% to more than 75 wt-% Fe have been electrodeposited from a single electrolyte, making this...... system ideal for production of compositional modulated alloy (CMA) electrodeposits. Chloride content, pH and agitation of the electrolyte have been observed to have a strong influence on the reaction at the cathode surface, just as the use of pulse reversal current during electrodeposition. A theory on...

  4. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap. is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods: Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results: When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions: Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  5. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elenilda J.; Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M.; Cardoso, Flávio S. N.; Carvalho, José L. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients. PMID:26945231

  6. Daily Supplementation with Iron Plus Folic Acid, Zinc, and Their Combination Is Not Associated with Younger Age at First Walking Unassisted in Malnourished Preschool Children from a Deficient Population in Rural Nepal1–4

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C.; Mullany, Luke C; YANIK, Elizabeth L.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Siegel, Emily H.; Tielsch, James M.

    2010-01-01

    A community-based, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily zinc and/or iron+folic acid supplementation was conducted in rural southern Nepal to examine motor milestone attainment among 3264 children 1–36 mo of age between 2001 and 2006. Treatment groups included placebo, zinc (10 mg), iron+folic acid (12.5 mg iron + 50 μg folic acid), and zinc+iron+folic acid (10 mg zinc + 12.5 mg iron + 50 μg folic acid). Infants received half of these doses. The iron arms were stopped November...

  7. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe2O4) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  8. Structural and luminescence properties of Mn{sup 2+} ions doped calcium zinc borophosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Ming Hua, E-mail: wanminghua819@gmail.com [Phosphor Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Wong, Poh Sum, E-mail: pohsumwong@gmail.com [Phosphor Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Hussin, Rosli, E-mail: roslihussin@utm.my [Phosphor Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Lintang, Hendrik O., E-mail: hendrik@ibnusina.utm.my [Catalytic Science and Technology (CST) Research Group, Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Endud, Salasiah, E-mail: salasiah@kimia.fs.utm.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • FT-IR revealed that the network structures are from borate and phosphate network. • The PL spectrum exhibits a green emission band at 582 nm ({sup 4}T{sub 1g} → {sup 6}A{sub 1g}). • As the concentration of Mn{sup 2+} ions is increased, the emission band had been red shifted. • These glasses are found to have potential applications as luminescent optical materials. - Abstract: Calcium zinc borophosphate glasses (CaZnBP) doped with various concentrations of Mn{sup 2+} ions and borate and phosphate as variable were prepared using conventional melt quenching technique. The structure of obtained glasses were examined by means of use: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). XRD analysis confirmed amorphous nature of glass samples. The FT-IR spectra reveals the presence of both borate and phosphate vibrational modes in the prepared glasses. The doping of Mn{sup 2+} ions (2–10 mol%) shows no significant changes in the main IR vibrational bands. Optical properties were studied by measuring the near infrared photoluminescence (PL) spectra. CaZnBP glasses exhibited intense green emission peak (582 nm) (tetrahedral symmetry), which is assigned to a transition from the upper {sup 4}T{sub 1g} → {sup 6}A{sub 1g} ground state of Mn{sup 2+} ions. As the concentration of Mn{sup 2+} ions increases, the emission band increases from 582 nm to 650 nm and exhibited a red light emission (octahedral symmetry). The decay curves of {sup 4}T{sub 1g} level were examined for all concentrations and the measured lifetimes are found to depend strongly on Mn{sup 2+} concentrations. From the emission characteristic parameters of {sup 6}A{sub 1g} (S) level, it shows that the CaZnBP glasses could have potential applications as luminescent optical materials, visible lasers and fluorescent display devices.

  9. Kinetics of atmospheric corrosion of mild steel, zinc, galvanized iron and aluminium at 10 exposure stations in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of updating Corrosion Map of India project, atmospheric corrosion behaviour of commercially available engineering materials such as mild steel, galvanized iron, zinc and aluminium metals was studied in marine, industrial, urban, and rural environments by weight loss method at 10 exposure stations in India over a period of 5 years. The results of these studies demonstrated that galvanized iron, zinc and aluminium metals were several times more durable than mild steel. Compared to galvanized iron and zinc, aluminium provided superior protection in industrial and marine environment except at Mormugao Port Trust (MPT). It also offered much better resistance to corrosion in rural environments. At certain places, galvanized iron proved to be more durable than aluminium. The results obeyed well with the empirical kinetics equation of the form C = Kt n, where K and C are the corrosion losses in μm after 1 and 't' years of the exposure, respectively, and 'n' is a constant. Based on 'n' values, the corrosion mechanisms of these metals are predicted. The corrosion products formed on the metal samples in Chennai marine atmosphere were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis

  10. Corrosion behavior of simulated high-level waste glass in the presence of calcium ion or metallic iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Static leach tests were conducted for simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass in CaCl2/Ca(OH)2 solutions to investigate the corrosion behavior of HLW glass under calcium-rich environments induced by cement based materials in geological repositories. Another series of leach tests were conducted in deionized water in the presence of iron to investigate the effects of iron over-pack on the glass corrosion. In CaCl2/Ca(OH)2 solutions, corrosion of the glass was inhibited during the test period compared to that in deionized water at the pH range of 6 - 11, while higher corrosion rate was observed in the initial stage of the test in Ca(OH)2 solution at the initial pH of 12. However, the corrosion rate dropped due to a formation of calcium silicates that covered the surface of the glass. Under the condition that iron exists in the vicinity of the glass, glass corrosion was enhanced compared to that without iron throughout the testing period. In addition, an alteration layer including iron and silicon was observed at the interface between the glass surface and the iron after the leach tests, and thermodynamic calculation showed that formation of an iron silicate was favored under the chemical compositions of the leachate during the period. The enhancement of the glass corrosion was assumed to be accompanied with transformation of silica, a glass network former, into iron silicates. (author)

  11. Influences of iron and calcium carbonate on wastewater treatment performances of algae based reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhimiao; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Yanping; Gong, Zhijie; Wang, Yuhui; Zhao, Yufeng; Chen, Yu; Mei, Mengyuan

    2016-09-01

    The influences of iron and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) addition in wastewater treatments reactors performance were investigated. Adding different concentrations of Fe(3+) (5, 10, 30 and 50mmol/m(3)), iron and CaCO3 powder led to changes in algal characteristics and physico-chemical and microbiological properties. According to the investigation results, nutrient removal efficiency in algae based reactors was obviously increased by the addition of 10mmol/m(3) Fe(3+), iron (5mmol/m(3)) and CaCO3 powder (0.2gm(-3)) and the removal efficiencies of BOD5, TN, and TP in Stage 2 were respectively increased by 28%, 8.9%, and 22%. The improvements in physico-chemical performances were verified by microbial community tests (bacteria quantity, activity and community measured in most probable number, extracellular enzymes activity, and Biolog Eco Plates). Microbial variations indicated the coexistence of Fe ions and carbonate-bicarbonate, which triggered the synergistic effect of physico-chemical action and microbial factors in algae based reactors. PMID:27214163

  12. Iron, zinc, folate and vitamin B12 nutritional status and milk composition of low-income Brazilian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, C M; Trugo, N M; Koury, J C; Barreto Silva, M I; Freitas, L A; Feldheim, W; Barth, C

    1989-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status of low-income Brazilian mothers, who were supplemented with iron and vitamin B12 during pregnancy, in terms of iron, zinc, folate and vitamin B12, in different stages of lactation and to determine the influence of the maternal nutritional status on milk composition. The effect of folate supplementation during pregnancy on folate status of the nursing mothers and milk composition was investigated. The effect of partial weaning on maternal status and milk composition was also studied. In general, the nutritional status of iron, zinc, folate and vitamin B12 of the mothers appears adequate. However, some of the mothers had indices of status lower than normal limits for non-pregnant women. These values, particularly after 30 d post-partum, indicate that these mothers might be at nutritional risk and that the nutrient supplementation received during pregnancy was insufficient to meet demands. There was an increase with the stage of lactation for haematocrit, serum vitamin B12, serum zinc, serum albumin, milk folate and saturation of its binding protein, but there was a decrease for milk protein, total and whey-bound iron and zinc, and lactoferrin. Mothers who took folate supplements during pregnancy had higher serum folate levels immediately after birth than those not taking the supplements but no differences were found at later stages of lactation. Milk composition was not affected. Partial weaning did not affect the maternal nutritional status or the milk composition except for iron which was higher in milk from mothers who were partially breastfeeding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2661218

  13. Effects of pH value of reaction solution on structure and electrochemical performance of calcium-containing active material of secondary zinc electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华; 王建明; 郑奕; 张鉴清; 曹楚南

    2004-01-01

    The calcium-containing active material of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes was prepared by a chemical coprecipitation method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and X-ray diffractometry(XRD).Their electrochemical performance was tested by the Galvanstatic charge-discharge method. The experimental results show that the sample synthesized at pH = 11.15 has a typical calcium zincate crystal. The zinc electrode using this sample as active material shows higher discharge capacity, more negative discharge plateau potential and longer cycle lifetime.

  14. PIXE determination on the changes in the copper content in livers of Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats following supplement with iron and calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of upper, iron, calcium, and other elements in livers of Long-Evans Cinnamon(LEC) rats by PIXE determination is described. The copper contents in the livers of LEC rats which were supplemented with 1 g/100 g, in the food of calcium chloride dihydrate and iron( II ) chloride n-hydrate, respectively, for 5 weeks were determined before and after supplement by PIXE. The experimental results showed that after supplement of the calcium- and iron-fortified food the copper content in the livers of LEC rats decreased with the supplement. The present data suggest that supplement of iron or calcium can be responsible for copper homeostasis in livers of LEC rats, and that the excessive accumulation of copper in livers of LEC rats can readily remove when high load of iron or calcium are supplemented. (author)

  15. Zinc therapy on children with Psoriasis modulates trace elements in serum and tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study illustrates the effect of zinc therapy on some trace elements in either serum and skin which has been done on twenty patients with psoriasis with age range between 4 -13 years. They were under medical treatment with 5 milligram; oral zinc sulfate for 12 weeks. A significant increase in both serum and tissue copper and iron levels was detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer . In addition, a significant decrease in both serum and tissue calcium and magnesium in psoriatic patients. It has been concluded that zinc therapy could be valuable through modulation of copper, calcium, iron and magnesium in psoriatic patients.

  16. Bio-accumulation of copper, zinc, iron and manganese in oyster Saccostrea cucullata, Snail Cerithium rubus and Clam Tellina angulata from the Bombay coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V.R.; Moraes, C.

    accumulation was high in S. cucullata, manganese in C. rubus and iron in T. angulata. Similarly, copper and zinc in S. cucullata and copper in C. rubus were found occasionally higher than accepted health standards...

  17. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition in which the blood cannot carry enough oxygen. Some signs of copper deficiency have also occurred ... t significant unless lots of dairy products are consumed along with calcium supplements. However, the body adapts ...

  18. Comparison of serum calcium, copper and iron levels in serum samples from gallstone patients and control subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Present study was designed to investigate the levels of calcium, copper and iron in the serum samples of gallstone patients and control subjects with no personal or family history of gallstones. Methodology: Sera of 109 gallstone patients and 100 control subjects were obtained during January 2010 to November 2010 from Memon Charitable Hospital, Hyderabad. The serum calcium, copper and iron concentrations were determined by Hitachi double beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer 180 - 50. Results: Comparison of serum calcium, copper, and iron levels between gallstone patients and control subjects showed that all these variables were significantly (p0.01) was found when mean serum concentrations for these variables were compared between male and female gallstone patients, between female gallstone patients of up to 45 and over 45 years age and between female gallstone patients having up to 3 and more than 3 children. Conclusions: The higher levels of calcium, copper and iron in blood samples of gallstone patients compared to controls suggest that these metals do play a contributory role in the pathogenesis of human gallstones. (author)

  19. Study of granitic biotites by X-ray fluorescence analysis: determination of iron, manganese, titanium, calcium, potassium, silicon and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the quantitative determination of iron, manganese, titanium, calcium potassium, silicon, and aluminium, is reported, Sample preparation is carried out by the miniature flux technique, and rubidium is used as internal standard for silicon and aluminium. (Author) 5 refs

  20. Kinetic model for simultaneous leaching of zinc sulfide and manganese dioxide in the presence of iron-oxidizing bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    KAI, Takami; Suenaga, Yo-ich; Migita, Atsuko; TAKAHASHI, Takeshige

    2000-01-01

    The effect of iron-oxidizing bacteria on the simultaneous leaching of zinc sulfide and manganese dioxide was studied. Some researchers have reported the enhancement of the leaching rate during the simultaneous leaching of metal oxides and metal sulfides. In the present study, we examined the effect of the presence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in the simultaneous leaching. We also examined the reaction rates during the simultaneous leaching in the presence of the bacteria in order to study the...

  1. Deriving Freshwater Quality Criteria for Iron, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc for Protection of Aquatic Life in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Y. Nadzifah; Nur-Amalina, R.; Umirah, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (anneli...

  2. Nutritional Assessment in a Rural Area of Bolivia. A Study of Zinc and Iron Deficiencies and Bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarte, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    While originally, protein-energy deficiency was considered the main factor of malnutrition, it is now understood that micronutrient deficiencies play a fundamental role in a variety of health and disease outcomes. Zinc and iron deficiencies are still highly prevalent in low-income countries, whereas insufficient intakes and diets with low mineral absorption are the major causes. Sustainable and feasible dietary strategies are needed to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies. The present re...

  3. Iron, zinc and phytic acid in rice from China: wet and dry processing towards improved mineral bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, J.

    2007-01-01

    Rice and rice products supply two thirds of Chinese people with their staple food. Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron and zinc, are prevalent in China, and are caused by insufficient intake and poor bioavailability. Rice and rice products contribute more than 50% of the antinutrient  phytic acid consumed in the average diet, which has a significant negative impact on mineral bioavailability. This thesis reports studies of dry and wet rice processing methods on levels and in vitro solubi...

  4. Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Villagomez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder increasing in prevalence. Although there is limited evidence to support treating ADHD with mineral/vitamin supplements, research does exist showing that patients with ADHD may have reduced levels of vitamin D, zinc, ferritin, and magnesium. These nutrients have important roles in neurologic function, including involvement in neurotransmitter synthesis. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of each of these nutrients in the brain, the possible altered levels of these nutrients in patients with ADHD, possible reasons for a differential level in children with ADHD, and safety and effect of supplementation. With this knowledge, clinicians may choose in certain patients at high risk of deficiency, to screen for possible deficiencies of magnesium, vitamin D, zinc, and iron by checking RBC-magnesium, 25-OH vitamin D, serum/plasma zinc, and ferritin. Although children with ADHD may be more likely to have lower levels of vitamin D, zinc, magnesium, and iron, it cannot be stated that these lower levels caused ADHD. However, supplementing areas of deficiency may be a safe and justified intervention.

  5. Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review on the Recent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Mitra; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: The etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not exactly known and its etiology is multifactorial. The usual treatment for these children is based on pharmacotherapy treatment, although the pharmacotherapy has a high effectiveness in ADHD treatment, it often causes different side effects. Existing evidence suggests that children who receive mineral supplement without considering their age and supplement formula may perform better on different behavioral tests compared with those receiving placebo. Methods: In this study, we tried to review the previous evidence regarding the effects of minerals in prevention and management of ADHD. We searched PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Ovid, Scopus, and ISI web of science up to June 2013. “iron,” “iron supplementation,” “magnesium,” “magnesium supplementation,” “zinc,” “zinc supplementation,” “attention deficit hyperactivity disorder” were used as the keywords. Totally 11 randomized controlled trials were eligible to be included in the systematic review. Results: Our review showed that we don’t have any predominant evidence about using mineral supplementation on children with ADHD. Conclusions: We need more evidence for indicating the effect of zinc, magnesium, and iron supplementation in the treatment of ADHD among children. PMID:26445630

  6. Adsorption of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on silica and calcium carbonate sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonjee C; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Nap, Rikkert J; Whitaker, Ragnhild D; Mathiyazhagan, Vidhya; Song, Yi-Qiao; Hürlimann, Martin; Szleifer, Igal; Wong, Joyce Y

    2014-01-28

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have the potential to be used in the characterization of porous rock formations in oil fields as a contrast agent for NMR logging because they are small enough to traverse through nanopores and enhance contrast by shortening NMR T2 relaxation time. However, successful development and application require detailed knowledge of particle stability and mobility in reservoir rocks. Because nanoparticle adsorption to sand (SiO2) and rock (often CaCO3) affects their mobility, we investigated the thermodynamic equilibrium adsorption behavior of citric acid-coated SPIO nanoparticles (CA SPIO NPs) and poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted SPIO nanoparticles (PEG SPIO NPs) on SiO2 (silica) and CaCO3 (calcium carbonate). Adsorption behavior was determined at various pH and salt conditions via chemical analysis and NMR, and the results were compared with molecular theory predictions. Most of the NPs were recovered from silica, whereas far fewer NPs were recovered from calcium carbonate because of differences in the mineral surface properties. NP adsorption increased with increasing salt concentration: this trend was qualitatively explained by molecular theory, as was the role of the PEG grafting in preventing NPs adsorption. Quantitative disagreement between the theoretical predictions and the data was due to NP aggregation, especially at high salt concentration and in the presence of calcium carbonate. Upon aggregation, NP concentrations as determined by NMR T2 were initially overestimated and subsequently corrected using the relaxation rate 1/T2, which is a function of aggregate size and fractal dimension of the aggregate. Our experimental validation of the theoretical predictions of NP adsorption to minerals in the absence of aggregation at various pH and salt conditions demonstrates that molecular theory can be used to determine interactions between NPs and relevant reservoir surfaces. Importantly, this integrated experimental and

  7. Assessing the effects of model Maillard compound intake on iron, copper and zinc retention and tissue delivery in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Pastoriza, Silvia; Navarro, M Pilar; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of dietary Maillard reaction compounds (MRP) as metal chelating polymers can alter mineral absorption and/or retention. Our aim in this study was to analyse the long-term effects of the consumption of model MRP from glucose-lysine heated for 90 min at 150 °C (GL) on iron, copper and zinc whole-body retention and tissue delivery. For 88 days, weaning rats were fed a Control diet or one containing 3% GL, until reaching the adult stage. During the experimental period a mineral balance was conducted to investigate the mineral retention. At day 88, the animals were sacrificed, blood was drawn for haemoglobin determination and some organs were removed. Copper and zinc balances were unaffected (Cu: 450 vs. 375 μg; Zn: 6.7 vs. 6.2 mg for Control and GL groups, respectively) and no change was observed in whole-body delivery. Iron retention, too, was unaltered (11.2 mg for Control and GL groups) but due to the tendency toward decreased body weight in the GL group (248 vs. 233 g for the Control and GL groups), whole-body iron concentration was 13% higher in the GL group than in the Control group. Absorbed iron accumulated particularly in the liver (144 vs. 190 μg g(-1) for the Control and GL groups), thus reducing haemoglobin levels. The long-term intake of MRP induced iron accumulation in the body but this did not result in enhanced iron functionality, since the haemoglobin concentration declined. Taking into account the findings of our research group's studies of young and adult rats, we now corroborate the hypothesis that the negative effect of GL MRP consumption on iron functionality takes place regardless of the animals' stage of life. PMID:26593232

  8. Assessing plasma levels of selenium, copper, iron and zinc in patients of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Wen Zhao

    Full Text Available Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD. However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se, copper (Cu, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression.

  9. Biofortified indica rice attains iron and zinc nutrition dietary targets in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trijatmiko, Kurniawan R; Dueñas, Conrado; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Torrizo, Lina; Arines, Felichi Mae; Adeva, Cheryl; Balindong, Jeanette; Oliva, Norman; Sapasap, Maria V; Borrero, Jaime; Rey, Jessica; Francisco, Perigio; Nelson, Andy; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Lombi, Enzo; Tako, Elad; Glahn, Raymond P; Stangoulis, James; Chadha-Mohanty, Prabhjit; Johnson, Alexander A T; Tohme, Joe; Barry, Gerard; Slamet-Loedin, Inez H

    2016-01-01

    More than two billion people are micronutrient deficient. Polished grains of popular rice varieties have concentration of approximately 2 μg g(-1) iron (Fe) and 16 μg g(-1) zinc (Zn). The HarvestPlus breeding programs for biofortified rice target 13 μg g(-1) Fe and 28 μg g(-1) Zn to reach approximately 30% of the estimated average requirement (EAR). Reports on engineering Fe content in rice have shown an increase up to 18 μg g(-1) in glasshouse settings; in contrast, under field conditions, 4 μg g(-1) was the highest reported concentration. Here, we report on selected transgenic events, field evaluated in two countries, showing 15 μg g(-1) Fe and 45.7 μg g(-1) Zn in polished grain. Rigorous selection was applied to 1,689 IR64 transgenic events for insert cleanliness and, trait and agronomic performances. Event NASFer-274 containing rice nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS2) and soybean ferritin (SferH-1) genes showed a single locus insertion without a yield penalty or altered grain quality. Endosperm Fe and Zn enrichment was visualized by X-ray fluorescence imaging. The Caco-2 cell assay indicated that Fe is bioavailable. No harmful heavy metals were detected in the grain. The trait remained stable in different genotype backgrounds. PMID:26806528

  10. Surfactant-modified nickel zinc iron oxide/polymer nanocomposites for radio frequency applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low loss, flexible, polymer nanocomposites with improved magneto-dielectric properties at radio frequencies (RF) were successfully fabricated. Surfactant-modified nickel zinc iron oxide (NiZnFe2O4) nanoparticles with ferrimagnetic behavior at room temperature were synthesized by a seed-mediated growth method. The surfactant prevented NiZnFe2O4 particle aggregation and provided compatibility with [styrene-b-ethylene/butylene-b-styrene] block copolymer matrices. NiZnFe2O4/polymer composites were prepared by a solution-casting method. Experimental results showed that the dielectric permittivity (εr) and magnetic permeability (μr) of the polymer composite increased with increasing amount of NiZnFe2O4 doping. The dielectric loss (tanδ) was less than 0.010 at 1 GHz frequency. The increased miniaturization factor ((εrμr)1/2) and relative wave impedance ((μr/εr)1/2) of the NiZnFe2O4 nanocomposites could potentially lead to a reduced RF device's physical size with ease in impedance matching. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed that nanocomposites maintained 125% strain (elongation at break) with 30% nanoparticle doping.

  11. Influence of organic matter on the uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and iron by sorghum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, A P; Mota, A M; de Varennes, A; Pinto, F C

    2004-06-29

    This article describes an experiment, carried out under controlled environment conditions, to investigate the effects of a fulvic acid fraction of soil organic matter on growth, cadmium (Cd) uptake and redistribution by sorghum. In addition the uptake of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) was also determined. Sorghum was grown in nutrient solutions with 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd dm(-3), in the absence and presence of organic matter (32 mg C dm(-3)), for various periods up to 20 days. A decrease in sorghum biomass due to Cd toxicity was observed at 10 mg Cd dm(-3), but for concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg Cd dm(-3) the biomass was increased compared with control, without visual toxicity symptoms. The presence of organic matter (OM) further increased biomass production. Cadmium was mainly retained in sorghum roots, as usually found in tolerant plants, but Cd accumulation in sorghum was greater than in other Gramineae, or even more tolerant plants such as lettuce. The presence of OM decreased the bioavailability of Cd that was partially retained in solution by the OM ligands. However, OM promoted the translocation of Cd to shoots, an effect that may pose a risk to public health because plant-animal transfer of Cd could be enhanced. The presence of OM decreased the uptake of Cu, Zn and Fe. The presence (vs. absence) of 0.1 mg Cd dm(-3) enhanced the uptake of Fe, both in the absence and presence of OM. PMID:15142779

  12. Co-ordinated research programme on isotope-aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutritional deficiencies of essential micronutrients (particularly of iron, but also of zinc and selenium) are known to affect hundreds of millions of people throughout the world, mainly in developing countries. Such deficiencies can lead to significant deficits in mental development, growth, work performance, immune competence and other biological parameters. In many of the population groups that are affected, the deficiencies are thought to be due not to an absolute lack of the element in the diet but rather to is poor bioavailability. Much work has already been done on this subject, particularly in some developed countries and particularly with respect to iron. However, there is still appears to be a need for more research on factors affecting bioavailability and the means to improve it by simple dietary modification and fortification using food products of the kind that may be locally available in developing countries. Isotope techniques potentially have a large role to play in studies of the bioavailability of iron and other trace elements. To support work in this area, the IAEA initiated a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) at the end of 1990 on ''Isotope-Aided Studies of the Bioavailability of Iron and Zinc from Human Diets''. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of participants in this CRP is the subject of the present report. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage. PMID:26593529

  14. Blood compatibility of zinc-calcium phosphate conversion coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Wang, Qing-Zhao; Liu, Li-Jun; Xu, Qian-Qian; Wang, Chuang; Liu, Zhi-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Magnesium alloys as a new class of biomaterials possess biodegradability and biocompatibility in comparison with currently used metal implants. However, their rapid corrosion rates are necessary to be manipulated by appropriate coatings. In this paper, a new attempt was used to develop a zinc-calcium phosphate (Zn-Ca-P) conversion coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloys to increase the biocompatibility and improve the corrosion resistance. In vitro blood biocompatibility of the alloy with and without the Zn-Ca-P coating was investigated to determine its suitability as a degradable medical biomaterial. Blood biocompatibility was assessed from the hemolysis test, the dynamic cruor time test, blood cell count and SEM observation of the platelet adhesion to membrane surface. The results showed that the Zn-Ca-P coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloys had good blood compatibility, which is in accordance with the requirements for medical biomaterials.

  15. Blood compatibility of zinc-calcium phosphate conversion coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Wang, Qing-Zhao; Liu, Li-Jun; Xu, Qian-Qian; Wang, Chuang; Liu, Zhi-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium alloys as a new class of biomaterials possess biodegradability and biocompatibility in comparison with currently used metal implants. However, their rapid corrosion rates are necessary to be manipulated by appropriate coatings. In this paper, a new attempt was used to develop a zinc-calcium phosphate (Zn-Ca-P) conversion coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloys to increase the biocompatibility and improve the corrosion resistance. In vitro blood biocompatibility of the alloy with and without the Zn-Ca-P coating was investigated to determine its suitability as a degradable medical biomaterial. Blood biocompatibility was assessed from the hemolysis test, the dynamic cruor time test, blood cell count and SEM observation of the platelet adhesion to membrane surface. The results showed that the Zn-Ca-P coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloys had good blood compatibility, which is in accordance with the requirements for medical biomaterials.

  16. Adsorption efficiencies of calcium (II ion and iron (II ion on activated carbon obtained from pericarp of rubber fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawan Sirichote

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of adsorption efficiencies of activated carbon from pericarp of rubber fruit for calcium (II ion and iron (II ion has been performed by flowing the solutions of these ions through a column of activated carbon. The weights of activated carbon in 500 mL buret column (diameter 3.2 cm for flowing calcium (II ion and iron (II ion solutions were 15 g and 10 g, respectively. The initial concentration of calcium ion was prepared to be about eight times more diluted than the true concentration found in the groundwater from the lower part of southern Thailand. Calcium (II ion concentrations were analysed by EDTA titration and its initial concentration was found to be 23.55 ppm. With a flow rate of 26 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 11.4 % with passed through volume 4.75 L. Iron (II ion concentrations were analysed by spectrophotometric method; its initial concentration was found to be 1.5565 ppm. At a flow rate of 22 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 0.42 % with passed through volume of 34.0 L.

  17. Effect of zinc therapy in patients with psoriasis and a topic dermatitis on some trace elements in serum and skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of zinc therapy on some trace elements in serum and skin had been studied in forty patients with psoriasis and a topic dermatitis with age range between 20-65 years. Patients were treated with 330 mg oral zinc sulfate for 12 week. Significant increases in both serum and skin copper levels were detected. Also, serum and skin calcium and magnesium levels in both psoriatic and a topic patients were significantly decreased, while iron level was significantly increased in psoriasis and significantly decreased in a topic patients. It could be conclude that zinc therapy could affect copper, calcium, iron and magnesium levels in both psoriatic and a topic patients

  18. A novel role of the L-type calcium channel α1D subunit as a gatekeeper for intracellular zinc signaling: zinc wave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yamasaki

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that zinc ion (Zn can behave as an intracellular signaling molecule. We previously demonstrated that mast cells stimulated through the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI rapidly release intracellular Zn from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, and we named this phenomenon the "Zn wave". However, the molecules responsible for releasing Zn and the roles of the Zn wave were elusive. Here we identified the pore-forming α(1 subunit of the Cav1.3 (α(1D L-type calcium channel (LTCC as the gatekeeper for the Zn wave. LTCC antagonists inhibited the Zn wave, and an agonist was sufficient to induce it. Notably, α(1D was mainly localized to the ER rather than the plasma membrane in mast cells, and the Zn wave was impaired by α(1D knockdown. We further found that the LTCC-mediated Zn wave positively controlled cytokine gene induction by enhancing the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Consistent with this finding, LTCC antagonists inhibited the cytokine-mediated delayed-type allergic reaction in mice without affecting the immediate-type allergic reaction. These findings indicated that the LTCC α(1D subunit located on the ER membrane has a novel function as a gatekeeper for the Zn wave, which is involved in regulating NF-κB signaling and the delayed-type allergic reaction.

  19. Effect of calcium on adsorptive removal of As(III) and As(V) by iron oxide-based adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Uwamariya, V.

    2014-06-25

    The effects of calcium on the equilibrium adsorption capacity of As(III) and As(V) onto iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS) and granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) were investigated through batch experiments, rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCT) and kinetics modelling. Batch experiments showed that at calcium concentrations≤20 mg/L, high As(III) and As(V) removal efficiencies by IOCS and GFH are achieved at pH 6. An increase of the calcium concentration to 40 and 80 mg/L reversed this trend, giving higher removal efficiencies at higher pH (8). The adsorption capacities of IOCS and GFH at an equilibrium arsenic concentration of 10 g/L were found to be between 2.0 and 3.1 mg/g for synthetic water without calcium and between 2.8 and 5.3 mg/g when 80 mg/L of calcium was present at the studied pH values. After 10 hours of filter run in RSSCT, approximately 1000 empty bed volumes, the ratios of C/Co for As(V) were 26% and 18% for calcium-free model water; and only 1% and 0.2% after addition of 80 mg/L of Ca for filter columns with IOCS and GFH, respectively. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto GFH follows a second-order reaction, with and without addition of calcium. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto IOCS follows a first-order reaction without calcium addition, and moves to the second-reaction-order kinetics when calcium is added. Based on the intraparticle diffusion model, the main controlling mechanism for As(III) adsorption is intraparticle diffusion, while surface diffusion contributes greatly to the adsorption of As(V).

  20. Impact of Maternal Helicobacter pylori Infection on Trace Elements (Copper, Iron and Zinc and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel I Akubugwo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: H. pylori infection has been suggested to interfere with micronutrient metabolism and influence pregnancy outcomes. Objectives: This study therefore seeks to document the prevalence of H. pylori seroposivity among pregnant women and to determine its impact on some trace element status and pregnancy outcomes. Materials and methods: Three hundred and forty nine consenting pregnant women aged 15-40 years (mean; 27. 04 ± 4. 75 years and gestational age ≤ 25 weeks (mean 21.77 ± 3.14 wks attending antenatal clinic at Federal Medical Centre, Abakaliki, between July 2007 and September 2008 participated in the study. H. Pylori antibody (IgG was determined by a new generation ELISA method. Plasma copper, iron and zinc were analysed using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Bulk Scientific AVG 210 Model while haemoglobin and albumin were analysed using standard haematological and biochemical techniques. Both maternal sociodemographic and anthropometric parameters were recorded at recruitment. The women were followed-up till delivery after which neonatal anthropometrics and other birth outcomes were recorded. Results: H. pylori seroprevalence of 24.1% (84/349 was recorded with higher prevalence in multiparous and older women. H. pylori infected women had significantly higher BMI (29.00 ± 3.89 vs. 26.86 ± 4.10, p = 0.020 and lower (p > 0.05 plasma levels of Cu, Fe, Zn, albumin, and haemoglobin when compared to non-infected women. Also H. pylori infected women had significantly (p < 0.05 higher rates of convulsion and concomitant illnesses than their non-infected counterparts, although there was no difference in the two groups for other pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion: H. pylori infection during pregnancy seems to interfere with trace element metabolism and contribute significantly to increased maternal morbidity. Prior to confirmation of these findings in a well controlled randomised trial, it is suggested that pregnant women be

  1. Genetic parameters and breeding strategies for high levels of iron and zinc in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, S M; Melo, P G S; Faria, L C; Souza, T L P O; Melo, L C; Pereira, H S

    2016-01-01

    One of the current focus of common bean breeding programs in Brazil is to increase iron (FeC) and zinc content (ZnC) in grains. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for FeC and ZnC in common bean, verify the need for conducting multi-site evaluation tests, identify elite lines that combine high FeC and ZnC with good adaptability, stability, and agronomic potential, and examine the genetic association between FeC and ZnC. Elite lines (140) were evaluated for important agronomic traits in multiple environments. In one trial, FeC and ZnC were evaluated and genetic parameters were estimated. Based on the high heritability estimates and significant selection gains obtained, the conditions for a successful selection was favorable. Of the 140 evaluated lines, 17 had higher FeC and ZnC, and were included in the validation test (2013, five environments), specifically for the evaluation of FeC and ZnC. The line by environment interaction for FeC and ZnC was detected, but it was predominantly simple. The environmental effect strongly influenced FeC and ZnC . The environment Brasília/rainy season was selected as the best evaluation site for preliminary tests for FeC and ZnC, because it resulted in similar conclusions as the mean of the five environments. The lines CNFP 15701 and CNFC 15865 had higher FeC and ZnC and were highly adaptable and stable, and are recommended for utilization in breeding programs. The lines CNFC 15833, CNFC 15703, and CNFP 15676 showed excellent combined agronomic and nutritional traits, and were selected for the development of biofortified cultivars. Additionally, the genetic association between FeC and ZnC was detected. PMID:27323172

  2. Effect of radiation processing on in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron of peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Amro B.; Diab, Eiman E.; Mahmoud, Nagat S.; Elagib, Randa A. A.; Rushdi, Mohamed A. H.; Osman, Gammaa A. M.

    2013-10-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation of two peanut cultivars (Sodari and Madani) on protein content, in vitro protein digestibility and availability of calcium, phosphorus and iron was determined. Seeds were treated with gamma irradiation at dose levels of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy. Total protein in seeds was not changed significantly by irradiation. However, the in vitro protein digestibility was decreased for both cultivars. In addition, the irradiation also caused an increment on the available calcium, phosphorus and iron for both cultivars. Moreover, radiation processing caused an increment on tannin content of the seeds especially at the dose 2 kGy for both cultivars. Regarding these results, irradiation treatment of peanut up to 2 kGy can be used as an effective alternative method to chemical treatments for insect disinfestation and microbial disinfection.

  3. Characterization of calcium and zinc spatial distributions at the fibrocartilage zone of bone-tendon junction by synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongbin; Chen, Can; Wang, Zhanwen; Qu, Jin; Xu, Daqi; Wu, Tianding; Cao, Yong; Zhou, Jingyong; Zheng, Cheng; Hu, Jianzhong

    2015-09-01

    Tendon attaches to bone through a functionally graded fibrocartilage zone, including uncalcified fibrocartilage (UF), tidemark (TM) and calcified fibrocartilage (CF). This transition zone plays a pivotal role in relaxing load transfer between tendon and bone, and serves as a boundary between otherwise structurally and functionally distinct tissue types. Calcium and zinc are believed to play important roles in the normal growth, mineralization, and repair of the fibrocartilage zone of bone-tendon junction (BTJ). However, spatial distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of BTJ and their distribution-function relationship are not totally understood. Thus, synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μXRF) in combination with backscattered electron imaging (BEI) was employed to characterize the distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of rabbit patella-patellar tendon complex (PPTC). For the first time, the unique distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of the PPTC were clearly mapped by this method. The distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of the PPTC were inhomogeneous. A significant accumulation of zinc was exhibited in the transition region between UF and CF. The highest zinc content (3.17 times of that of patellar tendon) was found in the TM of fibrocartilage zone. The calcium content began to increase near the TM and increased exponentially across the calcified fibrocartilage region towards the patella. The highest calcium content (43.14 times of that of patellar tendon) was in the transitional zone of calcified fibrocartilage region and the patella, approximately 69 μm from the location with the highest zinc content. This study indicated, for the first time, that there is a differential distribution of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of PPTC. These observations reveal new insights into region-dependent changes across the fibrocartilage zone of

  4. Bioactivity of SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O glasses containing zinc-iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasses with composition x(ZnO,Fe2O3)(65 - x)SiO220(CaO,P2O5)15Na2O (6 ≤ x ≤ 21 mol%) were prepared by melt-quenching technique. Bioactivity of the glasses was investigated in vitro by examining apatite formation on the surface of glasses treated in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those in human blood plasma. Formation of bioactive apatite layer on the samples treated in SBF was confirmed by using Fourier transform infrared reflection (FTIR) spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Development of an apatite structure on the surface of the SBF treated glass samples as functions of composition and time could be established using the GI-XRD data. FTIR spectra of the glasses treated in SBF show features at characteristic vibration frequencies of apatite after 1-day of immersion in SBF. SEM observations revealed that the spherical particles formed on the glass surface were made of calcium and phosphorus with the Ca/P molar ratio being close to 1.67, corresponding to the value in crystalline apatite. Increase in bioactivity with increasing zinc-iron oxide content was observed. The results have been used to understand the evolution of the apatite surface layer as a function of glass composition and immersion time in SBF.

