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Sample records for calcium intake decreases

  1. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

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    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  2. Calcium intake is associated with decreased prevalence of periodontal disease in young Japanese women.

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    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Okubo, Hitomi; Hanioka, Takashi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Arakawa, Masashi

    2014-11-24

    We investigated the relationships between calcium intake and the prevalence of periodontal disease. This cross-sectional study included 1162 women with a mean age of 31.5 years. Information on dietary factors was collected using a diet history questionnaire during pregnancy. Oral examinations were performed between one and twelve months postpartum. Periodontal disease was defined as positive if a woman had at least one tooth with a pocket depth of 4.0 mm or deeper. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, smoking status, toothbrushing frequency, use of an interdental brush, household income, and education. Compared with the lowest quartile of calcium intake, the highest quartile was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of periodontal disease; however, the inverse linear trend fell just short of the significance level: the adjusted odds ratio was 0.53 (95% confidence interval: 0.30-0.94, P for trend =0.07). Our findings suggest that higher calcium intake may be inversely associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease.

  3. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

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    Cristiane Franco de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI, and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake.METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg, parametric and nonparametric tests were used.RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg and only 25 students (11.7% had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium.CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence.

  4. A Simplified Regimen Compared with WHO Guidelines Decreases Antenatal Calcium Supplement Intake for Prevention of Preeclampsia in a Cluster-Randomized Noninferiority Trial in Rural Kenya.

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    Omotayo, Moshood O; Dickin, Katherine L; Pelletier, David L; Mwanga, Erick O; Kung'u, Jacqueline K; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2017-10-01

    Background: To prevent preeclampsia, the WHO recommends antenatal calcium supplementation in populations with inadequate habitual intake. The WHO recommends 1500-2000 mg Ca/d with iron-folic acid (IFA) taken separately, a complex pill-taking regimen. Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that simpler regimens with lower daily dosages would lead to higher adherence and similar supplement intake. Methods: In the Micronutrient Initiative Calcium Supplementation study, we compared the mean daily supplement intake associated with 2 dosing regimens with the use of a parallel, cluster-randomized noninferiority trial implemented in 16 primary health care facilities in rural Kenya. The standard regimen was 3 × 500 mg Ca/d in 3 pill-taking events, and the low-dose regimen was 2 × 500 mg Ca/d in 2 pill-taking events; both regimens included a 200 IU cholecalciferol and calcium pill and a separate IFA pill. We enrolled 990 pregnant women between 16 and 30 wk of gestation. The primary outcome was supplemental calcium intake measured by pill counts 4 and 8 wk after recruitment. We carried out intention-to-treat analyses with the use of mixed-effect models, with regimen as the fixed effect and health care facilities as a random effect, by using a noninferiority margin of 125 mg Ca/d. Results: Women in facilities assigned to the standard regimen consumed a mean of 1198 mg Ca/d, whereas those assigned to the low-dose regimen consumed 810 mg Ca/d. The difference in intake was 388 mg Ca/d (95% CI = 341, 434 mg Ca/d), exceeding the prespecified margin of 125 mg Ca/d. The overall adherence rate was 80% and did not differ between study arms. Conclusions: Contrary to our expectation, a simpler, lower-dose regimen led to significantly lower supplement intake than the regimen recommended by the WHO. Further studies are needed to precisely characterize the dose-response relation of calcium supplementation and preeclampsia risk and to examine cost effectiveness

  5. Calcium Intake in the Moroccan Elderly

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    Sebbar El-houcine

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium intakes of elderly people are often below the recommendations which are 1200 mg/day. The advancing age may be accompanied by a loss of capacity to absorb additional calcium in case of deficiency. The aim of our work is to evaluate the calcium intake in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: The version translated into Arabic dialect Fardellone questionnaire is tested on a sample of 159 subjects aged over 60 years. Results: The study population includes 87 women (55%, 72 men (45%. The mean calcium intake was respectively 3078 mg by week (that means 440 mg/day. The assessment of calcium intake showed a deficiency and the average consumption of calcium per day is significantly lower than the recommended daily amount for this population. The comparison of both gender found a deficit higher among women than among men. Conclusion: Evaluation of the calcium intake is an essential tool for better management of metabolic bone diseases.

  6. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila; Leticia Hernández-Cadena; Gabriela Rueda-Hernández; Maritsa Solano-González; Luis G Ibarra; Howard Hu; Martha M. Téllez-Rojo

    2009-01-01

    Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cro...

  7. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

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    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  8. Annual Feedback Is an Effective Tool for a Sustained Increase in Calcium Intake among Older Women

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    Geoffrey C. Nicholson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to optimize calcium intake among the 2,000+ older women taking part in the Vital D study. Calcium supplementation was not included in the study protocol. Our hypothesis was that annual feedback of calcium intake and informing women of strategies to improve calcium intake can lead to a sustained increase in the proportion of women who consume adequate levels of the mineral. Calcium intake was assessed on an annual basis using a validated short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Supplemental calcium intake was added to the dietary estimate. Participants and their nominated doctor were sent a letter that the participant’s estimated daily calcium intake was adequate or inadequate based on a cutoff threshold of 800 mg/day. General brief statements outlining the importance of an adequate calcium intake and bone health were included in all letters. At baseline, the median daily consumption of calcium was 980 mg/day and 67 percent of 1,951 participants had calcium intake of at least 800 mg per day. Of the 644 older women advised of an inadequate calcium intake at baseline (< 800 mg/day, 386 (60% had increased their intake by at least 100 mg/day when re-assessed twelve months later. This desirable change was sustained at 24 months after baseline with almost half of these women (303/644 consuming over 800 mg calcium per day. This study devised an efficient method to provide feedback on calcium intake to over 2,000 older women. The improvements were modest but significant and most apparent in those with a low intake at baseline. The decreased proportion of these women with an inadequate intake of calcium 12- and 24-months later, suggests this might be a practical, low cost strategy to maintain an adequate calcium intake among older women.

  9. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia.

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    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance.

  10. Dietary calcium intake and sunlight exposure among children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  11. Content Validity of a Short Calcium Intake List to Estimate Daily Dietary Calcium Intake of Patients with Osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasch, L.A.; Schueren, de van der M.A.E.; Tuyl, van L.H.D.; Bultink, I.E.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Lems, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Calcium supplements are prescribed for prevention of osteoporotic fractures, but there is controversy whether excess of calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular events. While an accurate estimation of dietary calcium intake is a prerequisite to prescribe the adequate amount of

  12. Phosphate decreases urine calcium and increases calcium balance: A meta-analysis of the osteoporosis acid-ash diet hypothesis

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    Eliasziw Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acid-ash hypothesis posits that increased excretion of "acidic" ions derived from the diet, such as phosphate, contributes to net acidic ion excretion, urine calcium excretion, demineralization of bone, and osteoporosis. The public is advised by various media to follow an alkaline diet to lower their acidic ion intakes. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to quantify the contribution of phosphate to bone loss in healthy adult subjects; specifically, a to assess the effect of supplemental dietary phosphate on urine calcium, calcium balance, and markers of bone metabolism; and to assess whether these affects are altered by the b level of calcium intake, c the degree of protonation of the phosphate. Methods Literature was identified through computerized searches regarding phosphate with surrogate and/or direct markers of bone health, and was assessed for methodological quality. Multiple linear regression analyses, weighted for sample size, were used to combine the study results. Tests of interaction included stratification by calcium intake and degree of protonation of the phosphate supplement. Results Twelve studies including 30 intervention arms manipulated 269 subjects' phosphate intakes. Three studies reported net acid excretion. All of the meta-analyses demonstrated significant decreases in urine calcium excretion in response to phosphate supplements whether the calcium intake was high or low, regardless of the degree of protonation of the phosphate supplement. None of the meta-analyses revealed lower calcium balance in response to increased phosphate intakes, whether the calcium intake was high or low, or the composition of the phosphate supplement. Conclusion All of the findings from this meta-analysis were contrary to the acid ash hypothesis. Higher phosphate intakes were associated with decreased urine calcium and increased calcium retention. This meta-analysis did not find evidence that phosphate intake

  13. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

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    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  14. CALCIUM INTAKE AS A FACTOR OF OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION AMONG TEENAGERS IN CELJE REGION

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    Samo K. Fokter

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence is a critical time for bone mineral acquisition and is as such the crucial period for the prevention of osteoporosis. The purpose of the study was to find whether adolescents’ calcium intake in Celje region is high enough to attain peak bone mass.Methods. 217 pupils attending primary school and 434 students attending secondary school participated in an anonymous survey regarding their calcium intake. The acquired data were statistically analysed.Results. Only 77 (11.8% among 651 teenagers had an optimal daily intake of calcium (≥ 1300 mg. The average calcium intake was 828.9 mg per day. The average daily calcium intake for girls was 777.6 mg and for boys 910.0 mg. Calcium intake decreased with the age of the adolescents. The lowest calcium intake was found in those adolescents who were concerned that drinking milk would make them fat.Conclusions. Because of adolescents’ sub-optimal intake of calcium there is a probability that osteoporosis will break out in the future. To avoid that, it would be necessary to start inexpensive education programs aimed at teenagers about the importance of the prevention of osteoporosis in adolescence.

  15. Intake of dairy calcium and tooth loss among Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Twetman, Svante; Christensen, Lisa B

    2011-01-01

    and 1988 through 1993 and 1994. Total calcium intake, estimated by a 7-d food record or a a diet history interview, was divided into dairy and non-dairy forms of calcium. RESULTS: In men, a 10-fold increase in dairy calcium intake was significantly associated with a decreased risk of tooth loss (incidence......-rate ratio 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.68) even after an adjustment for tooth count in 1987 and 1988, age, education, and civil status (model 1), smoking, alcohol consumption, sucrose intake, and use of vitamin and/or mineral supplements (model 2), time since last dental visit and the presence...

  16. The importance of breakfast in meeting daily recommended calcium intake in a group of schoolchildren.

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    Ortega, R M; Requejo, A M; López-Sobaler, A M; Andrés, P; Quintas, M E; Navia, B; Izquierdo, M; Rivas, T

    1998-02-01

    To evaluate the breakfast intake of calcium and milk products and to determine whether these correlate with total intake of both calcium and milk products. Food taken at breakfast and throughout the day was recorded using a 7 consecutive day food record in 200 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 13 years. 65.3% of boys and 80.5% of girls showed intakes of calcium which were lower than recommended. Milk products were the foods most frequently included in breakfast (95.5% of subjects included them in this meal). A relationship was seen between energy provided by breakfast and the quantities of milk products (r = 0.5735) and calcium (r = 0.6908) taken at this meal. A relationship was also seen between energy provided by breakfast and daily intake of milk products (r = 0.4633) and calcium (r = 0.4954). The percentage of intakes of calcium lower than those recommended decreased when breakfast provided > or = 20% of total energy intake, and when the consumption of milk products at breakfast was greater than the 50th percentile (200 ml). Subjects with breakfast milk product intakes > or = 200 ml showed higher intakes of the same over the rest of the day (233.3 +/-140.4 g) than did those who took lesser quantities of these foods at breakfast (161.5 +/- 100.6 g). Further, those who took > or = 25% of the recommended intake of calcium at breakfast showed greater intakes of the same over the rest of the day (600.4 +/- 213.8 mg compared to 510.8 +/- 200.7 mg in subjects with lower calcium intakes). The intake of milk products (r = 0.7587) and calcium (r = 0.7223) at breakfast correlates with the consumption of these foods in the whole diet. However, the total daily intake of milk products and calcium does not depend solely on breakfast intake. Subjects with the greatest intakes at breakfast also showed greater intakes over the rest of the day (r = 0.3953 for milk products and r = 0.4122 for calcium).

  17. Association between CASR Polymorphisms, Calcium Intake, and Colorectal Cancer Risk

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    Kyee-Zu Kim; Aesun Shin; Jeongseon Kim; Ji Won Park; Sung Chan Park; Hyo Seong Choi; Hee Jin Chang; Dae Yong Kim; Jae Hwan Oh

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The current study aimed to assess the effect of dietary calcium intake and possible interactions with calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene polymorphisms on colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: A total of 420 colorectal cancer cases and 815 controls were included in the analysis. Calcium intake was investigated using a 103 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CASR, rs10934578, rs12485716, rs2270916, and rs4678174, were...

  18. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

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    Diana Avendaño-Badillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx, which is a biomarker of bone resorption. The association between calcium ingestion and bone resorption was analyzed using random effects models; non-linear associations were explored using generalized additive models. RESULTS: Progressive increases in NTx levels were observed during pregnancy; with mean and standard deviation (SD values during the first, second and third trimester of 76.50 (SD=38, 101.02 (SD=48.86 and 144.83 (SD=61.33 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine, respectively. Higher dietary calcium intake was associated with lower bone resorption (β=-0.015; pEl metabolismo de calcio es modificado durante el embarazo debido a la mineralización del esqueleto del feto. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre la ingesta de calcio y la desmineralización ósea durante el embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se administró un Cuestionario de Frecuencia de Consumo de alimentos en cada trimestre del embarazo para evaluar el consumo de calcio en una cohorte de 206 mujeres residentes de la Ciudad de México. Se recolectaron muestras de orina para medir los niveles de N-telopéptido de colágeno tipo I (NTx, biomarcador de resorción. Se hicieron modelos de efectos aleatorios; se estudiaron asociaciones no lineales utilizando modelos aditivos generalizados. RESULTADOS: Se observó aumento progresivo en los niveles de NTx durante el embarazo. El mayor consumo de calcio se asoció con una menor resorción ósea (β=- 0.015, p<0

  19. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

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    Laura E. Monnat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers compared to those lacking access in their dormitory (non-milk vending consumers. Milk vending machines were installed in two dormitories, and two dormitories having non-milk beverage vending served as comparison sites. Students completed a calcium intake questionnaire at the point of milk (n = 73 or non-milk (n = 79 beverage vending purchases. Mean total calcium intake was higher in milk vending consumers (1245 + 543 mg/d compared to non-milk vending consumers (1042 + 447 mg/d (p = 0.01. Adjusting for gender and milk vending consumer status, there was a positive association between past month milk vending purchases and daily calcium intake from milk (p < 0.001. Fifty-seven students without in-dormitory access to milk vending reported an interest in milk vending if made available. Milk vending may serve as a novel approach for improving calcium intake in college students.

  20. Worldwide trends in dairy production and consumption and calcium intake: is promoting consumption of dairy products a sustainable solution for inadequate calcium intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Li, Shiru

    2008-09-01

    Adequate calcium intake is critical for good health. Inadequate calcium intake is a worldwide problem and is more serious in countries where consumption of dairy products is low. To analyze worldwide trends in production and consumption of dairy products and in calcium intake. Data were taken from Food and Agriculture Organization food balance sheets, from published studies, and from surveys of four countries with large populations and large dairy production (China, India, the United States, and Russia). Linear regression models were fitted to estimate average annual changes and to project future trends. Overall global dairy production and supply (total and per capita) have increased since 1980, especially in developing countries. There are large between-region and between-country differences in the levels of production, supply, and consumption and in the trends. In 1997 India surpassed the United States to become the largest dairy producer. Consumption of dairy products in China has more than tripled since 1982 and has increased sevenfold among urban residents. The increase has been more dramatic during recent years. In spite of increases in dairy production and consumption in China and India, calcium intake has decreased in these countries. The average daily per capita consumption of dairy products was more than 200 g in the United States in 1999-2004 but less than 27g in China in 2002; the average daily per capita intake of calcium was 962 mg in US men and 756 mg in US women in 1999-2004, but less than 400 mg in China in 2002. Global production and supply of dairy products have been increasing since 1980, which has an impact on the environment. Dairy consumption and calcium intake remain low in most countries examined as compared with recommended amounts of dairy products and calcium. Promotion of consumption of dairy products does not necessarily increase total calcium intake.

