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Sample records for calcium intake decreases

  1. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

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    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  2. Rapid assessment of dietary calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordblad, Mikaela; Graham, Fiona; Mughal, M Zulf; Padidela, Raja

    2016-07-01

    A five-food item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 3-day food diary (3DFD) were used to estimate daily dietary calcium (Ca) intake in 32 patients aged 1-17 years. Median and IQR of Ca intake from 3DFD was 840 mg and 438 mg while from FFQ it was 700 mg and 987 mg, respectively. The non-parametrical Bland-Altman limits of agreement plot between two methods showed that most of the values fell between the limits of agreement at +794 mg and -388 mg. The FFQ had a specificity of 93% in identifying children who consumed inadequate amount of dietary Ca and a sensitivity of 78% in identifying children whose dietary Ca intake exceeded UK's Reference Nutrient Intake. Thus the FFQ allows rapid estimation of children with low daily dietary Ca intake in the clinic setting; however it does not replace 3DFD. PMID:26662924

  3. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

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    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  4. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    OpenAIRE

    Colin W. Binns; Xingqiong Meng; Kerr, Deborah A; Kun Zhu; Amanda Devine; Vicky Solah; Richard L. Prince

    2010-01-01

    The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for...

  5. Calcium intake and hypertension among obese adults in United States: associations and implications explored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Strasser, S; Cao, Y; Wang, K-S; Zheng, S

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between calcium intake and hypertension is receiving increased research attention. The prevalence of hypertension is high among the obese populations. Calcium is a mineral that influences blood pressure. The aim of the study was to examine the association between calcium intake and hypertension in a large nationally representative sample of obese American adults. A total of 14,408 obese adults aged 20 years or older were obtained from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Analysis of variance and linear regression models were used to examine relationships between calcium intake and systolic blood pressure (SBP) as well as diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association between calcium intake and hypertension after adjusting for potential confounders and interactions, including: age, race, education level, alcohol use, smoking, diabetes status, sodium intake and potassium intake. Calcium intake was significantly lower for the hypertensive group compared with the normotensive group (Pobese female young adults aged 20-44 years and among non-diabetic obese adults. Based on ordinary linear regression analysis, a significant inverse relationship was detected, SBP and DBP decreased if calcium intake increased (SBP: regression coefficient estimate=-0.015, Pintake was negatively associated with the probability of hypertension (odds ratio (OR)=0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.87, Pintake in youngest adults (age 20-44 years) had the lowest likelihood of hypertension (OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.64-0.93, Pintake and probability of hypertension was stronger among females (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.55-0.84, Pobese adults. The protective effect of calcium intake and hypertension was found significantly in obese non-diabetic adults (OR: OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.89, Pobese diabetic adults. SBP, DBP and calcium intake were log transformed for both ordinary linear regression analysis and

  6. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

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    Laura E. Monnat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers compared to those lacking access in their dormitory (non-milk vending consumers. Milk vending machines were installed in two dormitories, and two dormitories having non-milk beverage vending served as comparison sites. Students completed a calcium intake questionnaire at the point of milk (n = 73 or non-milk (n = 79 beverage vending purchases. Mean total calcium intake was higher in milk vending consumers (1245 + 543 mg/d compared to non-milk vending consumers (1042 + 447 mg/d (p = 0.01. Adjusting for gender and milk vending consumer status, there was a positive association between past month milk vending purchases and daily calcium intake from milk (p < 0.001. Fifty-seven students without in-dormitory access to milk vending reported an interest in milk vending if made available. Milk vending may serve as a novel approach for improving calcium intake in college students.

  7. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.; Tetens, Inge; Rehfeld, J.F.; Astrup, A.

    2007-01-01

    were tested in 18 subjects according to a randomized crossover design. The test meals contained high (HC meal: 172 mg/MJ), medium (MC meal: 84 mg/MJ), or low (LC meal: 15 mg/MJ) amounts of calcium from dairy products or a high amount of calcium given as a calcium carbonate supplement (Suppl meal: 183......, glucagon-like peptide 1, ghrelin, peptide YY, insulin, or glucose were observed. Conclusions: Increased calcium intakes from dairy products attenuate postprandial lipidemia, most probably because of reduced fat absorption, whereas supplementary calcium carbonate does not exert such an effect. This may be......Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...

  8. Calcium intake in health maintenance – a systematic review

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    Kirsti Uusi-Rasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca is an essential nutrient for the human body. Despite lively research, there is uncertainty about Ca requirements in terms of desirable health outcomes including an upper intake level above which the potential for harm increases. Objectives: The aim was to conduct a review to update requirements and desirable or harmful health effects of Ca on the current scientific evidence. Methods: We searched Medline and Swemed from January 2000 to December 2011 and included all systematic reviews that reported Ca supplementation or usual Ca intake on health outcomes. Meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and cohort studies were included in the second search between May 2009 and March 2011 and an additional search covering studies till the end of 2011. This review concentrated on studies reporting independent effects of Ca, although a few recent trials report sole effects of Ca on health outcomes, most trials use Ca in combination with vitamin D vs. placebo. Results: In total, we reviewed 38 studies addressing the effects of Ca on bone, pregnancy-related outcomes, cancers, cardiovascular outcomes, obesity, and mortality. There was a lot of heterogeneity in the study protocols, which made it difficult to draw any strong conclusions. According to the literature, high Ca intake seems to have a small positive effect on bone mineral content (BMC or bone mineral density (BMD in children and postmenopausal women. We did not find any consistent evidence on the effects of Ca on bone health in premenopausal women or men. Also, the evidence that Ca supplementation reduces fracture incidence is scarce and inconsistent. Maternal diet may influence the peak bone mass of offspring but more studies are required. There was no overall effect of Ca intake on cancers. Ca was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer and a slightly increased risk of prostate cancer in two of the three studies. No associations were found with other cancers. We

  9. Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of calcium

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    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to re-evaluate the safety in use of calcium. The Panel was requested to consider if the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL for calcium established by the SCF in 2003 (2,500 mg/day for adults, including pregnant and lactating women, which was based on different intervention studies of long duration in which total daily calcium intakes of 2,500 mg from both diet and supplements were tolerated without adverse effects, needed to be changed on the basis of new available evidence. A number of placebo controlled human intervention studies in adults published since then also showed that total daily calcium intakes of 2,500 mg from both diet and supplements are tolerated without adverse effects. The Panel considers that no relationship has been established between long-term calcium intakes from diet and supplements and increased risk of nephrolithiasis, cardiovascular disease or prostate cancer. No new data have become available which would require a revision of the UL for calcium for adults, including pregnant and lactating women, of 2,500 mg. No new data have become available which would allow the setting of a UL for infants, children or adolescents. Data from European populations indicate that intakes of calcium in high consumers among adult males can be close to the UL. Although available data do not allow the setting of a UL for infants, children or adolescents, no risk has been identified with highest current levels of calcium intake in these age groups.

  10. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

    OpenAIRE

    Adegboye, Amanda RA; Christensen, Lisa B.; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Avlund, Kirsten; Boucher, Barbara J; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. Methods In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified as below vs. within-recommendations and dairy intake as

  11. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

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    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  12. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Background High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. Methods The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and A...

  13. Calcium intake is not related to breast cancer risk among Singapore Chinese women

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingmei; Koh, Woon-Puay; Jin, Ai-Zhen; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.; Butler, Lesley M.

    2013-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that calcium protects against breast cancer development. Prospective epidemiologic studies supporting a protective effect of calcium on breast cancer risk have mainly been limited to Western populations. We examined the association between calcium intake and breast cancer risk in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a large population-based prospective cohort. Calcium intake and supplement use was assessed by in-person interviewer using a validated food frequency...

  14. Dietary calcium intake and Renin Angiotensin System polymorphisms alter the blood pressure response to aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

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    Tsongalis Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary calcium intake and the renin angiotensin system (RAS regulate blood pressure (BP by modulating calcium homeostasis. Despite similar BP regulatory effects, the influence of dietary calcium intake alone and combined with RAS polymorphisms on the BP response following acute aerobic exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of dietary calcium intake and selected RAS polymorphisms on postexercise hypotension. Methods Subjects were men (n = 50, 43.8 ± 1.3 yr with high BP (145.3 ± 1.5/85.9 ± 1.1 mm Hg. They completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle bouts at 40% and 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Subjects provided 3 d food records on five protocol-specific occasions. Dietary calcium intake was averaged and categorized as low (1R A/C were analyzed with molecular methods. Genotypes were reduced from three to two: ACE II/ID and ACE DD; or AT1R AA and AT1R CC/AC. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested if BP differed among experiments, dietary calcium intake level and RAS polymorphisms. Results Systolic BP (SBP decreased 6 mm Hg after 40% and 60% VO2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h with LowCa (p 2max versus non-exercise control for 10 h among ACE II/ID (6 mm Hg and AT1R AA (8 mm Hg; and by 8 mm Hg after 40% VO2max among ACE DD and AT1R CC/CA (p 2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h (p 2max (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion SBP decreased after exercise compared to non-exercise control among men with low but not high dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake interacted with the ACE I/D and AT1R A/C polymorphisms to further modulate postexercise hypotension. Interactions among dietary calcium intake, exercise intensity and RAS polymorphisms account for some of the variability in the BP response to exercise.

  15. Bone calcium turnover during pregnancy and lactation in women with low calcium diets is associated with calcium intake and circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Few data exist on longitudinal changes in bone calcium turnover rates across pregnancy and lactation. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to characterize calcium kinetic variables and predictors of these changes across pregnancy and early lactation in women with low calcium intakes. DESIGN: Stable ca...

  16. Consumption of Calcium-Fortified Cereal Bars to Improve Dietary Calcium Intake of Healthy Women: Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer T.; Moore, Carolyn E.; Radcliffe, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day) (intervention) to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control). At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d) when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001) or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001) periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted. Trial Registration Clinical

  17. Do calcium and vitamin D intake influence the effect of cycling on bone mass through adolescence?

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    A. Gómez-Bruton

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cycling has been associated with decreased bone mass during adolescence. Calcium (Ca and vitamin D (VitD intake are associated to bone mass and may be important confounders when studying bone mass. Aim: To clarify the effect that Ca and VitD may have on bone mass in adolescent cyclists. Methods: Bone mineral content (BMC and density (BMD of 39 male adolescents (20 cyclists were measured. Ca and VitD intake were also registered. Different ANCOVA analyses were performed in order to evaluate the influence of Ca and VitD on BMC and BMD. Results: Cyclists showed lower values of BMC and BMD than controls at several sites and when adjusting by Ca, Wards triangle BMD appeared also to be lower in cyclists than controls. Conclusion: Nutritional aspects might partially explain differences regarding bone mass in adolescent cyclists and should be taken into account in bone mass analysis as important confounders.

  18. Association between calcium intake, parathormone levels and blood pressure during pregnancy

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    Anibal Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the association between calcium intake from diet, calciotropic hormones (PTH, PTH-rp, vasoactive regulators (endothelin, nitric oxide and blood pressure levels during pregnancy, birth and puerperium.Method: In a prospective study 149 healthy normotensive primigravidas were followed-up from 15 weeks of gestation to puerperium. Daily calcium intake, calciuria, PTH, PTH-rp, endothelin, nitrite-nitrate, and Holter Test were assessed. Linear regression models were performed to evaluate the association between calcium intake, blood pressure levels and the laboratory tests. Multivariate regression models were performed to control potential confounders.Results: A significant increase of calcium intake during pregnancy was observed (931±301 mg/day to 1,195±467 mg/day, p<0.001. Plasma PTH-rp, endothelin, and nitrite-nitrate levels did not change during pregnancy. Among the women 38 (25.4% had low calcium intake (<800 mg/day with a larger increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure during pregnancy (p=0.04 birth (p=0.006 and puerperium (p=0.01. After adjusting for other factors the multivariate analyses showed statistical association between low calcium intake, high parathormone levels and high systolic blood pressure levels during pregnancy (p=0.002.Conclusion: Low calcium intake during pregnancy is associated with a larger increase of systolic blood pressure and high parathormone levels.

  19. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Holm-Pedersen, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified as.......53; 95%CI = 0.31--0.92) and dairy servings (OR = 0.54; 95%CI = 0.33--0.89) within-recommendations were significantly associated with lower plaque score after adjustments for age, gender, education, intakes of alcohol, sucrose and mineral supplements, smoking, diseases, number of teeth, visits to the...

  20. Overweight Postmenopausal Women Lose Bone With Moderate Weight Reduction and 1 g/day Calcium Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Riedt, Claudia S; Cifuentes, Mariana; Stahl, Theodore; Chowdhury, Hasina A.; Schlussel, Yvette; SHAPSES, SUE A.

    2004-01-01

    Overweight postmenopausal women may be more susceptible to bone loss with weight reduction than previously studied obese women. The influence of energy restriction and Ca intake on BMD was assessed in 66 individuals. Weight reduction resulted in bone loss at several sites in women consuming 1 g Ca/day and was mitigated with higher calcium intake at 1.7 g/day.

  1. Intake of protein, calcium and sodium in public child day care centers

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    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To assess calcium, protein and sodium intake, of children that attend public day-care centers and to compare it with the recommended one.METHODS:Cross-sectional descriptive study in seven public day care centers of São Paulo city, Southeast Brazil, which enrolled 366 children between 12 and 36 months of age. The data collection occurred between September and December 2010. Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Dietary intake was assessed by a direct food weighing method. For the nutritional calculation, DietWin(r Profissional 2.0 was used, and the adequacy was calculated according to the recommendations of the National School Feeding Program for energy, protein, calcium and sodium. The calcium/protein relation was also calculated, as well as calcium density (mg/1,000kcal.RESULTS: The energy (406.4kcal, protein (18.2g and calcium (207.6mg consumption did not reach the recommended values ​​in all the evaluated day care centers. Sodium intake exceeded up to three times the recommendation. The calcium/protein ratio of 11.7mg/g was less than the adequate one (20mg/g.CONCLUSIONS: There was inadequacy of calcium, protein and sodium dietary intake, in children attending public day-care centers.

  2. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  3. Should Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Technologists Estimate Dietary Calcium Intake at the Time of DXA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Malachi J; McKenna, Mary Clare S; van der Kamp, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adequate calcium intake is essential for bone health. Calcium is obtained from dietary sources and supplementation. Knowing the daily dietary calcium intake is helpful in deciding on the need for supplementation. Dietary calcium intake can be estimated quickly and accurately using an approach recommended by the National Osteoporosis Foundation. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of estimating dietary calcium intake by a technologist at the time of attendance for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. We conducted a retrospective survey of results on estimated dietary calcium intake in adults attending our DXA unit over 2 years (n=5569). We assessed intake with reference to the specifications of the Institute of Medicine according to sex and age. The average intake was 736 mg daily: Young adults had higher intakes than older adults (psupplemental intake of 500 mg daily but supplemental intake of 1000 mg daily. Younger adults are apt to have intakes within, or higher than, the requirement. Having DXA technologists estimate dietary calcium intake at the time of DXA scanning may provide helpful information to the referring clinicians about the need for supplementation. PMID:25934029

  4. Intake of dairy calcium and tooth loss among Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Twetman, Svante; Christensen, Lisa B;

    2011-01-01

    presence of oral dryness (model 3), and a high Lactobacillus count (model 4). In women, dairy calcium was not statistically associated with tooth loss in the crude and adjusted models (models 1 to 3). However, the association became highly significant once the Lactobacillus count was included in model 4...... (incidence-rate ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.73). Non-dairy calcium was not associated with tooth loss in men and women in the fully adjusted models. CONCLUSION: Dietary calcium intake, particularly calcium from dairy products, seems to protect against loss of teeth in adult men and women. The...

  5. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  6. Calcium Intake and Body Composition in African-American Children and Adolescents at Risk for Overweight and Obesity

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    Frances A. Tylavsky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of calcium intake on body composition in 186 African-American adolescents at risk for overweight and obesity. The average weight of 89.8 kg ± 23.6 (SD had a mean BMI z score of 2.2. Females with a calcium intake of < 314 mg/day had higher percent fat mass compared to those with the highest calcium intakes that were ≥ 634 mg/day. Compared to those with a low calcium intake (< 365 mg/day, those with the highest calcium intake of > 701 mg/day had higher intake of thiamin, folate, cobalamin, vitamin D, phosphorus, iron, zinc.

  7. Dietary calcium intake in a cohort of elderly patients already in drug therapy for osteoporosis. Is it possible and how to modify the eating habits before calcium supplementation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Manzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate intake of calcium via the diet is very common in patients taking drugs for osteoporosis. We have evaluated 302 consecutive elderly patients (68.6 median age attending our Rheumatological and Orthopedic Outpatient Clinics using a questionnaire for evaluation of dietary calcium intake. Two hundred and forty of these had a questionnaire score 7 in 205/240 after an average period of 3-6 months. In the 35 patients in which this was not possible, the exact knowledge of calcium dietary intake (poor or absent has allowed a tailored calcium supplementation.

  8. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka Keiko; Miyake Yoshihiro; Sasaki Satoshi; Hirota Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was c...

  9. Estimation of milk, dairy products and calcium intake in nutrition of the celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Panjkota Krbavčić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley and possibly oats. The smallest amount of gluten in food damages the small intestine of these patients. In Croatia there is no data about nutrition and dietary habits of people with celiac disease. In celiac disease there is one and only cure: a gluten-free diet. Milk and dairy products are major source of calcium, and this population, because of malapsorptive syndrome is especially sensitive and predisposed for osteoporosis and osteopenya. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to establish milk, dairy products and calcium intake in celiac patients nutrition. Milk and dairy products was determined by using 3-day-dietary record (3DD combined with food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in 15 celiac patients. Energy share of milk and dairy products were 11,82 % kJ, twice less than recommendation. Average daily intake of calcium was also below the recommendation (62,64 % DRI, and 67 % of examinees did not achieve neither 2/3 of daily recommendation intake (DRI for calcium. From milk and dairy group examinees use milk and pudding the most, yoghurt and fruit yoghurt less. It is necessary to increase intake of calcium from milk and dairy products group because they are the best source of this nutrient.

  10. Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Aparecida da Cunha; Elma Izze da Silva Magalhães; Laís Monteiro Rodrigues Loureiro; Luciana Ferreira da Rocha Sant'Ana; Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro; Juliana Farias de Novaes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. DATA SOURCE: The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: ''children'' and ''calcium'' or ''children'' and ''vitamin D'' associated with the descriptors: ''obesity'', ''adiposity'' or ''body fat'' for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, ...

  11. Bone Mineral Density Changes after Physical Training and Calcium Intake in Students with Attention Deficit and Hyper Activity Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab ameri, Elahe; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with attention deficit and hyper activity (ADHD) disorder. For this reason 54 male students with ADHD (age 8-12 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  12. Intakes of Calcium and Phosphorus and Calculated Calcium-to-Phosphorus Ratios of Older Adults: NHANES 2005–2006 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Adatorwovor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: High intakes of dietary phosphorus (P, relative to calcium (Ca intake, are associated with a lower calcium:phosphorus ratio (Ca:P ratio which potentially has adverse health effects, including arterial calcification, bone loss, and death. A substantial percentage of older adults (50 to 70 and 71 plus years who have a higher risk of fracture rate than younger adults typically have low intakes of dietary Ca that are dominated by higher intakes of dietary P from natural and fortified foods, and lower Ca:P ratios than desirable. Objective: This investigation was undertaken to examine Ca and P intakes and the resulting Ca:P ratios (by mass across gender and older adult age groups, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2006. Design: NHANES data are based on a cross-sectional sample of the non-institutionalized United States (US population within various regions. This sample is selected to be representative of the entire US population at all ages. National Cancer Institute (NCI methods and SAS survey procedures were used for analyses. Ca:P ratios were calculated using total Ca from both foods and supplements, whereas P intakes were calculated from food composition values and supplements. The amounts of P additives in processed foods are not available. Results: Mean Ca and P intakes demonstrated lower intakes of Ca and higher intakes of P compared to current Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs. The Ca:P ratios in older male and female adults were influenced by both low-Ca and high-P dietary consumption patterns. Conclusions: Both low total Ca intakes and high P amounts contribute to lower Ca:P ratios, i.e., ~0.7:1.0, in the consumption patterns of older adults than is recommended by the RDAs, i.e., ~1.5:1.0. Whether Ca:P ratios lower than recommended contribute to increased risk of bone loss, arterial calcification, and all-cause mortality cannot be inferred from these data. Additional amounts of

  13. Effect of prebiotic supplementation and calcium intake on body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to assess the effects of a prebiotic supplement and usual calcium intake on body composition changes during pubertal growth. We measured anthropometry and body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry in 97 young adolescents who were randomized to receive either a daily prebiotic...

  14. Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Macronutrient and Calcium Intake in Adult Pakistani Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To develop and validate a food frequency table (FFQ) for use in urban Pakistani population. Study Design: A validation study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University, Karachi, from June to November 2008. Methodology: Healthy adult females, aged A 18 years who consented to be included in the study were inducted, while males, unhealthy females, aged below 18 years or who did not consent were excluded. The FFQ was administered once while 4, 24 hours recalls spread over a period of one year were administered as the reference method. Daily intakes for energy, protein, fat, and calcium intake were estimated for both the tools. Crude and energy adjusted correlations for nutrient intakes were computed for the FFQ and mean of 4, 24 hours recalls and serum N-telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTx). Results: The correlation coefficients for the FFQ with mean of 4, 24 hours recall ranged from 0.21 for protein to 0.36 for calcium, while the correlation for nutrient estimates from the FFQ with NTx ranged from -0.07 for calcium to 0.01 for energy. Conclusion: Highly significant correlations were found for nutrient intakes estimated from the FFQ vs. those estimated from the mean of 4, 24 hours recalls but no correlations was found between nutrient estimates from the FFQ and serum NTx levels. FFQ was concluded to be a valid tool for assessing dietary intake of adult females in Pakistan. (author)

  15. Rankings of iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in relation to maternal characteristics of pregnant Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Weiler, Hope A; Dubois, Lise; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Dodds, Linda; Massarelli, Isabelle; Vigneault, Michel; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D

    2016-07-01

    Iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in the prenatal period are important determinants of maternal and fetal health. The objective of this study was to examine iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes from diet and supplements in relation to maternal characteristics. Data were collected in a subsample of 1186 pregnant women from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a cohort study including pregnant women recruited from 10 Canadian sites between 2008 and 2011. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to obtain rankings of iron, calcium, and vitamin D intake (16-21 weeks of pregnancy). Intakes from supplements were obtained from a separate questionnaire (6-13 weeks of pregnancy). Women were divided into 2 groups according to the median total intake of each nutrient. Supplement intake was an important contributor to total iron intake (median 74%, interquartile range (IQR) 0%-81%) and total vitamin D intake (median 60%, IQR 0%-73%), while the opposite was observed for calcium (median 18%, IQR 0%-27%). Being born outside of Canada was significantly associated with lower total intakes of iron, vitamin D, and calcium (p ≤ 0.01 for all). Consistent positive indicators of supplement use (iron, vitamin D, and calcium) were maternal age over 30 years and holding a university degree. In conclusion, among Canadian women, the probability of having lower iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes is higher among those born outside Canada; supplement intake is a major contributor to total iron and vitamin D intakes; and higher education level and age over 30 years are associated with supplement intake. PMID:27324651

  16. Dietary calcium intake and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial polygenetic disease of which the genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. Identifi cation of the risk factors for osteoporosisrelated to nutrition is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease, considering that these factors can be modifi ed. The aim of this study was to examine infl uence of dietary calcium intake on bonemineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: A total of 100 postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area, aged 50-65 years, without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history were included in the study. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbarspine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. Examination and control group were formed based on mineral bone density values. The women in the examinationgroup had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Estimates of daily dietary calcium intake were performed based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.Results: The average daily intake of dietary calcium among women who had osteoporosis was 967.32 mg, and in women who hadn’t osteoporosis 1195.12 mg. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (p<0.001. There was registered signifi cant correlation between intake of dietary calcium and mineral bone density in examination (p<0.01 and in control group (p<0.01.Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that adequate daily intake of dietary calcium in postmenopausal women aged 50-65 years living in Sarajevo area, which hadn’t estrogen defi ciency in their menstrualhistory (in the group of women without osteoporosis amounted to 1195.12 mg has a positive impact on bone mineral density.

  17. [The effect of dietotherapy and supplementary calcium intake on phosphorus-calcium homeostasis in hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkevich, A V; Samsonov, M A; Spirichev, V B

    1990-01-01

    A total of 25 patients with essential hypertension received a hyponatrium, hypocaloric antisclerotic diet providing 800 mg Ca and 1100 mg P/day, during 18-20 days. As a result of the dietotherapy, Ca concentration in the patients' blood serum rose from 9.9 +/- 0.2 to 10.4 +/- 0.1 mg/100 ml (p = 0.02), total cholesterol level was lowered from 6.58 +/- 0.43 to 5.42 +/- 0.3 mmol/l (p less than 0.05), Na+ and K+ distribution between the blood plasma and red blood cells was improved, and the arterial blood pressure was normalized in all the patients investigated. It dropped from 162 +/- 3.8/102 +/- 1.8 mm Hg before the treatment to 129 +/- 2.1/83.4 +/- 2.2 mm Hg after the treatment. Additional intake of 850 mg Ca/day, as CaCO3, decreased parathormone level in the blood serum from 0.40 +/- 0.03 to 0.23 ng/ml (p less than 0.01), intensified the hypolipidemic effect of the ration, and did not influence the degree of arterial blood pressure reduction under the action of this ration. Optimization of Ca consumption plays an important role in the combined dietotherapy of essential hypertension. PMID:2378097

  18. Dairy Product, Calcium Intake and Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Xu; Yao, Qinghua; Qin, Liqiang; Xu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dairy products on human health have been studied for years. However, the relationship between dairy products as well as calcium intake and the risk of lung cancer is still inconclusive. A total of 32 studies regarding this association were identified from the PubMed and Web of Science databases through April 1, 2015, including 12 cohort studies and 20 case-control studies. After pooling the results of individual studies, the summary RRs (relative risks) of lung cancer for the highest versus lowest intake were 1.05 (95%CI: 0.84-1.31) and 1.08 (95%CI: 0.80-1.46) for total dairy products and milk, respectively. The results on the consumption of cheese, yogurt and low-fat milk were also negative, and the RRs for total and dietary calcium intakes were 0.99 (95%CI: 0.70-1.38) and 0.85 (95%CI: 0.63-1.13), respectively. After stratifying by potential confounders, the results remained consistent in most subgroup analyses. Our study indicates that intake of dairy products or calcium was not statistically associated with the risk of lung cancer. This negative finding provides a conclusive answer to the disease association issue based on current evidence, and suggests that further efforts should be made to find other nutritional risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:26877260

  19. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Keiko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41–50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Results Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose–response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend = 0.01. The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend = 0.07, 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend = 0.07, and 0.50 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend = 0.08, respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. Conclusion These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  20. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  1. Dietary calcium intake and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial polygenetic disease of which the genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. Identifi cation of the risk factors for osteoporosisrelated to nutrition is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease, considering that these factors can be modifi ed. The aim of this study was to examine infl uence of dietary calcium intake on bonemineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: A total of 100 postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area, aged 50-65 years, without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history were included in the study. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbarspine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. Examination and control group were formed based on mineral bone density values. The women in the examinationgroup had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Estimates of daily dietary calcium intake were performed based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.Results: The average daily intake of dietary calcium among women who had osteoporosis was 967.32 mg, and in women who hadn’t osteoporosis 1195.12 mg. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (pConclusion: The results of this study have shown that adequate daily intake of dietary calcium in postmenopausal women aged 50-65 years living in Sarajevo area, which hadn’t estrogen defi ciency in their menstrualhistory (in the group of women without osteoporosis amounted to 1195.12 mg has a positive impact on bone mineral density.

  2. Fluid Intake and Decreased Risk for Hospitalization for Dengue Fever, Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Eva; Pérez, Leonel; Phares, Christina R.; Pérez, Maria de los Angeles; Idiaquez, Wendy; Rocha, Julio; Cuadra, Ricardo; Hernandez, Emelina; Campos, Luisa Amanda; Gonzalez, Alcides; Amador, Juan Jose; Balmaseda, Angel

    2003-01-01

    In a hospital and health center-based study in Nicaragua, fluid intake during the 24 hours before being seen by a clinician was statistically associated with decreased risk for hospitalization of dengue fever patients. Similar results were obtained for children

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to re-evaluate the safety in use of calcium. The Panel was requested to consider if the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for calcium established by the SCF in 2003 (2,500 mg/day for...... adults, including pregnant and lactating women), which was based on different intervention studies of long duration in which total daily calcium intakes of 2,500 mg from both diet and supplements were tolerated without adverse effects, needed to be changed on the basis of new available evidence. A number...... of placebo controlled human intervention studies in adults published since then also showed that total daily calcium intakes of 2,500 mg from both diet and supplements are tolerated without adverse effects. The Panel considers that no relationship has been established between long-term calcium...

  4. Dairy consumption and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer in a prospective cohort: The Norwegian Women and Cancer study

    OpenAIRE

    Hjartaker, A; Engeset, Dagrun; Lund, Eiliv; Thoresen, Magne

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the association between consumption of dairy products and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer risk according to menopausal status. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study of 64,904 Norwegian women followed from 1996/1999 through 2006, we examined total dairy consumption and consumption of various dairy products in relation to pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. We also examined breast cancer in relation to calcium intake and to milk consumption d...

  5. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  6. Characteristics of a successful program to decrease BMI and LNED intake in school children

    OpenAIRE

    Rosário, Rafaela; Araújo, Ana; Padrão, Patrícia; Lopes, Óscar; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira; Moreira, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Healthy eating habits are essential to reduce children · s risk of health problems. The prevalence of obesity continues to increase and is growing concern in Portugal and Europe (Wijnhoven et ai., 2014). This study aims to describe the characteristics of a successful program to decrease BMI and LNED intake among school children. 464 children (239 female, 6 to 12 years) from seven schools participated in this randomized triaL ln Portugal children from elementary schools have ...

  7. Intake of protein, calcium and sodium in public child day care centers

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana Longo-Silva; Toloni, Maysa Helena de A.; de Menezes, Risia Cristina E.; Tatiane Leocádio Temteo; Oliveira, Maria Alice A.; Leiko Asakura; Emília Chagas Costa; Taddei, José Augusto de A. C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess calcium, protein and sodium intake, of children that attend public day-care centers and to compare it with the recommended one. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study in seven public day care centers of São Paulo city, Southeast Brazil, which enrolled 366 children between 12 and 36 months of age. The data collection occurred between September and December 2010. Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Dietary i...

  8. Nudge to nobesity I: Minor changes in accessibility decrease food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Very small but cumulated decreases in food intake may be sufficient to erase obesity over a period of years. We examine the effect of slight changes in the accessibility of different foods in a pay-by-weight-of-food salad bar in a cafeteria serving adults for the lunch period. Making a food slightly more difficult to reach (by varying its proximity by about 10 inches or changing the serving utensil (spoon or tongs modestly but reliably reduces intake, in the range of 8-16%. Given this effect, it is possible that making calorie-dense foods less accessible and low-calorie foods more accessible over an extended period of time would result in significant weight loss.

  9. Increased calcium deposits and decreased Ca2+ -ATPase in erythrocytes of ascitic broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zhao, Lihong; Geng, Guangrui; Ma, Liqin; Dong, Shishan; Xu, Tong; Wang, Jianlin; Wang, Huiyu; Tian, Yong; Qiao, Jian

    2011-06-01

    The decrease of erythrocyte deformability may be one of the predisposing factors for pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. In mammals, the cytoplasmic calcium is a major regulator of erythrocyte deformability. In this study, the erythrocyte deformability was measured, and the precise locations of Ca2+ and Ca2+ -ATPase in the erythrocytes were investigated in chickens with ascites syndrome induced by low ambient temperature. The results showed that ascitic broilers had higher filtration index of erythrocyte compared with control groups, indicating a decrease in erythrocyte deformability in ascitic broilers. The more calcium deposits were observed in the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers compared with those of the age-matched control birds. The Ca2+ -ATPase reactive grains were significantly decreased on the erythrocyte membranes of ascitic broilers. Our data suggest that accumulation of intracellular calcium and inhibition of Ca2+ -ATPase might be important factors for the reduced deformability of the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers. PMID:20728193

  10. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M.J. Anacker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a. Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  11. Warm Ambient Temperature Decreases Food Intake in a Simulated Office Setting: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard, Molly C.; Li, Peng; Allison, David B.; Gohlke, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that exposure to temperatures above the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) would decrease food intake in young adults in a sedentary office environment over a 2-h period. Methods Participants wearing standardized clothing were randomized to perform routine office work in the TNZ, considered control (19–20°C), or above the TNZ considered warmer (26–27°C) using a parallel-group design (n = 11 and 9, respectively). Thermal images of the inner canthus of their eye and ...

  12. Dietary calcium intake and risk of obesity in school girls aged 8-10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnoosh Samadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have demonstrated the role of calcium in reducing body mass index (BMI or fat mass. Though, BMI does not provide very valid information about changes in body fat mass, Fat Mass Index (FMI relates body fat mass to height and allows comparing body fat mass of individuals at different heights. This study investigated the possible association between dietary calcium intake (CI and other nutritional factors and weight status of girls aged 8-10 years. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 110 girls aged 8-10 with FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m 2 as cases and 307 girls with FMI less than 7.2 kg/m 2 as controls were recruited through multistage cluster random sampling. FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m 2 was considered as the cutoff point for obesity. Body fat mass was assessed by a stand on bio impedance analyzer. In order to assess CI, participants were asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Mean and standard deviation of CI in the case group was significantly lower than the control group 649 ± 103 and 951 ± 152 mg/d, respectively ( P < 0.01. After Adjustment for total energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein in quartiles of physical activity, inverse association between CI and obesity was significant and in the highest quartile of physical activity the association was weaker. By further adjustment for the effect of fruits and vegetable intake inverse association between CI and obesity became weaker but yet was significant. Conclusion: The inverse relationship between CI and FMI remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. FMI may be more accurate, compared to BMI, in showing the association between CI and obesity.

  13. Calcium and vitamin D intakes may be positively associated with brain lesions in depressed and non-depressed elders

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Martha E.; Anderson, John J. B.; Steffens, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Studies indicate that diet and vascular calcification may be related to the occurrence of brain lesions, although the importance of dietary calcium and vitamin D has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that calcium and vitamin D intakes would be positively associated with brain lesion volumes in elderly individuals with and without late-life depression. A cross sectional study was performed as part of a longitudinal clinical study of late-life depress...

  14. Sugar cane treated with calcium hydroxide in diet for cattle: intake, digestibility of nutrients and ingestive behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Menezes Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate, in bovines, the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behaviour and content of total digestible nutrients (TDN of diets based on sugar cane treated with calcium hydroxide. It was used four cows with average body weight of 412.06 kg ± 37.3 kg. The study included inclusion of calcium hydroxide at the doses 0, 8, 16 and 24 g/kg of sugar cane in natural matter basis fed in diets with 65% of roughage and 35% on concentrate, based on dry matter (DM. It was used a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four periods. Calcium hydroxide doses affected nutrient intake: DM intake was 7.88 kg/day at the dose of 14.99 g of calcium hydroxide, organic matter (OM intake was 6.75 kg/day at 10.94 g; intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF of 3.33 kg/day with a dose of 13.93 g; and intake of acid detergent fiber (ADF of 2.12 kg/day with a dose of 10.51 g. Digestibility coefficients showed a quadratic effect for doses of inclusion of calcium hydroxide. Dry matter digestibility was 72.88% with a dose of 11.65 g of calcium hydroxide, OM digestibility was 75.12% with 12.09 g; NDF digestibility was 58.67% with 12.11 g; ADF digestibility was 52.97% with 9.36 g and TDN digestibility was 71.42% with 10.92 g. There was no effect of the treatment for activities of rumination and total idle. Chewing time, number of bolus chewed and time for rumination of each bolli presented effect. Calcium hydroxide enabled greater intakes and digestibility of nutrients, especially from the cell wall, favoring the use of nutrients from the diet containing sugar cane, recommending a dose of 8-12 g.

  15. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  16. Short sleep duration is associated with decreased serum leptin, increased energy intake, and decreased diet quality in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer H Stern; Grant, Andriene S.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Tinker, Lesley; Hale, Lauren; Brennan, Kathleen M.; Woods, Nancy F.; Chen, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Objective Short sleep duration induces hormonal perturbations contributing to hyperphagia, insulin resistance, and obesity. The majority of these studies are conducted in young adults. This analysis in a large (n= 769) sample of postmenopausal women (median age 63 y) sought to 1) confirm that sleep duration and sleep quality are negatively correlated with circulating leptin concentrations and 2) to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep, dietary energy intake, and diet quality, ...

  17. A radiographic study on the development of the antebrachium in Great Dane pups on different calcium intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic examination of the radius and ulna was performed in three groups of Great Danes fed diets containing high, normal, and low calcium contents from the ages of 7 to 21 weeks. Development and maturation of secondary ossification centers, architecture of the distal ulnar metaphysis, and growth in length of the radius were noted. In the dogs fed a high-calcium diet, there was retardation in the development of the ulnar styloid process, the humeral medial epicondyle, the olecranal apophysis, and the anconeal process. In addition, these dogs developed severe changes over the entire width of the distal ulnar metaphysis, whereas the other groups developed only focal changes. The dogs fed a low-calcium diet developed severe signs of nutritional hyperparathyroidism. It is concluded that the development of the secondary ossification centers and the growth in length of the radius are inversely related to calcium intake

  18. Gynura procumbens Merr. decreases blood pressure in rats by vasodilatation via inhibition of calcium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See-Ziau Hoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gynura procumbens has been shown to decrease blood pressure via inhibition of the angiotensinconverting enzyme. However, other mechanisms that may contribute to the hypotensive effect have not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cardiovascular effects of a butanolic fraction of Gynura procumbens in rats. METHODS: Anaesthetized rats were given intravenous bolus injections of butanolic fraction at doses of 2.5-20 mg/kg in vivo. The effect of butanolic fraction on vascular reactivity was recorded in isolated rat aortic rings in vitro. RESULTS: Intravenous administrations of butanolic fraction elicited significant (p<0.001 and dose-dependent decreases in the mean arterial pressure. However, a significant (p<0.05 decrease in the heart rate was observed only at the higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg. In isolated preparations of rat aortic rings, phenylephrine (1×10-6 M- or potassium chloride (8×10-2 M-precontracted endothelium-intact and -denuded tissue; butanolic fraction (1×10-6-1×10-1 g/ml induced similar concentration-dependent relaxation of the vessels. In the presence of 2.5×10-3 and 5.0×10-3 g/ml butanolic fraction, the contractions induced by phenylephrine (1×10-9-3×10-5 M and potassium chloride (1×10-2-8×10-2 M were significantly antagonized. The calcium-induced vasocontractions (1×10-4-1×10-2 M were antagonized by butanolic fraction concentration-dependently in calcium-free and high potassium (6×10-2 M medium, as well as in calcium- and potassium-free medium containing 1×10-6 M phenylephrine. However, the contractions induced by noradrenaline (1×10-6 M and caffeine (4.5×10-2 M were not affected by butanolic fraction. CONCLUSION: Butanolic fraction contains putative hypotensive compounds that appear to inhibit calcium influx via receptor-operated and/or voltage-dependent calcium channels to cause vasodilation and a consequent fall in blood pressure.

  19. Randomized, placebo-controlled, calcium supplementation trial in pregnant Gambian women accustomed to a low calcium intake: effects on maternal blood pressure and infant growth 1 2 3 4

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Gail R.; Jarjou, Landing MA; Tim J Cole; Prentice, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary calcium intake in rural Gambian women is very low (∼350 mg/d) compared with international recommendations. Studies have suggested that calcium supplementation of women receiving low-calcium diets significantly reduces risk of pregnancy hypertension. Objective: We tested the effects on blood pressure (BP) of calcium carbonate supplementation (1500 mg Ca/d) in pregnant, rural Gambian women. Design: The study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled supple...