  5. Soil Manganese and Iron Released due to Calcium Salts:Bioavailability to Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI You-Bin; ZHOU Jing; ZHOU Dong-Mei; CHEN Huai-Man

    2004-01-01

    Releases of manganese and iron ions from an albic soil (Albic-Udic Luvisol), a yellow-red soil (Hap-Udic Ferrisol) and a yellow-brown soil (Arp-Udic Luvisol) induced by calcium salt addition and their bioavailability to pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) were studied in a pot experiment. Addition of Ca(NO3)2 decreased soil pH and increased both exchangeable and DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Mn and Fe in soils. Meanwhile, total Mn accumulation in the shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. on the salt-treated soils increased significantly (P < 0.01) compared with the control, suggesting that salt addition to soil induced Mn toxicity in Capsicum frutescens L. Although exchangeable and DTPA-extractable Fe increased also in the salt-treated soils, Fe uptake by the shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. decreased. The effect of added salts in soils on dry matter weight of pepper varied with the soil characteristics, showing different buffer capacities of the soils for salt toxicity in an order of yellow-brown soil > albic soil > yellow-red soil. Fe/Mn ratio in shoots of Capsicum frutescens L. decreased with increasing salt addition for all the soils, which was ascribed to the antagonistic effect of Mn on Fe accumulation. The ratio of Fe/Mn in the tissue was a better indicator of the appearance of Mn toxicity symptoms than Mn concentration alone.

  6. Electrochemical study of calcium carbonate deposition on iron. Effect of the anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitin, A.R. [PermNIPIneft LLC, ul. Sovetskoy Armii 29, Perm 614066 (Russian Federation); Kichigin, V.I. [Natural Sciences Institute, Perm State University, ul. Bukireva 15, Perm 614990 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: kichigin@psu.ru

    2009-03-30

    Deposition of calcium carbonate on iron from supersaturated solutions containing 1 M sodium chloride, bromide, iodide, or nitrate as supporting electrolyte was studied at 60 deg. C under open-circuit conditions using impedance spectroscopy, chronopotentiometry, voltammetry, and scanning electron microscopy. The anions were found to fall into two groups with respect to their effect on scaling. On the one hand, chloride and, especially, nitrate favor faster scaling kinetics and lead to compact carbonate films composed of entangled aragonite crystals. On the other hand, in the presence of bromide and iodide the scaling rate is lower and the resulting films feature aragonite crystals more or less freely scattered on what appears to be a uniform sublayer of unknown structure. The experimental data are adequately described using quasi-uniform film model accounting for the cathodic and anodic electrode reactions. As deduced from the electrochemical measurements, the barrier properties of the carbonate films formed in different supporting electrolytes increase in the order of Cl{sup -} < NO{sub 3}{sup -} {approx} Br{sup -} < I{sup -}.

  7. Electrochemical study of calcium carbonate deposition on iron. Effect of the anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposition of calcium carbonate on iron from supersaturated solutions containing 1 M sodium chloride, bromide, iodide, or nitrate as supporting electrolyte was studied at 60 deg. C under open-circuit conditions using impedance spectroscopy, chronopotentiometry, voltammetry, and scanning electron microscopy. The anions were found to fall into two groups with respect to their effect on scaling. On the one hand, chloride and, especially, nitrate favor faster scaling kinetics and lead to compact carbonate films composed of entangled aragonite crystals. On the other hand, in the presence of bromide and iodide the scaling rate is lower and the resulting films feature aragonite crystals more or less freely scattered on what appears to be a uniform sublayer of unknown structure. The experimental data are adequately described using quasi-uniform film model accounting for the cathodic and anodic electrode reactions. As deduced from the electrochemical measurements, the barrier properties of the carbonate films formed in different supporting electrolytes increase in the order of Cl- 3- ∼ Br- -

  8. Deep SDSS optical spectroscopy of distant halo stars II. Iron, calcium, and magnesium abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Alvar, E; Schlesinger, K J; Beers, T C; Robin, A C; Schneider, D P; Lee, Y S; Bizyaev, D; Ebelke, G; Malanushenko, E; Malanushenko, V; Oravetz, D; Pan, K; Simmons, A

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a sample of 3,944 low-resolution (R ~ 2000) optical spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), focusing on stars with effective temperatures 5800 < Teff < 6300 K, and distances from the Milky Way plane in excess of 5 kpc, and determine their abundances of Fe, Ca, and Mg. We followed the same methodology as in the previous paper in this series, deriving atmospheric parameters by chi2 minimization, but this time we obtained the abundances of individual elements by fitting their associated spectral lines. Distances were calculated from absolute magnitudes obtained by a statistical comparison of our stellar parameters with stellar-evolution models. The observations reveal a decrease in the abundances of iron, calcium, and magnesium at large distances from the Galactic center. The median abundances for the halo stars analyzed are fairly constant up to a Galactocentric distance r ~ 20 kpc, rapidly decrease between r ~ 20 and r ~ 40 kpc, and flatten out to significantly lower values at larger...

  9. Characterization of calcium phosphate coating and zinc incorporation on the porous alumina scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes de Souza Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone ingrowth requires materials with the existence of open and interconnected pores with diameters larger than 150 µm for proper circulation of nutrients. Such materials must possess enough mechanical strength to avoid failure whilst offering a bioactive surface for bone regeneration. We have developed porous ceramic alumina scaffold with compressive strength that achieves 3.3 MPa by replication method by using the network structure of cellular polymer foam. However, the biocompatibility of ceramics based on Al2O3 requires further improvement so that it could have strong bonding to natural bone tissue. To address this problem of the interface between alumina and bone, we have developed a novel calcium phosphate with Zn2+ (CaP-Zn coating onto porous alumina ceramic scaffold by impregnating with calcium phosphate/poly(vinyl alcohol slurry. The tri-dimensional alumina scaffold coated with CaP-Zn was extensively characterized by SEM, EDS and FTIR.

  10. Effects of soil and foliar applications of iron and zinc on flowering and essential oil of chamomile at greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef NASIRI; Nosratollah NAJAFI

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effects of soil and foliar applications of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) on flowering, flower yield and essential oil production of German chamomile a pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. The experiment was arranged as completely randomized design with 12 treatments and three replications. Treatments were as follow: T1: control – without Fe or Zn fertilizers, T2: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry so...

  11. Determination of chromium, iron, zinc and calcium contents in pastes commercialized at Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foods, in particular pastes, in the industrial manufacture process are in contact with equipment made of stainless steel, containing Cr, fe and Zn in their structures. The aim of this study is to verify Cr, Fe and Zn migration from the stainless steel equipment to the food during the industrial process. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Zn and Ca in four brands of pastes. Only the migration of chromium was be observed. (author)

  12. Analysis of human blood and liver tissue for copper, zinc and iron by the method of proton-induced X-ray emission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of proton-induced X-ray emission (or PIXE) analysis has been investigated with reference to the study of minor and trace elements in biological tissue. Methods of specimen preparation have been investigated, and optimum instrumental conditions arrived at. The lower limits of detection for lead and zinc in blood have been investigated and have been found to be approximately 0.3 and 0.1 ppm for lead and zinc respectively, for a proton energy of 2.5 MeV. The concentrations of copper, zinc and iron have been studied in normal and diseased human liver tissue. In cirrhotic tissue the copper levels are substantially raised. A diminution in liver iron in a case of alcoholic cirrhosis associated with clinical anaemia; and a blood zinc deficiency in primary biliary cirrhosis were observed. The results are discussed in relation to existing work. (author)

  13. Trace element studies in urolithiasis; preliminary investigation on mixed calcium oxalate-struvite urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the levels of the trace elements copper , zinc, lead, iron, aluminum, nickel, chromium along with magnesium, sodium and potassium were estimated in fifteen mixed calcium oxalate-struvite (CaOx/STR) urinary stones. The mean values of the combined results were, copper 4.24, zinc 1302, zinc 1302.10, lead 23.25, iron 36.83,nickel 0.69, chromium 1.93, magnesium 4530441, sodium 54.13 and potassium 5.93 ng mg/sup -1/. It was observed that zinc, aluminum and potassium levels were higher than in calcium oxalate(CaOx) calculi 0.05>P>0.02 and potassium levels were higher than in mixed calcium oxalate-hydroxy appetite (CaOx/APA) calculi, P<0.01. A combination of all the results was also compared with similar data from South Africa, Turkey, Austria, India, U.S.A and Japan. (author)

  14. Evaluation of cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations and tissue distributions in the benthic crab, Dorippe granulata (De Haan, 1841) from Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depledge, M H; Forbes, T L; Forbes, V E

    1993-01-01

    The distributions of copper, zinc, iron, and cadmium among the tissues of Dorippe granulata were determined. The highest copper concentrations were found in the haemolymph (c. 53 microg ml(-1)) while the highest iron concentrations occurred in the gills (c. 720 microg g(-1) dry weight) and the highest zinc concentrations in the exoskeleton (c. 200 microg g(-1) dry weight). By comparison, concentrations of the non-essential metal, cadmium, were low in all tissues (mean = 10 microg g(-1) dry weight). The highest value was recorded from the midgut gland of a female crab (18.5 microg Cd g(-1) dry weight). Concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron were positively correlated with tissue-hydration levels. Such a relationship was not found for cadmium. The findings are discussed with regard to trace-metal levels found in temperate and tropical brachyurans from clean and polluted localities. PMID:15091832

  15. Iron and zinc complexation in wild-type and ferritin-expressing wheat grain: implications for mineral transport into developing grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neal, Andrew L; Geraki, Kalotina; Borg, Søren; Quinn, Paul; Mosselsmans, J Fred; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Shewry, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    We have used synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and absorption techniques to establish both metal distribution and complexation in mature wheat grains. In planta, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy reveals iron phytate and zinc phytate structures in aleurone cells and...... evidence of modified complexation of both metals in transgenic grain overexpressing wheat ferritin. For zinc, there is a consistent doubling of the number of complexing phosphorus atoms. Although there is some EXAFS evidence for iron phytate in ferritin-expressing grain, there is also evidence of a...... in modified aleurone cells in the transfer region of the grain: iron is coordinated octahedrally by six oxygen atoms and fewer than two phosphorous atoms. Zinc is coordinated tetrahedrally by four oxygen atoms and approximately 1.5 phosphorus atoms in an asymmetric coordination shell. We also present...

  16. Isotope aided studies on the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a major public health problem in many developing countries including India. Recent multicentric studies indicated that in rural population of India, 60% of preschool children and 40-60 % of women of child bearing age may suffer from anaemia. Studies by Sood et al indicated that iron stores are generally lower in the population as compared to populations in other countries. It is therefore possible that prelatent iron deficiency may be even higher who look otherwise healthy and adequately nourished. Iron absorption from habitual diets of Indians has been determined in the past by the chemical balance methods. Iron absorption determined by this method may be a gross over estimate. A more reliable estimate of iron absorption from composite meals can be obtained by the radio isotopic methods in which foods are extrinsically or intrinsically tagged with radio iron (55Fe or 59Fe). Using these methods iron absorption from a few habitual diets was studied. 15 refs

  17. Roles of Zinc and Iron on Bone Health in a Rat Model of Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Danhua

    Bone is one of the most vital organs in animals, serving as both structural and protective functions. Remodeling of bone is an important indicator of bone health, and disorders in bone remodeling may lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Osteoporosis increases risk of bone fracture and even death, and much more preferable to be happened in postmenopausal women due to great changes in hormones. Micronutrients, such as Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe), would as well influence bone health in different manners. That Zn would promote bone health is widely accepted, for the reasons Zn increases osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation, inhibits osteoclast cell activities, and forms alkaline phosphatase that does help to maintain bone metabolism. Diseases caused by Fe overload is usually related to osteoporosis. Ferric ion could facilitate osteoclast differentiation, inhibit osteoblast and alkaline phosphatase activities, and interfere with hydroxyapatite crystal growth and depositions. However, changes of concentrations and distributions for Zn and Fe in osteoporotic bones are seldom studied. In this thesis, ovariectomized rat femur bones are used as a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Rats from different ages and health conditions are categorized as 6 AM (6-month age matched control), 6 OVX (6-month ovariectomized control), 12 AM (12-month age matched control), 12 OVX (12-month ovariectomized control). The trace elements Zn and Fe is studied through Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence (SRXRF). Elemental maps are used to observe changes in distribution, and further quantitative analysis is used to discover changes in concentration among different animal groups. Both the decrease of Zn and the increase of Fe are significant from healthy to osteoporotic bones (p0.1) is also observed over age in healthy groups. Both elements show changes in distribution, that healthy animals present a more even distribution while in OVX groups the tendency of aggregation is

  18. Inclusion of Guava Enhances Non-Heme Iron Bioavailability but Not Fractional Zinc Absorption from a Rice-Based Meal in Adolescents12

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Brahmam, Ginnela N.V.; Radhika, Madhari S.; Dripta, Roy Choudhury; Ravinder, Punjal; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Chen, Zhensheng; Hawthorne, Keli M.; Steven A. Abrams

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the bioavailability of non-heme iron and zinc is essential for recommending diets that meet the increased growth-related demand for these nutrients. We studied the bioavailability of iron and zinc from a rice-based meal in 16 adolescent boys and girls, 13–15 y of age, from 2 government-run residential schools. Participants were given a standardized rice meal (regular) and the same meal with 100 g of guava fruit (modified) with 57Fe on 2 consecutive days. A single oral dose of 58Fe i...

  19. Extracellular zinc stimulates a calcium-activated chloride conductance through mobilisation of intracellular calcium in renal inner medullary collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, J E; Simmons, N L; Gray, M A

    2007-01-01

    We have used the perforated patch clamp and fura-2 fluorescence techniques to study the effect of extracellular Zn(2+) on whole-cell Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents (I (CLCA)) in mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD-3). I (CLCA) was spontaneously active in 74% of cells under basal conditions and displayed time and voltage-independent kinetics and an outwardly rectifying current/voltage relationship (I/V). Addition of zinc chloride (10-400 microM) to the bathing solution resulted in a dose-dependent increase in I (CLCA) with little change in Cl(-) selectivity or biophysical characteristics, whereas gadolinium chloride (30 microM) and lanthanum chloride (100 microM) had no significant effect on the whole-cell current. Using fura-2-loaded mIMCD-3 cells, extracellular Zn(2+) (400 microM) stimulated an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) to an elevated plateau. The Zn(2+)-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) increase was inhibited by thapsigargin (200 nM), the IP(3) receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (10 microM) and removal of bath Ca(2+). Pre-exposure to Zn(2+) (400 microM) markedly attenuated the ATP (100 microM)-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) increase. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that extracellular Zn(2+) stimulates an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) by a release of calcium from thapsigargin/IP(3) sensitive stores. A possible physiological role for a divalent metal ion receptor, distinct from the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor, in IMCD cells is discussed. PMID:17021797

  20. Common Bean: A Legume Model on the Rise for Unraveling Responses and Adaptations to Iron, Zinc, and Phosphate Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Guerrero, Norma A.; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C.; Mendoza-Cozatl, David G.; Valdés-López, Oswaldo

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was domesticated ∼8000 years ago in the Americas and today is a staple food worldwide. Besides caloric intake, common bean is also an important source of protein and micronutrients and it is widely appreciated in developing countries for their affordability (compared to animal protein) and its long storage life. As a legume, common bean also has the economic and environmental benefit of associating with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, thus reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers, which is key for sustainable agriculture. Despite significant advances in the plant nutrition field, the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of common bean to low nutrient input remains largely unknown. The recent release of the common bean genome offers, for the first time, the possibility of applying techniques and approaches that have been exclusive to model plants to study the adaptive responses of common bean to challenging environments. In this review, we discuss the hallmarks of common bean domestication and subsequent distribution around the globe. We also discuss recent advances in phosphate, iron, and zinc homeostasis, as these nutrients often limit plant growth, development, and yield. In addition, iron and zinc are major targets of crop biofortification to improve human nutrition. Developing common bean varieties able to thrive under nutrient limiting conditions will have a major impact on human nutrition, particularly in countries where dry beans are the main source of carbohydrates, protein and minerals. PMID:27200068

  1. Common Bean: A Legume Model on the Rise for Unraveling Responses and Adaptations to Iron, Zinc, and Phosphate Deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Guerrero, Norma A; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C; Mendoza-Cozatl, David G; Valdés-López, Oswaldo

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was domesticated ∼8000 years ago in the Americas and today is a staple food worldwide. Besides caloric intake, common bean is also an important source of protein and micronutrients and it is widely appreciated in developing countries for their affordability (compared to animal protein) and its long storage life. As a legume, common bean also has the economic and environmental benefit of associating with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, thus reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers, which is key for sustainable agriculture. Despite significant advances in the plant nutrition field, the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of common bean to low nutrient input remains largely unknown. The recent release of the common bean genome offers, for the first time, the possibility of applying techniques and approaches that have been exclusive to model plants to study the adaptive responses of common bean to challenging environments. In this review, we discuss the hallmarks of common bean domestication and subsequent distribution around the globe. We also discuss recent advances in phosphate, iron, and zinc homeostasis, as these nutrients often limit plant growth, development, and yield. In addition, iron and zinc are major targets of crop biofortification to improve human nutrition. Developing common bean varieties able to thrive under nutrient limiting conditions will have a major impact on human nutrition, particularly in countries where dry beans are the main source of carbohydrates, protein and minerals. PMID:27200068

  2. Anticorrosive effects and in vitro cytocompatibility of calcium silicate/zinc-doped hydroxyapatite composite coatings on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Honglei; Qiao, Haixia; Nian, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xuejiao; Wang, Wendong; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Chang, Xiaotong; Han, Shuguang; Pang, Xiaofeng

    2015-12-01

    This work elucidated the corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of electroplated Zn- and Si-containing bioactive calcium silicate/zinc-doped hydroxyapatite (ZnHA/CS) ceramic coatings on commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti). The formation of ZnHA/CS coating was investigated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma analyses. The XRD image showed that the reaction layer was mainly composed of HA and CaSiO3. The fabricated ZnHA/CS coatings presented a porous structure and appropriate thickness for possible applications in orthopaedic surgery. Potentiodynamic polarization tests showed that ZnHA/CS coatings exhibited higher corrosion resistance than CP-Ti. Dissolution tests on the coating also revealed that Si4+ and Zn2+ were leached at low levels. Moreover, MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on ZnHA/CS featured improved cell morphology, adhesion, spreading, proliferation and expression of alkaline phosphatase than those cultured on HA. The high cytocompatibility of ZnHA/CS could be mainly attributed to the combination of micro-porous surface effects and ion release (Zn2+ and Si4+). All these results indicate that ZnHA/CS composite-coated CP-Ti may be a potential material for orthopaedic applications.

  3. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Response to Zinc, Magnesium, and Calcium Deficiency in Specific Cell Types of Arabidopsis Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Fukao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proteome profiles of specific cell types have recently been investigated using techniques such as fluorescence activated cell sorting and laser capture microdissection. However, quantitative proteomic analysis of specific cell types has not yet been performed. In this study, to investigate the response of the proteome to zinc, magnesium, and calcium deficiency in specific cell types of Arabidopsis thaliana roots, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics using GFP-expressing protoplasts collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Protoplasts were collected from the pGL2-GFPer and pMGP-GFPer marker lines for epidermis or inner cell lines (pericycle, endodermis, and cortex, respectively. To increase the number of proteins identified, iTRAQ-labeled peptides were separated into 24 fractions by OFFGFEL electrophoresis prior to high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, 1039 and 737 proteins were identified and quantified in the epidermal and inner cell lines, respectively. Interestingly, the expression of many proteins was decreased in the epidermis by mineral deficiency, although a weaker effect was observed in inner cell lines such as the pericycle, endodermis, and cortex. Here, we report for the first time the quantitative proteomics of specific cell types in Arabidopsis roots.

  4. Electrochemical and morphological investigation of silver and zinc modified calcium phosphate bioceramic coatings on metallic implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furko, M; Jiang, Y; Wilkins, T A; Balázsi, C

    2016-05-01

    In our research nanostructured silver and zinc doped calcium-phosphate (CaP) bioceramic coatings were prepared on commonly used orthopaedic implant materials (Ti6Al4V). The deposition process was carried out by the pulse current technique at 70°C from electrolyte containing the appropriate amount of Ca(NO3)2 and NH4H2PO4 components. During the electrochemical deposition Ag(+) and Zn(2+) ions were introduced into the solution. The electrochemical behaviour and corrosion rate of the bioceramic coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in conventional Ringer's solution in a three electrode open cell. The coating came into contact with the electrolyte and corrosion occurred during immersion. In order to achieve antimicrobial properties, it is important to maintain a continuous release of silver ions into physiological media, while the bioactive CaP layer enhances the biocompatibility properties of the layer by fostering the bone cell growth. The role of Zn(2+) is to shorten wound healing time. Morphology and composition of coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Differential thermal analyses (DTA) were performed to determine the thermal stability of the pure and modified CaP bioceramic coatings while the structure and phases of the layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. PMID:26952421

  5. Judd-Ofelt analysis and spectral properties of Dy3+ ions doped niobium containing tellurium calcium zinc borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, O.; Reddy, C. Madhukar; Reddy, B. Sudhakar; Deva Prasad Raju, B.

    2014-02-01

    Niobium containing tellurium calcium zinc borate (TCZNB) glasses doped with different concentrations of Dy3+ ions were prepared by the melt quenching method and their optical properties have been studied. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters Ωt (t=2, 4 and 6) were calculated using the least square fit method. Based on the magnitude of Ω2 parameter the hypersensitivity of 6H15/2→6F11/2 has also been discussed. From the evaluated J-O intensity parameters as well as from the emission and lifetime measurements, radiative transition properties such as radiative transition probability rates and branching ratios were calculated for 4F9/2 excited level. It is found that for Dy3+ ion, the transition 4F9/2→6H13/2 shows highest emission cross-section at 1.0 mol% TCZNB glass matrix. From the visible luminescence spectra, yellow to blue (Y/B) intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates were also estimated. The TCZNB glasses exhibit good luminescence properties and are suitable for generation of white light.

  6. Isotope aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets consumed in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron deficiency can produce disturbances in physical and mental health, the most common sign of severe iron deficiency being anaemia. Iron deficiency anaemia can impair work capacity; learning capacity and result in changes in behaviour as well as compromise immunocompetence and causing less resistance to infections. In pregnancy, there is evidence that severe anaemia increases the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality as well as premature delivery. There is thus ample justification for attempting to implement programmes to combat iron deficiency in developing countries such as Peru. In order to determine the most appropriate intervention it is necessary to have data on the prevalence and severity of iron deficiency. The purpose of this study is to develop the necessary steps to implement a fortification programme to combat iron deficiency anaemia in Peru, targeted to pre-school children and pregnant women, who are the risk groups due to their increased requirements of this nutrient. 11 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl groups. The mean ovary weight for guinea pigs fed 2500 mg of iron was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron, 0.045 +/- 0.012 g and 0.061 +/- 0.009 g, respectively. Liver zinc content of animals fed 2500 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid per kg of diet was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid, 16.3 +/- 3.3 μg and 19.6 +/- 1.6 μg, respectively. There was no difference in liver copper due to dietary iron, but when dietary ascorbic acid was increased to 8 g per kg of diet, there was a significant decrease (from 22.8 +/- 8.1 μg to 10.5 +/- 4.8 μg) in liver copper. Excess dietary ascorbic acid decreased ovarian zinc significantly when increased to 8 g per kg of diet, 2929 +/- 919 μg vs 1661 +/- 471 μg, respectively, when compared to the control group

  8. Bioavailability of essential trace elements in the presence of phytate, fiber and calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioavailability and/or homeostasis of some essential trace elements such as zinc, iron, etc., in the presence of phytate, fiber and calcium are subject to alteration. These factors were measured in this study for Iranian diets in a frame of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). However, the most prominent dietary factor in this regard is phytate. The phytate effect on zinc homeostasis is a chemical phenomenon dependent physiologically on pH in the gastrointestinal tract at or near the sites of absorption. Calcium is a synergistic coprecipitating factor in the complexation of zinc by phytate. Fiber has also a tendency to absorb insoluble compounds in gastrointestinal tract including zinc, iron and many other trace elements. One of the most known clinical observations regarding zinc deficiency was found in the rural area of the Fars province of Iran in the late 1950s at Shiraz University. However, the molar ratio of [phytate] : [zinc] and [calcium] [phytate] : [zinc] in Iranian Diets in a recent study are 7-17 and 150-800, respectively. The critical ratios of [phytate] : [zinc] of 10 or less will provide adequate zinc to sustain homeostasis. (author)

  9. Embryotoxicity of the calcium and zinc salts of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikov, M.R.; Smith, V.H.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    Injection of Ca-DTPA, used for removal of most internally deposited radioactive actinide and lanthanide elements, increases Zn excretion. Since zinc deficiency is teratogenic, such treatments might be expected to affect prenatal development. Daily intraperitoneal injections of Ca- or Zn-DTPA were given to rats on days 8 through 12 of gestation at dose lvels ranging from 1 to 64 times the usual intravenous dose to humans (1HD-64HD, HD = 28.7 ..mu..mol/kg). Upon examination after 20 days of gestation, it was found that 8HD Ca-DTPA was not lethal but 16HD produced 80% prenatal mortality, with most deaths occurring at about 9--10 days of gestation, and decreased the weight of the survivors. Even 64HD Zn-DTPA had no effect on mortality or weight. A few major malformations were found with both salts but were not clearly attributable to a specific treatment. The incidence of hydronephrosis and renal honeycombing, however, were markedly increased by exposure to higher doses of both the Zn and Ca salts. Administration of either salt resulted in a darkening of many viscera, including the kidney, liver and heart; histologically, this was found to be produced by a granular golden pigment. Taken together, these results indicate that while both the Zn and Ca salts of DTPA have some embryotoxic actions, only the Ca salt was embryocidal. By analogy with the studies of Swenerton and Hurley (Science 173: 62, 197) with the homolog, EDTA, it is speculated that the embryocidal effect of Ca-DTPA is attributable to a Zn deficiency.

  10. Impact of brewing process operations on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in opaque sorghum beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beer is a significant component of the diet of millions of poor people in rural Africa. This study reports the effect of traditional brewing operations on its level of micronutrients, especially iron and zinc. The example of a West African sorghum beer, tchoukoutou, in Northern Benin

  11. Bioactivity of SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O glasses containing zinc-iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rajendra Kumar, E-mail: k.rajendra@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Srinivasan, A., E-mail: asrini@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India)

    2010-01-01

    Glasses with composition x(ZnO,Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3})(65 - x)SiO{sub 2}20(CaO,P{sub 2}O{sub 5})15Na{sub 2}O (6 {<=} x {<=} 21 mol%) were prepared by melt-quenching technique. Bioactivity of the glasses was investigated in vitro by examining apatite formation on the surface of glasses treated in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those in human blood plasma. Formation of bioactive apatite layer on the samples treated in SBF was confirmed by using Fourier transform infrared reflection (FTIR) spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Development of an apatite structure on the surface of the SBF treated glass samples as functions of composition and time could be established using the GI-XRD data. FTIR spectra of the glasses treated in SBF show features at characteristic vibration frequencies of apatite after 1-day of immersion in SBF. SEM observations revealed that the spherical particles formed on the glass surface were made of calcium and phosphorus with the Ca/P molar ratio being close to 1.67, corresponding to the value in crystalline apatite. Increase in bioactivity with increasing zinc-iron oxide content was observed. The results have been used to understand the evolution of the apatite surface layer as a function of glass composition and immersion time in SBF.

  12. Evaluation of micronutrient (zinc, copper and iron levels in periodontitis patients with and without diabetes mellitus type 2: A biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Periodontal tissue destruction is caused by an inappropriate host response to microorganisms. Diabetes is a metabolic disease and most of its complications are due to hyperglycemia. Periodontitis is considered as its sixth complication. Micronutrients such as zinc, copper and iron are essential for human health. There is accumulating evidence that the metabolism of several trace elements is altered in diabetes mellitus and that these nutrients might have specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of this disease and its complication. An association between micronutrients and periodontitis has also been suggested by preliminary studies. However, till date there is a lack of relevant clinical data. Aim: This study was designed to estimate and compare the serum levels of zinc, copper and iron in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients and healthy individuals with and without periodontitis. Setting and Design: Single centre case-control study. Subjects and Materials: This study included 150 subjects, 50 in each group. Group 1 comprised of 50 subject with diabetes mellitus type 2 and periodontitis. Group 2 comprised of 50 subjects with chronic periodontitis and Group 3 comprised of 50 control subjects. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry method was used to measure clinical level of zinc and copper in serum. Estimation of serum iron levels was done by bathophenanthroline method. Statistical analysis: The results obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis by analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison tests using statistical software SPSS version 17. Results: The results showed that the serum levels of zinc decreased and serum levels of iron and copper increased in diabetes patients with periodontitis compared to healthy individuals with and without periodontitis. Conclusion: Imbalance of Zinc, copper and iron levels in the serum can predispose an individual to the risk of developing periodontitis.

  13. Effect of zinc and calcium ions on the rat kidney membrane-bound form of dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hansel Gómez; Mae Chappé; Pedroa Valiente; Tirso Pons; Marí­a de Los Angeles Chávez; Jean-Louis Charli; Isel Pascual

    2013-09-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is an ectopeptidase with many roles, and a target of therapies for different pathologies. Zinc and calcium produce mixed inhibition of porcine DPP-IV activity. To investigate whether these results may be generalized to mammalian DPP-IV orthologues, we purified the intact membrane-bound form from rat kidney. Rat DPP-IV hydrolysed Gly-Pro--nitroanilide with an average Vmax of 0.86±0.01 mol min–1mL–1 and KM of 76±6 M. The enzyme was inhibited by the DPP-IV family inhibitor L-threo-Ile-thiazolidide (Ki=64.0±0.53 nM), competitively inhibited by bacitracin (Ki=0.16±0.01 mM) and bestatin (Ki=0.23±0.02 mM), and irreversibly inhibited by TLCK (IC50 value of 1.20±0.11 mM). The enzyme was also inhibited by divalent ions like Zn2+ and Ca2+, for which a mixed inhibition mechanism was observed (Ki values of the competitive component: 0.15±0.01 mM and 50.0±1.05 mM, respectively). According to bioinformatic tools, Ca2+ ions preferentially bound to the -propeller domain of the rat and human enzymes, while Zn2+ ions to the - hydrolase domain; the binding sites were essentially the same that were previously reported for the porcine DPP-IV. These data suggest that the cationic susceptibility of mammalian DPP-IV orthologues involves conserved mechanisms.

  14. NIR fluorescence spectroscopic investigations of Er{sup 3+}-ions doped borate based tellurium calcium zinc niobium oxide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, O. [Department of Instrumentation, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Dhoble, S.J. [Department of Physics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India); Ramesh, B.; Devarajulu, G. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Reddy, C. Madhukar [Department of Physics, AP Model School, Yerravaripalem 517194 (India); Linganna, K. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Reddy, G. Rajasekhar [Department of Instrumentation, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Raju, B. Deva Prasad, E-mail: drdevaprasadraju@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Department of Future Studies, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)

    2015-08-15

    A series of Er{sup 3+} ions doped tellurium calcium zinc niobium borate glasses were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The prepared samples were investigated by optical absorption and near infrared fluorescence spectroscopic studies. The obtained Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters Ω{sub λ} (λ=2, 4 and 6) were determined through experimental and calculated oscillator strengths obtained from absorption spectra and their results are studied and compared with reported literature. The stark-level energies of {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} excited and {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} ground states were evaluated by using both the absorption and emission measurements. The effect of Er{sup 3+} ion concentration on the emission intensity of {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition was discussed. Intense and broad 1.53 µm infrared fluorescence is observed at 980 nm diode laser excitation. Photoluminescence (PL) and its decay behavior studies were carried out for the transition {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} at 1.53 µm emission. The broad emission together with higher values of the bandwidth (81 nm), stimulated emission cross-section (32.25×10{sup −22} cm{sup 2}) and lifetime (530 µs for 1.0 mol% of Er{sup 3+}) of level {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} make these glasses attractive for broadband amplifiers. From the analysis of spectroscopic data, the present glass is a prospective photonic material for practical applications in the visible and NIR region. - Highlights: • In this study we prepared TCZNB glasses doped with Er{sup 3+} ions. • Glasses are characterized with absorption, emission and lifetime analysis. • Judd–Ofelt theory is used to calculate radiative properties. • TCZNB glasses could be used as NIR lasers.

  15. NIR fluorescence spectroscopic investigations of Er3+-ions doped borate based tellurium calcium zinc niobium oxide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of Er3+ ions doped tellurium calcium zinc niobium borate glasses were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The prepared samples were investigated by optical absorption and near infrared fluorescence spectroscopic studies. The obtained Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) were determined through experimental and calculated oscillator strengths obtained from absorption spectra and their results are studied and compared with reported literature. The stark-level energies of 4I13/2 excited and 4I15/2 ground states were evaluated by using both the absorption and emission measurements. The effect of Er3+ ion concentration on the emission intensity of 4I13/2→4I15/2 transition was discussed. Intense and broad 1.53 µm infrared fluorescence is observed at 980 nm diode laser excitation. Photoluminescence (PL) and its decay behavior studies were carried out for the transition 4I13/2→4I15/2 at 1.53 µm emission. The broad emission together with higher values of the bandwidth (81 nm), stimulated emission cross-section (32.25×10−22 cm2) and lifetime (530 µs for 1.0 mol% of Er3+) of level 4I13/2 make these glasses attractive for broadband amplifiers. From the analysis of spectroscopic data, the present glass is a prospective photonic material for practical applications in the visible and NIR region. - Highlights: • In this study we prepared TCZNB glasses doped with Er3+ ions. • Glasses are characterized with absorption, emission and lifetime analysis. • Judd–Ofelt theory is used to calculate radiative properties. • TCZNB glasses could be used as NIR lasers

  16. Isotope aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets consumed in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies on Venezuelan diets provided information on food consumed in each diet and their nutritional contents. It also showed the comparison of the iron absorption from these diets when given in the morning after over-night fast and when given at the customary time of the day. It was observed that the iron absorption from the lunch given at noon was slightly higher (although not significant) in Zulia and Sucre diets. There were no significant differences between the Zulia lunch given in the morning after over-night fast at noon. Similar results were observed in the Sucre diet lunch repeated twice. From these results we can state that iron absorption from meals is not affected by the time it is administered with the condition that the subjects tested have had a previous fast of three hours before the meal is administered. The significant difference in iron absorption in the first study could be due to a marked physiological daily variation in iron absorption. The results from these studies provide credit to previous reports in which meals were given in the morning after an over-night fast. The iron absorption studies from 11 diets consumed by the Venezuelan population, provided the basic information for the establishment of a programme on iron fortification. The Government of Venezuela, according to the recommendation of the National Nutrition Institute, approved a national programme of iron fortification by enriching precooked maize flour with ferrous fumarate in the proportion of 5 mg Fe/100 g flour, and the enrichment of flour used to produce paste with the same iron compound in the proportion of 3 mg Fe/100 g flour. This year, the Chemical Centre of the Venezuela Scientific Institute of Research discovered an iron compound, now called FERROIVIC. It is an insoluble white powder that, when given as iron fortification, forms part of the nonhaeme iron pool and it is absorbed to the same extent as ferrous sulphate; it is stable for several months. 15 refs, 8

  17. The assessment of soil availability and wheat grain status of zinc and iron in Serbia: Implications for human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Nikolic, Nina; Kostic, Ljiljana; Pavlovic, Jelena; Bosnic, Predrag; Stevic, Nenad; Savic, Jasna; Hristov, Nikola

    2016-05-15

    The deficiency of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) is a global issue causing not only considerable yield losses of food crops but also serious health problems. We have analysed Zn and Fe concentrations in the grains of two bread wheat cultivars along native gradient of micronutrient availability throughout Serbia. Although only 13% of the soil samples were Zn deficient and none was Fe deficient, the levels of these micronutrients in grain were rather low (median values of 21 mg kg(-1) for Zn and 36 mg kg(-1) for Fe), and even less adequate in white flour. Moreover, excessive P fertilization of calcareous soils in the major wheat growing areas strongly correlated with lower grain concentration of Zn. Our results imply that a latent Zn deficiency in wheat grain poses a high risk for grain quality relevant to human health in Serbia, where wheat bread is a staple food. PMID:26925726

  18. Copper, iron, zinc, and selenium dietary intake and status of Nepalese lactating women and their breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, P B; Reynolds, R D; Acharya, S; Howard, M P; Andon, M B; Lewis, S A

    1988-04-01

    The dietary intake of copper, iron, zinc, and selenium of 26 Nepalese lactating mothers was estimated from chemical analysis of 24-h food and beverage composites. Fasting blood and milk samples were obtained from the mothers and blood samples were obtained from the infants. The Nepalese mothers consumed significantly more Cu, significantly less Fe and Se, and similar amounts of Zn as compared with American lactating women. Blood Fe status indices and plasma concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Se were lower in the Nepalese mothers than in the American mothers. These lower values may in part be related to the high neutral detergent fiber and phytate content of the Nepalese diet, which could make these minerals less available for absorption. The high exposure to infections in Nepal may also depress Fe status indices and plasma Zn concentrations. The lower dietary Se intake of the Nepalese mothers was reflected in lower milk concentrations. PMID:3354498

  19. MODIFICATION OF PRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE FILLER USING SODIUM SILICATE/ZINC CHLORIDE BASED MODIFIERS TO IMPROVE ACID-RESISTANCE AND USE OF THE MODIFIED FILLER IN PAPERMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the acid-resistant property of papermaking grade precipitated calcium carbonate filler and to obtain modified filler in powder form, sodium silicate/zinc chloride based modifiers were used in filler modification, and the use of modified filler in papermaking of deinked pulp derived from recycled newspaper was also preliminarily investigated. Under the preliminarily optimized experimental conditions, when sodium silicate, zinc chloride, sodium hexametaphosphate, and phosphoric acid with dosages of 10 wt%, 3 wt%, 1 wt% and 0.2 wt%, respectively, were used as modifiers, and when the temperature, aging time, and PCC concentration during the filler modification process was 70 oC, 7 h and 9.1 wt%, respectively, the acid-resistant property of filler was significantly improved after modification, as evaluated using alum consumption and pH methods. The use of modified precipitated calcium carbonate filler prepared under the optimized conditions provided considerably more brightness and light scattering improvement in comparison to unmodified filler, and filler modification was found to have only negligible influence on tensile and burst strength of the paper, air permeability of the paper, and retention performance of the filler. Surface analysis of the modified filler using XPS and SEM confirmed the occurring of surface encapsulation and modification of precipitated calcium carbonate filler when the relevant modifiers were used in filler modification. The encapsulating effect of modifiers on filler was thought to be favorable to improvement in acid-resistant property, and optical properties of the filled paper.