  1. Calcium intake and prostate cancer among African Americans: effect modification by vitamin D receptor calcium absorption genotype.

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    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    High dietary intake of calcium has been classified as a probable cause of prostate cancer, although the mechanism underlying the association between dietary calcium and prostate cancer risk is unclear. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key regulator of calcium absorption. In the small intestine, VDR expression is regulated by the CDX-2 transcription factor, which binds a polymorphic site in the VDR gene promoter. We examined VDR Cdx2 genotype and calcium intake, assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, in 533 African-American prostate cancer cases (256 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 277 with localized stage) and 250 African-American controls who participated in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study. We examined the effects of genotype, calcium intake, and diet-gene interactions by conditional logistic regression. Compared with men in the lowest quartile of calcium intake, men in the highest quartile had an approximately twofold increased risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40, 3.46), with a significant dose-response. Poor absorbers of calcium (VDR Cdx2 GG genotype) had a significantly lower risk of advanced prostate cancer (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.90). The gene-calcium interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Among men with calcium intake below the median (680 mg/day), carriers of the G allele had an approximately 50% decreased risk compared with men with the AA genotype. These findings suggest a link between prostate cancer risk and high intestinal absorption of calcium. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Calcium and vitamin D intake by postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Spain: an observational calcium and vitamin D intake (CaVIT study

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    Fan T

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tao Fan,1 Gonzalo Nocea,2 Ankita Modi,3 Leah Stokes,1 Shuvayu S Sen1 1Global Outcomes Research, Merck & Company, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 2Department of Outcomes Research, Merck, Sharp and Dohme Spain, Madrid, Spain; 3Global Human Health, Outcomes Research, Merck & Company, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: Osteoporotic fractures are important causes of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. However, the risk of osteoporotic fractures can be decreased, with clinical studies supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements to promote bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread, particularly among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and this indicates that dietary intake is suboptimal, even though vitamin D supplements are widely available. Methods: We conducted an observational study, using telephone surveys, to estimate vitamin D and calcium intake and the use of prescription osteoporosis medications in Spanish women aged ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis. Results: Among the study participants, mean dietary calcium intake was 1239 mg/day and generally appeared sufficient in terms of the recommended daily intake guidance documents. Participants aged ≥ 75 years had a significantly lower mean dietary calcium intake (988 mg/day, thus one-half were below the level advised by the World Health Organization. Daily calcium intake was also lower in participants who were not taking prescription medications for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake was 167 IU/day, which is well below both the established target dose (400 IU/day and the more recent, higher guideline recommended for postmenopausal women (800–1300 IU/day. Dietary vitamin D intake was even lower for participants aged ≥75 years (120 IU/day and was not related to the use of bone health prescription medications. Conclusion: These results support the need for greater promotion of the benefits of higher vitamin D intake in Spanish women with

  3. Calcium and vitamin D intake by postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Spain: an observational calcium and vitamin D intake (CaVIT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tao; Nocea, Gonzalo; Modi, Ankita; Stokes, Leah; Sen, Shuvayu S

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are important causes of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. However, the risk of osteoporotic fractures can be decreased, with clinical studies supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements to promote bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread, particularly among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and this indicates that dietary intake is suboptimal, even though vitamin D supplements are widely available. We conducted an observational study, using telephone surveys, to estimate vitamin D and calcium intake and the use of prescription osteoporosis medications in Spanish women aged ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis. Among the study participants, mean dietary calcium intake was 1239 mg/day and generally appeared sufficient in terms of the recommended daily intake guidance documents. Participants aged ≥ 75 years had a significantly lower mean dietary calcium intake (988 mg/day), thus one-half were below the level advised by the World Health Organization. Daily calcium intake was also lower in participants who were not taking prescription medications for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake was 167 IU/day, which is well below both the established target dose (400 IU/day) and the more recent, higher guideline recommended for postmenopausal women (800-1300 IU/day). Dietary vitamin D intake was even lower for participants aged ≥ 75 years (120 IU/day) and was not related to the use of bone health prescription medications. These results support the need for greater promotion of the benefits of higher vitamin D intake in Spanish women with osteoporosis.

  4. Is yogurt intake associated with periodontitis due to calcium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sung Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether the lower intakes of yogurt, milk, and calcium are associated with periodontitis in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. This study comprised 6,150 adults 19 or more years old who took both periodontal examination and nutrition survey. The frequency of yogurt and milk intake was examined with a food frequency questionnaire. The amount of calcium intake was calculated with dietary intakes data gained from complete one-day 24-hour recall interviews. Periodontitis was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for the whole sample and subgroups with the strata of age, gender, or smoking, in a complex sampling design. Less intake of yogurt was significantly associated with periodontitis (odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidential interval [CI] 0.70-0.97, but neither less intake of milk (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.20 nor lower intake of calcium (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.21 was significantly associated with periodontitis. In the subgroup analysis, no difference in the association of yogurt intake with periodontitis was found according to the strata of age, gender, and smoking. In conclusion, periodonitis was significantly associated with the less intake of yogurt among the Korean adults, but the calcium contained in yogurt is not likely to cause it.

  5. A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwalka, Neha J; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Mughal, M Zulf; Sayyad, Mehmood G; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Shirole, Shilpa C; Divate, Uma P; Bhandari, Dhanshari R

    2010-01-01

    Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adolescence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689-1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.

  6. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Elizabeth J; Booth, Sarah L; Fox, Caroline S; Tucker, Katherine L; Wang, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo; Cupples, L Adrienne; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Kiel, Douglas P

    2012-12-01

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification, which is a measure of atherosclerosis that predicts risk of ischemic heart disease independent of other risk factors. This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Participants included 690 women and 588 men in the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 60 y; range: 36-83 y) who attended clinic visits and completed food-frequency questionnaires in 1998-2001 and underwent computed tomography scans 4 y later in 2002-2005. The mean age-adjusted coronary artery-calcification Agatston score decreased with increasing total calcium intake, and the trend was not significant after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, vitamin D-supplement use, energy intake, and, for women, menopause status and estrogen use. Multivariable-adjusted mean Agatston scores were 2.36, 2.52, 2.16, and 2.39 (P-trend = 0.74) with an increasing quartile of total calcium intake in women and 4.32, 4.39, 4.19, and 4.37 (P-trend = 0.94) in men, respectively. Results were similar for dietary calcium and calcium supplement use. Our study does not support the hypothesis that high calcium intake increases coronary artery calcification, which is an important measure of atherosclerosis burden. The evidence is not sufficient to modify current recommendations for calcium intake to protect skeletal health with respect to vascular calcification risk.

  7. Associations of dietary calcium intake with metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density among the Korean population: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Chon, S J; Noe, E B; Roh, Y H; Yun, B H; Cho, S; Choi, Y S; Lee, B S; Seo, S K

    2017-01-01

    Excessive amount of calcium intake increased risk for metabolic syndrome in men. However, modest amount decreased the risk of metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Modest amount of calcium also increased bone mineral density (BMD) in both men and postmenopausal women. The present study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary calcium intake with metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean men and women, especially postmenopausal women. The study was performed using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) and included 14,705 participants (5953 men, 4258 premenopausal women, and 4494 postmenopausal women). Clinical and other objective characteristics, presence of metabolic syndrome, and the BMD of the femur neck and lumbar spine were evaluated according to dietary calcium intake. There was a higher tendency for metabolic syndrome in men with a dietary calcium intake of >1200 mg/day than with ≤400 mg of calcium intake; >400 and ≤800 mg of calcium intake was helpful for postmenopausal women to decrease risk for metabolic syndrome. Overall, the group with calcium intake >400 and ≤800 mg daily had significantly increased BMD in both femoral neck and lumbar spine from both men and postmenopausal women. From both femoral neck and lumbar spine, the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women significantly decreased in the group whose calcium intake was >400 and ≤800 mg daily. Excessive dietary calcium may increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men. For postmenopausal women, calcium intake does not increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, but modest amount decreases the risk. It may increase the BMD in men and postmenopausal women, and also reduce the prevalence of both osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

  8. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that cadmium uptake in lettuce plants is negatively associated with the presence of calcium in the culture medium, maybe due to a competition between these two cations for binding and absorption sites in roots. In conclusion, the results suggest that fertilization with Ca2+ appears to be a promising ...

  9. Calcium intake in health maintenance – a systematic review

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    Kirsti Uusi-Rasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca is an essential nutrient for the human body. Despite lively research, there is uncertainty about Ca requirements in terms of desirable health outcomes including an upper intake level above which the potential for harm increases. Objectives: The aim was to conduct a review to update requirements and desirable or harmful health effects of Ca on the current scientific evidence. Methods: We searched Medline and Swemed from January 2000 to December 2011 and included all systematic reviews that reported Ca supplementation or usual Ca intake on health outcomes. Meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and cohort studies were included in the second search between May 2009 and March 2011 and an additional search covering studies till the end of 2011. This review concentrated on studies reporting independent effects of Ca, although a few recent trials report sole effects of Ca on health outcomes, most trials use Ca in combination with vitamin D vs. placebo. Results: In total, we reviewed 38 studies addressing the effects of Ca on bone, pregnancy-related outcomes, cancers, cardiovascular outcomes, obesity, and mortality. There was a lot of heterogeneity in the study protocols, which made it difficult to draw any strong conclusions. According to the literature, high Ca intake seems to have a small positive effect on bone mineral content (BMC or bone mineral density (BMD in children and postmenopausal women. We did not find any consistent evidence on the effects of Ca on bone health in premenopausal women or men. Also, the evidence that Ca supplementation reduces fracture incidence is scarce and inconsistent. Maternal diet may influence the peak bone mass of offspring but more studies are required. There was no overall effect of Ca intake on cancers. Ca was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer and a slightly increased risk of prostate cancer in two of the three studies. No associations were found with other cancers. We

  10. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

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    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  11. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium intake, polymorphisms of the calcium-sensing receptor, and recurrent/aggressive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Moritz; Shui, Irene M; Wilson, Kathryn M; Penney, Kathryn L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Kibel, Adam S

    2015-12-01

    To assess whether calcium intake and common genetic variants of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) are associated with either aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) or disease recurrence after prostatectomy. Calcium intake at diagnosis was assessed, and 65 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CASR were genotyped in 886 prostatectomy patients. We investigated the association between calcium intake and CASR variants with both PCa recurrence and aggressiveness (defined as Gleason score ≥4 + 3, stage ≥pT3, or nodal-positive disease). A total of 285 men had aggressive disease and 91 experienced recurrence. A U-shaped relationship between calcium intake and both disease recurrence and aggressiveness was observed. Compared to the middle quintile, the HR for disease recurrence was 3.07 (95% CI 1.41-6.69) for the lowest quintile and 3.21 (95% CI 1.47-7.00) and 2.97 (95% CI 1.37-6.45) for the two upper quintiles, respectively. Compared to the middle quintile, the OR for aggressive disease was 1.80 (95% CI 1.11-2.91) for the lowest quintile and 1.75 (95% CI 1.08-2.85) for the highest quintile of calcium intake. The main effects of CASR variants were not associated with PCa recurrence or aggressiveness. In the subgroup of patients with moderate calcium intake, 31 SNPs in four distinct blocks of high linkage disequilibrium were associated with PCa recurrence. We observed a protective effect of moderate calcium intake for PCa aggressiveness and recurrence. While CASR variants were not associated with these outcomes in the entire cohort, they may be associated with disease recurrence in men with moderate calcium intakes.

  13. Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lesley M.; Wong, Alvin S.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of dairy products, the primary source of calcium in Western diets, has been found to be positively associated with prostate cancer. In an Asian diet, non-dairy foods are the major contributors of calcium. Thus, a study of dietary calcium and prostate cancer in Asians can better inform on whether calcium, as opposed to other dairy components is responsible for the dairy foods-prostate cancer association. We examined calcium intake and prostate cancer risk among 27,293 men of the Singapore Chinese Health Study that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2007, 298 incident prostate cancer cases had been diagnosed among the cohort members. Diet was assessed at baseline with a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire. It is hypothesized that there is greater net absorption of calcium in smaller individuals. Therefore, the calcium-prostate cancer association was also assessed in stratified analyses by median body mass index (BMI). Vegetables were the largest contributor of daily calcium intake in the study population. Overall, we observed a modest, statistically nonsignificant 25% increase in prostate cancer risk for the 4th (median = 659 mg/day) versus 1st (median=211 mg/day) quartiles of calcium intake after adjustment for potential confounders. The association became considerably stronger and achieved statistical significance (hazard ratio=2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.34; P for trend=0.01) for men with below median (22.9 kg/m2) BMI. Dietary calcium may be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at relatively low intake. PMID:20516117

  14. Protective effects of low calcium intake and low calcium absorption vitamin D receptor genotype in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2013-01-01

    High calcium intake is consistently associated with increased prostate cancer risk in epidemiologic studies. We previously reported that the positive association between calcium intake and risk of aggressive prostate cancer was modified by the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CDX-2 binding site of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, among African American men. We expanded our previous study to include White men, a population with a higher calcium intake and a higher prevalence of the low absorption allele. We also examined VDR polymorphisms at other loci unrelated to calcium absorption. The study included 1,857 prostate cancer cases (1,140 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 717 with localized stage) and 1,096 controls. OR were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Among both Blacks and Whites, we observed a threshold for calcium intake (604 mg/d) below which prostate cancer risk declined sharply. Low calcium intake was most strongly associated with decreased risk among men with the VDR Cdx2 low calcium absorption genotype (P for interaction = 0.001 and P = 0.06 for Whites and African Americans, respectively). Among all men with this genotype, those in the lowest quartile of calcium intake (≤604 mg/d) had a 50% reduction in risk as compared with those in the upper three quartiles [OR = 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-0.67]. The association between calcium intake and prostate cancer risk was not modified by genotype at other VDR loci. Our findings support the hypothesis that genetic determinants of calcium absorption influence prostate cancer risk. The differences between African Americans and Whites in calcium absorption and dietary calcium intake may contribute to racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  15. Milk Vending Does Not Improve College Students' Milk and Calcium Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Hanks, Andrew S; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2017-08-01

    In the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, overall diet quality decreases, including a reduction in both dairy and calcium consumption. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the impact of milk vending on milk and calcium intakes in college students. Participants were 124 college students living in dorms at a large public university (Fall 2012). Milk vending machines were installed in two campus dorms. Before and 2 months after installation, students were surveyed about milk and calcium intakes, as well as attitudes regarding milk vending. Sales data for the newly installed machines were also collected between the pre- and posttest surveys. Students reported similar milk and calcium consumption before and after the intervention. Mean calcium intakes were lower than the recommended dietary allowance for students in either life stage group (18 years old or 19 years and older). Milk vending sales data showed that during the study period, approximately nine bottles of milk were bought each day from the two dorms combined. Results from this study suggest that milk vending alone may not be an effective strategy for preventing the commonly observed decrease in milk and calcium intakes among college students.