  20. EGCG decreases binding of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals onto renal tubular cells via decreased surface expression of alpha-enolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Singhto, Nilubon; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-06-01

    Crystal retention on tubular cell surface inside renal tubules is considered as the earliest and crucial step for kidney stone formation. Therapeutics targeting this step would cease the development of kidney stone. This study thus aimed to investigate the potential role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major antioxidant found in green tea leaves, in the reduction of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal binding onto renal tubular cells. Pretreatment of the cells with EGCG for up to 6 h significantly diminished crystal-binding capability in a dose-dependent manner. Indirect immunofluorescence assay without and with cell permeabilization followed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy revealed that EGCG significantly reduced surface expression of alpha-enolase, whereas its intracellular level was increased. Western blot analysis confirmed such contradictory changes in membrane and cytosolic fractions of EGCG-treated cells, whereas the total level in whole cell lysate remained unchanged. Moreover, overexpression of surface alpha-enolase and enhancement of cell-crystal adhesion induced by 10 mM sodium oxalate were completely abolished by EGCG. Taken together, these data indicate that EGCG decreases binding of COM crystals onto renal tubular cells by decreasing the surface expression of alpha-enolase via re-localization or inhibition of alpha-enolase shuttling from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. These findings may also explain the effects of EGCG in reducing COM crystal deposition in previous animal models of kidney stone disease. Thus, EGCG may be useful for the prevention of new or recurrent stone formation. PMID:26898643

  1. Increased calcium deposits and decreased Ca2+-ATPase in right ventricular myocardium of ascitic broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K; Qiao, J; Zhao, L; Dong, S; Ou, D; Wang, J; Wang, H; Xu, T

    2006-11-01

    Right ventricular hypertrophy and failure is an important step in the development of ascites syndrome (AS) in broiler chickens. Cytoplasmic calcium concentration is a major regulator of cardiac contractile function and various physiological processes in cardiac muscle cells. The purpose of this study was to measure the right ventricular pressure and investigate the precise ultrastructural location of Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the right ventricular myocardium of chickens with AS induced by low ambient temperature. The results showed that the right ventricular diastolic pressure of ascitic broilers was significantly higher than that of control broilers (P ascitic broilers was significantly lower than that of the controls (P ascitic broilers, whereas in the age-matched control broilers, calcium deposits were much less. The Ca(2+)-ATPase reactive products were obviously found on the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial membrane of the control right ventricular myocardium, but rarely observed in the ascitic broilers. The data suggest that in ascitic broilers there is the right ventricular diastolic dysfunction, in which the overload of intracellular calcium and the decreased Ca(2+)-ATPase activity might be the important factors. PMID:17054481

  2. Dairy-food, calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D intake and endometriosis: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Chavarro, Jorge E; Malspeis, Susan; Willett, Walter C; Missmer, Stacey A

    2013-03-01

    The etiology of endometriosis is poorly understood, and few modifiable risk factors have been identified. Dairy foods and some nutrients can modulate inflammatory and immune factors, which are altered in women with endometriosis. We investigated whether intake of dairy foods, nutrients concentrated in dairy foods, and predicted plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were associated with incident laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis among 70,556 US women in Nurses' Health Study II. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. A score for predicted 25(OH)D level was calculated for each participant. During 737,712 person-years of follow-up over a 14-year period (1991-2005), 1,385 cases of incident laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis were reported. Intakes of total and low-fat dairy foods were associated with a lower risk of endometriosis. Women consuming more than 3 servings of total dairy foods per day were 18% less likely to be diagnosed with endometriosis than those reporting 2 servings per day (rate ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 0.95; P(trend) = 0.03). In addition, predicted plasma 25(OH)D level was inversely associated with endometriosis. Women in the highest quintile of predicted vitamin D level had a 24% lower risk of endometriosis than women in the lowest quintile (rate ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.97; P(trend) = 0.004). Our findings suggest that greater predicted plasma 25(OH)D levels and higher intake of dairy foods are associated with a decreased risk of endometriosis. PMID:23380045

  3. Chronic ethanol intake-induced changes in open-field behavior and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅳ expression in nucleus accumbens of rats: naloxone reversal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Wei-liang BIAN; Gui-qin XIE; Sheng-zhong CUI; Mei-ling WU; Yue-hua LI; Ling-li QUE; Xiao-ru YUAN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of chronic ethanol intake on the locomotor activity and the levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅳ (CaM kinase Ⅳ) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats. Simultaneously, the effects of non-selective opioid antagonist (naloxone) on the CaM kinase Ⅳ expression in the NAc and ethanol consumption of rats were also observed. Methods: Ethanol was administered in drinking water at the concentrations of 6% (v/v), for 28 d. The locomotor activity of rats was investigated in the open-field apparatus. CaM kinase Ⅳ levels in the NAc were analyzed using Western blotting. Results: Rats consuming ethanol solution exhibited a significant decrease of ambulation activity, accompanied by a reduced frequency of explorative rearing in an open-field task on d 7 and d 14 of chronic ethanol ingestion, whereas presumed adaptation to the neurological effects of ethanol was observed on d 28. Chronic ethanol intake elicited a significant decrease of the CaM kinase Ⅳ expression in the nuclei, but not in the cytoplasm of the NAc on d 28. Naloxone treatment significantly attenu-ated ethanol intake of rats and antagonized the decrease of CaM kinase Ⅳ in the nuclei of NAc neurons. The cytosolic CaM kinase Ⅳ protein levels of the NAc also increased in rats exposed to ethanol plus naloxone. Conclusion: Chronic ethanol intake-induced changes in explorative behavior is mediated at least partly by changes in CaM kinase Ⅳ signaling in the nuclei of the NAc, and naloxone attenuates ethanol consumption through antagonizing the downregulation of CaM kinase Ⅳ in the NAc.

  4. Associations of intakes of magnesium and calcium and survival among women with breast cancer: results from Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Meng-Hua; Dai, Qi; Millen, Amy E; Nie, Jing; Edge, Stephen B; Trevisan, Maurizio; Shields, Peter G; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) antagonizes each other in (re) absorption, cell cycle regulation, inflammation, and many other physiologic activities. However, few studies have investigated the association between magnesium and calcium intakes and breast cancer survival, and the interaction between calcium and magnesium intake. In a cohort of 1,170 women with primary, incident, and histologically confirmed breast cancer from Western New York State, we examined the relationship between intakes of these two minerals and survival. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Mean follow-up time was 87.4 months after breast cancer diagnosis; there were 170 deaths identified. After adjustment for known prognostic factors, and intakes of energy, total vitamin D and total calcium, higher dietary intake of magnesium was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.28-0.90 for highest vs. lowest tertile; p trend = 0.02). Likewise, a marginal association was found for total Magnesium intake from foods and supplements combined (HR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.31-1.08; p trend = 0.09). The inverse association of higher total magnesium intake with all-cause mortality was primarily presented among postmenopausal women and was stronger among women who had a high Ca:Mg intake ratio (>2.59). There were no clear associations for prognosis with intake of calcium. We found that magnesium intake alone may improve overall survival following breast cancer, and the association may be stronger among those with high Ca:Mg intake ratio. PMID:27073728

  5. Initial amino acid intake influences phosphorus and calcium homeostasis in preterm infants--it is time to change the composition of the early parenteral nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bonsante

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN, consisting of caloric and nitrogen intake soon after birth, is currently proposed for the premature baby. Some electrolyte disturbances, such as hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, considered unusual in early life, were recently described while using this PN approach. We hypothesize that, due to its impact on cell metabolism, the initial amino acid (AA amount may specifically influence the metabolism of phosphorus, and consequently of calcium. We aim to evaluate the influence of AA intake on calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and to create a calculation tool to estimate phosphorus needs. METHODS: Prospective observational study. Phosphate and calcium plasma concentrations and calcium balance were evaluated daily during the first week of life in very preterm infants, and their relationship with nutrition was studied. For this purpose, infants were divided into three groups: high, medium and low AA intake (HAA, MAA, LAA. A calculation formula to assess phosphorus needs was elaborated, with a theoretical model based on AA and calcium intake, and the cumulative deficit of phosphate intake was estimated. RESULTS: 154 infants were included. Hypophosphatemia (12.5% and hypercalcemia (9.8% were more frequent in the HAA than in the MAA (4.6% and 4.8% and in the LAA group (0% and 1.9%; both p<0.001. DISCUSSION: Calcium-phosphorus homeostasis was influenced by the early AA intake. We propose to consider phosphorus and calcium imbalances as being part of a syndrome, related to incomplete provision of nutrients after the abrupt discontinuation of the placental nutrition at birth (PI-ReFeeding syndrome. We provide a simple tool to calculate the optimal phosphate intake. The early introduction of AA in the PN soon after birth might be completed by an early intake of phosphorus, since AA and phosphorus are (along with potassium the main determinants of cellular growth.

  6. Dietary magnesium deprivation decreases magnesium balance and urinary calcium excretion, increases sublingual cellula calcium and potassium concentrations, and decreases circulating neuropeptide Y and gluthathione ... women

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was performed with the objective of determining whether a low dietary intake of magnesium impaired bone health other than through affecting parathyroid hormone and vitamin D action, and impaired cardiovascular health other than through affecting lipid metabolism. Eighteen postmenopausa...

  7. Lipidized analogs of prolactin-releasing peptide decrease food intake after peripheral administration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popelová, Andrea; Maletínská, Lenka; Pražienková, Veronika; Zemenová, Jana; Holubová, Martina; Mikulášková, Barbora; Železná, Blanka; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    Praha: Ústav organické chemie a biochemie AV ČR, 2016 - (Kuda, O.). s. 19 ISBN 978-80-86241-54-8. [Česká lipidomická konference /5./. 21.04.2016-22.04.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * food intake Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  8. Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, Van Mark; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, Dina; Peters, Jelmer; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake. Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and u

  9. Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Peters, J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake. Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and umam

  10. Calcium phosphate cement delivering zoledronate decreases bone turnover rate and restores bone architecture in ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients sustaining bony fractures frequently require the application of bone graft substitutes to fill the bone defects. In the meantime, anti-osteoporosis drugs may be added in bone fillers to treat osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women and the elderly. The effects of zoledronate-impregnated calcium phosphate cement (ZLN/CPC) on ovariectomized (OVX) rats were evaluated. OVX rats were implanted with ZLN/CPC, containing 0.025 mg ZLN in the greater omentum. Afterward the clinical sign of toxicity was recorded for eight weeks. The rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematology and serum bone turnover markers analyses. The four limbs of the rats were harvested and micro-computer tomography (micro-CT) scanning and bone ash analyses were performed. No clinical toxicity was observed in the treated rats. Compared to the OVX rats, levels of bone resorption markers (fragments of C-telopeptides of type I collagen) and bone formation markers (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) decreased significantly in the treated rats. Osteopontin, which mediates the anchoring of osteoclasts to the mineral matrix of bones, also decreased significantly. Micro-CT scanning and histologic examinations of the distal femoral metaphyses showed that the cancellous bone architectures were restored, with a concomitant decrease in bone porosity. The bone mineral content in the bone ashes also increased significantly. This study indicates that ZLN-impregnated CPC reduces bone turnover rate and restores bone architecture in OVX rats. CPC may be an appropriate carrier to deliver drugs to treat osteoporosis, and this approach may also reduce rates of post-dosing symptoms for intravenous ZLN delivery. (paper)

  11. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. Growth performance, skeletal health and intake arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, E J; Wilkinson, S J; Cronin, G M; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in broiler nutrition and skeletal health is highly complex with many factors influencing their digestion, absorption and utilisation. The use of an investigative model such as the geometric framework allows a graphical approach to explore these complex interactions. A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated to one of 15 dietary treatments with five replicates and eight birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were formulated to one of three total densities of total Ca+nPP; high (15 g/kg), medium (13.5 g/kg) and low (12 g/kg) and at each density there were five different ratios of Ca : nPP (4, 2.75, 2.1, 1.5 and 1.14 : 1). Weekly performance data was collected and at the end of the experiment birds were individually weighed and the right leg removed for tibia ash analysis. Skeletal health was assessed using the latency to lie (LTL) at day 27. At low Ca and high nPP as well as high Ca and low nPP diets, birds had reduced feed intake, BW gain, poorer feed efficiency and lower tibia ash, resulting in a significant interaction between dietary Ca and nPP (P<0.05). LTL times were negatively influenced by diets having either a broad ratio (high Ca, low nPP) or too narrow a ratio (low Ca, high nPP) indicating that shorter LTL times may be influenced by the ratio of Ca : nPP rather than absolute concentrations of either mineral. The calculated intake arrays show that broilers more closely regulate Ca intake than nPP intake. Broilers are willing to over consume nPP to defend a Ca intake target more so than they are willing to over consume Ca to defend an nPP target. Overall dietary nPP was more influential on performance metrics, however, from the data it may appear that birds prioritise Ca intake over nPP and broadly ate to meet this requirement. As broilers are more willing to eat to a Ca intake target rather than an nPP intake target, this emphasises the importance of formulating

  12. Calcium, vitamin D casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Boucher, Barbara J; Christensen, Lisa Bøge;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g...... inversely associated with periodontitis. Consumption of foods rich in Ca, casein and whey (e.g. dairy foods) should be promoted, as they may contribute to the prevention of periodontitis. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm these associations....

  13. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Young, Scott D.; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R.

    2015-06-01

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita-1 d-1 (±SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge.

  14. Low calcium intake is related to increased risk of tooth loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Twetman, Svante;

    2010-01-01

    (30-60 y) with information on dietary Ca intake and number of teeth and a subset of 511 participants with information on tooth loss from 1987-88 to 1993-94. Ca intake less than the recommendations, estimated by a 7-d food record or a diet history interview in 1982-83, was more frequent among females...... oral dryness, and time since last dental care visit. The reference group (26-32 teeth) and edentulous participants did not significantly differ. A Ca intake below recommendations was significantly associated with increased risk of subsequent tooth loss in males [incidence-rate ratio = 1.70 (95% CI = 1...... intake below recommendations, consumption of foods rich in Ca should be promoted to preserve oral health....

  15. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding. PMID:27139254

  16. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  17. Still Eating Despite Decreased Olfactory Pleasure-The Influence of Odor Liking and Wanting on Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Uta; Triscoli, Chantal; Croy, Ilona

    2016-07-01

    Typically, the subjective pleasantness of an odor decreases after it has been repeatedly smelled. This study investigates how the pleasantness ("liking") and the wish to be further exposed to the same odor ("wanting") are affected by variety on a longer time scale, and how they relate to actual food intake. Twenty-five participants rated a coconut odor presented 120 times for its liking and wanting before being offered coconut sweets. The amount eaten was assessed. Individual patterns of change were described by fitting 3 different models to the ratings. To study effects of variety on odor evaluation, the ratings were compared with a previous study where coconut was 1 of 3 odors presented in an alternating way. Initially, both liking and wanting the odors were high, but decreased over repetitions in 75% of the subjects. About 40% of all subjects showed an exponential change of ratings, 40% a step-like change, and 20% a linear change. Food intake was not related to the pattern of change in the ratings. Moreover, decreased olfactory pleasure did not seem to affect eating behavior. However, participants who rated the coconut odor higher at the beginning ate twice as many sweets as the others. Odor variety did not affect the experienced pleasure of smelling (liking), but did affect the motivation to experience the same smell again (wanting). This has not been reported for food or touch stimulation and may be specific for the perception of odors. PMID:26976121

  18. Effect of measures for decreasing radionuclide intake into plants-growing production on pests and diseases of agricultural crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of different methods for decreasing radionuclide intakes into plants-growing production (methods of soil cultivation, effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on soils) on pests are studied on experimental crops of oats, barley, winter rye, winter wheat, pea and flax located in the Chernobyl' NPP zone of population evacuation. Crops are characterized by different levels of contamination by radioactive materials (gamma radiation background amounts to 0.06-2.3 mR/h). Dependences of pest number on doses of applying mineral and organic fertilizers are obtained. Nitrogen is the most important among mineral feeding elements

  19. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E; Wasnich, R D; McClung, M; Bjarnason, N H; Ravn, Pernille; Cizza, G; Daley, M; Yates, A J

    1998-01-01

    intake was recorded, and bone mineral density (BMD) (in the lumbar spine, total body, forearm, and hip) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum total alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide crosslink levels) were measured at baseline and annually thereafter. Women whose...

  20. Increase in energy intake leads to a decrease in obestatin in restricting-type of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, M; Yasuhara, D; Nakahara, T; Harada, T; Koyama, K-I; Ushikai, M; Asakawa, A; Inui, A

    2011-10-01

    Restricting-type of anorexia nervosa (AN-R) is a serious disorder affecting adolescents and young adults, and decreases quality of life over long period. Successful weight restoration is an important prognostic factor for disease outcome; however, the underlying mechanism of refeeding-resistance, a core psychopathology relevant to 'ambivalent' eating behaviors, remains unclear in this disorder. Obestatin plays an important role in the regulation of growth hormone release, appetite, and energy metabolism. However, the progress of these patients and changes in the levels of obestatin during treatment were not reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in obestatin levels when energy intake increases in AN-R patients. As a result, obestatin was higher in AN-R patients than in control subjects as well as acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin. An increase in the intake calorie has decreased obestatin as well as des-acyl ghrelin. These findings indicate that the obestatin is an important factor in the diagnosis and treatment of AN-R, similarly to acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin. In the future, the research on the clinical application of the ghrelin peptide family and the receptor will be expected to progress. PMID:21667437

  1. Calcium intake and breast cancer risk: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Khemayanto; Chen, Guo-Chong; Zhang, Ru; Du, Xuan; Zou, Sheng-Yi; Shi, Bi-Min; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Findings from observational studies have suggested a possible relation between Ca and breast cancer risk. However, the results of these studies are inconclusive, and the dose-response relationship between Ca intake and risk of breast cancer remains to be determined. A meta-analysis of prospective studies was conducted to address these issues. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies concerning the association between Ca intake and breast cancer up to March 2016. The summary relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI were calculated with a random-effects model. The final analysis included eleven prospective cohort studies involving 26 606 cases and 872 895 participants. The overall RR of breast cancer for high v. low intake of Ca was 0·92 (95 % CI 0·85, 0·99), with moderate heterogeneity (P=0·026, I 2=44·2 %). In the subgroup analysis, the inverse association appeared stronger for premenopausal breast cancer (RR 0·75; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·96) than for postmenopausal breast cancer (RR 0·94; 95 % CI 0·87, 1·01). Dose-response analysis revealed that each 300 mg/d increase in Ca intake was associated with 2 % (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·96, 0·99), 8 % (RR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·98) and 2 % (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99) reduction in the risk of total, premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer, respectively. Our findings suggest an inverse dose-response association between Ca intake and risk of breast cancer. PMID:27170091

  2. Desipramine enhances the ability of risperidone to decrease alcohol intake in the Syrian golden hamster

    OpenAIRE

    Gulick, Danielle; Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y.; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I.

    2014-01-01

    The atypical antipsychotic clozapine reduces alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia. We have proposed that clozapine’s ability to decrease alcohol drinking relates to its weak blockade of the dopamine D2 receptor and potent blockade of the norepinephrine α-2 receptor, as well as its ability to elevate plasma and brain norepinephrine. Another atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, which is a potent blocker of both the dopamine D2 receptor and norepinephrine α-2 receptor, does not decrea...

  3. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake

    OpenAIRE

    AllisonM.J.Anacker

    2013-01-01

    Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol) abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a). Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored ...

  4. Desipramine enhances the ability of risperidone to decrease alcohol intake in the Syrian golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Danielle; Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I

    2014-08-30

    The atypical antipsychotic clozapine reduces alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia. We have proposed that clozapine׳s ability to decrease alcohol drinking relates to its weak blockade of the dopamine D2 receptor and potent blockade of the norepinephrine α-2 receptor, as well as its ability to elevate plasma and brain norepinephrine. Another atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, which is a potent blocker of both the dopamine D2 receptor and norepinephrine α-2 receptor, does not decrease alcohol drinking. In this study, we used the Syrian golden hamster to test whether the ability of risperidone to reduce alcohol drinking would be enhanced if it was used in combination with the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine. Hamsters were given free access to water and alcohol (15% v/v) until they reached a steady drinking baseline. They were then treated daily with each drug or drug combination for 20 days. Risperidone (0.2mg/kg) only transiently decreased alcohol drinking. However, 5.0mg/kg, and possibly 1.0mg/kg, desipramine added to 0.2mg/kg risperidone appeared to produce a more substantial and relatively sustained effect than risperidone alone. Data from this study provide leads toward the development of new treatments for patients with schizophrenia and alcoholism, and also for those with alcoholism alone. PMID:24836200

  5. Decreased renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase activity in calcium oxalate calculi patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊汇; 刘继红; 章咏裳; 叶章群; 王少刚

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the activity of vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis compared with healthy individuals and to assess its relationship to the renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Methods Renal parenchymas were harvested from urolithic patients and renal tumor patients undergoing nephrectomy. The renal carboxylase activity was evaluated as the radioactivity of [14C] labeled sodium bicarbonate in carboxylic reactions in vitro using β-liquid scintillation counting. Results Significantly reduced activity of renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase was observed in the urolithic group as compared with normal controls (P<0.01). Conclusion It suggests that the reduced carboxylase activity observed in the urolithic patients may play an important role in the course of renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

  6. Dietary nano-chromium tripicolinate increases feed intake and decreases plasma cortisol in finisher gilts during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Alex Tsungyu; Leury, Brian Joseph; Sabin, Matthew Allen; Collins, Cherie Louise; Dunshea, Frank Rowland

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) is an essential mineral element and has been used in pig diets to improve growth performance, insulin sensitivity, immune response and carcase traits and to reduce heat or other stress responses. The aims of thiss study were to determine the impact of nano-sized chromium tripicolinate (nCrPic) on growth performance, feed efficiency and carcase characteristics of finisher gilts during the summer period. A total of 60 finisher Large White x Landrace gilts were stratified on initial weight and then within strata randomly allocated into two treatment groups in three replicates during mid-summer for 28 days. All pigs were housed in individual pens and had ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were fed either a control finisher diet (wheat-based diet containing 13.8 MJ digestible energy (DE) per kilogram and 0.56 g available lysine/MJ DE) or a control diet containing 400 ppb Cr as nCrPic. Dietary nCrPic supplementation increased feed intake by 6 % over the entire study (P = 0.05). In particular, dietary nCrPic increased average daily feed intake (ADFI) by 8 % (P = 0.02) during the final 2 weeks of the study. Moreover, dietary nCrPic tended to improve average daily feed (ADFI) over the entire study (P = 0.09). However, there were no significant effects of nCrPic on feed conversion ratio (FCR), final weight, hot standard carcase weight (HCWT), P2 depth or dressing percentage. Plasma cortisol was decreased by 25 % (P = 0.06) by dietary nCrPic supplementation. However, there were no effects of nCrPic on plasma glucose, insulin and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), might because of the higher feed intake. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that dietary nCrPic supplementation at 400 ppb can increase feed intake in finisher gilts during mid-summer, suggesting that nCrPic can ameliorate some of the negative effects of heat stress in pigs, possibly via decreased of circulating cortisol. PMID:25267321

  7. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  8. Nutrition education based on health belief model improves dietary calcium intake among female students of junior high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Shakerinejad, Ghodratollah; Lourizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hajinajaf, Saeedeh; Jarvandi, Farzaneh

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a nutrition education programme based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dietary calcium in female students. In this interventional study, 188 students were placed into intervention (95) and control (93) groups. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. Students in both the groups completed KAP and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after two and three months of follow-up respectively. The data were analyzed by independent and paired t-tests. Those who received the intervention were found to have better attitude (p=0.049) and practice (p=0.005) scores compared to the controls. The HBM constructs, including perceived susceptibility (p=0.006), perceived severity (p=0.001), perceived benefits (p=0.002), perceived barriers (p=0.001), and taking health action (p=0.02) scores, were also significantly higher. The findings support the effectiveness of nutrition education based on the HBM in improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice relating to calcium intake among adolescent students. PMID:25395905

  9. Decreased fat mass in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist-deficient mice: impact on adipogenesis, food intake, and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somm, Emmanuel; Henrichot, Elvire; Pernin, Agnès; Juge-Aubry, Cristiana E; Muzzin, Patrick; Dayer, Jean-Michel; Nicklin, Martin J H; Meier, Christoph A

    2005-12-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1 is a regulator of inflammation but is also implicated in the control of energy homeostasis. Because the soluble IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is markedly increased in the serum of obese patients and is overexpressed in white adipose tissue in obesity, we studied the metabolic consequences of genetic IL-1Ra ablation in mice. We have shown that IL-1Ra-/- mice have a lean phenotype due to decreased fat mass, related to a defect in adipogenesis and increased energy expenditure. The adipocytes were smaller in these animals, and the expression of genes involved in adipogenesis was reduced. Energy expenditure as measured by indirect calorimetry was elevated, and weight loss in response to a 24-h fast was increased in IL-1Ra-/- animals compared with wild-type mice. Lipid oxidation of IL-1Ra-/- mice was higher during the light period, reflecting their reduction in diurnal food intake. Interestingly, IL-1Ra-/- and IL-1Ra+/- mice presented an attenuation in high-fat diet-induced caloric hyperphagia, indicating a better adaptation to hypercaloric alimentation, which is in line with the role of IL-1Ra as a mediator of leptin resistance. Taken together, we show that IL-1Ra is an important regulator of adipogenesis, food intake, and energy expenditure. PMID:16306368

  10. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra R. Keast

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008. Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of <1, 1 to <2, or 2+ dairy servings, and yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  11. 膳食钙、骨密度与儿童肥胖相关代谢异常的关系%Effects of dietary calcium intake on bone mineral density and obesity-related metabolic disorders in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮慧娟; 汤庆娅

    2009-01-01

    越来越多研究支持增加钙摄入可减少代谢综合征的发生率,儿童时期的牛奶摄入水平及保持饮用牛奶的习惯与成年后骨密度呈正相关,有助于获得更高的骨峰值.本文总结了膳食钙摄入量对骨密度和儿童肥胖相关代谢异常之间的关系.%More studies have shown that dietary calcium intake can decrease the incidence of metabolic syndrome. Milk consumption in childhood and the habit of milk drinking are positively correlated with bone mineral density in adult-hood. This article summarizes the relationship between dietary calcium and bone mineral density and obesity-related metabolic disorder in children.

  12. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eliminates in urine, feces, and sweat. These include consumption of alcohol- and caffeine-containing beverages as well as intake ... and older 2,000 mg Pregnant and breastfeeding teens 3,000 mg Pregnant and breastfeeding adults 2, ...

  13. 北京老年妇女膳食钙摄入水平与骨量关系%The association between calcium intake bone mass in Beijing older women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶黎; 王翠侠; 刘颖; 左娇蕾; 张倩

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the association between dietary calcium intake and bone mass in Beijing old postmenopausal women.Methods A total of 445 community-dwelling elderly women over 60 years(60 to 86 years old) were selected randomly from 17 communities of 6 blocks in 3 districts in Beijing.Their dietary intake were collected by food frequency questionnaires,and bone mineral density(BMD) at lumber spine,hips,and total body were measured by DXA( Norland XR-46,America).Results The bone mass and the rate of osteoporosis varied in different position, with highest at trochanter as 19.4%.The BMD at hips and trochanter in subjects with dietary calcium intake more than 1000 mg/d were 3.4% and 4.9% higher than those in subjects with lower calcium intake ( P < 0.05 ); their prevalence of osteoporosis at trochanter decreased to 12.7% ( P < 0.05 ) ,with more normal bone mass at this position.No significant effect of calcium intake were observed on bone mass of total body or lumber spine.Conclusion Dietary calcium intake has different effect on variance position.More dietary calcium intake would benefit bone mass at hips.%目的 研究老年妇女在不同膳食钙摄入水平下骨密度变化情况.方法 从北京市3个城区6个街道17个社区中随机选取60岁以上(60~86岁)的老年妇女445人作为研究对象.采用食物频率表调查过去一年的膳食摄入,用双能X线吸收仪(DXA)测定其全身、股骨和腰椎骨密度.结果 我国健康老年妇女不同部位的骨量、骨质疏松的发生率均不同,大转子发生骨质疏松的比例最高,达到19.4%.膳食钙摄人大于1000mg/d的研究对象的髋骨BMD和大转子BMD分别比钙摄入量小于1000mg/d的人高3.4%和4.9%(P<0.05);而大转子BMD诊断为骨质疏松的比例显著下降到12.7%(P<0.05),为"骨量正常"的比例显著增加.未观察到不同膳食钙摄入水平对全身和腰椎骨量的显著影响.结论 膳食钙摄入对不同部分的效果不同,

  14. Aging and calcium as an environmental factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T

    1985-12-01

    Calcium deficiency is a constant menace to land-abiding animals, including mammals. Humans enjoying exceptional longevity on earth are especially susceptible to calcium deficiency in old age. Low calcium and vitamin D intake, short solar exposure, decreased intestinal absorption, and falling renal function with insufficient 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D biosynthesis all contribute to calcium deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss and possibly calcium shift from the bone to soft tissue, and from the extracellular to the intracellular compartment, blunting the sharp concentration gap between these compartments. The consequences of calcium deficiency might thus include not only osteoporosis, but also arteriosclerosis and hypertension due to the increase of calcium in the vascular wall, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and senile dementia due to calcium deposition in the central nervous system, and a decrease in cellular function, because of blunting of the difference in extracellular-intracellular calcium, leading to diabetes mellitus, immune deficiency and others (Fig. 6). PMID:2943880

  15. Neuronal calcium sensor-1 deletion in the mouse decreases motivation and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Enoch; Varaschin, Rafael K; Su, Ping; Browne, Caleb J; Hermainski, Joanna; Le Foll, Bernard; Pongs, Olaf; Liu, Fang; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Roder, John C; Wong, Albert H C

    2016-03-15

    Calcium sensors detect intracellular calcium changes and interact with downstream targets to regulate many functions. Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 (NCS-1) or Frequenin is widely expressed in the nervous system, and involved in neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity and learning. NCS-1 interacts with and regulates dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) internalization and is implicated in disorders like schizophrenia and substance abuse. However, the role of NCS-1 in behaviors dependent on dopamine signaling in the striatum, where D2R is most highly expressed, is unknown. We show that Ncs-1 deletion in the mouse decreases willingness to work for food. Moreover, Ncs-1 knockout mice have significantly lower activity-dependent dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core in acute slice recordings. In contrast, food preference, responding for conditioned reinforcement, ability to represent changes in reward value, and locomotor response to amphetamine are not impaired. These studies identify novel roles for NCS-1 in regulating activity-dependent striatal dopamine release and aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26738968

  16. Advanced age decreases local calcium signaling in endothelium of mouse mesenteric arteries in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, Erika M; Everhart, Jesse E; Segal, Steven S

    2016-05-01

    Aging is associated with vascular dysfunction that impairs tissue perfusion, physical activity, and the quality of life. Calcium signaling in endothelial cells (ECs) is integral to vasomotor control, exemplified by localized Ca(2+) signals within EC projections through holes in the internal elastic lamina (IEL). Within these microdomains, endothelium-derived hyperpolarization is integral to smooth muscle cell (SMC) relaxation via coupling through myoendothelial gap junctions. However, the effects of aging on local EC Ca(2+) signals (and thereby signaling between ECs and SMCs) remain unclear, and these events have not been investigated in vivo. Furthermore, it is unknown whether aging affects either the number or the size of IEL holes. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that local EC Ca(2+) signaling is impaired with advanced age along with a reduction in IEL holes. In anesthetized mice expressing a Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent protein (GCaMP2) selectively in ECs, our findings illustrate that for mesenteric arteries controlling splanchnic blood flow the frequency of spontaneous local Ca(2+) signals in ECs was reduced by ∼85% in old (24-26 mo) vs. young (3-6 mo) animals. At the same time, the number (and total area) of holes per square millimeter of IEL was reduced by ∼40%. We suggest that diminished signaling between ECs and SMCs contributes to dysfunction of resistance arteries with advanced age.Listen to this article's corresponding podcast at http://ajpheart.podbean.com/e/aging-impairs-endothelial-ca2-signaling/. PMID:26945073

  17. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS, DAIRY PRODUCTS AND CALCIUM INTAKES ON RISK FACTORS OF OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION IN FEMALE STUDENTS OF ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY OF DAMAVAND, IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Marya Rehmani Ghobadi; Rastegar Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intak...

  18. Bupivacaine-induced Vasodilation Is Mediated by Decreased Calcium Sensitization in Isolated Endothelium-denuded Rat Aortas Precontracted with Phenylephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Seong Ho; Bae, Sung Il; Kwon, Seong Chun; Park, Jung Chul; Kim, Woo Chan; Park, Kyeong Eon; Shin, Il Woo; Lee, Heon Keun; Chung, Young Kyun; Choi, Mun Jeoung

    2014-01-01

    Background A toxic dose of bupivacaine produces vasodilation in isolated aortas. The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the cellular mechanism associated with bupivacaine-induced vasodilation in isolated endotheliumdenuded rat aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. Methods Isolated endothelium-denuded rat aortas were suspended for isometric tension recordings. The effects of nifedipine, verapamil, iberiotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, barium chloride, and glibenclamide on bupivacaine concentration-response curves were assessed in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. The effect of phenylephrine and KCl used for precontraction on bupivacaine-induced concentration-response curves was assessed. The effects of verapamil on phenylephrine concentration-response curves were assessed. The effects of bupivacaine on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension in aortas precontracted with phenylephrine were measured simultaneously with the acetoxymethyl ester of a fura-2-loaded aortic strip. Results Pretreatment with potassium channel inhibitors had no effect on bupivacaine-induced relaxation in the endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine, whereas verapamil or nifedipine attenuated bupivacaine-induced relaxation. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced relaxation was enhanced in the 100 mM KCl-induced precontracted aortas compared with the phenylephrine-induced precontracted aortas. Verapamil attenuated the phenylephrine-induced contraction. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced relaxation was higher than that of the bupivacaine-induced [Ca2+]i decrease in the aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that toxic-dose bupivacaine-induced vasodilation appears to be mediated by decreased calcium sensitization in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. In addition, potassium channel inhibitors had no effect on bupivacaine-induced relaxation

  19. Inhibitory effects on bone resorption in postmenopausal osteoporosis model mice by delivery of serum calcium decreasing factor (caldecrin) gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is a common condition in which decrease in the bone volume and strength occurs due to increased bone resorption. Caldecrin is a serine protease, with a molecular weight of 28kDa, and it is the causative factor of hypocalcemia frequently seen in acute pancreatitis. Recent reports have shown that caldecrin also acts to inhibit both differentiation of the osteoclasts and function of the mature osteoclasts. In this study, the osteoporosis model mice were used and bilateral ovariectomy was conducted in these mice. Effect of bone absorption was estimated after introducing genetically the pCaldecrin-IRES-hrGFP expressing vector into the femoral muscle by use of the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-liposomes. After the bilateral ovariectomy, serum calcium levels were raised and the bone mass of the femur was decreased. However, in the genetically introduced groups of the model mice, serum calcium levels were significantly lowered. Concomitantly, significant increase in bone density, trabecular width and number of trabecular was observed. Moreover, based on the histological findings, inhibition of bone resorption in the caldecrin-introduced osteoporosis model mice was confirmed. The present study indicates that caldecrin can be expected to become a novel cure for osteoporosis. (author)

  20. Ascertaining the Impact of the 2000 USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the Intake of Calories, Caffeine, Calcium, and Vitamin C from At-Home Consumption of Nonalcoholic Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmasena, Senarath; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Clauson, Annette L.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most pressing and widely emphasized health problems in America today. Beverage choices made by households have impacts on determining the intake of calories, calcium, caffeine, and vitamin C. Using data from the Nielsen Homescan Panel over the period 1998–2003, and a two-way random-effects Fuller-Battese error components procedure, we estimate econometric models to examine economic and demographic factors affecting per-capita daily intake of calories, calcium, caffeine...

  1. Habitual Dietary Isoflavone Intake Is Associated with Decreased C-Reactive Protein Concentrations among Healthy Premenopausal Women12

    OpenAIRE

    Filiberto, Amanda C.; Mumford, Sunni L; Anna Z Pollack; Zhang, Cuilin; Yeung, Edwina H.; Perkins, Neil J.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2013-01-01

    Isoflavones have been associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk, but existing research focused on very high isoflavone intakes, as seen in Asian populations, as well as on risk factor reductions primarily in postmenopausal women. We investigated whether habitual low isoflavone intake among premenopausal women was associated with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, a commonly used biomarker associated with prediction of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy women. Between 20...

  2. Novel Genetic Loci Control Calcium Absorption and Femur Bone Mass as Well as Their Response to Low Calcium Intake in Male BXD Recombinant Inbred Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Fernandez, Perla C; Replogle, Rebecca A; Wang, Libo; Zhang, Min; Fleet, James C

    2016-05-01

    Low dietary calcium (Ca) intake during growth limits peak bone mass but physiological adaptation can prevent this adverse effect. To assess the genetic control on the physiologic response to dietary Ca restriction (RCR), we conducted a study in 51 BXD lines fed either 0.5% (basal) or 0.25% (low) Ca diets from ages 4 to 12 weeks (n = 8/line/diet). Ca absorption (CaAbs), femur bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were examined. ANCOVA with body size as covariate was used to detect significant line and diet main effects, and line-by-diet interactions. Body size-corrected residuals were used for linkage mapping and to estimate heritability (h(2) ). Loci controlling the phenotypes were identified using composite interval mapping on each diet and for the RCR. h(2) of basal phenotypes (0.37-0.43) and their RCR (0.32-0.38) was moderate. For each phenotype, we identified multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) on each diet and for the RCR. Several loci affected multiple traits: Chr 1 (88.3-90.6 cM, CaAbs, BMC), Chr 4 (45.8-49.2 cM, CaAbs, BMD, BMC), Chr 8 (28.6-31.6 cM, CaAbs, BMD, RCR), and Chr 15 (13.6-24 cM, BMD, BMC; 32.3-36 cM, CaAbs RCR, BMD). This suggests that gene clusters may regulate interdependent bone-related phenotypes. Using in silico expression QTL (eQTL) mapping and bioinformatic tools, we identified novel candidates for the regulation of bone under Ca stress (Ext1, Deptor), and for the first time, we report genes modulating Ca absorption (Inadl, Sc4mol, Sh3rf1, and Dennd3), and both Ca and bone metabolism (Tceanc2, Tll1, and Aadat). Our data reveal gene-by-diet interactions and the existence of novel relationships between bone and Ca metabolism during growth. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26636428

  3. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, C R; Thomas, A D; Elmore, S E; Romoser, A A; Harvey, R B; Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Phillips, T D

    2016-02-01

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 114±14d in milk and weighed 533±56kg were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin square to test the efficacy of a calcium montmorillonite clay, NovaSil Plus (NSP; BASF Corp., Ludwigshaven, Germany), for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were housed in a freestall barn, fed once a day and milked twice a day. The experiment consisted of five 14-d periods: d 1 through 7 were considered for data collection, and d 8 through 14 were considered a wash-out phase. In each period, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: (1) control (CON), consisting of a basal total mixed ration (TMR); (2) high-dose NSP diet (NSP-1%), consisting of TMR plus 230 g of NSP; (3) aflatoxin diet (AFD), consisting of the TMR plus AF challenge; (4) low-dose NSP with AF (NSP-0.5%+AFD), composed of TMR plus 115 g of NSP and AF challenge; and (5) high-dose NSP with AF (NSP-1%+AFD), consisting of TMR plus 230 g of NSP and AF challenge. The AF challenge consisted of top dressing a daily dose of 100 µg/kg estimated dry matter intake (DMI); similarly, NSP was fed at 1.0 or 0.5% of estimated DMI. Milk yield and DMI were similar across treatments averaging 21.1±1.33 kg/d and 19.7±0.56 kg/d, respectively. Concentration of milk fat, protein, and lactose were similar across treatments with averages of 4.91±0.20%, 3.85±0.10%, and 4.70±0.06%, respectively. Concentration of vitamin A averaged 0.28±0.03 µg/mL and riboflavin concentration averaged 1.57±0.13 µg/mL across treatments. The concentration of minerals in milk were similar for all treatments. Cows fed CON and NSP-1% yielded the lowest concentration of AFM1 in milk with 0.03 and 0.01±0.06 µg/L. Addition of NSP reduced milk AFM1 from 1.10±0.06 µg/L with the AF diet to 0.58 and 0.32±0.06 µg/L with the NSP-0.5%+AF and NSP-1%+AF diets, respectively. Excretion of AFM1 was reduced by NSP; mean values were 24.38, 11

  4. Bone metabolism in postmenopausal women and effect of calcium intake on their fracture risk%绝经后妇女的骨代谢及钙摄入对骨折风险的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏代敏; 郁琦

    2011-01-01

    绝经后妇女一方面由于骨转化速率加快,矿化不足,骨矿含量降低;另一方面由于需要矿化的骨基质增加,导致机体对钙的需求量增加。同时,由于雌激素水平降低,导致肠道对钙的吸收能力及肾脏对钙的重吸收能力降低,导致钙吸收降低而排泄增加。因此,保证充足钙摄入对维持绝经后妇女骨骼结构具有重要意义。目前各国制定的钙参考摄入量不同。我国2000年制定的50岁以上妇女的适宜摄入量为元素钙1000 mg/d。增加饮食来源钙摄入是最佳的预防骨质疏松的方法。钙剂补充对增加绝经后妇女骨密度具有一定的有利作用,但对骨折风险的影响尚缺乏一致性的结论,对心血管疾病的影响尚不明确。目前的证据表明:联合补充钙剂与维生素D不增加心血管疾病的风险。%The rate of bone turnover in postmenopausal women accelerates and the newly formed osteoid is poorly mineralized, resulting in the loss of bone mineral content. Meanwhile, the requirement for calcium increases as more bone matrix needs to be mineralized. On the other hand, the reduction of serum estrogen level impairs the absorption of calcium in intestinal tract and the reabsorption in kidney, resulting in the decreased absorption and increased excretion of calcium. Therefore, sufficient calcium intake is critical for maintaining the bone structure in postmenopausal women. The reference intake of calcium differs greatly among different countries. In 2000, China established the adequate intake of calcium for Chinese women aged 50 years and older as 1000 mg/d. Diets provide the optimal source of calcium to prevent osteoporosis. Although calcium supplements have been demonstrated to be beneficial for the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, its impact on fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases remains controversial. Available evidences suggest that calcium supplements combined with vitamin

  5. Oral administration of O-2 lean, an anti-obesity herbal composition increased 5-HT metabolism, decreased food intake and body weight in overweight rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeding behavior is complex processes controlled by the neruroendocrine system.5-HT play an important role in regulation of energy balance by suppressing food intake. Depletion of brain serotonin increase feeding behavior and develop obesity. Many serotoninergic compounds are available in market for the management of body weight. 02-Lean is an anti-obesity herbal formulation prepared by combination of different herbs. Oral administration of aqueous suspension of 02-Lean caused a significant decrease in body weight, food intake, and increase in whole brain 5-HT 5HIAA, tryptophan and plasma tryptophan in over weight rats treated with 0.096g/2ml 02-Lean in comparison to control group. (author)

  6. Cálcio dietético: estratégias para otimizar o consumo Dietary calcium: strategies to optimize intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle A. P. Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O cálcio é um nutriente essencial necessário em diversas funções biológicas. Estudos têm demonstrado a associação entre o baixo consumo de cálcio e doenças crônicas, entre elas osteoporose, câncer de colón, hipertensão arterial e obesidade. Entretanto, grande parte da população brasileira apresenta consumo de cálcio abaixo do recomendado. Este artigo objetiva revisar os fatores endógenos (idade e estado hormonal e exógenos (fitatos, oxalatos, sódio, compostos bioativos e vitamina D que influenciam a absorção do cálcio, bem como as principais metodologias utilizadas para avaliar a absorção e biodisponibilidade desse nutriente. Discorre-se sobre os possíveis fatores para o baixo consumo de cálcio: 1 Hábito alimentar - substituição de leite por bebidas com baixo teor de cálcio como o refrigerante, refeições realizadas fora de casa e a não realização de refeições como o café da manhã; 2 Alto custo dos alimentos fontes de cálcio. Além disso, este artigo discute as estratégias para otimizar o consumo do cálcio, que incluem: 1 Aumentar o conhecimento sobre a importância do consumo de cálcio para a saúde e as principais fontes alimentares desse nutriente; 2 Aumentar a disponibilidade de alimentos fortificados com cálcio; 3 Uso de suplementos em grupos específicos - quando e como administrar os sais de cálcio.Calcium is an essential nutrient required for numerous biological functions. Studies have demonstrated an association between low calcium intake and chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis, colon cancer, hypertension, and obesity. However, most Brazilians do not meet the adequate intake for calcium. This review focuses on the endogenous (age, hormonal state and exogenous (phytate, oxalate, sodium, bioactive compounds and vitamin D factors that can influence calcium absorption. The main methods used for evaluating calcium absorption and bioavailability. The potential factors for the low calcium intake

  7. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. PMID:26538176

  8. Fruit juice consumption decreases the proportion of children with inadequate intakes of key nutrients: NHANES 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has been under scrutiny despite its nutrient profile. NHANES (2003–2006) data were used to compare the proportion of children ages 2–18 years with intakes of selected vitamins/minerals below recommended levels among consumers (n = 3,976; 51% females) and non-consumers (n...