  20. Overexpression of ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 Enhances Iron and Zinc Accumulation in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzhen Li

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are important micronutrients for both the growth and nutrient availability of crop plants, and their absorption is tightly controlled by a metal uptake system. Zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like proteins (ZIP, is considered an essential metal transporter for the acquisition of Fe and Zn in graminaceous plants. Several ZIPs have been identified in maize, although their physiological function remains unclear. In this report, ZmIRT1 was shown to be specifically expressed in silk and embryo, whereas ZmZIP3 was a leaf-specific gene. Both ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were shown to be localized to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmIRT1 or ZmZIP3 were generated, and the metal contents in various tissues of transgenic and wild-type plants were examined based on ICP-OES and Zinpyr-1 staining. The Fe and Zn concentration increased in roots and seeds of ZmIRT1-overexpressing plants, while the Fe content in shoots decreased. Overexpressing ZmZIP3 enhanced Zn accumulation in the roots of transgenic plants, while that in shoots was repressed. In addition, the transgenic plants showed altered tolerance to various Fe and Zn conditions compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, the genes associated with metal uptake were stimulated in ZmIRT1 transgenic plants, while those involved in intra- and inter- cellular translocation were suppressed. In conclusion, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 are functional metal transporters with different ion selectivities. Ectopic overexpression of ZmIRT1 may stimulate endogenous Fe uptake mechanisms, which may facilitate metal uptake and homeostasis. Our results increase our understanding of the functions of ZIP family transporters in maize.

  1. The protective role of iron chelation and zinc supplements in atherosclerosis induced in New Zealand white rabbits: A nuclear microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protective properties of iron chelator desferal and zinc supplements on atherosclerosis induced in New Zealand white rabbits were investigated using nuclear microscopy, incorporating particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). Firstly, we examined the effects of the desferal (desferrioxamine - a chelator which forms a stable complex with ferric iron) on atherosclerosis progression and lesion iron content in cholesterol-fed New Zealand white rabbits. Rabbits were fed with a 1% w/w cholesterol diet (HFD - high fat diet) for either 8 weeks (with the last 5 weeks injected daily with desferal), or for 12 weeks (with the last 9 weeks injected with desferal). Controls were injected with saline. A significant reduction in average lesion area (p = 0.038) was observed in the 12-week treated animals as compared with the 12-week controls. The average lesion iron level of the 12 week treated animals (58 ppm dry weight) was significantly lower (p = 0.03) than for the 12-week control animals (95 ppm dry weight). No reduction in lesion area or iron content was observed in the 8 week treated animals compared with controls, and no change in lesion zinc concentration was observed for either group. This data is consistent with the concept that iron contributes to the early stages in the development of atherosclerosis and that removal of iron from the lesion retards the progression of the disease. Secondly, the effect of zinc supplements on atherosclerotic lesion growth was examined. The rabbits in the test group received a 1% w/w cholesterol diet with Zn supplements for 8 weeks and the rabbits in the control group were fed only with a 1% w/w cholesterol diet for the same period of time. Lesion area analyses using light microscopy showed that the average lesion area was 1.0 mm2 for the test models compared with 3.0 mm2 for the control group models (p = 0.0045). Elemental analysis of the lesion

  2. Toward a better understanding of coagulation for dissolved organic nitrogen using polymeric zinc-iron-phosphate coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guocheng; Wang, Qian; Yin, Jun; Li, Zhongwu; Zhang, Peng; Ren, Bozhi; Fan, Gongduan; Wan, Peng

    2016-09-01

    The increase of agricultural related activities and the lack of effective waste control has led to an increase of organic nitrogen in water. The development of coagulants to effectively remove dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is a high priority in the water treatment industry. We developed a polymeric zinc-iron-phosphate (ZnFeP) coagulant and investigated its coagulation effect on DON removal. Optimum coagulant for coagulation for DON and TDN removals was characterized by the dense convex-concave packing structure differing from other zinc-based coagulant, polycrystalline structure and high content colloidal species, which could account up to 87% of the total colloidal species. Coagulation experiments showed the DON removal rate to vary greatly depending on principal components and their interaction with metals, phosphate and hydroxyl. DON removal efficiency increased with the increase of colloidal species. The coagulation was also dependent on coagulant dosage and water quality parameters: Coagulation efficiency increased with coagulant dosage in the investigated range of 1-16 mg/l, and a pH of 6 was found to be superior for the coagulation. DON removal efficiency was also higher than and linearly correlated with total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) removal, which implies that an effective coagulation for TDN is also effective for DON. The findings in this study indicate that coagulation of DON is largely influenced by coagulant composition and species. We also found the removal of DON by our newly developed polymeric ZnFeP coagulant to be effective. PMID:27192355

  3. Evaluating environmental and social influences on iron and zinc status of pregnant subsistence farmers in two geographically contrasting regions of Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, N; Rankin, J; Pollard, M; Maleta, K; Robertson, C; Hursthouse, A

    2014-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiency affects over 4.5 billion people worldwide, the majority in developing countries. Deficiencies of iron (and associated anaemia) and zinc in pregnancy are associated with complications, maternal and neonatal mortality, and developmental disorders in the foetus and growing child. We report the results of pilot study which used an interdisciplinary approach to explore environmental and sociocultural factors influencing the micronutrient status in the soil-plant-human transfer for pregnant subsistence farmers in two geographically contrasting regions of Southern Malawi. It evaluated micronutrient status in soil and the staple crop and explored the context for their transfer to pregnant women. Scientific and social science methods were used to collect data, following full sensitisation of the communities. A total of 99 participants were recruited from Chiradzulu (plateau) and Chikwawa (floodplain). Soil, maize and blood samples were collected, along with food frequency and health behaviour questionnaires and anthropological observation. Statistical analysis revealed that soil iron was significantly higher in Chiradzulu than in Chikwawa; total iron concentration is not deemed to be deficient in either area. Soil zinc was not significantly different between areas. Maize concentrations of iron and zinc were not significantly different between areas, and were not deficient relative to improved cultivars. Blood iron deficiency and associated anaemia were problematic in both areas, but more so in Chikwawa than in Chiradzulu, and zinc deficiency was similar in both areas. The study has identified a significant difference in the blood iron status of the participants of the two communities, and has shown that this difference is not accounted for by the staple crop maize. Socio-geographical factors appear to play a significant role in the micronutrient health of the populations. The findings lend support to multifaceted community intervention studies which

  4. Human Calprotectin: Effect of Calcium and Zinc on its Secondary and Tertiary Structures, and Role of pH in its Thermal Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza YOUSEFI; Mehdi IMANI; Susan K ARDESTANI; Ali Akbar SABOURY; Nematollah GHEIBI; Bijan RANJBAR

    2007-01-01

    Calprotectin, a heterodimeric complex belonging to the S100 protein family, has been found predominantly in the cytosolic fraction of neutrophils. In the present study, human calprotectin was purified from neutrophils using two-step ion exchange chromatography. The purified protein was used for circular dichroism study and fluorescence analysis in the presence of calcium and zinc at physiological concentrations,as well as for assessment of its inhibitory activity on the K562 leukemia cell line. The thermal stability of the protein at pH 7.0 (physiological pH) and 8.0 (similar to intestinal pH) was also compared. The results of cell proliferation analysis revealed that human calprotectin initiated growth inhibition of the tumor cells in a dosedependent manner. The intrinsic fluorescence emission spectra of human calprotectin (50 μg/ml) in the presence of calcium and zinc ions show a reduction in fluorescence intensity, reflecting a conformational change within the protein with exposure of aromatic residues to the protein surface that is important for the biological function of calprotectin. The far ultraviolet-circular dichroism spectra of human calprotectin in the presence of calcium and zinc ions at physiological concentrations show a decrease in the α-helical content of the protein and an increase in β- and other structures. Our results also show that increasing the pH level from 7.0 to 8.0 leads to a marked elevation in the thermal stability of human calprotectin, indicating a significant role for pH in the stability of calprotectin in the gut.

  5. Rapid screening assay for calcium bioavailability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium bioavailability has been studied by numerous techniques. The authors report here the use of the gamma emitting isotope of calcium (47Ca) in a whole body retention assay system. In this system, calcium sources are administered by oral gavage and subsequent counts are determined and corrected for isotopic decay. Unlike iron and zinc retention curves, which exhibit a 2-3 day equilibration period, calcium reaches equilibration after 24 hours. Autoradiographic analysis of the femurs indicate that the newly absorbed calcium is rapidly distributed to the skeletal system. Moreover, the isotope is distributed along the entire bone. Comparisons of calcium bioavailability were made using intrinsic/extrinsic labeled milk from two species i.e. rat and goat as well as CaCO3. In addition, extrinsic labeled cow milk was examined. In the rat, the extrinsic labeled calcium from milk was better absorbed than the intrinsic calcium. This was not the case in goat milk or the calcium carbonate which exhibited no significant differences. Chromatographic analysis of the labeled milk indicates a difference in distribution of the 47Ca. From these data, the authors recommend the use of this assay system in calcium bioavailability studies. The labeling studies and comparisons indicate caution should be used, however, in labeling techniques and species milk comparison

  6. 从闪速还原锌焙砂中选择性浸出锌、铁试验研究%Selective Acid Leaching of Zinc and Iron From Flash Reduction Zinc Calcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴曦; 陈田庄; 吴永谦; 周康洁; 李良斌

    2013-01-01

    Selective acid leaching of zinc and iron from flash reduction roasting product was studied .The influence of initial sulfuric acid concentration ,leaching temperature ,leaching time ,the ratio between liquid volume and solid mass ,stirring rate on leaching of zinc and iron were studied .The results show that the leaching rate of zinc increases more than 10% after zinc calcine being reduction roasted ,iron content in the leaching residue increases more than 7% .The leaching as well as filtering performance are improved due to the porous structure of reduction zinc calcine .The formation of the desired magnetic compound Fe3 O4 by efficient decomposition of ZnFe2 O4 in zinc calcine is effective to separate zinc and iron .%研究了从锌焙砂闪速还原焙烧产物中选择性酸浸锌,考察了初始硫酸质量浓度、浸出温度、浸出时间、液固体积质量比、搅拌速度对锌、铁浸出率的影响。试验结果表明:还原锌焙砂的锌浸出率较锌焙砂的锌浸出率提高10%以上,其浸出渣中含铁质量分数提高7%以上;还原锌焙砂结构疏松多孔,使其及浸出渣的过滤性能得以改善。高效分解锌焙砂中ZnFe2 O4并形成理想形态的磁性化合物Fe3 O4,是提高还原锌焙砂锌浸出率并抑制铁浸出从而实现锌、铁有效分离的关键。

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  8. Characterization of calcium and zinc spatial distributions at the fibrocartilage zone of bone–tendon junction by synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendon attaches to bone through a functionally graded fibrocartilage zone, including uncalcified fibrocartilage (UF), tidemark (TM) and calcified fibrocartilage (CF). This transition zone plays a pivotal role in relaxing load transfer between tendon and bone, and serves as a boundary between otherwise structurally and functionally distinct tissue types. Calcium and zinc are believed to play important roles in the normal growth, mineralization, and repair of the fibrocartilage zone of bone–tendon junction (BTJ). However, spatial distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of BTJ and their distribution–function relationship are not totally understood. Thus, synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μXRF) in combination with backscattered electron imaging (BEI) was employed to characterize the distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of rabbit patella–patellar tendon complex (PPTC). For the first time, the unique distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of the PPTC were clearly mapped by this method. The distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of the PPTC were inhomogeneous. A significant accumulation of zinc was exhibited in the transition region between UF and CF. The highest zinc content (3.17 times of that of patellar tendon) was found in the TM of fibrocartilage zone. The calcium content began to increase near the TM and increased exponentially across the calcified fibrocartilage region towards the patella. The highest calcium content (43.14 times of that of patellar tendon) was in the transitional zone of calcified fibrocartilage region and the patella, approximately 69 μm from the location with the highest zinc content. This study indicated, for the first time, that there is a differential distribution of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of PPTC. These observations reveal new insights into region-dependent changes across the fibrocartilage

  9. Characterization of calcium and zinc spatial distributions at the fibrocartilage zone of bone–tendon junction by synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongbin; Chen, Can; Wang, Zhanwen; Qu, Jin; Xu, Daqi [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Center of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Wu, Tianding; Cao, Yong [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Zhou, Jingyong; Zheng, Cheng [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Center of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Hu, Jianzhong, E-mail: jianzhonghu@hotmail.com [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Center of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China)

    2015-09-01

    Tendon attaches to bone through a functionally graded fibrocartilage zone, including uncalcified fibrocartilage (UF), tidemark (TM) and calcified fibrocartilage (CF). This transition zone plays a pivotal role in relaxing load transfer between tendon and bone, and serves as a boundary between otherwise structurally and functionally distinct tissue types. Calcium and zinc are believed to play important roles in the normal growth, mineralization, and repair of the fibrocartilage zone of bone–tendon junction (BTJ). However, spatial distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of BTJ and their distribution–function relationship are not totally understood. Thus, synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μXRF) in combination with backscattered electron imaging (BEI) was employed to characterize the distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of rabbit patella–patellar tendon complex (PPTC). For the first time, the unique distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of the PPTC were clearly mapped by this method. The distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of the PPTC were inhomogeneous. A significant accumulation of zinc was exhibited in the transition region between UF and CF. The highest zinc content (3.17 times of that of patellar tendon) was found in the TM of fibrocartilage zone. The calcium content began to increase near the TM and increased exponentially across the calcified fibrocartilage region towards the patella. The highest calcium content (43.14 times of that of patellar tendon) was in the transitional zone of calcified fibrocartilage region and the patella, approximately 69 μm from the location with the highest zinc content. This study indicated, for the first time, that there is a differential distribution of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of PPTC. These observations reveal new insights into region-dependent changes across the fibrocartilage

  10. Influence of iron ions on the structural and magnetic properties of some zinc-phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasses in the (Fe2O3)x.(P2O5)40.(ZnO)60-x (0 ≤ x ≤ 30 mol%) system have been prepared by the melt-quenching technique. The structural and magnetic properties of these glasses were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The XRD pattern for the prepared samples shows their vitreous state only for x ≤ 20 mol%. For the samples containing 30 mol% Fe2O3 the presence of a unique crystalline phase, FePO4, embedded in an amorphous matrix was evidenced. FTIR spectroscopy data suggest that the iron ions play the network modifier role in the studied glasses. The addition of iron oxide leads to the breakage of P=O bonds and the formation of the P-O-Fe bonds. The presence of the Fe-O-P bonds for the samples with higher iron oxide content in the studied system improves their chemical durability. The increases of iron ions content of the samples determine a gradual decrease in the number of bridging oxygen ions respectively the increase of the number of non-bridging oxygen ions. EPR and magnetic susceptibility measurements show the presence of the Fe3+ ions in sites of distorted octahedral symmetry and as well as in clustered formations containing both Fe3+ and Fe2+ ionic species. Dipolar and superexchange interactions involving iron ions were revealed depending on the iron content of the sample.

  11. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  12. 镀锌灰的热酸浸出和除铁试验研究%Research on Leaching of Zinc Using Hot Acid From Zinc Ash and Removal of Iron From Leaching Solution by Jarosite Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小凤; 李运刚; 陈金

    2014-01-01

    By single factor experiments ,leaching of zinc using hot acid from zinc ash and removal of iron from the leaching solution by jarosite process were researched .The results show that the optimum conditions for leaching zinc are determined as follow s initial acid concentration of 150 g/L ,leaching temperature of 90 ℃ ,ratio between liquid volume and solid mass of 6∶1 .At the optimum conditions , the leaching rate of zinc is more than 97% .Removal of iron is over 98% under the conditions of temperature of 90 ℃ ,reaction time of 3 h .%采用单因素试验法研究了从镀锌灰中热酸浸出锌及黄钾铁矾法除铁。试验结果表明:在硫酸初始质量浓度为150 g/L、浸出温度90℃、浸出时间3 h、液固体积质量比6∶1条件下,锌浸出率在97%以上;用黄钾铁矾法除铁,在温度90℃、反应时间3 h条件下,铁去除率在98%以上。

  13. Copper metabolism and its interactions with dietary iron, zinc, tin and selenium in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, S.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies on copper metabolism and its interactions with selected dietary trace elements in rats. The rats were fed purified diets throughout. High intakes of iron or tin reduced copper concentrations in plasma, liver and kidneys. The dietary treatments also reduced bilia

  14. ZINC FINGER OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA12 (ZAT12) Interacts with FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY-INDUCED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT) Linking Iron Deficiency and Oxidative Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Cham Thi Tuyet; Brumbarova, Tzvetina; Ivanov, Rumen; Stoof, Claudia; Weber, Eva; Mohrbacher, Julia; Fink-Straube, Claudia; Bauer, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Plants grown under iron (Fe)-deficient conditions induce a set of genes that enhance the efficiency of Fe uptake by the roots. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the central regulator of this response is the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY-INDUCED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT). FIT activity is regulated by protein-protein interactions, which also serve to integrate external signals that stimulate and possibly inhibit Fe uptake. In the search of signaling components regulating FIT function, we identified ZINC FINGER OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA12 (ZAT12), an abiotic stress-induced transcription factor. ZAT12 interacted with FIT, dependent on the presence of the ethylene-responsive element-binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression motif. ZAT12 protein was found expressed in the root early differentiation zone, where its abundance was modulated in a root layer-specific manner. In the absence of ZAT12, FIT expression was upregulated, suggesting a negative effect of ZAT12 on Fe uptake. Consistently, zat12 loss-of-function mutants had higher Fe content than the wild type at sufficient Fe. We found that under Fe deficiency, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were enhanced in a FIT-dependent manner. FIT protein, in turn, was stabilized by H2O2 but only in the presence of ZAT12, showing that H2O2 serves as a signal for Fe deficiency responses. We propose that oxidative stress-induced ZAT12 functions as a negative regulator of Fe acquisition. A model where H2O2 mediates the negative regulation of plant responses to prolonged stress might be applicable to a variety of stress conditions. PMID:26556796

  15. The separation and determination of trace elements in iron ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation, concentration, and determination of trace elements in iron ores are described. After the sample has been dissolved, the iron is separated by liquid-liquid extraction with a liquid cation-exchanger, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. The trace elements aluminium, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, potassium, sodium, vanadium, and zinc are determined in the aqueous phase by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry

  16. Speciation dependent radiotracer studies on chromium preconcentration using iron doped calcium alginate biopolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work aims to study the differential attitude of Ca-alginate (CA) and Fe-doped calcium alginate (Fe-CA) and towards Cr(III) and Cr (IV) so that, depending on the oxidation state of chromium effluent, environmentally sustainable methodologies can be prescribed for removal of chromium. Throughout the experiment 51Cr has been used as the precursor of stable chromium

  17. Appraisal of temporal variation in soil and forage iron and zinc in a pasture under semi-arid environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation we determined the effect of sampling periods on iron and zinc contents of soil and forage of a pasture from Sargodha (Pakistan) consisting of plants mainly of Brassicaceae. Soil and plant samples were taken six times at a regular interval of 15 days. They were then wet digested and analyzed for Fe and Zn. The data showed that there was no significant influence of sampling periods on both soil and forage Fe and Zn contents. However, there was statistically non-significant variation in mineral contents of soil and forage showing an inconsistent pattern of fluctuation with sampling periods. The highest value of soil Fe was found at the third period and the lowest at the fifth period of sampling. Mean values of soil Fe varied from 7.5-7.7 mg/kg at different periods of sample collection. The highest value of forage Fe was found at the first period and the lowest at the sixth period ranging from 57.85-64.67 mg/kg across all sampling times. Mean values of soil Zn varied from 0.36-0.15 mg/kg at different sampling periods. Forage shoot Zn concentration was the highest at the first period and the lowest at the fifth period during the whole investigation period. Forage Zn ranged from 13.22 to 23.92 mg/kg in leaves/shoots. There was an inconsistent variation in its concentration at different sampling periods. The concentration of Zn both in soil and forage were at severe deficient levels indicating the need of soil amendment with zinc containing fertilizers to enhance the Zn contents of the pasture soil and in turn availability of Zn to forage from soil. These Fe concentrations were within the marginal and severe deficient levels for the ruminant requirements. The naturally upset balance of Fe offers a potential hazard not only for both pastures, but also the Fe status of grazing ruminants therein. (author)

  18. Concentration of heavy metals - iron, manganese, zinc and copper in mosses

    OpenAIRE

    K. Czarnowska; I. Rejmont-Grochowska

    2015-01-01

    The iron content in gametophytes of Aulacomnium palustre. Climacium dendroides, Catharinea undulata is 5—10 times higher than in vascular plants. The manganese, zine and copper content is 2-3 times higher than in vascular plants. The content of these elements in sporophytes of Catharinea undulata is approximately the same as in vascular plants. The accumulation of the investigated metals takes place mainly in the protoplasts of the chlorophyll cells of gametophyte leaves. A weakly acid pH of ...

  19. Long distance electron transmission couples sulphur, iron, calcium and oxygen cycling in marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    Geochemical observations in marine sediment have recently documented that electric currents may intimately couple spatially separated biogeochemical processes (1). When marine sediment rich in iron sulphide was exposed to oxygen we observed how the electric currents resulted in significant...... geochemical alterations in the upper centimetres of the anoxic sediment: Sulphides were oxidized to sulphate in anoxic sediment layers. Electrons from this half-reaction were passed to the oxic layers cm above. In this way the domain of oxygen was extended far beyond it’s physically presence. Bioelectrical...... from iron sulfides was to a large extend deposited in the oxic zone as iron oxides and Ca2+ eventually precipitates at the surface as due to high pH caused by cathodic oxygen reduction. The result show how long distance electron transmission allows oxygen to drive the allocation of important minerals...

  20. Stabilization of ZnCl2-containing wastes using calcium sulfoaluminate cement: leaching behaviour of the solidified waste form, mechanisms of zinc retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Stéphane; Cau Dit Coumes, Céline; Champenois, Jean-Baptiste; Douillard, Thierry; Le Bescop, Patrick; Aouad, Georges; Damidot, Denis

    2011-10-30

    To assess the potential of calcium sulfoaluminate cement to solidify and stabilize wastes containing high amounts of soluble zinc chloride (a strong inhibitor of Portland cement hydration), a simulated cemented waste form was submitted to leaching by pure water at a fixed pH of 7 for three months, according to a test designed to understand the degradation processes of cement pastes. Leaching was controlled by diffusion. The zinc concentration in the leachates always remained below the detection limit (2 μmol/L), showing the excellent confining properties of the cement matrix. At the end of the experiment, the solid sample exhibited three zones which were accurately characterized: (i) a highly porous and friable surface layer, (ii) a less porous intermediate zone in which several precipitation and dissolution fronts occurred, and (iii) the sound core. Ettringite was a good tracer for degradation. The good retention of zinc by the cement matrix was mainly attributed to the precipitation of a hydrated and well crystallized phase with platelet morphology (which may belong to the layered double hydroxide family) at early age (≤ 1 day), and to chemisorption onto aluminum hydroxide at later age. PMID:21889842

  1. Coprecipitation with calcium hydroxide for determination of iron in fish otoliths by collision cell ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stephanie L; Arslan, Zikri

    2007-05-01

    A method has been described for the determination of iron from fish otoliths containing high levels of calcium by collision cell technology (CCT) ICP-MS. Iron (Fe) in otolith solutions was quantitatively coprecipitated with small amounts of calcium hydroxide by adding 1.0 M sodium hydroxide solution. The performance of CCT-ICP-MS pressurized with He/H(2) cell gas was investigated on the elimination of Ca-based spectral interferences at m/z 54, 56 and 57. Molecular ion interferences at m/z 54 and 56 were reduced by 2 orders of magnitude. However, the interferences at m/z 57 increased by the same amount in the presence of Ca in solutions owing to the formation of (40)Ca(16) OH(+) through reactions with H(2) in collision cell, indicating that (57)Fe was not suitable for the determination of Fe from otoliths. Results for (56)Fe suffered significantly from interferences of Ca-based molecular ions when the Ca concentration in solution exceeded 100 microg ml(-1), for which matrix-matched calibration was required for accurate determination. CCT with the aid of He/H(2) cell gas proved to be very effective in eliminating the interferences ((40)Ar(14)N(+) and (40)Ca(14)N(+)) at m/z 54. Presence of Ca up to 300 microg ml(-1) had virtually no effect on the ion signals of (54)Fe, which with low background signals, afforded accurate determination of Fe from otoliths by using aqueous external standards. PMID:17294508

  2. Iron, zinc and selenium status of urban and rural populations in Pakistan, their bioavailability in the diet and their dietary interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the diversity of diet for rural and urban populations of Pakistan, anemias are very common. This paper contains a discussion of deficiencies of iron, zinc, selenium and magnesium in the population. Included are discussions on the bioavailability of these elements from the local diet, the various dietary interactions with other elements, and several methods used for identifying the trace element in blood samples from a test group. 28 refs, 7 tabs

  3. Evaluation of Zinc, Copper and Iron Concentrations in Breast Milk of Mothers Belonging to Different Economic Classes and their Correlations with Infants Growth

    OpenAIRE

    J Ghaemmaghami; B Pourghassem Gargari; L Nikniaz; R Mahdavi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Taking into account the importance of micronutrients in health and growth of the infants, the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in breast milk of mothers belonging to different economic classes and their effects on infants’ growth were investigated. Methods: Milk samples and information on personal characteristics, anthropometric and 24-hour food recall were collected from 90 lactating women belonging to 3 different socioeconomic classes who had exclusively breastfed thei...

  4. Effect of n-tetradecanol on the extraction of iron(III), cobalt(II), and zinc(II) chlorides with tri-n-dodecylammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equations are proposed to describe the reduction in the partition coefficients of metal chlorides in amine extractant systems following the addition of alcohols. The equations include two empirical factors: solvation parameters for amine chloride and the compound undergoing extraction. These parameters can be found from independent data. The equations have been used to describe the extraction of micro amounts of iron(III), cobalt(II), and zinc(II) chlorides by tridodecylammonium chloride in the presence of n-tetradecanol

  5. Nanoparticle interactions with zinc and iron: Implications for toxicology and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Particulate air pollution (PM10) consists of a mixture of components, including nanoparticles and metals. Studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that transition metals can potentiate the ability of nanoparticles to induce lung inflammation and that the zinc content of PM10 was largely responsible for their potential to induce inflammation. These results are also relevant to zinc-containing engineered nanoparticles. Objectives: To investigate the potential of ZnCl2 and FeCl3 to interact with nanoparticle carbon black in cell-free and biological systems to generate ROS, express pro-inflammatory mediators and cytotoxic ability. Methods: ROS production was examined using DCFH-DA. J774 cells were treated for 4 h with 14 nm CB and/or ZnCl2 before measuring TNF-α by ELISA. Cytoskeletal changes were investigated using confocal microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to examine apoptotic/necrotic cells and phagocytic ability. Results: In a cell-free system the particles generated significant ROS, whereas ZnCl2 did not. Treatment of cells with 100 μM ZnCl2, but not FeCl3, increased TNF-α. Treatment with 14 nm CB alone induced TNF-α, which was synergistically enhanced by ZnCl2. No interactions were observed in cells treated with 14 nm CB and FeCl3. Cytoskeletal changes were observed with increasing concentrations of ZnCl2. These results were confirmed by flow cytometry indicating that ZnCl2 induced markers of apoptosis and necrosis. The phagocytic ability of cells was also significantly decreased. Nanoparticle carbon black alone did not induce changes in apoptosis/necrosis or the phagocytosis activity of the cells. Conclusion: Despite an inability to induce ROS production, ZnCl2 stimulated TNF-α production which was synergistically enhanced by 14 nm carbon black. The ability of zinc to induce morphological changes and cell death was not altered by nanoparticle treatment

  6. HEAVY METALS ABUNDANCE IN THE SOILS OF THE PANTELIMON – BRĂNEŞTI AREA, ILFOV COUNTY: IRON, MANGANESE, NICKEL, LEAD, ZINC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lăcătuşu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 20 years later, a new research on heavy metals (iron, manganese, nickel, lead, zinc contents in the soil cover of the Pantelimon – Brăneşti area located East of the Bucharest Municipality and exposed for several decades to the influence of industrial emissions from two non-ferrous metallurgy plants is presented. A 5,912.72 ha area was investigated, 544 samples taken by geometric horizons (0-20; 20-40; 40-60 cm from 215 points have been analyzed. The dominant soils are: Preluvosols, Chernozems, and Phaeozems. The total manganese, nickel, and zinc contents of the analyzed soils are lower than their average contents in the lithosphere, while the lead content is 2.3 times higher. As compared to the average contents of the World’s soils the contents of the four heavy metals in the Pantelimon – Brăneşti area are much higher: 1.32 (zinc; 1.45 (manganese; 2.00 (nickel, and 2.43 (lead times. The polluting chemical element of the area is lead. The iron and manganese contents frequency histograms are symmetric, while those of the nickel, lead, and zinc are asymmetric with right asymmetry. The tendency maps of the heavy metals distribution in the analyzed soils shows the insular character of the high contents generated by the polluting emissions nature, by the dominant winds direction, by the micro relief, and by the vegetation structure.

  7. Iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status and immune response in elderly subjects in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iron, folacin, vitamin B12, and zinc status of a group of economically and socially disadvantaged elderly persons in the Washington Metropolitan Area was evaluated. Factors related to deficiencies of these nutrients, the relationships between the status of these nutrients and cell-mediated immunity, and the relationships of iron, folacin and vitamin B12 status to hemoglobin levels in the subjects were also examined. It was also determined whether there were any interactions among iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status in their relationships to cell-mediated immunity. Socio-demographic and nutritional data on the subjects were obtained using a questionnaire. Dietary data were obtained using a dietary record. A fasting blood sample was drawn and the levels of ferritin, folate and vitamin B12, and the erythrocyte levels of folate were determined by radioassay. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cell-mediated immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation by mitogens, and by allogenic lymphocytes in the mixed lymphocyte reaction

  8. An FTIR and ESR study of iron doped calcium borophosphate glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, M.; Popa, A.; Borodi, G.; Stefan, R.

    2015-12-01

    A series of glasses in the xFe2O3-(100-x) [42B2O3-24CaO-34P2O5] system has been prepared for x = 0-10. Structure of as casted glasses and their heat treated counterparts have been studied by X-ray diffraction, infrared and electron spin resonance spectroscopies. Amorphous nature of all of the compositions studied is confirmed by the XRPD spectra. After the heat treatment, besides the main BPO4 phase, CaBPO5 and Ca(PO3) crystalline phases were identified in the iron free glass while B0.57Fe0.43PO4 phase was also observed in the XRD pattern of iron containing samples. FTIR spectra indicate changes in the glass network upon iron addition. X-band ESR spectra exhibits resonance signals at g ∼ 2.0 and g ∼ 4.3 for all analyzed samples. A supplementary line centered at g ∼ 6 appears after the thermal treatment. The nature of ESR absorption signals and influence of iron content on the evolution of ESR parameters are discussed.

  9. Changes in mineral absorption inhibitors consequent to fermentation of Ethiopian injera : implications for predicted iron bioavailability and bioaccessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Baye, K.; Mouquet Rivier, Claire; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Picq, Christian; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Possible changes in mineral bioavailability during processing of different types of injera sampled in Ethiopian households were assessed using different methods: phytic acid/mineral molar ratio, absorption prediction algorithm and in vitro availability measurements. Most foods analysed were rich in iron, but most of the iron likely resulted from soil contamination. The highest iron, zinc and calcium contents were found in teff-white sorghum (TwS) injera and flour. The lowest phytic acid/Fe an...

  10. Disponibilidad de cobre, hierro, manganeso, zinc en suelos del NO argentino Pant availability of copper, iron, manganesum and zinc in the north west of Agentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Roca

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cobre, hierro, manganeso y zinc son cuatro metales esenciales para el crecimiento vegetal. A pesar de las pequeñas cantidades requeridas por las plantas, los suelos agrícolas suelen ser deficitarios en uno o más micronutrientes de forma que su concentración en los tejidos de los vegetales cae por debajo de los niveles que permiten un crecimiento óptimo. La naturaleza del suelo juega un papel fundamental en la disponibilidad de micronutrientes y en su comportamiento a nivel suelo-planta. Los objetivos planteados en el presente estudio son: a establecer la relación entre los parámetros edáficos y la dinámica de los metales dentro del perfil del suelo, y b determinar la biodisponibilidad y zonas de deficiencia de micronutrientes en suelos agrícolas y suelos con riesgo de salinización. El porcentaje de materia orgánica es el factor determinante en el contenido y distribución de los micronutrientes en el suelo objeto de estudio, siendo el horizonte superficial el de mayor acumulación. Tanto CuDTPA, FeDTPA como MnDTPA tienen cierta movilidad en el perfil, mientras que ZnDTPA permanece adsorbido sin un desplazamiento vertical. El ZnDTPA es el único metal que además, muestra diferencias como consecuencia de la salinidad y granulometría de los suelos. No obstante, las condiciones geoquímicas del suelo implican una baja extractabilidad y una cierta dificultad de absorción de los micronutrientes por parte de las plantas.Copper, iron, manganese and zinc are among the essential elements for plant growth. Despite the small amounts required by plants, agricultural soils are usually deficient in one or more of these micronutrients. Therefore, their concentration in plant tissues falls below the optimum levels. Soil nature plays a fundamental role in the availability of micronutrients and their behavior at a soil-plant level. The aims of this paper were: a to establish the relationship between soil properties and micronutrient dynamics within

  11. Lack of iron and zinc in children and intervention%儿童铁和锌的缺乏与干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费燕; 解畅

    2013-01-01

    世界卫生组织的研究报告显示,营养性铁缺乏和锌缺乏是严重影响儿童健康的常见营养素缺乏问题,是威胁发展中国家2岁以下幼儿身心健康的主要原因之一。铁和锌缺乏症每年引起约数万名5岁以下儿童死亡。婴幼儿是铁和锌缺乏的高危人群。造成缺铁的原因与膳食中铁摄入不足以及吸收铁生物利用率低等有关,饮食摄入不足或吸收不良是发展中国家婴幼儿期锌缺乏的常见原因。铁缺乏可影响免疫功能,增加婴儿感染的风险;锌缺乏可影响儿童的生长发育,造成生长发育和精神发育迟缓以及行为发育障碍,是引起2岁以下幼儿生长发育迟缓的主要原因之一。补充营养素以及应用营养素强化食品可减少儿童铁和锌缺乏的发生,并具有较高的成本效益,应作为优先推荐的干预措施,降低儿童铁和锌缺乏的患病率,改善儿童营养状况。%Research Report WHO display, Nutritional iron deficiency and zinc deficiency is common in children's health seriously affect the nutrient deficiency problems, one of the prime reasons of children below 2 years old the threat of physical and mental health in developing countries. Iron and zinc deficiency caused about tens of thousands of deaths of children under 5 years old. Infants are at high risk of iron and zinc deficiency. The cause of dietary was iron intake and absorption of low utilization rate of iron bioavailability, common causes of developing infantile zinc deficiency is inadequate dietary intake or malabsorption. Iron deficiency can affect the immune function;increase the risk of infant infection;Zinc deficiency can affect the growth and development of children, bring about growth and mental retardation, behavior disorders, is the main cause of growth retardation in children under 2 years old. To add nutrients as well as the application of nutrients fortified food can reduce iron and zinc deficiency

  12. Supplement of Iron and Zinc of Trace Elements in Athletes'Training%运动员训练中微量元素铁与锌的补充

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵骞

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements are essential nutritional elements , the relationship between iron , zinc and the hu-man motion ability is very close .Iron is the main component of hemoglobin , myoglobin , cytochrome and some respiratory oxidase , plays an important role in the process of tissue respiration .Zinc is the activator of various enzymes , plays an important role in metabolizing of the tissue respiration and protein , fat, carbohy-drate and nucleic acid , is a nutrient which is the necessary of the body and has the structure and physiologi-cal function .The decline of movement , body immune system function and iron deficiency anemia are caused by low iron .Low zinc will lead to the formation of sports injury and fatigue , affect the androgen level , which has an impact on the movements .Low iron and zinc , excessive perspiration in training and high intensive training are the reasons for iron and zinc deficiency .We should supply iron and zinc from the balanced diet , have much red lean meat, fish, eggs, livers, ostracean, unhusked rice and other roughage , and the use of nutritional supplement , in order to supply reasonably the trace elements of iron and zinc .%微量元素是人体必需的营养元素,铁和锌与人体运动能力的关系十分密切。铁是血红蛋白、肌红蛋白、细胞色素以及一些呼吸氧化酶的主要成分,在机体组织呼吸过程发挥重要作用;锌是多种酶的组成成分或酶的激活剂,在组织呼吸以及蛋白质、脂肪、糖和核酸等的代谢中有重要作用,是人体内必须具有结构生理功能的营养素。机体内缺铁时,引起缺铁性贫血,导致运动能力、机体免疫系统功能下降;锌的缺乏导致运动损伤和疲劳的形成,影响机体雄激素的水平,从而对运动能力产生影响。铁与锌的摄入量不足、训练过程中出汗量大和运动训练强度大等是造成运动员铁和锌缺乏的原因,应该首先从平衡膳食方面加强

  13. Evaluation of trace trace elements iron, zinc, copper and lead in the diet of female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Z; Abdhamid, R

    1995-03-01

    Food consumption of 50 female students in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia was recorded for 7 days. Foods and drinks most frequently consumed were selected for analysis of iron, zinc, copper and lead content. The mean daily intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat among the students are 6.5±1.4 MJ (1550±335 kcal), 59.8±18.5g, 227.1±54.6 g and 46.0±11.5 g respectively. This diet contributed 19.6-6.4 mg Fe, 7.0-2.0 mg Zn and 1.6-0.6 mg Cu per day which were lower than the Malaysian RDA for Fe and US RDA for Zn, while Cu is within the recommended range. The main sources of these minerals in the student's diet were rice, rice products, meat and animal products. Lead concentration in the diet (134±77 ug/day) is below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value suggested by Codex Alimentarius Commission (1984). This study indicated concern regarding the low intake of the essential trace elements on long term basis among the students. PMID:22692012

  14. Salivary estimation of copper, iron, zinc and manganese in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshata Raghavendra Okade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trace elements (TEs are required for physiological functioning and alterations are noted in potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer. These TEs are used in early diagnosis, treatment and also as an indicator of disease progress and prognosis. Aims: To estimate the TEs such as copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and Cu/Zn ratio in the saliva of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF patients and controls. Settings and Design: The hospital-based study was conducted to estimate salivary TEs using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in 60 individuals. Methods and Material: 5 ml saliva was collected from OSF cases (n=30 and controls (n=30 and was centrifuged and prepared by using the Wet Ashing method. The TEs were estimated in parts per million (ppm by using AAS. Statistical Analysis Used: The data obtained was statistically analyzed using non parametric tests such as Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: Significant difference in the mean salivary Zn, Mn and Fe levels in OSF when compared to that of controls. Mean salivary Cu levels were increased and Cu/ Zn ratio was decreased in OSF when compared to the controls. Conclusions: To conclude TEs play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of OSF. Betel quid and areca nut chewing habits are frequently associated with OSF and alters the salivary TE levels. Concerted efforts would, therefore, help in early detection, management and monitoring the efficacy of treatment.