  16. Calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, NaNa; Aune, Dagfinn; Greenwood, Darren C; Ju, Woong; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2014-10-15

    Mechanistic and epidemiologic studies provide considerable evidence for a protective association between calcium intake and incident colorectal cancer (CRC). While the relationship has not been substantiated by short-duration randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CRC, trials do show a benefit on adenomas, a precursor to CRC. To address some of this inconsistency, we conducted dose-response meta-analyses by sources of calcium intake, based on prospective observational studies published up to December 2013 identified from PubMed, Embase, and BIOSIS. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. For total calcium intake, each 300 mg/day increase was associated with an approximately 8% reduced risk of CRC (summary RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.89-0.95, I(2)  = 47%, 15 studies with 12,305 cases, intake = 250-1,900 mg/day, follow-up = 3.3-16 years). While the risk decreased less steeply in higher range of total calcium intake (P(non-linearity)  = 0.04), the degree of curvature was mild and statistical significance of non-linearity was sensitive to one study. For supplementary calcium, each 300 mg/day increase was associated with an approximately 9% reduced risk of CRC (summary RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.86-0.98, I(2)  = 67%, six studies with 8,839 cases, intake = 0-1,150 mg/day, follow-up = 5-10 years). The test for non-linearity was not statistically significant (P(non-linearity)  = 0.11). In conclusion, both dietary and supplementary calcium intake may continue to decrease CRC risk beyond 1,000 mg/day. Calcium supplements and non-dairy products fortified with calcium may serve as additional targets in the prevention of CRC. RCTs of calcium supplements with at least 10 years of follow-up are warranted to confirm a benefit of calcium supplements on CRC risk. © 2014 UICC.

  17. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Whitcomb, Brian W; Szegda, Kathleen L; Boutot, Maegan E; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Troy, Lisa M; Michels, Karin B; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-01

    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk.Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2).Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors.Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P-trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P-trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk.Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other dairy

  18. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-11-01

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption. © 2010 International Life Sciences Institute.

  19. Vitamin D deficiency and calcium intake in reference to increased body mass index in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musharaf, Sara; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Krishnaswamy, Soundararajan; Yusuf, Deqa S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Moharram, Osama; Yakout, Sobhy; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to several chronic diseases in adults. Studies focusing on children and adolescents, however, are limited. In this randomized cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its relationship with childhood obesity and dietary calcium intake among a population of healthy urban Saudi children and adolescents. To achieve this, 331 randomly selected Saudi children (53.8% females and 46.2% males) aged 6-17 years were included. Demographic, medical, and dietary information were collected; anthropometrics were measured. Levels of serum fasting glucose, lipid profile, 25(OH) D, and for albumin corrected calcium were analyzed. Vitamin D deficiency was noted in all subjects, with girls having significantly lower vitamin D levels than boys. Mean calcium intake was found to be 60% of the required dietary allowance (RDA), while the mean vitamin D intake was 23% of RDA. Vitamin D status and calcium intake were comparable in both normal and overweight/obese children and adolescents. Vitamin D status was highest among children who had calcium intake >800 mg/day. In adolescents there was insignificant but decreasing trend in BMI, which was observed to be highest among those whose calcium intake was 800 mg/day. results from this study suggest the importance of vitamin D fortification and increased dietary calcium in the Saudi diet to meet RDA requirements and avoid onset of vitamin D deficiency-related diseases in Saudi children and adolescents.

  20. Interactions between dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density or bone geometry in a low calcium intake population (KNHANES IV 2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Moon, Jae Hoon; Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Sang Wan; Jang, Hak Chul; Shin, Chan Soo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the interactions between dietary calcium intake and bone strength parameters in populations or areas with low calcium intake. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) or bone geometry in an Asian population with low calcium intake. This was a cross-sectional study of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010. A total of 3448 men and 3812 women older than 50 years were stratified by daily dietary calcium intake: less than 400 mg/d, 400-799 mg/d, 800-1199 mg/d, and 1200 mg/d or greater. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the geometric index was calculated. Mean daily calcium intake was 470 mg/d in this population. BMD in the lumbar spine (both sexes) and femoral neck (women) was significantly lower only when calcium intake was less than 400 mg/d. In men, femoral neck and total hip BMD was positively related to calcium intake up to 1200 mg/d. Calcium intake less than 400 mg/d was negatively related to femoral cortical thickness and buckling ratio. These interactions disappeared when the 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 30 ng/mL or greater in men and 20 ng/mL or greater in women. Low calcium intake was significantly related with low BMD and increased risk of osteoporosis. However, the association between calcium and BMD was not consistently linear, and a sufficient vitamin D level appears to compensate for the negative influences of low calcium intake on bone.

  1. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-02-01

    Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable.

  2. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  3. Individual and family correlates of calcium-rich food intake among parents of early adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Ballejos, Miriam Edlefsen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2011-03-01

    Most adults do not meet calcium intake recommendations. Little is known about how individual and family factors, including parenting practices that influence early adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, affect calcium intake of parents. This information could inform the development of effective nutrition education programs. To identify individual and family factors associated with intake of calcium-rich foods among parents of early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years). A cross-sectional survey was used with 14 scales to assess attitudes/preferences and parenting practices regarding calcium-rich foods and a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire (2006-2007). A convenience sample of self-reporting non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian (n=661) parents was recruited in nine states. Parents were the primary meal planner/preparer and completed questionnaires in homes or community settings. Predictors of calcium intake from three food groupings-all food sources, dairy foods, and milk. Multivariate regression analyses identified demographic, attitude/preference, and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake. Most respondents were women (∼90%) and 38% had a college degree. Education was positively associated with calcium intake from all three food groupings, whereas having an Asian spouse compared to a non-Hispanic white spouse was negatively associated with calcium intake only from all food sources and from dairy foods. Expectations for and encouragement of healthy beverage intake for early adolescents were positively associated with calcium intake from dairy foods and milk, respectively. Parental concern regarding adequacy of intake was negatively associated, whereas perception of health benefits from calcium-rich foods was positively associated with calcium intake from all food sources and from dairy foods. Between 20% and 32% of the variance in calcium intake from all food groupings was explained in these models. Individual factors and positive

  4. DOI: 10.18697/ajfand.79.16510 12427 DIETARY CALCIUM INTAKE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  5. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and economic factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in Flemish preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, I; Lin, Y; De Keyzer, W; Sioen, I; Mouratidou, T; Moreno, L A; Slimani, N; Jenab, M; Vandevijvere, S; De Backer, G; De Henauw, S

    2011-09-01

    Low calcium and vitamin D intakes have been associated with health risks in childhood and adulthood. This study aims to investigate dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D intake, and its associated sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors among preschoolers. Three-day estimated diet records from 696 Flemish preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old (51% boys) were used (66% of 1052 collected diaries). Contribution of 58 food groups to calcium and vitamin D intake were computed. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of intakes with sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors. Mean calcium intake (844 mg per day) was above, and mean vitamin D intake (2.0 μg per day) largely below the Belgian recommendations. Milk, sweetened milk drinks and cheese were the main sources of calcium intakes (26, 25 and 11%, respectively). Butter and margarine were the main vitamin D sources (26%), followed by growth milk (=fortified milk) (20%) and fish (15%). Calcium and vitamin D intake were negatively associated with participants' age, and calcium positively with parental education and family size. The child's gender, supplement use and physical activity level, and the employment status and smoking behaviour of the parents were not associated with calcium or vitamin D intake. Flemish preschoolers had too low vitamin D intakes while most had adequate calcium intakes. Milk (including sweetened, fortified/growth milk) was the main food source of calcium intake and the second important source of vitamin D intake after butter and margarine. Calcium intake was positively associated with parental education, while vitamin D intake was not.

  6. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified...

  7. Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women who have had pre-eclampsia have a greater risk of developing hypertension, stroke and ischemic heart disease in later life. The etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unclear. Placental insufficiency plays a key role in the progression of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri.   Methods A case control study involving 200 primigravida (100 preeclamptic and 100 apparently healthy between the ages of 20 and 32 years attending General Hospital Owerri. Fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of serum selenium and serum calcium while membrane potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit and serum selenium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Independent Student t test was used for statistical analysis.   Results The results revealed that membrane potential and serum selenium as well as serum calcium were significantly decreased in preeclampsia when compared with the controls, at p<0.05.   Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the decrease in membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. There may be a need for increasing the dietary intake of these essential trace metals during pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia in Owerri.

  8. Ceruletide decreases food intake in non-obese man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacher, G; Steinringer, H; Schmierer, G; Schneider, C; Winklehner, S

    1982-01-01

    Cholecystokinin decreases food intake in animals and in man. This study investigated whether the structurally related ceruletide reduces food intake in healthy non-obese man. Twelve females and 12 males participated, after an over-night fast, in each of two experiments. During the basal 40 min, saline was infused IV. Thereafter, the infusion was, in random double blind fashion, either continued with saline or switched to 60 or 120 ng/kg b. wt/hr ceruletide. Butter was melted in a pan and scrambled eggs with ham were prepared in front of the subjects, who were instructed to eat, together with bread and mallow tea, as much as they wanted. With 120 ng/kg/hr ceruletide, the subjects ate significantly less (16.8 percent) than with saline (3725 kJ +/- 489 SEM and 4340 kJ +/- 536, respectively; p less than 0.025). They also reported less hunger (p less than 0.005) and activation (p less than 0.005) and activation (p less than 0.01), and had longer reaction times (p less than 0.01) and a weaker psychomotor performance (p less than 0.025). 60 ng/kg/hr ceruletide decreased food intake only slightly (6.6%; 3089 kJ +/- 253 and 3292 kJ +/- 300 respectively) and no significant changes in the above measures occurred. In conclusion, ceruletide reduces food intake in man, thus resembling the effects of cholecystokinin.

  9. REAL INTAKE AND PROVISION WITH VITAMINS AND CALCIUM IN OSTEOPOROSIS: ASSESSMENT BY MEASURING INTAKE AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Khodyrev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim:  To assess the providing an organism with vitamins (А, В2, С, Е, β-carotene, and calcium in osteoporosis patients by measuring their intake and plasma concentrations. Materials and methods: 108 pairs “osteoporosis patient – healthy volunteer” aged 64.29±9.73 years were formed using a “case-control” method. Real intake of vitamins and calcium was studied defining the frequency of food taking for a month using questionnaire method. Daily intake of vitamins А, В2, С, Е, β-carotene, and calcium was calculated based on the analysis of the frequency of food taking. Among the basic group, using randomized method, 60% of osteoporosis patients were selected who underwent definition of plasma levels of vitamins А, В2, С, and Е. The same study was performed in 60 control volunteers. Results: Correlation of the intake of vitamins A, C, and β-carotene with their plasma levels wasn’t noted. It may reveal an increased need in these nutrients in osteoporosis. According to the calcium intake, every osteoporosis patient can be attributed to a population category with deep insufficiency of calcium intake (less than 500 mg a day. Conclusion: The data obtained need further investigation and, first of all, in clinical and biochemical fields (enzymatic non-provision for calcium uptake, clinical manifestations of insufficient provision with nutrients. Solution of these problems would enable regulation of food intake concerning calcium uptake in osteoporosis.

  10. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p

  11. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van den Berg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians. An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day. After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  12. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E

    1998-01-01

    Calcium's ability to prevent bone loss in early postmenopausal women is controversial. We used data on 394 women from the placebo group of the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study, a clinical trial of alendronate, to investigate the relation of calcium intake to bone loss. Calcium...... intake was recorded, and bone mineral density (BMD) (in the lumbar spine, total body, forearm, and hip) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum total alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide crosslink levels) were measured at baseline and annually thereafter. Women whose...... were not significantly associated with changes in BMD or bone turnover. Even women whose total calcium intake was >1333 mg/d (the highest tertile of total calcium intake) showed a decline in BMD of almost 2%, similar to declines in the lower two tertiles of total calcium intake (

  13. Dietary calcium intake by a group of 13 18-year-old Costa Rican teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, R; Nuñez, H P

    2001-06-01

    Calcium intake is one of the most important predictors of the amount of bone mass gained during growth. Therefore, this study was designed to estimate the dietary calcium intake of Costa Rican urban and rural adolescents ages 13-18 years old. Calcium dietary intake was determined using prospective 3-d diet records. Two-thirds (or 66.7%) or less of the Adequate Intake (AI) was used as the criterion for inadequate calcium intake as suggested by several authors. Reported mean daily calcium intake was 573 mg +/- 290. On average 82% of the adolescents did not meet two-thirds of the Al for calcium. A higher percentage of rural than urban youngsters reported inadequate calcium intake (92% and 75% respectively, p = 0.000). Likewise a higher percentage of girls (91%) than boys (77%) reported marginal calcium intake. This study shows evidence that nutritional interventions and educational strategies are urgent for increasing calcium consumption among adolescents in order to reduce the future burden of osteoporosis in old age.

  14. Effectiveness of a Theory-Driven Nutritional Education Program in Improving Calcium Intake among Older Mauritian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishnee Bhurosy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low calcium intake, a risk factor of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures, has been previously reported among post-menopausal women in Mauritius. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention in improving the calcium intake, self-efficacy, and knowledge of older Mauritians. Methodology. The study was conducted as a pre- and post-test design which was evaluated through a baseline, immediate postintervention, and 2-month follow-up assessments. Participants were adults (n=189 aged ≥40 years old from 2 urban community-based centres. The intervention group (IG (n=98 participated in 6 weekly interactive lessons based on the health belief model (HBM. The main outcome measures were calcium intake, HB scale scores, knowledge scores, and physical activity level (PAL. Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. Results. The IG significantly increased its baseline calcium intake, knowledge and self-efficacy (P<0.001 at post-assessments. A significant decrease in waist circumference in the IG was noted (P<0.05 after intervention. PAL significantly increased by 12.3% at post-test and by 29.6% at follow-up among intervention adults when compared to the CG (P<0.001. Conclusion. A theory-driven educational intervention is effective in improving the dietary calcium intake, knowledge, self-efficacy, and PAL of older community-based Mauritian adults.

  15. Dietary calcium intake and Renin Angiotensin System polymorphisms alter the blood pressure response to aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsongalis Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary calcium intake and the renin angiotensin system (RAS regulate blood pressure (BP by modulating calcium homeostasis. Despite similar BP regulatory effects, the influence of dietary calcium intake alone and combined with RAS polymorphisms on the BP response following acute aerobic exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of dietary calcium intake and selected RAS polymorphisms on postexercise hypotension. Methods Subjects were men (n = 50, 43.8 ± 1.3 yr with high BP (145.3 ± 1.5/85.9 ± 1.1 mm Hg. They completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle bouts at 40% and 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Subjects provided 3 d food records on five protocol-specific occasions. Dietary calcium intake was averaged and categorized as low (1R A/C were analyzed with molecular methods. Genotypes were reduced from three to two: ACE II/ID and ACE DD; or AT1R AA and AT1R CC/AC. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested if BP differed among experiments, dietary calcium intake level and RAS polymorphisms. Results Systolic BP (SBP decreased 6 mm Hg after 40% and 60% VO2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h with LowCa (p 2max versus non-exercise control for 10 h among ACE II/ID (6 mm Hg and AT1R AA (8 mm Hg; and by 8 mm Hg after 40% VO2max among ACE DD and AT1R CC/CA (p 2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h (p 2max (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion SBP decreased after exercise compared to non-exercise control among men with low but not high dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake interacted with the ACE I/D and AT1R A/C polymorphisms to further modulate postexercise hypotension. Interactions among dietary calcium intake, exercise intensity and RAS polymorphisms account for some of the variability in the BP response to exercise.