  9. Intake of dairy products, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in childhood and age at menarche in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and phosphorus (P with menarcheal age were also examined. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes. RESULTS: The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.03-5.05], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.39-7.42], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12-5.27] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.44-7.87 after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1. Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche.

  10. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Keast, Debra R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Albertson, Ann M.; Gugger, Carolyn K; Norton M. Holschuh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of <1, 1 to <2, or 2+ dairy servings, and yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt du...

  11. Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Clare L; Williams, Patricia A.; Dalby, Matthew J; Garden, Karen; Lynn M. Thomson; Richardson, Anthony J.; Gratz, Silvia W.; Ross, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insolubl...

  12. PF-05231023, a long-acting FGF21 analogue, decreases body weight by reduction of food intake in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W Clayton; Zhou, Yingjiang; Talukdar, Saswata; Musante, Cynthia J

    2016-08-01

    PF-05231023, a long-acting FGF21 analogue, is a promising potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of obesity and associated comorbidities. Previous studies have shown the potential of FGF21 and FGF21-like compounds to decrease body weight in mice, non-human primates, and humans; the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. In particular, there have been conflicting reports on the degree to which FGF21-induced weight loss in non-human primates is attributable to a decrease in food intake versus an increase in energy expenditure. Here, we present a semi-mechanistic mathematical model of energy balance and body composition developed from similar work in mice. This model links PF-05231023 administration and washout to changes in food intake, which in turn drives changes in body weight. The model is calibrated to and compared with recently published data from cynomolgus macaques treated with PF-05231023, demonstrating its accuracy in describing pharmacotherapy-induced weight loss in these animals. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that PF-05231023 decreases body weight in cynomolgus macaques solely by a reduction in food intake, with no direct effect on energy expenditure. PMID:27405817

  13. Decreasing maternal nutrient intake during the final third of pregnancy in previously overnourished adolescent sheep: effects on maternal nutrient partitioning and feto-placental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmer, D A; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Johnson, M L; Borowicz, P P; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Wallace, J M

    2012-02-01

    When pregnant adolescent sheep are overnourished during pregnancy normal nutrient partitioning priorities to the gravid uterus are altered, leading to impaired placental development and fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that decreasing dietary intake in overnourished dams during the final third of gestation may reverse this inappropriate nutrient partitioning in favor of the fetus. Adolescent ewes were offered control (C; n = 12) or high (H; n = 20) dietary intakes to induce normal vs. compromised placental development. Ten ewes receiving the H intake were switched to a low intake at d90 of gestation (HL). Between d90 to 130, HL dams lost weight and adiposity, and metabolic hormones and glucose at d130 were less than H and similar to C. In spite of these maternal changes, at d130 fetal bodyweight was equivalent in HL and H groups and ∼20% less than in C. A greater degree of brain sparing was evident in HL fetuses and glucose and insulin concentrations were more perturbed than in H fetuses. Relative to C, placentome weight was reduced by 46 and 32% in H and HL and the fetal:placentome weight ratio was H > HL > C. Placental vascular morphology was largely unaffected by maternal diet during late gestation but mRNA expression of five angiogenic genes was up-regulated in the fetal cotyledon of HL pregnancies, commensurate with blood vessel remodeling. Nevertheless, overfeeding to promote maternal anabolic growth during adolescent pregnancy impairs feto-placental development that cannot be rescued by reducing maternal intake during the final third of gestation. PMID:22154692

  14. Lack of association of dairy food, calcium, and vitamin D intake with the risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Fukushima, W; Sasaki, S; Kiyohara, C; Tsuboi, Y; Yamada, T; Oeda, T; Miki, T; Kawamura, N; Sakae, N; Fukuyama, H; Hirota, Y; Nagai, M

    2011-02-01

    Three previous cohort studies in the USA reported that dairy product consumption was significantly associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in men, but not in women. We examined the relationship between consumption of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and the risk of PD using data from a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Japan. Included were 249 cases within 6 years of onset of PD based on the UK PD Society Brain Bank clinical diagnostic criteria. Controls were 368 inpatients and outpatients without a neurodegenerative disease. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for sex, age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, years of education, body mass index, and dietary factors including cholesterol, dietary glycemic index, vitamin E, β-carotene, vitamin B(6), caffeine, iron, and alcohol. Total dairy product consumption was not materially associated with the risk of PD (P for trend = 0.62). No evident relationships were observed between intake of milk, yogurt, cheese, or ice cream and the risk of PD (P for trend = 0.75, 0.63, 0.59, and 0.35, respectively). There were no measurable associations between consumption of calcium or vitamin D and PD (P for trend = 0.37 and 0.69, respectively). No significant interactions were observed between the dietary exposures and sex regarding PD. Our results suggest that intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D was not related to PD, regardless of sex. However, such null relationships might be a consequence of PD. PMID:21169048

  15. High-dose green tea polyphenol intake decreases CYP3A expression in a liver-specific manner with increases in blood substrate drug concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Ogawa, Sosuke; Hirobe, Ryuta; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Kon, Risako; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2016-06-30

    In recent years, the intake of functional foods containing high-doses of green tea polyphenols (GP) has been increasing. In this study, the long-term safety of high-dose GP was assessed from a pharmacokinetic point of view by focusing on the drug-metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 (CYP). Mice were fed a diet containing 3% GP for 4weeks, and the CYP expression levels and activity were determined. The GP-treated group showed a significant decrease in the hepatic CYP3A and an increase in the hepatic CYP2C expression compared with the control group. CYP1A, CYP2D, and CYP2E expression were not different between the GP-treated and the control groups. In the small intestine, there were no differences in the CYP3A protein levels between the groups. The increase in the plasma triazolam concentration in the GP-treated group was observed. Although no changes were found in the hepatic CYP3A levels in mice receiving a diet containing 0.1% GP for 4weeks, a significant decrease was seen in the hepatic CYP3A level in mice receiving a diet containing 3% GP for only 1week. This study revealed that the intake of a high-dose GP results in a liver-specific decrease in the CYP3A expression level. The results also indicated that the effects of GP on CYP3A were not observed following the intake of a low-dose GP. In the future, caution should be taken in cases when functional foods containing a high-dose GP are concomitantly consumed with a CYP3A substrate drug. PMID:27130545

  16. Potato chip intake increases ascorbic acid levels and decreases reactive oxygen species in SMP30/GNL knockout mouse tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Sakuma, Rui; Ichisawa, Megumi; Ishihara, Katsuyuki; Kubo, Misako; Handa, Setsuko; Mugita, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Naoki; Koga, Hidenori; Ishigami, Akihito

    2014-09-24

    Potato chips (PC) contain abundant amounts of the free radical scavenger ascorbic acid (AA) due to the rapid dehydration of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) that occurs during frying. To evaluate the antioxidant activity of PC, this study examined reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in tissues from SMP30/GNL knockout (KO) mice that cannot synthesize AA and determined AA and ROS levels after the animals were fed 20 and 10% PC diets for 7 weeks. Compared with AA-sufficient mice, AA-depleted SMP30/GNL KO mice showed high ROS levels in tissues. SMP30/GNL KO mice fed a PC diet showed high AA and low ROS levels in the brain, heart, lung, testis, soleus muscle, plantaris muscle, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, eyeball, and epididymal fat compared with AA-depleted mice. The data suggest that PC intake increases AA levels and enhances ROS scavenging activity in tissues of SMP30/GNL KO mice, which are a promising model for evaluating the antioxidant activity of foods. PMID:25180784

  17. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Maresz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate calcium intake can lead to decreased bone mineral density, which can increase the risk of bone fractures. Supplemental calcium promotes bone mineral density and strength and can prevent osteoporosis. Recent scientific evidence, however, suggests that elevated consumption of calcium supplements may raise the risk for heart disease and can be connected with accelerated deposit of calcium in blood-vessel walls and soft tissues. In contrast, vitamin K2 is associated with the inhibition...

  18. Intake of 226 Ra in osteoporosis prevention and therapy with gran-white dolomite as calcium supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 226 Ra average specific activity of 4.3 Bq.kg-1 was determined by passive high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in six samples of 'Gran White' dolomite. The committed effective dose and committed equivalent dose at bone surface were calculated through the Ana Comp code, using 226 Ra intake and radium metabolic model from ICRP 67. The doses were calculated for patients submitted to osteoporosis prevention and osteoporosis therapy. (author)

  19. Nutrition Education Based on Health Belief Model Improves Dietary Calcium Intake among Female Students of Junior High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Shakerinejad, Ghodratollah; Lourizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hajinajaf, Saeedeh; Jarvandi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study examined the effects of a nutrition education programme based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dietary calcium in female students. In this interventional study, 188 students were placed into intervention (95) and control (93) groups. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. Students in both the groups completed KAP and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after two and three months o...

  20. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation alters central leptin signalling, increases food intake, and decreases bone mass in 1 year old rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Pontiggia, Laura; D'mello, Anil P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of perinatal nutrition on offspring physiology have mostly been examined in young adult animals. Aging constitutes a risk factor for the progressive loss of metabolic flexibility and development of disease. Few studies have examined whether the phenotype programmed by perinatal nutrition persists in aging offspring. Persistence of detrimental phenotypes and their accumulative metabolic effects are important for disease causality. This study determined the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on food consumption, central leptin sensitivity, bone health, and susceptibility to high fat diet-induced adiposity in 1-year-old male offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a protein restricted diet throughout pregnancy and lactation and pups were weaned onto laboratory chow. One-year-old low protein (LP) offspring exhibited hyperphagia. The inability of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin injection to reduce food intake indicated that the hyperphagia was mediated by decreased central leptin sensitivity. Hyperphagia was accompanied by lower body weight suggesting increased energy expenditure in LP offspring. Bone density and bone mineral content that are negatively regulated by leptin acting via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), were decreased in LP offspring. LP offspring did not exhibit increased susceptibility to high fat diet induced metabolic effects or adiposity. The results presented here indicate that the programming effects of perinatal protein restriction are mediated by specific decreases in central leptin signalling to pathways involved in the regulation of food intake along with possible enhancement of different CNS leptin signalling pathways acting via the SNS to regulate bone mass and energy expenditure. PMID:26763577

  1. Calcium-induced cation ordering and large resistivity decrease in Pr0.3CoO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázda, Petr; Palatinus, Lukáš; Drahokoupil, Jan; Knížek, Karel; Buršík, Josef

    2016-09-01

    Structure of layered cobaltates Pr0.3CoO2 and (PrCa)0.3CoO2 were investigated by electron diffraction tomography and powder X-ray diffraction. The effect of the calcium substitution on thermoelectric properties was evaluated. The structure consists of hexagonal sheets of edge-sharing CoO6 octahedra interleaved by cationic monolayers. The cations form a 2-dimensional a√3×a√3 superstructure in the a-b plane. While Pr0.3CoO2 showed no layer order in the [001] direction, introduction of calcium resulted in the formation of a superstructure spanning over six cationic layers along the [001]. This superstructure model appears to be valid also for the description of the superstructures of CaxCoO2 and SrxCoO2 with x about 1/3. Thanks to the increased number of charge carriers, the substitution of Ca2+ for Pr3+ significantly lowers the electric resistivity, while keeping quite high thermopower around 100 μV K-1, though the character of resistivity remained semiconducting.

  2. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagatomo A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Akifumi Nagatomo,1 Norihisa Nishida,1 Ikuo Fukuhara,2 Akira Noro,3 Yoshimichi Kozai,3 Hisao Sato,3 Yoichi Matsuura1 1Research and Development Division, Morishita Jintan Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 2Fukuhara Clinic, Hokkaido, Japan; 3New Drug Research Center, Inc., Hokkaido, Japan Background: Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent antiobesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods: We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results: Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01 after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05. In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion: These results

  3. Estudio nutricional para evaluar el aporte de calcio sobre la dieta de una leche fermentada enriquecida en calcio y vitamina D (Densia® en mujeres postmenopáusicas Nutritional trial to evaluate calcium intake in postmenopausic women on a diet of fermented milk enriched in calcium and vitamin D (Densia®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª E. González Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el aporte de calcio sobre la dieta de una unidad de leche fermentada enriquecida en Calcio y vitamina D sobre los niveles diarios de ingesta de Calcio en mujeres postmenopáusicas. Población del estudio: 261 mujeres postmenopáusicas. Método: Estudio nutricional exploratorio de 28 días de duración. A los individuos de la muestra se les proporcionó recomendaciones dietéticas para aumentar el aporte de calcio en la dieta y pautas de ejercicio físico junto con una unidad diaria de leche fermentada enriquecida en Calcio y vitamina D (Densia® que consumieron diariamente durante los 28 días de duración del estudio. Se valoró la ingesta dietética de calcio pre y post intervención mediante encuesta dietética. Resultados: La cantidad media en miligramos de Calcio ingerida fue superior después de la intervención frente a la media al inicio del estudio, aumentando incluso el porcentaje de mujeres que llegaban a las recomendaciones diarias de calcio para su franja de edad. Conclusión: El aporte de calcio diario a través de medidas dietéticas y el consumo de una unidad diaria de leche fermentada enriquecida en calcio y vitamina D incrementa el aporte dietético diario de calcio. No obstante, un porcentaje de la muestra seguía presentando valores de aporte diario de calcio por debajo de las recomendaciones dietéticas, indicando la necesidad de adoptar medidas mas intensivas para alcanzar las recomendaciones de ingesta diaria de calcio.Aim: To analyse the calcium contribution of one unit of fermented milk enriched with calcium and vitamin D in the daily calcium intake for postmenoupausic women. Subjects: 261 postmenoupausic women. Methods: 28 day duration of exploratoy, nutritional trial. All subjects received dietary advice on how to increase calcium intake in the daily diet and excercise recommendations with a unit of a fermented milk enriched with calcium and vitamin D (Densia® which was comsumed daily for the 28 day

  4. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, W.L. van; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective: To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of con

  5. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. O'Sullivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01. Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01. Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01, due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health.

  6. Physiological increases in lactate inhibit intracellular calcium transients, acidify myocytes and decrease force in term pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Jacqui-Ann; Weeks, Andrew; Wray, Susan

    2015-10-15

    Lactate is increased in myometrial capillary blood from women in slow or non-progressive labour (dystocia), suggesting that it is detrimental to uterine contractions. There are, however, no studies of the effect of lactate on the myometrium. We therefore investigated its effects and mechanism of action on myometrial strips from term pregnant rats. The effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractility in response to sodium lactate and other weak acids (1-20 mM) were studied. In some experiments, simultaneous force and intracellular Ca(2+) or pH (pH(i)) were measured with Indo-1 or Carboxy-SNARF, respectively. Statistical differences were tested using non-parametric tests. Lactate significantly decreased spontaneous contractility with an EC50 of 3.9 mM. Propionate, butyrate and pyruvate also reduced contractions with similar potency. The effects of lactate were reduced in the presence of oxytocin but remained significant. Lactate decreased pH(i) and nulling the decrease in pH(i) abolished its effects. We also show that lactate inhibited Ca(2+) transients, with these changes mirroring those produced on force. If Ca(2+) entry was enhanced by depolarization (high KCl) or applying the Ca(2+) channel agonist, Bay K 4644, the effects of lactate were abolished. Taken together, these data show that lactate in the physiological range potently decreases myometrial contractility as a result of its inhibition of Ca(2+) transients, which can be attributed to the induced acidification. The present study suggests that the accumulation of extracellular lactate will reduce myometrial contractions and could therefore contribute to labour dystocia. PMID:26223765

  7. Fat intake, diet variety and health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadfa, I; Freisling, H

    2005-01-01

    Different epidemiological studies indicated that the optimization of diet and nutrition combined with healthy life style can decrease the risk and even lead to amelioration of various noncommunicable diseases. Promising food-based dietary guidelines have been recommended in order to improve the nutritional and health status. One of the most popular recommendations is related to the amount (less fat and fat-rich foods) and type of the dietary fat component (less saturated, more polyunsaturated fatty acids, lower n-6:n-3 ratio). An overview on the nutrient intake among different age groups in Austria shows that the general consumption of some food groups--especially those rich in carbohydrates--is too low and that the intake of fat is far beyond the recommended amount of 30% of total energy (E%). The results of the 24-hour recall made among Austrian adults (n = 2,585) showed that about 18% of this population group had a fat intake of 30-35 E%, whereas 60% had an intake higher than 35 E%. Only 24% of the female and male adults had a fat intake lower than 30 E%. A result of this high proportion of fat--in the form of foods rich in fat--in the average total energy consumption is a too low intake of carbohydrates, and foods rich in carbohydrates, respectively. An increasing fat intake is associated with an increasing intake of some nutrients such as vitamin A, E, calcium and zinc, but a decreasing intake of other nutrients like vitamin C, folate, carotenoids and others. The diversity of foods consumed during a day increases with decreasing amount of fat in the diet of adults. People with a high amount of fat in their daily diet show a lower intake of vegetables and fruit, cereal products, carotenoids, folates and dietary fibers, but a higher intake of meat and meat products, milk and milk products, sweets and flummeries as well as saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol. Of course, a higher variety of food items in the daily diet should not be associated with a

  8. Ingesta y fuentes de calcio en una muestra representativa de escolares españoles Food sources and average intake of calcium in a representative sample of Spanish schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Ortega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La adecuación de la ingesta de calcio de la población infantil española ha sido objeto de debate y controversia, pues algunos estudios señalan que puede ser inadecuada en un porcentaje variable de escolares, mientras que algunos documentos insisten en el peligro de una ingesta excesiva en un amplio porcentaje de la población escolar. Objetivos: Valorar la ingesta de calcio y las fuentes alimentarias de este nutriente en una muestra representativa de niños españoles, analizando también la adecuación del aporte a la cobertura de las ingestas recomendadas. Métodos: Se estudiaron 903 escolares (de 7 a 11 años de diez provincias españolas: Tarragona, Cáceres, Burgos, Guadalajara, Valencia, Salamanca, Córdoba, Vizcaya, Lugo y Madrid, que constituyen una muestra representativa de la población española de dicha edad. La ingesta de energía y nutrientes se determinó utilizando un registro del consumo de alimentos durante 3 días, incluyendo un domingo. El aporte de calcio se comparó con las Ingestas Recomendadas (IR marcadas para dicho mineral. Los parámetros antropométricos estudiados fueron el peso y la talla, lo que permitió calcular el índice de masa corporal (IMC. Resultados: En el colectivo estudiado (55,3% de niñas y 44,7% de niños, un 30,7% presentó exceso de peso (sobrepeso-23,3% y obesidad-7,4%. La ingesta de calcio de los niños estudiados (859,9 ± 249,2 mg/día supuso un 79,5% de lo recomendado, observándose la existencia de un 76,7% de niños con ingestas menores de las recomendadas y un 40,1 con ingestas Introduction: There is controversy about the adequacy of calcium intake to that recommended in Spanish schoolchildren. Some studies indicate that the intake is inadequate in a variable percentage of children, while others insist on the danger of an excessive intake in a huge percentage of this population. Aim: To assess calcium intake and food sources of this nutrient in a representative sample of

  9. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo

    OpenAIRE

    Vendl, C; M Clauss; Stewart, M.; Leggett, K.; Hummel, J; Kreuzer, M.; Munn, A

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested...

  10. Increase vs. decrease of calcium uptake by isolated heart cells induced by H2O2 vs. HOCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult rat heart myocytes were labeled rapidly with exogenous [45Ca2+]. Addition of 2.5 mM H2O2 to the heart cell suspension raised the content of rapidly exchangeable intracellular Ca2+ twofold, whereas addition of 1-30 mM HOCl decreased the Ca2+ content. The H2O2-induced increase in Ca2+ content was dependent on the medium Na+, pH, and temperature but was not significantly affected by addition of verapamil, diltiazem, amiloride, or 3-aminobenzamide. The [3H]ouabain binding to myocytes was suppressed by H2O2, whereas the Ca2+ efflux from myocytes was not influenced. An uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, reduced Ca2+ content, implying that the H2O2-induced change in Ca2+ content was not directly related to ATP depletion. On the other hand, the H2O2-induced Ca2+ accumulation in myocytes was prevented by deferoxamine or o-phenanthroline. These results suggest that H2O2 inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase, resulting in an increase in intracellular Na+ concentration and stimulation of sarcolemmal Na+-Ca2+ exchange activity, which caused a transient net Ca2+ influx into myocytes. By contrast, HOCl decreased the Ca2+ content of the rapidly exchangeable pool below control levels and this action of HOCl was antagonized by 1,4-dithiothreitol. HOCl accelerated Ca2+ efflux from myocytes. Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-ATPase of the isolated sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) fraction were highly sensitive to the action of HOCl. Ca2+ uptake by intracellular sites, studied with myocytes permeabilized with digitonin, was inhibited by both H2O2 and HOCl. Thus these results suggest that HOCl inhibits the SR Ca2+ pump, resulting in the observed acceleration of Ca2+ efflux from and decline in Ca2+ content of myocytes

  11. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0 Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A and lower (n = 19, Group B mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001 and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001. Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively. When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg, C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g; nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  12. Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or fish, meat, protein, PUFA, starch and dietary fibre, and a lower diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity. PMID:26568443

  13. Both Longer Oral Sensory Exposure to and Higher Intensity of Saltiness Decrease Ad Libitum Food Intake in Healthy Normal-Weight Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    Orosensory exposure to sweetness has been shown to be important in satiation, whereas the effect of exposure to a salty taste on satiation is not known. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of orosensory exposure time to and intensity of saltiness in soup on ad libitum intake. The sec

  14. Neuropeptide FF analog RF9 is not an antagonist of NPFF receptor and decreases food intake in mice after its central and peripheral administration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maletínská, Lenka; Tichá, Anežka; Nagelová, Veronika; Špolcová, Andrea; Blechová, Miroslava; Elbert, Tomáš; Železná, Blanka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1498, Mar 1 (2013), s. 33-40. ISSN 0006-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/1368 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : PrRP * NPFF * RF9 * Binding * MAPK/ERK1/2phosphorylation * food intake Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.828, year: 2013

  15. Nutrient Intakes and Hair Mineral Contents of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the dietary nutrient intake status and hair mineral content of Korean young children. Methods Fifty-five children who visited Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were divided into three groups by age: infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. The 24-hour recall method was used to collect the food intake data of the subjects. Hair mineral analysis was conducted using a Mass Spectrometer. Serum iron, ferritin, and calcium were also measured. Results The mean energy intakes of the subjects were 730.3 kcal, 994.3 kcal, and 1,482.9 kcal for each age group. The mean percentage of energy intake compared to recommendation was 101.4% and was not different by age group. Toddlers of 37.8% and preschoolers of 54.5% consumed less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of calcium. Infants of 28.6%, toddlers of 10.8% and preschoolers of 9.1% consumed less than the EAR of iron. In the case of zinc, copper, and selenium, only 0% to 5% of toddlers and none of the preschoolers consumed less than the EAR of those minerals. The hair calcium, iron and copper concentrations were lower in toddlers and preschoolers than those in infants. Serum calcium levels of preschoolers were significantly lower than those of infants, whereas serum iron and ferritin levels were not. Conclusion Hair calcium, iron, and copper concentrations were significantly lower in toddlers and preschoolers than in infants. Insufficient dietary intake of calcium and iron seems to be related with decreased hair mineral contents in young children. PMID:27437189

  16. Calcium(II)(3) (3,5-Diisopropylsalicylate)(6)(H(2)O)(6) Activates Nitric Oxide Synthase: An Accounting for its Action in Decreasing Platelet Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, D C; Sorenson, J R

    2000-01-01

    Purposes of these studies were first; to determine whether or not Calcium(II)(3) (3,5- diisopropylsalicylate)(6)(H(2)O)(6) [Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6)], a lipophilic calcium complex, could decrease activated-platelet aggregation, and second; to determine whether or not it is plausible that Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) decreases activated-platelet aggregation by facilitating the synthesis of Nitric Oxide (NO) by Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS). The influence of Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) on the initial rate of activated-platelet aggregation was determined by measuring the decrease in rate of increase in transmission at 550 nm for a suspension of Thrombin-CaCl(2) activated platelets following the addition of 0, 50, 100, 250, or 500 muM Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6). To establish that the Ca(lI)(3)(3,5- DIPS)(6)-mediated decrease in aggregation was due to activation of NOS, the effect of L-NMMA, an inhibitor of NOS, on the inhibition of platelet aggregation by Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) was determined using a suspension of activated platelets contaimng 0 or 250 muM Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) without or with 1 mM L-NMMA. An in vitro Bovine Brain NOS reaction mixture, containing CaCl(2) for the activation of Phosphodiesterase-3' ,5'-Cyclic Nucleotide Activator required for the activation of NOS, was used to determine whether or not Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) could be used as a substitute for the addition of Ca. The decrease in absorbance at 340 nm, lambda maximum for NADPH, was measured to determine NOS activity following the addition of NOS to the complete reaction mixture containing either CaCl(2), Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6), or neither Ca compound. Increasing the concentration of Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) caused a concentration related decrease in activated platelet aggregation. The addition of L-NMMA to activated platelets, in the absence of Ca(II)(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6), caused a 129% increase in initial rate of platelet aggregation. The initial rate of platelet aggregation decreased 74% with the addition of 250 mu

  17. The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: A randomized clinical trial in obese Mexican women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health problem in many poor countries where micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent. A partial meal replacement may be an effective strategy to decrease obesity and increase micronutrient intake in such populations. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a partial meal replacement with and without inulin on weight reduction, blood lipids and micronutrients intake in obese Mexican women. Methods In a randomized controlled clinical trial 144 women (18–50 y with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, were allocated into one of the following treatments during 3 months: 1 Two doses/d of a partial meal replacement (PMR, 2 Two doses/d of PMR with inulin (PMR + I , 3 Two doses/d of 5 g of inulin (INU and 4 Control group (CON. All groups received a low calorie diet (LCD. Weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured every 2 weeks and body composition, lipids and glucose concentration and nutrient intake were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results All groups significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference. Differences between groups were only observed in BMI and weight adjusted changes: At 45 days PMR group lost more weight than INU and CON groups by 0.9 and 1.2Kg, respectively. At 60 days, PMR + I and PMR groups lost more weight than in INU by 0.7 and 1Kg, respectively. Subjects in PMR, PMR + I and INU significantly decreased triglycerides. Energy intake was reduced in all groups. Fiber intake increased in PMR + I and INU groups. Some minerals and vitamins intakes were higher in PMR and PMR + I compared with INU and CON groups. Conclusion Inclusion of PMR with and without inulin to a LCD had no additional effect on weight reduction than a LCD alone but reduced triglycerides and improved intake of micronutrients during caloric restriction. PMR could be a good alternative for obese populations with micronutrient deficiencies. ClinicalTrials.Gov ID

  18. Increased calcium absorption from synthetic stable amorphous calcium carbonate: Double-blind randomized crossover clinical trial in post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium supplementation is a widely recognized strategy for achieving adequate calcium intake. We designed this blinded, randomized, crossover interventional trial to compare the bioavailability of a new stable synthetic amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) with that of crystalline calcium carbonate (C...

  19. Coffee intake can promote activity of antioxidant enzymes with increasing MDA level and decreasing HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jang, Jin-Young; Cho, Youn-OK

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coffee intake and exercise on the antioxidative activity and plasma cholesterol profile of physically trained rats while they were exercising. Forty eight rats were under either the control diet with water (C) or control diet with coffee (CF) and at the same time they were given physical training for 4 weeks. In terms of physical training, the rats were exercised on a treadmill for 30 minutes everyday. At the end of 4 weeks, animals in each dietary group ...

  20. The 2011 Report on Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: What Clinicians Need to Know

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, A. Catharine; JoAnn E Manson; Abrams, Steven A; Aloia, John F; Brannon, Patsy M.; Clinton, Steven K.; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Gallagher, J. Christopher; Gallo, Richard L; Jones, Glenville; Kovacs, Christopher S.; Mayne, Susan T.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Shapses, Sue A

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the new 2011 report on dietary requirements for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine (IOM). An IOM Committee charged with determining the population needs for these nutrients in North America conducted a comprehensive review of the evidence for both skeletal and extraskeletal outcomes. The Committee concluded that available scientific evidence supports a key role of calcium and vitamin D in skeletal health, consistent with a cause-and-effect relationshi...

  1. Repercusiones del consumo de mezclas calentadas de glucosa-lisina y glucosa-metionina sobre el calcio óseo Effects of intake of heated mixtures of glucose-lysine and glucose-methionine on bone calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delgado-Andrade

    2005-02-01

    interfere with mineral bioavailability because of modifications of their physical-chemical moiety in the food or the lumen, disrupting the absorption process or its normal metabolism. In this study, we sought to investigate MRP influence on issues related to Ca bioavailability in vitro and in vivo. Equimolar mixtures of glucose-lysine (GL and glucose-methionine (GM (40% moisture were heated at 150º C for 90 minutes (samples GL90 and GM90, respectively. In vitro solubility was measured by additioning each samples to a 3.75 mM Ca solution at intestinal pH and ionic strength; after shaking and centrifugation, soluble and insoluble calcium was determined. Three percent of GL90 and GM90 were individually added to the AIN93-G diet to obtain D-GL90 and D-GM90 diets. Three Wistar rats groups were fed for 21 days with both diets and with AIN93-G as control, carrying out calcium balance during last week and extirpating various organs after sacrifice. GM90 did not affect calcium solubility; GL90 reduced it slightly, remaining in both cases more than 94% soluble. D-GL90 and D-GM90 did not modify calcium bioavailability, with as effective usage as with the control diet (57.6 ± 1.3%, 57.8 ± 2.3% and 63.9 ± 2.6% in control diet, D-GL90 and D-GM90, respectively. MRP intake produced, however, metabolic changes that decreased bone calcium, accumulating compensatorily in other organs.

  2. 高纤维膳食对降低结直肠癌发病风险的作用%The Effect of High Dietary Fiber Intake on Decrease of Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑜元

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer( CRC)increases rapidly in recent years. The role of dietary structure in CRC pathogenesis has caught much attention. This review summarizes the relationship between dietary fiber intake and risk of CRC. Accumulating evidence reveals that up to 90% CRC can be prevented by improvement of dietary structure,and high fiber intake(10-35 g/d)decreases 10%-17% of risk of CRC. All kinds of dietary fiber have preventive effect. So far, dietary fiber intake in Chinese people does not reach the recommended level. Optimization of dietary structure,increase intake of whole grains,vegetable and fruit,addition of fiber to daily food are effective approaches for prevention of CRC.%近年我国结直肠癌( CRC)发病率呈快速升高趋势,饮食结构在其发病中的作用备受关注。本文阐述膳食纤维与CRC的发病关系。资料显示,近90%的CRC可通过合理的饮食加以预防,坚持高纤维膳食(10~35 g/d)人群的CRC发病风险下降10%~17%,各种食物的纤维均有预防作用。目前国人膳食纤维摄入量低于推荐量,调整饮食结构,推广粗粮,多吃蔬果,在传统食品中添加纤维是预防CRC的有效措施。

  3. Calcium ionophore A23187 specifically decreases the secretion of beta-secretase cleaved amyloid precursor protein during apoptosis in primary rat cortical cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, K; Benedikz, Eirikur; Fastbom, J;

    2001-01-01

    - and gamma-secretase cleavage. Alternatively, APP may be cleaved within the A beta region by alpha-secretase, preventing A beta formation. Here we investigated APP processing and secretion in primary neurons, using either colchicine or the calcium ionophore A23187 to induce apoptosis. Cell viability...

  4. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Tavares da Silva; Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa; Frederico Souzalima Caldoncelli Franco; Antônio José Natali

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40) were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day). The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages a...

  5. Intakes of vegetables and related nutrients such as vitamin B complex, potassium, and calcium, are negatively correlated with risk of stroke in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yongsoon

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with a reduced risk of stroke, but it is unclear whether their protective effects are due to antioxidant vitamins or folate and metabolically related B vitamins. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that intake of fruits and vegetables, which are major sources of antioxidant and vitamin B complex vitamins, reduces the risk of stroke. Cases consisted of patients diagnosed with first event of stroke (n = 69). Controls (n = 69) we...

  6. Vitamin D status is associated with sun exposure, vitamin D and calcium intake, acculturation and attitudes in immigrant East Asian women living in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Kaye E; Ke, Liang; Tseng, Marilyn; Clemson, Lindy; Koo, Fung K; Jang, Haeyoung; Seibel, Markus J; Mpofu, Elias; Fraser, David R; Mason, Rebecca S

    2013-07-01

    Known determinants of vitamin D status (measured in serum as 25(OH)Dnmol/L) are exposure to sunlight and intake of vitamin D, either from foods or vitamin supplements. Recently, low vitamin D status in East Asian Australian immigrants has been reported. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate associations with vitamin D status in East Asian Australian immigrant women. In this cross-sectional study of women (n=152 aged 18-92), 25(OH)D levels were measured from serum samples (radio-immuno assay). Demographics, sun exposure patterns, dietary intake and acculturation factors were obtained by questionnaire. In spring, 53% of the study population had serum 25(OH)D levels Australian lifestyle. After multivariate adjustment, those who had no intake of vitamin D supplements (OR=5.6, CI=1.4-22), less sunlight exposure on weekends (OR=2.7, CI=1.0-7.3) and lower acculturation to Australian lifestyle (OR=2.5, CI=1.0-6.3) had increased risk of being deficient in vitamin D. Thus there is a need for vitamin D education in this "at-risk" population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:23262263

  7. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresz, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    Inadequate calcium intake can lead to decreased bone mineral density, which can increase the risk of bone fractures. Supplemental calcium promotes bone mineral density and strength and can prevent osteoporosis. Recent scientific evidence, however, suggests that elevated consumption of calcium supplements may raise the risk for heart disease and can be connected with accelerated deposit of calcium in blood-vessel walls and soft tissues. In contrast, vitamin K2 is associated with the inhibition of arterial calcification and arterial stiffening. An adequate intake of vitamin K2 has been shown to lower the risk of vascular damage because it activates matrix GLA protein (MGP), which inhibits the deposits of calcium on the walls. Vitamin K, particularly as vitamin K2, is nearly nonexistent in junk food, with little being consumed even in a healthy Western diet. Vitamin K deficiency results in inadequate activation of MGP, which greatly impairs the process of calcium removal and increases the risk of calcification of the blood vessels. An increased intake of vitamin K2 could be a means of lowering calcium-associated health risks. PMID:26770129

  8. The effects of calcium hydroxide-treated whole-plant and fractionated corn silage on intake, digestion, and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D E; Bender, R W; Shinners, K J; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate, in dairy cattle, the effects of calcium hydroxide treatment of whole-plant corn and a treatment applied to the bottom stalk fraction of the corn plant, achieved by harvesting corn in 2 crop streams. The treatments were calcium hydroxide-treated corn silage (TRTCS), toplage supplemented with calcium hydroxide-treated stalklage (TPL), a positive control of brown midrib corn silage (BMR), and a negative control of conventional whole-plant corn silage (WPCS). The toplage was harvested at a height of 82 cm with 2 of the 6 rows set as ear-snapping to incorporate higher tissues into the stalklage. Stalklage was harvested at 12 cm, and other corn silages were harvested at 27 cm. Sixteen pens, each with 8 Holstein cows averaging 70±25 d in milk and 46±11 kg of milk d(-1), were assigned 4 per treatment in a completely randomized design. The diet was approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate on a dry matter basis. A 2-wk covariate period with conventional corn silage was followed by an 8-wk treatment period in which the 4 corn silage treatments were the only effective difference in diets. Cows fed TPL and TRTCS consumed more (1.9 and 1.4 kg of organic matter d(-1), respectively) than did cows fed WPCS. Milk yield was greater for cows fed BMR, TPL, and TRTCS. Cows fed BMR and TPL produced 2.9 and 2.7 kg d(-1), respectively, more energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows fed WPCS, and cows fed TRTCS had the greatest ECM production (4.8 kg of ECM d(-1) greater than cows fed WPCS). No differences in body weight or body condition scored were observed. Milk fat concentration was similar among treatments and milk protein concentration was reduced for TRTCS. Starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were greater for cows fed TRTCS. PMID:27157570

  9. Prolonged flaxseed flour intake decreased the thickness of the aorta and modulates some modifiable risk factors related to cardiovascular disease in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Ferreira Medeiros de França Cardozo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a major public health problem. Different risk factors have been recognized as the main causes of the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed is a source of dietary fiber, lignans, and alpha-linolenic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prolonged supplementation with flaxseed flour as preventive therapy on cardiovascular risk parameters in healthy Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into two groups after giving birth and during lactation period: the control group was fed with diet based on casein and the flaxseed group was fed with diet based on casein containing 25% of flaxseed flour. At weaning, 10 male offspring from each group continued to receive the same diets from their mothers during 250 days. The body weight, visceral fat mass, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, glucose and thickness of the aorta were analyzed. Results: The body weight, visceral fat mass, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, glucose and thickness of the aorta values were statistically lower when compared to control group. Conclusion: The data suggest that flaxseed flour supplementation in healthy wistar rats for a prolonged period may decrease the thickness of the aorta and may be used as a preventive measure in modulating some modifiable risk factors related to cardiovascular disease.

  10. Theoretical modeling of the urinary supersaturation of calcium salts in healthy individuals and kidney stone patients: Precursors, speciation and therapeutic protocols for decreasing its value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Jackson, Graham E.; Durbach, Ian

    2013-11-01

    BackgroundSupersaturation (SS) of urinary salts has been extensively invoked for assessing the risk of renal stone formation, but precursors have often been ignored. Our objectives were to establish by computer modeling, which urinary components are essential for calculating reliable SS values, to investigate whether unique equilibrium processes occur in the urine of stone formers (SF) which might account for their higher SS levels relative to healthy controls (N), to determine the relative efficacies of three different, widely-used protocols for lowering urinary SS of calcium salts and to examine the influence of precursors.

  11. Interactions between high salt intake and the musculoskeletal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Buehlmeier, Judith; Baecker, Natalie

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to muscle and bone loss. However, high dietary salt (NaCl) intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss. We have recently shown that a very high salt intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a low-grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub Dec 2007). A decrease in pH, however, is on the one hand mandatory to activate osteoclast activity, on the other hand it might affect protein metabolism and thereby muscle mass. In head-down bed rest (HDBR) studies physiological adaptation as seen in microgravity is mimicked. In a recent short-term HDBR study of 14 days, we combined high salt intake and low mechanical loading to test if low-grade metabolic acidosis induced by high NaCl intake is an additive stimulus for increased bone resorption and muscle protein loss. The results show that high NaCl intake combined with low mechanical load exaggerates the increase in calcium excretion as well as the rise in bone resorption marker C-telopeptide (both: p ¡ 0.001). Bone alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, was not different according to NaCl intake (p = 0.74). Additionally, the slightly negative nitrogen balance in HDBR ( 0.34 ± 1.2 g/d) was exacerbated 3 fold by high NaCl intake ( 1.34 ± 1.0 g/d; p ¡ 0.001). These results were accompanied by reduced bicarbonate (p = 0.018) and base excess (p = 0.009) concentrations during high salt intake. In conclusion, HDBR and high salt intake cause -like in ambulatory test subjectsa low-grade metabolic acidosis. This may exacerbate bone resorption and nitrogen loss, which may then exaggerate disuse induced bone and muscle loss.