  15. Dust Explosion Characteristics of Aluminum, Titanium, Zinc, and Iron-Based Alloy Powders Used in Cold Spray Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, K.; Tagomori, K.; Sugiyama, N.; Sasaki, S.; Shinya, Y.; Nanbu, T.; Kawashita, Y.; Narita, I.; Kuwatori, K.; Ikeda, T.; Hara, R.; Miyahara, H.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to conventional thermal spray coating, cold spray processing typically employs finer, smaller-diameter metal powders. Furthermore, cold-sprayed particles exhibit fewer surface oxides than thermally sprayed particles due to the absence of particle melting during spraying. For these reasons, it is important to consider the potential for dust explosions or fires during cold spray processing, for both industrial and R&D applications. This work examined the dust explosion characteristics of metal powders typically used in cold spray coating, for the purpose of preventing dust explosions and fires and thus protecting the health and safety of workers and guarding against property damage. In order to safely make use of the new cold spray technology in industrial settings, it is necessary to manage the risks based on an appropriate assessment of the hazards. However, there have been few research reports focused on such risk management. Therefore, in this study, the dust explosion characteristics of aluminum, titanium, zinc, carbonyl iron, and eutectoid steel containing chromium at 4 wt.% (4 wt.% Cr-eutectoid steel) powders were evaluated according to the standard protocols JIS Z 8818, IEC61241-2-3(1994-09) section 3, and JIS Z 8817. This paper reports our results concerning the dust explosion properties of the above-mentioned metal powders.

  16. Binding of iron, zinc, and lead ions from aqueous solution by shea butter (Butyrospermun Parkii) seed husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eromosele, I.C.; Otitolaye, O.O. (Federal Univ. of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria))

    1994-08-01

    Several workers have reported on the potential use of agricultural products as substrates for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. These studies demonstrated that considerable amounts of metal ions can be removed from aqueous solutions by cellulosic materials. The merit in the use of the latter is their relative abundance and cheapness compared to conventional materials for the removal of toxic metal ions from waste-waters. In some of the studies, chemical modification of cellulosic materials significantly enhanced their ion-binding properties, providing greater flexibility in their applications to a wide range of heavy metal ions. Shea butter plant (Butyrospermun Parkii) normally grows in the wild within the guinea-savana zone of Nigeria. The seeds are a rich source of edible oils and the husks are usually discarded. The husk is thus available in abundance and, hence, there is reason to examine its ion-binding properties for its possible application in the removal of toxic metal ions from industrial waste-waters. This paper reports on preliminary studies of the sorption of iron, zinc and lead ions from aqueous solution by modified and unmodified shea butter seed husks. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. One-shot flow injection spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of copper, iron and zinc in patients' sera with newly developed multi-compartment flow cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose here an affordable flow injection method for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of copper, iron and zinc in patients' sera. The use of a newly designed multi-compartment flow cell allowed the simultaneous determination of the three metals with a single injection ('one-shot') and a double beam spectrophotometer. The chemistry relied on the reactions of these metals with 2-(5-nitro-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino]phenol (nitro-PAPS) to form corresponding colored complexes. At pH 3.8, only copper-nitro-PAPS complex was formed in the presence of pyrophosphate as a masking agent for iron, and then the copper and iron(II) complexes were formed in the presence of reductant (ascorbic acid) at the same pH, and finally all three metals reacted with nitro-PAPS at pH 8.6. The characteristics were introduced into the flow system to determine each metal selectively and sensitively. Under the optimum conditions, linear calibration curves for the three metals were obtained in the range of 0.01-1 mg L-1 with a sample throughput rate of 20 h-1. The limits of detection (3σ) were 3.9 μg L-1 for copper, 4.1 μg L-1 for iron and 4.0 μg L-1 for zinc. The proposed method was applied to analysis of some patients' sera

  18. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seafood, and foods that contain vitamin C , like citrus fruits, strawberries, sweet peppers, tomatoes, and broccoli. What ... diets. What are some effects of iron on health? Scientists are studying iron to understand how it ...

  19. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to...... present and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation...

  20. 环氧油酸钙(锌)的合成及在PVC中的应用%Synthesis and Application of Epoxidized Calcium (zinc) Oleate as Thermal Stabilizers in PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮晓凯; 倪忠斌; 东为富; 陈明清

    2012-01-01

    以油酸、甲酸和双氧水为原料合成了环氧油酸,经复分解反应制得了环氧油酸钙(锌)盐,将其作为热稳定剂应用于PVC中,通过电导率、热老化以及热失重测试来考察环氧油酸钙(锌)的热稳定特性.研究结果表明:环氧油酸钙具有长期热稳定性,环氧油酸锌具有初期热稳定性,当环氧油酸锌/环氧油酸钙的比例为1:3时,PVC的热稳定效果最好.%Oleic acid, formic acid and peroxide were used to synthesize epoxidized oleic acid, afterward, epoxidized calcium (zinc) oleate were synthesized by double decomposition reaction. The products were used as thermal stabilizers in PVC. Investigation of thermal stability of epoxidized calcium (zinc) oleate was investigated by means of conductivity test, heating ageing test and tbermo gravimetric analysis (TCA) test. The results showed that the epoxidized calcium oleate exhibit long-term thermal stability, epoxidized zinc oleic acid exhibit initial-term thermal stability. It came to be the best thermal stability when the ratio of epoxidized zinc oleate/epoxidized calcium oleate was 1:3.

  1. Preconcentration and atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc in water samples using 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reagent 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (MPAPT) has been examined for the pre-concentration of metal ions and determination using air acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The method is based on the complexation and extraction of cadmium (II), cobalt(III), copper(II), lead(II), nickel(II), iron(II), iron(II), manganese(II) and zinc(II) in chloroform. The metal iron are back extracted in nitric acid (1:1) or after evaporation of solvent the residue is digested in nitric acid. After necessary adjustment of volume the metal ions were determined in aqueous solution. Pre-concentration is obtained 10-25 times. Metal ions recovery was 95.4-100.8% with coefficient of variation 0.2-7.5%. The method used for the determination of metals in canal and sewerage waters, within 2-6433 mu g/L with C. V 0.-5.2%. (author)

  2. Avaliação do uso de ervas medicinais como suplemento nutricional de ferro, cobre e zinco Evaluation of the use of medicinal grass as nutritional supplement of iron, copper and zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édira Castello Branco de Andrade

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O cobre, ferro e zinco, considerados elementos essenciais ao corpo humano, apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função da forma química que se encontram em um alimento. As ervas medicinais, amplamente utilizadas, podem apresentar novas indicações quanto a suplementação destes metais. Este trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar os teores de cobre, ferro e zinco em ervas medicinais, pós e ervas secas, e promover a extração seqüencial visando a biodisponibilidade. Os teores de cobre, ferro e zinco foram determinados através da espectroscopia de absorção atômica. A extração seqüencial foi aplicada com os extratores cloreto de cálcio 1,0M; ácido acético 0,1M com acetato de amônio 5% (pH=5,0; ácido acético 0,5M e HCl 0,5M. Os resultados apresentaram teores altos de cobre, ferro e zinco, quando comparados com outras fontes alimentícias destes metais, além de indicar que os mesmos se apresentam sob, no mínimo, 4 espécies químicas distintas nas ervas analisadas. O extrator I foi o de melhor eficiência para os três metais. Considerando que o consumo destas ervas é feito com visão farmacológica, acredita-se que uso das mesmas em preparos de alimentos pode favorecer a suplementação dos metais cobre, ferro e zinco.Copper, iron and zinc, considered essential elements in the human body, present changeable biodisponibility in chemical form more than if found in a food. Medicinal plants, widely used, can present new indications as to how much the suplementation of these metals, aiming at such an objective, can be shown to evaluate the amounts of copper, iron, and zinc in medicinal plants, powder and dry grass, and to promote the extraction sequencial aiming at the biodisponibility. The copper amount, iron and zinc had been determined through the spectroscopy of atomic absorption. The extraction sequencial was applied with the extractors calcium chloride 1,0M; acetic acid 0,1M with ammonium acetate 5% ( pH=5,0 ; acetic acid 0

  3. Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M. H.; Devès, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F.

    2003-09-01

    Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5 ' and 3 ' untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport.

  4. Effects of extracellular iron concentration on calcium absorption and relationship between Ca2+ and cell apoptosis in Caco-2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Qing Li; Xiang-Lin Duan; Yan-Zhong Chang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the method of growing small intestinal epithelial cells in short-term primary culture and to investigate the effect of extracellular iron concentration ([Fe3+]) on calcium absorption and the relationship between the rising intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and cell apoptosis in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. METHODS: Primary culture was used for growing small intestinal epithelial cells. [Ca2+]i was detected by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The changes in [Ca2+]i were represented by fluorescence intensity (FI). The apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry.RESULTS: Isolation of epithelial cells and preservation of its three-dimensional integrity were achieved using the digestion technique of a mixture of collagenase Ⅺ and dispase Ⅰ. Purification of the epithelial cells was facilitated by using a simple differential sedimentation method. The results showed that proliferation of normal gut epithelium in vitro was initially dependent upon the maintenance of structural integrity of the tissue. If 0.25% trypsin was used for digestion, the cells were severely damaged and very difficult to stick to the Petri dish for growing. The Fe3+ chelating agent desferrioxamine (100, 200 and 300 μmol/L) increased the FI of Caco-2 cells from 27.50±13.18 (control,n = 150) to 35.71±13.99 (n = 150, P<0.01), 72.19±35.40 (n = 150, P<0.01) and 211.34±29.03 (n = 150, P<0.01) in a concentration-dependent manner. There was a significant decrease in the FI of Caco-2 cells treated by ferric ammonium citrate (FAC, a Fe3+ donor; 10, 50 and 100 μmol/L). The FIvalue of Caco-2 cells treated by FAC was 185.85±33.77 (n = 150, P<0.01), 122.73±58.47 (n = 150, P<0.01), and 53.29±19.82 (n = 150, P<0.01), respectively, suggesting that calcium absorption was influenced by [Fe3+]. Calcium ionophore A23187 (0.1, 1.0 and 10 μmol/L) increased the FI of Caco-2 cells from 40.45±13.95 (control, n = 150) to 45.19±21.95 (n = 150, P<0

  5. The role of zinc in gastrointestinal and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A S

    1983-09-01

    Zinc is essential for many metabolic and enzymatic functions in man. Deficiency of zinc in man has now been recognized to occur not only as a result of nutritional factors, but also in various disease states, including malabsorption syndromes, acrodermatitis enteropathica, Crohn's disease, alcoholism and cirrhosis of the liver. The deficiency state in human subjects exists as a spectrum extending from mild to severe degree. The clinical manifestations of mild zinc deficiency include oligospermia, weight loss and hyperammonaemia. Moderate zinc deficiency is characterized clinically by growth retardation, hypogonadism in males, skin changes, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, taste abnormalities and abnormal dark adaptation. In severe zinc deficiency states, bullous-pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhoea, emotional disorders, weight loss, intercurrent infections, hypogonadism in males and, if unrecognized, death have been observed. Zinc is needed for the functions of over 100 enzymes. It is essential for DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and, as such, is important for cell division. Zinc is an inducer of mRNA of metallothionein, a protein which may have an important role in the regulation of intestinal zinc absorption. Zinc has a specific effect on testes in animals and man. Recent reports indicate that in human subjects thymopoietin may be zinc dependent and in animal studies somatomedin may be affected adversely due to dietary zinc restriction. Zinc plays an important role in the protection of cell membrane integrity and may be protective against free radical injury. Zinc is known to compete with cadmium, lead, copper, iron and calcium for similar binding sites. In the future, a potential use of zinc may be to alleviate toxic effects of cadmium and lead in human subjects. Recent evidence suggests that thymic-dependent lymphocytes (T cells are zinc dependent. T-helper and suppressor cells, T-effector cells and T-natural killer cells appear to be

  6. XRD and EPR structural investigation of some zinc borate glasses doped with iron ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Razvan; Pascuta, Petru; Popa, Adriana; Raita, Oana; Indrea, Emil; Culea, Eugen

    2012-02-01

    Glasses in the system xFe2O3·(100-x) [45ZnO·55B2O3] (0≤x≤10 mol%) have been prepared by melting at 1200 °C and rapidly cooling at room temperature. The obtained samples were submitted to an additional thermal treatment at 570 °C for 12 h in order to relax the glass structure as well as to improve the local order. The as cast and heat treated samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. The XRD patterns of all the studied samples show their vitreous nature. Structural modifications occurring in the heat treated samples compared to the untreated ones have been pointed out. EPR spectra of untreated and heat treated samples revealed resonance absorptions centered at g≈2.0, g≈4.3 and g≈6.4. The compositional variation of the line intensity and linewidth of the absorptions from g≈4.3 and g≈2.0 have been interpreted in terms of the variation in the concentration of the Fe3+ ions and the interaction between the iron ions. The EPR spectra of the untreated samples containing 5 mol% Fe2O3 have been studied at different temperatures (110-290 K). The line intensity of the resonance signals decreases with increase in temperature whereas the linewidth is found to be independent of temperature. It was also found that the temperature variation of reciprocal line intensity obeys the Boltzmann law.

  7. Biochemistry of the normal dura mater of the human brain determination of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur and nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio M. Canelas

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur, and nitrogen were determined in samples of apparently normal dura mater removed from 18 subjects recently dead by craniocerebral trauma. The average concentrations expressed in dry weight were: water 79.55 g/100 g ± 2.52; sodium 1.63 mequiv/100 g ±0.27; potassium 3.68 mequiv/100 g ± 0.66; calcium 119.84 mg/100 g ± 107.40; phosphorus 68.2 mg/100 g ± 34.5; magnesium 0.61 mequiv/100 g ± 0.37; copper 249.8 /xg/100 g ± 109.4; iron 0.82 mg/100 g ± 0.28; sulfur 490.7 mg/100 g ± 22.5; nitrogen 3.33 g/100 g ± 0.17.

  8. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for iron, lead, nickel, and zinc for protection of aquatic life in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Nadzifah, Y; Nur-Amalina, R; Umirah, N S

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC(50) values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9 μg L(-1), respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4 μg L(-1) and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7 μg L(-1), respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC(50) values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively. PMID:22919358

  9. Deriving Freshwater Quality Criteria for Iron, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc for Protection of Aquatic Life in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shuhaimi-Othman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni, and zinc (Zn were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA’s guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn, two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail, Stenocypris major (ostracod, Chironomus javanus (midge larvae, Nais elinguis (annelid, and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole to determine 96 h LC50 values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9 μg L−1, respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4 μg L−1 and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7 μg L−1, respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively.

  10. Progress of Iron Removal Technologies in Hydrometallurgical Zinc Process%湿法炼锌工艺过程除铁技术的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢冰

    2012-01-01

    论述了常规法浸出、高温高酸浸出、硫化锌精矿直接加压浸出几种湿法炼锌工艺除铁过程的特点.指出硫化锌精矿直接加压浸出是一种能简化电锌生产工艺流程、降低单位产品能耗物耗、提高金属回收率的全湿法炼锌新工艺.%The characteristics of iron removal technologies in different hydrometallurgical zinc process, including conventional leaching, high-temperature and high-acid leaching, and direct-pressure leaching of zinc sulfide concentrate were discussed. It is concluded that direct-pressure leaching process of zinc sulfide concentrate, which can shorten electrolytic zinc process flow, reduce the unit consumption of material and energy, as well as increase the metal recovery, is really a new all-hydrometallurgical technology.

  11. Separation and determination of calcium and iron in silicon matrix using ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion chromatographic (IC) methods for the determination of Ca and Fe in silicon matrix were developed. The methods involve the removal of Si as SiF4 by the addition of calculated amount of HF. The IC separation of Ca from other metal ions was carried out on a cation exchange column using 0.02 N H2SO4 as eluent with suppressed conductivity detection. The developed method was calibrated in the concentration range between 0.05 and 5 ppm and the linear correlation coefficient was found to be 0.998. Iron determination was carried out on a RP column dynamically modified with 5 mM camphor-10-sulphonic acid and 0.2 M mandelic acid at pH 3.8 as eluent. A linear calibration was obtained in the concentration range between 0.5 and 25 ppm of Fe (R2 = 0.9998). (author)

  12. Effect of individual components of soy formula and cows milk formula on zinc bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc absorption from human milk, cows milk formulas, and soy formulas was studied in human adults by a radioisotope technique using 65Zn and whole body counting. Individual dietary components were investigated for effects on zinc absorption. Phytate was found to have a strong inhibitory effect on zinc absorption; addition of phytate to cows milk formula (yielding a phytate concentration similar to that of soy formula) resulted in a decrease in zinc absorption from 31 to 16% similar to the absorption for soy formula (14%). Carbohydrate source, calcium, and zinc levels of the diet did not affect zinc absorption significantly. Iron supplementation of cows milk formula decreased zinc absorption from 24 to 18% although this decrease was not found to be significant (p less than 0.1). Absorption of zinc from a whey-adjusted cows milk formula was higher (31%) than from a nonmodified cows milk formula (22%). Increasing the zinc supplementation level in cows milk formula but not in soy formula increased zinc absorption to approximate that from breast milk. It is suggested that reduction of phytate content of soy formula may be a more effective avenue of modification than increased level of zinc supplementation

  13. THE CENTRAL ROLES OF IRON AND CALCIUM FOR PLANT/MICROBE INTERACTION AND SHAPING MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN THE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Sherameti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Roots are associated with a large number of different microbes, which can form beneficial, neutral or pathogenic interactions. “Infochemicals” from the microbial community, released into the soil or plants, induce signaling processes in the root cells which determine the fitness of a plant and its response to the environment. The plant integrates the information from the different microbes for an appropriate and balanced response. On the other hand, the microbial community is shaped by signals from the roots. We have established a symbiotic interaction system, in which the information exchange between the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and a beneficial, plant-growth promoting endophytic fungus, called Piriformospora indica, can be studied and compared with other root-interacting microbes. Biochemical and molecular-genetic data indicate that two ions, calcium and iron, are major players in determining the fitness of the plant and the response to microbial signals. We will highlight the central role of these two ions in plant/microbe interactions.

  14. A novel mechanism for the pyruvate protection against zinc-induced cytotoxicity: mediation by the chelating effect of citrate and isocitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Jee-Won; Kim, Tae-Youn; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jean; Suh, Young-Ah; Hwang, Jung Jin; Koh, Jae-Young

    2016-08-01

    Intracellular accumulation of free zinc contributes to neuronal death in brain injuries such as ischemia and epilepsy. Pyruvate, a glucose metabolite, has been shown to block zinc neurotoxicity. However, it is largely unknown how pyruvate shows such a selective and remarkable protective effect. In this study, we sought to find a plausible mechanism of pyruvate protection against zinc toxicity. Pyruvate almost completely blocked cortical neuronal death induced by zinc, yet showed no protective effects against death induced by calcium (ionomycin, NMDA) or ferrous iron. Of the TCA cycle intermediates, citrate, isocitrate, and to a lesser extent oxaloacetate, protected against zinc toxicity. We then noted with LC-MS/MS assay that exposure to pyruvate, and to a lesser degree oxaloacetate, increased levels of citrate and isocitrate, which are known zinc chelators. While pyruvate added only during zinc exposure did not reduce zinc toxicity, citrate and isocitrate added only during zinc exposure, as did extracellular zinc chelator CaEDTA, completely blocked it. Furthermore, addition of pyruvate after zinc exposure substantially reduced intracellular zinc levels. Our results suggest that the remarkable protective effect of pyruvate against zinc cytotoxicity may be mediated indirectly by the accumulation of intracellular citrate and isocitrate, which act as intracellular zinc chelators. PMID:27515054

  15. A question mark on zinc deficiency in 185 million people in Pakistan--possible way out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Nauman; Ahmed, Anwaar; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Ahmad, Asif; Rafaqat, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research published in recent years concerning the effects of zinc deficiency, its consequences, and possible solutions. Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for over 300 zinc metalloenzymes and required for normal nucleic acid, protein, and membrane metabolism. Zinc deficiency is one of the ten biggest factors contributing to burden of disease in developing countries. Populations in South Asia, South East Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa are at greatest risk of zinc deficiency. Zinc intakes are inadequate for about a third of the population and stunting affects 40% of preschool children. In Pakistan, zinc deficiency is an emerging health problem as about 20.6% children are found in the levels of zinc, below 60 μg/dL. Signs and symptoms caused by zinc deficiency are poor appetite, weight loss, and poor growth in childhood, delayed healing of wounds, taste abnormalities, and mental lethargy. As body stores of zinc decline, these symptoms worsen and are accompanied by diarrhea, recurrent infection, and dermatitis. Daily zinc requirements for an adult are 12-16 mg/day. Iron, calcium and phytates inhibit the absorption of zinc therefore simultaneous administration should not be prescribed. Zinc deficiency and its effects are well known but the ways it can help in treatment of different diseases is yet to be discovered. Improving zinc intakes through dietary improvements is a complex task that requires considerable time and effort. The use of zinc supplements, dietary modification, and fortifying foods with zinc are the best techniques to combat its deficiency. PMID:24499152

  16. Contribution of meat to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc intakes in five ethnic groups in the U.S.: Implications for developing food-based dietary guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangita; Sheehy, Tony; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2016-01-01

    Background To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Methods Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects aged 45–75 years at baseline (1993–1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American (JpAm), Native Hawaiian (NH) and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the USDA recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc were determined. Results Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3–14.3%), except for NH and JpAm men, and JpAm women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1–29.3%) and vitamin B-12 (19.7–40%), and to a lesser extent for iron (4.3–14.2%). Conclusions This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the U.S. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption to improve dietary quality among these groups. PMID:23398393

  17. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10th LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-tr...

  18. Deposition and Study of Nobium Coating on Iron and Copper Substrates from Reduction of NbCl5 by Hydrogen or Vapors of Zinc

    OpenAIRE

    Audisio, S.; Hamed, H.; Hertz, D.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition technique is used to form niobium deposits on Armco iron or copper substrate. A thermodynamic study confirms the possibility of reducing pentachloride of niobium (NbCl5) by hydrogen (at a temperature superior to 750°C) or by vapor of zinc (at approximately 500°C). The influence of the substrates on the reaction is shown. The kinetics of the deposit is studied. The resulting coatings are very adherent. A folding (superior to 90°C) does not cause any cracking. Micr...

  19. Estimating bio-availability of zinc and iron from home-available complementary foods in Pakistan: A study in young infants using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the widespread prevalence of malnutrition in south Asia is well recognized, the extent and severity of micronutrient deficiencies is less well appreciate. Although significant iron deficiency is almost ubiquitous, and iron deficiency anemia is widespread the extent and severity of vitamin A and zinc deficiency is less well appreciated. While poor maternal nutrition and inappropriate early breast feeding practices underlie some of the problem, a major cause of widespread micronutrient malnutrition is the poor state of complementary feeding. Studies of infant growth patterns in Pakistan reveal that the growth faltering starts after 5-6 months of age, and usually parallels the transition from exclusive or predominant breast feeding to mixed feeding with home available complementary foods. While the recent global recommendations of exclusive breast feeding for six months in developing countries are clearly appropriate, the optimal approach in order to provide adequate micronutrients is uncertain. (author)

  20. FTIR and optical assessment of zinc doped calcium phospho-borosilicate sol-gel glasses/glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Arora, N.; Pandey, O. P.; Kaur, G.

    2015-08-01

    CaO-P2O5-ZnO-SiO2-B2O3 glasses with varying compositions of calcium oxide and phosphorous oxide are synthesized using sol-gel technique. The glasses are heat-treated for a duration of 10 h at 500°C to obtain the glass-ceramics. The glass-ceramics and glasses are characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Extinction coefficients, attenuation coefficients and dielectric constant have been obtained for all the glasses as well as glass ceramics. The results are discussed in light of non-bridging oxygens (NBO) and heat-treatment of glasses. In addition to this, the effect of calcium and phosphorous on the infra-red spectra has been analysed thoroughly.

  1. Effects of soil and foliar applications of iron and zinc on flowering and essential oil of chamomile at greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef NASIRI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of soil and foliar applications of iron (Fe and zinc (Zn on flowering, flower yield and essential oil production of German chamomile a pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. The experiment was arranged as completely randomized design with 12 treatments and three replications. Treatments were as follow: T1: control – without Fe or Zn fertilizers, T2: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T3: 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T4: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O + 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T5: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (3.5 g L-1, T6: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (7.0 g L-1, T7: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (2.5 g L-1, T8: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (5.0 g L-1, T9: T5+T7, T10: T5+T8, T11: T6+T7, T12: T6+T8. The foliar spraying was done two times during the growing period. The results revealed that the flower number, flower yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield were significantly increased by soil and foliar applications of Fe + Zn, compared with the control (untreated. The highest flower number (477 plant-1, flower yield (11.6 g pot-1, essential oil content (0.88 % and essential oil yield (119 mg pot-1 were recorded for the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4 by 58, 68, 21.4 and 105 % increment compared to the control, respectively. Foliar application of Fe + Zn (T12 was placed at the next rank; however this treatment had no significant difference with the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4. Other treatments did not show significant differences with the control. Generally, the results showed that soil or foliar application of Fe + Zn can be effective on increase or improve of quantity and quality of chamomile yield. Moreover, use of foliar application as a low cost method especially in areas with alkaline or calcareous soils can be recommended.

  2. Iron sulfide attenuates the methanogenic toxicity of elemental copper and zinc oxide nanoparticles and their soluble metal ion analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Gallagher, Sara; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2016-04-01

    Elemental copper (Cu(0)) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle (NP) toxicity to methanogens has been attributed to the release of soluble metal ions. Iron sulfide (FeS) partially controls the soluble concentration of heavy metals and their toxicity in aquatic environments. Heavy metals displace the Fe from FeS forming poorly soluble metal sulfides in the FeS matrix. Therefore, FeS may be expected to attenuate the NP toxicity. This work assessed FeS as an attenuator of the methanogenic toxicity of Cu(0) and ZnO NPs and their soluble salt analogs. The toxicity attenuation capacity of fine (25-75μm) and coarse (500 to 1200μm) preparations of FeS (FeS-f and FeS-c respectively) was tested in the presence of highly inhibitory concentrations of CuCl2, ZnCl2 Cu(0) and ZnO NPs. FeS-f attenuated methanogenic toxicity better than FeS-c. The results revealed that 2.5× less FeS-f than FeS-c was required to recover the methanogenic activity to 50% (activity normalized to uninhibited controls). The results also indicated that a molar FeS-f/Cu(0) NP, FeS-f/ZnO NP, FeS-f/ZnCl2, and FeS-f/CuCl2 ratio of 2.14, 2.14, 4.28, and 8.56 respectively, was necessary to recover the methanogenic activity to >75%. Displacement experiments demonstrated that CuCl2 and ZnCl2 partially displaced Fe from FeS. As a whole, the results indicate that not all the sulfide in FeS was readily available to react with the soluble Cu and Zn ions which may explain the need for a large stoichiometric excess of FeS to highly attenuate Cu and Zn toxicity. Overall, this study provides evidence that FeS attenuates the toxicity caused by Cu(0) and ZnO NPs and their soluble ion analogs to methanogens. PMID:26803736

  3. Effect of calcium oxide on the efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation during ferrous ion oxidation in simulated acid mine drainage treatment with inoculation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Jin, Tongjun; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide was added into ferrous ion oxidation system in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at concentrations of 0-4.00 g/L. The pH, ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and phase of the solid minerals harvested from different treatments were investigated during the ferrous ion oxidation process. In control check (CK) system, pH of the solution decreased from 2.81 to 2.25 when ferrous ions achieved complete oxidation after 72 h of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans incubation without the addition of calcium oxide, and total iron precipitation efficiency reached 20.2%. Efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation was significantly improved when the amount of calcium oxide added was ≤1.33 g/L, and the minerals harvested from systems were mainly a mixture of jarosite and schwertmannite. For example, the ferrous ion oxidation efficiency reached 100% at 60 h and total iron precipitation efficiency was increased to 32.1% at 72 h when 1.33 g/L of calcium oxide was added. However, ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation for jarosite and schwertmannite formation were inhibited if the amount of calcium oxide added was above 2.67 g/L, and large amounts of calcium sulfate dihydrate were generated in systems. PMID:27003087

  4. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years Estado nutricio de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en niños mexicanos de 1 a 11 años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Carmen Morales-Ruán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006 and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were used (n=5 060 to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. RESULTS: Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC, were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61 or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97 were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32 and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97 were protective against MLSC. CONCLUSIONS: Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Describir el estado nutricio de micronutrimentos en niños de 1-11 años de edad de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 y su asociación con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se usaron muestras séricas (n=5060 para medir las concentraciones de ferritina, receptor de transferrina, zinc, cobre y magnesio. RESULTADOS: La prevalencias de deficiencias en niños de 1-4 y de 5 a 11 años fueron para ferritina, 26.0 y 13%; zinc, 28.1 y 25.8% respectivamente y cobre ≈30% en ambos grupos. Las concentraciones bajas de magnesio (CBM fueron 12.0 y 28.4%, respectivamente. Ser beneficiario de Liconsa (RM=0.32; IC 95%: 0.17-0.61 y pertenecer al nivel socioeconómico alto (RM=0.63; IC, 95%: 0.41-0.97 fueron protectores para deficiencia de hierro. La edad (RM=1.26; IC, 95%: 1.19-1.32 y vivir en la región Centro (RM=0.59; IC, 95

  5. Cobalt-, zinc- and iron-bound forms of adenylate kinase (AK) from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas: purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenylate kinase (AK) from D. gigas was purified and crystallized in three different metal-bound forms: Zn2+–AK, Co2+–AK and Fe2+–AK. Adenylate kinase (AK; ATP:AMP phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.4.3) is involved in the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group from ATP to AMP. AKs contribute to the maintenance of a constant level of cellular adenine nucleotides, which is necessary for the energetic metabolism of the cell. Three metal ions, cobalt, zinc and iron(II), have been reported to be present in AKs from some Gram-negative bacteria. Native zinc-containing AK from Desulfovibrio gigas was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to beyond 1.8 Å resolution. Furthermore, cobalt- and iron-containing crystal forms of recombinant AK were also obtained and diffracted to 2.0 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Zn2+–AK and Fe2+–AK crystallized in space group I222 with similar unit-cell parameters, whereas Co2+–AK crystallized in space group C2; a monomer was present in the asymmetric unit for both the Zn2+–AK and Fe2+–AK forms and a dimer was present for the Co2+–AK form. The structures of the three metal-bound forms of AK will provide new insights into the role and selectivity of the metal in these enzymes

  6. Leaching zinc from high iron­bearing zinc calcine after selective reduction roasting%高铁锌焙砂选择性还原焙烧-两段浸出锌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊伟; 刘维; 覃文庆; 柴立元; 郑永兴; 杨康

    2014-01-01

    Based on the decomposition of zinc ferrite to ZnO and Fe3O4 by reduction roasting, the recovery of zinc from the roasted zinc calcine was studied by two­stage leaching for zinc­iron separation and the leaching residue containing Fe3O4 was obtained. The effects of reduction roasting and conditions of neutral leaching and acid leaching on leaching rates of zinc and iron were investigated, respectively. The results show that the reduction roasting has a significant effect on recovery of zinc, and the leaching rates of Zn and Fe are about 90% and 5%, respectively. Under the following optimum conditions, which are leaching temperature of 60 ℃, liquid/solid ratio of 10:1, acid concentration of 45 g/L and leaching time of 2 h for neutral leaching, and leaching temperature of 70 ℃, liquid/solid ratio of 10:1, acid concentration of 60 g/L, stirring speed of 300 r/min and leaching time of 2 h for acid leaching. Besides, the main compositions of the residue are Fe3O4, ZnS and ZnFe2O4 according to the XRD and SEM/EDS analysis. The main reason of zinc ferrite left is attributed to the enclosure by other minerals.%采用还原焙烧将高铁锌焙砂中的铁酸锌选择性地分解为氧化锌和磁铁矿,再通过两段浸出工艺回收锌,以实现锌铁分离和获得以磁铁矿为主的浸出渣。主要考察了还原焙烧、中性浸出及低酸浸出条件对锌焙砂中锌、铁浸出率的影响。结果表明:通过还原焙烧可以显著地提高锌焙砂的锌浸出率;中性浸出的最佳条件为浸出温度60℃、液固比10:1、初始酸度45 g/L和浸出时间2 h;低酸浸出的最佳条件为浸出温度70℃、液固比10:1、初始酸度60 g/L、搅拌速度300 r/min和浸出时间2 h。在最佳条件下,两段浸出的总锌浸出率约为90%,总铁浸出率约为5%。经XRD和SEM/EDS分析,浸出渣以磁铁矿为主,其次是闪锌矿和铁酸锌;铁酸锌存在的主要原因是在还原焙

  7. Precision of flame atomic absorption measurements of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, molybdenum, sodium, and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures for evaluating the precision of atomic absorption measurements have been improved and applied to 8 elements. Measurements on a Varian AA-6 spectrophotometer indicate that there are many similarities in the precision characteristics of different elements. For instance, analyte absorption flicker noise limits the measurement precision of most elements at moderate absorbances. The actual value of the measurement precision at a given absorbance and the dependence of measurement precision on absorbance depend upon the calibration curve, the wavelength of analysis, the integration time, and the type of flame employed

  8. Evaluation of the content and bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium from groats, rice, leguminous grains and nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Suliburska, Joanna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the content and the bioaccessibility of minerals (Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg) in commonly consumed food products, such as cereal groats, rice, leguminous grains and nuts purchased from the local market. The contents of Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg in foods were assayed after dry ashing of samples, while the bioaccessibility of these minerals after enzymatic in vitro digestion, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A relatively high content of Fe was ...

  9. Determination of chromium, zinc, iron and calcium contents in the raw materials for pastes, using the activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For describing the variation content in trace nutrients as result of food industrialization process, wheat flour, integral eggs and paste made from these raw materials were analyzed using neutron activation analysis technique. The concentration of the elements Cr, Fe, Zn and Ca were found to be roundly ng/g and μg/g. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  10. Evaluation of Zinc, Copper and Iron Concentrations in Breast Milk of Mothers Belonging to Different Economic Classes and their Correlations with Infants Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghaemmaghami

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taking into account the importance of micronutrients in health and growth of the infants, the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in breast milk of mothers belonging to different economic classes and their effects on infants’ growth were investigated. Methods: Milk samples and information on personal characteristics, anthropometric and 24-hour food recall were collected from 90 lactating women belonging to 3 different socioeconomic classes who had exclusively breastfed their 90-120 day old infants. Concentrations of trace elements were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and dietary information of subjects was analyzed by Nutritionist III software program. Statistical tests included Multiple Regression, ANOVA test and Independent t-test. Results: The mean zinc concentrations in mothers’ breast milk belonging to high, moderate and low socioeconomic groups were 1.6, 1.9 and 2.3 mg/l, respectively. Copper levels were 0.41, 0.47 and 0.85 mg/l, respectively and iron levels were 0.75, 0.8 and 0.9 mg/l, respectively. Group comparisons showed significant differences (P<0.05. Although association between mineral concentrations and WAZ or HAZ of infants was not significant, the WAZ of infants whose mothers' milk zinc concentration was more than 2 mg/l was significantly higher than WAZ of other infants (P<0.03. Despite no significant correlation between trace element intake and trace elements in milk, negative and significant correlations between maternal age and milk minerals concentrations were observed. Conclusion: The concentration of studied trace elements in milk of mothers with low economic status was higher but was not related to intakes and it was probably related to mothers' age. So, dietary consultations for older lactating mothers are needed.