  16. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  17. Young Adults' Perceptions of Calcium Intake and Health: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinow, Michelle L; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Whiting, Susan J; Jung, Mary E; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2017-12-01

    Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young adults' (18-34 years) knowledge of calcium in relation to health, facilitators and barriers to adequate calcium intake, and to explore both their suggestions for individual strategies to increase calcium intake and ways to communicate calcium-related messaging to this population. Eight gender-specific focus groups (18 men; 35 women) were conducted using a semistructured interview guide, guided by social cognitive theory. Deductive thematic analysis was used to generate themes. Participants perceived adequate calcium intake to be important for children and older adults but were uncertain of the benefits for their own age group. Perceived positive outcomes (e.g., aesthetics such as strong nails) associated with adequate calcium intake were cited as a motivator to increase intake. Perceived barriers to achieving increased calcium intake included the high cost and inconvenience of milk products and negative practices of dairy farmers. Participants suggested planning healthy well-balanced meals and forming a habit of consuming calcium-rich foods as individual strategies to increase calcium intake. Strategies to convey calcium-related information to young adults included increasing awareness of the importance of calcium via credible sources of information and developing nutrition education curricula. Social media and advertising were perceived as ineffective. Our findings provide key information for nutrition education initiatives.

  18. Girls' Calcium Intake Is Associated with Bone Mineral Content During Middle Childhood1

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorito, Laura M.; MITCHELL, DIANE C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    We examined longitudinally the association between calcium intake and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) in 151 non-Hispanic white girls. Intakes of dairy, energy, and calcium were assessed using three 24-h dietary recalls in girls at ages 5, 7, 9, and 11 y. We assessed their total-body bone mineral content with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ages 9 and11 y. Dairy foods comprised the major contributor (70%) to calcium intake over the 6-y period; 28% of calcium came from other foods,...

  19. Oxytocin Acting in the Nucleus Accumbens Core Decreases Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herisson, F M; Waas, J R; Fredriksson, R; Schiöth, H B; Levine, A S; Olszewski, P K

    2016-04-01

    Central oxytocin (OT) promotes feeding termination in response to homeostatic challenges, such as excessive stomach distension, salt loading and toxicity. OT has also been proposed to affect feeding reward by decreasing the consumption of palatable carbohydrates and sweet tastants. Because the OT receptor (OTR) is expressed in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), a site regulating diverse aspects of eating behaviour, we investigated whether OT acts there to affect appetite in rats. First, we examined whether direct AcbC and AcbSh OT injections affect hunger- and palatability-driven consumption. We found that only AcbC OT infusions decrease deprivation-induced chow intake and reduce the consumption of palatable sucrose and saccharin solutions in nondeprived animals. These effects were abolished by pretreatment with an OTR antagonist, L-368,899, injected in the same site. AcbC OT at an anorexigenic dose did not induce a conditioned taste aversion, which indicates that AcbC OT-driven anorexia is not caused by sickness/malaise. The appetite-specific effect of AcbC OT is supported by the real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of OTR mRNA in the AcbC, which revealed that food deprivation elevates OTR mRNA expression, whereas saccharin solution intake decreases OTR transcript levels. We also used c-Fos immunohistochemistry as a marker of neuronal activation and found that AcbC OT injection increases activation of the AcbC itself, as well as of two feeding-related sites: the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Finally, considering the fact that OT plays a significant role in social behaviour, we examined whether offering animals a meal in a social setting would modify their hypophagic response to AcbC OT injections. We found that a social context abolishes the anorexigenic effects of AcbC OT. We conclude that OT acting via the AcbC decreases food intake driven by hunger and reward in rats offered a meal in a nonsocial setting. © 2016

  20. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs and adequate intake (AI values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006. Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032. When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086 and fluorine (p = 0.503. These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  1. Association of low intake of milk and vitamin D during pregnancy with decreased birth weight

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mannion, Cynthia A; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Koski, Kristine G

    2006-01-01

    .... We hypothesized that maternal milk restriction during pregnancy, which can reduce intakes of protein, calcium, riboflavin and vitamin D, might represent a health risk by lowering infant birth weight...

  2. Dietary Calcium Intake and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of dietary calcium intake with anthropometric measures, physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet in 1176 Spanish children aged 6–9 years. Data were obtained from “Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia” (ANIVA, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample. Dietary calcium intake assessed from three-day food records was compared to recommended daily intakes in Spain. Anthropometric measures (weight and height were measured according to international standards and adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED test. For the total sample of children, 25.8% had inadequate calcium intake, a significantly higher prevalence in girls (p = 0.006 and inadequate calcium intake was associated with lower height z-score (p = 0.001 for both sexes. In girls, there was an inverse relationship between calcium intake and body mass index (p = 0.001 and waist/hip ratio (p = 0.018. Boys presented a polarization in physical activity, reporting a greater level of both physical and sedentary activity in comparison with girls (p = 0.001. Children with poor adherence to MedDiet, even if they consume two yogurts or cheese (40 g daily, adjusted by gender, age, total energy intake, physical activity and father’s level of education, are at risk of inadequate total calcium intake (odds ratio adjusted [ORa]: 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–9.94, p = 0.001. The intake of these dairy products was insufficient to cover calcium intake recommendations in this age group (6–9 years. It is important to prioritize health strategies that promote the MedDiet and to increase calcium intake in this age group.

  3. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Vicky; Leung, William; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R; Bolland, Mark J

    2015-09-29

    To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. Random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Ovid Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches were undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Randomised controlled trials of dietary sources of calcium or calcium supplements (with or without vitamin D) in participants aged over 50 with BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, total body, or forearm as an outcome. We identified 59 eligible randomised controlled trials: 15 studied dietary sources of calcium (n=1533) and 51 studied calcium supplements (n=12,257). Increasing calcium intake from dietary sources increased BMD by 0.6-1.0% at the total hip and total body at one year and by 0.7-1.8% at these sites and the lumbar spine and femoral neck at two years. There was no effect on BMD in the forearm. Calcium supplements increased BMD by 0.7-1.8% at all five skeletal sites at one, two, and over two and a half years, but the size of the increase in BMD at later time points was similar to the increase at one year. Increases in BMD were similar in trials of dietary sources of calcium and calcium supplements (except at the forearm), in trials of calcium monotherapy versus co-administered calcium and vitamin D, in trials with calcium doses of ≥ 1000 versus 500 mg/day, and in trials where the baseline dietary calcium intake was calcium intake from dietary sources or by taking calcium supplements produces small non-progressive increases in BMD, which are unlikely to lead to a clinically significant reduction in risk of fracture. © Tai et al 2015.

  4. Calcium Intake and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingxing; Li, Zongyao; Ji, Xinqiang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for eligible publications up to April 2017. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Small-study effect was estimated using Egger’s test and the funnel plot. Among 15 epidemiological studies involving 493,415 participants and 7453 cases eligible for this meta-analysis, 13 studies were about dietary calcium intake, 4 studies about dairy calcium intake and 7 studies about dietary plus supplemental calcium intake. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled RRs of ovarian cancer were 0.80 (95% CI 0.72–0.89) for dietary calcium, 0.80 (95% CI 0.66–0.98) for dairy calcium and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65–1.24) for dietary plus supplemental calcium, respectively. Dietary calcium was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74–0.99) and among case-control studies (RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.89). In subgroup analysis by ovarian cancer subtypes, we found a statistically significant association between the dietary calcium (RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.69–0.88) and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This meta-analysis indicated that increased calcium intake might be inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer; this still needs to be confirmed by larger prospective cohort studies. PMID:28665326

  5. Calcium Intake and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Song

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for eligible publications up to April 2017. Pooled relative risks (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using the random-effects model. Small-study effect was estimated using Egger’s test and the funnel plot. Among 15 epidemiological studies involving 493,415 participants and 7453 cases eligible for this meta-analysis, 13 studies were about dietary calcium intake, 4 studies about dairy calcium intake and 7 studies about dietary plus supplemental calcium intake. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled RRs of ovarian cancer were 0.80 (95% CI 0.72–0.89 for dietary calcium, 0.80 (95% CI 0.66–0.98 for dairy calcium and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65–1.24 for dietary plus supplemental calcium, respectively. Dietary calcium was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74–0.99 and among case-control studies (RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.89. In subgroup analysis by ovarian cancer subtypes, we found a statistically significant association between the dietary calcium (RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.69–0.88 and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. This meta-analysis indicated that increased calcium intake might be inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer; this still needs to be confirmed by larger prospective cohort studies.

  6. CALCIUM AND IRON INTAKE BY OLD PEOPLE LIVING IN GERIATRIC INSTITUTIONS IN FORTALEZA, CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarciana Nobre de Menezes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and iron intake by 152 old people living in geriatric institutions in Fortaleza, CE was analyzed. The methodology used consisted of weighing food first and then its remainder after meals in order to calculate food consumption. The results showed that 93% of the old people studied presented inadequate intake of calcium. Regarding iron, 72% of men and 41% of women presented intakes above the recommended levels. However, 12% of women presented iron intakes below the recommended levels. According to such results, it is concluded that this population is under a nutritional risk of osteoporosis (considering the large proportion of individuals with inadequate intake of calcium as well as ferroprivous anaemia, especially concerning women. Thus, interventions to prevent and correct such deficiencies are necessary. Key words: old people in geriatric institutions, food intake, food direct weighing.

  7. [Food sources and average intake of calcium in a representative sample of Spanish schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, R M; López-Sobaler, A M; Jiménez Ortega, A I; Navia Lombán, B; Ruiz-Roso Calvo de Mora, B; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; López Plaza, B

    2012-01-01

    There is controversy about the adequacy of calcium intake to that recommended in Spanish schoolchildren. Some studies indicate that the intake is inadequate in a variable percentage of children, while others insist on the danger of an excessive intake in a huge percentage of this population. To assess calcium intake and food sources of this nutrient in a representative sample of Spanish children and to judge the adequacy of its contribution to the coverage of recommended intakes. 903 schoolchildren (7 to 11 years) from 10 Spanish provinces (Tarragona, Caceres, Burgos, Guadalajara, Valencia, Salamanca, Cordoba, Vizcaya, Lugo and Madrid) were studied. They constituted a representative sample of the Spanish schoolchildren population. The energy and nutrient intake was determined using a "Food record questionnaire" for 3 days, including a Sunday. Calcium intake was compared with the recommended intakes (RI) for the mineral. Weight and height were recorded and body mass index (BMI) calculated. In the studied group (55.3% girls and 44.7% of children), 30.7% had an excess body weight (23.3% overweight and 7.4% obesity). Calcium intake was 859.9 ± 249.2 mg / day (79.5% of the recommendations). 76.7% of children had intakes below 100% of those recommended and 40.1% below of 67% of RI. The ratios calcium/phosphorus (0.74 ± 0.21) and calcium/protein (10.1 ± 2.8) and the index of nutritional quality for calcium (0.78 ± 0.29) were lower than recommended in 91.6%, 99.8% and 81.1% of children, respectively. Dietary calcium came from dairy products (64.7%), dietetic products and infant formulae (7.6%), cereals (7.3%), vegetables (3.5%), fruits (3.4%), pre-cooked meals (3.3%), meats (2.8%), fishes (2.8%) and pulses (2.2%), with no differences by gender. Calcium intake was lower than recommended in 76.7% of the children and 40.1% had insufficient intake (calcium source was dairy products (64.7%), increase consumption of this food group is recommended, especially in the 37.1% of

  8. Relationship between pregnancy outcomes and maternal vitamin D and calcium intake: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabour, Hadis; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Maghbooli, Zhila; Madani, Farzaneh; Mir, Elham; Larijani, Bagher

    2006-10-01

    Poor maternal vitamin D status affects fetal and infant skeletal growth. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between newborn outcomes and maternal calcium and vitamin D intakes. Four hundred and forty-nine pregnant women, healthy at the point of delivery, and their newborns were enrolled in the study, which was performed in three university hospitals in Tehran in March 2004. Maternal anthropometric data and energy, protein, calcium and vitamin D intakes were collected, and newborn outcomes (weight, length, head circumference and 1-min Apgar score) were determined. Almost two-thirds of the mothers (64.3%) took no supplements during pregnancy. Only one-third of the mothers (33.8%) had adequate intakes of calcium and vitamin D (from supplements and foods) compared with the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Mean length at birth and 1-min Apgar score were higher in newborns whose mothers had adequate calcium and vitamin D intake than in newborns whose mothers had inadequate intake (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively). Significant correlations were found between adequate maternal calcium and vitamin D intake and both appropriate birth weight and 1-min Apgar score of newborns and weight gain of mothers during pregnancy. Informing mothers of the critical importance of consuming adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D seems necessary.

  9. Effects of calcium intake on the cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoumas, D; Cobbold, C; Dimitrakakis, G

    2013-11-01

    The use of calcium supplements for the prevention of complications of osteoporosis has significantly increased during the last years. The effects of calcium intake in postmenopausal women on cardiovascular parameters such as blood pressure, serum lipids and cardiovascular events are controversial. Even though transient beneficial effects of calcium supplementation have been reported, especially in women with low dietary calcium intake, their long-term outcomes are inconclusive. Only a very few studies investigating serum lipids in postmenopausal women have been described and these showed significant increases in high-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein to low-density lipoprotein ratio. With regards to cardiovascular events in this population group adverse effects have been reported on the rates of myocardial infarction and stroke with increased calcium intake by some authors, however, others described no effects or even beneficial outcomes. We present a review of the current literature which provides a balanced summary of the possible beneficial and adverse effects of calcium intake in postmenopausal women on cardiovascular parameters. Taking into account the modest effect of calcium supplementation in reducing fracture rates, a reassessment of the role, benefits and adverse effects of calcium supplements should be conducted in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between milk and calcium intake and lipid metabolism in female patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JaeHee; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Ki Nam; Choi, Young-Ju; Chang, Namsoo; Huh, Kap-Bum

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the association between intake of milk and dairy products as well as calcium and biomarkers related to lipid metabolism in Korean female patients with type 2 diabetes. A cohort of 509 female subjects (mean age: 59.0 years; range: 35-80 years) was recruited from Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of their daily intake of milk and dairy products [200 g/day (>200-1201 g/day)] and then further divided into two groups according to their daily calcium intake: below and above the estimated average requirement (EAR). After adjustment for age, body mass index, energy intake, exercise, use of nutritional supplements and cholesterol medication, the level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly higher in subjects with milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day than in subjects in the other two groups. Those subjects with a milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day had significantly higher levels of apolipoprotein A-1 and a significantly lower atherogenic index than the other two groups. Patients with a calcium intake above the EAR exhibited a significantly greater serum HDL-cholesterol level than those with a calcium intake below the EAR. Milk and dairy products, good sources of calcium, play a positive role in lipid profiles in female patients with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Parental Influences on Dairy Intake in Children, and Their Role in Child Calcium-Fortified Food Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Beth H.; Chung, Kimberly R.; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Design: Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. Setting…

  12. Status of Dietary Intake of Calcium in Women of Reproductive Age in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca plays an important role in bone formation. Attaining optimal bone mass and peak bone densities is essential to prevent osteoporotic fractures in future life. In conditions of Ca deficiency, Ca from the bones maintains the blood levels of Ca leading to its depletion in bones. Calcium depletion leads to poor bone density and a higher risk of osteoporosis particularly in women who have repeated episodes of pregnancy and lactation.Aim & Objective: To assess the dietary intake of calcium.Material Methods: the study was conducted among 200 healthy women of reproductive age group of 20-49 years.Result: The dietary intake of calcium was less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances of 600mg/day. Women from upper socioeconomic class had a higher intake of dietary calcium 435±268 mg/day as compared to women from low socioeconomic class with a dietary intake of 295±163 mg/day.Conclusion: The dietary intake of calcium improved with an increase in socioeconomic class.