  12. Vitamin D does not increase calcium absorption in young women: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J Christopher; Jindal, Prachi S; Smith, Lynette M

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly said that vitamin D should be used to increase calcium absorption. We tested this statement in a dose-response study of vitamin D on calcium absorption. A total of 198 white and African American women, aged 25 to 45 years, with vitamin D insufficiency, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) ng/mL, were randomized in a double-blind study to vitamin D3 400, 800, 1600, 2400 IU, or placebo. A calcium supplement was given to increase mean calcium intake at baseline from 706 mg/d to 1031 mg/d. Calcium absorption was measured at baseline and after 12 months using a single isotope method with radiocalcium45 and 100 mg of calcium. Mean baseline serum 25OHD was 13.4 ng/mL (33.5 nmol/L) and increased to 40 ng/mL (100 nmol/L) on the highest dose of 2400 IU. Using a multivariate regression analysis with significant predictors, baseline absorption, calcium intake, and weight, there was no increase in 12-month calcium absorption compared with baseline on any dose of vitamin D in either whites or African Americans. There was no significant relationship between 12-month calcium absorption and final serum 25OHD. In an analysis of calcium absorption and serum 25OHD at baseline, serum 25OHD levels were divided into groups: 0 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 15, or 16 to 20 ng/mL. There was no evidence of a threshold decrease in calcium absorption or serum 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) amongst the lowest groups. Vitamin D doses up to 2400 IU daily did not increase calcium absorption. No threshold level of serum 25OHD for calcium absorption was found at baseline or in the longitudinal study, suggesting that active transport of calcium is saturated at very low serum 25OHD levels ng/mL. There is no need to recommend vitamin D for increasing calcium absorption in normal subjects. Very efficient calcium absorption at very low levels of serum 25OHD explains why people do not develop osteomalacia provided that dietary intakes of calcium and phosphorus are adequate. PMID

  13. Changes in dairy food and nutrient intakes in Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Carole E; Vivian, Wendy J; Oddy, Wendy H; Beilin, Lawrence J; Mori, Trevor A; O'Sullivan, Therese A

    2012-12-01

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

  14. Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Berit L Heitmann; Boucher, Barbara J; Kirsten Avlund; Poul Holm-Pedersen; Christensen, Lisa B.; Adegboye, Amanda R. A.

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment lo...

  15. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275±31mg Ca; 20.7±1.9μg Cr; 5.7±0.4mg Fe; 861±46mg K; 9.44±0.48μg Se; 1928±278mg Na; 4.25±0.24mg Zn; 1.53±0.43μg As and 1.31±0.16μg Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market Basket of this study represented

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals (ID 646, 1224, 1238, 1339

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and....... The claimed effects are “lactose intolerance”, “decrease lactose malabsorption symptoms” and “lactose digestion”. The target population is assumed to be lactose intolerant individuals. The Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake...... in lactose intolerant individuals. The Panel considers that decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals is a beneficial physiological effect for lactose intolerant individuals. Symptoms of lactose intolerance, which may develop one to three hours...

  17. Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and acidified coproducts on dry matter intake, serum calcium, and performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, D J; Block, E; Weber, D; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2014-02-01

    Two products designed to deliver supplemental anions were evaluated for their effects on DMI, total serum Ca, and performance of transition dairy cows relative to a control diet that did not contain supplemental anions. Diets differed in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and anion source. Treatments were diets including a control (CON; DCAD +17.7 meq/100 g DM; n = 13), Bio-Chlor (BC; DCAD +2.5 meq/100 g DM; n = 14), and SoyChlor (SC, DCAD +0.4 meq/100 g DM; n = 15). Treatments began 21 d before expected calving dates and continued through parturition (mean treatment length 20.98 d); on calving, all animals received the same diet. Milk yield was measured through 21 d in milk, and milk samples were collected daily between 5 and 21 d in milk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. Prepartum DMI was 9.0, 8.5, and 7.5 ± 0.6 kg/d for CON, BC, and SC treatments, respectively, and tended to be lower for SC than CON (P = 0.07). Postpartum DMI and milk yields were similar among treatments. Milk protein, lactose, and urea nitrogen concentrations were highest for SC and lowest for BC, with CON being intermediate. Plasma glucose, measured on d 5, 10, and 21 postpartum, tended to be different among treatments (P = 0.06; 66.7, 57.1, and 63.8 ± 3.1 mg/dL for CON, BC, and SC, respectively). Serum total Ca concentrations did not differ among dietary treatments and only tended to change over time; values were not indicative of clinical hypocalcemia. With limited sample size, no significant effects of treatment were detected for incidence of postpartum health disorders or plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. Although DMI tended to be depressed in the prepartum period by SC, this intake depression was not accompanied by negative effects on performance or health in the postpartum period. Results suggest that cows were not adequately stressed to cause hypocalcemia or that DCAD values near 0 were insufficient to improve postpartum health and performance

  18. Maternal Nutrient Intake and Maternal Serum Micronutrients and Their Relation to Birth Weight-A longitudinal study '

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Moghaddam Tabrizi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients are well known to play an important role in the maintenance of health. Alterations in maternal-fetal disposition of some essential micronutrients could be a potential health risk for mother as well as the fetus. A longitudinal study was conducted in Khoy city located in North West of Iran to investigate maternal nutrient intake and maternal serum micronutrients and their relation to birth weight. Nutrient intake was computed based on 24 hour recall method. During the three trimesters of pregnancy, blood specimens were collected from 162 healthy pregnant women aged 16-40 years and from cord blood of their neonates. The mean age of studied pregnant women was 26 ± 5years, and the mean birth weight of neonates was 3.3 ± 0.4 kg. Maternal serum levels of calcium, iron, zinc and copper were determined by an inductively couple plasma mass spectrometer (ICP/MS. The results showed that majority (41% of pregnant women were in age group 26-36 years Fifty-five percent had high school and diploma levels of education and the total income of a majority of them was Rials 3-5 million per month. Anthropometric measurements, namely, height, weight, body mass index and upper mid arm during three trimesters of pregnancy showed significant differences except height according to different trimesters. The Mean energy, protein, calcium, iron, zinc, and copper were 2186 kcal, 74.5 g, 855.6 mg, 79.69, 12.3 mg and 1.58 respectively. Percentage adequacy of energy and protein intakes with reference to RDA recommendation showed 85% and 80% of subjects had sufficient RDA intakes, while calcium and zinc intake considered as insufficient. Energy, protein, calcium, zinc and iron intakes in the third trimester were significantly associated with birth weight of neonates. Regarding micronutrients, results indicate that iron levels decreased significantly from first to second trimester and significantly increased in third trimester. Serum zinc levels of subjects

  19. Dietary Intake according to Gender and Education: A Twenty-Year Trend in a Swiss Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Marques-Vidal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We assessed trends in dietary intake according to gender and education using repeated cross-sectional, population-based surveys conducted between 1993 and 2012 in Geneva, Switzerland (17,263 participants, 52.0 ± 10.6 years, 48% male. In 1993–1999, higher educated men had higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, carotene and vitamin D intakes than lower educated men, and the differences decreased in 2006–2012. In 1993–1999, higher educated women had higher fiber, iron, carotene, vitamin D and alcohol intakes than lower educated women, and the differences decreased in 2006–2012. Total energy, polyunsaturated fatty acids, retinol and alcohol intakes decreased, while mono/disaccharides, MUFA and carotene intake increased in both genders. Lower educated men had stronger decreases in saturated fatty acid (SFA and calcium intakes than higher educated men: multivariate-adjusted slope and 95% confidence interval −0.11 (−0.15; −0.06 vs. −0.03 (−0.08; 0.02 g/day/year for SFA and −5.2 (−7.8; −2.7 vs. −1.03 (−3.8; 1.8 mg/day/year for calcium, p for interaction <0.05. Higher educated women had a greater decrease in iron intake than lower educated women: −0.03 (−0.04; −0.02 vs. −0.01 (−0.02; 0.00 mg/day/year, p for interaction = 0.002. We conclude that, in Switzerland, dietary intake evolved similarly between 1993 and 2012 in both educational groups. Educational differences present in 1993 persisted in 2012.

  20. Effects of Adding Chymosin to Milk on Calcium Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif;

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake and absorption is important for bone health. In a randomized double-blind cross-over trial, we investigated effects of adding chymosin to milk on the intestinal calcium absorption as measured by renal calcium excretion and indices of calcium homeostasis. The primary outcome of the...

  1. Evidence for a calcium-mobilizing receptor triggered by cadmium, or decreasing external pH or sodium in coronary endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (1 μM) or decreasing external pH (pHo) or Na concentration (Nao) transiently increased cytoplasmic free Ca (Cai) by ∼5-fold as measured with fura-2 in endothelial cells grown on cover glasses. Cd or pHo=6 evoked similar peak Cai increases in the presence or absence of external Ca indicating that they trigger the release of stored Ca. Cd or 4 mM Nao, but not pHo 6, caused sustained Cai increases. The sustained phase of the Cai response to Cd required external Ca. Decreasing intracellular pH with propionate had no effect on Cai. Cd and some other divalent metals also stimulated 45Ca efflux. The potency order of the metals that stimulated efflux was Cd > Co > Ni > Fe(II) > Mn. Cd apparently acts at an extracellular site because loading the cells with a heavy metal chelator (TPEN) only slightly affected Cd- or ATP-stimulated 45Ca efflux. Addition of Zn or Cu(II) to the assay solution prevented the stimulation of efflux by Cd and had no effect on ATP-evoked efflux. Decreasing Nao stimulated 45Ca efflux ∼4-fold and slightly increased 45Ca influx. Decreasing Nao to 27 mM or pHo to 6.4 half-maximally increased 45Ca efflux. The stimulation of efflux was independent of external Ca or the osmotic Na substitute. The release of stored Ca, not Ca influx via Na-Ca exchange, causes the increase in Cai and 45Ca efflux evoked by decreasing Nao. Incubating the cells with Zn prior to assaying efflux in the absence of Zn strongly inhibited the stimulation of 45Ca efflux by Cd, pHo 6, and the Nao removal. Desensitization by Zn had no effect on ATP-stimulated efflux. These finding support the hypothesis proposed previously that the trace metals or decreasing external Na or pH release stored Ca by stimulating the same cell surface receptor

  2. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, van W.L.; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of consu

  3. Measurements of intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) has been measured in cultured cells by using Fura-2 load cells and a computer-controlled Perkin Elmer LS-5B spectrofluorometer. Increased [Ca2+]i in cells exposed to extracellular bilirubin was observed both with and without extracellular calcium. However, the increase was considerable larger with extracellular calcium. The enhancement of [Ca2+]i became smaller with decreasing bilirubin/BSA (bovine serum albumine) ratio. 5 refs., 5 figs

  4. Effect of Preharvest Calcium Treatments on Sweet Cherry Fruit Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz EROGUL

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of different foliar calcium compounds on fruit cracking and quality of sweet cherry variety ‘0900 Ziraat’ were investigated. Calcium caseinate, calcium chloride, calcium hydroxide and calcium nitrate were used as foliar sprays. Calcium applications reduced the cracking index 38% to 66% compared to cherries that did not receive foliar treatment. The most efficient applications for decreasing cracking were calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride. Calcium chloride and c...

  5. The role of calcium in human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beto, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance. PMID:25713787

  6. Schisandrin B decreases the sensitivity of mitochondria to calcium ion-induced permeability transition and protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Po-yee CHIU; Hoi-yan LEUNG; Ada HL SIU; Michel KT POON; Kam-ming KO

    2007-01-01

    Aim: In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the cardioprotection afforded by schisandrin B (Sch B), the effect of Sch B treatment on the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca2+-stimulated permeability transition (PT) was investigated in rat hearts under normal and ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) conditions. Results:Myocardial I-R injury caused an increase in the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca2+-stimulated PT in vitro. The enhanced sensitivity to mitochondrial PT was associated with increases in mitochondrial Ca2+ content as well as the extent of reactive oxidant species production in vitro and cytochrome c release in vivo.The cardioprotection afforded by Sch B pretreatment against I-R-induced injury was paralleled by the decrease in the sensitivity of myocardial mitochondria to Ca2+-stimulated PT, particularly under I-R conditions. Conclusion: The results suggest that Sch B treatment increases the resistance of myocardial mitochondria to Ca2+-stimulated PT and protects against I-R-induced tissue injury.

  7. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  8. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  9. Calcium Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium signaling results from a complex interplay between activation and inactivation of intracellular and extracellular calcium permeable channels. This complexity is obvious from the pattern of calcium signals observed with modest, physiological concentrations of calcium-mobilizing agonists, which typically present as sequential regenerative discharges of stored calcium, a process referred to as calcium oscillations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the underlyin...

  10. Salt intake and hypertension therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Alberto; Mulatero, Paolo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal organ damage. Environmental conditions affect the development of high blood pressure (BP), although genetic influences are also important. Current international guidelines recommend reducing dietary sodium to no more than 100 mmol (about 2.4 g sodium or approximately 6 g salt) per day to prevent BP rising; the current intake of sodium in industrialized countries is approximately double the recommended amount. Clinical trials (DASH and TOHP studies) have shown that dietary factors are fundamental in the prevention and control of BP. Low dietary sodium intake is particularly effective in preventing hypertension in subjects with an increased risk such as the overweight, borderline hypertensives or the elderly. A low-salt diet combined with anti-hypertensive therapies facilitates BP reduction independent of race. The hypotensive effect of calcium channel blockers is less dependent on salt intake than other drugs, such as ACE inhibitors or diuretics. Reduced sodium intake associated with other dietary changes (such as weight loss, and increasing potassium, calcium and magnesium intake) are important instruments for the prevention and therapy of hypertension. PMID:11936420

  11. Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary activity in adolescent girls – The Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hergenroeder Albert

    2008-08-01

    .11↓ minutes, 95% CI = 11.74–12.48, p = 0.05 and total daily sedentary activity minutes (mean difference between I and C = 16.99↓ minutes, 95% CI = 16.49–17.50, p = 0.04. Conclusion A well designed and implemented school based health and physical activity intervention can result in a positive influence upon increasing physical activity levels and decreasing sedentary activity. Future interventions should consider a more structured intervention component to obtain significant changes in WBPA.

  12. Calcium Absorption from Fortified Ice Cream Formulations Compared with Calcium Absorption from Milk

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hee, Regine M.; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S.M.J.E.; Rietveld, Anton G.; Wilkinson, Joy E.; Quail, Patricia J.; Berry, Mark J.; Dainty, Jack R.; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Objective Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fort...

  13. A comparative assessment of the potential use of alginates and dietary calcium manipulation as countermeasures to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of using different alginates or supplementary calcium as feed-additives to reduce the transfer of ingested radiostrontium to milk was assessed in dairy cattle fed a haylage/concentrate diet. The feed-additives compared were: calcium alginate (4% by dry matter), sodium alginate (4% by dry matter) and four levels of supplementation with CaCO3. Both alginates reduced the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by 30-40% without effecting diet palatability. However, the high present cost of alginates precludes their use as countermeasures. Dietary calcium supplementation reduced the transfer of 85Sr to milk broadly in agreement with previous predictions. From data relevant to dairy cattle in the United Kingdom it is suggested that dietary calcium intake could be doubled without exceeding recommended maximum intakes, thus decreasing the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by approximately 50%

  14. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  15. The effect of supplementary calcium on blood pressure in healthy adult women aged 18-30 years in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in developed countries and has an increasing trend in developing countries. There are some evidences that calcium supplementation may decrease blood pressure and consequently cardiovascular disease, but they are not conclusive and there is no agreement in this respect. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of supplementary calcium on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in healthy adult women aged 18–30 years. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five normotensive volunteers were randomly divided into two groups, the treatment group received 1000 mg/day calcium (four doses of 625 mg calcium carbonate) for 1 month and the control group received placebo (dextrose). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was determined before and after intervention in supine position after 10 min of rest. Results: The mean daily calcium intake from food was 773.9 mg in treatment and 721 mg in control group (no significant difference) but in both the groups dietary calcium intake was less than the recommended dietary allowance: After calcium supplementation, the mean change of systolic blood pressure was not significant in the two groups, but diastolic blood pressure reduced in treatment group and increased in control group (−4.9 vs 2.6 mmHg) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that, calcium supplementation does not have any effect on systolic blood pressure of our volunteers but can decrease diastolic blood pressure significantly and therefore it seems that calcium supplementation may be useful for people with increased diastolic blood pressure, especially for those who receive less calcium than recommended dietary allowance. PMID:26430694

  16. Intake of dairy products in relation to periodontitis in older Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Christensen, Lisa B; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Avlund, Kirsten; Boucher, Barbara J; Heitmann, Berit L

    2012-09-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss ≥3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:23112910

  17. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahril, Mohd Razif; Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

  18. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razif Shahril

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG or control group (CG according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students.

  19. Nutrient Intakes of Pregnant Women and their Associated Factors in Eight Cities of China: A Cross-sectional Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Li Liu; Yu-Mei Zhang; Gerard Vinyes Parés; Kathleen C Reidy; Wen-Zhi Zhao; Ai Zhao; Cheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background:During the last 3 decades,China has dramatic changes of the dietary pattern among its citizens,particularly in urban cities.This study aimed to determine the nutrient intake status and factors associated with nutrient intakes of urban Chinese pregnant women now-a-day.Methods:The multistage stratified random sampling method was applied in the cross-sectional study.479 women in three trimesters of pregnancy from eight cities of China were recruited.Nutrient intakes were evaluated with one 24 h dietary recall,and compared with the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) 2013 for available nutrients.Results:Most pregnant women had imbalanced macronutrient distribution with excessive energy derived from fat.Intakes of Vitamin A,B6,calcium,magnesium,and selenium were below Chinese Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) and Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) in all trimesters.Most pregnant women took more folic acid in the first trimester with a significant decrease in the second and third trimester (P < 0.05).Shortfall in iron intake was found in the third trimester whereas some women may be at the risk of excessive iron intake.Intakes of thiamin met RNI in the first trimester but were below EAR in all trimesters.Trimester phasing was positively associated with most nutrients (P < 0.05).Prepregnancy body mass index was inversely associated with energy,fat,Vitamin C,and calcium intake (P < 0.05).Educational level and household income were positively associated with folic acid intake (P < 0.05).Conclusions:Current prenatal dietary choices of urban pregnant women in China are imbalanced in the nutrient intake when compared with national DRIs 2013,particularly in intakes of energy derived from fat and micronutrients.Appropriate dietary advice to pregnant women should promote a balanced diet with emphasis on avoidance of foods of high fat content and incorporation of foods that are good sources of the key micronutrients that are usually lacking in a regular

  20. Validation of two food frequency questionnaires for dietary calcium assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea, Hacker-Thompson; Robertson, Trina P.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.

    2009-01-01

    Easily utilized questionnaires estimating dietary calcium intake would be a valuable asset to promoting skeletal health and a helpful research tool. Two calcium questionnaires, one online and one printed, were each compared to dietary calcium intake measured by a three-day diet record. Women completed the questionnaires in a randomized order and kept a 3-day food record at home, returning it by mail. The ethnicity of the 140 study participants was 102 Caucasian, 12 African American, 16 Asian,...

  1. Efficacy of various dietary calcium salts to improve intestinal resistance to Salmonella infection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Bruggencate, Sandra J M; Snel, Johannes; Schoterman, Margriet H C; Ertmann, Ellen; van der Meulen, Esther; Schonewille, Arjan; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J

    2011-02-01

    Previous animal and human studies have shown protective effects of Ca on the resistance to enteropathogenic infections. Most interventions were performed with calcium phosphate and little is known about the protective effect of other dietary sources of Ca. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of several Ca salts to enhance intestinal resistance to Salmonella enteritidis infection. Rats (n 7-8 per group) were fed a high-fat, Western human-style, purified diet with a low Ca content (20 mmol calcium phosphate/kg; negative control group) or the same diet supplemented with either (extra) calcium phosphate, milk Ca, calcium chloride or calcium carbonate (total of 100 mmol Ca supplement/kg). Diets contained Cr-EDTA for assessment of incremental changes in intestinal permeability. After an adaptation period of 2 weeks, animals were orally infected with S. enteritidis to mimic a human-relevant foodborne infection. Ca supplement-induced changes on faecal lactobacilli and enterobacteria were studied before infection. Changes in intestinal permeability were determined by measuring urinary Cr with time. Persistence of Salmonella was determined by studying faecal excretion of this pathogen in time. Overall, all Ca salts increased resistance towards Salmonella. After infection, body weight gain and food intake were higher in the calcium phosphate group. Calcium phosphate and milk Ca decreased faecal enterobacteria before infection. All Ca salts decreased infection-induced intestinal permeability and persistence of Salmonella. Calcium phosphate, milk Ca, calcium carbonate and calcium chloride are able to enhance the intestinal resistance to Salmonella in rats. PMID:20875217

  2. Azelnidipine, a long-acting calcium channel blocker, could control hypertension without decreasing cerebral blood flow in post-ischemic stroke patients. A 123I-IMP SPECT follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azelnidipine, a long-acting calcium channel blocker, is highly lipid soluble and selective for the vascular wall, and is expected to have an increasing effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF). The aim of this study is to investigate its safety and efficacy in stroke patients in the chronic stage as far as CBF is concerned using N-isopropyl-p-123I-iodo amphetamine (123I-IMP) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The patients were orally administered 8 or 16 mg of azelnidipine. Regional CBF was evaluated by 123I-IMP SPECT using three-dimensional stereotactic region-of-interest (ROI) template (3D-SRT), a technique using anatomical standardization and ROI template consisting of 636 ROIs for the whole brain. Mean hemispheric CBF was defined as the mean value of the corpus callosum, and the precentral, central, parietal, angular and temporal gyri. Mean hemispheric and regional CBF after 1, 3 and 6 months were analyzed using a one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. Ten post-ischemic stroke patients with hypertension were enrolled between October 2005 and October 2007, and all of them were well controlled with normal blood pressure (before: 172.3±16.6/88.4±14.0 mm Hg; 6 months: 128.7±15.9/70.9±10.1 mm Hg). No vascular events were observed during the study period. The mean hemispheric CBF was maintained during the study period (before: 46.0±9.7 ml per 100 g per min; 6 months: 49.3±11.1 ml per 100 g per min). The regional CBF was also maintained. In the chronic stage of ischemic stroke, azelnidipine could safely decrease systemic blood pressure without decreasing CBF. (author)

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals (ID 646, 1224, 1238, 1339) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals. The scientific substantiation is based on ...

  4. Hypercalcemia Associated with Calcium Supplement Use: Prevalence and Characteristics in Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ingestion of large amounts of milk and antacids to treat peptic ulcer disease was a common cause of hypercalcemia in the past (the “milk-alkali syndrome”. The current popularity of calcium and supplements has given rise to a similar problem. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of hypercalcemia induced by calcium intake (“calcium supplement syndrome”; or CSS in hospitalized patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective; electronic health record (EHR-based review of patients with hypercalcemia over a 3-year period. Diagnosis of CSS was based on the presence of hypercalcemia; a normal parathyroid hormone (PTH level; renal insufficiency; metabolic alkalosis; a history of calcium intake; and documented improvement with treatment. Results: Of the 72 patients with non-PTH mediated hypercalcemia; 15 (20.8% satisfied all the criteria for the diagnosis of CSS. Calcium; vitamin D; and multivitamin ingestion were significantly associated with the diagnosis (p values < 0.0001; 0.014; and 0.045 respectively; while the presence of hypertension; diabetes; and renal insufficiency showed a trend towards statistical significance. All patients received intravenous fluids; and six (40% received calcium-lowering drugs. The calcium level at discharge was normal 12 (80% of patients. The mean serum creatinine and bicarbonate levels decreased from 2.4 and 35 mg/dL on admission respectively; to 1.6 mg/dL and 25.6 mg/dL at discharge respectively. Conclusion: The widespread use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation can manifest as hypercalcemia and worsening of kidney function in susceptible individuals. Awareness among health care professionals can lead to proper patient education regarding these health risks.

  5. Dietary mineral intake and lung cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka; B. Kraja (Bledar); R. Ruiter (Rikje); L. Lahousse (Lies); C.E. de Keyser (Catherina Elisabeth); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J.C.K.- de Jong (Jessica C. Kiefte-)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Limited data are available on the role of mineral intake in the development of lung cancer (LC). We investigated whether dietary calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium and zinc intake were associated with LC risk. Methods: We analyzed data from 5435 participants of the Rot

  6. Bioavailability of enteric-coated microencapsulated calcium during pregnancy: A randomized crossover trial in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal calcium and iron supplements are recommended in settings of low dietary calcium intake and high prevalence of anemia. However, calcium administration may inhibit iron absorption. To overcome calcium-iron interactions, we developed a multi-micronutrient powder containing iron (60 mg), folic ...

  7. 21 CFR 101.72 - Health claims: calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... osteoporosis. 101.72 Section 101.72 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....72 Health claims: calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis. (a) Relationship between calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis. An inadequate intake of calcium or calcium and vitamin D contributes to low...

  8. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  9. Dairy Intake, Dietary Adequacy, and Lactose Intolerance 1 2

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated emphasis in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of calcium in the adult American diet and the recommendation to consume 3 dairy servings a day, dairy intake remains well below recommendations. Insufficient health professional awareness of the benefits of calcium and concern for lactose intolerance are among several possible reasons, This mini-review highlights both the role of calcium (and of dairy, its principal source in modern diets) in health maintenanc...

  10. Calcium supplements: do they help or harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joann E; Bassuk, Shari S

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations for calcium intake call for 1,000 mg per day for women ages 19-50 and 1,200 mg per day for women over age 50 to ensure bone health. Given recent concerns that calcium supplements may raise risk for cardiovascular disease and kidney stones, women should aim to meet this recommendation primarily by eating a calcium-rich diet and taking calcium supplements only if needed to reach the RDA goal (often only approximately 500 mg per day in supplements is required). PMID:23880796

  11. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources. Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individual battery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5% eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feed experiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, protein intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Results of the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. The use of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was that the use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestone or mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  12. Is vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7) associated with an increased incidence of hip fracture? An explanation for the calcium paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Suzuki, Nobuo; Kitamura, Kei-Ichiro; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Nagasawa, Tetsuro; Itomura, Miho; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2016-06-01

    High calcium intake may increase hip fracture (HF) incidence. This phenomenon, known as the calcium paradox, might be explained by vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7, VA), the highly specific trans fatty acid (TFA) present in dairy products. First, we ecologically investigated the relationship between 18:1 TFA intake and HF incidence using data from 12 to 13 European countries collected before 2000; then we measured the effects of VA and elaidic acid (18:1t n-9, EA) on osteoblasts from goldfish scales (tissues very similar to mammalian bone), with alkaline phosphatase as a marker; and finally we measured the effect of VA on mRNA expression in the scales for the major bone proteins type I collagen and osteocalcin. HF incidence was significantly correlated with 18:1 TFA intake in men (r=0.57) and women (r=0.65). Incubation with 1μmol/L VA and EA for 48h significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase activity by 25% and 21%, respectively. Incubation of scales with 10μmol/L VA for 48h significantly decreased mRNA expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin (by about 50%). In conclusion, VA may be causatively related to HF and could explain the calcium paradox. It may be prudent to reduce 18:1 TFA intake, irrespective of trans positions, to prevent HF. PMID:27269708

  13. Serum calcium in pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash C. Sharma

    1981-01-01

    Serum calcium was studied serially in 94 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. An equal number of age- and sex-matched patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were controls. Seventy patients in the study group were normocalcaemic and 10 were hypercalcaemic. These 10 were on a higher supplement of vitamin D than the 70 normocalcaemic patients. There was a positive correlation between the daily vitamin intake and the degree and duration of hypercalcaemia. None of the controls...

  14. Evaluation of Food Intake in Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Faghfoori

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the colon of unknown cause that is associated with important nutrition deficiencies such as protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Because no study has been carried out to date in Iran, the aim of this pilot study was the assessment of dietary intake of these patients. Methods: In this pilot study, 41 UC patients whose disease severity was mild or moderate were selected. Data about diet restrictions were collected via a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed 3 times during a 2 month period with 30 days interval and 3-day food-recall (9days in general. Results: Subjects were 26 men and 15 women and 65.9% patients avoided completely or limited milk intake. Dietary limitation about fruits and vegetables was 24.4 and 43.9 percent, respectively and legumes intake was 58.5%. Mean calorie intake in 41 patients was 2125.14±60.83 calories/day and in two groups, calcium and fiber intake was significantly less than the standard dietary recommendation. Conclusion: Dietary intake examination showed some deficiencies such as calcium and iron deficiency and fiber intake was low because the intake of fruits, vegetables and legumes was limited.

  15. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  16. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p<0.0001) or...

  17. Calcium Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latvia - Lebanon - Libya - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Macedonia, Republic of - Malaysia - Malta - Mexico - Moldova - Morocco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Nigeria - ... and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What is Osteoporosis? The Board Introduction to Bone ...

  18. Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit L. Heitmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss ≥3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.021, calcium from milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025 and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03 were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003, milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028 and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029 were associated with reduced risk of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

  19. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidirectional 45Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (JnetCa) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed JnetCa to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that JnetCa was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, JnetCa decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, JnetCa was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue 45Ca content was ≅30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca2+-ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na+-K+-ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa

  20. Sources of dietary calcium in patients attending an osteoporosis clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gemma HornSurgical Department, Perth Royal Infirmary, Perth, ScotlandIntroduction: Osteoporosis is a common disease that affects both women and men but is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Reviews suggest that dietary-derived calcium is vital in maintaining adequate calcium balance. Sources of dietary calcium intake among adult patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were reviewed.Method: Two hundred and ninety-one patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were given an eleven-item food questionnaire to complete. The results were compared to the recommended daily allowance of 700 mg.Results: The overall mean intake was 657 mg/day with little difference between age or gender. The best foods for supplying calcium were cheese and milky drinks.Conclusion: This study has confirmed that suboptimal calcium intakes remain common. Dairy sources of calcium remain important. More awareness is needed to convey the importance of dietary calcium and bone health to avoid the development of osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoporosis, clinic, food questionnaire, calcium, dietary intake, bone health

  1. Calcium: A Nutrient Deserving a Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Whiting

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in calcium has continued since the 1980s when its role in promoting bone growth and retention was established in clinical trials of children and postmenopausal women. The human nutrition functions now attributed to calcium have expanded beyond bone health to include other conditions such as body weight maintenance. While most efforts have been focused on the findings that dietary intakes are low, there are emerging data on safety concerns of excess amounts. This Special Issue on calcium nutrition, spanning the lifecycle from critically ill neonates through to older adults, has been written by some of the leading researchers in this field.

  2. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: Importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most passerines depend on the intake of calcium-rich material in addition to their normal food for proper eggshell formation and skeletal growth. A large proportion of Great Tits (Pants major) in forests on nutrient-poor soils in the Netherlands produce eggs with defective shells as a result of calc

  3. Should We Prescribe Calcium Supplements For Osteoporosis Prevention?

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Ian R

    2014-01-01

    Advocacy for the use of calcium supplements arose at a time when there were no other effective interventions for the prevention of osteoporosis. Their promotion was based on the belief that increasing calcium intake would increase bone formation. Our current understandings of the biology of bone suggest that this does not occur, though calcium does act as a weak antiresorptive. Thus, it slows postmenopausal bone loss but, despite this, recent meta-analyses suggest no significant prevention of...

  4. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease; CPPD disease; Acute CPPD arthritis; Pseudogout ... Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis is caused by the collection of salt called calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The buildup ...

  5. Dietary factors affecting calcium and zinc absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickets is common in Nigerian children and responds better to calcium (Ca) than to vitamin D supplementation. We reported in previous studies in which oral isotopes were given with maize pap that Ca intakes are similarly low and Ca absorption (abs) similarly high in rachitic and non-rachitic Nigeria...

  6. Calcium, magnesium, and potassium in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biochemical and physiological functions and consequences of deficient intakes, which show the nutritional importance of calcium, magnesium and potassium for humans, are reviewed. The dietary recommendations and food sources for these essential mineral elements for humans are presented. Factors t...

  7. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hilger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps.

  8. Adolescence: How do we increase intestinal calcium absorption to allow for bone mineral mass accumulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An increase in calcium absorptive efficiency (fractional absorption of dietary calcium) during adolescence is associated with a rapid increase in total body bone mineral mass (BMM) accumulation. This increase occurs across a range of calcium intakes. It appears to be principally mediated by hormonal...

  9. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  10. Dietary intake and stress fractures among elite male combat recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Daniel S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate and sufficient dietary intake is one of the main requirements for maintaining fitness and health. Inadequate energy intake may have a negative impact on physical performance which may result in injuries among physically active populations. The purpose of this research was to evaluate a possible relationship between dietary intake and stress fracture occurrence among combat recruits during basic training (BT. Methods Data was collected from 74 combat recruits (18.2 ± 0.6 yrs in the Israeli Defense Forces. Data analyses included changes in anthropometric measures, dietary intake, blood iron and calcium levels. Measurements were taken on entry to 4-month BT and at the end of BT. The occurrence of stress reaction injury was followed prospectively during the entire 6-month training period. Results Twelve recruits were diagnosed with stress fracture in the tibia or femur (SF group. Sixty two recruits completed BT without stress fractures (NSF. Calcium and vitamin D intakes reported on induction day were lower in the SF group compared to the NSF group-38.9% for calcium (589 ± 92 and 964 ± 373 mg·d-1, respectively, p -1, respectively, p Conclusions The development of stress fractures in young recruits during combat BT was associated with dietary deficiency before induction and during BT of mainly vitamin D and calcium. For the purpose of intervention, the fact that the main deficiency is before induction will need special consideration.

  11. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. Increasing the ratio between sulfate and aluminate decreases the extent of limestone reaction

  12. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei

    2004-01-01

    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  13. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  14. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  15. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  16. Concave Urinary Crystallines: Direct Evidence of Calcium Oxalate Crystals Dissolution by Citrate In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Feng Shang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in urinary crystal properties in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx calculi after oral administration of potassium citrate (K3cit were investigated via atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD, and zeta potential analyzer. The AFM and SEM results showed that the surface of urinary crystals became concave, the edges and corners of crystals became blunt, the average size of urinary crystallines decreased significantly, and aggregation of urinary crystals was reduced. These changes were attributed to the significant increase in concentration of excreted citrate to  mg/L after K3cit intake from  mg/L before K3cit intake. After the amount of urinary citrate was increased, it complexed with Ca2+ ions on urinary crystals, which dissolved these crystals. Thus, the appearance of concave urinary crystals was a direct evidence of CaOx dissolution by citrate in vivo. The XRD results showed that the quantities and species of urinary crystals decreased after K3cit intake. The mechanism of inhibition of formation of CaOx stones by K3cit was possibly due to the complexation of Ca2+ with citrate, increase in urine pH, concentration of urinary inhibitor glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, and the absolute value of zeta potential after K3cit intake.

  17. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Gallagher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study (n = 991. We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements, along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR or Adequate Intake (AI where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements.

  18. CRMP-2 peptide mediated decrease of high and low voltage-activated calcium channels, attenuation of nociceptor excitability, and anti-nociception in a model of AIDS therapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piekarz Andrew D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquity of protein-protein interactions in biological signaling offers ample opportunities for therapeutic intervention. We previously identified a peptide, designated CBD3, that suppressed inflammatory and neuropathic behavioral hypersensitivity in rodents by inhibiting the ability of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2 to bind to N-type voltage-activated calcium channels (CaV2.2 [Brittain et al. Nature Medicine 17:822–829 (2011]. Results and discussion Here, we utilized SPOTScan analysis to identify an optimized variation of the CBD3 peptide (CBD3A6K that bound with greater affinity to Ca2+ channels. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that the CBD3A6K peptide was more stable and less prone to the unfolding observed with the parent CBD3 peptide. This mutant peptide, conjugated to the cell penetrating motif of the HIV transduction domain protein TAT, exhibited greater anti-nociception in a rodent model of AIDS therapy-induced peripheral neuropathy when compared to the parent TAT-CBD3 peptide. Remarkably, intraperitoneal administration of TAT-CBD3A6K produced none of the minor side effects (i.e. tail kinking, body contortion observed with the parent peptide. Interestingly, excitability of dissociated small diameter sensory neurons isolated from rats was also reduced by TAT-CBD3A6K peptide suggesting that suppression of excitability may be due to inhibition of T- and R-type Ca2+ channels. TAT-CBD3A6K had no effect on depolarization-evoked calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP release compared to vehicle control. Conclusions Collectively, these results establish TAT-CBD3A6K as a peptide therapeutic with greater efficacy in an AIDS therapy-induced model of peripheral neuropathy than its parent peptide, TAT-CBD3. Structural modifications of the CBD3 scaffold peptide may result in peptides with selectivity against a particular subset of voltage-gated calcium channels resulting in a multipharmacology of

  19. Increased absolute calcium binding to albumin in hypoalbuminaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Besarab, A; Caro, J F

    1981-01-01

    The amount of calcium bound to protein was measured in 30 patients with differing diseases and varying degrees of hypoalbuminaemia. Total serum calcium increased directly with both serum albumin and ultrafilterable calcium concentrations. The estimated amount of calcium bound per gram of albumin varied inversely with the albumin concentration, decreasing from 2.1 to 1.0 mg calcium/g albumin as albumin concentration increased from 1.7 to 3.1 g/dl. Circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentr...

  20. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods. The objective ...

  1. Vitamin D status, dietary intake, and bone turnover in female Soldiers during military training: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Laura J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for maintaining bone health, to include protecting against stress fracture during periods of rapid bone turnover. The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to assess vitamin D status, biomarkers of bone turnover, and vitamin D and calcium intake in female Soldiers (n = 91 during US Army basic combat training (BCT. Methods Anthropometric, biological and dietary intake data were collected at wk 0, 3, 6, and 9 of the 10 wk BCT course. Mixed models repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess main effects of time, race, and time-by-race interactions. Results White volunteers experienced a decrease in serum 25(OHD levels, whereas non-white volunteers experienced an increase during BCT. However, serum 25(OHD levels were lower in non-whites than whites at all timepoints (P-interaction  Conclusions These findings demonstrate that female Soldiers experience dynamic changes in vitamin D status coupled with increased bone turnover and potentially inadequate vitamin D and calcium intake during military training.

  2. The influence of high dietary intakes of energy and protein on third metacarpal characteristics of weanling ponies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of high dietary intakes of protein and energy on bone development was described and the accuracy of radiographic photometry as an estimator of bone mineral content was determined. There were higher (P<.10) values for breaking strength and cortical area, and lower (P<.10) percentages of calcium and total mineral content in the bones of ponies on high planes of nutrition. These ponies developed at a faster rate than the normally fed ponies, suggesting that during accelerated growth bone mineral deposition may be reduced. Thus, high intakes of energy and protein appeared to increase the rate of skeletal growth while decreasing deposition of mineral into bone. These conditions may be related to bone failure from high compressive loads

  3. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  4. Can rye intake decrease risk of human breast cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Adlercreutz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rye contains more fibre and bioactive compounds than other cereals used for bread production. The fibre and compounds of the fibre complex could provide protection against breast cancer (BC. Objective: To review the evidence and theoretical background for a role of rye and some of its components in the prevention of BC. Design: A short review based to a great extent on the work by scientists in the Nordic countries. Results: Some of the possible mechanisms by which the fibre complex could reduce BC risk are presented. The fibre through its effect on fermentation increases esterification of bile acids reducing toxicity of the free bile acids and is involved in the production of butyrate with potential anticancer effects including BC. The fibre reduces the enterohepatic circulation of the oestrogens leading to lower plasma oestrogen concentrations. The fibre complex contains bioactive compounds such as lignans and alkylresorcinols that are antioxidative and potentially anticarcinogenic. In addition, vitamins, minerals, and phytic acid in rye may provide protection against BC. Conclusion: Rye products made from wholegrain rye flour are likely to contribute to reduced BC risk.

  5. Dietary Calcium Requirements Do Not Differ between Mexican-American Boys and Girls12

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, Cristina; Martin, Berdine R.; McCabe, George P.; McCabe, Linda; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M.

    2014-01-01

    Mexican Americans are an understudied ethnic group for determinants of bone health, although the risk of age-related osteoporosis is high in this rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population. Thus, the objective of the present study was to establish the dietary calcium requirements for bone health in Mexican-American adolescents by measuring calcium retention calculated from balance in response to a range of dietary calcium intakes and to determine predictors of skeletal calcium retention. A...

  6. Aging, Physical Activity, and Energy Intake Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Walleghen, Emily Lynn

    2006-01-01

    More than seventy percent of Americans over the age of sixty are classified as overweight or obese, and the future incidence of these conditions is expected to rise. Although it is unclear why older adults are predisposed to weight gain, decreased total energy expenditure may contribute to positive energy balance. It is also possible that age-related impairments in energy intake regulation result in the inability to appropriately adjust food intake to meet energy requirements with advancing a...

  7. Energy intake and adiponectin gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Liping; Lee, Bonggi; Kinney, Brice; Yoo, Hyung sun; Shao, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Hypoadiponectinemia and decreased adiponectin gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) have been well observed in obese subjects and animal models. However, the mechanism for obesity-associated hypoadiponectinemia is still largely unknown. To investigate the regulatory role of energy intake, dietary fat, and adiposity in adiponectin gene expression and blood adiponectin level, a series of feeding regimens was employed to manipulate energy intake and dietary fat in obese-prone C57BL/6, ge...