  11. COPPER, ZINC, VITAMIN–C AND OX IDATIVE STRESS CAN CAUSES IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Rajeswari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is precious for women it is the most memorable movement in her life. In pregnancy period the Copper, Zinc, vitamin C plays an important role for production of hemoglobin and controls the oxidative stress. The present study under taken to asses the causing Zinc, Copper, vitamin C and ROS, anemia in pregnant period. METERIALS & METHODS: 40 cases of 4th-8th month pregnant subjects were selected for the present study blood sample collected for estimation of Hemoglobin, Zinc, Copper vitamin C and ROS. Hemoglobin whole blood, Zinc, Copper, ROS serum, vitamin C heparinised blood. RESULTS: Significantly decreases the Hemoglobin (P<0.001. Zinc (P<0.001, Copper (0.001 vitamin C (P<0.001 MDA significantly elevation observed in pregnant women compare to normal healthy women’s are controls. CONCLUSION: Lowered levels of Zinc, Copper, vitaminC, Hemoglobin and elevated MDA concentration were consistently observed in pregnant women. These by abate the synthesis of hemoglobin for the lack of these biological substance which can leads to increase the oxidative stress.

  12. Diel cycles in dissolved barium, lead, iron, vanadium, and nitrite in a stream draining a former zinc smelter site near Hegeler, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, R.T.; Groschen, G.E.; Cygan, G.; Dupre, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Diel variations in the concentrations of a number of constituents have the potential to substantially affect the appropriate sampling regimen in acidic streams. Samples taken once during the course of the day cannot adequately reflect diel variations in water quality and may result in an inaccurate understanding of biogeochemical processes, ecological conditions, and of the threat posed by the water to human health and the associated wildlife. Surface water and groundwater affected by acid drainage were sampled every 60 to 90. min over a 48-hour period at a former zinc smelter known as the Hegeler Zinc Superfund Site, near Hegeler, Illinois. Diel variations related to water quality in the aquifer were not observed in groundwater. Diel variations were observed in the temperature, pH, and concentration of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, barium, iron, lead, vanadium, and possibly uranium in surface water. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, barium, lead, and uranium generally attained maximum values during the afternoon and minimum values during the night. Iron, vanadium, and pH generally attained minimum values during the afternoon and maximum values during the night. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen were affected by the intensity of photosynthetic activity and respiration, which are dependent upon insolation. Nitrite, an intermediary in many nitrogen reactions, may have been formed by the oxidation of ammonium by dissolved oxygen and converted to other nitrogen species as part of the decomposition of organic matter. The timing of the pH cycles was distinctly different from the cycles found in Midwestern alkaline streams and likely was the result of the photoreduction of Fe3+ to Fe 2+ and variations in the intensity of precipitation of hydrous ferric oxide minerals. Diel cycles of iron and vanadium also were primarily the result of variations in the intensity of precipitation of hydrous ferric oxide minerals. The diel variation in the concentrations of lead, uranium

  13. Disponibilidad de cobre, hierro, manganeso, zinc en suelos del NO argentino Pant availability of copper, iron, manganesum and zinc in the north west of Agentina

    OpenAIRE

    Núria Roca; Mabel Susana Pazos; Jaume Bech

    2007-01-01

    Cobre, hierro, manganeso y zinc son cuatro metales esenciales para el crecimiento vegetal. A pesar de las pequeñas cantidades requeridas por las plantas, los suelos agrícolas suelen ser deficitarios en uno o más micronutrientes de forma que su concentración en los tejidos de los vegetales cae por debajo de los niveles que permiten un crecimiento óptimo. La naturaleza del suelo juega un papel fundamental en la disponibilidad de micronutrientes y en su comportamiento a nivel suelo-planta. Los o...

  14. Distribution of trace elements in the mammalian retina and cornea by use of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE): localisation of zinc does not correlate with that of metallothioneins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, Marta; Grime, Geoffrey W; Osborne, Neville N

    2014-02-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) in combination with 3D depth profiling with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to establish the distribution and concentration of trace elements within individual corneal and retinal areas in frozen sections from adult male Wistar rats (n = 6). The distribution of endogenous trace elements in the cornea and retina is non-homogenous. The most abundant metal in the cornea is calcium followed by zinc. Iron and copper are present in small amounts localised particularly to the epithelium. Iron is also identified in keratocytes. Relatively high levels of calcium occur in the corneal epithelial cell bodies. Zinc has a wide intense distribution across the corneal epithelium (with greater levels in the basal part) and posterior stroma. In the retina, zinc is the most common metal followed by iron and copper. Relatively high levels of zinc exist in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), photoreceptor inner segments (RIS) and inner nuclear layer (INL). Chelatable zinc was localised with fluorescent TSQ in the RPE, RIS and plexiform layers. It is interesting to note that the highest levels of total zinc and the greatest intensity of chelatable zinc staining do not coincide. In the RPE and corneal epithelium, zinc co-localised with the zinc-containing metallothioneins (MT). However, there was a clear mismatch between the localisation of the most intense levels of zinc in the neuroretina (i.e. INL) and corneal posterior stroma with that reported for MT. For example, the presence of zinc is not particularly associated with the retinal ganglion cells, retinal area that contains MTs in significant amounts. While high amounts of zinc are present in the INL and corneal posterior stroma, which are largely devoid of MTs. This probably represents pools of static, catalytic and structural zinc associated with substances other than the MTs. PMID:24226809

  15. Phase development during high-energy ball-milling of zinc oxide and iron - the impact of grain size on the source and the degree of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefanić, G; Krehula, S; Štefanić, I

    2015-11-21

    High-energy ball-milling of powder mixtures of zincite (ZnO) and iron (α-Fe) at different weight ratios was performed in air using a planetary ball mill with a stainless steel milling assembly. Structural and microstructural changes during the ball-milling (up to 30 h) were monitored using X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The mechanism of iron oxidation was determined from the results of Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was found that an early phase of ball-milling caused the oxidation of iron from Fe(0) to Fe(2+) followed by the formation of a solid solution structurally similar to wüstite. The wüstite-type phase rapidly disappeared upon prolonged milling, which was accompanied by further oxidation of iron from Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) and the formation of spinel-type ferrite structurally similar to franklinite (ZnFe2O4) in the products with a high zinc content, or magnetite (Fe3O4) in the products with a high iron content. Further milling or annealing had a low impact on the franklinite-type phase, but caused the transition of the magnetite-type phase to the phase structurally similar to hematite (α-Fe2O3). The results of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) showed a dramatic increase in the degree of contamination with the increase in the proportion of the starting iron (∼9 times higher contamination during the milling of pure iron compared with pure zincite). It was shown that the source of contamination (balls or vial) strongly depends on the type of milled sample. Ball-milling of relatively big and heavy grains (starting iron) caused preferential contamination from the vial whereas ball-milling of smaller and lighter grains (products obtained after prolonged milling) caused preferential contamination from the balls. After prolonged milling the contamination due to wear of the balls was dominant in all the products. An explanation for the observed impact of grain size on

  16. Isotope-aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets consumed in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioavailability of food iron is affected by a number of physiological and dietary variables and it should be checked for the population living in natural conditions. The primary purpose of this study was to measure in volunteers iron absorption after oral administration of a wheat roll enriched with 15 mg of Fe as FeSO4·7H2O and 20 μCi of 59Fe. For assessment of iron absorption whole body counting was used. The secondary purpose was to relate the available iron to iron stores, anthropometric indices, bleeding days and dietary variables. Thirteen female and 7 male healthy subjects aged between 19 and 47 years were observed. Hematological measurements on blood: serum ferritin (SF), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin (ST), transferrin saturation (TS), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were made. The subjects were examined by a specialist in internal medicine. Their 24-hour recall food intake was performed by questionnaire. The findings concerning the purposes of the study may be summarized as follows: 1) mean absorbed iron was 1.6 ± 1.2 mg for women, and 0.5±0.2 mg for men; 2) iron stores evaluated from SF were in women 2.6± 1.7 mg/kg body weight and in men 10.4±5.4 mg/kg; 3) blood indices proved iron deficiency anemia in 1 woman, Hb = 9.2 g/dL, SF = 1.8 μg/L, TS = 6%; in 4 women deficient iron stores were observed, Hb > 12g/dL, SF < 12 mg/L; 8 women and 7 men were normal; 4) in women the absorbed iron related inversely to SF (-0.61) and iron stores (-0.61); 5) the iron stores related to the sum of four skinfolds in women (0.55) and in men (0.80), in women it related to body weight (0.77) too; 6) in women the absorbed iron related to bleeding days (0.69); 7) in women ascorbic acid consumption related to iron store indices; SF, SI and TS. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Thermodynamics of the nickel, cobalt and zinc removal from ethanolic solution by p-aminobenzoic acid intercalated on layered calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Intercalation scheme for p-aminobenzoic acid inside the free inorganic host cavity. • The p-aminobenzoic acid is perpendicular orientation to the inorganic layer. • Forming a bilayer arrangement in the cavity. • The metallic ions were adsorbed on intercalated crystalline lamellar compound. - Abstract: Crystalline lamellar calcium phosphate retained p-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 6.44, 3.34 and 1.62 mmol g−1 for nickel, cobalt and zinc, respectively. The energetic effects caused by metallic cation interactions were determined through calorimetric titration at the solid/liquid interface and gave a net thermal effect that enabled enthalpy and equilibrium constant calculations. Complete thermodynamic data composed of exothermic enthalpy, negative free Gibbs energy and positive entropy conformed to a set of favorable cation/basic center interactions, to indicate that these materials could be useful tools to eliminate undesirable cations from ethanolic systems

  18. The effect of balanced fertilization on nutrients’ concentration and phytic acid to zinc molar ratio in Iranian red been (Phaseolus calcaratus L.) cultivars at different stages of seed development

    OpenAIRE

    B. Motesharezadeh; Gh.R. Savaghebi

    2012-01-01

    Phytic acid is the main source of organic phosphorus in grains of legumes and cereals. It has great ability of bonding with metals and minerals such as iron, zinc and calcium. As a result, the solubility of these elements and their absorption capability by human will be reduced. This greenhouse research was carried out with the aim of studying the variations of phytic acid to zinc molar ratio and evaluation of nutrients’ concentration in different varieties of red bean (Phaseolus calcaratus L...

  19. Ferro, cobre e zinco em adolescentes no estirão pubertário Iron, copper and zinc in adolescents during pubertal growth spurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia R.D. Urbano

    2002-01-01

    cada indivíduo tem um nível estável destes minerais durante o estirão. Os níveis séricos normais de ferro, cobre e zinco na maioria dos adolescentes avaliados podem estar refletindo a habilidade do organismo em fazer ajustes homeostáticos.Objective: to examine iron, copper and zinc nutritional status and their correlation with Body Mass Index (BMI, serum and dietetic levels in adolescents during the pubertal growth spurt. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study involving a sample of 47 adolescents out of 360 patients (19 boys, whose ages ranged from 12.3 to 16 years and 28 girls, whose ages ranged from 11.1 to 13.6 years, who were seen at a clinic for adolescents from March to December 1999. The variables analyzed were: Diet (24 hours Dietary Recall, Food Frequency Intake Questionnaire and Food Register Methods to determine iron, copper and zinc intake; anthropometry (weight and height to check BMI; biochemistry (measure of serum iron level through a Diagnóstica kit in vitro; ferritin through Immulite kit, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for biochemical evaluation of serum iron, ferritin, copper and zinc. Spearman coefficient correlation was used for statistical analysis. Results: forty seven adolescents during pubertal growth spurt showed adequate ingestion: iron (95% and 36%, copper (53% and 57% and zinc (21% and 21% in males and females, respectively. Most of them were eutrophic according to the BMI percentiles. Biochemically, boys presented normal values for serum iron and zinc in the whole sample, 95% for copper and 84% for ferritin. Girls also presented normal values for iron and zinc values in the whole sample, 96.4% for copper and 96% for ferritin. There were no statistically significant correlation between BMI and serum Fe, ferritin, Cu and Zn concentrations and between serum concentration and dietetic ingestion of the studied minerals, neither between serum iron and ferritin. Conclusions: it is not clear if serum levels of Zn and Cu are

  20. New Process of Pellets-Metallized Sintering Process (PMSP) to Treat Zinc-Bearing Dust from Iron and Steel Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing

    2015-02-01

    An innovative process of pellets-metallized sintering process (PMSP) to prepare pre-reduced ironmaking burden using zinc-bearing dust has been developed. The pre-reduced sinter product, assaying 60.53 pct Fe with the metallization degree of 45.23 pct, and the Zn and Pb content of 0.18 and 0.02 pct with the removal rate of 92.78 and 96.37 pct were obtained at the productivity of 0.471 t m-2 h-1 and tumble index of 81.31 pct. PMSP has opened a new way to utilize the zinc-bearing dust efficiently.

  1. Synthesis of ZnFe2O4 nanosized powders from pulsed metallic zinc and iron wire discharge in oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) powders have been synthesized successfully by high power, short pulse, electric discharge using metallic Fe and Zn wires in oxygen gas. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mean size of the particles obtained was determined by both Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) and TEM varied from 12 to 56 nm depending on the oxygen pressure. XRD analysis clearly showed that zinc ferrite spinel was obtained. As-synthesized powder displays good magnetic property. The results demonstrated that the present method is an effective pathway for producing high quality ferrite nanocrystalline powder

  2. Frequency distribution of zinc in leaves with and without zinc-deficiency symptoms, all collected from a single orange tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, A. (Univ. of Caifornia, Los Angeles); Alexander, G.V.; Kinnear, J.; Procopiou, J.; Haritou-Andriotaki, A.; Papanicolaou, X.

    1982-07-01

    Leaves with zinc-deficiency symptoms had a lower Zn concentration than corresponding leaves without symptoms and of the same age from the same orange (Citrus senensis L.) tree on sour orange (C. aurantium L.) rootstock grown in Rhodes, Greece. There was considerable overlap, however, with the frequency distribution of each group approximating a normal curve. But both kinds of leaves combined showed a more normal distribution. Some leaves with symptoms had higher zinc concentrations than some without symptoms. There was a threefold range in Zn concentration for each group of leaves. Zinc-deficient leaves had less phosphorus, calcium, and manganese and more iron, aluminum, silicon, and titanium (the so-called dust elements) than did leaves with no deficiency symptoms. Some of these elements gave normal curves for both Zn-deficient and non-Zn-deficient leaves.

  3. 含铁低品位氧化锌矿石浸出研究%Leaching of low grade zinc oxide ore bearing iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金林; 马少健; 封金鹏; 王桂芳; 莫伟; 苏秀娟

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline leaching and sulfuric acid leaching of low grade zinc oxide ore bearing iron were studied in this work. The effecting factors, such as leaching time in different leaching agents and leaching temperature using ammonia-ammonium chloride as leaching agent, on zinc and iron leaching rates were investigated in alkaline leaching. The effecting factors, such as the initial sulfuric acid concentration, liquid-solid ratio, leaching temperature in different initial sulfuric acid concentrations and leaching time in different leaching temperatures, on zinc and iron leaching rates were studied in sulfuric acid leaching. The results showed that the leaching rates of zinc and iron were less than 50% and zero in alkaline leaching, respectively, while their leaching rates were greater than 87% and 45% in sulfuric acid leaching. The results of XRD analysis indicated that smithsonite was leached from the ore in alkaline leaching or in sulfuric acid leaching with low initial concentration such as less than 60 g/L or shorter time such as less than 10 min, and smithsonite and siderite were leached from the ore in sulfuric acid leaching with high initial concentration such as greater than 60 g/L or longer time such as more than 10 min.%针对含铁低品位氧化锌矿石,进行了碱性浸出与硫酸浸出研究.其中碱性浸出主要考察了采用不同浸出剂时浸出时间以及采用氨水——氯化铵作浸出剂时浸出温度对锌、铁浸出率的影响;硫酸浸出主要考察了硫酸初始浓度、矿浆液固比以及不同硫酸初始浓度时浸出温度和不同浸出温度时浸出时间对锌、铁浸出率的影响.研究结果表明,碱性浸出时锌浸出率不到50%,铁基本不被浸出;XRD分析结果说明,碱性浸出时浸出的主要是菱锌矿.硫酸浸出时锌浸出率最高可达87%以上,但铁的浸出率也在45%以上;XRD分析结果说明,硫酸浸出在低浓度如小于60 g/L或短浸出时间如10 min时浸出的主

  4. Up-gradation of MoO3 and separation of copper, iron, zinc from roasted molybdenum ore by a leaching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research paper deals with the oxidation process of molybdenum ore. The main target of the present study is the up-gradation of MoO3 from roasted molybdenum ore by a leaching process without waste generation. The most important application of hydrometallurgical processing is the leaching process of the ore and it is the primary process to make pure metal from ore. The present investigations optimize the following experimental parameters to improve the concentration of MoO3 as well as the separation of copper, iron and zinc in roasted molybdenum ore: effect of acid concentration, temperature, pulp density and leaching time were studied systematically. The temperature study was carried out at 550-595 ºC for the oxidation process. The XRD result shows that oxidation process of molybdenum ore and SEM pictures were taken for particles before and after the oxidation process at 585 ºC for 360 min.

  5. The behavior of cobalt, zinc, iron and copper in the steam-water circuit of a nuclear power station with once-through boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normally, only the metallic impurities iron and copper are determined as a matter of routine in the steam-water circuits of power stations with once-through boiler. Other heavy metals such as zinc and cobalt are of no practical significance as water contaminants and are therefore very rarely measured. Moreover, the analyses are extremely costly. However, if the steam generator is in a radiation field, as may be the case with a nuclear power station, these impurities are activated. They are then of radiological interest and can also be determined relatively easily. This is the case with the AVR reactor. This paper is a report on findings made with the AVR reactor. The results are compared with operational experience with Boiling Water Reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors

  6. Up-gradation of MoO3 and separation of copper, iron, zinc from roasted molybdenum ore by a leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present research paper deals with the oxidation process of molybdenum ore. The main target of the present study is the up-gradation of MoO3 from roasted molybdenum ore by a leaching process without waste generation. The most important application of hydrometallurgical processing is the leaching process of the ore and it is the primary process to make pure metal from ore. The present investigations optimize the following experimental parameters to improve the concentration of MoO3 as well as the separation of copper, iron and zinc in roasted molybdenum ore: effect of acid concentration, temperature, pulp density and leaching time were studied systematically. The temperature study was carried out at 550-595 °C for the oxidation process. The XRD result shows that oxidation process of molybdenum ore and SEM pictures were taken for particles before and after the oxidation process at 585 °C for 360 min. (author)

  7. Up-gradation of MoO{sub 3} and separation of copper, iron, zinc from roasted molybdenum ore by a leaching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin-Young, Lee; Jyothi Rajesh, Kumar; Ho-Seok, Jeon; Joon-Soo, Kim, E-mail: rajeshkumarphd@rediffmail.com, E-mail: rkumarphd@kigam.re.kr [Extractive Metallurgy Department, Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    The present research paper deals with the oxidation process of molybdenum ore. The main target of the present study is the up-gradation of MoO{sub 3} from roasted molybdenum ore by a leaching process without waste generation. The most important application of hydrometallurgical processing is the leaching process of the ore and it is the primary process to make pure metal from ore. The present investigations optimize the following experimental parameters to improve the concentration of MoO{sub 3} as well as the separation of copper, iron and zinc in roasted molybdenum ore: effect of acid concentration, temperature, pulp density and leaching time were studied systematically. The temperature study was carried out at 550-595 Degree-Sign C for the oxidation process. The XRD result shows that oxidation process of molybdenum ore and SEM pictures were taken for particles before and after the oxidation process at 585 Degree-Sign C for 360 min. (author)

  8. pH profile of the adsorption of nucleotides onto montmorillonite. II - Adsorption and desorption of 5-prime-AMP in iron-calcium montmorillonite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Lawless, J. G.; Mazzurco, J.; Church, F. M.; Margulies, L.; Orenberg, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of 5-prime-AMP with montmorillonite saturated with various ratios of two metals found ubiquitously on the surface of earth, that is, iron and calcium, is investigated. Adsorption and desorption of the nucleotide were studied in the pH range of 2-12 at three levels of addition: 0.080, 0.268 and 0.803 mmole 5-prime-AMP per gram of clay. Two desorption stages were employed - H2O wash and NaOH extraction (pH = 12.0). 5-prime-AMP was preferentially adsorbed on the Fe-containing clays relative to the Ca clay. The nucleotide was fully recovered by the two desorption stages, mostly by the NaOH extraction. The evidence at hand indicates that 5-prime-AMP reaction with clay is affected by electrostatic interactions involving both attraction and repulsion forces. Some specific adsorption, possibly the result of covalent bonding and complex formation with the adsorbed ion, cannot be ruled out for iron but does not appear to operate for calcium. Changes in pH cause varying degrees of attaction and repulsion of 5-prime-AMP and may have been operating on the primitive earth, leading to sequences of adsorption and release of this biomolecule.

  9. Effect of ZnO on phase emergence, microstructure and surface modifications of calcium phosphosilicate glass/glass-ceramics having iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ZnO on phase emergence and microstructure properties of glass and glass-ceramics with composition 25SiO2-50CaO-15P2O5-(10 - x)Fe2O3-xZnO (where x = 0, 2, 5, 7 mol%) has been studied. They have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface modifications of these glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid have been studied using Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy (FTIR), XPS and SEM. Results have shown a decrease in the fraction of non-bridging oxygen with increase in zinc oxide content. Emergence of crystalline phases in glass-ceramics at different heat treatment temperatures was studied using XRD. When glass is heat treated at 800 deg. C calcium phosphate, hematite and magnetite are developed as major phases in the glass-ceramics samples with ZnO up to 5 mol%. In addition to these, calcium silicate (Ca3Si2O7) phase is also observed when glass is heat treated at 1000 deg. C. The microstructure of the glass-ceramics heat treated at 800 deg. C exhibits the formation of nano-size (40-50 nm) grains. On heat treatment at 1000 deg. C crystallites grow to above 50 nm size and more than one phase are observed in the microstructure. The formation of thin flake-like structure with coarse particles is observed at high zinc oxide concentration (x = 7 mol%). In vitro studies have shown the surface modifications and formation of Ca-P-rich layer on the glass-ceramics when immersed in simulated body fluids (SBF) for different durations. The bioactive response was found to depend on ZnO content.

  10. Optimization of Lead and Silver Extraction from Zinc Plant Residues in the Presence of Calcium Hypochlorite Using Statistical Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnajady, Bahram; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-12-01

    In this work, a chloride/hypochlorite leaching process was performed for zinc plant residues. Sodium chloride and calcium hypochlorite were used as leaching and oxidizing agents, respectively. Fractional factorial method has been used to test main effects, and interactions among factors were investigated. The statistical software named Design-Expert 7 has been utilized to design experiments and subsequent analysis. Parameters and their levels were reaction time ( t = 16 and 120 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 303 K and 343 K (30 °C and 70 °C)], solid-to-liquid ratio ( S/ L = 1/6 and 1/38), pH (pH = 0.5 and 2), and Ca(OCl)2 concentration ( C = 0.6 and 3 g/L). Analysis of variance was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. Results showed that reaction temperature and pH were significant parameters for both lead and silver extractions but solid-to-liquid ratio had significant effect only on lead extraction. Increasing pH reduced leaching efficiency of lead and silver. However, increasing reaction temperature promoted the extraction of lead and silver. Ultimate optimum conditions from this study were t 1: 16 min, T 2: 343 K (70 °C), ( S/ L)2: 1/38, pH1: 0.5, and C 1: 0.6 g/L. Under these conditions, extractions of lead and silver were 93.60 and 49.21 pct, respectively.

  11. Zinc status of vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland-Graves, J H; Bodzy, P W; Eppright, M A

    1980-12-01

    The zinc status of seventy-nine vegetarians and forty-one non-vegetarians was investigated. The subjects provided 24-hr. dietary recalls and donated samples of blood, hair, and saliva that were subsequently analyzed for zinc content. Avoidance of animal products in the diet was associated with decreased intakes of energy, protein, fat, calcium, and zinc and increased consumption of crude fiber, potassium, vitamin A, and ascorbic acid. The low dietary intake of zinc by vegetarian women was believed to result from liberal use of foods low in zinc such as fruits and vegetables, whereas vegetarian men primarily consumed zinc-rich food such as legumes and cheeses Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consumed twice the amount of crude fiber consumed by non-vegetarians and vegans four times as much. The zinc content of salivary sediment was significantly lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians; vegans had the lowest mean level. The observed decrease in salivary zinc was inversely proportional to the amount of crude fiber in the diet. Zinc levels in the hair of vegetarians were significantly lower than those in the hair of non-vegetarians, while serum levels were also lower, but not significantly so. The increased crude fiber intake of vegetarians coupled with the decreased levels of zinc found in saliva and hair seem to indicate that some vegetarians, particularly women, have less than satisfactory zinc status. PMID:7440860

  12. In-situ observation of zinc electrodeposition on iron single crystal using synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosaki, M; Kawasaki, K

    2002-01-01

    Continuous in-situ observations of changes in crystal orientation during zinc electrodeposition were performed using novel electrolysis cell that secure uniform current distribution through thin electrolyte layer. It has been clarified that electrodeposition can be separated into the two regions. First one is epitaxial deposition region in which orientations of deposited zinc and substrate keep following relations; Fe(100)//Zn(10 centre dot 1) Fe(110)//Zn(00 centre dot 2), Fe(111)//Zn(00 centre dot 2). This region continued until the thickness of the deposit became about 0.5 mu m. Second one is bulk deposition region, in which the overpotential settled by electrolysis conditions determines the crystal orientation. Low overpotential leads to promoting Zn(00 centre dot 2) deposition, and higher overpotential Zn(10 centre dot 1) and Zn(11 centre dot 0). Influences of the current density changes on the crystal orientation were also clarified. The use of an adsorbing organic additive influences both on the epitaxi...

  13. A new treatment process to recover magnetite, zinc and lead from iron and steelmaking dusts and sludges

    OpenAIRE

    Delalio, A.; Bajger, Z.; Balaz, P.; Castro, F.

    1999-01-01

    Steelmaking dusts are frequently classified as hazardous residues, due to their eco-toxicity characteristics. This derives mainly from the presence of heavy metals like zinc, lead and cadmium in their compositions, in forms that are easily leachable by water or slightly acidic or alkaline media. Following the most employed eco-toxicity standard tests, like DIN 38414-S41) from Germany, and TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure)2) from the United States, steelmaking dusts prese...

  14. Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia Villagomez; Ujjwal Ramtekkar

    2014-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder increasing in prevalence. Although there is limited evidence to support treating ADHD with mineral/vitamin supplements, research does exist showing that patients with ADHD may have reduced levels of vitamin D, zinc, ferritin, and magnesium. These nutrients have important roles in neurologic function, including involvement in neurotransmitter synthesis. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of each of these...

  15. Vitamin A, vitamin E, iron and zinc status in a cohort of HIV-infected mothers and their uninfected infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Pontes Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We hypothesized that nutritional deficiency would be common in a cohort of postpartum, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected women and their infants. Methods Weight and height, as well as blood concentrations of retinol, α-tocopherol, ferritin, hemoglobin, and zinc, were measured in mothers after delivery and in their infants at birth and at 6-12 weeks and six months of age. Retinol and α-tocopherol levels were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography, and zinc levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The maternal body mass index during pregnancy was adjusted for gestational age (adjBMI. Results Among the 97 women 19.6% were underweight. Laboratory abnormalities were most frequently observed for the hemoglobin (46.4%, zinc (41.1%, retinol (12.5% and ferritin (6.5% levels. Five percent of the women had mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations < 31g/dL. The most common deficiency in the infants was α-tocopherol (81% at birth; however, only 18.5% of infants had deficient levels at six months of age. Large percentages of infants had zinc (36.8% and retinol (29.5% deficiencies at birth; however, these percentages decreased to 17.5% and 18.5%, respectively, by six months of age. No associations between infant micronutrient deficiencies and either the maternal adjBMI category or maternal micronutrient deficiencies were found. Conclusions Micronutrient deficiencies were common in HIV-infected women and their infants. Micronutrient deficiencies were less prevalent in the infants at six months of age. Neither underweight women nor their infants at birth were at increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies.

  16. Preventive zinc supplementation for children, and the effect of additional iron: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Imdad, Aamer; Junior, Jean; Dean, Sohni; Zulfiqar A Bhutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective Zinc deficiency is widespread, and preventive supplementation may have benefits in young children. Effects for children over 5 years of age, and effects when coadministered with other micronutrients are uncertain. These are obstacles to scale-up. This review seeks to determine if preventive supplementation reduces mortality and morbidity for children aged 6 months to 12 years. Design Systematic review conducted with the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems ...

  17. Distribution of Various Forms Iron, Manganese, Copper, Zinc and Relationship between Organic Matter and Various Forms on Lessive%白浆土各形态Fe、Mn、Cu和Zn分布及其与有机质间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 田秀平; 张之一

    2016-01-01

    The various form contents of the iron, manganese, copper and zinc and the relationship between the organic matter and the various forms in the lessive was studied in this paper with the long-term position test method in the Sanjiang plain. It shows that the full content of the iron, manganese in the test soil is slightly lower than the average level and the full content of the copper, zinc is slightly higher than the average level of the soil in Heilongjiang Province. It also shows that the effective forms of the iron, manganese, copper and zinc are on a high level. The forms content order of the iron, manganese, copper and zinc is RES-Fe>OX-Fe>OM-Fe>EX-Fe>CARB-Fe, OX-Mn>RES-Mn>OM-Mn>EX-Mn>CARB-Mn, RES-Cu>OM-Cu>CARB-Cu>OX-Cu>EX-Cu, RES-Zn>OX-Zn>OM-Zn>EX-Zn>CARB-Zn. It is the significant or highly significant positive correlation between the effective forms of the iron, manganese, copper and zinc and the readily oxidizable carbon, humic acid, fulvic acid, pine Junction organic matter in the lessive. In addition to the full form iron, it is the significant or highly significant positive correlation between the full forms of the manganese, copper, zinc, the organic forms of the iron, manganese, copper, zinc, the exchangeable forms of the iron, manganese, copper, zinc and the total organic matter, the readily oxidizable carbon, humic acid, fulvic acid and so on.%在三江平原白浆土上,采用长期定位试验方法研究了土壤中各形态Fe、Mn、Cu和Zn含量及其与有机质组分间的关系。结果表明,供试土壤全Fe、Mn含量略低于黑龙江省平均水平,而全Cu和Zn略高于黑龙江省平均水平,有效态Fe、Mn、Cu和Zn处于较高水平。各形态Fe、Mn、Cu和Zn的含量高低顺序为:RES-Fe>OX-Fe>OM-Fe>EX-Fe>CARB-Fe;OX-Mn>RES-Mn>OM-Mn>EX-Mn>CARB-Mn;RES-Cu>OM-Cu>CARB-Cu>OX-Cu>EX-Cu;RES-Zn>OX-Zn> OM-Zn>EX-Zn>CARB-Zn。白浆土中有效态铁、锰、铜和锌与易氧化碳、胡敏

  18. Effect of a six-month iron-zinc fortified milk supplementation on nutritional status, physical capacity and speed learning process in Indonesian underweight schoolchildren: randomized, placebo-controlled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptawati Bardosono

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim to evaluated the effect of milk supplementation enriched with iron and zinc on indicators of growth, physical capacity and cognitive performance in underweight school-children.Method Two-armed, randomized controlled double-blind trial was performed in several primary schools in Jakarta and Surakarta, Indonesia. A total of 245 underweight schoolchildren aged 7-9 years living in urban poor areas of Jakarta and Solo were randomly allocated to receive two cups of iron-zinc fortified-milk (n = 121 or non-iron-zinc fortified milk (n= 124 supplementation daily for six months. Biochemical indicators, anthropometric indices, physical capacity and cognitive performance were measured at before and after the supplementation.Results The study shows that between the fortified and non-fortified milk group, there was no significant different in haemoglobin increase (0.01 + 0.96 mg/dL versus 0.17 + 0.81 mg/dL nor serum ferritin increase (12.77 + 25.50 mcg/dL versus 14.99 + 29.56 mcg/dL. Unexpectedly, decreased in serum zinc was found in both groups (3.01 + 3.24 mMol/dL and 3.12 + 3.71 mMol/dL. There was significant higher increment (P=0.045 in body weight among the fortified milk group (1.31 + 0.69 kg as compared to the non-fortified group (1.13 + 0.69 kg. Consistently, there was significant increase (P=0.025 in the indicator of underweight (WAZ among the fortified milk group (1.47 + 0.50 as compared to the non-fortified group (1.33 + 0.47. There was significant improvement (P=0.001 of cognitive performance, i.e. coding test-score among the fortified group (12.74 + 11.76 as compared to the non-fortified group (8.31 + 9.60, but there was no significant difference found in the improvement of physical capacity score in both groups (10323.77 + 9253.83 versus 8435.94 + 8824.55.Conclusion Among underweight schoolchildren aged 7-9 y, supplementation of milk fortified with iron and zinc can provide better growth, and better speed processing of learning ability

  19. Sorbitol dehydrogenase is a zinc enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery, J; Chesters, J; C. Mills; P.J. Sadler; Jörnvall, H

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is given that tetrameric sorbitol dehydrogenase from sheep liver contains one zinc atom per subunit, most probably located at the active site, and no other specifically bound zinc or iron atom. In alcohol dehydrogenases that are structurally related to sorbitol dehydrogenase, more than one zinc atom per subunit can complicate investigations of zinc atom function. Therefore, sorbitol dehydrogenase will be particularly valuable for defining the precise roles of zinc in alcohol and poly...

  20. 热性惊厥与铁锌元素、血糖、白细胞的关系%Study on the Relationship between Febrile Convulsion and Iron Zinc, WBC, Blood Glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀卿; 宋滨东; 徐桂霞; 王丽君; 马延博

    2015-01-01

    目的观察热性惊厥患儿血清铁、锌元素、血糖、白细胞的水平,并研究探讨两者间的临床相关性。方法对2012年6月~2013年5月因热性惊厥而前来就诊的80例患儿,设为观察组。同期随机选取儿保门诊健康体检儿童80例设为对照组,两组入选儿童均抽血做血清铁、锌、血糖、血常规测定。结果热性惊厥患儿血铁、锌、血糖、白细胞较对照组有显著性差异(<0.05)。结论热性惊厥患儿存在铁锌元素减少,白细胞及血糖升高。%Objective Observe the level of serum iron, zinc, white blood cel s, blood glucose in febrile convulsion children, and to study the clinical cor elation. Methods 80 children because of febrile convulsion to the hospital were selected as the observation group during the period from 2012 June to 2013 May. At the same period 80 healthy children from child health clinic were randomly selected as control group, two groups children were examined serum iron, zinc, blood glucose, blood routine. Results The children with febrile convulsion the white blood cel s and iron, zinc, blood glucose had significant dif erence compared with the control ( <0.05). Conclusion The level of iron and zinc in children with febrile convulsion reduces, white blood cel s and blood glucose increase.

  1. Zoning and contamination rate of magnesium and heavy metals of iron, zinc and copper in the north and northwest aquifer of Khoy (Zourabad) based on GIS and determining the contaminated source

    OpenAIRE

    Fariborz Khodadadi; Abdolnaser Fazlnia; Hossein Pirkharrati

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Heavy metals are the most toxic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. This contamination can result from the release of heavy metal elements during alteration and weathering of ultramafic and mafic rocks (ophiolite zones). Among the important metals and pollutants in the ophiolite; chromium, cobalt, nickel, iron, magnesium, manganese, zinc and copper could be noted. Basically, a mass of serpentine consists of serpentine, amphibole, talc, chlorite, magnetite, and the remainder of o...

  2. Route and Regulation of Zinc, Cadmium, and Iron Transport in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) during Vegetative Growth and Grain Filling: Metal Transporters, Metal Speciation, Grain Cd Reduction and Zn and Fe Biofortification

    OpenAIRE

    Tadakatsu Yoneyama; Satoru Ishikawa; Shu Fujimaki

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are essential but are sometimes deficient in humans, while cadmium (Cd) is toxic if it accumulates in the liver and kidneys at high levels. All three are contained in the grains of rice, a staple cereal. Zn and Fe concentrations in rice grains harvested under different levels of soil/hydroponic metals are known to change only within a small range, while Cd concentrations show greater changes. To clarify the mechanisms underlying such different metal contents, we synt...

  3. Calcium Intake and Body Composition in African-American Children and Adolescents at Risk for Overweight and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Tylavsky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of calcium intake on body composition in 186 African-American adolescents at risk for overweight and obesity. The average weight of 89.8 kg ± 23.6 (SD had a mean BMI z score of 2.2. Females with a calcium intake of < 314 mg/day had higher percent fat mass compared to those with the highest calcium intakes that were ≥ 634 mg/day. Compared to those with a low calcium intake (< 365 mg/day, those with the highest calcium intake of > 701 mg/day had higher intake of thiamin, folate, cobalamin, vitamin D, phosphorus, iron, zinc.

  4. 仿生合成羟基锡酸锌包覆碳酸钙及其对PVC的阻燃研究%Biomimetic synthesis of zinc hydroxystannate-coated calcium carbonate and its application in PVC*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦运红; 彭飞; 徐建中; 谢吉星; 王宁

    2011-01-01

    Taking sodium dodecyl benzene suffonate(SDBS)as the template in the water solution, zinc hydroxystannate-coated calcium carbonate (ZHSCC-1)was prepared by biominetic synthesis method, and zinc hydroxystannate-coated calcium carbonate (ZHSCC-2)was also prepared in water solution without SDBS. Both ZHSCC-1 and ZHSCC-2 were studied as the flame retardant of PVC. The results showed that, when ZHSCC at the same addition level, not only the flame retardant and smoke suppressant effects of ZHSCC-1 were better than those of ZHSCC-2, but also the beneficial effects of the former were better than those of the latter.%采用仿生合成的方法,以十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)为模板,在水溶液中制备了羟基锡酸锌包覆碳酸钙(ZHSCC-1),并将其和不添加SDBS模板制备的羟基锡酸锌包覆碳酸钙(ZHSCC-2)分别应用在PVC 中进行对比研究.结果表明:在ZHSCC含量相同时,ZHSCC-1对PVC的阻燃消烟效果明显优于ZHSCC-2,且前者对PVC的拉伸强度、断裂伸长率、抗冲强度的有益影响都优于后者.