  13. Intake of protein, calcium and sodium in public child day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To assess calcium, protein and sodium intake, of children that attend public day-care centers and to compare it with the recommended one.METHODS:Cross-sectional descriptive study in seven public day care centers of São Paulo city, Southeast Brazil, which enrolled 366 children between 12 and 36 months of age. The data collection occurred between September and December 2010. Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Dietary intake was assessed by a direct food weighing method. For the nutritional calculation, DietWin(r Profissional 2.0 was used, and the adequacy was calculated according to the recommendations of the National School Feeding Program for energy, protein, calcium and sodium. The calcium/protein relation was also calculated, as well as calcium density (mg/1,000kcal.RESULTS: The energy (406.4kcal, protein (18.2g and calcium (207.6mg consumption did not reach the recommended values ​​in all the evaluated day care centers. Sodium intake exceeded up to three times the recommendation. The calcium/protein ratio of 11.7mg/g was less than the adequate one (20mg/g.CONCLUSIONS: There was inadequacy of calcium, protein and sodium dietary intake, in children attending public day-care centers.

  14. Dietary intake of calcium, vitamins A and E and bleeding on probing in Sri Lankan preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, V; Ekanayake, L; Silva, R

    2014-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of gingival bleeding on probing and the associations between dietary intake of calcium, vitamins A and E and gingival bleeding on probing in Sri Lankan preschool children. A cross-sectional study. 784 children aged 48-72 months attending preschools in the Kegalle district and their mothers/carers. The prevalence of gingival bleeding on probing was 52.9%. A Poisson logistic regression model revealed that children with a high daily dietary intake of calcium were less likely to have gingival bleeding on probing than those with low intake (PR=0.80; 95%CI 0.64,0.98). Also prevalence of gingival bleeding was higher in children: with plaque on their teeth; whose mothers were not employed; or, were from families with three or more children. The prevalence of gingivitis was high in the children and the findings suggest that high levels of dietary calcium intake are associated with reduced gingival bleeding in preschool children.

  15. Calcium intake and knowledge among white adolescent girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiftyone per cent of participants had not been given any information relating to calcium and its benefits. Teachers and parents are the most noted sources of information and 31% of the participants knew that adolescence was the most important period for calcium absorption and bone building. Conclusions. Adolescents ...

  16. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  17. The Effects in the Rat of Varying Intakes of Dietary Calcium, Phosphorus, and Hydrogen Ion on Hyperparathyroidism Due to Chronic Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Renal failure of 4 wk duration in rats led to parathyroid enlargement, increased bone resorption, and decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphate by the remnant kidney. The degree of hyperparathyroidism was influenced by each of the three dietary factors investigated. In the first study increasing calcium intake reduced the size of the parathyroids by increasing calcium and reducing phosphate absorption. In the second study phosphate intake was linearly related to parathyroid gland size in the uremic animals and associated with rising plasma phosphate levels. In the last study acidosis led directly to increased bone resorption but small parathyroid glands associated with elevated ionized calcium levels. Alkalosis lowered the serum ionized calcium and led to parathyroid enlargement and the expected associated findings. It was shown that parathyroid weight reflected both metabolic activity as judged by amino acid uptake, and the content of immunoassayable parathyroid hormone. In all studies gland weight was inversely related to serum ionized calcium. PMID:4808640

  18. Acutely decreased thermoregulatory energy expenditure or decreased activity energy expenditure both acutely reduce food intake in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Kaiyala

    Full Text Available Despite the suggestion that reduced energy expenditure may be a key contributor to the obesity pandemic, few studies have tested whether acutely reduced energy expenditure is associated with a compensatory reduction in food intake. The homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure remain controversial and are thought to act over days to weeks. We evaluated food intake in mice using two models of acutely decreased energy expenditure: 1 increasing ambient temperature to thermoneutrality in mice acclimated to standard laboratory temperature or 2 exercise cessation in mice accustomed to wheel running. Increasing ambient temperature (from 21 °C to 28 °C rapidly decreased energy expenditure, demonstrating that thermoregulatory energy expenditure contributes to both light cycle (40 ± 1% and dark cycle energy expenditure (15 ± 3% at normal ambient temperature (21 °C. Reducing thermoregulatory energy expenditure acutely decreased food intake primarily during the light cycle (65 ± 7%, thus conflicting with the delayed compensation model, but did not alter spontaneous activity. Acute exercise cessation decreased energy expenditure only during the dark cycle (14 ± 2% at 21 °C; 21 ± 4% at 28 °C, while food intake was reduced during the dark cycle (0.9 ± 0.1 g in mice housed at 28 °C, but during the light cycle (0.3 ± 0.1 g in mice housed at 21 °C. Cumulatively, there was a strong correlation between the change in daily energy expenditure and the change in daily food intake (R(2 = 0.51, p<0.01. We conclude that acutely decreased energy expenditure decreases food intake suggesting that energy intake is regulated by metabolic signals that respond rapidly and accurately to reduced energy expenditure.

  19. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level.

  20. Dietary calcium intake in a cohort of elderly patients already in drug therapy for osteoporosis. Is it possible and how to modify the eating habits before calcium supplementation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Manzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate intake of calcium via the diet is very common in patients taking drugs for osteoporosis. We have evaluated 302 consecutive elderly patients (68.6 median age attending our Rheumatological and Orthopedic Outpatient Clinics using a questionnaire for evaluation of dietary calcium intake. Two hundred and forty of these had a questionnaire score 7 in 205/240 after an average period of 3-6 months. In the 35 patients in which this was not possible, the exact knowledge of calcium dietary intake (poor or absent has allowed a tailored calcium supplementation.

  1. Dietary and total calcium intakes are associated with lower percentage total body and truncal fat in young, healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Megan L; Simpson, Janis A Randall; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between different sources of calcium intake (dairy [milk products only], dietary [all dietary sources including dairy], nondairy dietary [all dietary sources excluding dairy], and total [dietary + supplemental]) and fat mass in young adults. One hundred ninety-seven healthy Caucasian men and women aged 18 to 28 years from southwestern Ontario underwent whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to determine total body fat mass (%FM) and truncal fat (%TF). Calcium intakes, determined using a food frequency questionnaire, were divided into quartiles for each of dairy, dietary, nondairy dietary, and total sources. Physical activity scores were collected on a subset of subjects (n = 167). Mean %FM and %TF were compared between the lowest (Q1) and highest (Q4) quartiles of calcium consumers for each calcium source. Calcium intakes between subjects with %FM ≥ 50th and regardless of calcium source (dairy, dietary, and total). When adjusted for physical activity, lower %FM and %TF persisted (P ≤ 0.05) for subjects in Q4 (1113-1595 mg/d mean dietary and total calcium intakes) vs Q1 (116-393 mg/d mean dietary and total calcium intakes). Calcium intakes from dairy, dietary, and total sources for subjects with a %FM ≥ 50th percentile were significantly lower (all P ≤ 0.05); when adjusted for physical activity, dietary (P = 0.025) and total (P = 0.060) calcium intakes remained lower. Our findings support a relationship, even after adjusting for physical activity, between higher dietary and total calcium intakes and lower total body and truncal fat in young adults. Results suggest an intake of approximately 1500 mg/d calcium could aid in the management of body and truncal fat. We recommend that young adults be encouraged to increase their total calcium intakes to at least the recommended daily allowance of 1000 mg/d for reasons extending beyond bone health.

  2. Calcium intake and serum concentration in relation to risk of cardiovascular death in NHANES III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular death remains controversial. By assessing dietary intake, use of supplements, and serum levels of calcium, we aimed to disentangle this link in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. METHODS: Mortality linkage of NHANES III to death certificate data for those aged 17 years or older (n = 20,024 was used to estimate risk of overall cardiovascular death as well as death from ischemic heart disease (IHD, acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure (HF, and cerebrovascular disease (CD with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: About 10.0% of the population died of cardiovascular disease and the majority (5.4% died of IHD. There was increased risk of overall CVD death for those in the bottom 5% of serum calcium compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.03-2.22. For women there was a statistically significant increased risk of IHD death for those with serum calcium levels in the top 5% compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.72 (95%CI: 1.13-2.61, whereas in men, low serum calcium was related to increased IHD mortality (HR: 2.32 (95% CI 1.14-3.01, Pinteraction: 0.306. No clear association with CVD death was observed for dietary or supplemental calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium as assessed by serum concentrations is involved in cardiovascular health, though differential effects by sex may exist. No clear evidence was found for an association between dietary or supplementary intake of calcium and cardiovascular death.

  3. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Vicky; Leung, William; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R; Mark J Bolland

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. Design Random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches were undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled tria...

  4. Intakes of dairy products and calcium and obesity in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19-64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m². Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45-0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71-0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64-0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

  5. Estimation of milk, dairy products and calcium intake in nutrition of the celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Panjkota Krbavčić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley and possibly oats. The smallest amount of gluten in food damages the small intestine of these patients. In Croatia there is no data about nutrition and dietary habits of people with celiac disease. In celiac disease there is one and only cure: a gluten-free diet. Milk and dairy products are major source of calcium, and this population, because of malapsorptive syndrome is especially sensitive and predisposed for osteoporosis and osteopenya. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to establish milk, dairy products and calcium intake in celiac patients nutrition. Milk and dairy products was determined by using 3-day-dietary record (3DD combined with food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in 15 celiac patients. Energy share of milk and dairy products were 11,82 % kJ, twice less than recommendation. Average daily intake of calcium was also below the recommendation (62,64 % DRI, and 67 % of examinees did not achieve neither 2/3 of daily recommendation intake (DRI for calcium. From milk and dairy group examinees use milk and pudding the most, yoghurt and fruit yoghurt less. It is necessary to increase intake of calcium from milk and dairy products group because they are the best source of this nutrient.

  6. Calcium intake and knowledge among white adolescent girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    imperative to develop awareness of the importance of calcium consumption during childhood and adolescence in order to minimise ... Anthropometry. Height was measured to the nearest 5 mm with a tape measure placed against a perpendicular wall. Participants stood erect without shoes looking forward with the head in ...

  7. Calcium Intake From Diet and Supplements and the Risk of Coronary Artery Calcification and its Progression Among Older Adults: 10-Year Follow-up of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John J B; Kruszka, Bridget; Delaney, Joseph A C; He, Ka; Burke, Gregory L; Alonso, Alvaro; Bild, Diane E; Budoff, Matthew; Michos, Erin D

    2016-10-11

    Recent randomized data suggest that calcium supplements may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Using a longitudinal cohort study, we assessed the association between calcium intake, from both foods and supplements, and atherosclerosis, as measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC). We studied 5448 adults free of clinically diagnosed CVD (52% female; aged 45-84 years) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Baseline total calcium intake was assessed from diet (using a food frequency questionnaire) and calcium supplements (by a medication inventory) and categorized into quintiles. Baseline CAC was measured by computed tomography, and CAC measurements were repeated in 2742 participants ≈10 years later. At baseline, mean calcium intakes across quintiles were 313.3, 540.3, 783.0, 1168.9, and 2157.4 mg/day. Women had higher calcium intakes than men. After adjustment for potential confounders, among 1567 participants without baseline CAC, the relative risk (RR) of developing incident CAC over 10 years, by quintile 1 to 5 of calcium intake, were 1 (reference), 0.95 (0.79-1.14), 1.02 (0.85-1.23), 0.86 (0.69-1.05), and 0.73 (0.57-0.93). After accounting for total calcium intake, calcium supplement use was associated with increased risk for incident CAC (RR=1.22 [1.07-1.39]). No relation was found between baseline calcium intake and 10-year changes in log-transformed CAC among those participants with baseline CAC >0. High total calcium intake was associated with a decreased risk of incident atherosclerosis over long-term follow-up, particularly if achieved without supplement use. However, calcium supplement use may increase the risk for incident CAC. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  8. Bone Mineral Density Changes after Physical Training and Calcium Intake in Students with Attention Deficit and Hyper Activity Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab ameri, Elahe; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with attention deficit and hyper activity (ADHD) disorder. For this reason 54 male students with ADHD (age 8-12 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  9. Bone Mineral Density Accrual in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Calcium Intake and Physical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mahmood; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with autism spectrum disorders. For this reason 60 boy students with autism disorder (age 8-10 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  10. Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, S.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Peeters, P.H.; Engel, P.; Brustad, M.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European

  11. The influence of calcium intake and physical activity on bone mineral content and bone size in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Christian; Thomsen, B. Lykke; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents, Bone area, Bone minral content, Calcium intake, Children, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Physical activity, Size-adjusted......Adolescents, Bone area, Bone minral content, Calcium intake, Children, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Physical activity, Size-adjusted...

  12. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents: relation to puberty, calcium intake, and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe association of height, weight, pubertal stage, calcium intake, and physical activity with bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in 500 children and adolescents (205 boys and 295 girls), aged 4-20 yr. The BMD (grams per cm2) of lumbar spine and total

  13. [Evaluation of the calcium intake in population of Marrakesh and its region: 1000 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Ouazar, M; Amine, M; Harifi, G; Ouilki, I; Younsi, R; Belkhou, A; El Bouchti, I; El Hassani, S

    2010-02-01

    The aim of our work is to evaluate the calcium intake in population of Marrakesh and its region by the translated version in Moroccan Arabic dialect of Fardellone questionnaire. The version translated into Arabic dialect Fardellone questionnaire is tested on a sample of 1000 subjects. The subjects aged less than 15 years accounted for 30.9% (n=309), those aged 15 to 59 62% (n=620) and those aged over 60 years 7.1% (n=71). The distribution by age group is calculated on the distribution of the Moroccan population. The study population includes 60.6% women (n=606), 39.4% of men (n=394). The mean calcium intake was respectively 5875 mg by week (that means 839 mg/day), 4899 mg by week (that means 699 mg/day), 3053 mg by week (that means 436 mg/day), in subjects aged less than 15, those aged 15 to 59, and those aged over 60 years. The average consumption of calcium per day is significantly lower than the recommended daily amount for the three age groups. Patients aged over 60 years is the age group most under nourished calcium. The comparison of both gender found a deficit higher among women than among men. Evaluation of the calcium intake is an essential tool for better management of metabolic bone diseases. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Acutely decreased thermoregulatory energy expenditure or decreased activity energy expenditure both acutely reduce food intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiyala, Karl J; Morton, Gregory J; Thaler, Joshua P; Meek, Thomas H; Tylee, Tracy; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wisse, Brent E

    2012-01-01

    Despite the suggestion that reduced energy expenditure may be a key contributor to the obesity pandemic, few studies have tested whether acutely reduced energy expenditure is associated with a compensatory reduction in food intake. The homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure remain controversial and are thought to act over days to weeks. We evaluated food intake in mice using two models of acutely decreased energy expenditure: 1) increasing ambient temperature to thermoneutrality in mice acclimated to standard laboratory temperature or 2) exercise cessation in mice accustomed to wheel running. Increasing ambient temperature (from 21 °C to 28 °C) rapidly decreased energy expenditure, demonstrating that thermoregulatory energy expenditure contributes to both light cycle (40 ± 1%) and dark cycle energy expenditure (15 ± 3%) at normal ambient temperature (21 °C). Reducing thermoregulatory energy expenditure acutely decreased food intake primarily during the light cycle (65 ± 7%), thus conflicting with the delayed compensation model, but did not alter spontaneous activity. Acute exercise cessation decreased energy expenditure only during the dark cycle (14 ± 2% at 21 °C; 21 ± 4% at 28 °C), while food intake was reduced during the dark cycle (0.9 ± 0.1 g) in mice housed at 28 °C, but during the light cycle (0.3 ± 0.1 g) in mice housed at 21 °C. Cumulatively, there was a strong correlation between the change in daily energy expenditure and the change in daily food intake (R(2) = 0.51, psignals that respond rapidly and accurately to reduced energy expenditure.