  8. Vitamin and mineral intake of twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Jakobsen, Jette; Friis, H

    2005-01-01

    , and niacin all met RSDI by 208%, 107%, and 131%, respectively. Similarly, the intakes of magnesium, iron, and zinc were 272%, 404%, and 122% of RSDI, respectively, while calcium and selenium were below, 47% and 49%, respectively. The daily intakes of phosphorous, copper, and chromium were estimated to...

  9. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...

  10. A STUDY OF MATERNAL DIETARY INTAKE DURING PREGNANCY IN RIYADH, SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid S Almurshed; Bani, Ibrahim A.; Al-Kanhal, Mohammed A.; Al-Amri, Mohammed A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective : This study was carried out to evaluate the dietary nutrient intake of pregnant women. The relationship between dietary intake and pregnancy outcome was also studied. Method: A total of 114 pregnant women were studied, using systematic random sampling. Results : The percentages of the mean nutrient intake below the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for pregnant women were as the follows: 51.8%, 93.9%, 82.5% and 98.2% for energy, vitamin B1, calcium and iron, respectively...

  11. Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements.

  12. Metabolomics investigation of whey intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan

    interest since it has been shown that it is possible to achieve greater weight loss on a high protein diet as oppose to a high carbohydrate diet. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that specifically milk-derived whey proteins have certain biological properties that might be beneficial in the treatment...... and prevention of the metabolic syndrome related to obesity and diabetes. In this thesis the effects of whey intake on the human metabolome was investigated using a metabolomics approach. We demonstrated that intake of whey causes a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to other protein sources....... This is in contrast to previous findings suggesting that whey is cleared faster than other proteins. Paradoxically, we also find disproportionately elevated levels of some amino acids (AAs) following the whey meal. This suggests that whey affects absorption of AAs in a way independent from, or at least...

  13. Should we prescribe calcium supplements for osteoporosis prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian R

    2014-02-01

    Advocacy for the use of calcium supplements arose at a time when there were no other effective interventions for the prevention of osteoporosis. Their promotion was based on the belief that increasing calcium intake would increase bone formation. Our current understandings of the biology of bone suggest that this does not occur, though calcium does act as a weak antiresorptive. Thus, it slows postmenopausal bone loss but, despite this, recent meta-analyses suggest no significant prevention of fractures. In sum, there is little substantive evidence of benefit to bone health from the use of calcium supplements. Against this needs to be balanced the likelihood that calcium supplement use increases cardiovascular events, kidney stones, gastrointestinal symptoms, and admissions to hospital with acute gastrointestinal problems. Thus, the balance of risk and benefit seems to be consistently negative. As a result, current recommendations are to obtain calcium from the diet in preference to supplements. Dietary calcium intake has not been associated with the adverse effects associated with supplements, probably because calcium is provided in smaller boluses, which are absorbed more slowly since they come together with quantities of protein and fat, resulting in a slower gastric transit time. These findings suggest that calcium supplements have little role to play in the modern therapeutics of osteoporosis, which is based around the targeting of safe and effective anti-resorptive drugs to individuals demonstrated to be at increased risk of future fractures. PMID:24707464

  14. Dietary Intake of Some Essential Micronutrients in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Based on the data collected in the 1992 national nutrition survey in China, the food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated, and the consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated. Method Dietary data were obtained by using a three days' inventory change plus food weighing in combination with 24 hours recall method for three consecutive days. The food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated in accordance with the Chinese food composition table. The consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated in reference to the Chinese RDAs. Results The average intakes of niacin, ascorbic acid and vitamin E were sufficient, whereas that of zinc, selenium and thiamin were between 80% and 90% RDAs. The consumption of calcium, retinol equivalent and riboflavin was low compared with the Chinese RDAs. Calcium was the most insufficient nutrient in Chinese diet. Conclusion Food fortification seems necessary for improving the nutritional status of some micronutrients in China.

  15. Consumo de fibra dietética, sodio, potasio y calcio y su relación con la presión arterial en hombres adultos normotensos Dietary fiber, energy, sodium, potassium and calcium intake and its relationship to blood pressure in normotensive male adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nydia Ballesteros-Vásquez

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética, energía, sodio, potasio y calcio sobre la presión arterial de un grupo de adultos normotensos, tomando en cuenta indicadores tales como la edad, el sexo, la actividad física y la obesidad. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron 38 sujetos del sexo masculino de 30 a 45 años de edad, normotensos, aparentemente sanos y residentes de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se midió la presión arterial y se realizó una evaluación dietética, antropométrica y de actividad física. Resultados. La dieta resultó ser alta en fibra y en grasa. El sodio estaba 56% por arriba de la recomendación en 87% de los casos y fue la variable que más efecto mostró sobre la presión diastólica. De los sujetos estudiados, 36.9% tenían sobrepeso y obesidad, y se encontró una asociación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal y la presión diastólica y sistólica. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación significativa entre la hipertensión arterial y el alto consumo de sodio, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en sujetos normotensos.Objective. To evaluate the effect of dietary fiber, energy, sodium, calcium and potassium intake on the blood pressure of a group of normotensive adults. Material and methods. Subjects were 38 healthy normotensive adult males aged 30-45 years, resident of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Blood pressure, diet, anthropometric data and physical activity were recorded. Results. Their diet was high in fiber and fat. Sodium intake was 56% above the recommended values in 87% of the subjects, and the variable with the highest correlation to diastolic blood pressure. Of the subjects, 36.9% were overweight and obese, and a significant statistic association was found between BMI and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions. A significant relationship was found between hypertension and high consumption of sodium, overweight and obesity in healthy adult normotensive males.

  16. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Eicher-Miller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298 of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups. All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  17. Calcium requirements for Chinese adults by cross-sectional statistical analyses of calcium balance studies: an individual participant data and aggregate data meta-regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Aiping; Li Keji; Shi Haoyu; He Jingjing; Li He

    2014-01-01

    Background Chinese dietary reference intakes for calcium are largely based on foreign studies.We undertook metaregression to estimate calcium requirements for Chinese adults derived from calcium balance data in Chinese adults.Methods We searched PubMed,Cochrane CENTRAL,and SinoMed from inception to March 5,2014,by using a structured search strategy.The bibliographies of any relevant papers and journals were also screened for potentially eligible studies.We extracted a standardized data set from studies in Chinese adults that reported calcium balance data.The relationship between calcium intake and output was examined by an individual participant data (IPD) and aggregate data (AD) meta-regression.Results We identified 11 metabolic studies in Chinese adults within 18-60 years of age.One hundred and forty-one IPD (n=35) expressed as mg/d,127 IPD (n=32) expressed as mg·kg body wt-1·d-1,and 44 AD (n=132) expressed as mg/d were collected.The models predicted a neutral calcium balance (defined as calcium output (Y) equal to calcium intake (C)) at intakes of 460 mg/d (Y=0.60C+183.98) and 8.27 mg·kg body wt-1·d-1 (Y=0.60C+3.33)for IPD,or 409 mg/d (Y=0.66C+139.00) for AD.Calcium requirements at upper intakes were higher than that at lower intakes in all these models.Conclusion Calcium requirement for Chinese adults 18-60 years of age approximately ranges between 400 mg/d and 500 mg/d when consuming traditional plant-based Chinese diets.

  18. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  19. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  20. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  1. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  2. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  3. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - calcium ... Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the human body. It helps form and maintain healthy teeth and bones. A proper level of calcium in the body over a lifetime can help ...

  4. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  5. Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Christensen, L. B.; Holm-Pedersen, Poul;

    2012-01-01

    dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk of...... dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss >= 3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium...... from milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the...

  6. Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Growth, Nutrient Digestibility and Fecal Lactobacilli in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yuangklang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Based on earlier studies in veal calves and rats, the hypothesis tested was that high calcium intakes by ruminating dairy calves reduce fat digestibility, but do not affect growth performance due to enhanced colonization of the intestine with lactobacilli. Approach: In dairy calves that were fed on a combination of milk replacer, concentrate on grass hay, the effects of supplemental calcium on growth, nutrient digestibility and fecal lactobacilli were studied. Four concentrates with different levels of calcium were used. Results: Final body weight and weight gain were raised by the calcium level in the concentrate in a dose-dependent, linear fashion. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and crude fat were not influenced by the level of calcium in the concentrate. The number of fecal lactobacilli was significantly increased by higher dietary calcium levels, the effect having a linear trend. Calcium intake did not change the number of fecal E. coli. The apparent absorptions of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were lowered in a linear, dose-dependent fashion by the calcium level in the concentrate. Conclusion: Increased calcium intakes stimulate weight gain in dairy calves fed a combination of milk replacer, concentrate and grass hay. This calcium effect may be related to an enhanced colonization of the intestine with lactobacilli.

  7. Salt Content Impacts Food Preferences and Intake among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-su...

  8. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    . Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated......We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration of...... treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD of...

  9. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Aguilera-Barreiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective: To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM. Methods: The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG, women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1, women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2, women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG for reference in BMD. Results: After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1% and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5% groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal. Conclusion: The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels.

  10. Dietary Calcium and Risk for Prostate Cancer: A Case-Control Study Among US Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Christina D.; Whitley, Brian M.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Grant, Delores J.; Schwartz, Gary G; Presti, Joseph C.; Iraggi, Jared D.; Newman, Kathryn A.; Gerber, Leah; Taylor, Loretta A.; McKeever, Madeline G.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to examine the association between calcium intake and prostate cancer risk. We hypothesized that calcium intake would be positively associated with lower risk for prostate cancer. Methods We used data from a case-control study conducted among veterans between 2007 and 2010 at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The study consisted of 108 biopsy-positive prostate cancer cases, 161 biopsy-negative controls, and 237 healthy controls. We also d...

  11. Effect of dietary calcium and magnesium on experimental renal tubular deposition of calcium oxalate crystal induced by ethylene glycol administration and its prevention with phytin and citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisuno, S; Morimoto, S; Yoshida, T; Fukatani, T; Yasukawa, S; Ohkawa, T

    1987-01-01

    Oral administration of ethylene glycol to rats, and the resultant intratubular depositions of microcrystals of calcium oxalate were studied investigating the influences of dietary calcium or magnesium and assessing the protective efficacies against the crystallizations by treatment with phytin and sodium citrate. With increase of calcium intake and consequent increase of urinary calcium excretion there was a marked increase in the amount of tubular deposit of calcium oxalate crystal and in the calcium content of renal tissue. Although magnesium deficiency accelerated renal tubular calcium oxalate deposition, the protection against the crystal formation was not observed with excessive dietary magnesium. When rats were fed a high-calcium diet supplemented with phytin, a significant inhibition of the intratubular crystallization was observed. It appeared obvious that a hypocalciuric action of phytin was attributed to the effect of the prevention. There was vigorous protection of crystal formation by treatment with sodium citrate, which correlated with the level of citrate concentration in the drinking water. PMID:3433579

  12. Effect of dietary oxalate and calcium on urinary oxalate and risk of formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, L K; Roman-Smith, H; Sutton, R A

    1993-08-01

    Dietary restriction of oxalate intake has been used as therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Although urinary oxalate is derived predominantly from endogenous synthesis, it may also be affected by dietary intake of oxalate and calcium. The risk of increasing urinary oxalate excretion by excessive consumption of dietary oxalate is greatest in individuals with a high rate of oxalate absorption, both with and without overt intestinal disease. Although oxalate-rich foods enhanced excretion of urinary oxalate in normal volunteers, the increase was not proportional to the oxalate content of the food. Only eight foods--spinach, rhubarb, beets, nuts, chocolate, tea, wheat bran, and strawberries--caused a significant increase in urinary oxalate excretion. Restriction of dietary calcium enhances oxalate absorption and excretion, whereas an increase in calcium intake may reduce urinary oxalate excretion by binding more oxalate in the gut. This review of the literature indicates that initial dietary therapy for stone-forming individuals can be limited to the restriction of foods definitely shown to increase urinary oxalate. The effects of oxalate-restricted diets on urinary oxalate should be evaluated by means of laboratory analyses of urine composition. Subsequent long-term therapy can be recommended if beneficial results are obtained from oxalate restriction at an appropriate calcium intake. PMID:8335871

  13. Effects of anorectic drugs on food intake under progressive-ratio and free-access conditions in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    LeSage, Mark G.; Stafford, David; Glowa, John R

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two anorectic drugs, dexfenfluramine and phentermine, on food intake under different food-access conditions were examined. Experiment 1 compared the effects of these drugs on food intake under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule and free-access conditions. Dexfenfluramine decreased food intake under both conditions, but the doses required to decrease intake under free-access conditions were higher than those required to reduce intake under the PR condition. Intermediate doses of ...

  14. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won O. Song

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  15. Changes in intakes of total and added sugar and their contribution to energy intake in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ock K; Chung, Chin E; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1-18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. PMID:22254059

  16. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez García, Mario E.; Aguilera-Barreiro, María de los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective: To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). Methods: The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 3555. U...

  17. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is essential ... counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D plays ...

  18. Calcium and iron absorption: mechanism of action and nutritional importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Rossander-Hultén, L; Brune, M; Gleerup, A

    1992-05-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effect of calcium on iron absorption in 57 human subjects. Three studies suggested that the effect is not located in the gastrointestinal tract. The presence of phytate in a meal and formation of calcium-iron-phytate complexes is not a prerequisite for the inhibition. The relative increase in iron absorption by ascorbic acid was the same in meals with and without calcium, suggesting that calcium did not influence the balance between enhancing and inhibiting ligands in the gastrointestinal lumen. No inhibiting effect on iron absorption was seen when adding 3 mg calcium to 0.01 mg iron (molar ratio Ca/Fe = 420). Previous studies showing a marked inhibition by calcium had a lower molar ratio, but greater amounts of calcium were given. This suggests that a minimal concentration of calcium is needed to achieve an effect. The present results indirectly support our original hypothesis that the inhibitory effect of calcium on iron absorption is situated within the intestinal mucosal cells. The practical nutritional implications of the inhibitory effect of calcium are considerable since addition of milk, milkshake or cheese to common meals such as pizza or hamburger meals reduced iron absorption by 50-60%. It is recommended to reduce the intake of dairy products with the main meals providing most of the dietary iron, especially for those having the highest iron requirements i.e. children, teenagers and women at childbearing age. PMID:1600930

  19. Intake levels and major food sources of energy and nutrients in the Taiwanese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shin-Jiuan; Chang, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ien-Lan; Kao, Mei-Ding; Lin, Yi-Chin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2005-01-01

    elderly and younger adults was reflected in differences in common food sources of energy and specific nutrients. The dietary patterns of the elderly are in general "healthier" than that of younger adults except for higher salt intake among the elderly. Nonetheless, our elderly population needs to increase their intake of calcium, magnesium, vitamins E and B6, and dietary fiber, and decrease their consumption of salt. Promoting the ingestion of whole-grain and nut products may be a useful strategy to improve the nutritional status of the Taiwanese elderly, aiming at increasing the percentage of energy obtained from carbohydrates and the daily intake of vitamins E and B6, magnesium, and dietary fiber. Suitable strategies are also needed to improve the calcium status of Taiwanese elderly, particularly as a high proportion of them are either lactose intolerant or dislike dairy products. PMID:16169831

  20. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Loring Bradlee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years. Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy.

  1. 8. Nutritional intake and energy expenditure of working obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is undertaken on 49 obese women out of 70 women in the age group of 35-40 years of Jalandhar who were surveyed for obesity with respect to their Body Mass Index. BMI of the subject is calculated with the help of height and weight measurements. Twenty four hour dietary recall method is used to calculate the intake of various nutrients. To calculate the energy expenditure of the sample under study, their daily life style activities are recorded. The intake of Carbohydrate and Iron are significantly less than their respective RDA. The intake of fat and Calcium in working obese women is significantly higher than their respective RDA. The Protein intake is almost equal to recommended levels. There is a significant difference between the observed energy intake and observed energy expenditure of working obese women. It was intriguing to find that the energy intake in obese women has been less than that of RDA. There are chances of underreporting of nutrient intakes and over reporting of energy expenditure in order to conform to social psyche and prejudice against obesity as shown by numerous other studies.

  2. Importance of Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    TANDOĞAN, Berivan; ULUSU, N. Nuray

    2005-01-01

    Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. Calcium regulates many cellular processes and has important structural roles in living organisms. Skeletal muscle structure and function, polymerisation of fibrin and the conduction of impulses in the nervous system are regulated by calcium. Calcium is an important intracellular messenger in protozoa, plants, and animals. Calcium-transporting systems which are located in the plasma membrane and in the organelles, regulate the ionic concentrati...

  3. Discussion on the mechanism of the calcium absorption in the human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The present article discusses a new mechanism of calcium absorption in the human body. The mechanism is revealed as follows. First, after food is digested in the stomach, calcium ions (Ca2+) are released. The small intestine secretes amino acid or short peptide chain with small molecniar weight automatically, which are called chelating agent; when the calcium ions from the stomach get to the small intestine, the reaction of the chelating agent with the calcium ions occurs, producing the neutral amino acid calcium chelate. Then, this kind of calcium chelate with small molecular weight is absorbed as a whole into the tissues of the small intestine. After being absorbed, in the cell the calcium chelate can break down its chelating bond automatically and decompose into the amino acid and calcium ion again. Finally, the calcium ion goes into blood through portal vein and is transferred to the organs and also deposits on the bone. The reason for the body's calcium insufficiency, which has no linear relation with the calcium intake amount, is the lack of the amino acid secreted by the small intestine. The main barrier that influences the calcium absorption is anion pollution. The calcium absorptivity of the body has nothing to do with the solubility of the calcium source out of the body.A new kind of calcium supplement agent--glycine calcium chelate--is synthesized, whose molecular weight is 206.06(containing a molecular water). If the glycine calcium chelate is used to make calcium supplement agent, about 20 mg calcium element (converted from the glycine calcium chelate,the same below, no longer indicated) per day for one person,50 mg at most, is enough to maintain the positive balance of calcium metabolism.``

  4. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  5. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, Christopher J; Houchins, Jenny A; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant

  6. Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bouhlal

    Full Text Available Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g, not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002, and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

  7. Postprandial Energy Metabolism in the Regulation of Body Weight: Is there a Mechanistic Role for Dietary Calcium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Soares

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been much interest in the mechanisms by which calcium may attenuate weight gain or accelerate body fat loss. This review focuses on postprandial energy metabolism and indicates that dietary calcium increases whole body fat oxidation after single and multiple meals. There is, as yet, no conclusive evidence for a greater diet induced thermogenesis, an increased lipolysis or suppression of key lipogenic enzyme systems. There is however convincing evidence that higher calcium intakes promote a modest energy loss through increased fecal fat excretion. Overall, there is a role for dietary calcium in human energy metabolism. Future studies need to define threshold intakes for metabolic and gastrointestinal outcomes.

  8. Early postnatal calcium and phosphorus metabolism in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christmann, V.; Grauw, A.M. de; Visser, R.; Matthijsse, R.P.; Goudoever, J.B. van; Heijst, A.F.J. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bone mineralisation in preterm infants is related to the supply of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). We increased the amount of minerals in parenteral nutrition (PN) for preterm infants and evaluated postnatal Ca and P metabolism in relation to mineral and vitamin D (vitD) intake. METHODS

  9. Fluorine-fixing efficiency on calcium-based briquette: pilot experiment, demonstration and promotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jiao-lan; CHEN Dong-qing; LI Shu-min; YUE Yin-ling; JIN Xin; ZHAO Bing-cheng; YING Bo

    2010-01-01

    Background The fluorosis derived from coal burning is a very serious problem in China. By using fluorine-fixing technology during coal burning we are able to reduce the release of fluorides in coal at the source in order to reduce pollution to the surrounding environment by coal burning pollutants as well as decrease the intake and accumulating amounts of fluorine in the human body. The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot experiment on calcium-based fluorine-fixing material efficiency during coal burning to demonstrate and promote the technology based on laboratory research.Methods A proper amount of calcium-based fluorine sorbent was added into high-fluorine coal to form briquettes so that the fluorine in high-fluorine coal can be fixed in coal slag and its release into atmosphere reduced. We determined figures on various components in briquettes and fluorine in coal slag as well as the concentrations of indoor air pollutants, including fluoride, sulfur dioxide and respirable particulate matter (RPM), and evaluated the fluorine-fixing efficiency of calcium-based fluorine sorbents and the levels of indoor air pollutants.Results Pilot experiments on fluorine-fixing efficiency during coal burning as well as its demonstration and promotion were carried out separately in Guiding and Longli Counties of Guizhou Province, two areas with coal burning fluorosis problems. If the calcium-based fluorine sorbent mixed coal was made into honeycomb briquettes the average fluorine-fixing ratio in the pilot experiment was 71.8%. If the burning calcium-based fluorine-fixing bitumite was made into a coalball, the average of fluorine-fixing ratio was 77.3%. The concentration of fluoride, sulfur dioxide and PM10 of indoor air were decreased significantly. There was a 10% increase in the cost of briquettes due to the addition of calcium-based fluorine sorbent.Conclusions The preparation process of calcium-based fluorine-fixing briquette is simple yet highly flammable and it is

  10. Serum calcium levels are not associated with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Y

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yuelong Jin,* Lianping He,* Quanhai Wang, Yan Chen, Xiaohua Ren, Hui Tang, Xiuli Song, Lingling Ding, Qin Qi, Zhiwei Huang, Jiegen Yu, Yingshui Yao Department of Preventive Medicine, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Numerous studies have reported that low calcium intake is related to a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between serum calcium and coronary heart disease is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare serum calcium levels in patients with coronary heart disease and those in healthy individuals. Methods: This retrospective, case-control study conducted in the People's Republic of China comprised 380 cases and 379 controls. Serum calcium levels, blood lipids, and anthropometric measurements were measured in both groups. The Student's unpaired t-test or Chi-square test was used to compare differences between cases and controls. Pearson's partial correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between serum calcium, blood lipids, and blood pressure in both groups. Results: Our results indicate that the average level of serum calcium in cases was higher than in controls. Serum calcium levels showed no correlation with any parameter except for triglycerides in either group. Conclusion: Overall, these data suggest that serum calcium has no influence on coronary heart disease or triglyceride levels in the general population. Keywords: serum calcium, hypertension, blood lipids

  11. Diet, nutrition intake, and metabolism in populations at high and low risk for colon cancer. Nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, B M; Whittaker, D J; Nair, P P; Rider, A A; Turjman, N

    1984-10-01

    A 3-day diary with portion sizes weighed by the subject and a 24-h recall were obtained on 50 sets of subjects: Seventh-day Adventist lacto-ovo-vegetarians and nonvegetarians, and general population nonvegetarians, matched on age (+/- 5 yr), sex, marital status, education, type of milk preferred, and an index of the frequency of dairy and egg product use. An additional 18 unmatched persons who follow a pure vegetarian dietary pattern (use no meat, fish, fowl, dairy, or egg products) were recruited into the study. The rational for the dietary methods used is presented and details of each of the methods used are given. The results of the nutrient analysis of the 24-h recall and 3-day diary are presented. The 3-day nutrient intake means for the four groups are compared to the sex-specific recommended daily allowance both with and without supplements. The contribution of nutritional supplements to the nutrient intake is discussed. All groups show adequate or excess intake levels of calories, protein, and fat when either the 24-h recall or the 3-day diary values are considered. The higher intake of calories noted among nonvegetarians can be explained by a higher intake of both fat and protein in these groups. A, B, and C vitamin levels (3-day dairy estimates) are adequate both with and without supplements. Calcium intake is much below recommended levels for pure vegetarian females. Iron intake is low for all females. A heme iron source does not improve the intake levels for nonvegetarian females. A comparison of these results with prior reports of nutrient intake among Seventh-day Adventists is presented. PMID:6486098

  12. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best source. Milk and dairy products such as yogurt, cheeses, and buttermilk contain a form of calcium ... the amount of calcium in a dairy product. Yogurt, most cheeses, and buttermilk are excellent sources of ...

  13. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It is a prescription pain medicine used to relieve symptoms of arthritis . Fenoprofen calcium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  14. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  15. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  16. POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

  17. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  18. Calcium and magnesium disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Jesse P

    2014-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a clinical disorder that can be life threatening to the cow (milk fever) and predisposes the animal to various other metabolic and infectious disorders. Calcium homeostasis is mediated primarily by parathyroid hormone, which stimulates bone calcium resorption and renal calcium reabsorption. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to enhance diet calcium absorption. High dietary cation-anion difference interferes with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Hypomagnesemia reduces tissue response to parathyroid hormone. PMID:24980727

  19. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  20. Dietary intake is associated with human chronotype as assessed by both morningness-eveningness score and preferred midpoint of sleep in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Mito, Natsuko; Shibata, Shigenobu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sato, Kazuto

    2011-08-01

    We analyzed the association between dietary intake and chronotype as assessed by both Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) score and preferred midpoint of sleep in 112 young Japanese women. Dietary intake was assessed by a brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire. A lower MEQ score (evening-type tendency) showed a significant association with a lower energy-adjusted intake of protein, calcium, magnesium, zinc, vitamins (D, riboflavin, and B(6)), and vegetables, and with a higher intake of noodles. Furthermore, a later midpoint of sleep showed a significant association with a lower energy-adjusted intake of protein, cholesterol, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, vitamins (D, riboflavin, B(6), and B(12)), soy, fish and shellfish, and eggs, and with a higher intake of noodles, bread, and confections. These data suggest that evening chronotype is associated with inadequate dietary habits such as low vitamin and mineral intakes. PMID:21495902

  1. Effects of low calcium plus high aluminum diet on magnesium and calcium contents in spinal cord and trabecular bone of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current epidemiological surveys in the Western Pacific area and Kii Peninsula have suggested that low calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and high aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenetic process of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia (PD). The condition of unbalanced minerals was experimentally duplicated in this study using rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 60 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca diet with high Al. Magnesium concentration was determined in spinal cord and trabecular bone using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) and the calcium concentration was determined using neutron activation method. In the group maintained on low Ca high Al diet, magnesium content of the spinal cord was lower than the group fed standard diet. Also, magnesium content of lumbar bone showed lower values in the unbalanced diet group fed low Ca high Al diet than those in the standard diet and low Ca diet groups. Calcium content of spinal cord was highest in rats maintained on low Ca high Al diet. Calcium content in lumbar bone of rats significantly decreased in rats maintained on the low Ca diet (group B and C) compared to rats given a standard diet (group A). Our data indicate that low Ca and high Al dietary intake influence Mg concentration in bone and central nervous system (CNS) tissues and that low Ca and high Al diet diminish Mg in bone and CNS tissues, thereby inducing loss of calcification in bone and degeneration of CNS tissues due to disturbance of the normal biological effects of Mg. (author)

  2. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of cardiop

  3. Sorption of UO22+ on calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption of uranyl ions on calcium carbonate from aqueous solutions featuring different concentration of calcium nitrate was studied experimentally. It is shown that uranium sorption decreases with calcium concentration growth in solution, irrespective of the ratio of solid phase and solution masses. Specific sorption of uranium per unit of the sorbent surface depends linearly on the ratio of UO22+ and Ca2+ ions activities in solution with proportionality factor (sorption equilibrium constant) 1.71 ± 0.16 mol/m2 at 20 deg C

  4. Exposure assessment of metal intakes from drinking water relative to those from total diet in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Kurosawa, Yuki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Daily intakes of 17 metals (boron, aluminium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, lead, uranium, magnesium, calcium, and iron) via drinking water and total diet were investigated in six cities in Japan. The daily metal intakes were estimated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values proposed by the WHO or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for toxic metals and with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) values proposed for essential metals by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 13 toxic metals, mean dietary intakes of 10 (except arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum) were less than 50% of TDI, suggesting that for these 10 metals the allocation of intake to drinking water in establishing guidelines or standards could possibly be increased from the normal allocation of 10-20% of TDI. For the 13 toxic metals, the contribution of drinking water to TDI was 2% or less in all six cities. Mean dietary intakes of the essential elements magnesium, calcium, and iron were less than the RDA or AI values. Drinking water did not contribute much to essential metal intake, accounting for less than 10% of RDA or AI. PMID:21099058

  5. Nutrient Intakes and Vegetable and White Potato Consumption by Children Aged 1 to 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    In 2020, for the first time, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will include recommendations for children from birth to age 24 mo. We examined average nutrient intakes as well as total vegetable and white potato (WP) consumption among children aged 1-3 y using day 1 dietary data from the NHANES 2009-2012 and the Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2009-2012. Appropriate survey weights were used to calculate average daily consumption of total vegetables and WPs, which included French-fried potatoes and chips, for boys and girls aged 1-3 y. We calculated mean intakes of selected nutrients of concern, including vitamin D, potassium, dietary fiber (DF), and calcium. We also examined intakes of selected nutrients by major food group. Average intakes of most nutrients, including calcium, by children aged 1-3 y exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). However, average intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were 67%, 55%, and 49% of DRIs, respectively. Mean total vegetable intake was less than the recommendation of 1 cup/d. Boys and girls aged 1-3 y consumed an average of 0.58 cup equivalents of total vegetables on the day of the survey, which included 0.16 cups of WPs. Average vegetable consumption and mean intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were far below recommendations. The consumption of all vegetables, particularly those that are excellent sources of potassium and DF, such as potatoes, should be encouraged. PMID:26773032

  6. Food consumption pattern and nutrient intake of Indian obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, T; Khetarpaul, N

    2000-01-01

    Mean daily intake of all foods except cereals i.e. pulses, green leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, fruits, milk and milk products, sugar and fats of Indian obese male respondents was higher than the values recommended by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, 1987). The consumption of fat and sugar was 18 and 8 percent more than the recommended intake values respectively. However, their non-obese counterparts consumed significantly (P vit B12, folacin, ascorbic acid and calcium by obese respondents was considerably higher than the recommended values (ICMR, 1990) and the control group. All the obese respondents were consuming adequate (100% and above) amounts of energy, protein and fats. Intake of carbohydrates was marginally adequate (75-99.9%) among 92 percent of the obese respondents whereas 8 percent were consuming adequate amount of carbohydrates. They had higher consumption of visible as well as invisible fat than the control group. PMID:11142609

  7. Preconceptional Iron Intake and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Anne Marie; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the impact of preconceptional heme and non-heme iron on gestational diabetes mellitius (GDM) in the Boston University Slone Epidemiology Birth Defects Study (BDS). This retrospective cohort analysis included 7229 participants enrolled in the BDS between 1998 and 2008 who gave birth to non-malformed infants and were free of pre-existing diabetes. All data were collected through structured interviews conducted within 6 months of delivery. Calorie-adjusted and multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. Preconceptional dietary heme iron was modestly associated with an elevated risk of GDM among those (multivariable OR comparing the fifth quintile to the first: 1.55; 95% CI 0.98, 2.46). Conversely, preconceptional dietary non-heme iron was associated with a decreased risk of GDM among those in the fifth quintile of intake compared to the first (multivariable OR: 0.48; 95% CI 0.28, 0.81). Women who consumed supplemental iron during preconception also had a decreased risk of GDM (multivariable OR: 0.78; 95% CI 0.60, 1.02). In conclusion, our data support a positive association between preconceptional heme iron intake and GDM and an inverse association between preconceptional non-heme iron intake from foods and preconceptional intake from supplements. PMID:27231921

  8. Preconceptional Iron Intake and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Anne Marie; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the impact of preconceptional heme and non-heme iron on gestational diabetes mellitius (GDM) in the Boston University Slone Epidemiology Birth Defects Study (BDS). This retrospective cohort analysis included 7229 participants enrolled in the BDS between 1998 and 2008 who gave birth to non-malformed infants and were free of pre-existing diabetes. All data were collected through structured interviews conducted within 6 months of delivery. Calorie-adjusted and multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. Preconceptional dietary heme iron was modestly associated with an elevated risk of GDM among those (multivariable OR comparing the fifth quintile to the first: 1.55; 95% CI 0.98, 2.46). Conversely, preconceptional dietary non-heme iron was associated with a decreased risk of GDM among those in the fifth quintile of intake compared to the first (multivariable OR: 0.48; 95% CI 0.28, 0.81). Women who consumed supplemental iron during preconception also had a decreased risk of GDM (multivariable OR: 0.78; 95% CI 0.60, 1.02). In conclusion, our data support a positive association between preconceptional heme iron intake and GDM and an inverse association between preconceptional non-heme iron intake from foods and preconceptional intake from supplements. PMID:27231921

  9. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2 who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL. Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.

  10. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case–control study in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Galas, Aleksander; Augustyniak, Malgorzata; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Background An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease’s incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on ...

  11. Fetuin-A decrease induced by a low-protein diet enhances vascular calcification in uremic rats with hyperphosphatemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Tokumoto, Masanori; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Tatsumoto, Narihito; Noguchi, Hideko; Kitazono, Takanari; Ooboshi, Hiroaki

    2015-10-15

    Although dietary phosphate restriction is important for treating hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease, it remains unclear whether a low-protein diet (LPD), which contains low phosphate, has beneficial effects on malnutrition, inflammation, and vascular calcification. The effects of LPD on inflammation, malnutrition, and vascular calcification were therefore assessed in rats. Rats were fed a normal diet or diets containing 0.3% adenine and low/normal protein and low/high phosphate. After 6 wk, serum and urinary biochemical parameters, systemic inflammation, and vascular calcification were examined. The protective effect of fetuin-A and albumin were assessed in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Rats fed the diet containing 0.3% adenine developed severe azotemia. LPD in rats fed high phosphate induced malnutrition (decreases in body weight, food intake, serum albumin and fetuin-A levels, and urinary creatinine excretion) and systemic inflammation (increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-α and urinary oxidative stress marker). LPD decreased the serum fetuin-A level and fetuin-A synthesis in the liver and increased serum calcium-phosphate precipitates. A high-phosphate diet increased aortic calcium content, which was enhanced by LPD. Reduced fetal calf serum in the medium of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells enhanced phosphate-induced formation of calcium-phosphate precipitates in the media and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells, both of which were prevented by fetuin-A administration. Our results suggest that phosphate restriction by restricting dietary protein promotes vascular calcification by lowering the systemic fetuin-A level and increasing serum calcium-phosphate precipitates and induces inflammation and malnutrition in uremic rats fed a high-phosphate diet. PMID:26180236

  12. Effects of fluoxetine on weight gain and food intake in smokers who reduce nicotine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerleau, O F; Pomerleau, C S; Morrell, E M; Lowenbergh, J M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of fluoxetine hydrochloride, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor (60 mg/day PO), in preventing weight gain associated with nicotine reduction was investigated in participants in a double-blind, placebo-controlled smoking-cessation trial. A lunch of cheese pizza and chocolate bars was offered, and caloric intake was monitored. The analysis focused on subjects (placebo: n = 11; fluoxetine: n = 10) who succeeded in reaching cotinine levels of less than 50% of their starting cotinine levels (signifying a stringent reduction in nicotine intake) and who participated in pre- and post-nicotine reduction lunch sessions 70 days apart. Subjects on placebo gained significantly more weight (mean +/- SEM = +3.3 +/- 0.7 kg) than subjects on fluoxetine (-0.6 +/- 1.2 kg). In fluoxetine-treated subjects, weight gain/loss was strongly correlated with initial body mass index, with higher BMI being associated with greater decreases in weight. A trend towards decreased caloric intake in the fluoxetine group was observed; the change in total calories at lunch was significantly correlated with weight change, an association accounted for principally by change in pizza intake. We conclude that fluoxetine treatment effectively prevents the weight gain that accompanies nicotine reduction and that this phenomenon is mediated, at least in part, by diminished caloric intake. PMID:1805294

  13. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05. Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  14. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  15. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human...... span many orders of magnitude from a low of 0.6 ppm for bisphenol A to a high of > 180,000 ppm for methyl paraben. Intermediate results were obtained for five phthalates and two chlorinated aromatic compounds: 120 ppm for butyl benzyl phthalate, 670 ppm for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 760 ppm for di...

  16. Caffeine intake and fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H;

    1998-01-01

    Fecundability has been defined as the ability to achieve a recognized pregnancy. Several studies on caffeine and fecundability have been conducted but have been inconclusive. This may be explained partly by lack of stratification by smoking. Furthermore, few researchers have tried to separate the...... effect of caffeine from different sources (coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate). Clearly, the relationship between caffeine and fecundability needs further research, given the high prevalence of caffeine intake among women of childbearing age. We examined the independent and combined effects of smoking and...... caffeine intake from different sources on the probability of conception. From 1992 to 1995, a total of 430 couples were recruited after a nationwide mailing of a personal letter to 52,255 trade union members who were 20 to 35 years old, lived with a partner, and had no previous reproductive experience. At...

  17. Calcium release-activated calcium current in rat mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoth, M; Penner, R

    1993-06-01

    1. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of membrane currents and fura-2 measurements of free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were used to study the biophysical properties of a calcium current activated by depletion of intracellular calcium stores in rat peritoneal mast cells. 2. Calcium influx through an inward calcium release-activated calcium current (ICRAC) was induced by three independent mechanisms that result in store depletion: intracellular infusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) or extracellular application of ionomycin (active depletion), and intracellular infusion of calcium chelators (ethylene glycol bis-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)) to prevent reuptake of leaked-out calcium into the stores (passive depletion). 3. The activation of ICRAC induced by active store depletion has a short delay (4-14 s) following intracellular infusion of InsP3 or extracellular application of ionomycin. It has a monoexponential time course with a time constant of 20-30 s and, depending on the complementary Ca2+ buffer, a mean normalized amplitude (at 0 mV) of 0.6 pA pF-1 (with EGTA) and 1.1 pA pF-1 (with BAPTA). 4. After full activation of ICRAC by InsP3 in the presence of EGTA (10 mM), hyperpolarizing pulses to -100 mV induced an instantaneous inward current that decayed by 64% within 50 ms. This inactivation is probably mediated by [Ca2+]i, since the decrease of inward current in the presence of the fast Ca2+ buffer BAPTA (10 mM) was only 30%. 5. The amplitude of ICRAC was dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of 3.3 mM. Inward currents were nonsaturating up to -200 mV. 6. The selectivity of ICRAC for Ca2+ was assessed by using fura-2 as the dominant intracellular buffer (at a concentration of 2 mM) and relating the absolute changes in the calcium-sensitive fluorescence (390 nm excitation) with the calcium current integral

  18. STUDY OF SERUM TOTAL CALCIUM, IO NIZED CALCIUM AND TOTAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATIONS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK.Deepthi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Menopause and ageing is associated with accelerated loss of cortical bone. Osteoporotic fractures are common cause of morbidity and mortality in adult Indian women due to ageing. This study was conducted to evaluate the levels of serum calcium, ionized calcium and total protein levels in postmenopausal women and to assess its relation with ageing. Study includes 70 women (40 post menopausal and 30 prem enopausal women serum alkaline phosphatase, serum calcium, ionized calcium and total proteins, serum albumin were estimated in both cases and controls. There is decrease in serum calcium in postmenopausal; wo men when compared to premenopausal women. There was no significant change in ionized calcium in both cases and controls. ALP is highly significant P<0.001. In postmenopausal women suggesting there is high alkaline phosphotase activity in postmenopausal women as a result of the inhibitory effects of estrogen on bone turnover rate which is dependent on age and body mass index. Decrease in serum albumin was seen in postmenopausal wo men which is the reason for decrease in serum calcium level which is inturn related to ageing effect.

  19. Development of the Iowa bone nutrient food frequency questionnaire based on data from the US Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of the Food Intake by Individuals1

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, Julie M.E.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Levy, Steven M.; Stumbo, Phyllis J.

    2008-01-01

    An easily administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)/dietary screener was developed for current (adult) and retrospective (adolescent) intakes of nutrients important for bone development and maintenance. This tool quantified serving sizes and nutrients from foods using gender and age specific techniques. Nutrients of interest were calcium, vitamin D, caffeine and alcohol, and 15 categories of foods were selected for inclusion based on frequency of intake and nutrient density. Calcium-con...

  20. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  1. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, A; Hirvonen, T; Mensik, GBM;

    2009-01-01

    evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E was...... consume considerably less than the UL with exceptions being retinol, zinc, iodine, copper and magnesium. The major contributor to intakes for all nutrients and in all countries is from foods in the base diet. The patterns of food supplements and voluntary fortification vary widely among countries with...

  2. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  3. EXERCISE ENHANCING CALCIUM ABSORPTION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Muliani

    2013-01-01

    Calcium has important role in many biological processes therefore calcium homeostasis should be maintained. Imbalance in calcium homeostasis would affects the bone metabolism, neuromuscular function, blood coagulation, cell proliferation and signal transduction. Homeostasis of calcium is maintained by three major organs: gastrointestinal tract, bone and kidney. Intestinal calcium absorption is the sole mechanism to supply calcium to the body. Calcium absorption controlled by calcitropic hormo...