  5. Bioavailability of enteric-coated microencapsulated calcium during pregnancy: A randomized crossover trial in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal calcium and iron supplements are recommended in settings of low dietary calcium intake and high prevalence of anemia. However, calcium administration may inhibit iron absorption. To overcome calcium-iron interactions, we developed a multi-micronutrient powder containing iron (60 mg), folic ...

  6. Matrix effects for calcium and potassium K-X-rays, in fenugreek plants grown in iron rich soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work comprises the matrix effects study of the plant system (plant and soil) for macronutrients Ca and K with elevated levels of iron in the soil. The earlier derived matrix effect terms from fundamental relations of intensities of analyte and substrate elements with basic atomic and experimental setup parameters had led to iterative determination of enhanced elements rather than avoiding their enhancement. The relations also facilitated the evaluations of absorption for close Z interfering constituents (like Ca and K) in samples of a lot of particular category with interpolation of matrix terms with elemental amounts. The process has already been employed successfully for potato, radish, rice and maize plants. On similar lines, the observed prominent change in interpolation parameters for the plants in the present experiment serves as a tool to check the toxicity/contamination of the growing medium. - Highlights: • Matrix effects for Ca and K in Fenugreek plant and its soil with elevated iron level. • Fenugreek plants grown in iron rich soil and treated with K/Ca fertilizers. • The matrix terms correlated to analyte and enhancer element amounts. • Interpolation of matrix terms with elemental amounts points to Fe toxicity of soil

  7. Effect of Zinc Intake on Fetal and Infant Growth Among Chinese Pregnant and Lactating Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between maternal nutrient intake and fetal size or infant growth was studied in 1956 pregnant women, 599 parturients and 1043 lactating women, 318 non-pregnant women included as controls. The study was conducted in eight regions that were representative of all geographical areas of China. The diet was comprised primarily of cereal products with 70% to 85% of the zinc intake derived from plant sources. Women in the third trimester of pregnancy, parturients and lactating women consumed more food than non-pregnant women or women in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Total energy, protein and iron intakes met the recommended allowances for each stage of reproduction. Calcium and zinc intakes, however, were 50% and 47% of the amount recommended, respectively. Only 7.2% of the women exceeded two-thirds of the recommended zinc intake. The mean intake of zinc was 6.5mg to 9.0 mg each day among all the subjects. Correlation and stepwise regression analysis showed that maternal zinc intake was a predictor factor for fetal dimensions and birthweight. The results of this study show that fetal growth and birthweight are directly related to maternal zinc intake among Chinese women, and that there is no relationship between maternal zinc intake during lactation and infant height, weight, or weight gain from birth.

  8. Study on Beneficiation Technology of an Oxidized Lead-Zinc Ore with High Iron Content in Sichuan Province%四川某高铁氧化铅锌矿选矿工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少东; 乔吉波

    2011-01-01

    针对四川某高铁氧化铅锌矿进行了优先浮选、脱泥浮选、摇床重选和强磁选等选矿工艺的条件试验和全浮选工艺流程研究,通过试验得到了铅品位72.59%、铅回收率60.19%的硫化铅精矿;锌品位51.83%、锌回收率12.23%的硫化锌精矿;铅品位59.90%、铅回收率28.78%的氧化铅精矿;锌品位29.09%、锌回收率41.86%的氧化锌精矿.氧化铅浮选采用脱泥浮选可以较大幅度地降低硫化钠的用量,氧化锌矿物的选别采用摇床重选-强磁选联合流程,可以有效消除弱磁性铁矿物对氧化锌精矿品位的影响.各种铅锌矿物得到了有效回收.%The study on conditional experiments of beneficiation technology, including selective flotation, desliming flotation, gravity separation by shaking table and high intensity magnetic separation etc, and bulk flotation process is carried out for an oxidized lead -zinc ore with high iron content in Sichuan province. After the experiments, the lead sulfide concentrate can be get with 72. 59% lead grade and 60. 19% lead recovery; the zinc sulfide concentrate can be get with SI. 83% zinc grade and 12. 23% zinc recovery; the oxidized lead concentrate can be get with 59.90% lead grade and 28. 78% lead recovery; the oxidized zinc concentrate can be get with 29. 09% zinc grade and 41. 86% zinc recovery. Desliming flotation can be adopted for oxidized lead mineral flotation to greatly reduce the dosage of sodium sulfide; for oxidized zinc mineral processing, the combined process, gravity separation by shaking table-high intensity magnetic separation can be adopted to remove the effect of low magnetism mineral on the grade of oxidized zinc concentrate. All kinds of lead-zinc mineral were recovered effectively.

  9. Determination of trace amounts of bismuth, antimony, tellurium, cadmium, silver, tin, zinc and lead in iron and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical method combined AAS with the multielement extraction as quarternary amine complexes was studied to get accurate values of the 10-4 % order in the determination of Bi, Sb, Te, Cd, Ag, Sn, Zn and Pb below 50 ppm in iron and steel. In the determination of Bi, Sb, Te, Cd and Ag, 0.5 g of test portion is dissolved by heating in 10 ml of aqua regia. Nitric and hydrochloric acids are eliminated by white-fume treatment with 50 ml of sulfuric acid (1 + 3) and 2 ml of phosphoric acid (1 + 1) (In a determination of Sb, a test portion should be dissolved in 50 ml of sulfuric acid (1 + 3) to avoid the formation of Sb5+.). After cooling and diluting to 50 ml with water, the sample solution is shaked vigorously for a minute with 10 ml of the tetra-n-hexyl ammonium iodide (THAI) (0.005 M)-4-methyl-2-pentanone (MIBK) reagent to extract above five elements. Absorbance of these elements in the organic solvent is measured with an atomic absorption spectrometer and is converted into content (mass %) with working curves. In the determination of Sn, Zn and Pb, 0.5 g of test portion is dissolved by heating in 10 ml of aqua regia. Nitric and hydrochloric acids are eliminated by white-fume treatment with 3 ml of sulfuric acid (1 + 1). After cooling, 15 ml of hydrochloric acid (1 + 1) is added to dissolve the salt and Fe3+ is reduced into Fe2+ by adding 2 g of L-ascorbic acid and then the sample solution is diluted to 50 ml with water {If a determination of Pb is necessary, 10 ml of potasium iodide solution (10 g/l) is added before adding water.}. The lower limits of determination in the present method were 0.5 ppm for Cd and Ag, 2 ppm for Zn and Pb, 4 ppm for Bi, Sb and Te and 10 ppm for Sn in iron and steel. The following elements did not interfere up to 40 % Cr, 20 % Ni, 4 % of Mo and W, 2 % of Mn and Co and 1 % of Cu, V, Ti and Al. (J.P.N.)

  10. Hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from CaO treated EAF dust in ammonium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Takahiro; Chairaksa-Fujimoto, Romchat; Maruyama, Katsuya; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2016-01-25

    Zinc in Electric Arc Furnace dust or EAF dust mainly exists as ZnFe2O4 and ZnO. While ZnO can be simply dissolved into either an acidic or alkaline solution, it is difficult to dissolve ZnFe2O4. In our previous work, we introduced a process called "CaO treatment", a preliminary pyrometallurgical process designed to transform the ZnFe2O4 in the EAF dust into ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5. The halogens and others heavy metals were favorably vaporized during CaO treatment with no essential evaporation loss of zinc and iron, leaving CaO treated dust which consisted mainly of ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5 and no problematic ZnFe2O4 compound. In this work, the selective leaching of zinc over iron and calcium in the CaO treated dust was investigated using an NH4Cl solution. The effects of temperature, reaction time and NH4Cl concentration on dissolution behavior were examined. While most of the zinc in the CaO treated dust was extracted after 2 h at 70 °C with 2 M NH4Cl, only about 20% of calcium was leached in NH4Cl solution. However, the iron did not dissolve and remained as Ca2Fe2O5 in residue. It was confirmed that zinc can be effectively recovered using NH4Cl solution. PMID:26448494

  11. Intra-population genetic variance for grain iron and zinc contents and agronomic traits in pearl millet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahalingam Govindaraj; Kedar N. Rai; Ponnusamy Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Crop biofortification is a sustainable approach for fighting micronutrient malnutrition in the world. The estimation of variance components in genetically broad-based populations provides information about their genetic architecture, allowing the design of an appropriate biofortification breeding method for cross-pollinated crops such as pearl millet. The objective of this study was to estimate intra-population genetic variance using self (S1) and half-sib (HS) progenies in two populations, AIMP92901 and ICMR312. Field trials were evaluated in two contrasting seasons (2009 rainy and 2010 summer; otherwise called environments) in Alfisols at ICRISAT, Patancheru. Analyses of variance showed highly significant variation for S1s and HS progenies, reflecting high within-population genetic variation for both micronutrients and other key traits. However, the HS showed narrow ranges and lower genetic variances than the S1 for all of the traits. The micronutrients were highly positively correlated in S1 (r=0.77 to 0.86;P<0.01) and HS (r=0.74 to 0.77;P<0.01) progenies of both populations, implying concurrent genetic improvement for both micronutrients. The genetic variance component was different among populations for Fe and Zn contents across environments, with AIMP92901 showing a greater proportion of dominance and ICMR312 greater additive variance for these micronutrients. The estimates of variance (additive and dominance) were specific for each population, given their dependence on the additive and dominance effects of the segregating loci, which also differ among populations. The possible causes for such differences were discussed. The results showed that the expression of these micronutrients in pearl millet shows largely additive variance, so that breeding high-iron hybrids will require incorporation of these micronu-trient traits into both parental lines.

  12. Iron and zinc isotope fractionation during uptake and translocation in rice (Oryza sativa) grown in oxic and anoxic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tim; Markovic, Tamara; Kirk, Guy J. D.; Schönbächler, Maria; Rehkämper, Mark; Zhao, Fangjie J.; Weiss, Dominik J.

    2015-11-01

    Stable isotope fractionation is emerging quickly as a powerful novel technique to study metal uptake and translocation in plants. Fundamental to this development is a thorough understanding of the processes that lead to isotope fractionation under differing environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated Zn and Fe isotope fractionation in rice grown to maturity in anaerobic and aerobic soils under greenhouse conditions. The overall Zn isotope fractionation between the soil and above ground plant material was negligible in aerobic soil but significant in anaerobic soil with isotopically lighter Zn in the rice plant. The observed range of fractionation is in line with previously determined fractionations of Zn in rice grown in hydroponic solutions and submerged soils and emphasizes the effect of taking up different chemical forms of Zn, most likely free and organically complexed Zn. The Zn in the grain was isotopically lighter than in the rest of the above ground plant in rice grown in aerobic and anaerobic soils alike. This suggests that in the course of the grain loading and during the translocation within the plant important biochemical and/or biophysical processes occur. The isotope fractionation observed in the grains would be consistent with an unidirectional controlled transport from shoot to grain with a fractionation factor of α ≈ 0.9994. Iron isotopes showed an isotopic lighter signature in shoot and grain compared to the bulk soil or the leachate in aerobic and anaerobic soils alike. The negative direction of isotopic fractionation is consistent with possible changes in the redox state of Fe occurring during the uptake and translocation processes. The isotope fractionation pattern between shoots and grain material are different for Zn and Fe which finally suggests that different mechanisms operate during translocation and grain-loading in rice for these two key micronutrients.

  13. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) determination of copper, iron and zinc in food samples after solid-phase extraction on Schiff base-modified duolite XAD 761

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study involves the development of solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure for the preconcentration of trace amounts of copper (Cu2+), iron (Fe3+) and zinc (Zn2+) ions on duolite XAD 761 modified by bis(2-hydroxyacetophenone)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediimine(BHAPDMPDI). The complexation between the metal ions and the proposed ligand was investigated potentiometrically. The metal ions retained on the sorbent were quantitatively determined via complexation with BHAPDMPDI. The complexed metal ions were efficiently eluted using 6 mL of 4 mol L−1 nitric acid in acetone. The influences of the analytical parameters, including pH, amounts of the ligand and the solid phase, eluent conditions and sample volume, on the recoveries of the metal ions were optimized. Using the optimized parameters, the linear response of the SPE method for Cu2+, Zn2+ and Fe3+ ions were in the ranges of 0.01–0.34, 0.01–0.28 and 0.02–0.31 μg mL−1, respectively, and the detection limits for Cu2+, Zn2+ and Fe3+ ions were 1.8, 1.6 and 2.4 μg mL−1, respectively. The proposed method exhibits a preconcentration factor of 208 for all of the ions studied and an enhancement factor for Cu2+, Fe3+ and Zn2+ ions of 34, 28 and 38, respectively. The presented results demonstrate the successful application of the proposed method for the determination of these metal ions in some real samples with high recoveries (> 95%) and reasonable relative standard deviation (RDS < 5%). Highlights: ► Highly efficient adsorbent for dye removal was synthesized. ► The sorbent was fully characterized. ► The proposed method has a potential of a waste water treatment alternative. ► Excellent properties of the sorbent have been illustrated in detail

  14. Levels of lead, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc in deciduous teeth of children living in Irbid, Jordan by ICP-OES: some factors affecting their concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomary, A; Al-Momani, I F; Obeidat, S M; Massadeh, A M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in deciduous teeth from children living in Jordan and to investigate the affecting factors. Deciduous teeth samples (n = 320, without fillings) were collected from 5- to 12-year-old children and analyzed for Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. A questionnaire was used to gather information on each child, such as sex, age, tooth type (incisors, canines, and molars), tooth position within the mouth (upper or lower jaw), caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, type of drinking water (tap water, home purified water, and plant purified water), and zone of residence (close to or far from heavy traffic roads). The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn were 30.26, 0.55, 6.23, 34.72, and 128.21 μg/g, respectively. Our results indicate that there is a clear relation between the concentrations of the metals analyzed in this study and tooth type, tooth position within the mouth, caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and type of drinking water. No significant differences in the concentrations of the five metals analyzed were observed due to sex. Our results also show that no significant difference among Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations and age among the ages of 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12, except for Pb, which decreases at age 11-12. PMID:22851195

  15. Aluminium, lead, cadmium and mercury levels in human food chain (in Karnataka, India) and their interaction with micronutrients - Copper, iron, zinc and vitamin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micronutrient elements are indispensable for the survival of life. Nature and food habits govern the uptake, deposition, metabolic involvement and excretion of metals in human body. In this process, certain non-essential metals like Aluminium (Al), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Mercury (Hg) may accumulate in various organs during the life cycle. Essential trace elements like Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn), play dual role and they have beneficiary action at biologically optimum concentrations, whereas they affect biological function at very low or higher concentration. High concentration of lead (Pb) arising from automobile exhaust, pesticides, solders, water, dairy products; cadmium (Cd) arising from tanneries, nickel-cadmium batteries, stabilizers in plastic, glazed potteries, and mercury (Hg) arising from refineries, batteries, pesticides, amalgams, paints and industrial waste; are found in food. High concentration of Pb, Cd, Hg and Al are also reported in leafy vegetables grown on sewage run-off in urban areas. Main source of Al in our diet is from drinking water and through use of aluminium utensils for cooking of food. There is a growing concern regarding the human health in developed and developing countries with respect to neurodegenerative disorders and carcinogenic potential caused by heavy metals when their levels exceed the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI). The PTWI levels (mg/kg body weight) are 7 for Al, 0.025 for Pb, 0.007 for Cd and 0.005 for Hg. Dietary exposure of humans to toxic trace elements leads to their accumulation in various tissues and consequently influence functional ability of essential elements. Studies show that Al, Pb and Cd alter or impair the optimal biological and physiological functions of Fe, Ca, Zn and Cu

  16. Atomic force microscopic comparison of remineralization with casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste, acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and iron supplement in primary and permanent teeth: An in-vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Nikita Agrawal; N D Shashikiran; Shilpy Singla; Ravi, K.S.; Vinaya Kumar Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Context: Demineralization of tooth by erosion is caused by frequent contact between the tooth surface and acids present in soft drinks. Aim: The present study objective was to evaluate the remineralization potential of casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel and iron supplement on dental erosion by soft drinks in human primary and permanent enamel using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Materials and Methods: Specimens were...

  17. In vitro Studies of Iron Chelation Activity of Purified Active Ingredients Extracted from Triticum aestivum Linn. (Wheat Grass)

    OpenAIRE

    Das Priyabrata; Mukhopadhyay Ashis; Mandal Suvra; Pal Bikas Chandra; Mishra Raghwendra; Mukherjee Debarati; Mukhopadhyay Soma; Basak Jayasri; Kar Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Seven to eight days germinated plants of Triticum aestivum (wheat grass) are a rich source of vitamin A, C, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulphur, cobalt, zinc and protein. Traditionally the aqueous extract of T. aestivum was reported to be used as a health tonic in folk and ayurvedic medicine. We previously reported that aqueous extract of T. aestivum was found to reduce the blood transfusion requirement in iron overloaded Thalassemia and Myelod...

  18. Effect of radiation and/or traditional processings on antinutrients and HCl extractability of calcium, phosphorus and iron of sorghum cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole flours of sorghum cultivars Dabar, WadAhmed and Karamaka were irradiated and then fermented and/or cooked. Tannin and phytic acid contents were assayed for all treatments. Traditional processings (fermentation and cooking) were significantly (P≥0.05) decreased tannin and phytate of the cultivars and further reduction was observed when the flour was irradiated before processing for all cultivars. Radiation process alone had no great effect on tannin and phytate contents but when followed by traditional processing the reduction level was significant (P≥0.05) for all cultivars. Radiation alone had no significant (P≥0.05) effect in increment of total and extractable calcium (Ca). However, radiation followed by fermentation and/or cooking significantly (P≥0.05) increased both total and extractable Ca. Total phosphorus (P) was not significantly (P≥0.05) increased at all levels of radiation and/or processing but the extractable P was increased. Total iron (Fe) was not affected by radiation and/or processings but the extractable Fe was increased significantly (P≥0.05) with the radiation dose for all cultivars. (author)

  19. The enhancement effect of pre-reduction using zero-valent iron on the solidification of chromite ore processing residue by blast furnace slag and calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinchunzi; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin; Wang, Binyuan; Fan, Leitao

    2015-09-01

    A bench scale study was performed to assess the effectiveness of the solidification of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) by blast furnace slag and calcium hydroxide, and investigate the enhancement effect of pre-reduction using zero-valent iron (ZVI) on the solidification treatment. The degree of Cr immobilization was evaluated using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) as well as the solid waste-extraction procedure for leaching toxicity-sulfuric acid & nitric acid method (Chinese standard HJ/T299-2007). Strength tests and semi-dynamic leaching tests were implemented to investigate the potential for reusing the final treatment product as a readily available construction material. The experimental results showed that the performance of pre-reduction/solidification (S/S) was superior to that of solidification alone. After pre-reduction, all of the S/S treated COPR samples met the TCLP limit for total Cr (5 mg L(-1)), whereas the samples with a COPR content below 40% met the pollution control limit of bricks and building block products (Chinese standard HJ/T 301-2007) produced with COPR for total Cr (0.3 mg L(-1)). At the same time, all of the S/S treated specimens tested were suitable for utilization at certain levels. PMID:25929874

  20. On the importance of satellite lines to the He-like alpha complex and the G ration for calcium, iron, and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgoetz, Justin R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fontes, Christopher J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Hong L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nahar, Sultana N [OHIO STATE UNIV; Pradhan, Anil K [OHIO STATE UNIV

    2008-01-01

    New, more detailed calculations of the emission spectra of the He-like Ko complex of calcium, iron and nickel have been carried out using data from both distorted-wave and R-matrix calculations. The value of the GD ratio (a corrected version of the G ratio that accounts for the effect of unresolved satellite lines) is significantly enhanced at temperatures below the temperature of He-like maximum abundance. Furthermore it is shown that satellite lines are important contributors to the G D ratio at temperatures well above the temperature of maximum abundance. These new calculations demonstrate that satellite lines need to be included in models of He-like Ko spectra even at relatively high temperatures. The excellent agreement between spectra and line ratios calculated from R-matrix and distorted-wave data also confirms the validity of models based on distorted-wave data for highly charged systems, provided the effect of resonances are taken into account as independent processes.

  1. Surface modification of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles with calcium salt of poly(γ-glutamic acid) as coating material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface-modified magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by co-precipitation of aqueous solution of ferrous and ferric salts (molar ratio 1:2) upon adding a base followed by calcium salt of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (Ca-γ-PGA) for uniform coating on the surface of MNPs. Both uncoated and Ca-γ-PGA-coated MNPs were characterized using various techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and vibrating sample magnetometric (VSM) studies. Compared with bare MNPs, the IR spectra of coated MNPs showed characteristic peaks of γ-PGA, implying the γ-PGA coating on MNPs did occur. The TEM images depicted an average size of 8-10 nm for bare MNPs and 14 nm for coated MNPs, with their shape being spherical in nature. In the presence of applied magnetic field, a superparamagnetic behavior was observed at room temperature for both bare and Ca-γ-PGA-coated MNPs, with no magnetism left upon magnetic-field removal.

  2. Zinc: an essential but elusive nutrient123

    OpenAIRE

    Janet C. King

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of zinc depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of zinc nutrition. Nutrients, such as zinc, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A,...

  3. Efeito da suplementação com ferro na biodisponibilidade de zinco em uma dieta regional do nordeste do Brasil Effects of supplementation with iron on the bioavailability of zinc in the regional diet of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia F. C. Pedrosa

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigados os efeitos da suplementação com ferro na biodisponibilidade de zinco de uma dieta "regional" do Nordeste (DRNE, em ratos albinos Wistar, consumindo rações à base da referida dieta (DRNE e rações controle. As rações DRNE, continham 16 mg de Zn/kg e níveis de 35 mg, 70 mg e 140mg Fe/kg. As rações controle foram elaboradas segundo o "Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets", contendo níveis de proteína, ferro e zinco ajustados aos das rações experimentais DRNE. Os parâmetros utilizados para medir a biodisponibilidade do zinco foram: Índice de Absorção Aparente do Zn e nível total de Zn nos fêmures. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a suplementação com ferro diminuiu a biodisponibilidade do Zn, e os efeitos dessa interferência foram influenciados pela qualidade da dieta e pelas proporções Fe:Zn. Tal fato deve ser considerado nas práticas que envolvem fortificação de alimentos e/ou suplementos medicamentosos, comuns nas populações com carências nutricionais.The effects of supplementation with iron on the zinc bioavailability of the regional diet of northeastern Brazil (RDN, were investigated. One assay with Wistar rats, feed on RDN and control diets was carried out. The RDN diets contained 16 mg Zn/kg and levels of 35 mg, 70 mg and 140 mg Fe/kg, respectively. The control diets were prepared according to the standards of the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets, with levels of protein, iron and zinc identical to those of RDN diets. Index of apparent absorption and zinc retained in the femur of the animals were the parameters utilized to measure zinc bioavailability. The results demonstrated that the supplementation with iron decreased the zinc bioavailability, and the effects were seen to affect diet quality and the Fe:Zn ratio. This fact must be taken into consideration in practices such as the fortying of foodstuffs and the administration of vitamin-mineral supplements to populations with

  4. Transport of trace metals in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. I. Concentrations and loads of iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc during flood periods in the 1978-1979 wet season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order that realistic effluent standards may be established for the Ranger uranium operations at Jabiru, Northern Territory, it is necessary that there be a clear and detailed knowledge of the pre-mining levels of trace metals and their behaviour within the Magela Creek system. During the wet season, floodwaters were sampled for conductivity, suspended solids and the trace metals, iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. All concentrations were found to be very low, as were the denudation rates for the trace metals and suspended materials

  5. 富铁锌彩粒小麦营养品质与开发利用研究%Research of Nutritional Quality and Utilization of Iron Zinc-Rich Colored Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何一哲; 雷小刚; 张成东; 贾振江; 王怡; 宁军芬

    2012-01-01

    The related diseases,Which are more and more serious recently,especially,the lack of iron,zinc and vitamina is worse. It can not improve the level of iron and zinc in body by diversification of offd, therefore, increasing the contents of micro-nutrients which could be well absorbed is necessary. This research is based on analysis results of Qinhei 1 ,a iron zinc-rich colored wheat,the purpose is to create a series of produts which can effectively and economically prevent human beings from diseases caused by lack of iron and zinc, through the analysis and comparison of the standards of the nutritional quality of Qinhei 1.%目前与微量营养元素缺乏的有关疾病日趋严重,尤其是铁、锌、维生素A等的缺乏现状不容乐观.食品的多样化并不能有效解决铁、辞缺乏的问题;在食品中添加化学营养元素或化学强化往往存在着安全性的担忧.因此,发展富含天然铁、锌等微量营养元素的粮食新品种及其功能食品才是根本的目标.本项研究在对富铁辞彩粒小麦秦黑1号(血麦)已有分析测定结果的基础上,通过对富铁锌彩粒小麦秦黑1号(血麦)营养品质的某些理化指标的测定、对比分析,根据其特有的性状和功能可开发出相关系列产品,探讨通过传统食物安全、有效而经济地防治人类缺铁少锌病症的新途径.

  6. Co-ordinated research programme on isotope-aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets. Report of the second research co-ordination meeting, Hyderabad, India, 16-20 November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Isotope-Aided Studies on the Bioavailability of Iron and Zinc from Human Diets'' was initiated by the IAEA in 1990, and presently encompasses participating institutes in 11 countries. A summary of the discussions that took place during thr second Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Hyderabad, India, between 16-20 November 1992, is given in this report together with 12 working papers (progress reports) presented by individual participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Large expression differences in genes for iron and zinc homeostasis, stress response, and lignin biosynthesis distinguish roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and the related metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. van de Mortel; L. Almar Villanueva; H. Schat; J. Kwekkeboom; S. Coughlan; P.D. Moerland; E.V.L. van Themaat; M. Koornneef; M.G.M. Aarts

    2006-01-01

    The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a pro

  8. Large Expression Differences in Genes for Iron and Zinc Homeostasis, Stress Response, and Lignin Biosynthesis Distinguish Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and the Related Metal Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.; Almar Villanueva, L.; Schat, H.; Kwekkeboom, J.; Coughlan, S.; Moerland, P.D.; Verloren van Themaat, E.; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a pro

  9. Evolución de la ingesta y del estado nutricional de zinc, hierro y cobre en mujeres sometidas a cirugía bariátrica hasta el segundo año postoperatorio Evolution of the intake and nutritional status of zinc, iron and copper in women undergoing bariatric surgery until the second year after surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Basfi-fer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La cirugía bariátrica permite una reducción significativa de peso y mejoría de comorbilidades asociadas a la obesidad a largo plazo, pero también puede afectar negativamente el estado nutricional de algunos micronutrientes. Objetivos: Evaluar cambios en ingesta e indicadores del estado nutricional de zinc, hierro y cobre en mujeres sometidas a bypass gástrico en Y de Roux (BPG o gastrectomía tubular (GT, hasta el segundo año postoperatorio. Métodos: Se estudió prospectivamente 45 mujeres sometidas a BPG o GT (edad promedio 35,2 ± 8,4 años, IMC promedio 39,8 ± 4,0 kg/m², cada 6 meses se realizaron determinaciones de ingesta e indicadores del estado nutricional de zinc, hierro y cobre, y en forma anual se evaluó la composición corporal. El aporte de minerales a través de los suplementos representaba dos veces la ingesta recomendada para una mujer sana en las pacientes sometidas a GT y tres veces para BPG. Resultados: 20 mujeres se sometieron a GT y 25 a BPG. En ambos grupos se produjo una reducción significativa de peso y del porcentaje de masa grasa, que se mantuvo hasta el segundo año postoperatorio. Las mujeres sometidas a BPG presentaron un mayor compromiso del estado nutricional de zinc, hierro y cobre, que las pacientes sometidas a GT. Conclusiones: El bypass gástrico en Y de Roux produce un compromiso mayor del estado nutricional de zinc, hierro y cobre que la gastrectomía tubular. Se debería evaluar si la administración fraccionada de la suplementación mejoraría la absorción de estos nutrientes.Introduction: Bariatric surgery allows a significant reduction in weight and improvement of comorbidities associated with obesity in the long term, but it can also adversely affect the nutritional status of some micronutrients. Objectives: To evaluate changes in intake and parameters of nutritional status of zinc, iron and copper in patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP or sleeve gastrectomy (SG

  10. Clinical and chemical interactions between iron preparations and ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, M; Hasinoff, B B; McKay, D. W.; Campbell, N R

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of ferrous sulphate (300 mg), ferrous gluconate (600 mg), and a combination tablet of iron (10 mg), magnesium (100 mg), zinc (15 mg), calcium (162 mg), copper (2 mg), and manganese (5 mg) (Centrum Forte) co-administration on ciprofloxacin bioavailability was tested in eight healthy subjects. 2. Peak serum ciprofloxacin concentrations and area under the curve (AUC) were significantly reduced when ciprofloxacin was administered with 300 mg ferrous sulphate (3.0 vs 2.0 mg l-1, P le...

  11. Silicon, iron and titanium doped calcium phosphate-based glass reinforced biodegradable polyester composites as bone analogous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Mohammadi, Maziar

    Bone defects resulting from disease or traumatic injury is a major health care problem worldwide. Tissue engineering offers an alternative approach to repair and regenerate bone through the use of a cell-scaffold construct. The scaffold should be biodegradable, biocompatible, porous with an open pore structure, and should be able to withstand the applied forces. Phosphate-based glasses (PGs) may be used as reinforcing agents in degradable composites since their degradation can be predicted and controlled through their chemistry. This doctoral dissertation describes the development and evaluation of PGs reinforced biodegradable polyesters for intended applications in bone augmentation and regeneration. This research was divided into three main objectives: 1) Investigating the composition dependent properties of novel PG formulations by doping a sodium-free calcium phosphate-based glass with SiO2, Fe2O3, and TiO2. Accordingly, (50P2 O5-40CaO- xSiO2-(10-x)Fe2O3, where x = 10, 5 and 0 mol.%) and (50P2O5-40CaO-xSiO 2-(10-x)TiO2 where x = 10, 7, 5, 3 and 0 mol.%) formulations were developed and characterised. SiO2 incorporation led to increased solubility, ion release, pH reduction, as well as hydrophilicity, surface energy, and surface polarity. In contrast, doping with Fe2O 3 or TiO2 resulted in more durable glasses, and improved cell attachment and viability. It was hypothesised that the presence of SiO 2 in the TiO2-doped formulations could up-regulate the ionic release from the PG leading to higher alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. 2) Incorporating Si, Fe, and Ti doped PGs as fillers, either as particulates (PGPs) or fibres (PGFs), into biodegradable polyesters (polycaprolactone (PCL) and semi-crystalline and amorphous poly(lactic acid) (PLA and PDLLA)) with the aim of developing degradable bone analogous composites. It was found that PG composition and geometry dictated the weight loss, ionic release, and mechanical properties of the composites. It

  12. Immobilization of antimony in waste-to-energy bottom ash by addition of calcium and iron containing additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caneghem, Jo; Verbinnen, Bram; Cornelis, Geert; de Wijs, Joost; Mulder, Rob; Billen, Pieter; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The leaching of Sb from waste-to-energy (WtE) bottom ash (BA) often exceeds the Dutch limit value of 0.32mgkg(-1) for recycling of BA in open construction applications. From the immobilization mechanisms described in the literature, it could be concluded that both Ca and Fe play an important role in the immobilization of Sb in WtE BA. Therefore, Ca and Fe containing compounds were added to the samples of the sand fraction of WtE BA, which in contrast to the granulate fraction is not recyclable to date, and the effect on the Sb leaching was studied by means of batch leaching tests. Results showed that addition of 0.5 and 2.5% CaO, 5% CaCl2, 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 and 1% FeCl3 decreased the Sb leaching from 0.62±0.02mgkgDM(-1) to 0.20±0.02, 0.083±0.044, 0.25±0.01, 0.27±0.002 and 0.29±0.02mgkgDM(-1), respectively. Due to the increase in pH from 11.41 to 12.53 when 2.5% CaO was added, Pb and Zn leaching increased and exceeded the respective leaching limits. Addition of 5% CaCO3 had almost no effect on the Sb leaching, as evidenced by the resulting 0.53mgkgDM(-1) leaching concentration. This paper shows a complementary enhancement of the effect of Ca and Fe, by comparing the aforementioned Sb leaching results with those of WtE BA with combined addition of 2.5% CaO or 5% CaCl2 with 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 or 1% FeCl3. These lab scale results suggest that formation of romeites with a high Ca content and formation of iron antimonate (tripuhyite) with a very low solubility are the main immobilization mechanisms of Sb in WtE BA. Besides the pure compounds and their mixtures, also addition of 10% of two Ca and Fe containing residues of the steel industry, hereafter referred to as R1 and R2, was effective in decreasing the Sb leaching from WtE BA below the Dutch limit value for reuse in open construction applications. To evaluate the long term effect of the additives, pilot plots of WtE BA with 10% of R1 and 5% and 10% of R2 were built and samples were submitted to leaching tests at

  13. Phytase supplementation improves blood zinc in rats fed with high phytate Iranian bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodeh Shockravi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than one third of energy intake in Iran is provided from bread. Therefore, improving bread mineral bioavailability through dephytinization can play an important role in decreasing the prevalence of many mineral deficiencies. In this study, effect of phytase supplementation on zinc, iron and calcium status in growing rats fed with a diet containing high phytate Iranian bread (Sangak was assessed. Methods: Thirty weanling Wistar male rats were assigned to phytase (Aspergillus niger or control group for 6 weeks. The diet was designed based on Iranian′s food pattern and 34.2% of the energy was supplied from Sangak bread. Food intake, body and organ weight and body height were measured. Zinc was measured in blood, liver and femur. Iron was assessed in blood and liver and calcium was titrated from femur bone. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. Paired sample t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and repeated measurement ANOVA were used for proper analysis of data. Results: Although weekly weight gain was not different between groups, final weight was in favor of control group. Food intakes, liver and femur bone weight did not differ between the two groups. However, the blood zinc was higher in the phytase group (26.2 ± 7.4 vs. 19.2 ± 5.2, P = 0.03. Thus positive effects of phytase supplementation on zinc, independent of growth was found. Other variables did not show any differences between groups. Conclusion: Addition of phytase to diet containing high phytate Iranian bread can improve blood zinc status in growing rats.

  14. N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide for detection of iron(III) by photoluminescence quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Javad; Manteghian, Mehrdad; Badiei, Alireza; Ueda, Hiroshi; Javanbakht, Mehran

    2016-02-01

    An N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide nanolayer was synthesized and characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Detection of iron(III) based on photoluminescence spectroscopy was investigated. The N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide was shown to specifically interact with iron (III), compared with other cationic trace elements including potassium (I), sodium (I), calcium (II), chromium (III), zinc (II), cobalt (II), copper (II), magnesium (II), manganese (II), and molybdenum (VI). The quenching effect of iron (III) on the luminescence emission of N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide layer was used to detect iron (III). The limit of detection (2.8 × 10(-6)  M) and limit of quantitation (2.9 × 10(-5)  M) were obtained under optimal conditions. PMID:26016610

  15. Involvement of reactive oxygen species and high-voltage-activated calcium currents in nanoparticle zinc oxide-induced cytotoxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jingxia [Nankai University, College of Medicine (China); Yao Yang [Tianjin First Central Hospital (China); Liu Shichang [Nankai University, College of Medicine (China); Zhang Tao [Nankai University, College of Life Science (China); Ren Guogang [University of Hertfordshire, Science and Technology Research Institute (United Kingdom); Yang Zhuo, E-mail: zhuoyang@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, College of Medicine (China)

    2012-11-15

    This study was to determine the possible neurotoxicity and mechanisms underlying the effects of nano-ZnO with sizes of 20-80 nm on central nervous system (CNS). The cytotoxicity of nano-ZnO was investigated in PC12 cells. The viability of cells was observed by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for cells was evaluated by a fluorometry assay. The apoptosis of cells was detected and analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, effects of nano-ZnO on the properties of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium currents were studied in acutely isolated rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results of MTT assay showed that nano-ZnO (10{sup -4} g/mL) caused a significant decrease in cell viability (P < 0.05). Nano-ZnO induced intracellular accumulation of ROS and the apoptosis of PC12 cells with the increasing concentration of nano-ZnO in flow cytometric assay (P < 0.05). Further results of electrophysiological recording indicated that 10{sup -4} g/mL nano-ZnO first altered the current-voltage curve and the peak amplitudes of HVA calcium currents at 10 min of the recording, and the peak current amplitudes were increased significantly at the end of 30 min (P < 0.05). All these results suggested that the increase of intracellular ROS was one of potential mechanisms of cellular apoptosis induced by nano-ZnO. Nano-ZnO could cause the elevation of cytosolic calcium levels by enhancement of HVA calcium currents, which would increase the generation of intracellular ROS, and consequently promote the neuronal apoptosis.

  16. Involvement of reactive oxygen species and high-voltage-activated calcium currents in nanoparticle zinc oxide-induced cytotoxicity in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was to determine the possible neurotoxicity and mechanisms underlying the effects of nano-ZnO with sizes of 20–80 nm on central nervous system (CNS). The cytotoxicity of nano-ZnO was investigated in PC12 cells. The viability of cells was observed by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for cells was evaluated by a fluorometry assay. The apoptosis of cells was detected and analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, effects of nano-ZnO on the properties of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium currents were studied in acutely isolated rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results of MTT assay showed that nano-ZnO (10−4 g/mL) caused a significant decrease in cell viability (P −4 g/mL nano-ZnO first altered the current–voltage curve and the peak amplitudes of HVA calcium currents at 10 min of the recording, and the peak current amplitudes were increased significantly at the end of 30 min (P < 0.05). All these results suggested that the increase of intracellular ROS was one of potential mechanisms of cellular apoptosis induced by nano-ZnO. Nano-ZnO could cause the elevation of cytosolic calcium levels by enhancement of HVA calcium currents, which would increase the generation of intracellular ROS, and consequently promote the neuronal apoptosis.