  15. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  16. A systematic review of behavioural interventions to increase maternal calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mary E; Stork, Matthew J; Stapleton, Jessica; Bourne, Jessica E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy and lactation are a time when adequate calcium consumption is essential for the development of the fetus and to ensure the health of the mother. Over 50% of Canadian women of childbearing and rearing age fail to meet the recommended daily intake of calcium. Identification of effective behavioural intervention strategies for increasing calcium intake is needed within this specific population. This paper brings together all published behavioural interventions designed to increase calcium consumption in pregnant, lactating or post-partum mothers in a systematic review. Relevant studies were obtained through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library with no date restrictions. Studies were evaluated using previously published criteria for evaluating calcium behaviour change interventions. This systematic literature review identified five behavioural calcium interventions conducted within this population. Three interventions aimed to improve overall dietary behaviours, the fourth aimed to promote breastfeeding (including increasing calcium consumption) and the fifth aimed to increase daily servings of yoghurt. Only one of the five interventions yielded large effect sizes, with a mean change of 954 mg of calcium per day post-intervention. The number of behavioural change techniques did not appear to be related to intervention efficacy. Only one study used a theoretical framework to guide the intervention. This review highlights the lack of research examining behaviour change interventions aimed at increasing calcium consumption in pregnant, lactating and post-partum women and provides practical suggestions for researchers wishing to intervene with this population in the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Inadequate intake of calcium in adults from the Autonomous Community of Valencia

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    Raquel Jiménez Talamantes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: mineral calcium is essential for bone health throughout life. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of inadequate calcium intake in adults from the Valencian Community. Material and methods: the Autonomous Community of Valencia Nutrition Survey 2010-2011, a cross-sectional population study, was used as the data source, which collected data on calcium intake using one 24-h recall. The final sample was 1206 (597 men and 609 women subjects older than 18 years. Results: an average calcium intake of 741.4 mg/person/day (SD= 334.9, 757.8 mg/person/day (SD= 350.0 in men and 725.3 mg/person/day (SD= 319.0 in women was estimated. The results of insufficient intake obtained according to the levels of the estimated average requirements were 70.6% (95%CI: 68.0-73.2, 75.4% higher in women (95%CI: 72.0-78.2 than in men 65.7% (95%CI: 61.9-69.5. The prevalence was 83.8% (95%CI: 81.7-85.9 for the recommended dietary allowances and the differences by sex were significant (p<0,05. The estimated prevalence was highest by age group in those older than 70 years in both cases, 85.5% (95%CI: 80.0-91.0 and 94.3% (95%CI: 90.7-97, 9 respectively. Conclusions: there is evidence of a high prevalence of inadequate calcium intake in adult population from the Autonomous Community of Valencia. Studies should be carried out to evaluate the influence of these findings on related pathologies (osteoporosis, osteoporotic fracture.

  18. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS, DAIRY PRODUCTS AND CALCIUM INTAKES ON RISK FACTORS OF OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION IN FEMALE STUDENTS OF ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY OF DAMAVAND, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Rehmani Ghobadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand in Iran. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 280 healthy female university students aged between 18 to 24 years old who were selected randomly from the university students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran. Subjects completed an informed consent form, health history questionnaire; food questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intakes and physical activity questionnaire (Baecke. Result: The result shows that Increase in physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake with a decrease in BMI, and increase in BMD. Also results shows that there were significant negative correlations between the physical activity levels, diary product consumption, the calcium intake and risk factors of osteoporosis. Conclusions: Increased physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake is associated with an increase in BMD and a concomitant decrease in BMI. These findings suggest that population-level interventions to increase physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake would favorably impact bone and other health outcomes. Thus, dietary pattern coupled with higher education levels and greater physical activity favored bone health and osteoporosis prevention in middle school females.

  19. Association of low intake of milk and vitamin D during pregnancy with decreased birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Cynthia A; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Koski, Kristine G

    2006-04-25

    Some pregnant women may be advised or choose to restrict milk consumption and may not take appropriate supplements. We hypothesized that maternal milk restriction during pregnancy, which can reduce intakes of protein, calcium, riboflavin and vitamin D, might represent a health risk by lowering infant birth weight. We screened women between the ages of 19 and 45 years who were attending prenatal programs in Calgary, Alberta (51 degrees N) for low milk consumption (weight, length and head circumference were obtained from birth records. Women who consumed protein and vitamin D as well. In multivariate analyses controlled for previously established predictors of infant birth weight, milk consumption and vitamin D intake were both significant predictors of birth weight. Each additional cup of milk daily was associated with a 41 g increase in birth weight (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.0-75.1 g); each additional microgram of vitamin D, with an 11 g increase (95% CI 1.2-20.7 g). Neither protein, riboflavin nor calcium intake was found to predict birth weight. Milk and vitamin D intakes during pregnancy are each associated with infant birth weight, independently of other risk factors.

  20. Children who avoid drinking cow milk have low dietary calcium intakes and poor bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Ruth E; Williams, Sheila M; Jones, Ianthe E; Goulding, Ailsa

    2002-09-01

    Information concerning the adequacy of bone mineralization in children who customarily avoid drinking cow milk is sparse. The objective was to evaluate dietary calcium intakes, anthropometric measures, and bone health in prepubertal children with a history of long-term milk avoidance. We recruited 50 milk avoiders (30 girls, 20 boys) aged 3-10 y by advertisement. We measured current dietary calcium intakes with a food-frequency questionnaire and body composition and bone mineral density with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and compared the results with those of 200 milk-drinking control children. The reasons for milk avoidance were intolerance (40%), bad taste (42%), and lifestyle choice (18%). Dietary calcium intakes were low (443 +/- 230 mg Ca/d), and few children consumed substitute calcium-rich drinks or mineral supplements. Although 9 children (18%) were obese, the milk avoiders were shorter (P milk is associated with small stature and poor bone health. This is a major concern that warrants further study.

  1. Calcium intake and bone mineral density as an example of non-linearity and threshold analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, L P

    2015-04-01

    Non-linearity is a likely phenomenon in bone metabolism, but is often ignored in pertinent epidemiological studies. Using NHANES III data on calcium intake and bone mineral density, the most important non-linear methods are introduced and discussed. The results should motivate researchers to consider non-linearity in this field more frequently. Many relationships in bone metabolism and homeostasis are likely to follow non-linear patterns. Detailed dose-response analyses allowing for non-linear associations nonetheless remain scarce in this field. A detailed analysis of NHANES III data on dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density was used to demonstrate the application and some of the challenges of the most important dose-response methods, including LOESS, categorical analysis, fractional polynomials, restricted cubic splines, and segmented regression. The spline estimate suggested increasing bone mineral density up to a calcium intake of about 1 g/day and a plateau thereafter. In segmented regression, the break-point marking the beginning of the plateau was placed at an intake of 0.58 (95 % confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.82) g/day. Sensitivity analyses suggested a less curved dose-response in women. Knowing about the possibilities and limitations of non-linear dose-response approaches should encourage researchers to consider these methods more frequently in studies on bone health and disease. The example analysis suggested bone mineral density to reach a plateau slightly below current calcium intake recommendations, with fairly pronounced differences of the dose-response shape by sex and menopausal status.

  2. Calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk: Results from the nurses' health study and health professionals follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Keum, NaNa; Wu, Kana; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-11-15

    The relationship between calcium intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remains inconclusive. We conducted this study to evaluate whether the association between calcium intake and CRC risk differs by anatomic subsite and determine the dose-response relationship for this association, as well as assess when in carcinogenesis calcium may play a role. We assessed calcium intake every 4 years and followed 88,509 women (1980-2012) in the Nurses' Health Study and 47,740 men (1986-2012) in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We documented 3,078 incident CRC cases. Total calcium intake (≥1,400 vs. cancer (multivariable relative risk: 0.78, 95%CI: 0.65-0.95). Similar results were observed by different sources of calcium (from all foods or dairy products only). The inverse association was linear and suggestively stronger for distal colon cancer (0.65, 0.43-0.99) than for proximal colon cancer (0.94, 0.72-1.22, p-common effects  = 0.14). Additionally, when comparing different latencies, the overall pattern suggested that the inverse association appeared to be stronger with increasing latency and was strongest for intakes 12-16 years before diagnosis. Comparing total calcium intakes of ≥1,400 vs. calcium intake was associated with a lower risk of developing colon cancer, especially for distal colon cancer. Overall inverse association was linear and did not differ by intake source. Additionally, calcium intake approximately 10 years before diagnosis appeared to be associated with a lower risk of CRC. © 2016 UICC.

  3. [Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Kelly Aparecida da; Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Loureiro, Laís Monteiro Rodrigues; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Novaes, Juliana Farias de

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: "children" and "calcium" or "children" and "vitamin D" associated with the descriptors: "obesity", "adiposity" or "body fat" for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, as well as clinical trials, were included. Review articles or those that that have not addressed the association of interest were excluded. Eight articles were part of this review, five of which were related to calcium and three to vitamin D. Most studies had a longitudinal design. The analyzed studies found an association between calcium intake and obesity, especially when age and sex were considered. Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D and measures of adiposity in children has been observed and this association was influenced by the sex of the patient and by the seasons of the year. The studies reviewed showed an association between calcium and vitamin D with childhood obesity. Considering the possible protective effect of these micronutrients in relation to childhood obesity, preventive public health actions should be designed, with emphasis on nutritional education. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Better knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in older people is associated with a higher serum vitamin D level and a higher daily dietary calcium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Oudshoorn (Christian); K.A. Hartholt (Klaas); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); E.M. Colin (Edgar); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional

  5. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  6. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Keiko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41–50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Results Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose–response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend = 0.01. The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend = 0.07, 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend = 0.07, and 0.50 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend = 0.08, respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. Conclusion These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  7. The effect of dairy products choice on calcium dietary intake in female university students of nutritional faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarek, Dariusz; Głabska, Dominika; Lange, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products provide the most important source of calcium in a typical human diet, being of particular significance to women. To determine dietary calcium intakes in a group of female students studying human nutrition at a Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW through analysing the selections made of dairy products. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess average consumption of dairy products. Total daily calcium intakes were then estimated by adding the intakes obtained from such dairy products to an average non-dairy calcium value obtained from other foodstuffs and taken to be 250 mg. Varied choices were made of dairy foodstuffs, with most subjects consuming milk, milk beverages, cottage cheese and rennet cheese. Calcium intakes were thus dependent on the dietary assortment of such selected dairy products made. Whenever cheeses were avoided in the diet, then low calcium intakes became more common. When compared to dietary recommendations, calcium intakes in this group of young women were inadequately low especially for those not eating cheese and despite supposedly having sufficient knowledge through studying this subject area.

  8. Daily menus can result in suboptimal nutrient intakes, especially calcium, of adolescents living in dormitories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresić, Greta; Simundić, Borislav; Mandić, Milena L; Kendel, Gordana; Zezelj, Sandra Pavicić

    2008-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences.

  9. Effect of supplementation with barley and calcium hydroxide on intake of Mediterranean shrubs

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    Dragan Skobic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Maquis plant communities are one of the most varied vegetation types in the Mediterranean region and an important habitat for wild and domestic herbivores. Although the majority of these shrubs are nutritious, the secondary compounds are main impediments that reduce their forage value. In five experiments we determined the effect of supplementing goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley, and barley alone on intake of five dominant shrubs (Quercus ilex, Erica multiflora, Arbutus unedo, Viburnum tinus and Pistacia lentiscus of the Mediterranean maquis community. The combination of calcium hydroxide plus barley and barley alone increased utilization of all five investigated Mediterranean shrubs; therewith that intake of Arbutus unedo and Viburnum tinus was not statistically significant. Supplemented goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley or barley alone could be effective in controlling secondary compounds-rich Mediterranean shrubs where their abundance threatens biodiversity. This control can be facilitated by browsing dominant Mediterranean shrubs, which has been shown to be effective in managing Mediterranean maquis density. Calcium hydroxide and barley (energy enhance use of secondary compounds-containing plants, which may increase production of alternate forages and create a more diverse mix of plant species in the Mediterranean maquis plant community.

  10. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO

  11. Decreased, but still sufficient, iodine intake of children and adults in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Buurma-Rethans, Elly J M; Dekkers, Arnold L M; van Rossum, Caroline T M

    2017-04-01

    Sufficient I intake is important for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which play an important role in normal growth and development. Our aim was to estimate habitual I intake for the Dutch population and the risk of inadequate or excessive intakes. Further, we aimed to provide an insight into the dietary sources of I and the association with socio-demographic factors. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 (n 3819; 7-69 years), and from the Dutch food and supplement composition tables were used to estimate habitual I intake with a calculation model. Contribution of food groups to I intake were computed and multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of intakes with socio-demographic factors. A total of ≤2 % of the population had an intake below the estimated average requirement or above the upper level. The main sources of I were bread containing iodised salt (39 %), dairy products (14 %) and non-alcoholic drinks (6 %). I intake (natural sources only, excluding iodised salt and supplements) was positively associated with (parental) education, which could at least partly be attributed to a higher consumption of dairy products. Among children, the consumption of bread, often containing iodised bakery salt, was positively associated with parental education. The I intake of the Dutch population (7-69 years) seems adequate, although it has decreased since the period before 2008. With the current effort to reduce salt intake and changing dietary patterns (i.e. less bread, more organic foods) it is important to keep a close track on the I status, important sources and potential risk groups.

  12. Calcium intake of rural Gambian infants: a quantitative study of the relative contributions of breast milk and complementary foods at 3 and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjou, L M A; Goldberg, G R; Coward, W A; Prentice, A

    2012-06-01

    There is a paucity of information from developing countries on total calcium intake during infancy, and potential consequences for growth and bone development. Observational longitudinal study of rural Gambian infants (13 males and 17 females) at 3 and 12 months of age. Breast-milk intake and calcium concentration, weighed dietary intake, anthropometry, midshaft radius bone mineral content (BMC) and bone width (BW). At 3 and 12 months (mean ± s.d.) calcium intake from breast milk was 179 ± 53 and 117 ± 38, and from other foods 12 ± 38 and 73 ± 105 mg/day. There was no difference in total calcium intake; 94% and 62% of calcium came from breast milk. At 3 and 12 months, weight s.d.-scores were -0.441 ± 1.07 and -1.967 ± 1.06; length s.d.-scores were -0.511 ± 1.04 and -1.469 ± 1.13. Breast-milk calcium intake positively predicted weight (P = 0.0002, P ≤ 0.0001) and length (P = 0.056, P = 0.001). These relationships were not independent of breast-milk intake, which positively predicted weight (P ≤ 0.002) and length (P = 0.06, P = 0.004). At 3, but not 12 months, weight and length correlated with total calcium intake. There were no relationships between total calcium intake and breast-milk intake with BW or BMC. The combination of low calcium intake from breast milk and complementary foods resulted in a low total calcium intake close to the estimated biological requirement for bone mineral accretion. Relationships between calcium intake and growth were largely accounted for by breast-milk intake, suggesting that low calcium intake per se was not the limiting factor in the poor growth. These findings have potential implications for deriving calcium requirements in developing countries.