  4. Calcium carbonate scaling kinetics determined from radiotracer experiments with calcium-47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition rate of calcium carbonate on a heat-transfer surface has been measured using a calcium-47 radiotracer and compared to the measured rate of thermal fouling. The crystalline phase of calcium carbonate that precipitates depends on the degree of supersaturation at the heat-transfer surface, with aragonite precipitating at higher supersaturations and calcite precipitating at lower supersaturations. Whereas the mass deposition rates were constant with time, the thermal fouling rates decreased throughout the course of each experiment as a result of densification of the deposit. It is proposed that the densification was driven by the temperature gradient across the deposit together with the retrograde solubility of calcium carbonate. The temperature dependence of the deposition rate yielded an activation energy of 79 ± 4 kJ/mol for the precipitation of calcium carbonate on a heat-transfer surface. (author)

  5. Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D3 Intake on Ambulation, Muscular Pain and Bone Mineral Density in a Woman with Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Feron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence correlate vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol supplementation or higher serum levels of vitamin D (25(OHD with a lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS, reduced relapse rate, slower progression or fewer new brain lesions. We present here the case of a woman who was diagnosed with MS in 1990. From 1980 to 2000, her ability to walk decreased from ~20 to 1 km per day. Since January 2001, a vitamin D3 supplement was ingested daily. The starting dose was 20 mcg (800 IU/day and escalated to 100 mcg (4000 IU/day in September 2004 and then to 150 mcg (6000 IU/day in December 2005. Vitamin D3 intake reduced muscular pain and improved ambulation from 1 (February 2000 to 14 km/day (February 2008. Vitamin D intake over 10 years caused no adverse effects: no hypercalcaemia, nephrolithiasis or hypercalciuria were observed. Bowel problems in MS may need to be addressed as they can cause malabsorption including calcium, which may increase serum PTH and 1,25(OH2D levels, as well as bone loss. We suggest that periodic assessment of vitamin D3, calcium and magnesium intake, bowel problems and the measurement of serum 25(OHD, PTH, Ca levels, UCa/Cr and bone health become part of the integral management of persons with MS.

  6. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J;

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion...... of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study......) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest...

  7. Calcium-fortified beverage supplementation on body composition in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remig Valentina M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the effects of a calcium-fortified beverage supplemented over 12 months on body composition in postmenopausal women (n = 37, age = 48–75 y. Methods Body composition (total-body percent fat, %FatTB; abdominal percent fat, %FatAB was measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. After baseline assessments, subjects were randomly assigned to a free-living control group (CTL or the supplement group (1,125 mg Ca++/d, CAL. Dietary intake was assessed with 3-day diet records taken at baseline and 12 months (POST. Physical activity was measured using the Yale Physical Activity Survey. Results At 12 months, the dietary calcium to protein ratio in the CAL group (32.3 ± 15.6 mg/g was greater than the CTL group (15.2 ± 7.5 mg/g. There were no differences from baseline to POST between groups for changes in body weight (CAL = 0.1 ± 3.0 kg; CTL = 0.0 ± 2.9 kg, %FatTB (CAL = 0.0 ± 2.4%; CTL = 0.5 ± 5.4%, %FatAB (CAL = -0.4 ± 8.7%; CTL = 0.6 ± 8.7%, or fat mass (CAL = 1.3 ± 2.6 kg; CTL = 1.3 ± 2.7 kg. Conclusion These results indicate that increasing the calcium to protein ratio over two-fold by consuming a calcium-fortified beverage for 12 months did not decrease body weight, body fat, or abdominal fat composition in postmenopausal women.

  8. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different Calcium—Regulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Pan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an “Enhanced Calcium Efflux” mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel’s stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis.

  9. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by members of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter which has the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The annual limit of intake (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake figures in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experiment animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbation factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increases for plutonium and protactinium, and decreases for neptunium. (Author)

  10. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by means of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter that have the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The 'annual limit of intake' (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experimental animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbtion factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increase for plutonium and protactinium, and decrease for neptunium. An attempt to predict possible future changes of the ALI for members of the general public is also made. (Author)

  11. Postpartum Nutrient Intakes and Beverage Patterns of American Indian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: American Indian (AI children are at risk for chronic diseases associated with marginal early nutrition environments. We describe nutrient intakes and beverage patterns of AI women during the early postnatal period to identify nutritional adequacy and beverage habits. Methods: 24 hour recalls and beverage frequency questionnaires were administered to AI mothers (n = 239 from a Northern Plains Tribal community 1 month postpartum. 24 hour recalls were analyzed using Nutritionist PRO(R software, and intakes were compared to Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. Results: The percentage of AI women reporting nutrient intakes below the EAR was 97% for vitamin D, 96% for vitamin E, 69% for vitamin A, 55% for vitamin C, 73% for calcium and 79% for magnesium. Median (25th, 75th percentile beverage intakes reported by beverage consumers were 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz milk, 8.0(3.4, 16.0 oz 100% juice, 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz juice drinks, 18.6(7.4, 28.0 oz regular pop, 9.1(4.6, 18.3oz sports drinks, 12.0(5.1, 22.0oz sugared flavored water and 48.0(24.0, 96.0 oz water. Conclusions: The low nutrient and high sugared beverage intakes increased risk of chronic malnutrition. The nutritional environment predisposes AI children to chronic diseases including obesity and dental caries through early metabolic programming and later modeling behaviors.

  12. FAT EMULSION COMPOSITION ALTERS INTAKE AND THE EFFECTS OF BACLOFEN

    OpenAIRE

    Y Wang; Wilt, DC; Wojnicki, FHE; Babbs, RK; Coupland, JN; Corwin, RLC

    2011-01-01

    Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed i...

  13. Dengue and Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan C; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is potentially fatal unless managed appropriately. No specific treatment is available and the mainstay of treatment is fluid management with careful monitoring, organ support, and correction of metabolic derangement. Evidence with regards to the role of calcium homeostasis in dengue is limited. Low blood calcium levels have been demonstrated in dengue infection and hypocalcemia maybe more pronounced in more severe forms. The cause of hypocalcemia is likely to be multifactorial. Calcium...

  14. US adolescent food intake trends from 1965 to 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Cavadini, C.; Siega-Riz, A. M.; Popkin, B.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To examine adolescent food consumption trends in the United States with important chronic disease implications. Methods Analysis of dietary intake data from 4 nationally representative US Department of Agriculture surveys of persons aged 11 to 18 years (n = 12,498). Results From 1965 to 1996, a considerable shift occurred in the adolescent diet. Total energy intake decreased, as did the proportion of energy from total fat (39%-32%) and saturated fat (15%-12%). Concurrent increases o...

  15. Calcium Supplementation to Prevent Preeclampsia: Translating Guidelines into Practice in Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotayo, Moshood O; Dickin, Katherine L; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Neufeld, Lynnette M; De Regil, Luz Maria; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2016-03-01

    The WHO issued a strong recommendation that pregnant women be provided calcium supplements to prevent preeclampsia. This is the first recommended nutritional intervention to prevent this condition, a leading cause of maternal mortality globally. As health systems seek to implement this new intervention, a number of issues require further clarification and guidance, including dosage regimen, supplement formulation, and alignment with other antenatal nutritional interventions. We summarize key evidence on the above points and offer our views on good practices. Most developing countries have low calcium intake, so where habitual calcium intake is unknown, calcium supplements are likely beneficial. In our view, policymakers and program planners should consider adopting doses between 1.0 and 1.5 g elemental calcium/d, depending on the local average and variation in dietary calcium intake, logistical feasibility, and acceptability in the target population. Prudent practice would entail daily administration as calcium carbonate administered in divided doses of not >500 mg elemental calcium per dose. For ease of prescribing and adherence, calcium [as with iron and folic acid (IFA)] should be administered routinely to pregnant women from the earliest contact in pregnancy until delivery. Calcium's acute inhibitory effect on iron absorption translates to minimal effects in clinical studies. Therefore, to simplify the regimen and facilitate adherence, providers should not counsel that calcium and IFA pills must be taken separately. Although further research will shed more light on clinical and programmatic issues, policies can be implemented with ongoing revision as we continue to learn what works to improve maternal and newborn health. PMID:26980810

  16. Effect of Zinc Intake on Fetal and Infant Growth Among Chinese Pregnant and Lactating Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between maternal nutrient intake and fetal size or infant growth was studied in 1956 pregnant women, 599 parturients and 1043 lactating women, 318 non-pregnant women included as controls. The study was conducted in eight regions that were representative of all geographical areas of China. The diet was comprised primarily of cereal products with 70% to 85% of the zinc intake derived from plant sources. Women in the third trimester of pregnancy, parturients and lactating women consumed more food than non-pregnant women or women in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Total energy, protein and iron intakes met the recommended allowances for each stage of reproduction. Calcium and zinc intakes, however, were 50% and 47% of the amount recommended, respectively. Only 7.2% of the women exceeded two-thirds of the recommended zinc intake. The mean intake of zinc was 6.5mg to 9.0 mg each day among all the subjects. Correlation and stepwise regression analysis showed that maternal zinc intake was a predictor factor for fetal dimensions and birthweight. The results of this study show that fetal growth and birthweight are directly related to maternal zinc intake among Chinese women, and that there is no relationship between maternal zinc intake during lactation and infant height, weight, or weight gain from birth.

  17. Effect of Zinc Intake on Fetal and Infant Growth Among Chinese Pregnant and Lactating Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGYUE-XIN; CHENXUE-CUN; 等

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between maternal nutrient intake and fetal size or infant growth was studied in 1956 pregnant women,599 Parturients and 1043 lactating women,318 non-pregnant women included as controls,The study was conducted in eight regions that were representative of all geograthical areas of China,The diet was comprised primarily of cereal products with 70% to 85% of the zinc intake derived from plant sources.Women in the third trimester of pregnancy,parturients and lactating women consumed more food than non-pregnant women or women in the first two trimesters of pregnancy.Total energy,protein and iron intakes met the recommended allowances for each stage of reproduction,Calcium and zinc intakes,howerver,were 50% and 47% of the amount recommended.respectively.Only 7.2% of the women exceeded two-thirds of the recommended zinc intake.The mean intake of zinc was 6.5mg to 9.0mg each day among all the subjects.Correlation and stepwise regression analysis shoed that maternal zine intake was a predictor factor for fetal dimensions and birthweight.The results of this study show that fetal growth and birthweight are directly related to maternal zine intake among Chinese women,and that there is no relationship between maternal zinc intake during lactation and infant height,Weight,or weight gain from birth.

  18. Effect of combining different calcium concentration dialysate on calcium balance in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui-ping; WU Bei; LU Li-xia; QIAO Jie; WU Xiang-lan; WANG Mei

    2012-01-01

    Background Calcium and phosphorus metabolic disturbance are common in dialysis patients and associated with increased morbidity and mortality.Therefore,maintaining the balance of calcium and phosphate metabolism and suitable intact parathyroid hormone(iPTH)level has become the focus of attention.We investigated the effects of different peritoneal dialysate calcium concentrations on calcium phosphate metabolism and iPTH in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD)patients.Methods Forty stable CAPD patients with normal serum calcium were followed for six months of treatment with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate(DCa1.25,PD4,22 patients)or a combination of 1.75 mmol/L calcium dialysate(DCa1.75,PD2)and PD4(18 patients)twice a day respectively.Total serum calcium(after albumin correction),serum phosphorus,iPTH,alkaline phosphatase(ALP)and blood pressure were recorded before and 1,3 and 6 months after treatment commenced.Results No significant difference was found in baseline serum calcium,phosphorus between the two patient groups,but the levels of iPTH were significantly different.No significant changes were found in the dosage of calcium carbonate and active vitamin D during 6 months.In the PD4 group,serum calcium level at the 1st,3rd,6th months were significantly lower than the baseline(P<0.05).There was no significant difference in serum phosphorus after 6 months treatment.iPTH was significantly higher(P<0.001)at the 1st,3rd,and 6th months compared with the baseline.No differences were seen in ALP and blood pressure.In the PD4+PD2 group,no significant changes in serum calcium,phosphorus,iPTH,ALP and BP during the 6-month follow-up period.Conclusions Treatment with 1.25 mmol/L calcium dialysate for six months can decrease serum calcium,increase iPTH,without change in serum phosphorus,ALP,and BP.The combining of PD4 and PD2 can stabilize the serum calcium and avoid fluctuations in iPTH levels.

  19. Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Josele Neves de Brito

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group, and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group. Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001. However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001 and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia.

  20. Oral zinc supplementation decreases the serum iron concentration in healthy schoolchildren: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

    2014-09-01

    The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001). However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001) and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia. PMID:25192026

  1. Nutrient intake and growth indices for children at Kindergartens in Shiraz, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate energy and nutrient intake and determine growth indices for pre-school children in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted from June to September 2010 and included 150 children aged between 3 and 5 years who attended kindergartens in Shiraz, Iran. Following a measurement of the participants height and weight, three 24-hour dietary recalls were completed based on interviews with their parents. The data was entered into various computer softwares. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting, at risk of overweight and overweight children was then calculated, and energy and nutrient intake was compared with the recommended values. Results: The mean intake of energy, calcium and iron for the children were less than the recommended values. In contrast, the mean intakes of carbohydrate, protein, zinc and vitamin C were higher than the recommendations. Fat intake, however, was within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range. In addition, the rates of prevalence of the underweight, stunting, wasting, and overweight or at risk of overweight were found to be 27 (18.6%), 37 (25.5%), 18 (12.4%) and 34 (23.4%), respectively. Finally, underweight children had lower intake of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, iron and zinc, while overweight or at-risk-of-overweight ones had higher intake of protein, calcium and zinc. Conclusion: There is a need for children in kindergartens of Shiraz to improve their mean intake of energy, calcium and iron. Moreover, about one-fourth of the children were stunted and about the same proportion were either overweight or at the risk of being so. (author)

  2. Effects of Exterior Abscisic Acid on Calcium Distribution of Mesophyll Cells and Calcium Concentration of Guard Cells in Maize Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiu-lin; MA Yuan-yuan; LIU Zi-hui; LIU Bin-hui

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the direct effects of exterior abscisic acid (ABA) on both calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and cytosolic calcium concentration of guard cells were examined. The distribution of Ca2+ localization were observed with calcium antimonate precipitate-electromicroscopic-cyto-chemical methods after treated with ABA and pretreated with ethylene glycol-bis-(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), verapamil (Vp), and trifluoperazine (TFP). The laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to measure the cytosolic calcium concentrations of guard cells under different treatments. The results showed that the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of mesophyll cells was induced to increase by ABA, but to decrease in both outside cell and the vacuoles within 10 min after treatments. The cytosolic calcium concentration of guard cells was increased gradually with the lag in treatment time. However, both EGTA and TFP could inverse those effects, indicating that the increase of cytosolic calcium induced by exterior ABA was mainly caused by calcium influx. The results also showed that calmodulin could influence both the calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and calcium concentration of guard cells. It shows that calmodulin participates in the process of ABA signal transduction, but the mechanism is not known as yet. The changes both calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and calcium concentration of guard cells further proved that the variations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration induced by ABA were involved in the stomatal movements of maize seedlings.

  3. Characteristics of plant calcium fractions for 25 species in Tengger Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to plant calcium fractions in the desert.To address the characteristic of the calcium fractions of desert plants,we collected 25 plant species in Tengger Desert,observed the calcium crystals using an optical microscope and determined water soluble calcium,acetic acid soluble calcium,and hydrochloric acid soluble calcium.To do so,we used sequential fractionation procedures to probe the relationships among different functional groups,different growth forms,or different successional stages.The results showed that the psammophyte,the late successional plants,and the drought-resistant shrub and semi-shrub all held considerable calcium oxalate crystal compared to the grassland plants,the early successional plants,and the perennial herb.With the proceeding succession,the acetic acid soluble calcium decreased gradually,and the hydrochloric acid soluble calcium increased gradually.The perennial herb had more water soluble calcium,while shrub held greater hydrochloric acid soluble calcium.The grassland plants held more water soluble calcium,while psammophyte had greater hydrochloric acid soluble calcium.This implies that the plants that are relatively sensitive to drought hold more calcium ion,while the drought-resistance plants hold more calcium oxalate.Thus,the plant calcium components are in close relation to plant drought-resistance,and of important significance in plant physiology of the desert.

  4. Vitamin D intake, month the mammogram was taken and mammographic density in Norwegian women aged 50-69.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Ellingjord-Dale

    Full Text Available The role of vitamin D in breast cancer etiology is unclear. There is some, but inconsistent, evidence that vitamin D is associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density (MD. We evaluated the associations of MD with month the mammogram was taken, and with vitamin D intake, in a population of women from Norway--a country with limited sunlight exposure for a large part of the year.3114 women aged 50-69, who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP in 2004 or 2006/07, completed risk factor and food frequency (FFQ questionnaires. Dietary and total (dietary plus supplements vitamin D, calcium and energy intakes were estimated by the FFQ. Month when the mammogram was taken was recorded on the mammogram. Percent MD was assessed using a computer assisted method (Madena, University of Southern California after digitization of the films. Linear regression models were used to investigate percent MD associations with month the mammogram was taken, and vitamin D and calcium intakes, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI, study year, estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT, education, parity, calcium intakes and energy intakes.There was no statistical significant association between the month the mammogram was taken and percent MD. Overall, there was no association between percent MD and quartiles of total or dietary vitamin D intakes, or of calcium intake. However, analysis restricted to women aged <55 years revealed a suggestive inverse association between total vitamin D intake and percent MD (p for trend = 0.03.Overall, we found no strong evidence that month the mammogram was taken was associated with percent MD. We found no inverse association between vitamin D intake and percent MD overall, but observed a suggestive inverse association between dietary vitamin D and MD for women less than 55 years old.

  5. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  6. The application status and advantages of calcium sulfate in dietary calcium%硫酸钙在膳食钙中的应用现状及优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘荆丽; 张杰; 黄明杰

    2014-01-01

    In the context of supplement of the calcium in China, nutritionists generally advice that people should sup-plement calcium through high calcium food, reduce supplement intake. In this paper, the substances relatively com-monly used in dietary were discussed. The four kinds of inorganic calcium salt discussed were calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and calcium phosphate. It was concluded that natural, non-toxic, and high cost-efficiency calcium sulfate was the best in the application in dietary calcium.%中国式补钙的背后,国内外营养学界普遍建议,通过高钙食物来补充钙,减少补充剂摄入量。通过探讨在膳食中较为常用的硫酸钙、碳酸钙、氯化钙和磷酸钙4种无机钙盐在食品中的应用及其优缺点,最终认为天然、无毒、高性价比的硫酸钙在膳食钙的应用中更胜一筹。

  7. The effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Markus C E; Mairinger, Regina; Zannini, Emanuele; Ryan, Liam A M; Cashman, Kevin D; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    The consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The reduction of NaCl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. Calcium propionate (CP) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. Alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. This work addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in wheat bread focussing on shelf-life and the compensation using sourdough as well as chemical preservatives. The impact of NaCl reduction and the addition of preservative agents in conjunction with different NaCl concentrations on the shelf-life of bread were tested under 'environmental' conditions in a bakery as well as using challenge tests against selected fungi. The challenge tests were performed using fungi commonly found in the bakery environment such as Penicillium expansum, Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus niger. NaCl reduction decreased the shelf-life by 1-2 days. The addition of sourdough with antifungal activity prolonged the shelf-life to 12-14 days whereas the addition of 0.3 % calcium propionate prolonged the shelf-life to 10-12 days only. The fungal challenge tests revealed differences in the determined shelf-life between the different fungi based on their resistance. Similar antifungal performance was observed in sourdough breads and calcium propionate breads when tested against the different indicator moulds. The findings of this study indicate that addition of sourdough fermented using a specifically selected antifungal Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 can replace the chemical preservative calcium propionate addition and compensate for the reduced level and, therefore, guarantee the product safety of low-salt bread. PMID:22569634

  8. Productive performance and efficiency of utilization of the diet components in dairy cows fed castor meal treated with calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Variz Cobianchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing of 0; 0.33; 0.67 and 1.0 (kg/kg of soybean meal (SBM by undecorticated castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide (CMT - 60 g/kg was evaluated on performance and efficiency of nutrient utilization in dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein and crossbred cows were distributed in four 4 × 4 latin squares. Animals received concentrated feed at a ratio of 1 kg for 3 kg of milk produced, in the natural matter. The diets had the same amount of nitrogen (150.4 g crude protein/kg DM, containing 325.6 g of concentrated feed/kg DM. There was no effect on the serum concentration of transaminase and the animals showed no clinical symptoms of intoxication by ricin. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. The intake of neutral detergent fibers corrected for ash and protein (NDFap increased from 0.33 replacement of SBM with CMT. Although the digestibility of dietary components decreased from 0.33 replacement, the intake of digestible components only reduced from 0.67 replacement. Because of the reduction of digestible energy, the synthesis of microbial CP and the utilization efficiency of rumen-degradable protein for the synthesis of microbial CP reduced with full replacement of SBM by CMT. Milk yield, milk composition, daily variation of body weight and the efficiency of utilization of the nutrients for the synthesis of N in milk reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. Castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide can replace up to 0.33 of SBM (50 g/kg DM diet DM in the diet of dairy cows with an average milk production of 20 kg/day.

  9. Serum Calcium Level in Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Hazari, Mohammed Abdul Hannan; Arifuddin, Mehnaaz Sameera; Muzzakar, Syed; Reddy, Vontela Devender

    2012-01-01

    Background: The alterations in extracellular calcium level may influence intracellular calcium level and possibly play a role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Aim: The purpose was to find out the association between serum calcium levels and hypertension; and to compare the serum calcium levels between normotensive controls, hypertensive subjects on calcium channel blockers, and hypertensive subjects on antihypertensive medication other than calcium channel blockers. Materials an...

  10. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xueli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97% and zinc (91%. Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194.

  11. Trans Fatty Acid Intakes and Food Sources in the U.S. Population: NHANES 1999–2002

    OpenAIRE

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P.; Petersen, Barbara; Fleming, Jennifer; Flickinger, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    Because of efforts to decrease trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply, intake should be assessed in the population to establish a baseline TFA intake. The 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used to identify a benchmark for TFA intake. TFA was estimated by mean, median, and quintile of intake, TFA intake data were weighted using the NHANES 4-year sample weights. The main outcome measures included TFA intake in grams per day and percentage of energy in t...

  12. Vitamin D and Calcium Status in South African Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Fein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate vitamin D and calcium are essential for optimal adolescent skeletal development. Adolescent vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and poor calcium intake have been reported worldwide. Heavy alcohol use impacts negatively on skeletal health, which is concerning since heavy adolescent drinking is a rising public health problem. This study aimed to examine biochemical vitamin D status and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in 12–16 year-old adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD, but without co-morbid substance use disorders, compared to adolescents without AUD. Substance use, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD concentrations, energy, calcium and vitamin D intakes were assessed in heavy drinkers (meeting DSM-IV criteria for AUD (n = 81 and in light/non-drinkers without AUD (non-AUD (n = 81, matched for age, gender, language, socio-economic status and education. Lifetime alcohol dose was orders of magnitude higher in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. AUD adolescents had a binge drinking pattern and “weekends-only” style of alcohol consumption. Significantly lower (p = 0.038 s-25(OHD (adjusted for gender, smoking, vitamin D intake were evident in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. High levels of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (s-25(OHD < 29.9 ng/mL were prevalent in both groups, but was significantly higher (p = 0.013 in the AUD group (90% compared to the non-AUD group (70%. All participants were at risk of inadequate calcium and vitamin D intakes (Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Both groups were at risk of inadequate calcium intake and had poor biochemical vitamin D status, with binge drinking potentially increasing the risk of the latter. This may have negative implications for peak bone mass accrual and future osteoporosis risk, particularly with protracted binge drinking.

  13. Effects of Anorectic Drugs on Food Intake under Progressive-Ratio and Free-Access Conditions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSage, Mark G.; Stafford, David; Glowa, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two anorectic drugs, dexfenfluramine and phentermine, on food intake under different food-access conditions were examined. Experiment 1 compared the effects of these drugs on food intake under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule and free-access conditions. Dexfenfluramine decreased food intake under both conditions, but the doses…

  14. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free calciu

  15. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I;

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...... strain) and alcohol intake....

  16. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  17. Calcium supplementation, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers during the 6-month postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpeli, Agustina; Apezteguia, María; Mansur, José L; Armanini, Alicia; Macías Couret, Melisa; Villalobos, Rosa; Kuzminczuk, Marta; Gonzalez, Horacio F

    2012-03-01

    We determined the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and identified predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers 6 months postpartum. A prospective, analytical, clinical study was performed in adolescent mothers (< or = 19 years old; n = 37) from La Plata, Argentina. At 15 days postpartum, mothers were randomly assigned into one of two groups and started with calcium supplementation; one group received dairy products (932 mg Ca; n = 19) and the other calcium citrate tablets (1000 mg calcium/day; n = 18). Weight, height and dietary intake were measured and BMD was determined by DEXA at 15 days (baseline) and 6 months postpartum. BMC, total body BMD and BMD were assessed in lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip. Regression models were used to identify the relationship of total body BMD and BMC with independent variables (calcium supplementation, months of lactation, weight at 6 months, percent weight change, lean mass at 6 months, percent lean mass change, total calcium intake). Results showed that changes in BMD and BMC at the different sites were similar in both groups, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were the main predictive factors. In conclusion, the effect of calcium was similar with either form of supplementation, i.e., dairy products or tablets, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were predictors of total body BMD and BMC changes. PMID:23477205

  18. Effect of high dietary calcium on weight management in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to find out a suitable dietary regime to maintain a lower prevalence of overweight or obesity by adjusting the diet components. Therefore, male Swiss albino rats were selected according to their ages and divided into two main groups, i.e., premature and mature groups. Each rat group was divided into 4 subgroups and each subgroup was fed on a diet of varied composition. Serum levels of lipids, calcium, phosphorous and testosterone were determined in addition to body weight measurement. The results indicate non-significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in premature rats fed on high-calcium diets while significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in mature rats fed on the same diet composition. The levels of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and testosterone were significantly decreased in premature rats fed high- calcium diets. In premature rats, only rat subgroup fed on high calcium from milk, showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Calcium and phosphorus levels exhibited non- significant change between premature rats. In mature rats, LDL-C data demonstrate nonsignificant changes while cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in rats fed high -calcium diet compared to control. HDL-C level revealed a significant decrease in sera of mature rats fed on high calcium from milk. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in mature rats fed low- fat diets or low fat diets supplemented with high- calcium level. In general, one would suggest to consume low fat diet (4%) supplemented with high calcium from dry skimmed milk fortified with hydroxyapatite as suitable dietary program to avoid overweight or obesity.

  19. Modulation of intestinal absorption of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption of ingested calcium (2ml of a 10mM CaCl2 solution + 45Ca) by the adult rat was shown to be facilitated by the simultaneous ingestion of an active carbohydrate, L-arabinose. As the carbohydrate concentration is increased from 10 to 200mM, the absorption of calcium is maximised at a level corresponding to about twice the control absorption level. A similar doubling of calcium absorption is obtained when a 100mM concentration of any one of a number of other carbohydrates is ingested simultaneously with a 10mM CaCl2 solution. Conversely, the simultaneous ingestion of increasing doses (10 to 100mM) of phosphate (NaH2PO4) with a 10mM CaCl2 solution results in decreased 45Ca absorption and retention by the adult rat. The maximum inhibition of calcium absorption by phosphate is independent of the concentration of the ingested calcium solution (from 5 to 50mM CaCl2). The simultaneous ingestion of CaCl2 (10mM) with lactose and sodium phosphate (50 and 10mM respectively) shows that the activation effect of lactose upon 45Ca absorption may be partly dissimulated by the presence of phosphate. These various observations indicate that, within a large concentration range (2 to 50mM CaCl2) calcium absorption appears to be a precisely modulated diffusion process. Calcium absorption varies (between minimum and maximum levels) as a function of the state of saturation by the activators (carbohydrates) and inhibitors (phosphate) of the calcium transport system

  20. Intracellular calcium ions as regulators of renal tubular sodium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhager, E; Frindt, G; Yang, J M; Lee, C O

    1986-09-15

    This review addresses the putative role of intracellular calcium ions in the regulation of sodium transport by renal tubules. Cytoplasmic calcium-ion activities in proximal tubules of Necturus are less than 10(-7) M and can be increased by lowering the electrochemical potential gradient for sodium ions across the peritubular cell membrane, or by addition of quinidine or ionomycin to peritubular fluid. Whereas lowering of the peritubular Na concentration increases cytosolic [Ca++] and [H+], ionomycin, a calcium ionophore, raises intracellular [Ca++] without decreasing pHi. The intracellular calcium-ion level is maintained by transport processes in the plasma membrane and membranes of intracellular organelles, as well as by calcium-binding proteins. Calcium ions inhibit net transport of sodium by reducing the rate of sodium entry across the luminal cell membrane. In the collecting tubule this inhibition is caused, at least in part, by an indirect reduction in the activity of the amiloride-sensitive sodium channel. PMID:2430134

  1. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes

  2. Acute calcium assimilation from fresh or pasteurized yoghurt depending on the lactose digestibility status

    OpenAIRE

    Parra, M.D.; Martinez-de-Morentin, B.E. (B.E.); Cobo, J.M. (J.M.); Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; Martinez, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The major aim of this trial was to evaluate the potential interaction of fresh or pasteurized yoghurt intake with lactose intolerance on calcium assimilation by means of the stable isotope 43Ca as a tracer. METHODS: Forty volunteers (age: 32 +/- 7 years) participated in this parallel simple blind study (20 of them with moderate lactose intolerance). The protocol included the intake of a test meal consisting on 43Ca-labelled fresh or pasteurized yoghurt. Volunteers, in whom...

  3. Effects of calcium chelators on calcium distribution and protein solubility in rennet casein dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Irene; O' Sullivan, Michael; O' Riordan, Dolores

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the effects of calcium chelating salts on calcium-ion activity (ACa(++)), calcium distribution, and protein solubility in model CaCl2 solutions (50 mmol L(-1)) or rennet casein dispersions (15 g/100 g). Disodium phosphate and trisodium citrate at concentrations of 10 and 30 mmol L(-1) and at ratios of 1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 0:1 were added to both systems. The CaCl2 system, despite its simplicity, was a good indicator of chelating salt-calcium interactions in rennet casein dispersions. Adding trisodium citrate either alone or as part of a mixed chelating salt system resulted in high levels of dispersed "chelated" calcium; conversely, disodium phosphate addition resulted in lower levels, while the ACa(++) decreased with increasing concentration of both chelating salts. Neither chelating salt produced high levels of soluble protein. Thus calcium chelating salts may play a more subtle role in modulating hydration during manufacture of casein-based matrices than simply solubilising calcium or protein. PMID:26616945

  4. Adequacy of nutritional intake in a Canadian population of patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, Elaheh; Wendland, Barbara E; Stapleton, Melanie; Raman, Maitreyi; Allard, Johane P

    2007-09-01

    Crohn's disease is frequently associated with nutritional deficiencies, often a result of disease activity and poor oral intake. This study investigated the adequacy of dietary intake, based on the Canadian Dietary Reference Intake, in ambulatory patients with Crohn's disease and a normal body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)). This was a cross-sectional study of 74 patients with mean age of 35.7+/-1.4 years and BMI of 23.05+/-0.45. All patients completed a 7-day food record and a diary for the Crohn's Disease Activity Index. Mean Crohn's Disease Activity Index was 138.99+/-11.38. Energy and protein intakes were within the recommended levels of intake, but total carbohydrates, fat, and saturated fat intake exceeded the recommended levels of <55%, <35%, and <10% in 39.2%, 27%, and 59.5% of the patients, respectively. Micronutrient intakes were suboptimal most notably for folate, vitamins C, E, and calcium. There were no substantial differences between patients with active and inactive disease in terms of failure to meet the Dietary Reference Intake. In conclusion, in this population sample, a large number of ambulatory patients with Crohn's disease have suboptimal dietary patterns despite a normal BMI and inactive disease. Dietary counseling and supplementation may be warranted in this patient population. PMID:17761234

  5. Vitamin D nutrient intake for all life stages.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, M

    2011-04-01

    Vitamin D, unlike other nutrients, is a conditionally required nutrient being obtained from two sources – predominantly by skin production upon exposure to natural ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation, and to a lesser extent by oral intake. Being a fat soluble vitamin it has a long half-life of about two weeks and is stored in fat tissues.1 For nearly six months of the year from October to March in Ireland, skin production is absent and the population is dependent on oral intake from natural foodstuffs, (which are consumed in small quantities only), fortified foodstuffs (most notably some milk products for the past 25 years) and vitamin D supplements, either in multivitamin tablets or in combination with calcium tablets.

  6. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: ...

  7. Food intakes and preferences of hospitalised geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Chik Wan Chak

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross sectional survey was carried out on 120 hospitalised geriatric patients aged 60 and above in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur to investigate their nutrient intakes and food preferences. Methods Food intakes were recorded using a one day weighed method and diet recall. Food preferences were determined using a five point hedonic score. Food wastages and factors affecting dietary adequacy were also investigated. Results The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and all nutrients investigated except for vitamin C and fluid were below the individual requirement for energy, protein and fluid, and the Malaysian Recommendation of Dietary Allowances (RDA for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and acid ascorbic. In general, subjects preferred vegetables, fruits and beans to red meat, milk and dairy products. There was a trend of women to have a higher percentage for food wastage. Females, diabetic patients, subjects who did not take snacks and subjects who were taking hospital food only, were more likely to consume an inadequate diet (p Conclusions Food service system in hospital should consider the food preferences among geriatric patients in order to improve the nutrient intake. In addition, the preparation of food most likely to be rejected such as meat, milk and dairy products need some improvements to increase the acceptance of these foods among geriatric patients. This is important because these foods are good sources of energy, protein and micronutrients that can promote recovery from disease or illness.

  8. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui, Laura; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006) and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011). Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body. PMID:27367723

  9. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are...... both risk vulnerable and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  10. Neuronal calcium sparks and intracellular calcium “noise”

    OpenAIRE

    Melamed-Book, Naomi; Kachalsky, Sylvia G.; Kaiserman, Igor; Rahamimoff, Rami

    1999-01-01

    Intracellular calcium ions are involved in many forms of cellular function. To accommodate so many control functions, a complex spatiotemporal organization of calcium signaling has developed. In both excitable and nonexcitable cells, calcium signaling was found to fluctuate. Sudden localized increases in the intracellular calcium concentration—or calcium sparks—were found in heart, striated and smooth muscle, Xenopus Laevis oocytes, and HeLa and P12 cells. In the nervous system, intracellular...

  11. Autophagy in the control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajat

    2012-04-01

    The cellular nutrient sensing apparatus detects nutritional depletion and transmits this information to downstream effectors that generate energy from alternate sources. Autophagy is a crucial catabolic pathway that turns over redundant cytoplasmic components in lysosomes to provide energy to the starved cell. Recent studies have described a role for hypothalamic autophagy in the control of food intake and energy balance. Activated autophagy in hypothalamic neurons during starvation mobilized neuron-intrinsic lipids to generate free fatty acids that increased AgRP levels. AgRP neuron-specific inhibition of autophagy decreased fasting-induced increases in AgRP levels and food intake. Deletion of autophagy in AgRP neurons led to constitutive increases in levels of proopiomelanocortin and its active processed product, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone that contributed to reduced adiposity in these rodents. The current manuscript discusses these new findings and raises additional questions that may help understand how hypothalamic autophagy controls food intake and energy balance. These studies may have implications for designing new therapies against obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:23700515

  12. Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2010-07-01

    Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (δ 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 ± 0.08‰ higher δ 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower δ 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 ± 0.22‰, and the humans have a greater δ 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal δ 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human δ 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.

  13. Calcium and protein phosphorylation in the transduction of gravity signal in corn roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1991-01-01

    The involvement of calcium and protein phosphorylation in the transduction of gravity signal was studied using corn roots of a light-insensitive variety (Zea mays L., cv. Patriot). The gravitropic response was calcium-dependent. Horizontal placement of roots preloaded with 32P for three minutes resulted in changes in protein phosphorylation of polypeptides of 32 and 35 kD. Calcium depletion resulted in decreased phosphorylation of these phosphoproteins and replenishment of calcium restored the phosphorylation.

  14. The pressure-induced calcium deposition on crosslinked polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugakumar, N; Jayabalan, M

    1992-06-01

    The pressure-induced calcium deposition in crosslinked polyurethane was studied. Two polyurethane systems, IPDI-PTMG/PPG-TMP and SMDI-PTMG/PPG-TMP were subjected to calcification under induced pressure. Calcium deposition in IPDI polymers was linear with the increase of soft segment (PTMG) content whereas in SMDI polymers the reverse trend was observed. Decreased phase mixing and hydrophilicity in the polymer (SMDI based) having increased soft segment content was attributed to the decreased calcification. The enhanced amount of calcium deposition under pressure indicates the possible influence of pressure on calcification. PMID:10078255

  15. Effects of Chronic Restraint Stress on Body Weight, Food Intake, and Hypothalamic Gene Expressions in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Methods We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Results Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice the...

  16. Dietary intake of vitamin D during adolescence and risk of multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Munger, Kassandra L; Chitnis, Tanuja; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Giovannucci, Edward; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence may be an important etiological period in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), and studies suggest that adequate vitamin D nutrition is protective. Here, the authors examined whether dietary intake of vitamin D during adolescence decreases the risk of MS in adulthood. In 1986 in the Nurses’ Health Study and in 1998 in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII), women completed a food frequency questionnaire regarding their dietary intake during adolescence. From this, daily intake...

  17. Obesity coexists with malnutrition?: adequacy of food consumption by severely obese patients to dietary reference intake recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Driemeyer Correia Horvath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess the adequacy of food intake in severely obese patients and describe their main nutritional deficiencies on the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. Patients on a waiting list for bariatric surgery were sequentially recruited from March 2010 to November 2011. All subjects underwent nutritional status assessment (anthropometry, dietary recall and semi-structured interview, socioeconomic evaluation (Brazilian Association of Research Companies criteria and laboratory testing (glucose/hormone/lipid panel. A total of 77 patients were assessed, 50 of whom (76.6% were female. Mean age was 44.48±12.55 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (72.4%, binge eating disorder (47.4%, type 2 diabetes mellitus (32.9%, sleep apnea (30.3% and dyslipidemia (18.4%. Macronutrient intake was largely adequate, in view of the high calorie intake. However, some micronutrient deficiencies were present. Only 19.5% of patients had an adequate intake of potassium, 26.0% of calcium, and 66.2% of iron. All subjects consumed more than the minimum recommended intake of sodium, with 98.7% reaching the upper limit. B-complex vitamin intake was satisfactory (adequate in >80% of subjects, but lipid-soluble vitamin (A, D, E intake often fell short of the RDI. The diet of severely obese patients is unbalanced, with high calorie intake paralleled by insufficient micronutrient intake. When these patients are assessed and managed, qualitative dietary changes should be considered in addition to routine caloric restriction.

  18. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk;

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... calcium binds silicon primarily as calcium silicates and less as potassium calcium silicates....

  19. Effects of gastrin on calcium homeostasis in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As in the rat, gastrin and an extract of the acid-producing part of the stomach (proventriculus) were found to lower the blood Ca2+ concentration in the chicken. Furthermore, gastrin enhanced the uptake of 45Ca into the femur. It has been suggested previously that gastrin causes hypocalcemia in the rat by releasing gastrocalcin, a hypothetical hormone thought to reside in the acid-producing part of the stomach. The results of the present study in the chicken are in agreement with this concept. Not only exogenous, but also endogenous gastrin lowered blood calcium levels. Thus, the serum gastrin concentration was increased in response to ranitidine-evoked blockade of the gastric acid output; the rise in gastrin was associated with a transient drop in blood calcium. Also, food intake produced a rise in the serum gastrin concentration and a transient drop in blood calcium. However, injection of ranitidine or food intake in proventriclectomized (acid-producing part of the stomach extirpated) chickens failed to lower blood calcium, supporting the view that the gastrin-evoked hypocalcemia depends upon an agent in the gastric (proventriculus) mucosa. The authors suggest that endogenous and exogenous gastrin evoke hypocalcemia in the chicken by the same mechanism as that which has been postulated in the rat, i.e. by mobilization of the candidate hormone gastrocalcin from endocrine cells in the acid-producing gastric mucosa

  20. Studies of the calcium metabolism of subjects with renal dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to perform a detailed study of calcium metabolism, it is necessary to differentiate between intestinal absorption and its subsequent behaviour in terms of either uptake onto the bone or excretion. The measurement of calcium absorption involved two separate intakes of the tracer 47Ca. Each subject ingested a known activity. Measurements on blood samples were made after 5 hours and a smoothed curve describing the appearance of the activity in the plasma was determined. About 4 weeks after oral ingestion a known activity was injected into the subject and the procedure repeated. A curve describing the differential transfer of calcium from the intestine to the blood stream was derived by performing a deconvolution procedure on the two curves

  1. Calcium-regulated in vivo protein phosphorylation in Zea mays L. root tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghothama, K. G.; Reddy, A. S.; Friedmann, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium dependent protein phosphorylation was studied in corn (Zea mays L.) root tips. Prior to in vivo protein phosphorylation experiments, the effect of calcium, ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N-N' -tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and calcium ionophore (A-23187) on phosphorus uptake was studied. Calcium increased phosphorus uptake, whereas EGTA and A-23187 decreased it. Consequently, phosphorus concentration in the media was adjusted so as to attain similar uptake in different treatments. Phosphoproteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Distinct changes in phosphorylation were observed following altered calcium levels. Calcium depletion in root tips with EGTA and A-23187 decreased protein phosphorylation. However, replenishment of calcium following EGTA and ionophore pretreatment enhanced phosphorylation of proteins. Preloading of the root tips with 32P in the presence of EGTA and A-23187 followed by a ten minute calcium treatment, resulted in increased phosphorylation indicating the involvement of calcium, calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinases. Calmodulin antagonist W-7 was effective in inhibiting calcium-promoted phosphorylation. These studies suggest a physiological role for calcium-dependent phosphorylation in calcium-mediated processes in plants.