  17. Effect of Prenatal Zinc Supplementation on Birthweight

    OpenAIRE

    Saaka, Mahama; Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beatty, Shelley

    2009-01-01

    Although iron and zinc deficiencies are known to occur together and also appear to be high in Ghana, a few supplementation studies addressed this concurrently in pregnancy. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 600 pregnant women in Ghana were randomly assigned to receive either a combined supplement of 40 mg of zinc as zinc gluconate and 40 mg of iron as ferrous sulphate or 40 mg of elemental iron as ferrous sulphate. Overall, there was no detectable difference in the mean birthwei...

  18. Influence of Water Deficit on Iron and Zinc Uptake by Matricaria chamomilla L. Influencia del Deficit Hídrico en la Absorción de Hierro y Zinc por Matricaria chamomilla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pirzad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc deficiency are a yield-limiting factor with major implications for field crop production in many agricultural regions of the world; this production is essential source of Fe and Zn in human and animal diets. Two experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to evaluate Fe and Zn uptake by German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. grown under several drought conditions. Treatments were arranged in four irrigation regimes (95%, 80%, 65%, and 50% field capacity and six irrigation disruptions (stem formation, flower onset, full bloom, first harvest, second harvest, and control without disruption based on a randomized complete block design with five and four replicates in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In Experiment 1, the irrigation regimes had no significant effect on Fe and Zn uptake by German chamomile, which reached total means of Fe (39.68 mg kg4 and Zn (29.15 mg kg4. In Experiment 2, the highest amount of Fe (39.0 mg kg4 was obtained from irrigation disruption at first harvest; this is similar to the results of irrigation disruption at flower onset and full bloom. However, irrigation disruption in stem formation (21.3 mg kg4, second harvest (12.95 mg kg4, and the control (7.79 mg kg4 had a decreasing trend of Fe uptake. The maximum value of Zn (40.0 mg kg4 occurred at irrigation disruption at the full bloom stage, which was also similar to irrigation disruption at flower onset and stem formation. However, later irrigation disruptions at the first and second harvest stages caused lower amounts of Zn uptake by chamomile. Therefore, the lowest Zn values were obtained from irrigation disruption at second harvest (5.0 mg kg4 and the control (5.5 mg kg4. Regressions between both Fe or Zn uptake and irrigation showed a binomial function.La deficiencia de hierro y zinc es un factor limitante de la producción con grandes implicaciones para producción de cultivo en terreno en muchas regiones agrícolas del mundo como

  19. Self-healing protective films prepared on zinc electrodes by treatment in a cerium(III) nitrate solution and modification with sodium phosphate and calcium or magnesium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-healing protective films were prepared on a zinc electrode by treatment in a Ce(NO3)3 solution and modification with Na3PO4 and Ca(NO3)2 or Mg(NO3)2. The protective and self-healing abilities of the films were examined by polarization measurements and observation of pit formation after the electrode was scratched with a knife-edge and immersed in aerated 0.5 M NaCl for many hours. The protective efficiency of the film modified with Ca(NO3)2 was higher than that of the film without Ca(NO3)2 but the self-healing ability of the former film was not sufficiently high during the prolonged immersion. Mechanisms of the protective and self-healing activities were discussed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron-probe microanalysis

  20. The effect of balanced fertilization on nutrients’ concentration and phytic acid to zinc molar ratio in Iranian red been (Phaseolus calcaratus L. cultivars at different stages of seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Motesharezadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytic acid is the main source of organic phosphorus in grains of legumes and cereals. It has great ability of bonding with metals and minerals such as iron, zinc and calcium. As a result, the solubility of these elements and their absorption capability by human will be reduced. This greenhouse research was carried out with the aim of studying the variations of phytic acid to zinc molar ratio and evaluation of nutrients’ concentration in different varieties of red bean (Phaseolus calcaratus L. under balanced fertilization conditions (based on soil test in different timings after flowering stage. Treatments included: 5 varieties of red bean (Akhtar, Naz, Derakhshan, Goli and Sayyad, two levels of fertilizer (control and balanced fertilization and 3 times of sampling (12, 22 and 32 days after flowering; T1, T2 and T3, respectively in a factorial arrangement with complete randomized blocks design. Phosphorous, potassium, iron and zinc concentration and phytic acid to zinc molar ratio in grains of different red bean cultivars were determined. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of cultivar, fertilizer and sampling time on concentration of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorous and phytic acid to zinc molar ratio in grain was significant (P<0.01. Also, the highest concentration of zinc in grain was measured in Goli cultivar at T3 timing. The phytic acid to zinc molar ratio in balanced-fertilization treatment was recorded for Goli cultivar at T1, T2 and T3 timings as 11.1, 10.49 and 7.99, respectively. In general, the results of this research showed that balanced fertilization reduced phytic acid to zinc molar ratio. This can be effective in enhancing humans’ health by improving the absorption capability of required nutrients. More investigations under field conditions are recommended.

  1. Effect of Zinc Intake on Fetal and Infant Growth Among Chinese Pregnant and Lactating Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGYUE-XIN; CHENXUE-CUN; 等

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between maternal nutrient intake and fetal size or infant growth was studied in 1956 pregnant women,599 Parturients and 1043 lactating women,318 non-pregnant women included as controls,The study was conducted in eight regions that were representative of all geograthical areas of China,The diet was comprised primarily of cereal products with 70% to 85% of the zinc intake derived from plant sources.Women in the third trimester of pregnancy,parturients and lactating women consumed more food than non-pregnant women or women in the first two trimesters of pregnancy.Total energy,protein and iron intakes met the recommended allowances for each stage of reproduction,Calcium and zinc intakes,howerver,were 50% and 47% of the amount recommended.respectively.Only 7.2% of the women exceeded two-thirds of the recommended zinc intake.The mean intake of zinc was 6.5mg to 9.0mg each day among all the subjects.Correlation and stepwise regression analysis shoed that maternal zine intake was a predictor factor for fetal dimensions and birthweight.The results of this study show that fetal growth and birthweight are directly related to maternal zine intake among Chinese women,and that there is no relationship between maternal zinc intake during lactation and infant height,Weight,or weight gain from birth.

  2. Avaliação do teor de ferro e zinco e composição centesimal de farinhas de trigo e milho enriquecidas Evaluation of iron and zinc content and centesimal composition of enriched wheat and corn flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Rezende Boen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o teor de ferro e zinco e a composição centesimal de farinhas de trigo e milho enriquecidas. Para a avaliação das concentrações de ferro e zinco, aplicou-se a técnica de Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica com Chama. Foram utilizados os métodos oficiais de análise para a determinação de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, carboidratos e lipídeos. Os dados obtidos foram comparados aos valores declarados nos rótulos dos produtos e às especificações recomendadas pela Legislação Brasileira. A concentração de ferro estava acima do especificado para a maioria das amostras. O teor de zinco variou entre 0,6 e 1,5 mg/100 g. Constatou-se que todas as farinhas avaliadas apresentaram características físico-químicas compatíveis com a Legislação. Já em relação ao rótulo dos produtos, verificou-se haver variação entre os valores obtidos e aqueles apresentados na embalagem, para algumas amostras. Os resultados obtidos no trabalho são de grande importância para o alcance dos objetivos da obrigatoriedade do enriquecimento de farinhas.The aim of this work was to evaluate iron and zinc content and centesimal composition of enriched wheat and corn flours. For iron and zinc evaluation the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was applied. Official methods of analysis were used for moisture, ash, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. The obtained data were compared with values in the label of products and the specification recommended by Brazilian Legislation. Iron content was higher than those for most of samples. The amount of zinc varied between 0.6 e 1.5 mg/100 g. The evaluated flours presented physical-chemistry characteristics according to Legislation. However, about products label was the variation between obtained and presented in package values, for some samples, was confirmed. The obtained results are very important to achieve the objectives of the mandatory enrichment of flours.

  3. Chloroquine is a zinc ionophore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xue

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780. Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity.

  4. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E.

    OpenAIRE

    PazEtcheverry; LisaE.Fleige

    2012-01-01

    A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM)™, and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a discussion of how these methods have been applied to generate data for a range of nutrients, carotenoids and polyphenols. Recommendations are given regarding which methods are most justified for answ...

  5. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PazEtcheverry

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM™, and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a discussion of how these methods have been applied to generate data for a range of nutrients, carotenoids and polyphenols. Recommendations are given regarding which methods are most justified for answering bioaccessibility or bioavailability related questions for specific nutrients. The need for more validation studies in which in vivo results are compared to in vitro results is also discussed.

  6. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc, and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E

    OpenAIRE

    Etcheverry, Paz; Grusak, Michael A.; Fleige, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM)™, and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a discussion of how these methods have been applied to generate data for a range of nutrients, carotenoids, and polyphenols. Recommendations are given regarding which methods are most justified for answ...

  7. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM), and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a disc...

  8. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275±31mg Ca; 20.7±1.9μg Cr; 5.7±0.4mg Fe; 861±46mg K; 9.44±0.48μg Se; 1928±278mg Na; 4.25±0.24mg Zn; 1.53±0.43μg As and 1.31±0.16μg Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market Basket of this study represented only 72% of the weight of the most consumed foods of the Sao Paulo state. Furthermore, some food sources were consumed in low percentages or they were not included in the Market Basket. Although this Market Basket contained only foods consumed in the household and the restricted weight of the Market Basket, this TDS was well structured and was pioneer in its scope in Brazil. This TDS contributes to the knowledge of elements of analyzed food groups of Sao Paulo State. Further Brazilian TDS should be expanded to include additional elements to be analyzed, foods in the Market Basket, and consequently increased number of food groups analyzed. (author)

  9. Determination of calcium, potassium, manganese, iron, copper and zinc levels in representative samples of two onion cultivars using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and ultrasound extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical characterization of onion cultivar samples is an important tool for the enhancement of their productivity due to the fact that chemical composition is closed related to the quality of the products. A new sample preparation procedure for elemental characterization is proposed, involving the acid extraction of the analytes from crude samples by means of an ultrasonic bath, avoiding the required digestion of samples in vegetable tissue analysis. The technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of the elements Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. The procedure was compared with the wet ashing and dry ashing procedures for all the elements using multivariate analysis and the Scheffe test. The technique of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was employed for comparison purposes and accuracy evaluation of the proposed analysis method. A good agreement between the two techniques was found when using the dry ashing and ultrasound leaching procedures. The levels of each element found for representative samples of two onion cultivars (Yellow Granex PRR 502 and 438 Granex) were also compared by the same method. Levels of K, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the 438 Granex cultivar, while levels of Ca, Fe and Cu were significantly higher in the Yellow Granex PRR 502 cultivar

  10. Marginal nutritional status of zinc, iron, and calcium increases cadmium retention in the duodenum and other organs of rats fed rice-based diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary minerals Zn, Fe, and Ca are antagonistic to Cd absorption. We showed earlier that rats fed a rice-based diet with a marginal content of these nutrients absorbed more Cd than rats fed adequate Zn-Fe-Ca (Environ. Sci. Technol., 36 (2002) 2684-2692). The present experiment was designed to determine the effects of marginal dietary Zn, Fe, and Ca on the uptake and turnover of Cd in the gastrointestinal tract. Two groups of weanling female rats (six per treatment) were fed a diet containing 40% cooked, dried rice containing 0.6 mg Cd/kg. The diet of one group contained adequate Zn (35 mg/kg), Fe (30 mg/kg), and Ca (5000 mg/kg), while that of the other group contained marginal Zn (6 mg/kg), Fe (9 mg/kg), and Ca (2500 mg/kg). Rats were fed for 5 weeks and then orally dosed with 1 g of diet containing rice extrinsically labeled with 109Cd. From 0.25 to 64 days after dosing, 109Cd and total Cd concentrations were determined in intestinal segments. Shortly after dosing, 109Cd, as a percentage of the dose, was about 4 times higher in the duodenum of marginally fed rats than in that of control rats (10% vs 40%, respectively). Sixty-four days after dosing, 109Cd was 10 times higher in marginally fed rats than in controls; however, of the amount at day 1, <0.1% remained at day 64. After 5 weeks, the concentration of elemental Cd in the duodenum of the marginally fed rats was 8 times higher than that of control rats (24μg/g dry wt. vs 2.9 μg/g dry wt., respectively). Cd concentrations in liver and kidney were 5 times higher in the marginally fed rats than those in controls (liver, 0.81 μg/g dry wt. vs 0.14 μg/g dry wt.; kidney, 4.7 μg/g dry wt. vs 0.92 μg/g dry wt., respectively). These data suggest that marginal intakes of Zn, Fe, and Ca cause the accumulation of Cd in the duodenum, which results in a greater rate of Cd absorption and a greater accumulation in the internal organs. Results are discussed in relation to mineral nutrient status and risk assessment of Cd in natural food sources

  11. NUTRIENT RELEASE FROM CONTROLLLED-RELEASE FERTILIZERS IN ACID SUBSTRATE IN A GREENHOUSE ENVIRONMENT: II.LEACHATE CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, IRON MANGANESE, ZINC, COPPER, AND MOLYBDENUM CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leachate from containerized substrate containing one of four different controlled-release fertilizers (Osmocote, Nutricote, Polyon, or Multicote) were monitored for concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo during a 47-week period. Environmental and cultural practices simulated an unheated gr...

  12. Zinc induces necrosis on rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Zinc is one of the essential metals, but high amounts of zinc induce several kinds of tissue damage. In those tissues, pancreatic exocrine cells are very sensitive to zinc, but the cause is still unclear. When 600 μM of zinc was added to AR42J cells, necrosis, but not apoptosis, quickly occurred. Zinc and sodium ions did not increase in the cytosol of AR42J cells even if 600 μM of zinc was added. However, calcium ion immediately increased in the cytosol after the addition of zinc and decreased quickly. Then, cytosol calcium content gradually increased again in a time-dependent manner. When 1.5 mM of calcium was added to the medium, the effect of 600 μM of zinc disappeared. On the contrary, rat pancreatic insulinoma cell line, RIN cells, did not increase cytosolic calcium concentration from zinc and necrosis was not induced by zinc. It is thought that zinc induces necrosis on AR42J cells by the increase of cytosolic calcium concentration, and the increase of extracellular calcium content inhibits the action of zinc that stimulates calcium transportation.

  13. 氧化锌丁香油和氢氧化钙碘仿糊剂在乳牙根管充填中的疗效观察%Comparative study on zinc oxide eugenol and calcium hydroxide iodoform pastes as obturation materials for primary teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万惠; 符方满; 庞红霞; 符起亚

    2013-01-01

    目的 评估氧化锌丁香油和氢氧化钙碘仿糊剂作为乳牙根管充填材料的治疗效果.方法 将54颗下颌乳磨牙随机分为两组,其中27 颗接受氧化锌丁香油糊剂根管充填,27 颗接受氢氧化钙碘仿糊剂根管充填.在治疗后6 个月时用临床和影像指标评估治疗效果.结果 氧化锌丁香油和氢氧化钙碘仿糊剂根管充填后在临床和愈合指标方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但超充后的氢氧化钙碘仿糊剂似乎比超充的氧化锌丁香油糊剂更容易吸收.结论 氧化锌丁香油和氢氧化钙碘仿糊剂在促进根尖愈合方面均为较好的根管充填材料,但若考虑到超充后材料的吸收,后者似乎更安全一些.%Objective To evaluate zinc oxide eugenol and calcium hydroxide iodoform as root canal obturation materials for primary teeth. Methods The canals of twenty-seven primary mandibular molars were obturated with zinc oxide eugenol and those of the other twenty-seven were obturated with calcium hydroxide iodoform. A set of clinical and radiological criteria was used to evaluate treatment outcomes at the completion of treatment and six months after treatment. Results No difference in terms of success rate 6 months after treatment was found between canals obturated with zinc oxide eugenol and those obturated with calcium hydroxide iodoform. In cases of overfill, calcium hydroxide iodoform seemed to be absorbed than zinc oxide eugenol. Conclusion Both zinc oxide eugenol and calcium hydroxide iodoform are good obturating materials. However, the latter may be a better choice where overfills are concerned.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  15. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of zinc, nickel, iron and lead in different matrixes after solid phase extraction on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated alumina as their bis (2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1, 3-propanediimine chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive and simple solid phase extraction method for the simultaneous determination of trace and toxic metals in food samples has been reported. The method is based on the adsorption of zinc, nickel, iron and lead on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated alumina, which is also chelated with bis (2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1, 3-propanediimine (BHAPN). The retained analyte ions on modified solid phase were eluted using 8 mL of 4 mol L-1 HNO3. The analyte determinations were carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influences of some metal ions and anions on the recoveries of understudy analyte ions were investigated. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the evaluation of these trace and toxic metals in some traditional food samples from Iran.

  16. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  17. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  18. Calcium Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium signaling results from a complex interplay between activation and inactivation of intracellular and extracellular calcium permeable channels. This complexity is obvious from the pattern of calcium signals observed with modest, physiological concentrations of calcium-mobilizing agonists, which typically present as sequential regenerative discharges of stored calcium, a process referred to as calcium oscillations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the underlyin...

  19. The zinc sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, triggers metabotropic calcium signalling in colonocytes and regulates occludin recovery in experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunuwar, Laxmi; Medini, Michal; Cohen, Limor; Sekler, Israel; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2016-08-01

    Impaired epithelial barrier function is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as colitis, contributing to diarrhoea and perpetuating inflammation. We show that the zinc sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, triggers intracellular Ca(2+) signalling in colonocytes thereby inducing occludin expression. Moreover, ZnR/GPR39 is essential for epithelial barrier recovery in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) ulcerative colitis model. Loss of ZnR/GPR39 results in increased susceptibility to DSS-induced inflammation, owing to low expression of the tight junction protein occludin and impaired epithelial barrier. Recovery of wild-type (WT) mice from the DSS insult was faster than that of ZnR/GPR39 knockout (KO) mice. Enhanced recovery of the epithelial layer and increased crypt regeneration were observed in WT mice compared with ZnR/GPR39 KO, suggesting that ZnR/GPR39 is promoting epithelial barrier integrity following DSS insult. Indeed, cell proliferation and apical expression of occludin, following the DSS-induced epithelial erosion, were increased in WT tissue but not in ZnR/GPR39 KO tissue. Importantly, survival following DSS treatment was higher in WT mice compared with ZnR/GPR39 KO mice. Our results support a direct role for ZnR/GPR39 in promoting epithelial renewal and barrier function following DSS treatment, thereby affecting the severity of the disease. We suggest ZnR/GPR39 as a novel therapeutic target that can improve epithelial barrier function in colitis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377730

  20. Digestión en horno de microondas para determinación de contenido de hierro y zinc totales en alimentos Microwave digestion for determination of iron and zinc content of total food

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Silva Trejos

    2012-01-01

    En el presente estudio se optimizó el procedimiento de digestión de alimentos por medio de un horno de microondas, para cuantificar el hierro y el zinc totales en diferentes matrices por espectroscopía de absorción atómica. Se analizó la cantidad óptima de HNO3 concentrado al 65% para digerir determinada masa de muestra por evaluación del porcentaje de recuperación obtenido con diferente cantidad de HNO3. Los resultados no difieren de los obtenidos por los métodos recomendados oficialmente de...

  1. Effects of zinc supplementation and zinc chelation on in vitro β-cell function in INS-1E cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne Bjørn; Larsen, Agnete; Knuhtsen, Astrid;

    2014-01-01

    )-ethylenediamine. The changes in intracellular insulin content following exposure to various concentrations of zinc were reflected by changes in the expression patterns of MT-1A, ZnT-8, ZnT-5, and ZnT-3. Furthermore, high zinc concentrations induced cell necrosis while zinc chelation induced apoptosis. Finally, cell......BACKGROUND: Zinc is essential for the activities of pancreatic β-cells, especially insulin storage and secretion. Insulin secretion leads to co-release of zinc which contributes to the paracrine communication in the pancreatic islets. Zinc-transporting proteins (zinc-regulated transporter, iron......-regulated transporter-like proteins [ZIPs] and zinc transporters [ZnTs]) and metal-buffering proteins (metallothioneins, MTs) tightly regulate intracellular zinc homeostasis. The present study investigated how modulation of cellular zinc availability affects β-cell function using INS-1E cells. RESULTS: Using INS-1E...

  2. Zoning and contamination rate of magnesium and heavy metals of iron, zinc and copper in the north and northwest aquifer of Khoy (Zourabad based on GIS and determining the contaminated source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khodadadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heavy metals are the most toxic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. This contamination can result from the release of heavy metal elements during alteration and weathering of ultramafic and mafic rocks (ophiolite zones. Among the important metals and pollutants in the ophiolite; chromium, cobalt, nickel, iron, magnesium, manganese, zinc and copper could be noted. Basically, a mass of serpentine consists of serpentine, amphibole, talc, chlorite, magnetite, and the remainder of olivine, pyroxene and spinel (Kil et al., 2010. In such areas, the prevailing cold climate, during the serpentinization, chloritization and epidotiization, the activity of the solvent, such as chloride, fluoride, carbonates, sulfide, sulfosalt would be able to import the elements such as magnesium and iron, copper and zinc into the soil and groundwater. The study area is located in northwestern Iran. This area is located in the northwest of the city of Khoy. Because of the proximity to the north and northwest Khoy plains with ophiolite rocks, the soil of this region could possibly show the potential of contamination with heavy metals. Due to the toxicity and disease of unauthorized grades of these elements in groundwater in the study area, this study is focused on the more contaminated groundwater of the areas. Materials and methods In this study, over a period of 5 days, sampling from 42 water sources, including fountains, aqueducts, wells, piezometers and wells in operation, was performed. The container was washed with acid and then rinsed 3 times with the water sample. The pH and temperature of the water in the samples was measured in the field. Then to each of the samples was taken from 2 to 5 ml of concentrated nitric acid (This causes that the metal elements would not adsorbed or precipitated by these particles and pH of the samples was measured with litmus paper to reach level 2. This was done to ensure the consolidation of the water samples. Analysis of

  3. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ross G

    2008-04-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl(2) inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  4. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Ross

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl 2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection.

  5. Iron and Iron Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Melike Sezgin Evim; Birol Baytan; Adalet Meral Güneş

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for almost all living organisms except some bacteria. A great number of new articles related to the iron metabolism have been published in recent years explaining new findings. Hepsidine, a peptide hormon, that is recently found, regulates iron methabolism by effecting iron absorbsion from gut, secreting iron from hepatic store and flows iron from macrophages. Hepsidin blockes to effluxe iron from cells by bounding to ferroportin and by inducing ferroportin destru...

  6. Durability of doped zinc oxide/silver/doped zinc oxide low emissivity coatings in humid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, E. [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8755 (Japan)], E-mail: eiichi-ando@agc.co.jp; Miyazaki, M. [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8755 (Japan)

    2008-05-30

    The relationship between internal stress of doped zinc oxide films and durability of doped zinc oxide/silver/doped zinc oxide low emissivity (low-e) coatings in humid environment was investigated. Aluminum, titanium, tin, chromium, silicon, gallium, magnesium, boron, barium, and calcium were chosen as a doping element in sputtering targets. Ratios of dopant/zinc in the oxide targets were 4/96-5/95 at.%. Films were formed by radio frequency sputtering. Doping of barium and calcium to the zinc oxide film led to a large increase in the internal stress. Doping of the other elements resulted in decreasing the internal stress. It was concluded that durability of the low-e coatings in humid environment closely correlated with the internal stress of the oxide layers.

  7. Iron, zinc and iodide status in Mexican children under 12 years and women 12-49 years of age: a probabilistic national survey Estado de hierro, zinc y yodo en niños menores de 12 años y en mujeres de 12-49 años de edad en México: una encuesta probabilística nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Villalpando

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of iron, zinc and iodide deficiencies in a probabilistic sample of Mexican women and children and explore its association with some dietary and socio-demographic variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out in 1999 an epidemiological description of iron (percent transferrin saturation, PTS, OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiología de las deficiencias de hierro, zinc y yodo en una muestra probabilística de mujeres y niños mexicanos y analizar algunas asociaciones con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Descripción epidemiológica de las deficiencias de hierro (Porcentaje de saturación de transferrina <16%, zinc (<65ug/dl y yodo (<50ug/l orina en una muestra probabilística de 1363 niños y 731 mujeres. Las concentraciones séricas de hierro, y la capacidad total de saturación de hierro y zinc se midieron por espectrometría de absorción atómica, y el yodo por un método colorimétrico. Los determinantes de tales deficiencias se estudiaron mediante modelos de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La deficiencia de hierro fue mayor (67% en niños <2 años de edad. La prevalencia disminuyó en los escolares (34-39%. La prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro en mujeres fue de 40%. La deficiencia de zinc fue mayor en niños <2 años de edad (34% que en escolares (19-24%. La prevalencia en mujeres fue de 30%, sin diferencia rural/urbana. La probabilidad de tener deficiencia de hierro en mujeres disminuyó con el nivel socio-económico (p=0.04 y aumentó con la ingestión de cereales (p=0.01. La probabilidad de tener concentraciones bajas de zinc sérico fueron mayores en mujeres de nivel socioeconómico (SES bajo (p=0.02 y p=0.001. La prevalencia de deficiencia de yodo fue casi inexistente tanto en niños como en mujeres. CONCLUSIONES: Los datos demuestran una alta prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro, especialmente en niños de 12 a 24 meses de edad. Se sugiere que en niños mayores

  8. Distribution of 241Am in offspring from BALB/c mice injected with 241Am at 14 days of gestation: relation to calcium and iron metabolism and comparison with distribution of 241Am after injection of adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant mice were given intravenous injections of 241 Am citrate at 14 days of gestation. The fetal skeleton had a higher or similar uptake of 241Am per gram of fresh tissue than the liver. The liver in adults concentrated 5 to 20 times more 241 Am per gram of fresh tissue than the bones. Measurement of changes in calcium and iron content and concentration with time, showed that in developing mice intensive calcification of bones determined uptake of 241Am. The 241Am uptake was related to calcium concentration of the fetal bones, which was greater at 14 days of gestation in the anterior bones, mandibles and calvaria, than in ribs and femurs. Transfer of 241Am to pups via milk resulted in further accumulation of 241Am in skeleton and liver. The incorporation in the skeleton persisted after weaning and contributed to the lifetime body burden. The 241Am concentration decreased rapidly with time after injection in relation to growth of the organs. Radiation dose rates and cumulative radiation doses were calculated for liver and bones of contaminated offspring. (author)

  9. Atomic force microscopic comparison of remineralization with casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste, acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and iron supplement in primary and permanent teeth: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Demineralization of tooth by erosion is caused by frequent contact between the tooth surface and acids present in soft drinks. Aim: The present study objective was to evaluate the remineralization potential of casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP paste, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel and iron supplement on dental erosion by soft drinks in human primary and permanent enamel using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Materials and Methods: Specimens were made from extracted 15 primary and 15 permanent teeth which were randomly divided into three treatment groups: CPP-ACP paste, APF gel and iron supplement. AFM was used for baseline readings followed by demineralization and remineralization cycle. Results and Statistics: Almost all group of samples showed remineralization that is a reduction in surface roughness which was higher with CPP-ACP paste. Statistical analysis was performed using by one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-test with P < 0.05. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the application of CPP-ACP paste is effective on preventing dental erosion from soft drinks.

  10. Zinc abundances of planetary nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Christina L.; Zijlstra, Albert A.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is a useful surrogate element for measuring Fe/H as, unlike iron, it is not depleted in the gas phase media. Zn/H and O/Zn ratios have been derived using the [Zn IV] emission line at 3.625um for a sample of nine Galactic planetary nebulae, seven of which are based upon new observations using the VLT. Based on photoionization models, O/O++ is the most reliable ionisation correction factor for zinc that can readily be determined from optical emission lines, with an estimated accuracy of 10...

  11. Serum levels and dietary intakes of copper, iron, and zinc among adult residents in Dahongshan copper mine area of Yunnan Province%云南大红山铜矿区成年居民铜、铁、锌血清水平和膳食摄入量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 殷建忠; 张福东; 杨科峰; 丁慧萍; 丁倩; 蔡美琴

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the serum levels and dietary intakes of copper, iron, and zinc among adult residents in Dahongshan copper mine area of Yunnan Province in China. Methods Serum levels of copper, iron, and zinc were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry among 180 subjects collected randomly from Dahongshan mine area, among which 171 samples were valid. Dietary intakes of copper, iron, and zinc of 60adults collected randomly from these 180 subjects were detected by chemical analysis. Results Serum levels of copper, iron, and zinc concentrations of 171 valid samples were (0.90±0.18), (1.25±0.93) , and (0.75±0. 28) mg/L, respectively. Serum copper was negatively correlated with serum iron (r = - 0. 26, P < 0. 001). Serum copper was positively correlated with age (r = 0. 25, P < 0. 001). Females had significantly higher serum copper than males (P=0.011). The dietary intakes of copper, iron, and zinc among these 60 subjects were (1.74±1.09),(16.29±10.73), and (7.56±3.38) mg/d, respectively, in which females had significantly lower dietary intakes than nales (all P < 0. 05). Significant regional differences were observed both in serum levels and dietary intakes of copper, iron, and zinc. Conclusions The average serum levels of copper and iron are normal among adult residents in Dahongshan copper mine area, while the average serum zinc level is low. Dietary intakes of these three minerals do not exceed tolerable upper intake levels, and are low in some subjects.%目的 了解云南大红山铜矿成年居民铜、铁、锌的血清水平和膳食摄入量.方法 在大红山矿区随机抽取180名成年居民,采用原子吸收分光光度法检测血清铜、铁、锌水平.从180人中随机抽取60人,采刚化学分析法调查膳食铜、铁、锌摄入量.结果 171人的血清铜、铁、锌水平分别为(0.90±0.18)、(1.25±0.93)、(0.75±0.28)mg/L,血清铜和铁呈显著负相关(r=-0.26,P<0.001).血清铜

  12. Processing Mineralogy Study on Lead and Zinc Oxide Ore in Sichuan

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Yang; Wending Xiao; Xiang Yang; Patrick Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The processing mineralogy characteristics of an oxidized lead-zinc ore from Sichuan were studied systematically using numerous modern instruments. Results showed that lead and zinc oxide content in the ore exceeded the minimum industrial grade, and also included a relatively high concentration of silver and iron. This ore is composed of many different minerals. Major zinc-containing minerals include sphalerite, hemimorphite, smithsonite, hydrozincite, zinc-containing baileychlore, and zinc-co...

  13. Route and Regulation of Zinc, Cadmium, and Iron Transport in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) during Vegetative Growth and Grain Filling: Metal Transporters, Metal Speciation, Grain Cd Reduction and Zn and Fe Biofortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Ishikawa, Satoru; Fujimaki, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are essential but are sometimes deficient in humans, while cadmium (Cd) is toxic if it accumulates in the liver and kidneys at high levels. All three are contained in the grains of rice, a staple cereal. Zn and Fe concentrations in rice grains harvested under different levels of soil/hydroponic metals are known to change only within a small range, while Cd concentrations show greater changes. To clarify the mechanisms underlying such different metal contents, we synthesized information on the routes of metal transport and accumulation in rice plants by examining metal speciation, metal transporters, and the xylem-to-phloem transport system. At grain-filling, Zn and Cd ascending in xylem sap are transferred to the phloem by the xylem-to-phloem transport system operating at stem nodes. Grain Fe is largely derived from the leaves by remobilization. Zn and Fe concentrations in phloem-sap and grains are regulated within a small range, while Cd concentrations vary depending on xylem supply. Transgenic techniques to increase concentrations of the metal chelators (nicotianamine, 2'-deoxymugineic acid) are useful in increasing grain Zn and Fe concentrations. The elimination of OsNRAMP5 Cd-uptake transporter and the enhancement of root cell vacuolar Cd sequestration reduce uptake and root-to-shoot transport, respectively, resulting in a reduction of grain Cd accumulation. PMID:26287170

  14. Route and Regulation of Zinc, Cadmium, and Iron Transport in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L. during Vegetative Growth and Grain Filling: Metal Transporters, Metal Speciation, Grain Cd Reduction and Zn and Fe Biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadakatsu Yoneyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn and iron (Fe are essential but are sometimes deficient in humans, while cadmium (Cd is toxic if it accumulates in the liver and kidneys at high levels. All three are contained in the grains of rice, a staple cereal. Zn and Fe concentrations in rice grains harvested under different levels of soil/hydroponic metals are known to change only within a small range, while Cd concentrations show greater changes. To clarify the mechanisms underlying such different metal contents, we synthesized information on the routes of metal transport and accumulation in rice plants by examining metal speciation, metal transporters, and the xylem-to-phloem transport system. At grain-filling, Zn and Cd ascending in xylem sap are transferred to the phloem by the xylem-to-phloem transport system operating at stem nodes. Grain Fe is largely derived from the leaves by remobilization. Zn and Fe concentrations in phloem-sap and grains are regulated within a small range, while Cd concentrations vary depending on xylem supply. Transgenic techniques to increase concentrations of the metal chelators (nicotianamine, 2′-deoxymugineic acid are useful in increasing grain Zn and Fe concentrations. The elimination of OsNRAMP5 Cd-uptake transporter and the enhancement of root cell vacuolar Cd sequestration reduce uptake and root-to-shoot transport, respectively, resulting in a reduction of grain Cd accumulation.

  15. 钢铁厂含锌粉尘的低温磁化焙烧试验研究%Experimental Research on Low- temperature Magnetic Roasting of Zinc -bearing Dust in Iron and Steel Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹慧超; 张建良; 陈永星; 王传琳; 杨广庆

    2011-01-01

    Experimental research on low temperature magnetic roasting-magnetic separation for Zinc - bearing dust in blast furnace was carried out in this paper. The result shows iron concentrate with high -grade can be effectively extracted from the dust adopting the technology of low temperature magnetic roasting-magnetic separation when the roasting temperature is about 900℃ and the roasting time is 30min. The roasted products should be cooled by means of water - cooling because it can effectively prevent oxidation. Thermodynamic study shows that the roasting temperature can be properly improved in order to enhance the reaction speed.%在实验室对高炉含锌粉尘进行了低温磁化焙烧-磁选试验研究.结果表明:采用低温磁化焙烧-磁选技术能够有效的从粉尘中提取品位较高的铁精矿,而锌主要被富集到尾矿中.焙烧温度以900℃左右为宜,焙烧时间以30min左右为宜.焙烧产物采用水冷的方式冷却,可以有效防止产物的氧化.热力学研究结果表明,为了提高反应速度,可以适当提高焙烧温度.

  16. Structure of calcium zinc tetrabromide pentahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CaZnBr4.5H2O, Mr=515.15, triclinic, Panti 1 {Hall symbol anti P1}, a=7.472(2), b=9.722(3), c=10.020(3) A, α=84.67(2), β=113.43(2), γ=112.38(2)0, V=616.1(3) A3, Z=2, Dx=2.78 Mg m-3, Mo Kα radiation, λ=0.71069 A, μ=15.03 mm-1, F(000)=480, room temperature, R=0.049 (wR=0.044) for 1630 unique reflections. The structure consists of centrosymmetric dimeric rings [Ca(H2O)5ZnBr4]2 with Zn tetrahedrally coordinated by four Br atoms (=2.41 A) and Ca sevenfold coordinated by five Ow (=2.37 A) and two Br (=3.11 A) from two different ZnBr4 groups. The rings are held together by O-H...Br and O-H...O hydrogen bonds. (orig.)

  17. Production of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite using various precipitation routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substituted hydroxyapatites have been investigated for use as bone grafts and have been investigated for many years. Zinc is of interest due to its potential to reduce bone resorption and antibacterial properties. However, it has proven problematic to substitute biologically significant levels of zinc into the crystal structure through wet chemical routes, whilst retaining the high temperature phase stability required for processing. The aim of this study is to investigate two different precipitation routes used to synthesize zinc substituted hydroxyapatite and to explore the effects of ammonia used in the reactions on the levels of zinc substituted into the crystal lattice. It was found that considerable amounts of ammonia are required to maintain a pH sufficiently high for the production of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite using a reaction between calcium nitrate, zinc nitrate and ammonium phosphate. X-ray fluorescence analysis showed that a significant proportion of the zinc added did not substitute into the hydroxyapatite lattice. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the existence of a zinc-ammonia complex that, it is proposed, inhibits zinc substitution for calcium. It was found that by reacting orthophosphoric acid with calcium nitrate and zinc nitrate, the volume of ammonia required in the reaction was reduced and higher levels of zinc substitution were achieved, with up to 0.58 wt% incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice. The resulting products were found to be stoichiometric hydroxyapatite and did not appear to contain any extraneous calcium phosphate phases after heat treatment up to 1100 °C. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis revealed that the effect of substituting zinc into the HA lattice was to decrease the a-lattice parameter whilst increasing the c-lattice. Transmission electron microscopy also showed that the incorporation of zinc reduced both the length and width of the precipitated crystals. (paper)

  18. Thermo-neutral production of metals and hydrogen or methanol by the combined reduction of the oxides of zinc or iron with partial oxidation of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoichiometry and temperature requirements are determined for combining the endothermic reduction of metal oxides (ZnO, Fe2O3, and MgO) with the exothermic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons (CH4, n-butane, n-octane, and n-dodecane) in order to co-produce simultaneously metals and syngas in thermo-neutral reactions. Thermogravimetric and GC measurements on the combined reduction of ZnO and Fe2O3 with the partial oxidation of CH4 were conducted at 1400 K to experimentally verify the products predicted by equilibrium computations, and resulted in the complete reduction to Zn and Fe, respectively, while producing high quality syngas. A preliminary economic assessment that assumes a natural gas price of 11.9 US$/MWh and credit for zinc sale at 750 US$/metric ton, indicates a competitive cost of hydrogen production at 6.0 US$/MWh, based on its high heating value. The proposed combined process offers the possibility of co-producing metals and syngas in autothermal non-catalytic reactors, with significant avoidance of CO2 emission

  19. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in ...