  13. The influence of breakfast and dairy products on dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in postpubertal adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B S E; Verly, E; Marchioni, D M L; Fisberg, M; Martini, L A

    2012-02-01

    Given the importance of both calcium and vitamin D for bone health and the high prevalence of vitamin D from around the world, the present study aimed to evaluate calcium and vitamin D intake in a group of healthy Brazilian adolescents and young adults and to examine the influence of breakfast and dairy products in the total intake of these nutrients.   One hundred and sixty adolescents and young adults, aged 16-20 years old, from a public school, participated in the present study. Three-day dietary records were used to assess calcium and vitamin D intakes. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay kit. The results were expressed as the mean (SD). Only 3.8% of the subjects met the daily adequate intake recommendation for calcium, and none for vitamin D [682.2 (132.2)mg day(-1) and 124.0 (28.0)IU day(-1) , respectively]. 25(OH)D serum levels were insufficient in 51.5% and deficient in 9.7% of the individuals [72.5 (22.3) nmol L(-1) ]. There was a significant positive correlation between dairy product intake with both calcium and vitamin D (r=0.597 and r =0.561, respectively; P=0.000). Adolescents who ate breakfast had a significant higher mean calcium, vitamin D and dairy product intake than adolescents who did not report this meal. The majority of adolescents and young adults did not consume recommended intakes of calcium and vitamin D and also presented 25(OH)D insufficiency. The results indicate that a regular breakfast and the consumption of dairy products represent important strategies in improving calcium and vitamin D intake in the diet. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Dietary intake of fiber, fruit and vegetables decreases the risk of incident kidney stones in women: a Women's Health Initiative report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Mathew D; Hsi, Ryan S; Chi, Thomas; Shara, Nawar; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Kahn, Arnold J; Wang, Hong; Hou, Lifang; Stoller, Marshall L

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between dietary fiber, fruit and vegetable intake, and the risk of kidney stone formation. Overall 83,922 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative observational study were included in the analysis and followed prospectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between total dietary fiber, fruit and vegetable intake, and the risk of incident kidney stone formation, adjusting for nephrolithiasis risk factors (age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, diabetes mellitus, calcium supplementation, hormone therapy use, body mass index and calibrated caloric intake; and dietary water, sodium, animal protein and calcium intake). Women with a history of kidney stones (3,471) were analyzed separately. Mean age of the women was 64±7 years, 85% were white and 2,937 (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone in a median followup of 8 years. In women with no history of kidney stones higher total dietary fiber (6% to 26% decreased risk, p vegetable intake (9% to 22% decreased risk, p=0.002) were associated with a decreased risk of incident kidney stone formation in separate adjusted models. In women with a history of stones there were no significant protective effects of fiber, fruit or vegetable intake on the risk of kidney stone recurrence. Greater dietary intake of fiber, fruits and vegetables was associated with a reduced risk of incident kidney stones in postmenopausal women. The protective effects were independent of other known risk factors for kidney stones. In contrast, there was no reduction in risk in women with a history of stones. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Calcium intake in the United States from dietary and supplemental sources across adult age groups: new estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Walsh, Stephen J; Insogna, Karl L; Kenny, Anne M; Kerstetter, Jane E

    2011-05-01

    Adequate lifelong calcium intake is essential in optimizing bone health. Recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data were used to quantify variation in calcium intake across adult age groups and to relate age-associated changes in calcium intake with energy intake. Additional goals were to assess differences in dietary calcium intake between supplemental calcium users and nonusers and to evaluate associations between age and calcium density in the diet. This cross-sectional analysis determined calcium and energy intake for National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey respondents during 2003-2006. Diet was assessed with 24-hour recall and supplement use via questionnaire. Trends in median intakes for dietary calcium, total calcium, and energy across age categories were assessed using survey analysis methods. Nutrient density was represented using calcium to energy intake ratios. The analyses included data from 9,475 adults. When compared to the 19- to 30-year age group, median dietary calcium intake was lower in the ≥81-year age group by 23% in men (Pcalcium supplement use increased (Pcalcium intake was greater than in nonusers (P=0.02). Calcium density in the diet significantly increased relative to age in men and women (Pcalcium to energy ratios were insufficient to meet target ratios inferred by adequate intake standards after age 50 years. Although supplemental calcium use and calcium density were highest in older age groups, they were not sufficient in meeting recommended levels. New approaches to increasing the frequency and level of calcium supplement use to enhance calcium density in diets may be necessary to reduce osteoporosis risk among older Americans. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effects of intake of heated mixtures of glucose-lysine and glucose-methionine on bone calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Andrade, C; Seiquer, I; Navarro, Maria P

    2005-01-01

    During food thermal treatment Maillard's reaction may occur, which implicates mainly the carbonyl groups of reductory sugars and amino protein groups. Maillard's reaction products (MRP) may interfere with mineral bioavailability because of modifications of their physical-chemical moiety in the food or the lumen, disrupting the absorption process or its normal metabolism. In this study, we sought to investigate MRP influence on issues related to Ca bioavailability in vitro and in vivo. Equimolar mixtures of glucose-lysine (GL) and glucose-methionine (GM) (40% moisture) were heated at 150 degrees C for 90 minutes (samples GL90 and GM90, respectively). In vitro solubility was measured by additioning each samples to a 3.75 mM Ca solution at intestinal pH and ionic strength; after shaking and centrifugation, soluble and insoluble calcium was determined. Three percent of GL90 and GM90 were individually added to the AIN93-G diet to obtain D-GL90 and D-GM90 diets. Three Wistar rats groups were fed for 21 days with both diets and with AIN93-G as control, carrying out calcium balance during last week and extirpating various organs after sacrifice. GM90 did not affect calcium solubility; GL90 reduced it slightly, remaining in both cases more than 94% soluble. D-GL90 and D-GM90 did not modify calcium bioavailability, with as effective usage as with the control diet (57.6 +/- 1.3%, 57.8 +/- 2.3% and 63.9 +/- 2.6% in control diet, D-GL90 and D-GM90, respectively). MRP intake produced, however, metabolic changes that decreased bone calcium, accumulating compensatorily in other organs.

  17. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides improve magnesium absorption in adolescent girls with a low calcium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Brouns, F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Consumption of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) has been shown to improve mineral absorption in the short term, but no long-term effects were studied in girls with a low calcium intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that short- and long-term consumption of short-chain FOS (sc-FOS) improves calcium and

  18. Parental influences on dairy intake in children, and their role in child calcium-fortified food use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Beth H; Chung, Kimberly R; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. A convenience sample of Asian (n = 56), Hispanic (n = 61), and white (n = 74) parents of children 10-13 years old, including boys (n = 86) and girls (n = 105). VARIABLES MEASURED AND ANALYSIS: Cluster analysis to identify groups with similar coded parental influences and chi-square analysis to determine associations between these groups and calcium-fortified food use. Two dominant patterns of parental influences: Cluster 1 (n = 128), with positive parental influences related to availability of dairy, milk, and cheese; positive health beliefs for dairy, and child preferences for dairy and cheese, included parents whose children were more likely to use calcium-fortified food. Cluster 2 (n = 63), with positive influences for availability of dairy and milk, included parents whose children were equally likely to be either users or nonusers of calcium-fortified food (P influence on children's dairy intake might also encourage calcium-fortified food intake and improve calcium nutriture.

  19. Association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Daniele Lazzarotto; Busnello, Fernanda Michielin; Dibi, Raquel Papandreus; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Kato, Sérgio Kakuta; Vanin, Carla Maria De Martini

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal abnormality characterized by reduction and alteration of bone microarchitecture that results in increased fragility and greater predisposition to fractures. Age and low bone mass are the main non-modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. The modifiable factors include sedentary lifestyle, inadequate calcium intake, excessive alcohol and/or caffeine consumption, smoking and low body weight. The aim here was to evaluate the association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil. Cross-sectional study conducted in Porto Alegre and Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Women (n = 155) of mean age 53.6 ± 9.5 years were evaluated through a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil. Food frequency questionnaires, bone mass evaluation using calcaneal ultrasound and anthropometric assessment were used. The prevalence of overweight was 67.7%. In the bone mass screening, 30.3% had low bone mass and 4.5% had osteoporosis. The median calcium intake was 574.94 mg/day and the caffeine intake was 108.11 mg/day. No association was found between bone mass and anthropometric parameters, calcium intake or caffeine intake. It was found that 38.4% of the women had low bone mass. No association was found between calcium and caffeine intake and bone mass. High prevalence of low bone mass was observed.

  20. Association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Lazzarotto Harter

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is a skeletal abnormality characterized by reduction and alteration of bone microarchitecture that results in increased fragility and greater predisposition to fractures. Age and low bone mass are the main non-modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. The modifiable factors include sedentary lifestyle, inadequate calcium intake, excessive alcohol and/or caffeine consumption, smoking and low body weight. The aim here was to evaluate the association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in Porto Alegre and Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Women (n = 155 of mean age 53.6 ± 9.5 years were evaluated through a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil. Food frequency questionnaires, bone mass evaluation using calcaneal ultrasound and anthropometric assessment were used. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 67.7%. In the bone mass screening, 30.3% had low bone mass and 4.5% had osteoporosis. The median calcium intake was 574.94 mg/day and the caffeine intake was 108.11 mg/day. No association was found between bone mass and anthropometric parameters, calcium intake or caffeine intake. It was found that 38.4% of the women had low bone mass. CONCLUSIONS: No association was found between calcium and caffeine intake and bone mass. High prevalence of low bone mass was observed.

  1. Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana M; Greene, Geoffrey W; Melanson, Kathleen J

    2008-07-01

    Although reducing eating rate is frequently advocated for control of food intake and thus body weight, empirical evidence is extremely limited and inconsistent. We sought to compare the impact of slow and quick eating rates on development of satiation in healthy women. In a randomized design, 30 healthy women (22.9+/-7.1 years; body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 22.1+/-2.9) were studied on two test visits to compare slow and quick eating rates. Satiation was examined as the main outcome, using the objective measure of energy intake during ad libitum meals. At designated times, subjects also rated perceived hunger, satiety, desire to eat, thirst and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Slow rates of ingestion led to significant decreases in energy intake (quick: 645.7+/-155.9 kcal; slow: 579.0+/-154.7 kcal; Penergy intake upon meal completion under the quick condition, satiety was significantly lower than the slow condition (Penergy intake was lower when the meal was eaten slowly, and satiety was higher at meal completion. Although more study is needed, these data suggest that eating slowly may help to maximize satiation and reduce energy intake within meals.

  2. Insulin immuno-neutralization decreases food intake in chickens without altering hypothalamic transcripts involved in food intake and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proszkowiec-Weglarz, M; Dupont, J; Rideau, N; Gespach, C; Simon, J; Porter, T E

    2017-12-01

    In mammals, insulin regulates blood glucose levels and plays a key regulatory role in appetite via the hypothalamus. In contrast, chickens are characterized by atypical glucose homeostasis, with relatively high blood glucose levels, reduced glucose sensitivity of pancreatic beta cells, and large resistance to exogenous insulin. The aim of the present study was to investigate in chickens the effects of 5 h fasting and 5 h insulin immuno-neutralization on hypothalamic mRNA levels of 23 genes associated with food intake, energy balance, and glucose metabolism. We observed that insulin immune-neutralization by administration of anti-porcine insulin guinea pig serum (AI) significantly decreased food intake and increased plasma glucose levels in chickens, while 5 h fasting produced a limited and non-significant reduction in plasma glucose. In addition, 5 h fasting increased levels of NPY, TAS1R1, DIO2, LEPR, GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT8, and GCK mRNA. In contrast, AI had no impact on the levels of any selected mRNA. Therefore, our results demonstrate that in chickens, food intake inhibition or satiety mechanisms induced by insulin immuno-neutralization do not rely on hypothalamic abundance of the 23 transcripts analyzed. The hypothalamic transcripts that were increased in the fasted group are likely components of a mechanism of adaptation to fasting in chickens. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  3. Chronic administration of OB protein decreases food intake by selectively reducing meal size in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, L A; Langhans, W; Kahler, A; Campfield, L A; Smith, F J; Geary, N

    1998-07-01

    The mechanisms by which OB protein controls food intake and energy balance are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a novel modified human recombinant OB protein (Mod-OB) on spontaneous feeding patterns, body weight, running wheel activity, and ovarian cycling in female rats. Mod-OB or vehicle was injected (4 mg . kg-1 . day-1 sc) for 2 ovarian cycles (8 days) using a within-subjects design. Observations were continued for five ovarian cycles after injections; treatments were then reversed. Mod-OB reduced food intake approximately 20% from injection day 1 to postinjection day 2. Body weight was reduced from injection day 3 to postinjection day 15 (maximum decrease, 25 +/- 4 g, postinjection days 3 and 4). Food intake was reduced due to decreases in nocturnal meal size, which appeared to be superimposed on the normal pattern of spontaneous feeding (i.e., reductions in meal size at estrus). Mod-OB did not significantly affect diurnal food intake or meal patterns, failed to alter wheel running, and did not disrupt the rats' ovarian cycles. We conclude that chronically administered Mod-OB reduces food intake in female rats by selectively affecting the mechanisms controlling meal size.

  4. Mineral Intake in Urban Pregnant Women from Base Diet, Fortified Foods, and Food Supplements: Focus on Calcium, Iron, and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai Xian; Han, Jun Hua; Li, Hu Zhong; Liang, Dong; Deng, Tao Tao; Chang, Su Ying

    2016-12-01

    In the Chinese national nutrition surveys, fortified foods were not investigated separately from the base diet, and the contribution of fortified foods to micronutrients intake is not very clear. This study investigated the diet, including fortified foods and food supplements, of urban pregnant women and analyzed the intake of calcium, iron, and zinc to assess the corresponding contributions of fortified foods, food supplements, and the base diet. The results demonstrated that the base diet was the major source of calcium, iron, and zinc, and was recommended to be the first choice for micronutrients intake. Furthermore, consumption of fortified foods and food supplements offered effective approaches to improve the dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc in Chinese urban pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cyamemazine decreases ethanol intake in rats and convulsions during ethanol withdrawal syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naassila, M; Legrand, E; d'Alche-Birée, F; Daoust, M

    1998-12-01

    The effect of cyamemazine a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist on voluntary ethanol consumption in rats and on ethanol withdrawal in mice was examined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested in a free choice (water and 10% ethanol) experiment and consumed 5 g/kg ethanol daily. Rats were treated daily IP with cyamemazine (0.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg) or acamprosate (100 mg/kg) during 2 weeks. Both acamprosate and 1 mg/kg cyamemazine significantly decreased ethanol intake by 45% without affecting either fluid or food intake. The lowest dose of cyamemazine had no effect on alcohol intake but increased food intake. The highest dose had no effect on any variables. During the post-treatment period, only 1 mg/kg cyamemazine decreased both ethanol and fluid intakes. Mice were made dependent on alcohol using a chocolate fluid diet containing increasing concentrations of alcohol and withdrawn after 9 days. Mice were treated with cyamemazine (1 or 0.5 mg/kg, respectively) or with the same doses of lorazepam acutely on the day of withdrawal or chronically (during alcohol treatment). Both chronic and acute cyamemazine and lorazepam treatments decreased convulsions during ethanol withdrawal. Both acute treatments decreased locomotor activity in control and alcohol dependent mice. Chronic treatment had no effect on locomotor activity. We suggest that cyamemazine could reduce alcohol consumption by antagonizing the activation of the dopaminergic pathways during the induction of alcohol dependence. The action of cyamemazine on 5-HT3 receptors could also explain its effect on alcohol convulsions during withdrawal convulsions.