  2. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine....... Decreasing relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on...

  3. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  4. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm;

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...... fat excretion, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomized, controlled trials of calcium (supplements or dairy) in healthy subjects, where faecal fat excretion was measured. Meta-analyses used random-effects models with changes in faecal fat excreted expressed as...

  5. Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05. Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05. The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups.

  6. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  7. Hormonal Relationships to Bone Mass in Elderly Spanish Men as Influenced by Dietary Calcium and Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Moran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aim to evaluate whether calcium and vitamin D intake is associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-Vitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone (PTH serum concentrations or is associated with either the phalangeal dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA or the quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS in independent elderly men. Serum PTH and 25-OH-Vitamin D3 were measured in 195 healthy elderly men (mean age: 73.31 ± 5.10 year. Food intake was quantified using a dietetic scale. Participants with 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels ≥ 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L and a calcium intake of 800–1200 mg/day exhibited the lowest PTH levels (41.49 ± 16.72 ng/mL. The highest PTH levels (75.60 ± 14.16 ng/mL were observed in the <30 ng/mL group 25-OH-Vitamin D3 with a calcium intake >1200 mg/day. No significant differences in the serum PTH levels based on the serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels were observed among participants with a calcium intake of 800–1200 mg/day. Serum PTH was inversely correlated with serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 in the entire patient sample (r = −0.288, p = 0.019. No differences in any of the three densitometry techniques were observed between any of the age groups in the 800–1200 mg/day and >1200 mg/day calcium intake groups. PTH levels correlate negatively with serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels, and neither calcium nor vitamin D intake exert a strong influence on either of the two parameters.

  8. Hormonal relationships to bone mass in elderly Spanish men as influenced by dietary calcium and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jose M; Lopez-Arza, Luis Gonzalez; Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M; Pedrera-Canal, Maria; Rey-Sanchez, Purificacion; Rodriguez-Velasco, Francisco J; Fernandez, Pilar; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2013-12-01

    We aim to evaluate whether calcium and vitamin D intake is associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-Vitamin D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) serum concentrations or is associated with either the phalangeal dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA) or the quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) in independent elderly men. Serum PTH and 25-OH-Vitamin D3 were measured in 195 healthy elderly men (mean age: 73.31 ± 5.10 year). Food intake was quantified using a dietetic scale. Participants with 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels ≥ 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) and a calcium intake of 800-1200 mg/day exhibited the lowest PTH levels (41.49 ± 16.72 ng/mL). The highest PTH levels (75.60 ± 14.16 ng/mL) were observed in the ng/mL group 25-OH-Vitamin D3 with a calcium intake >1200 mg/day. No significant differences in the serum PTH levels based on the serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels were observed among participants with a calcium intake of 800-1200 mg/day. Serum PTH was inversely correlated with serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 in the entire patient sample (r = -0.288, p = 0.019). No differences in any of the three densitometry techniques were observed between any of the age groups in the 800-1200 mg/day and >1200 mg/day calcium intake groups. PTH levels correlate negatively with serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels, and neither calcium nor vitamin D intake exert a strong influence on either of the two parameters. PMID:24304609

  9. Radioactive iodine intake through foodstuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition of radioactive iodine to human bodies is affected by the amount of coexisting stable iodine. The intake of stable iodine through foodstuffs was studied from the stand point of I) discussion of the literature which states the approximate amounts of stable iodine contained in environmental materials, and II) the authors' research on the consumption of foodstuffs. For example, the amounts of iodine intake of fishermen living in Kuji-cho (Ibaragi Prefecture) was estimated from I and II, and was revealed as 2704p. The national average iodine intake was about 800p indicating that the former estimated value was remarkably high. Eighty Four per cent of the 2.7 mg iodine intake was taken from marine products, indicating that marine products are important sources of iodine supply. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  10. Calcium regulates caveolin-1 expression at the transcriptional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Caveolin-1 expression is regulated by calcium signaling at the transcriptional level. ► An inhibitor of or siRNA to L-type calcium channel suppressed caveolin-1 expression. ► Cyclosporine A or an NFAT inhibitor markedly reduced caveolin-1 expression. ► Caveolin-1 regulation by calcium signaling is observed in several mouse cell lines. -- Abstract: Caveolin-1, an indispensable component of caveolae serving as a transformation suppressor protein, is highly expressed in poorly metastatic mouse osteosarcoma FBJ-S1 cells while highly metastatic FBJ-LL cells express low levels of caveolin-1. Calcium concentration is higher in FBJ-S1 cells than in FBJ-LL cells; therefore, we investigated the possibility that calcium signaling positively regulates caveolin-1 in mouse FBJ-S1 cells. When cells were treated with the calcium channel blocker nifedipine, cyclosporin A (a calcineurin inhibitor), or INCA-6 (a nuclear factor of activated T-cells [NFAT] inhibitor), caveolin-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels decreased. RNA silencing of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C resulted in suppression of caveolin-1 expression. This novel caveolin-1 regulation pathway was also identified in mouse NIH 3T3 cells and Lewis lung carcinoma cells. These results indicate that caveolin-1 is positively regulated at the transcriptional level through a novel calcium signaling pathway mediated by L-type calcium channel/Ca2+/calcineurin/NFAT.

  11. Food mixture or ingredient sources for dietary calcium: shifts in food group contributions using four grouping protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Annetta J; Friday, James E

    2003-11-01

    Identifying dietary sources of nutrients by assigning survey foods to food groups can under- or overestimate the contribution a group makes to the intake of specific nutrients. Using calcium and food intakes from USDA's 1994-1996, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, the authors determined the proportion of dietary calcium from the dairy, grains, meats, fruits, and vegetables groups using four grouping protocols. Calcium contributions from milk and cheese were higher as more ingredient sources and fewer survey food items were represented in the dairy group. Milk, cheese, and yogurt reported as separate survey food items contributed 42% of total calcium intake. An additional 21% of dietary calcium came from dairy ingredients in mixed foods such as macaroni and cheese, pizza, sandwiches, and desserts. The remaining dietary calcium sources were single grains (16%); vegetable (7%); meat, poultry, and fish (5%); fruit (3%); and miscellaneous foods (7%). Data quantifying the nutrient contributions from dairy ingredients could affect dietary guidance messages or research using dairy foods as variables. PMID:14576718

  12. Is nutrient intake a gender-specific cause for enhanced susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease in women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schafer, C.; Schwarz, E.;

    2008-01-01

    severity of ALD in dependence on the sex of the patients. Results: No significant differences between males and females with ALD were calculated for the intake (per kg body weight/day) of protein, carbohydrates, fat, and the intake (per kg body weight/day) of most micronutrients. In females with ALD......, higher intake was found for vitamin C (ALD3), calcium (ALD2), iron (ALD1 and ALD2), and zinc (ALD1), but the consumption of none of these micronutrients seems to contribute to a higher susceptibility to ALD in females. Conclusion: Though the present study confirms the higher susceptibility to ALD in...

  13. Dietary intake and serum bone related chemistry and their correlations inpostmenopausal Iranian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to determine dietary intake and bone related chemistry ofosteoporosis and their correlations in postmenopausal Iranian women. Across-sectional study was carried out on 58 healthy Iranian, postmenopausalwomen from January 2005 until August 2006, at Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran.Serum calcium, phosphorous, magnesium and alkaline phosphatase were measuredusing autoanalyzer and parathyroid hormone (PTH) by immune radio metricassay. Dietary intake was assessed by 3-day dietary record. Bone mineraldensity (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at thelumbar spine and left femur. Comparison between means of the groups wascarried out using one-way analysis of variance test. To examine thecorrelation between dietary factors and bone related chemistry markers,multiple and linear regression was used. According to the results of lumbarspine BMD, women (n=58) were classified into 3 groups: normal (n=18),osteopenia (n=22) and osteoporosis (n=18). The mean serum calcium,phosphorous, magnesium and alkaline phosphates in 3 groups were in the normalrange. Serum PTH in the osteoporosis group was higher than other groups. Themean dietary calcium intake in the osteoporosis groups was significantlylower than the normal group (p=0.01). The results of analyzing by linearregression, showed a significant correlation between calcium intake and PTH(r=-0.61, p=0.0001, B=-0.032). These findings suggest that postmenopausalwomen need to be educated regarding osteoporosis and the related preventivemeasures such as the effect of nutrients on bone health and the adequateintake of dairy products and calcium rich foods. (author)

  14. Can Money Laundering Decrease?

    OpenAIRE

    Brigitte Unger

    2013-01-01

    After two decades of research on money laundering, it seems time to look at what we know and what progress has been made in research. One simple question is whether we know if money laundering has increased, stayed constant, or decreased over these years. This article shows that over the last two decades, money laundering could hardly have decreased. This is largely because the concept of money laundering has broadened. However, there are also some hints that traditional areas of laundering s...

  15. Diurnal Triglyceridemia in Relation to Alcohol Intake in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Torres do Rego

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations largely depend on dietary and lifestyle factors. Alcohol intake is associated with triglycerides, but the effect of alcohol on diurnal triglyceridemia in a free living situation is unknown. During three days, 139 men (range: 18–80 years measured their own capillary triglyceride (cTG concentrations daily on six fixed time-points before and after meals, and the total daily alcohol intake was recorded. The impact of daily alcohol intake (none; low, <10 g/day; moderate, 10–30 g/day; high, >30 g/day on diurnal triglyceridemia was analyzed by the incremental area under the cTG curve (∆cTG-AUC reflecting the mean of the six different time-points. Fasting cTG were similar between the alcohol groups, but a trend of increased cTG was observed in men with moderate and high alcohol intake after dinner and at bedtime (p for trend <0.001 which persisted after adjustment for age, smoking and body mass index. The ∆cTG-AUC was significantly lower in males with low alcohol intake (3.0 ± 1.9 mmol·h/L (n = 27 compared to males with no (7.0 ± 1.8 mmol·h/L (n = 34, moderate (6.5 ± 1.8 mmol·h/L (n = 54 or high alcohol intake (7.2 ± 2.2 mmol·h/L (n = 24, when adjusted for age, smoking and body mass index (adjusted p value < 0.05. In males, low alcohol intake was associated with decreased diurnal triglyceridemia, whereas moderate and high alcohol intake was associated with increased triglycerides after dinner and at bed time.

  16. Effect of cheese and butter intake on metabolites in urine using an untargeted metabolomics approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Ritz, Christian; Schou, Simon Stubbe; Tholstrup, Tine; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2014-01-01

    Cheese intake has been shown to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations when compared to butter of equal fat content. An untargeted metabolite profiling may reveal exposure markers of cheese but may also contribute with markers which can help explain how the intake of cheese...

  17. Nutrition Concerns of Insufficient and Excessive Intake of Dietary Minerals in Lactating Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Three Cities of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Zhao

    Full Text Available Objectives of this study were 1 to investigate the mineral intake by Chinese lactating women, 2 to explore the dietary source of minerals, and 3 the ratios between different dietary minerals.A total of 468 lactating women in 5-240 days post-partum participated in this study. Food intakes by participants were measured using one time of 24-hour dietary recall, and minerals from food were calculated based on the Chinese Food Composition Table, second edition.In post-partum, women had inadequate food intake. 81.0% of women's daily intake of dairy products was lower than 300g, and 97.1% of women's daily intake of salt over 6g. For mineral intake, there were 81.8%, 59.0%, 47.6%, 45.7% and 66.8% of women's calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and selenium intake lower than the estimated average requirement, respectively, and 91.7% of women's excessive intake of sodium. The calcium/phosphorus and sodium/potassium ratios were 0.41±0.26/1 and 3.13±2.89/1, respectively. Considering the dietary sources of minerals, 27.3%, 25.3% and 30.1% of iron, zinc and calcium were from animal-based food, respectively, and 60.3%, 66.1% and 58.0% of iron, zinc and calcium were from plant-based food, respectively. The phosphorus-protein ratio was 0.014±0.003/1. Lactation stage was associated with nutrient intake. Women within 30 days post-partum and the ones who live in Guangzhou had a significantly lower intake of certain minerals, while women with a high education experience had a high intake of calcium, potassium, iron and zinc. Productive age, whether obese or not, and delivery ways were not associated with mineral intakes (P all >0.05.Chinese women in three studied cities had an inappropriate food intake and resulted in both insufficient and excessive intakes of certain minerals.

  18. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. PMID:26534904

  19. Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Montazerifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ.Results: The analysis of dietary intakes showed that energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin C and folate intake, compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI, were found to be lower. The, infrequent intake of milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and a high consumption of empty calorie foods e.g. salty snacks, sweets, soft drinks and junk foods were seen among adolescents.Conclusions: The adolescent girls had an improper dietary intake and food habits. Thus, the implementation of nutrition education programs in schools and the designing of proper patternstowards healthier food choices could help improve eating behaviors, the health maintenance of adolescents, and also prevent diet- related diseases in adulthood.

  20. Dietary Intakes of Adolescent Girls in Relation to Weight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bidad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine macronutrient and micronutrient intake of adolescent girls of Tehran, capital of Iran to discover any malnutrition in relation to weight status and dieting.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Four hundred 11- to 17-year-old students were selected by multistage clus­ter sampling from secondary and high schools of Tehran. The information about dietary intakes was taken by food fre­quency questionnaire and 24-hour recall form. The students' body mass indices (BMIs were measured and were classified ac­cording to National Center for Health Statistics /Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2000 growth charts. Partici­pants were also questioned about body image and dieting. Results: 6.7% of adolescent girls were classified as being obese, 14.6% overweight, 75.4% normal and 3.2% underweight. Stu­dents 11-13 year old, had mean intakes lower than estimated average requirement (EAR for folic acid, vitamin E, cal­cium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium, and 14-18 year old students had mean intakes lower than EAR for nia­cin, pyridoxine, folic acid, pantothenic acid, vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and zinc. Obese and overweight adolescents had less carbohydrate, thiamin, niacin, iron and selenium intake. The participants, who were dieting, used significantly less amounts of proteins, carbohydrates, thiamin, niacin, iron, selenium, sodium and zinc.Conclusion: Knowing the harmful consequences of nutrient deficiency especially in adolescents, nutrition education must be emphasized in schools to promote nutritional literacy.

  1. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Dias Batista

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Methods: Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and analyzed items were: total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium. The software used was Avanutri Online®. To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and pain threshold were used. Results: 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Conclusion: Women with FM showed a lower qualitatively and quantitatively intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain.

  2. In utero physiology: role in nutrient delivery and fetal development for calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Only limited aspects of the transfer of calcium across the placenta to the fetus are known. Clinical outcome studies suggest that bone mineral mass in newborn infants is related to maternal size and dairy intake. Available data indicate that vitamin D deficiency may also limit in utero fetal bone mi...

  3. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006) and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011). Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body. PMID:27367723

  4. Determination of (210)Po in calcium supplements and the possible related dose assessment to the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to investigate the most popular calcium supplements as a potential additional source of polonium (210)Po in human diet. The analyzed calcium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic calcium compounds; some from natural sources as mussels' shells, fish extracts, or sedimentary rocks. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring (210)Po activity concentrations in calcium supplements, find the correlations between (210)Po concentration in medicament and calcium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed calcium supplement consumption. As results showed, (210)Po concentrations in natural origin calcium supplements (especially sedimentary rocks) were higher than the other analyzed. Also the results of (210)Po analysis obtained for inorganic forms of calcium supplements were higher. The highest (210)Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks: dolomite and chalk - 3.88 ± 0.22 and 3.36 ± 0.10 mBq g(-1) respectively; while the lowest in organic calcium compounds: calcium lactate and calcium gluconate - 0.07 ± 0.02 and 0.17 ± 0.01 mBq g(-1). The annual effective radiation doses from supplements intake were estimated as well. The highest annual radiation dose from (210)Po taken with 1 tablet of calcium supplement per day was connected to sample made from chalk - 2.5 ± 0.07 μSv year(-1), while the highest annual radiation dose from (210)Po taken with 1 g of pure calcium per day was connected to dolomite - 12.7 ± 0.70 μSv year(-1). PMID:26318774

  5. Studies on calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization: influence of inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, F; Kroupa, M; Costa-Bauzá, A

    1994-01-01

    A simple model to study calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallization on different substrates is presented and the action of different potential inhibitors is evaluated and discussed. COM heterogeneous nucleation was assayed on solid surfaces as calcium phosphate, mixtures of mucin with calcium phosphate, and wax. In the presence of a non-protected non-renewed solid surface in contact with normal urine, COM crystal formation could be detected at short intervals (3 h). The most active heterogeneous nucleation capacity corresponded to calcium phosphate. In the presence of 10% mucin, owing to the renewal of the surface layer no COM crystal were detected on the pellet's surface. The study of citrate and pentosan polysulphate (a semisynthetic polysaccharide) on COM heterogeneous nucleation demonstrated some important inhibitory effects when concentration increased and time decreased. Maximum effects were selectively manifested on calcium phosphate surfaces. Only phytic acid at adequate concentration exhibited a total inhibitory capacity of COM formation, even during longer intervals (15 h). PMID:7521089

  6. Effect of CuO on the Formation Mechanism of Calcium Sulphoaluminate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Suhua; SHEN Xiaohong; HUANG Yeping; ZHONG Baiqian

    2008-01-01

    Calcium sulphoaluminate was prepared with chemical reagents in this paper.The formation mechanism of calcium sulphoaluminate and effect of CuO on the formation mechanism of calcium sulphoaluminate were investigated by the chemical analysis,X-ray diffraction(XRD),and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC).The results show that there are three ways in the formation of calcium sulphoaluminate.CuO can promote the decomposition of calcium carbonate and decrease the formation temperature of calcium sulphoaluminate(C4A3S).When the burning temperature is below 1000℃,the addition of CuO can promote the formation of calcium sulphoaluminate,while CuO can not favor the formation of calcium sulphoaluminate above 1000℃.

  7. Feed intake and oxygen consumption in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    In fish, the voluntary feed intake is influenced by dietary, environmental and/or physiological factors. It is well known that under hypoxia the concentration of oxygen in the water (DO) determines the feed intake of fish. However at non-limiting water DO levels (normoxia), several other mechanisms might play a role in feed intake regulation. Under hypoxia feed intake and oxygen consumption are interrelated. In this thesis we proposed the ‘oxystatic’ concept of feed intake regulat...

  8. Numerical Simulation of a Hypersonic Air Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Soumyajit Saha; Debasis Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out to study the unsteady flow in an intake of hypersonic air-breathing vehicle. Unsteady RANS simulations were performed to examine started flow of the intake when cowl surface is parallel to the ramp surface. Though started, the flow was unsteady due to flow separation bubbles inside intake. Intake with larger cowl opening at which intake unstarted was also simulated. Simulations indicated unstarted flow, with large pressure oscillations. The numerically s...

  9. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  10. The impact of nutritional policy on socioeconomic disparity in the unhealthy food intake among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kirang; Park, Sun Min; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the trend in unhealthy food intake by socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine whether the government's nutritional policies affect socioeconomic disparity in the food intake among adolescents. Data were from the six independent cross-sectional survey data (2006-2011) of Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and included 445,287 subjects aged 12-18 years. The unhealthy food intake was assessed by food frequency intake and SEP was evaluated with the family affluence scale. We observed that unhealthy food intakes decreased through the years, showing the apparent decline when nutritional policies focusing on the restriction of unhealthy foods were implemented, and the trend was all same in the different SEP groups. The pattern of unhealthy food intakes by SEP has changed before and after implementation of the policies. The intakes of carbonated beverages, fast food, and confectioneries were higher in the higher SEP group before implementation of the policies but the difference was not shown after implementation of the policies. The intake of instant noodles was consistently higher in the lower SEP group. The risk of frequent consumption of unhealthy foods was generally more decreased through the years in the higher SEP group than the lower SEP group. In conclusion, this study found the positive effect of nutritional policy on unhealthy food intake among adolescents and the high SEP group appeared to undergo greater desirable changes in dietary behaviors after implementation of nutritional policies than the low SEP group. PMID:24056208

  11. Oral contraceptive use and impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M T; Jensen, A; Frederiksen, K;

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk.......Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk....

  12. CALCIUM SOAP LUBRICANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Alaz, Izer; Tugce, Nefise; Devrim, Balköse

    2014-01-01

    The article studies the properties of calcium stearate (CaSt2) and lubricants produced on its basis. These lubricants were prepared using sodium stearate and calcium chloride by subsidence from aqueous solutions. The CaSt2 and the light fraction of crude oil were mixed together to obtain lubricating substances. The article shows that CaSt2 had the melting temperature of 142.8 C that is higher than the melting temperature of crude oil (128 C). The compositions of obtained lubricants were stu...

  13. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...

  14. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...

  15. Added Sugar, Macro- and Micronutrient Intakes and Anthropometry of Children in a Developing World Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni M W Maunder

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between added sugar and dietary diversity, micronutrient intakes and anthropometric status in a nationally representative study of children, 1-8.9 years of age in South Africa.Secondary analysis of a national survey of children (weighted n = 2,200; non weighted n = 2818 was undertaken. Validated 24-hour recalls of children were collected from mothers/caregivers and stratified into quartiles of percentage energy from added sugar (% EAS. A dietary diversity score (DDS using 9 food groups, a food variety score (FVS of individual food items, and a mean adequacy ratio (MAR based on 11 micronutrients were calculated. The prevalence of stunting and overweight/obesity was also determined.Added sugar intake varied from 7.5-10.3% of energy intake for rural and urban areas, respectively. Mean added sugar intake ranged from 1.0% of energy intake in Quartile 1 (1-3 years (Q1 to 19.3% in Q4 (4-8 years. Main sources of added sugar were white sugar (60.1%, cool drinks (squash type (10.4% and carbonated cool drinks (6.0%. Added sugar intake, correlated positively with most micronutrient intakes, DDS, FVS, and MAR. Significant negative partial correlations, adjusted for energy intake, were found between added sugar intake and intakes of protein, fibre, thiamin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin E, calcium (1-3 years, phosphorus, iron (4-8 years, magnesium and zinc. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in children aged 4-8 years in Q4 of %EAS than in other quartiles [mean (95%CI % prevalence overweight 23.0 (16.2-29.8% in Q4 compared to 13.0 (8.7-17.3% in Q1, p = 0.0063].Although DDS, FVS, MAR and micronutrient intakes were positively correlated with added sugar intakes, overall negative associations between micronutrients and added sugar intakes, adjusted for dietary energy, indicate micronutrient dilution. Overweight/obesity was increased with higher added sugar intakes in the 4-8 year old

  16. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  17. Reduced levels of intracellular calcium releasing in spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Juan F

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthenozoospermia is one of the most common findings present in infertile males characterized by reduced or absent sperm motility, but its aetiology remains unknown in most cases. In addition, calcium is one of the most important ions regulating sperm motility. In this study we have investigated the progesterone-evoked intracellular calcium signal in ejaculated spermatozoa from men with normospermia or asthenozoospermia. Methods Human ejaculates were obtained from healthy volunteers and asthenospermic men by masturbation after 4–5 days of abstinence. For determination of cytosolic free calcium concentration, spermatozoa were loaded with the fluorescent ratiometric calcium indicator Fura-2. Results Treatment of spermatozoa from normospermic men with 20 micromolar progesterone plus 1 micromolar thapsigargin in a calcium free medium induced a typical transient increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration due to calcium release from internal stores. Similar results were obtained when spermatozoa were stimulated with progesterone alone. Subsequent addition of calcium to the external medium evoked a sustained elevation in cytosolic free calcium concentration indicative of capacitative calcium entry. However, when progesterone plus thapsigargin were administered to spermatozoa from patients with asthenozoospermia, calcium signal and subsequent calcium entry was much smaller compared to normospermic patients. As expected, pretreatment of normospermic spermatozoa with both the anti-progesterone receptor c262 antibody and with progesterone receptor antagonist RU-38486 decreased the calcium release induced by progesterone. Treatment of spermatozoa with cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide decreased the calcium entry evoked by depletion of internal calcium stores in normospermic patients, whereas these treatments proved to be ineffective at modifying the calcium entry in patients with asthenozoospermia. Conclusion Our results suggest

  18. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  19. Effects of intake air temperature on homogenous charge compression ignition combustion and emissions with gasoline and n-heptane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianyong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a port fuel injection engine, Optimized kinetic process (OKP technology is implemented to realize HCCI combustion with dual-fuel injection. The effects of intake air temperature on HCCI combustion and emissions are investigated. The results show that dual-fuel control prolongs HCCI combustion duration and improves combustion stability. Dual-fuel HCCI combustion needs lower intake air temperature than gasoline HCCI combustion, which reduces the requirements on heat management system. As intake air temperature decreases, air charge increases and maximum pressure rising rate decreases. When intake air temperature is about 55ºC, HCCI combustion becomes worse and misfire happens. In fixed dual fuel content condition, HC and CO emission decreases as intake air temperature increases. The combination of dual-fuel injection and intake air temperature control can expand operation range of HCCI combustion.

  20. A sensor for calcium uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Sean; Meyer, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria — the cell’s power plants — increase their energy production in response to calcium signals in the cytoplasm. A regulator of the elusive mitochondrial calcium channel has now been identified.

  1. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  2. Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage. PMID:19083442

  3. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  4. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187 aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437 in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483 in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5; 2.4 (1.6–3.4 in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9; 2.0 (1.4–2.6 in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4; 2.0 (1.5–2.4 in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2; 1.7 (1.3–2.0 in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112, folate 89% (61–114 and calcium 84% (48–106. Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  5. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution if adequate micronutrient intake cannot be achieved through regular dietary intake alone. However, dietary analyses

  6. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Grams

    Full Text Available Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy and calcium (73%. The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49, the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39 and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42 food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61 and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44 adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001, a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible

  7. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall’s W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  8. Modulation of ethanol-intake by morphine: Evidence for a central site of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, K.D.; Reid, L.D. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that subcutaneous administration of low doses of morphine increase, while subcutaneous naloxone decreases, ethanol-intake in rats. However, the site of action of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake remains unclear. In an attempt to elucidate this issue, seven graded doses of morphine were given intracerebroventricularly to rats 15 min prior to an opportunity to consume water and sweetened alcoholic beverage for 2 hr. Two lower doses of intracerebroventricular morphine reliably increased ethanol-intake, while higher doses decreased intake of water. Preference ratios were reliably increased by morphine doses of 1 {mu}g and higher. The present data provide support for a central site of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake.

  9. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  10. Soil-calcium depletion linked to acid rain and forest growth in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Huntington, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    Since the discovery of acid rain in the 1970's, scientists have been concerned that deposition of acids could cause depletion of calcium in forest soils. Research in the 1980's showed that the amount of calcium in forest soils is controlled by several factors that are difficult to measure. Further research in the 1990's, including several studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, has shown that (1) calcium in forest soils has decreased at locations in the northeastern and southeastern U.S., and (2) acid rain and forest growth (uptake of calcium from the soil by roots) are both factors contributing to calcium depletion.

  11. Role of calcium in growth inhibition induced by a novel cell surface sialoglycopeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, N. A.; Westhoff, B. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Our laboratory has purified an 18 kDa cell surface sialoglycopeptide growth inhibitor (CeReS-18) from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells. Evidence presented here demonstrates that sensitivity to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition in BALB-c 3T3 cells is influenced by calcium, such that a decrease in the calcium concentration in the growth medium results in an increase in sensitivity to CeReS-18. Calcium did not alter CeReS-18 binding to its cell surface receptor and CeReS-18 does not bind calcium directly. Addition of calcium, but not magnesium, to CeReS-18-inhibited 3T3 cells results in reentry into the cell cycle. A greater than 3-hour exposure to increased calcium is required for escape from CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. The calcium ionophore ionomycin could partially mimic the effect of increasing extracellular calcium, but thapsigargin was ineffective in inducing escape from growth inhibition. Increasing extracellular calcium 10-fold resulted in an approximately 7-fold increase in total cell-associated 45Ca+2, while free intracellular calcium only increased approximately 30%. However, addition of CeReS-18 did not affect total cell-associated calcium or the increase in total cell-associated calcium observed with an increase in extracellular calcium. Serum addition induced mobilization of intracellular calcium and influx across the plasma membrane in 3T3 cells, and pretreatment of 3T3 cells with CeReS-18 appeared to inhibit these calcium mobilization events. These results suggest that a calcium-sensitive step exists in the recovery from CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. CeReS-18 may inhibit cell proliferation through a novel mechanism involving altering the intracellular calcium mobilization/regulation necessary for cell cycle progression.

  12. Differential mitochondrial calcium responses in different cell types detected with a mitochondrial calcium fluorescent indicator, mito-GCaMP2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Chen; Yanru Wang; Tingting Hou; Huiliang Zhang; Aijuan Qu; Xianhua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial calcium plays a crucial role in mitochondriai metabolism,cell calcium handling,and cell death.However,some mechanisms concerning mitochondrial calcium regulation are still unknown,especially how mitochondrial calcium couples with cytosolic calcium.In this work,we constructed a novel mitochondrial calcium fluorescent indicator (mito-GCaMP2) by genetic manipulation.Mito-GCaMP2 was imported into mitochondria with high efficiency and the fluorescent signals co-localized with that of tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester,a mitochondrial membrane potential indicator.The mitochondrial inhibitors specifically decreased the signals of mito-GCaMP2.The apparent Kd of mito-GCaMP2 was 195.0 nmol/L at pH 8.0 in adult rat cardiomyocytes.Furthermore,we observed that mito-GCaMP2 preferred the alkaline pH surrounding of mitochondria.In HeLa cells,we found that mitochondrial calcium ([Ca2+]mito)responded to the changes of cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyto)induced by histamine or thapasigargin.Moreover,external Ca2+ (100 μmol/L) directly induced an increase of [Ca2+]mito in permeabilized HeLa cells.However,in rat cardiomyocytes [Ca2+]mito did not respond to cytosolic calcium transients stimulated by electric pacing or caffeine.In permeabilized cardiomyocytes,600 nmol/L free Ca2+ repeatedly increased the fluorescent signals of mito-GCaMP2,which excluded the possibility that mito-GCaMP2 lost its function in cardiomyocytes mitochondria.These results showed that the response of mitochondrial calcium is diverse in different cell lineages and suggested that mitochondria in cardiomyocytes may have a special defense mechanism to control calcium flux.

  13. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about...

  14. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mensink, G. B. M.; Fletcher, R.; Gurinovic, M.;

    2013-01-01

    dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake...... distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations....... The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current...

  15. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  16. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and...... renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis....

  17. Calcium metabolism in lithium-treated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone mineral content (BMC) together with biochemical indices of calcium metabolism were measured in 83 manic-depressive patients on long-term lithium therapy. The patients were diagnosed and divided into a unipolar and a bipolar group according to strict symptomatic course criteria. The patients with bipolar course had a significantly decreased BMC (88% of normal, P < 0.001), while the unipolar patients had normal BMC. Both groups had biochemical changes consistent with primary hyperparathyroidism. (author)

  18. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-05-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  19. The calcium concentration of public drinking waters and bottled mineral waters in Spain and its contribution to satisfying nutritional needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Vitoria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A sufficient intake of calcium enables correct bone mineralization. The bioavailability of calcium in water is similar to that in milk. Objective: To determine the concentration of calcium in public drinking water and bottled mineral water. Methods: We used ion chromatography to analyse the calcium concentrations of public drinking waters in a representative sample of 108 Spanish municipalities (21,290,707 people and of 109 natural mineral waters sold in Spain, 97 of which were produced in Spain and 12 of which were imported. Results: The average calcium concentration of public drinking waters was 38.96 ± 32.44 mg/L (range: 0.40159.68 mg/L. In 27 municipalities, the water contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and in six municipalities it contained over 100 mg/L. The average calcium concentration of the 97 Spanish natural mineral water brands was 39.6 mg/L (range: 0.6-610.1 mg/L. Of these, 34 contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and six contained over 100 mg/L. Of the 12 imported brands, 10 contained over 50 mg/L. Assuming water consumption is as recommended, water containing 50-100 mg/L of calcium provides 5.4-12.8% of the recommended intake of calcium for children aged one to thirteen, up to 13.6% for adolescents, 5.8-17.6% for adults, and up to 20.8% for lactating mothers. Water with 100-150 mg/L of calcium provides 10-31% of the recommended dietary allowance, depending on the age of the individual. Discussion: Public drinking water and natural mineral water consumption in a third of Spanish cities can be considered an important complementary source of calcium.

  20. Inotropic effect, binding properties, and calcium flux effects of the calcium channel agonist CGP 28392 in intact cultured embryonic chick ventricular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CGP 28392 is a recently described dihydropyridine derivative with positive inotropic properties. To study the mechanism of action of this putative calcium channel agonist, we have related the effects of CGP 28392 on contraction (measured with an optical video system) and radioactive calcium uptake to ligand-binding studies in cultured, spontaneously beating chick embryo ventricular cells. CGP 28392 produced a concentration-dependent increase in amplitude and velocity of contraction (EC50 = 2 x 10(-7) M; maximum contractile effect = 85% of the calcium 3.6 mM response). Nifedipine produced a shift to the right of the concentration-effect curve for CGP 28392 without decreasing the maximum contractile response, suggesting competitive antagonism (pA2 = 8.3). Computer analysis of displacement of [3H]nitrendipine binding to intact heart cells by unlabeled CGP 28392 indicated a K /sub D/ = 2.2 +/- 0.95 x 10(-7) M, in good agreement with the EC50 for the inotropic effect. CGP 28392 increased the rate of radioactive calcium influx (+39% at 10 seconds) without altering beating rate, while nifedipine decreased radioactive calcium influx and antagonized the CGP 28392-induced increase in calcium influx. Our results indicate that, in intact cultured myocytes, CGP 28392 acts as a calcium channel agonist and competes for the dihydropyridine-binding site of the slow calcium channel. In contrast to calcium channel blockers, CGP 28392 increases calcium influx and enhances the contractile state

  1. Dimension decreasing of featurespace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.; Zolotová, I.

    Košice: TU Košice, 2008 - (Vokorokos,, L.), s. 49-53 ISBN 978-80-553-0066-5. [International Conference on Applied Electrical Engineering and Informatics 2008. Athens (GR), 08.09.2008-11.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decision * feature space * dimension reduction * Karhunen - Loeve transformation * principal component method Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/ZOI/klimesova-dimension decreasing of featurespace.pdf

  2. Calcium sensitive non-selective cation current promotes seizure-like discharges and spreading depression in a model neuron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. Somjen; H. Kager; W.J. Wadman

    2009-01-01

    As described by others, an extracellular calcium-sensitive non-selective cation channel ([Ca(2+)](o)-sensitive NSCC) of central neurons opens when extracellular calcium level decreases. An other non-selective current is activated by rising intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]( i )). The [Ca(2+)](o)-sensi

  3. Neonatal hypothyroxinemia: effects of iodine intake and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1997-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of iodine (I) intake on urinary I excretion in preterm (PT) babies up to 2 months after birth and its effect on serum T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, TSH, and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels compared to those in term (T) newborns. Very premature and very sick infants were in negative I balance for the first weeks after birth. Later, these same infants, as well as the other PT and T newborns, were in positive balance; 75- 80% of the ingested I was not accounted for in the urine. The urinary I levels of PT and T neonates cannot be equated to their I intakes. T4, FT4, and T3 levels in PT and T neonates increased with postmenstrual age, whereas Tg decreased and TSH did not change. Serum FT4, T3, Tg, and TSH levels in PT neonates were affected negatively, independently from age, by a low I intake. PT birth also affected T4, FT4, and Tg negatively, independently from I intake and postmenstrual age, for at least 6-8 weeks after birth. Care should be taken to avoid I deficiency in PT neonates. However, even when I intake is adequate, PT newborns are hypothyroxinemic compared to T babies during an important period of brain development. This suggests the possible convenience of interventions that might mimic the intrauterine hormone environment and accelerate maturation. PMID:9177368

  4. Reevaluation of the effect of calcium ions on auxin-induced elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, R.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle); Rayle, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    The mechanism by which calcium ions inhibit cell elongation has been reinvestigated. Growth-inhibiting levels of calcium, when applied to isolated walls (in vitro treatment) do not decrease cell wall extensibility as measured by the Instron technique. Thus, the hypothesis that calcium inhibits growth by forming wall-stiffening calcium bridges must be abandoned. Treatment of living auxin-treated sections with calcium (in vivo treatment) does cause a decrease in the subsequently measured wall extensibility, but this decline appears to be simply a consequence of the growth inhibition rather that its cause. Growth-inhibiting levels of calcium do not appreciably reduce the rate of auxin-enhanced H+ excretion. Pretreatment with calcium does not reduce the capacity of walls to undergo acid-activated wall loosening in the absence of calcium. High concentrations of CaC1/sub 2/ (0.02 M) cause an initial elastic shrinkage of Avena sections comparable to that caused by the same osmolarity of mannitol, but the subsequent growth inhibition is to great to be explained by an osmotic inhibition.Calcium ions do inhibit H+-induced extension of frozen-thawed sections under tension. The growth-inhibitory effects of calcium, then, may be ascribed to a direct inhibition exerted by calcium ions on the H+-induced wall-loosening process.

  5. [Effect of the dispersion of calcium deposits on allogenic aortic valves durability. Mineralization phases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Grzegorz J; Rokita, Eugeniusz; Podolec, Piotr; Gajda, Mariusz; Sadowski, Jerzy; Cichocki, Tadeusz

    2004-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at comparison of calcium content and calcium dispersion in allogenic aortic valve leaflets removed due to dysfunction, to establish the influence of both parameters on graft durability. Calcification was assessed histochemically (von Kossa) as well as physicochemically using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The morpho-metric data (leaflet area involved in the calcification process) were obtained by computer-assisted image analysis system. The dry weight content of leaflet calcium and phosphorus were assessed by atomic absorptive spectroscopy (AAS) and Ca/P ratio was calculated. Calcium dispersion coefficient (Dc) was established according to the formula: Dc = 1/Ca(c)/Ap, where Ca(c) = calcium dry weight concentration; Ap = percent of leaflet area involved in calcification. We found biphasic correlation between calcium concentration and area involved in calcification. The first one was characterized by rising dispersion of calcium deposits while for the second one saturation with hydroxyapatite of formerly calcified areas was predominant, negatively influencing graft durability. Allograft durability was correlated with calcium dispersion (Dc) (p<0.001), while no significant correlation was found with calcium concentration. Decreased Dc was characteristic for 93.8% of low durability grafts (<11.6 years). Our results suggest that lowered calcium dispersion decreasing allograft lifetime and is a better predictor of allograft durability than the total calcium content. PMID:15724647

  6. Effect of Indole Butyric Acid on the Transportation of Stored Calcium in Malus hupehensis Rhed. Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia; YANG Hong-qiang; YAN Tian-li; SHU Huai-rui

    2006-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) plays an important role in the metabolism of higher plants. Recently, research on Ca2+ in plants has been focused especially at the cellular and molecular levels. Uptake, transport, and distribution are also very important for Ca to accomplish its function at the whole-plant level. In this experiment, one-year-old apple seedlings (M. hupehensis Rehd.) were investigated to determine the distribution of stored Ca, the different forms of Ca, and Ca2+-ATPase activity after treatment with indole butyric acid (IBA). The results showed that the total Ca measured in mature leaves and Ca2+-ATPase activity in tender leaves were higher compared with those in the control (CK). Calcium nitrate and calcium chloride (ALe-Ca) and calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate (HAC-Ca) decreased in both mature leaves and shoots,whereas water-soluble calcium (H2O-Ca), calcium pectate (NaCl-Ca), and calcium oxalate (HCl-Ca) increased. The percentage of active calcium, calcium pectate, and water-soluble calcium increased, whereas the percentage of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate decreased. When treated with IBA, calcium fractions and percentage of the different forms of Ca was enhanced in 40 part per million (ppm) IBA compared with 20 ppm IBA and water. The results indicated that IBA increased the percentage of both active calcium (NaCl-Ca and H2O-Ca) in tender shoots and boosted the transportation of stored Ca in plants. IBA promoted Ca2+-ATPase activity and Ca2+ uptake in tender shoots of M. hupehensis. It can improve the total Ca contents and the relative percentage of Ca.