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of zinc in impure solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dithizone colorimetric method is described for determining zinc concentrations of 0.001 to 5 g/l in aqueous solutions from Rio Tinto Mines, containing copper, iron and other impurities. Citrate, cyanide and bis-2hydroxyethyl)-dithiocarbamate are added to the aqueous sample of masking several metals, and zinc is extracted at pH 5 with a solution of dithizone in carbon tetrachloride. Excess of dithizone is removed with sodium sulphide, and optical density of zinc dithionate in organic solution is measured at 5.35 nm. Calibration curves obey Beer's law up to 0.5 micro Zn/ml. (Author) 5 refs

  1. 含锡锌铁矿的矿物学性及其综合利用新技术%Mineralogical features and comprehensive utilization technology of tin, zinc-bearing iron concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元波; 陈丽勇; 李光辉; 姜涛; 黄柱成

    2011-01-01

    The mineralogy of the tin, zinc-containing iron concentrates was researched and a novel utilization technology of pellet pre-oxidation-weak reduction roasting was developed. The results show that, the major iron-carrying mineral is magnetite, the primary tin-bearing mineral is cassiterite, and the zinc-containing minerals are a large quantity of sphalerite and a few of marmatite. 54.78% Sn exists as cassiterite monomers, and 41.31% Sn is embedded in magnetite, existing as the form of tiny granule inclusion of cassiterite, which is proved by the results of Electron Probe. 88.95% Zn exists as sulfide minerals, in addition, granular and irregular sphalerite particles are enwrapped in the magnetite and other minerals. 2 380 N/P of pellet compression strength, 71.86% of Sn volatilization, and 56.28% of Zn volatilization can be obtained under the conditions of roasting temperature 1 075 ℉℃, roasting time 50 min and w(C)/w(Fe) 0.2. The residual Sn and Zn contents in the roasted pellets are both less than 0.08%.%研究含锡锌复杂铁精矿的矿物学特性,并开发含锡锌铁精矿球团预氧化-弱还原焙烧新技术。研究结果表明:铁精矿中的主要载铁矿物为磁铁矿,主要含锡矿物为锡石,主要含锌矿物包括闪锌矿和铁闪锌矿,其中闪锌矿占绝大部分;以单体锡石形式存在的锡占54.78%,而磁铁矿颗粒中的锡占41.31%;磁铁矿中的锡绝大部分为锡石的微细粒包体;88.95%的锌存在于硫化矿中,闪锌矿多以单体粒状或以不规则状与磁铁矿及其他矿物构成连生体;在w(C)/w(Fe)为0.2,焙烧温度为1075℃,时间为50min时,球团矿抗压强度为2 380N/个,Sn和Zn的挥发率分别为71.86%和56.28%,残余Sn和Zn含量均小于0.08%。

  2. Comparison of Endoflas and Zinc oxide Eugenol as root canal filling materials in primary dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Nivedita Rewal; Arun Singh Thakur; Vinod Sachdev; Nanika Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Zinc oxide eugenol has long been the material of choice of pediatric dentists worldwide, although it fails to meet the ideal requirements of root canal filling material for primary teeth. Endoflas, a mixture of zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide, and iodoform, can be considered to be an effective root canal filling material in primary teeth as compared with zinc oxide eugenol. This study was carried out to compare zinc oxide eugenol with endoflas for pulpectomy in primary denti...

  3. Zinc'ing down RNA polymerase I

    OpenAIRE

    Chanfreau, Guillaume F.

    2013-01-01

    Most RNA polymerases contain zinc, yet the precise function of zinc and its influence of polymerases stability are unknown. A recent study provides evidence that zinc levels control the stability of RNA polymerase I in vivo and that the enzyme might serve as a zinc reservoir for other proteins.

  4. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: ► We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. ► XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. ► Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. ► Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. ► Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  5. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: caltary@gmail.com [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Jianglin [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Shengmin, E-mail: smzhang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); China-Korea Center for Biomaterials and Nano-biotechnology, Life Science Building, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-12-01

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  6. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkal...

  7. LEAD AND ZINC LEACHING IN SOIL TREATED WITH IRON SMELTING RESIDUES LIXIVIAÇÃO DE CHUMBO E ZINCO EM SOLO TRATADO COM RESÍDUOS DE SIDERURGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leônidas Paixão Passos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to evaluate the dynamics of Zn and Pb in the soil, a greenhouse experiment was set up in pots filled with soil samples (Typic Hapludox treated with increasing doses of iron smelting residues. It was set under a completely randomized design, in a 3×5 factorial scheme, with three replications, combining three iron smelting residues (mill scale, filter press mud, and phosphate mud, with five doses for each residue (0 t ha-1, 1 t ha-1, 2 t ha-1, 4 t ha-1, and 8 t ha-1. Elephant grass was cultivated during 120 days, followed by common beans, for 75 days. In that period, contents of Zn and Pb were determined in the leachate. No Pb was found in the leachate, but Zn proved to be quite mobile in this soil. In soils treated with mill scale and filter press mud, no risk of groundwater contamination was observed, however, the 8 t ha-1 phosphate mud rate increased Zn contents in the leachate above the maximum allowed by environmental regulations. This fact limits the use of such residue for agricultural purposes. The other two residues should be evaluated in field-scale tests aiming their agricultural use.

    KEY-WORDS: Industrial residue; heavy metal; mill scale; filter press mud; phosphate mud.

  8. Elemental and iron isotopic composition of aerosols collected in a parking structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace metal contents and iron isotope composition of size-resolved aerosols were determined in a parking structure in Tempe, AZ, USA. Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 μm were collected. Several air toxics (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, and antimony) were enriched above the crustal average, implicating automobiles as an important source. Extremely high levels of fine copper (up to 1000 ng m-3) were also observed in the parking garage, likely from brake wear. The iron isotope composition of the aerosols were found to be + 0.15 ± 0.03 per mille and + 0.18 ± 0.03 per mille for the PM 2.5 μm fractions, respectively. The similarity of isotope composition indicates a common source for each size fraction. To better understand the source of iron in the parking garage, the elemental composition in four brake pads (two semi-metallic and two ceramic), two tire tread samples, and two waste oil samples were determined. Striking differences in the metallic and ceramic brake pads were observed. The ceramic brake pads contained 10-20% copper by mass, while the metallic brake pads contained about 70% iron, with very little copper. Both waste oil samples contained significant amounts of calcium, phosphorous, and zinc, consistent with the composition of some engine oil additives. Differences in iron isotope composition were observed between the source materials; most notably between the tire tread (average = + 0.02 per mille ) and the ceramic brake linings (average = + 0.65 per mille ). Differences in isotopic composition were also observed between the metallic (average = + 0.18 per mille ) and ceramic brake pads, implying that iron isotope composition may be used to resolve these sources. The iron isotope composition of the metallic brake pads was found to be identical to the aerosols, implying that brake dust is the dominant source of iron in a parking garage.

  9. Influence of calcium ions on the colloidal stability of surface-modified nano zero-valent iron in the absence or presence of humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haoran; Lo, Irene M C

    2013-05-01

    To decrease aggregation and enhance the mobility of nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) used for in-situ groundwater remediation, the surface of such NZVI must be modified using organic stabilizers, which can provide electrostatic repulsion, and steric or electrosteric stabilization. However, the stability of the nanoparticles can also be affected by groundwater components such as cations and humic acid (HA). In this study, the effect of Ca(2+) on the colloidal stability of NZVI coated with three types of stabilizers (i.e., polyacrylic acid (PAA), Tween-20 and starch) was evaluated in the absence or presence of HA. Differing stability behavior was observed for different surface-modified NZVIs. The presence of Ca(2+) exerted a slight influence on the settling of NZVI modified with PAA or Tween-20, in the absence or presence of HA. However, the presence of Ca(2+) caused significant aggregation and sedimentation for starch-modified NZVI in the absence of HA, and induced an even higher degree of aggregation and sedimentation in the presence of HA. It is presumed that, in the absence of HA, starch-modified NZVI particles undergo attachment with each other via Ca(2+) complexation with the coated starch molecules on the surface of the particles, thus enhancing the aggregation and the following sedimentation of starch-modified NZVI. However, in the presence of HA, spectroscopic analysis of the starch-modified NZVI aggregates indicated that the bridging interaction of HA with Ca(2+) was the predominant mechanism for the enhanced aggregation. PMID:23466217

  10. Variación de la concentración de hierro y cinc en leche de vacas Holstein-Frieisian a lo largo de la lactancia en dos explotaciones tamberas (Iron and zinc concentration variation in Holstein-Friesian milk cows throughout lactation in two dairy fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roldán V,P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenComo existen pocos antecedentes regionales publicados sobre los valores de hierro y cinc durante el periodo de lactación, nos proponemos en este trabajo obtener datos actualizados sobre la composición de estos microminerales de la leche de bovinos lecheros en dos tambos de la región centro de Santa Fe (Campo (1 de Pilar y Campo (2 de la Cuenca del Salado en dicho periodo. Las determinaciones de los valores promedio de hierro y cinc se realizaron por espectroscopia de absorción atómica y se aplicó el método estadístico ANOVA para el tratamiento de los datos. En el Campo 1 se observó una disminución en la concentración media del cinc y del hierro hacia la lactación avanzada, ubicándose las concentraciones de ambos microminerales por debajo de los valores referenciales. En el campo (2 se observó que el cinc y el hierro siempre se encontraban por debajo de los valores referenciales y sus valores se mantenían a lo largo de la lactación. Se observó correspondencia entre la cantidad de elementos traza de la leche y la concentración de estos minerales en suero. SummaryAs few published antecedents on iron and zinc values along lactation exist, intend to obtain actualized data on micromineral composition milk of bovine milk in two dairy fields of Santa Fe center region (Field (1 Pilar and Field (2 Cuenca del Salado in this period. Iron and zinc average values were carried out for atomic absorption spectroscopy and for data treatment, statistical method ANOVA was applied . In the Field 1,a decrease of iron and zinc toward advanced lactation was observed, being located the microminerals concentrations below referential values. In the field (2 zinc and iron were always below the values reference along lactation. One correspondence between elements quantity of milk and the concentration of these minerals in serum was observed.

  11. High-Zinc Recovery from Residues by Sulfate Roasting and Water Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming; Peng, Bing; Chai, Li-yuan; Li, Yan-chun; Peng, Ning; Yuan, Ying-zhen; Chen, Dong

    2015-09-01

    An integrated process for the recovery of zinc that is generated from zinc hydrometallurgy in residues was developed. A mixture of residue and ferric sulfate was first roasted to transform the various forms of zinc in the residue, such as ferrite, oxide, sulfide, and silicate, into zinc sulfate. Next, water leaching was conducted to extract the zinc while the iron remained in the residue as ferric oxide. The effects of the roasting and leaching parameters on zinc recovery were investigated. A maximum zinc recovery rate of 90.9% was achieved for a mixture with a ferric sulfate/residue weight ratio of 0.05 when roasting at 640°C for 30 min before leaching with water at room temperature for 20 min using a liquid/solid ratio of 10. Only 0.13% of the iron was dissolved in the water. Thus, the leaching liquor could be directly returned for zinc smelting.

  12. Solvent extraction of copper and zinc from bioleaching solutions with LIX984 and D2EHPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Zhuo-yue; HU Yue-hua; LIU Jian-she; WANG Jun

    2005-01-01

    The solvent extraction of copper and zinc from the bioleaching solutions of low-grade sulfide ores with LIX984 and D2EHPA was investigated. The influences of extractant content, aqueous pH value, phase ratio and equilibration time on metals extraction were studied. The results show that LIX984 has a higher selectivity for copper than for iron, zinc and other metals, and has the copper extraction rate above 97%,while the zinc and iron extraction rate is less than 1.6% respectively. Zinc extraction is carried out following the copper extraction from the raffinate. The zinc extraction with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid(D2EHPA) is low due to its poor cation exchange. A sodium salt of D2EHPA is used and the zinc extraction rate is enhanced to above 98%. Though iron (Ⅲ) is strongly extracted before the extraction of zinc by D2EHPA, it is difficult to strip iron from the organic phase by sulfuric acid. The zinc stripping rate is above 99% with 100 g/L sulfuric acid, while that of iron is 0.16%. Hence, the separation of zinc from iron can be achieved by the selective stripping.

  13. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  14. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p<0.0001) or...

  15. Calcium Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latvia - Lebanon - Libya - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Macedonia, Republic of - Malaysia - Malta - Mexico - Moldova - Morocco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Nigeria - ... and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What is Osteoporosis? The Board Introduction to Bone ...

  16. Leaching and recycling of zinc from liquid waste sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Bing; GAO Hui-mei; CHAI Li-yuan; SHU Yu-de

    2008-01-01

    The selective leaching and recovery of zinc in a zinciferous sediment from a synthetic wastewater treatment was investigated. The main composition of the sediment includes 6% zinc and other metal elements such as Ca, Fe, Cu, Mg. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration, temperature, leaching time and the liquid-to-solid ratio on the leaching rate of zinc were studied by single factor and orthogonal experiments. The maximum difference of leaching rate between zinc and iron, 89.85%, was obtained by leaching under 170 g/L H2SO4 in liquid-to-solid ratio 4.2 mL/g at 65 "C for 1 h, and the leaching rates of zinc and iron were 91.20% and 1.35%, respectively.

  17. Zigzag Inversion Domain Boundaries in Indium Zinc Oxide-Based Nanowires: Structure and Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    Existing models for the crystal structure of indium zinc oxide (IZO) and indium iron zinc oxide (IFZO) conflict with electron microscopy data. We propose a model based on imaging and spectroscopy of IZO and IFZO nanowires and verify it using density functional theory. The model features a {12?1} ?zigzag? layer, which is an inversion domain boundary containing 5-coordinate indium and/or iron atoms. Higher values are observed for greater proportion of iron. We suggest a mechanism of formation i...

  18. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Mattos Della Lucia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice® is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3, supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p < 0.05. However, no differences were observed (p > 0.05 for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification.

  19. Experimental Study of the Rhizobium and Iron Oxide Thiobacillus for Heap Leaching of Zinc Leaching Slag%根瘤菌与氧化铁硫杆菌堆浸锌浸出渣的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 邓兴; 金开胜; 杨光棣

    2012-01-01

    This paper adopts the rhizobium and thiobaeillus ferrooxidans respectively for heap leaching processing of hydrometallurgy of zinc leaching residue. Through the treatment of rhizobium with thiobacillus ferrooxidans, zinc leaching residue of zinc leaching rate is compared. The test results indicate that rhizobium treatment of zinc leaching residue of zinc leaching rate reaches 24.12 % and thiobacillus ferrooxidans treatment of zinc leaching residue of zinc leaching rate reaches 33.86 %. Treatment rate by thiobacillus ferrooxidans was significantly higher than that of rhizobium.%本文采用根瘤菌与氧化铁硫杆菌分别堆浸处理湿法冶金的锌浸出渣,通过比较根瘤菌与氧化铁硫杆菌处理的锌浸出渣的锌浸出率。试验结果表明,根瘤菌处理锌浸出渣锌浸出率达到了24.12%,而氧化铁硫杆菌处理的锌浸出渣锌浸出率达到了33.86%,氧化铁硫杆菌处理锌浸出渣的锌浸出率明显高于根瘤菌。

  20. Determination of calcium and magnesium in nuclear grade alumina by ion chromatography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for solubilization of alumina and separation of magnesium and calcium from alumina matrix was developed by initial coprecipitation of those elements with iron(III) hydroxide. Calcium and magnesium were later separated from iron chloride anionic complex in a Dowex 1-X 10 anionic exchange resin. The ion chromatography tecnnique was employed for the analysis of calcium and magnesium. One hundred percent recovery for calcium and magnesium was obtained in their separation from alumina. A precision of 6% and 10% for magnesium and calcium, respectively, was obtained in alumina samples analysis which contain less than 0,02% of magnesium and less than 0,08% of calcium. (Author)

  1. Study of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate purification on inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate from iron, chromium, manganese and cobalt impurities by sorption on some inorganic collectors are considered in this article. Study was conducted by means of radioactive-tracer technique at concurrent use of several γ-radioactive isotopes. As a collectors were used hydrated aluminium and zirconium oxides. Dependence of effectiveness of precipitation by collectors on ph-value of medium, quantity of collector, nature and concentration of components is studied. Optimal parameters of purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate are defined.

  2. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease; CPPD disease; Acute CPPD arthritis; Pseudogout ... Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis is caused by the collection of salt called calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The buildup ...

  3. Identification of Iron-Bearing Minerals in Solid Residues from Industrial Kaolin Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the industrial processing of kaolin, the ore material is submitted to bleaching treatments with sulfuric and phosphoric acids and metallic zinc, in order to remove colored iron-rich minerals. The effluent waste is initially strongly acidic, and is chemically neutralized with calcium oxide and left to dry in open pits dug out in the terrain surrounding the industrial plant. The dried residue is then accumulated in deposits so as to produce the 'solid reject'. The Fe in these reject deposits precipitates as poorly crystalline iron-bearing compounds, which are difficult to identify by conventional X-ray diffraction techniques, and must be further characterized by complementary 57Fe Moessbauer analysis. 298 and 80 K Moessbauer spectra of the whole sample collected from the solid reject deposit of the Caolim Azzi industrial plant, in the city of Mar de Espanha, MG, Brazil, revealed that Fe3+ is mainly in octahedral sites of silicates. After treating this whole sample with NaOH, the Moessbauer parameters at 298 and 80 K indicated mainly the presence of iron oxide (hematite; ideal formula, αFe2O3) and oxyhydroxides, such as lepidocrocite (γFeOOH), goethite (αFeOOH) and iron hydroxysulphate, as jarosite (MFe3(SO4)2(OH)6; M = mono or divalent cation).

  4. Effects of Zinc and Ferritin Levels on Parent and Teacher Reported Symptom Scores in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Ozgur; Oner, Pinar; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Odabas, Elif; Keser, Nilufer; Karadag, Hasan; Kizilgun, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Objective: It has been suggested that both low iron and zinc levels might be associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, the association of zinc and iron levels with ADHD symptoms has not been investigated at the same time in a single sample. Method: 118 subjects with ADHD (age = 7-14 years, mean = 9.8,…

  5. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  6. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  7. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  8. Integrated criteria document Zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleven RFMJ; Janus JA; Annema JA; Slooff W

    1993-01-01

    This report contains information on zinc and zinc compounds concerning standards, emissions, exposure levels and effect levels. It includes a risk evaluation and presents proposals for maximum permissible concentrations of zinc in the environment. This study indicates that the concentration of zinc

  9. Indium behaviour in Waelz processing of zinc cakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of content of some components in the initial charge material of Waelz processing of zinc cakes and in finished products on indium distribution in Waelz process is studied. Indium losses with clinker increase with enlargement of its content in initial charge material, with enlargement of copper and sulfur content in charge material, with decrease of redundancy of coke breeze. Positive effect of calcium-containing additives that have been injected with Waelz process charge material is revealed; these additives comprise calcium oxide up to 7 % of zinc cake mass

  10. CO-INOCULAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE CAUPI COM Bradyrhizobium E Paenibacillus E SUA EFICIÊNCIA NA ABSORÇÃO DE CÁLCIO, FERRO E FÓSFORO PELA PLANTA CO-INOCULATION OF CAUPI SEEDS WITH Bradyrhizobium AND Paenibacillus AND ITS EFFICIENCY ON CALCIUM IRON AND PHOSPHORUS PLANT ABSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo de Souza Fernandes da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a viabilidade da co-inoculação de sementes de caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. com bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio dos gêneros Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR-2001 e NFB-700 e Paenibacillus polymyxa [(Loutit (L.]e sua eficiência na absorção de cálcio, ferro e fósforo pelas plantas de caupi, sob diferentes métodos de inoculação. Foi utilizado um Argissolo Amarelo coletado em fevereiro de 2002, localizado a BR 101 Norte, km 53, latitude 07º34'00'', longitude 35º00'00'' e altitude 14m, em Itapirema (Goiana, Estado de Pernambuco. As inoculações foram efetuadas na semente e no solo a uma profundidade de 3,5 cm, usando-se a cultivar IPA-205. Foram determinadas as concentrações de cálcio, ferro e fósforo na matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas de caupi. A co-inoculação do caupi com as estirpes de Bradyrhizobium sp. introduzidas no solo proporciona aumentos nas concentrações de cálcio, ferro e fósforo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Co-infecção; cálcio; ferro; fósforo; Vigna unguiculata.

    The objective of this study was to verify the viability of the co-inoculation of caupi seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. with nitrogen fixing bacteria of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR-2001 and NFB-700 and Paenibacillus polymyxa [(Loutit (L.] strains and their efficiency in calcium, iron, and phosphorus absorption by caupi plants under different inoculation methods. A Yellow Argisol was collected in February, 2002, located at the km 53 of BR 101 North highway, latitude 07ºSouth34'00'', longitude 35ºWest00'00'' and altitude 14m, in Itapirema (Goiana, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The inoculations were made in seeds and soil to a depth of 3.5 cm using IPA-205 cultivar. The variables evaluated were calcium, iron, and phosphorus concentration in the aerial

  11. Iron overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral found in many over-the-counter supplements. Iron overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ... This can be by accident or on purpose. Iron overdose is especially dangerous for children. A severe ...

  12. Atividade de microrganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos na presença de nitrogênio, ferro, cálcio e potássio Phosphate solubilizing activity of microorganisms in the presence of nitrogen, iron, calcium and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Nunes Silva Filho

    2001-12-01

    decreased solubilizing activity and in some instances, completely inhibited solubilization. In general, the solubilizing activity of microbial isolates was not affected by different concentrations of iron. Low concentrations of Ca and K limited the growth of five isolates that characteristically form large colonies (Aspergillus. Solubilization of calcium phosphate was increased by two of these isolates. Variations in the phosphate solubilizing capacity and potential of microorganisms as a response to the conditions in the growth medium indicate that the process occurs with variable efficiency or suggest the presence of different mechanisms of solubilization.

  13. Selective zinc ion detection by functionalised ZnO nanorods with ionophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Z. H.; Usman Ali, Syed M.; Chey, C. O.; Khun, K.; Nur, O.; Willander, Magnus

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, highly dense and well aligned single-crystal zinc oxide nanorods were grown along the c-axis on a gold coated glass substrate using a low temperature aqueous chemical growth approach. The prepared ZnO nanorods were functionalized with plastic membrane coatings containing specific ionophore (12-crown-4) which is highly selective to zinc ions (Zn+2). The electrochemical response of the sensor was found to be linear over a relatively wide logarithmic concentration range from 1 μM to 100 mM. The proposed sensor showed a good linearity with a high sensitivity of ˜35 mV/decade for sensing Zn+2 ions. A fast response time of less than 5 s with a good selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility, and negligible response to common interferents ions such as calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), or potassium (K+), and iron (Fe+3) and copper (Cu+2) was also demonstrated. Moreover, the proposed sensor showed good stoichiometric results for potentiometric titration.

  14. 水牛初乳和常乳中锌、铁、铜含量的动态变化%Dynamic Changes of Zinc, Iron, and Copper in Colostrum and Milk of Buffalo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永云; 张颖; 杨忠; 苗永旺; 汤守锟; 田建云; 王兴茂; 徐绍宏; 李卫真

    2012-01-01

    The contents of elements zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) in colostrum and milk of buffalo (Murrah×Dehong) were determined.The results showed that the contents of Zn on day 1 and day 2 were significantly higher than those in colostrum and milk of the other days (P0.05).The content of Fe on day 1 was significantly higher than that on day 7 (P0.05).The contents of Fe on day 1 and day 2 were significantly higher than those in milk (P0.05).The levels of Cu in the first two days were extremely significant higher than those in milk (P<0.01).The research indicated that the contents of Zn, Fe and Cu in colostrum of buffalo were mostly higher than those in milk, which reflected the characteristics of minerals secretion of the mammary during lactation.%采用火焰原子吸收分光光度法对摩本杂水牛(摩拉水牛×德宏水牛)初乳和常乳中Zn、Fe、Cu等三种微量元素含量进行测定.结果表明,在第1、2d的初乳中Zn含量显著高于其余几天的初乳和常乳(P<0.05),第3d开始Zn含量接近常乳,在3d至90 d之间稍有波动,但差异不显著(P>0.05).Fe和Cu含量随泌乳进行逐渐降低,其在初乳中的含量均高于常乳,常乳之间差异不显著(P>0.05).其中第1d初乳中Fe含量显著高于第7d(P<0.05),而与其余几天初乳相比差异不显著(P>0.05),第1、2d初乳中Fe含量均显著或极显著高于常乳(P<0.05);第1d初乳中Cu含量显著高于第3、5d的初乳(P<0.05),与第2、7d相比差异不显著(P>0.05),第1、2d初乳中Cu含量极显著高于常乳(P<0.01).研究显示水牛初乳中Zn、Fe、Cu等三种微量元素的含量大都高于常乳,反映了乳腺在初乳期矿物质的分泌特点.

  15. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  16. Effects of Zinc Carnosine on AKP,BGP and E2 in Cage Layers with Low-calcium Osteoporosis%肌肽锌对低钙性骨质疏松笼养蛋鸡 AKP、BGP 及 E2的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文亭; 王鹏; 刘春凌; 利凯; 杨永红

    2015-01-01

    选用250只24周龄健康海兰褐蛋鸡,随机分为5组,每组50只。对照组饲喂基础日粮(含钙3.55%),低钙组饲喂低钙日粮(含钙1.95%),试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组分别于低钙日粮中添加10、30、50 mg/kg 肌肽锌,试验期60 d,定期采集血样,观察肌肽锌对低钙性骨质疏松笼养蛋鸡碱性磷酸酶(AKP)、骨钙素(BGP)及雌二醇(E2)的影响。结果显示,AKP 和 BGP 随肌肽锌添加剂量的增加而降低,20 d 和40 d 时,试验Ⅰ组血清中 AKP 和 BGP 显著低于低钙组(P <0.05),试验Ⅱ、Ⅲ组血清中 AKP 和 BGP 均极显著低于低钙组(P <0.01),试验Ⅲ组血清中 AKP 和 BGP 均极显著低于试验Ⅰ组(P <0.01)、显著低于试验Ⅱ组(P <0.05);60 d 时,试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组血清中 AKP 和 BGP 均极显著低于低钙组(P <0.01),试验Ⅲ组血清中AKP 和 BGP 均极显著低于试验Ⅰ组(P <0.01),试验Ⅲ组血清中 BGP 显著低于试验Ⅱ组(P <0.05);各组E2随日龄的增长而降低,整个试验期,低钙组血清中 E2均显著低于对照组(P <0.05),其余各组无显著差异(P >0.05)。结果表明,在低钙日粮中添加50 mg/kg 肌肽锌能更好地改善低钙性骨质疏松笼养蛋鸡血清中骨代谢重要标志物和相关激素的水平,明显降低骨吸收,缓解笼养蛋鸡骨质疏松的程度。%The experiment was conducted to study the effects of zinc carnosine (ZnC)on AKP,BGP and E2 in cage layers with low-calcium osteoporosis.250 24-week-old hyline brown laying hens were randomly di-vided into 5 groups with 50 per group.The control group was fed with a basal diet (containing calcium 3. 55%),low calcium group was fed with a low-calcium diet (containing calcium 1.95%),and three test groups were given with the low-calcium diet added with 10,30,50 mg/kg ZnC,respectively.The experi-ment lasted for 60 days

  17. Alkaline leaching of iron and steelmaking dust

    OpenAIRE

    Stafanova, Anna; Aromaa, Jari

    2012-01-01

    Steel production generates significant quantities of dust and sludge in blast furnaces (BF),basic oxygen furnaces (BOF), and electric arc furnaces (EAF). These dusts contain toxicelements, such as heavy metals, and are thus classified as harmful waste making the disposalof them expensive. In addition, direct recycling of dust back to steel production is hindered dueto the presence of zinc. In this literature survey the alkaline leaching of zinc from iron and steelmaking dusts isreviewed. T...

  18. Micronutrient problems in Brazilian soils with special emphasis on zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil, with approximately 50% of the total land area in South America, has areas in which different micronutrient deficiencies (zinc, boron, copper, iron, manganese and molybdenum) have been noted in specific crops. This paper reviews the published research on such deficiencies and puts special emphasis on zinc which appears to be the most widespread deficiency. The need for an integrated approach to determining the extent of micronutrient deficiencies is discussed. (author)

  19. Effects of iron manipulation on trace elements level in a model of colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Barollo; R D'Inc(a); M Scarpa; V Medici; R Cardin; M Bortolami; C Ruffolo; I Angriman; GC Sturniolo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Trace elements (TE) metabolism is altered in inflammatory bowel diseases. TE (zinc and copper) are constituents of antioxidant enzymes. Iron is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. The aim was to evaluate zinc and copper status and the effects of iron manipulation in experimental colitis.METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: standard diet, iron-deprived diet,iron-supplemented diet, and sham-treated controls.Macroscopic damage was scored. DNA adducts were measured in the colon. Liver and colonic concentration of TE were measured.RESULTS: Macroscopic damage was reduced in irondeprived groups and increased in iron-supplemented rats.Damage to the DNA was reduced in iron-deprived groups and increased in iron-supplemented groups. Liver and colonic iron concentrations were reduced in iron-deprived and increased in iron-supplemented rats. Liver zinc concentration was reduced after supplementation whereas colonic levels were similar in controls and treated rats. Liver copper concentration was reduced in all the colitic groups except in the iron-supplemented group whereas colonic concentration was increased in iron-deprived rats.CONCLUSION: Iron deprivation diminishes the severity of DNBS colitis while supplementation worsens colitis. Zinc and copper status are modified by iron manipulation.

  20. Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States [Chapters A-M : gold, platinum, chromium, zinc, magnesium, lead, iron, manganese, columbium (niobium), tantalum, tin, molybdenum, and cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Scott F., (Edited By)

    2004-01-01

    USGS Circular 1196, 'Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States,' presents the results of flow studies for recycling 26 metal commodities, from aluminum to zinc. These metals are a key component of the U.S. economy. Overall, recycling accounts for more than half of the U.S. metal supply by weight and roughly 40 percent by value.

  1. Zinc and multi-mineral supplementation should mitigate the pathogenic impact of cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2012-11-01

    High-level cadmium (Cd) exposure has long been known to induce nephropathy, severe osteoporosis, and fractures in humans. More recent epidemiology, however, reveals that, in populations not known to have important industrial exposure to this heavy metal, high-normal blood or urine Cd levels correlate with increased risk for vascular disorders, cancers, diabetes, and total mortality, as well as osteoporosis and nephropathy. Since these disorders appear unlikely to expedite Cd absorption, and since Cd has promoted these pathologies in rodent studies, it seems reasonable to conclude that Cd is an important mediating risk factor for these disorders in humans. Avoiding tobacco smoke or frequent ingestion of shellfish or organ meats can lessen humans exposure to Cd, but the chief dietary sources of Cd are plant-derived foods - green leafy vegetables, whole grains, tubers, and root vegetables - typically recommended for their health-supportive properties; indeed, among non-smokers, vegans tend to have the highest Cd body burden. Fortunately, iron sufficiency and ample dietary intakes of calcium, magnesium, and zinc can impede absorption of dietary Cd, both by down-regulating intestinal expression of mineral transporters, and by directly competing with Cd for access to these transporters. Correction of iron deficiency appears to be of particular importance for controlling Cd absorption. Moreover, zinc supplementation can counteract the toxicity of Cd already in the body via induction of metallothionein, which binds Cd avidly via its sulfhydryl groups; so long as it remains sequestered in this form, Cd is innocuous. Zinc supplementation may in any case be recommendable, as optimal zinc status exerts protective anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunosupportive effects. Inasmuch as the toxicity of Cd appears to be mediated in large part by oxidative stress, ingestion of spirulina, lipoic acid, melatonin, and N-acetylcysteine may also have potential for mitigating the risk

  2. Bacitracin zinc overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacitracin zinc is a medicine that is used on cuts and other skin wounds to help prevent infection. Bacitracin ... medicine that kills germs. Small amounts of bacitracin zinc are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ...

  3. Zinc oxide overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  4. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  5. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, A.C.; Zheng, W.; Haacke, E.M.; Webb, S.; Nichol, H.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  6. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  7. Zinc isotope effects in complex formation with a crown ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope effects for zinc upon complex formation with dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 were investigated. The single stage separation factor for unit mass difference (α = 1.013) was great compared with that of calcium isotopes. One of the isotopes, 67Zn, showed a larger isotope effect than the other isotopes of even mass number. 7 refs., 1 fig

  8. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

  9. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Randhawa; Kamaljeet Sweety

    2000-08-01

    For preparing calcium ferrite, calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III) precursor was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of iron(III) maleate, calcium maleate and maleic acid. Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to 900°C and ferrite formation. Three consecutive decomposition steps leading to the formation of -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate have been observed at various stages of thermolysis. In the final stage the ferrite, Ca2Fe2O5, is obtained as a result of solid state reaction between -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate at 788°C, a temperature much lower than for ceramic method. The results have been compared with those of the oxalate precursor.

  10. Evidence of zinc ferrite formation on carbon steel in primary-side coolant with added soluble zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conversion electron and X-ray backscattering Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to identify iron compounds that were formed on carbon steel in simulated CANDU trademark reactor coolant containing 15 to 60 ppb (μg/L H2O) soluble zinc. Analyses of the coupons exposed to coolant in the absence of zinc indicated the formation of magnetite, whereas, in the presence of zinc, the formation of a layer of zinc-bearing ferrite ZnxFe3-xO4 (with x>0.8) was observed. The role of the high electrical resistivity of zinc ferrite in reducing corrosion rates, corrosion-product release rates, and 60Co activity buildup on carbon steel is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  11. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  12. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  13. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  14. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  15. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - calcium ... Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the human body. It helps form and maintain healthy teeth and bones. A proper level of calcium in the body over a lifetime can help ...

  16. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  17. The Levels of Calcium and Magnesium and of Selected Trace Elements in Whole Blood and Scalp Hair of Children with Growth Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibe Ozmen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Metals such as copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe are essential for human beings. Chronic metabolic disturbances may result from an excess or deficiency of these metals. Ca and Mg are also nutrient elements and play an important role in biological systems. Thus, it is very important to check regularly trace elements concentration in the body. The purpose of this study was to measure the content of Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca and Mg in whole blood and hair of children with growth retardation compared to that of controls.Methods: A quantitative elemental analysis of whole blood and scalp hair of children with constitutional growth retardation (n=27 and matched controls (n=21 was used to find out correlation and possible changes, between growth retardation and healthy controls. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS analysis of quantitative method was used to determine iron, zinc, copper, calcium and magnesium levels of whole blood and scalp hair.Findings: The whole blood levels of Fe and Zn were significantly lower in children with growth retardation (P0.05.Conclusion: The usefulness and significance of these elements in growth retardation should be discussed more detailed in the light of the most recent data.

  18. Interaction of ions in water system containing copper-zinc alloy for boiler energy saving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MING Xing; LIANG Jinsheng; OU Xiuqin; TANG Qingguo; DING Yan

    2006-01-01

    Copper-zinc alloy element for boiler energy saving was put in the intake of simulated boiler system to investigate the interaction and transfer of ions in water system both theoretically and experimentally. The fouling was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). The results show that the transfer of calcium and magnesium ions in heat-transfer-surface-water system is affected by zinc ions dissolved from the alloy because of primary battery reaction. Some calcium ions of calcium carbonate crystal are replaced by zinc ions, the growth of aragonite crystal nucleus is retarded, and the transition of calcium carbonate from aragonite to calcite is hampered.

  19. The zinc spark is an inorganic signature of human egg activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Francesca E; Que, Emily L; Zhang, Nan; Feinberg, Eve C; O'Halloran, Thomas V; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2016-01-01

    Egg activation refers to events required for transition of a gamete into an embryo, including establishment of the polyspermy block, completion of meiosis, entry into mitosis, selective recruitment and degradation of maternal mRNA, and pronuclear development. Here we show that zinc fluxes accompany human egg activation. We monitored calcium and zinc dynamics in individual human eggs using selective fluorophores following activation with calcium-ionomycin, ionomycin, or hPLCζ cRNA microinjection. These egg activation methods, as expected, induced rises in intracellular calcium levels and also triggered the coordinated release of zinc into the extracellular space in a prominent "zinc spark." The ability of the gamete to mount a zinc spark response was meiotic-stage dependent. Moreover, chelation of intracellular zinc alone was sufficient to induce cell cycle resumption and transition of a meiotic cell into a mitotic one. Together, these results demonstrate critical functions for zinc dynamics and establish the zinc spark as an extracellular marker of early human development. PMID:27113677

  20. [Zinc and gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimura, Yasuki; Takagi, Tomohisa; Naito, Yuji

    2016-07-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, affects immune responses, skin metabolism, hormone composition, and some sensory function, so that the deficiency presents various symptoms such as immunodeficiency and taste obstacle. Further, the zinc deficiency also considers as a risk of various diseases. Recent reports demonstrated that -20% of the Japanese population was marginally zinc deficiency, and over 25% of the global population is at high risk of zinc deficiency. In gastrointestinal disorders, zinc plays an important role in the healing of mucosal and epithelial damage. In fact, polaprezinc, a chelate compound of zinc and L-carnosine, has been used for the treatment of gastric ulcer and gastritis. We describe here the therapeutic effect of zinc on gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27455800