  7. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  8. Phosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane liberates calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorylation of permeabilized erythrocyte ghost membranes with ATP results in an increase free calcium level as measured with the help of Ca2+ electrode and 45Ca. This effect could not be observed in the presence of p- chloromercuric benzoate, an inhibitor of kinases. The rise in the free calcium due to phosphorylation of the membrane was accompanied by a decrease in the level of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and an increase in phosphatidylinositolmonophosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositolbisphosphate (PIP2). These results support the proposal that an inositol shuttle, PI ↔ PIP ↔ PIP2, operates to maintain the intracellular calcium concentration. The cation is believed to be sequestered in a cage formed by the head groups of two acidic phospholipid molecules, e.g., phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol, with the participation of both PO and fatty acid ester CO groups. When the inositol group of such a cage is phosphorylated, inter-headgroup hydrogen bonding between the lipids is broken. As a result the cage opens and calcium is released

  9. Dietary intake of minerals and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: results from the Golestan Cohort Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Maryam; Poustchi, Hossein; Abnet, Christian C; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul J; Pharoah, Paul; Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary factors have been hypothesized to affect the risk of esophageal cancer via different mechanisms, but the intake of minerals is understudied and the evidence is conflicting. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the associations of dietary intake of minerals with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Design: We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, which was launched in a high-risk region for esophageal cancer in Iran. Participants were enrolled in 2004–2008 and were followed to 2014. Intakes of minerals were assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of ESCC for dietary intakes of selected minerals. Results: We identified 201 ESCC cases among 47,405 subjects. Calcium intake was significantly inversely associated with the risk of ESCC (HR per 100-mg/d increase: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.96; P = 0.005; quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.82; P-trend = 0.013). Zinc intake was also inversely associated with ESCC, but the quartile association did not reach significance (HR per 1-mg/d increase: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.98; P = 0.027; quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.28, 1.12; P-trend = 0.097). The relations between dietary intakes of selenium, magnesium, and copper and risk of ESCC were nonlinear (P-nonlinear trend = 0.001, 0.016, and 0.029, respectively). There was no relation between dietary intake of manganese and the risk of ESCC. Conclusion: The results suggest that higher intakes of calcium and zinc are associated with a lower risk of ESCC in a high-risk region of Iran. PMID:26016858

  10. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    OpenAIRE

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N.; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra; Al-Shahwani, Marwa; Al-Sabagh, Laila; Holst, Birgitte; Hansen, Harald S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oleoylethanolamide and several other N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), e.g. linoleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide, have anorectic properties in rats, and prolonged intake of a high-fat diet decreases the levels of the anorectic NAEs in jejunum. Jejunal anorectic NAEs are thought to add to the control of food intake via activation of PPARalpha and the vagus nerve. The fat-induced decrease may explain part of the hyperphagic effect of high-fat diets. In the present stud...

  11. Dietary intake of nutrients and its correlation with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Bitarafan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of nutrition in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS and related complications such as fatigue has been reported by several studies. The aim of this study is the assessment of nutritional status and its relationship with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients.This is a cross-sectional study, in which 101 relapsing-remitting MS patients were enrolled. The fatigue status was determined using the validated Persian version of of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record questionnaire and compared to dietary reference intake (DRI values. Association between variables was determined using Pearson Correlation Coefficient.In the preset study, 25 men and 76 women (total = 101 were enrolled. Analysis of dietary intake showed that daily intake of vitamin D, folate, calcium, and magnesium were significantly lower than DRI in all of patients. In men, zinc intake was significantly lower than DRI; while, in women, iron was significantly below the DRI level. After adjusting for energy, MFIS and its physical subscale were highly correlated with intake of folate and magnesium.Our findings support that lower magnesium and folate diets are correlated with higher fatigue scores in MS patients.

  12. Associations of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake with Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was analyzed from 6 cohorts (Fall 1995–Fall 1997 of postmenopausal women (n=266; 56.6±4.7 years participating in the Bone Estrogen Strength Training (BEST study (a 12-month, block-randomized, clinical trial. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at femur neck and trochanter, lumbar spine (L2–L4, and total body BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs intakes were assessed using 8 days of diet records. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between dietary PUFAs and BMD. Covariates included in the models were total energy intake, body weight at year 1, years after menopause, exercise, use of hormone therapy (HT, total calcium, and total iron intakes. In the total sample, lumbar spine and total body BMD had significant negative associations with dietary PUFA intake at P<0.05. In the non-HT group, no significant associations between dietary PUFA intake and BMD were seen. In the HT group, significant inverse associations with dietary PUFA intake were seen in the spine, total body, and Ward’s triangle BMD, suggesting that HT may influence PUFA associations with BMD. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00000399.

  13. Dynamic Changes in the Calcium Content of Several Apple Cultivars During the Growing Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wei-wei; YOU Chun-xiang; DU Zhong-jun; ZHAI Heng

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic changes in calcium content were investigated in eight apple cultivars. The results showed that thecalcium concentration in leaves and shoots increased with fruit development. The cultivars displayed only a small difference in the calcium concentration during the early stage of development, the difference became very significant at the late stage of development, especially in shoots. In shoots, for example, calcium content was highest in Starkrimson (19 638.6 mg kg-1) and lowest in Fuji (8 751.3 mg kg-1). Calcium concentration was highest in young fruits and was found to decrease with the growth of fruit, and was characterized by a dramatic drop at the rapid expansion stage. There was a significant difference among cultivars. Young Starkrimson fruits contained the highest calcium concentration of 506.52 mg kg-1 among cultivars tested, followed by Pink Lady and Fuji. The calcium concentration in mature fruits from high to low is as follows: Starkrimson, Sansa, Pink Lady, Senshu, Gala,Fuji, Red General and New Century. In this study, it was found that eight cultivars continuously assimilated calcium during the whole growing season, especially at the young stage when fruit took up 35-46% of total calcium. The calcium content in fruitlets was low in all cultivars; in the expansion stage, there was rapid absorptionof about 30% of total calcium, whereas in the ripening fruit, content of calcium was reduced. The calcium accumulation increased with fruit growth in stalk, similar to that in fruit.

  14. Impact of men's dairy intake on assisted reproductive technology outcomes among couples attending a fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Chiu, Yu-Han; Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Ford, Jennifer B; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Souter, Irene; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-03-01

    Intake of full-fat dairy has been linked to lower semen quality but whether this leads to decreased fertility is unknown. To address this question, we prospectively evaluated the association of men's dairy intake with treatment outcomes of subfertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). We followed 142 men from couples undergoing infertility treatment with ART at an academic fertility centre between 2007 and 2014. Couples completed dietary assessments prior to treatment, and the female partners underwent a total of 248 ART cycles. Multivariable generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association of dairy intake with fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, total exercise time, dietary patterns, alcohol, caffeine, total energy intake, and female dairy intake. Intake of dairy foods, regardless of their fat content, was not associated with fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy or live birth rates. The adjusted live birth rates (95% confidence interval) for couples in increasing quartiles of men's dairy intake were 0.42 (0.25, 0.60), 0.25 (0.13, 0.42), 0.26 (0.15, 0.41), and 0.44 (0.27, 0.63) (p linear trend = 0.73). Results remained similar after adjustment for female partner intake of dairy foods. Overall, men's dairy intake was not associated with treatment outcomes of couples undergoing ART. PMID:26825777

  15. [Inadequate dietary micronutrient intake in men and women in southern Brazil: the EpiFloripa Adults Study, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembranel, Francieli; González-Chica, David Alejandro; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate dietary intake of micronutrients among adults in a city in Southern Brazil according to sex and age, and to measure the prevalence of inadequate dietary micronutrient intake according to sex. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with 1,222 adults 22 to 63 years of age living in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Data on dietary intake were obtained from two 24-hour recalls (one in the total sample and the other in a subsample of 40% of the research subjects). Micronutrient intake and prevalence rates for inadequate intake were estimated according to the guidelines of the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. High prevalence rates of inadequate intake in the entire sample were seen for vitamins A, C, D, and E (range, 52%-100%). Calcium and iron intake were more inadequate in women (87.3% and 13.7%, respectively), as was zinc in men (25.1%). Adults in Florianópolis, showed high prevalence rates of inadequate intake of essential micronutrients. PMID:27580235

  16. Flavonoid intake and bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavonoids, found in a wide diversity of plant foods, from fruits and vegetables, herbs and spices, essential oils, and beverages, have the most potential of dietary components for promotion of bone health beyond calcium and vitamin D. Recent epidemiological studies show flavonoid consumption to ha...

  17. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  18. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D; Burton, Rachel A; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  19. Coanda hydro intake screen testing and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, J.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this project has been to evaluate the effectiveness, suitability and cost benefit of the Aquashear Coanda effect, maintenance free intake screen for use in small hydro system intakes. (author)

  20. Calcium and calcitonin responses to calcium infusion in type I diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Amado, J. A.; C. Gomez; Obaya, S.; Otero, M; Gonzalez-Macias, J

    1987-01-01

    We studied calcium and calcium and calcitonin responses to intravenous calcium infusion (3 mg of elemental calcium/kg of body weight in 10 minutes) in 21 type I diabetic males and 17 age-matched normal males. Baseline total calcium, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin levels were normal in the diabetic group, but ionized calcium was lowered. Cortical bone status and osteocalcin levels were normal, suggesting a normal osteoblastic function. Total calcium and ionized calcium responses to calcium...

  1. Dietary intakes of expeditioners during prolonged sunlight deprivation in polar enviroments do not support bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Iuliano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early Antarctic expeditions were plagued by nutrient deficiencies, due to lack of fresh food and reliance on preserved foods. Modern Antarctic expeditioners also require provisions to be shipped in, but improved knowledge and storage options ensure foods are nutritionally sound. Despite this, nutritional imbalances are observed. Objectives: To determine the adequacy of dietary intake of Antarctic expeditioners, with reference to bone health. Design: Dietary intake was determined on 225 adults (mean age 42±11 years, 16% female during 12-month deployments at Australian Antarctic stations from 2004 to 2010, using weighed 3-day food records. Nutrient intake was analysed using FoodWorks. Foods were divided into the 5 food groups according to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Results: Men consumed below the recommended levels [recommended daily intake (RDI/adequate intakes (AI] of calcium (79±42% of RDI, p<0.001, magnesium (83±34% of RDI, p<0.001, potassium (86±29% of AI, p<0.001 and fibre (75±30% of AI, p<0.001, and above the upper limit (UL for sodium (125±48% of UL p<0.001, whereas women consumed below the recommended levels of calcium (68±21% of RDI, p<0.001 and iron (73±37% of RDI, p<0.001. Vitamin D intake is not substantial (<150 IU/d. Men consumed more alcohol than women (18±24 g/d vs. 10±13 g/d, p<0.05, nearer the guideline of ≤20 g/d. Men and women consumed approximately 1 serving of dairy food per day, and 3 of 5 recommended vegetable servings. Discretionary foods were consumed in excess of recommended. Conclusions: Improving consumption of calcium-rich (dairy foods better supports bone health during sunlight deprivation. Increasing vegetable intake to recommended levels will increase fibre, potassium and magnesium intakes. The challenge is the logistics of providing these foods throughout the year.

  2. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  3. Dietary intakes of essential trace elements. Results from total diet studies supported by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has, for many years, supported research on human dietary intakes of trace elements taking advantage, for analysis, of the possibilities offered by nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA). This paper summarizes the results obtained from studies in more than 20 countries in which special emphasis was placed on the application of reliable methodologies (written protocols, special equipment, analytical quality control, etc.). Considerable variation was observed among dietary intakes of essential minor and trace elements though most elements showed a pattern of adequate nutrition in most countries. However, for some elements such as calcium, iodine, iron and zinc, the intakes in many countries were lower than the dietary requirements. (author)

  4. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  5. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control

  6. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    Senterre, Christelle; Dramaix Wilmet, Michèle; Thiebaut, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A seco...

  7. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Lencova Erika; Ivancakova Romana; Oganessian Edgar; Broukal Zdenek

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of...

  8. Abnormal Calcium "Sparks" in Cardiomyocytes of Post-myocardial Infarction Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai HUANG; Dan HUANG; Shengquan FU; Chongzhe YANG; Yuhua LIAO

    2008-01-01

    In ischemic hypertrophic myocardium, contractile dysfunction can be attributed to the decreased calcium induced calcium release (CICR) in cytoplasm. This study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological properties and the expression of L calcium channel subunits in post-MI myocardium. The ischemic heart remodeling model was established in SD rats. The expressions of calcium channel subunits were determined by realtime RT-PCR. Whole cell patch clamp was used to record the electrophysiological properties of L calcium channel. The results showed that the L calcium channel agonist Bayk 8644 induced the significantly decreased CICR in the rat cardiomyocyte 6weeks after myocardial infarction (MI). In the post-MI cardiomyocytes, the amplitude of ICaL decreased dramatically and the inactivation curve of the current shifted to more negative potential. At mRNA level, the expression of the calcium channel alphalc, beta2c subunits decreased dramatically in the ventricle of post-MI rats. The expression of alpha2/delta subunit, however, remained constant.It is concluded that the abnormal expression of the L calcium channel subunits in post-MI cardiomyocytes contributes to the ICaL decrease at early stage of the ischemic remodeling in cardiomyocytes,which leads to the decreased CICR in the cell and contractile dysfunction of myocardium.

  9. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  10. Biomarkers of isoflavone intake : validity at high intakes

    OpenAIRE

    Mackinnon, L. Jay

    2007-01-01

    Isoflavones are biologically active plant chemicals (phytoestrogens) which are ordinarily present in human diets. There is considerable research interest in their potential to prevent or treat several chronic diseases. Biomarkers can demonstrate compliance during dietary interventions and validate associations between intake of isoflavones and health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to validate 24-hour urine collections, timed spot urine samples and timed plasma s...

  11. Brain Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mechanistically Distinguishes the Saline-Intake and Hypertensive Response to DOCA-Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Fusakazu; Jo, Hiromi; Hilzendeger, Aline M.; Thompson, Anthony P.; Cassell, Martin D.; Rutkowski, D. Thomas; Davisson, Robin L.; Grobe, Justin L.; Sigmund, Curt D.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress has become an important mechanism in hypertension. We examined the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in mediating the increased saline intake and hypertensive effects in response to DOCA-salt. Intracerebroventricular delivery of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-reducing chemical chaperone Tauroursodeoxycholic acid did not affect the magnitude of hypertension, but markedly decreased saline intake in response to DOCA-salt. Increased saline intake returned after T...

  12. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged...

  13. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort and 1366 high school students (older cohort who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999 and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively. Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (2 hours/daily, moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily, and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily. Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating

  14. Race and region have independent and synergistic effects on dietary intakes in black and white women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newby P K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the effects of race and region on dietary intakes and the evidence on racial and regional disparities among women is limited. We aimed to examine whether race and region were associated with nutrient intakes among black and white women living in the Stroke Belt, Stroke Buckle, and Other regions in the United States. We hypothesized that significant differences would be observed among population sub-groups and that the effects of race on dietary intakes would vary across regions. Methods This study included dietary data from 12,105 women from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study (United States. Dietary data were collected using the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. Results Blacks consumed 1.05% lower energy from saturated fat (95% CI: -0.95, -1.16, and intakes were also lower in the Buckle (β = -0.20; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.32 and Belt (β = -0.35; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.46 compared to the Other regions. Within each region, sodium, potassium, and magnesium intakes were all lower among black women compared to white women (P P Conclusions Race and region were significantly associated with nutrient intakes in a large study of black and non-Hispanic white women in the United States. Intakes of trans fat, calcium, and cholesterol among black and white women differed across regions. Race and region thus interact to impact dietary intakes, and their effects may be mediated by such factors as the broader food environment and food availability as well as food customs and culture. Race, region, and their correlates should therefore be considered together when examining diet and disease associations and planning dietary advice for population sub-groups.

  15. Reverse calcium affinity purification of Fab with calcium derivatized hydroxyapatite

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, Pete; Cheung, Chia-wei; Yazaki, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    This study introduces the application of calcium-derivatized hydroxyapatite for purification of Fab. Fab binds to native hydroxyapatite but fails to bind to the calcium derivatized form. IgG, Fc, and most other protein contaminants bind to the calcium form. This supports Fab purification by a simple flow-through method that achieves greater than 95% purity from papain digests and mammalian cell culture supernatants. Alternatively, Fab can be concentrated on native hydroxyapatite then eluted s...

  16. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc); Estudo de dieta total no Estado de Sao Paulo: estimativa de ingestao dietetica de elementos toxicos (arsenio e cadmio) e essenciais (calcio, cromo, ferro, selenio, sodio, potassio e zinco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-07-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275{+-}31mg Ca; 20.7{+-}1.9{mu}g Cr; 5.7{+-}0.4mg Fe; 861{+-}46mg K; 9.44{+-}0.48{mu}g Se; 1928{+-}278mg Na; 4.25{+-}0.24mg Zn; 1.53{+-}0.43{mu}g As and 1.31{+-}0.16{mu}g Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market

  17. Calcium and available phosphorus levels for laying hens in second production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pelicia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment studied the effect of four calcium (3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5% and four available phosphorus levels (0.25, 0.30, 0.35, and 0.40% in the diet of semi-heavy commercial layers after molting. Hisex Brown® layers between 90 and 108 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 4x4 factorial arrangement with 16 treatments of five replicates of eight birds each. mortality, egg production, feed intake, egg mass, average egg weight, calcium and phosphorus intake, feed conversion ratio (per dozen eggs and per kg eggs, eggshell percentage and thickness, eggshell strength, eggshell weight per surface area (ESWSA, yolk percentage and color, albumen percentage, albumen and yolk heights, and blood and excreta calcium and phosphorus concentrations. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between dietary Ca and avP for any of the studied parameters. There were linear increases in Ca intake (P0.05 by dietary Ca and avP levels. The diet containing 4.5% calcium improved feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and eggshell quality. The lowest avP level fed (0.25% is sufficient to maintain the performance and the egg quality of semi-heavy commercial layers after molting.

  18. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese. The...... aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content of...... cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared to a...

  19. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Almut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES, and lower physical activity level (PA. High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for

  20. Intake inhibition by neuropeptide Y

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar, Ahmed A.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is an attempt to elucidate some neuroendocrine concomitants to Anorexia Nervosa (AN), an eating disorder that develops in women. In particular, the thesis has examined the effect of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on food intake under experimental conditions in male and female rats. We aimed at exploring the role of NPY in the two phases of ingestive behavior: appetitive ingestive behavior (approaching and handling of food) and consummatory ingestive behavior (chewing and s...

  1. -Acylethanolamines, anandamide and food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Harald S.; Diep, Thi Ai

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Anandamide and the other N-acylethanolamines, e.g. oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and linoleoylethanolamide (LEA), may be formed by several enzymatic pathways from their precursors, which are the N-acylated ethanolamine phospholipids. The exact enzymatic pathways involved in their biosynthesis in specific tissues are not clarified. It has been suggested that endogenous anandamide could stimulate food intake by activation of cannabinoid receptors in ...

  2. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid inhibits calcium phosphate precipitation in vitro by preventing the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate to calcium hydroxyapatite.

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, S M; Wen, G.; Hirakawa, N; Soloway, R D; Hong, N K; Crowther, R S

    1991-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite can be a significant component of black pigment gallstones. Diverse molecules that bind calcium phosphate inhibit hydroxyapatite precipitation. Because glycine-conjugated bile acids, but not their taurine counterparts, bind calcium phosphate, we studied whether glycochenodeoxycholic acid inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite formation. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (2 mM) totally inhibited transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate microprecipitates to macroscopic crystalline...

  3. A workplace feasibility study of the effect of a minimal fruit intervention on fruit intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using workplaces to increase the fruit consumption of participants by increasing fruit availability and accessibility by a minimal fruit programme. Furthermore, it was investigated whether a potential increase in fruit...... intake would affect vegetable, total energy and nutrient intake. Design: A 5-month, controlled, workplace study where workplaces were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). At least one piece of free fruit was available per person per day in the IG. Total fruit and dietary...... recruited. Results: Mean daily fruit intake increased significantly from baseline to endpoint only in the IG by 112 (SE 35) g. In the IG, mean daily intake of added sugar decreased significantly by 10?7 (SE 4?4) g, whereas mean daily intake of dietary fibre increased significantly by 3?0 (SE 1?1) g...

  4. A prospective study of trans fat intake and risk of preeclampsia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavarro, J. E.; Halldorsson, T. I.; Leth, Torben; Bysted, Anette; Olsen, S. F.

    2011-01-01

    Association of intake of trans fatty acids in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy with risk of preeclampsia was studied by following 67 186 pregnancies of women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1998 and 2003. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire at gestation wk...... 25; preeclampsia diagnosis was obtained by linkage with the Danish National Patient Registry. 1804 cases of preeclampsia and 402 cases of severe preeclampsia were identified in the cohort. Intake of trans fats decreased during the study period as a consequence of reduction in industrial trans fat...... intake. Intake of trans fats in the 2nd trimester was unrelated to risk of preeclampsia or severe preeclampsia. Relative risk (95% confidence interval; P, trend) of preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia comparing top to bottom quintiles of trans fat intake were 0.95 (0.81; 1.11, 0.33) and 1.07 (0.78; 1...

  5. Changes in alcohol intake and risk of upper digestive tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau C; Keiding, Niels; Johansen, Christoffer;

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Alcohol intake measured at one point in time is a strong predictor for later development of cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus. In this prospective cohort study, we examined whether changes in individual alcohol intake resulted in subsequent altered risk of these...... cancers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Copenhagen City Heart Study we assessed alcohol intake among 4 896 men and 6 239 women who participated at both the first (1976-1978) and second (1981-1983) examination of the study. Alcohol intake changes on risk of upper digestive tract cancer 1981-2002 were...... examined by a Cox model adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Despite a small number of cases (n = 105), alcohol intake increase > 14 drinks/week was associated with significantly elevated risk (hazard ratio = 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.3), while suggestively decreased risk was observed for...

  6. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  7. Physical activity, energy requirements, and adequacy of dietary intakes of older persons in a rural Filipino community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabalda Aegina B

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60–100 y (n = 98, 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. Results There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (≥ 60 to 2 (p = 0.003 for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. Conclusion These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy expenditure. Though their intakes decrease with increasing age, so do their energy expenditure, making their relative insufficiency of food intake stable with age.

  8. Influence of calcium on glucose biosensor response and on hydrogen peroxide detection

    OpenAIRE

    Labat-Allietta, Nathalie; Thevenot, Daniel,

    1998-01-01

    International audience Of small species capable of reaching a platinum working electrode from biological samples, calcium cations have been found to inhibit significantly glucose biosensor responses. The sensitivities to glucose of sensors immersed in carbonate buffer saline solutions decreased when 0.5 mM calcium chloride was added. The degree of inhibition was proportional to the glucose response in the absence of calcium (0-17% of the normalized current). Likewise, sensor sensitivities ...

  9. Efficacy of supplemental natural zeolite in broiler chickens subjected to dietary calcium deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Bintaş

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural zeolite, or sodium aluminosilicate, influences calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P utilisation in chicks. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of dietary Ca (recommended and below recommended levels and zeolite (0 and 0.8% on growth, plasma, tibia and faeces in chickens from 1 to 42 days of age. Zeolite supplementation did not affect overall body weight (BW gain, feed intake (FI or feed conversion ratio (FCR of broiler chickens (P>0.05. Overall mortality of zeolite-fed chickens was lower than in untreated ones (P<0.01. Reduction of dietary Ca of approximately 10 to 18% decreased (P<0.05 BW at 14 and 42 days of age in association with reduced FI, but overall FCR was unchanged. Serum protein and sodium constituents were reduced in birds fed zeolite (P<0.05. Decreasing dietary Ca level increased (P<0.01 serum, total protein and glucose concentrations, but decreased Ca level. Zeolite decreased bone ash in birds fed a Ca-deficient diet while increased faecal excretion of ash, Ca, P and aluminum. However, zeolite increased tibia weight (P<0.05 and thickness (P<0.01. No significant response (P>0.05 in relative weight and gross lesion scores of liver or footpad lesion scores was found related to changes in dietary regimens. The results of the present study do not corroborate the hypothesis that the effectiveness of zeolite may be improved in Ca-deficient diets in association with its ion exchange capability.

  10. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  11. Calmodulin activation by calcium transients in the postsynaptic density of dendritic spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel X Keller

    Full Text Available The entry of calcium into dendritic spines can trigger a sequence of biochemical reactions that begins with the activation of calmodulin (CaM and ends with long-term changes to synaptic strengths. The degree of activation of CaM can depend on highly local elevations in the concentration of calcium and the duration of transient increases in calcium concentration. Accurate measurement of these local changes in calcium is difficult because the spaces are so small and the numbers of molecules are so low. We have therefore developed a Monte Carlo model of intracellular calcium dynamics within the spine that included calcium binding proteins, calcium transporters and ion channels activated by voltage and glutamate binding. The model reproduced optical recordings using calcium indicator dyes and showed that without the dye the free intracellular calcium concentration transient was much higher than predicted from the fluorescent signal. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials induced large, long-lasting calcium gradients across the postsynaptic density, which activated CaM. When glutamate was released at the synapse 10 ms before an action potential occurred, simulating activity patterns that strengthen hippocampal synapses, the calcium gradient and activation of CaM in the postsynaptic density were much greater than when the order was reversed, a condition that decreases synaptic strengths, suggesting a possible mechanism underlying the induction of long-term changes in synaptic strength. The spatial and temporal mechanisms for selectivity in CaM activation demonstrated here could be used in other signaling pathways.

  12. Calcium regulates caveolin-1 expression at the transcriptional level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Cheng-Cheng; Kan, Qi-Ming [Laboratory of Tumor Biology and Glycobiology, Department of Life Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Yan [Experimental Animal Center, Department of Life Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, People' s Republic of China (China); Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xue-Cheng [Laboratory of Tumor Biology and Glycobiology, Department of Life Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, People' s Republic of China (China); Sato, Toshinori [Department of Biosciences and Informatics, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Yamagata, Sadako [Laboratory of Tumor Biology and Glycobiology, Department of Life Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, People' s Republic of China (China); Yamagata, Tatsuya, E-mail: tcyamagata@gmail.com [Laboratory of Tumor Biology and Glycobiology, Department of Life Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Caveolin-1 expression is regulated by calcium signaling at the transcriptional level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An inhibitor of or siRNA to L-type calcium channel suppressed caveolin-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclosporine A or an NFAT inhibitor markedly reduced caveolin-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Caveolin-1 regulation by calcium signaling is observed in several mouse cell lines. -- Abstract: Caveolin-1, an indispensable component of caveolae serving as a transformation suppressor protein, is highly expressed in poorly metastatic mouse osteosarcoma FBJ-S1 cells while highly metastatic FBJ-LL cells express low levels of caveolin-1. Calcium concentration is higher in FBJ-S1 cells than in FBJ-LL cells; therefore, we investigated the possibility that calcium signaling positively regulates caveolin-1 in mouse FBJ-S1 cells. When cells were treated with the calcium channel blocker nifedipine, cyclosporin A (a calcineurin inhibitor), or INCA-6 (a nuclear factor of activated T-cells [NFAT] inhibitor), caveolin-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels decreased. RNA silencing of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C resulted in suppression of caveolin-1 expression. This novel caveolin-1 regulation pathway was also identified in mouse NIH 3T3 cells and Lewis lung carcinoma cells. These results indicate that caveolin-1 is positively regulated at the transcriptional level through a novel calcium signaling pathway mediated by L-type calcium channel/Ca{sup 2+}/calcineurin/NFAT.

  13. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Jaiswal

    2001-09-01

    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears that during the origin and early evolution of life the Ca2+ ion was given a unique opportunity to be used in several biological processes because of its unusual physical and chemical properties.

  14. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Moilanen, A.; Norby, P.; Papadakis, K.; Posselt, D.; Sørensen, L. H.

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...

  15. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  16. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Janet C. King; Carmen Marino Donangelo

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating e...

  17. The lipid messenger OEA links dietary fat intake to satiety

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Gary J.; Fu, Jin; Astarita, Giuseppe; Li, Xiaosong; Gaetani, Silvana; Campolongo, Patrizia; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Piomelli, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    The association between fat consumption and obesity underscores the need to identify physiological signals that control fat intake. Previous studies have shown that feeding stimulates small-intestinal mucosal cells to produce the lipid messenger oleoylethanolamide (OEA) which, when administered as a drug, decreases meal frequency by engaging peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α (PPAR-α). Here we report that duodenal infusion of fat stimulates OEA mobilization in the proximal small in...

  18. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide to form a substance consisting of not less than 60 percent by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240 Food... Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used...

  19. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does...

  20. Calcium measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rightly stressed by prof. Wolfgang Walz in the Preface to the series Neuromethods series, the “careful application of methods is probably the most important step in the process of scientific inquiry”. Thus, I strongly suggest to all those interested in calcium signaling and especially to the new-comers in the hot topic of neuroscience (which has so much space even in science-society debate for its implications in legal issues and in the judge-decision process to take profit from this so well edited book. I am saying this since prof. Verkhratsky and prof. Petersen......

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and increased calcium absorption pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    triglycerides may increase calcium absorption by decreasing faecal calcium excretion as calcium soaps, albeit a significant effect on calcium absorption was demonstrated in one study only. The Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the...

  2. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    , localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  3. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  4. The Selection and Prevalence of Natural and Fortified Calcium Food Sources in the Diets of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Design: Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Setting and Participants: Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology…

  5. Calcium montmorillonite clay in dairy feed reduces aflatoxin concentrations in milk without interfering with milk quality, composition or yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if a calcium montmorillonite clay (Novasil Plus, NSP), can significantly reduce aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentrations in milk without affecting dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, vitamin A, or riboflavin concentrations. The study was designed us...

  6. Effect of calcium chloride and calcium lactate on quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut guava slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of chemical treatments at low temperature on the quality of fresh-cut guava slices during 2011-12. Uniform sized guava slices were made free from seeds and treated with calcium chloride and calcium lactate with concentration 0.9%, 1.8%, 2.7% or 3.6%. After packing in plastic boxes, all treated samples were stored at 5 degree C + 2 degree C in a refrigerator for 24 days with 6 day interval between different removals. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis showed decrease in firmness (111.67-12.67gf) and increase in browning (1.19-1.93nm) of guava slices compared to control with the passage of storage interval. Moreover, scores in taste (7.33-1.00), flavour (7.33-1.00), colour (7.50-1.00) and texture (7.67-1.00) of guava slices was also decreased with respect to interaction of treatments and storage period. Calcium chloride at the rate 2.7% showed significantly higher stability than other concentrations of calcium chloride and calcium lactate in delaying firmness and browning of fresh-cut guava slices along with maintaining their organoleptic properties for longer storage period. However, calcium chloride imparted undesirable bitterness to fresh-cut guava slices at the concentration of 3.6%. Based on the overall quality performance, 2.7% calcium chloride and 3.6% calcium lactate exhibited better results than other concentrations and control with storage life of 8 days at 5 degree C + 2 degree C. (author)

  7. Daily intake of antioxidants in relation to survival among adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il'yasova Dora

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant glioma is a rare cancer with poor survival. The influence of diet and antioxidant intake on glioma survival is not well understood. The current study examines the association between antioxidant intake and survival after glioma diagnosis. Methods Adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma during 1991-1994 and 1997-2001 were enrolled in a population-based study. Diagnosis was confirmed by review of pathology specimens. A modified food-frequency questionnaire interview was completed by each glioma patient or a designated proxy. Intake of each food item was converted to grams consumed/day. From this nutrient database, 16 antioxidants, calcium, a total antioxidant index and 3 macronutrients were available for survival analysis. Cox regression estimated mortality hazard ratios associated with each nutrient and the antioxidant index adjusting for potential confounders. Nutrient values were categorized into tertiles. Models were stratified by histology (Grades II, III, and IV and conducted for all (including proxy subjects and for a subset of self-reported subjects. Results Geometric mean values for 11 fat-soluble and 6 water-soluble individual antioxidants, antioxidant index and 3 macronutrients were virtually the same when comparing all cases (n = 748 to self-reported cases only (n = 450. For patients diagnosed with Grade II and Grade III histology, moderate (915.8-2118.3 mcg intake of fat-soluble lycopene was associated with poorer survival when compared to low intake (0.0-914.8 mcg, for self-reported cases only. High intake of vitamin E and moderate/high intake of secoisolariciresinol among Grade III patients indicated greater survival for all cases. In Grade IV patients, moderate/high intake of cryptoxanthin and high intake of secoisolariciresinol were associated with poorer survival among all cases. Among Grade II patients, moderate intake of water-soluble folate was associated with greater survival for all cases

  8. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  9. Compartmentalization of the submembrane calcium activity during calcium influx and its significance in transmitter release.

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, S M; Llinás, R R

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative modeling indicates that, in presynaptic terminals, the intracellular calcium concentration profile during inward calcium current is characterized by discrete peaks of calcium immediately adjacent to the calcium channels. This restriction of intracellular calcium concentration suggests a remarkably well specified intracellular architecture such that calcium, as a second messenger, may regulate particular intracellular domains with a great degree of specificity.

  10. Beverage Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient and Caloric Intake from Beverages in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venci, Brittany; Hodac, Nicole; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Shidler, Marcelle; Krikorian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine total water intake and patterns of beverage consumption, and its contribution to total daily micronutrients and calories in older adults with mild memory decline. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used with 60 independent community-dwelling older adults (71.7 ± 5.4 years) with mild cognitive impairment, who were mostly female, well-educated, and white. Three-day food records were analyzed using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Descriptive statistics were conducted for a summary of demographics, the average intakes of beverages, and the contribution of beverages to total calorie and micronutrient intakes. Total daily water intake was 53.6 ± 26.7 fl oz and milk, plain water, and tea/coffee were beverages consumed most frequently. Beverage consumption contributed substantially to the intake of vitamin D (29.4%), calcium (26.4%), riboflavin (22.0%), magnesium (18.9%), and vitamin C (18.1%), but constituted only ∼12.5% of total energy. These findings suggest that nutrient-dense beverages play a fundamental role in overall micronutrient intake, despite comprising a small component of daily caloric intake. Incorporating adequate amounts of such beverages in meals and snacks may help older adults meet their nutrient recommendations. PMID:26571357

  11. The Relationship Between Dietary Intakes of Amino Acids and Bone Mineral Density Among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Sabour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The effect of dietary protein intake on bone mineral density (BMD has not been explained in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI. In this study, we looked at the relationship between BMD and higher protein intake in patients with SCI while controlling for possible confounders. Methods: Patients with SCI, who were referred to the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center between November 2010 and April 2012, were included in the study. In total, the dietary intakes of 103 patients were assessed by 24–hour dietary recall interviews. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure BMD in the femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, hip, and lumbar vertebras. Results: Eighty-six men and 17 women participated in this study. Protein intake was negatively associated with the BMD of lumbar vertebrae (p = 0.001, r = –0.37 for T-score and p = 0.030, r = –0.24 for Z-score. The BMD of lumbar vertebrae were negatively associated with intake of tryptophan, isoleucine, lysine, cysteine, and tyrosine (p = 0.007, 0.005, 0.009, 0.008, and 0.008 for T-score, respectively. Higher intakes of threonine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine were related to a lower BMD of lumbar vertebrae (p = 0.006, 0.010, 0.009, 0.010, 0.009, and 0.008 respectively for T-scores. Conclusions: We found that high protein intake led to a lower BMD of lumbar vertebrae in patients with SCI after controlling for confounders including demographic and injury-related characteristics and calcium intake. No relationship between higher amino acids intake and BMD of the femur and hip was detected. Intake of alanine, arginine, and aspartic acid were not related to BMD.

  12. Association between dairy intake and caries among children and adolescents. results from the Danish EYHS follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Susanne M; Christensen, Lisa B; Froberg, Karsten; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between the intake of dairy products and the development in caries (DMFS, decayed, missing and filled surfaces) among children/adolescents over a period of 3 and 6 years, and to investigate whether dairy intake protects against caries incidence. A total of 68.9% of the children were caries free at the age of 9 compared with 34.0% of the adolescents at the age of 15 (measured as DMFS = 0). A larger percentage of children/adolescents with a dairy intake above the mean were caries free compared with the group of children/adolescents with an intake below the mean (72.8 vs. 65.8% at age 9 and 41.1 vs. 30.7% at age 15). The results from the generalized estimation equation showed that dairy and milk intake, as well as intakes of components of dairy such as dairy calcium, whey and casein, was generally inversely associated with childhood/adolescent caries experience (measured as DMFS). With regard to caries incidence, the same inverse association was found for incidence over a period of 3 years and for incidence over 6 years, but the results were only statistically significant for the 3-year incidence and for the unadjusted models of the 6-year incidence. This study found that previous dairy intake, as well as milk intake or intake of dairy components, may be a predictor of future risk of caries measured by the DMFS count level. This relationship was inverse, meaning that a high intake of dairy products was associated with less future caries development. However, more studies on larger cohorts are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25825159

  13. Deuterium oxide normalizes blood pressure and vascular calcium uptake in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the effect of 25% deuterium oxide in drinking water on systolic blood pressure, uptakes of calcium, and rubidium 86 by aortas of Dahl salt-sensitive rats on 0.4% (low) and 8% (high) sodium chloride (salt) diet. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups. Groups I and II were on the low salt diet and groups III and IV on the high salt diet from 6 weeks of age. Additionally, at 10 weeks of age groups I and III were placed on 100% water and groups II and IV on 25% deuterium oxide. At 14 weeks, systolic blood pressure, uptakes of calcium, and rubidium 86 by aortas were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in rats on the high salt diet as compared with those on the low salt diet. Deuterium oxide intake normalized systolic blood pressure and aortic calcium uptake but not aortic rubidium 86 uptake in hypertensive rats on the high salt diet. Deuterium oxide had no effect on blood pressure or aortic calcium uptake in rats on the low salt diet. The parallel increase in systolic blood pressure and vascular calcium uptake suggests that increased calcium uptake mechanisms are associated with hypertension in salt-sensitive Dahl rats. Furthermore, deuterium oxide appears to normalize elevated blood pressure in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats by normalizing elevated vascular (aortic) calcium uptake

  14. Nutrient intake, blood pressure, serum and urinary prostaglandins and serum thromboxane B2 in a controlled trial with a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, I L; Beilin, L J; Mahoney, D P; Margetts, B M; Armstrong, B K; Record, S J; Vandongen, R; Barden, A

    1986-04-01

    Fifty-nine healthy omnivores volunteered for a randomized crossover trial with a lacto-ovo-vegetarian (L-O-V) diet. Twenty-one 1-day diet records were kept throughout the project as a means of assessing food and nutrient intakes, and samples of serum and urine were assayed to evaluate change in prostanoid metabolism. While on the L-O-V diet subjects ate more vegetable protein, wholegrain cereals, polyunsaturated oils, fruits and vegetables, and avoided eating meat, fish or poultry. The L-O-V diet contained significantly more polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin E, magnesium, calcium and potassium, and less total protein, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and vitamin B12 than the control omnivore diet. Changes in nutrient intakes were subjected to principal components analysis to identify dimensions of change in nutrient intakes. Three Factors accounted for 83% of the total variation in dietary intake. Blood pressure changes were significantly and negatively (F = 17.4, P less than 0.001 for systolic; F = 6.09, P = 0.02 for diastolic pressure) related to individual scores for only one Factor--that representing an increase in intake of polyunsaturated fat, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium and magnesium, and a fall in intake of protein and vitamin B12. Blood pressure changes were unrelated to change in body weight or sodium intake. Serum and urinary prostanoids were not affected by eating the L-O-V diet. PMID:3011891

  15. Intake of Liquid and Solid Sucrose in Relation to Changes in Body Fatness over 6 Years among 8- to 10-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna Julie; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine if intake of soft drinks is more closely associated with weight gain than other energy sources and if these associations are mediated through differences in energy intake or insulin level. Methods: Data derived from the Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study (n = 359...... attenuated slightly after adjusting for energy intake, but were substantially reduced when adjusting for insulin. Adjustment for both insulin and energy intake attenuated the effect of soft drinks intake on ΔBMI(z), but not on ΔWC. Conclusion: Liquid sucrose seemed more clearly associated with ΔWC and ΔBMI......(z) than other energy sources. For ΔWC, the association seemed to be based on decreases in insulin sensitivity rather than increases in energy intake, whereas for ΔBMI(z) the association seemed to be based on both increases in energy intake and decreases in insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger...

  16. Calcium and available phosphorus levels for laying hens in second production cycle

    OpenAIRE

    K Pelicia; EA Garcia; ABG Faitarone; de Silva AP; DA Berto; AB Molino; F Vercese

    2009-01-01

    This experiment studied the effect of four calcium (3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5%) and four available phosphorus levels (0.25, 0.30, 0.35, and 0.40%) in the diet of semi-heavy commercial layers after molting. Hisex Brown® layers between 90 and 108 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 4x4 factorial arrangement with 16 treatments of five replicates of eight birds each. mortality, egg production, feed intake, egg mass, average egg weight, calcium and phos...

  17. Bromism from daily over intake of bromide salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, C; Hoizey, G; Lamiable, D; Millart, H; Trenque, T

    2003-01-01

    Bromide intoxication today is an infrequent disease, but preparations containing bromide are still available in nonprescription compounds, on the French market. We report a casewith bromide intoxication due to daily over intake (approximately 20 tablets per day; i.e. total elemental bromide intake approximately 6 g/day) of calcium bromo-galactogluconate (Calcibronat) for 1.5 months. A 30-year-old woman with a long history of psychotropic drug abuse was hospitalized in a psychiatric department for neuropsychological manifestations. She presented a seriously disturbed mental status with confusion, disorientation, auditory and visual hallucinations, and loss of short-time memory. A markedly increased serum bromide level of 1717 mg/L (21.5 mEq/L) measured on the first day after her admission confirmed the diagnosis of chronic bromism suspected based on her symptomatology. During her hospitalization, bromide plasma concentrations were measured and monitored using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, a sensitive and very specific method. After withdrawal of the drug, the symptoms improved within 8 days. Serial bromide concentrations gradually declined throughout nearly 2 months of monitoring, until she was discharged from the hospital. We found an elimination half-life of bromide in blood of approximately of 10 days. This case demonstrates that, while today bromism occurs infrequently, it should still be included in the differential diagnosis of neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:12733857

  18. Influence of slow calcium channel inhibitors on radioprotective effect of phenilephrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verapamil and cinnarizine decrease radioprotective effect of phenylephrine, but nifedipin (more specific inhibitor of slow calcium channel) dosesn't change it. Consequently, protective effect of phenylephine isn't realized by influx of Ca2+ ions through slow calcium channel

  19. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  20. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D Do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...