  7. Obese but not lean adolescents spontaneously decrease energy intake after intensive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; Metz, Lore; Julien, Aucouturier; Morio, Béatrice; Duché, Pascale

    2014-01-17

    Acute intensive exercise has been shown to induce a decreased subsequent daily energy intake in obese adolescents without altering the subjective appetite feelings. It is however unclear whether or not those nutritional adaptations to acute exercise are affected by the adolescents' weight status. The aim of this study was to compare the energy intake and macronutrient preferences, appetite feeling and energy expenditure response to acute exercise between lean and obese adolescents. Ten obese and nine normal weight 12-15year old adolescents randomly completed a session with a 30minute cycling exercise at 75% VO2max and a sedentary session. During both sessions energy expenditure was assessed using Armband, ad libitum energy intake measured by weighing at both lunch and dinner time and appetite feelings assessed using visual analog scales. Daily, morning and afternoon energy expenditure were significantly higher in obese than in normal weight adolescents (penergy expenditure was significantly higher during EX (1086±157kcal) compared to SED (853±154kcal) in lean (pobese (respectively 1865±222 and 1803±232kcal). Afternoon energy expenditure was significantly lower during EX compare to SED in obese (penergy intake were significantly reduced after the exercise session in obese (p>0.05) but not in lean adolescents. No group or condition effects were observed on subjective appetite feelings. Post exercise spontaneous energy intake and energy expenditure are reduced in obese but not in normal weight adolescents, without appetite feeling changes. Acute exercise may have a greater impact on energy balance through the induced decreased energy intake in the absence of significant change in energy expenditure in obese youth. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of a nutrition education program to increase intake of calcium-rich foods by Chinese-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Nan; Brown, J Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Chinese-American women have a high risk of osteoporosis. However, their calcium intake has been reported previously as considerably below the Dietary Reference Intake. Increasing consumption of calcium-rich foods, many of which are also fortified with vitamin D, is a safe way to increase their calcium and vitamin D intake. This study's objective was to pilot-test an intervention to help Chinese-American women incorporate calcium-rich foods into their diet. This intervention was evaluated using a quasi-experimental study with a nested design and pre-, immediate post-, and 3-month follow-up assessments. Calcium and vitamin D intake, Theory of Planned Behavior constructs, and knowledge were measured at three time points. First-generation Chinese-American mothers between 35 and 55 years old (n=141) were recruited from six weekend Chinese schools. Three Chinese schools each were randomly assigned to the experimental (n=71) or control group (n=70). The experimental group received a free heel scan and six weekly interactive lessons designed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The control group received six weekly nonrelated financial lessons by mail. Changes for each measure were assessed by linear mixed model with repeated measures adjusted for confounding variables. Compared to the control group, the experimental group improved all measures considerably, except two subjective norm constructs (normative belief and motivation to comply) at post-assessments. The experimental group significantly increased its baseline calcium (t=7.898, P<0.001) and vitamin D intake (t=6.609; P<0.001) at posttest and this increase was retained at follow-up. Results suggest that this theory-based intervention is effective for increasing the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake of Chinese-American women. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of training mode and calcium intake on bone mineral density in female master cyclist, runners, and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshgetoor, D; Nichols, J F; Rego, I

    2000-09-01

    The focus of this prospective, observational study was to determine the effect of sport-specific training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) in female master cyclists, runners and non-athletes. Thirty women (12 cyclists, 9 runners, 9 controls), mean age of 49.6 +/- 7.9 years, were assessed at baseline and 18 months for calcium intake (4-day records), current exercise activity (recall questionnaire), and BMD of the lumbar spine and hip (DXA). A three (cyclists, runners, controls) by two (0 and 18 months) repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated a significant interaction effect of sport and time at the femoral neck (p cyclists and runners but declined in controls (p cyclists (p <.007) and in controls (p <.03), while trochanteric BMD declined in all groups (p <.01). No significant interaction effect of sport and dietary calcium intake was noted for BMD at any site.

  10. Room Service Improves Nutritional Intake and Increases Patient Satisfaction While Decreasing Food Waste and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Sally; Maunder, Kirsty; Krikowa, Renee; MacKenzie-Shalders, Kristen

    2018-02-01

    65% vs 85%; P=0.011, respectively). Total mean plate waste decreased from 29% (traditional foodservice model) to 12% (room service) (Pservice across all Press Ganey meal scores: 68th to 86th percentile overall; 64th to 95th percentile for "quality of food"; and 60th to 99th percentile for "flavor of food." Evaluated during comparable times of the year, patient meal costs decreased by 15% with room service. A patient-centered foodservice model, such as room service, can improve patient nutritional intake and enhance patient satisfaction in a budget constrained health care environment. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gynura procumbens Merr. decreases blood pressure in rats by vasodilatation via inhibition of calcium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See-Ziau Hoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gynura procumbens has been shown to decrease blood pressure via inhibition of the angiotensinconverting enzyme. However, other mechanisms that may contribute to the hypotensive effect have not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cardiovascular effects of a butanolic fraction of Gynura procumbens in rats. METHODS: Anaesthetized rats were given intravenous bolus injections of butanolic fraction at doses of 2.5-20 mg/kg in vivo. The effect of butanolic fraction on vascular reactivity was recorded in isolated rat aortic rings in vitro. RESULTS: Intravenous administrations of butanolic fraction elicited significant (p<0.001 and dose-dependent decreases in the mean arterial pressure. However, a significant (p<0.05 decrease in the heart rate was observed only at the higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg. In isolated preparations of rat aortic rings, phenylephrine (1×10-6 M- or potassium chloride (8×10-2 M-precontracted endothelium-intact and -denuded tissue; butanolic fraction (1×10-6-1×10-1 g/ml induced similar concentration-dependent relaxation of the vessels. In the presence of 2.5×10-3 and 5.0×10-3 g/ml butanolic fraction, the contractions induced by phenylephrine (1×10-9-3×10-5 M and potassium chloride (1×10-2-8×10-2 M were significantly antagonized. The calcium-induced vasocontractions (1×10-4-1×10-2 M were antagonized by butanolic fraction concentration-dependently in calcium-free and high potassium (6×10-2 M medium, as well as in calcium- and potassium-free medium containing 1×10-6 M phenylephrine. However, the contractions induced by noradrenaline (1×10-6 M and caffeine (4.5×10-2 M were not affected by butanolic fraction. CONCLUSION: Butanolic fraction contains putative hypotensive compounds that appear to inhibit calcium influx via receptor-operated and/or voltage-dependent calcium channels to cause vasodilation and a consequent fall in blood pressure.

  12. Chronic administration of OB protein decreases food intake by selectively reducing meal size in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, A; Geary, N; Eckel, L A; Campfield, L A; Smith, F J; Langhans, W

    1998-07-01

    The potent hypophagic effect of OB protein (OB) is well established, but the mechanism of this effect is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of chronic administration of a novel modified recombinant human OB (Mod-OB) with a prolonged half-life (>48 h) on ad libitum food intake, spontaneous meal patterns, and body weight in 24 adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight at study onset: 292 g). Single daily subcutaneous injections of Mod-OB (4 mg/kg daily) for 8 consecutive days significantly reduced ad libitum food intake compared with vehicle injections from injection day 3 through postinjection day 3. Mod-OB-injected rats ate between 4.5 and 7.1 g (or 13-20%) per day less than controls, with the reduction primarily occurring during the dark period. Body weight gain was significantly decreased in response to Mod-OB from injection day 8 until postinjection day 4, with a maximum difference of 24 g on postinjection day 3. The reduction of food intake by Mod-OB was mainly due to a 21-34% decrease in nocturnal spontaneous meal size. There was no significant effect of Mod-OB on nocturnal meal frequency or duration. Mod-OB also did not reliably affect the size, duration, or frequency of diurnal meals. Mod-OB-injected rats displayed no compensatory hyperphagia after the injection period. These results indicate that chronically administered OB selectively affects the mechanisms controlling meal size in male rats.

  13. Nudge to nobesity I: Minor changes in accessibility decrease food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Very small but cumulated decreases in food intake may be sufficient to erase obesity over a period of years. We examine the effect of slight changes in the accessibility of different foods in a pay-by-weight-of-food salad bar in a cafeteria serving adults for the lunch period. Making a food slightly more difficult to reach (by varying its proximity by about 10 inches or changing the serving utensil (spoon or tongs modestly but reliably reduces intake, in the range of 8-16%. Given this effect, it is possible that making calorie-dense foods less accessible and low-calorie foods more accessible over an extended period of time would result in significant weight loss.

  14. Reduced maternal calcium intake through nutrition and supplementation is associated with adverse conditions for both the women and their infants in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Xinjia; Tian, Yue; Yang, Zhixin; Lin, Li; Lin, Qing; Zhang, Zhonghao; Li, Li

    2017-05-01

    Effective nutritional guidelines for pregnant women in China are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary nutrition on the health condition of pregnant women and infants in China.In total, 331 pregnant women who had prenatal examinations were included in this study. Data, including dietary nutrition questionnaires, the weight, height, age, and health condition of the pregnant women as well as the health condition of the infants, were recorded.The average intake of milk, poultry and meat, fish and prawns, eggs, and bean products were 297.28 ± 129.67 mL/day, 123.34 ± 52.04 g/day, 157.31 ± 70.04 g/day, 67.34 ± 45.28 g/day, and 1.21 ± 0.62 per day, respectively. Among the 331 pregnant women, the intake rates of supplemental calcium and VD were 86.7% and 69.8%, respectively. The intake of milk, bean products, and meats was obviously lower (all P pregnant women with systremma compared to those without it. In addition, the body weight before and after delivery was higher (all P pregnant women with systremma. The calcium intake of the pregnant women and the infants' BMD were remarkably lower in the infants with pillow baldness or a wider anterior fontanelle (P pregnant women should be monitored, and in particular, the proper intake of milk, bean products, and meats, as well as calcium supplements, might decrease the occurrence of systremma in pregnant women and reduce the rate pillow baldness and a wider anterior fontanelle in infants.

  15. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2013-01-01

    Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol) abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a). Adult prairie voles' drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified, by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  16. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M.J. Anacker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a. Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  17. Parents' Calcium Knowledge Is Associated with Parental Practices to Promote Calcium Intake among Parents of Early Adolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Carolyn W.; Rose, Angela M.; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Reicks, Marla; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Boushey, Carol J.; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here aimed to identify the relationship of parents' calcium knowledge with diet-related parental practices and determinants of calcium knowledge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted measuring parental practices, calcium knowledge, and demographics. A convenience sample of 599 racially/ethnically diverse parents of children…

  18. Intake of dairy products and calcium and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Okubo, H; Sasaki, S; Arakawa, M

    2015-02-01

    To examine the relationship between the intake of dairy products and calcium and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Cross-sectional study. Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study (KOMCHS). A cohort of 1745 pregnant Japanese women. Dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Scores of 16 or higher on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale denoted depressive symptoms. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, job type, household income, education, and body mass index. In our analyses regarding dairy products in general, adjustment was also made for fish intake; in our analysis regarding calcium, adjustment was also made for the intake of saturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid, and vitamin D. Depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Higher intake levels of yogurt and calcium were independently related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios between extreme quartiles were 0.69 (95% CI 0.48-0.99, P for trend = 0.03) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.40-0.88, P for trend = 0.006), respectively. No relationships were observed between the intake of all dairy products, milk, or cheese and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The current results suggest that a higher intake of yogurt and calcium may be associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Improved meal presentation increases food intake and decreases readmission rate in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniela Abigail; Boaz, Mona; Krause, Ilan; Elis, Avishay; Chernov, Karina; Giabra, Mursi; Levy, Miriam; Giboreau, Agnes; Kosak, Sigrid; Mouhieddine, Mohamed; Singer, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Reduced food intake is a frequent problem at a hospital setting, being a cause and/or consequence of malnutrition. Food presentation can affect food intake and induce nutritional benefit. To investigate the effect of improved meal presentation supported by gastronomy expertise on the food intake in adults hospitalized in internal medicine departments. Controlled before and after study. Two hundred and six newly hospitalized patients in internal medicine departments were included and divided in two groups, a) control: receiving the standard lunch from the hospital and b) experimental: receiving a lunch improved in terms of presentation by the advices received by the Institut Paul Bocuse, Ecully, Lyon, France together with the hospital kitchen of the Beilinson Hospital, without change in the composition of the meal. The amount of food left at the participants' plates was estimated using the Digital Imaging Method, which consisted in photographing the plates immediately to previous tray collection by the researcher. In addition, the nutritionDay questionnaire was used to measure other variables concerned to their food intake during hospitalization. Charlson Comorbidity Index was calculated. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding demography or Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients who received the meal with the improved presentation showed significantly higher food intake than those who received the standard meal, despite reported loss in appetite. Participants from the experimental group left on their plate less starch (0.19 ± 0.30 vs. 0.52 + 0.41) (p  0.05). Both of the groups were asked how hungry they were before the meal and no significance was shown. More participants from the experimental group reported their meal to be tasty in comparison to those in the control group (49.5% vs. 33.7% p < 0.005). Length of stay was not different but readmission rate decreased significantly in the study group (p < 0.02) from 31.2% to 13

  20. Theory-Driven Intervention Improves Calcium Intake, Osteoporosis Knowledge, and Self-Efficacy in Community-Dwelling Older Black Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, Oyinlola T.; Himburg, Susan P.; Newman, Frederick L.; Campa, Adriana; Dixon, Zisca

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an osteoporosis education program to improve calcium intake, knowledge, and self-efficacy in community-dwelling older Black adults. Design: Randomized repeated measures experimental design. Setting: Churches and community-based organizations. Participants: Men and women (n = 110) 50 years old and older…

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    /day for adults, including pregnant and lactating women), which was based on different intervention studies of long duration in which total daily calcium intakes of 2,500 mg from both diet and supplements were tolerated without adverse effects, needed to be changed on the basis of new available evidence. A number...... diet and supplements and increased risk of nephrolithiasis, cardiovascular disease or prostate cancer. No new data have become available which would require a revision of the UL for calcium for adults, including pregnant and lactating women, of 2,500 mg. No new data have become available which would...... allow the setting of a UL for infants, children or adolescents. Data from European populations indicate that intakes of calcium in high consumers among adult males can be close to the UL. Although available data do not allow the setting of a UL for infants, children or adolescents, no risk has been...

  2. ORALLY LACTATE CALCIUM AND SWIMMING DECREASE OSTEOCLAST AND INCREASE OSTEOBLAST IN RADIAL PERIMENOPAUSAL MICE (MUS MUSCULUS BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliani **

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and moderate intensity swimming exercise can increase bone density. The aim of this research is to see the effect of orally calcium consumption and swimming activity to decrease osteoclast and increase osteoblast in radial perimenopausal mice (Mus musculus bone. Pretest and pos#est control group design was used in this research. Research subject used 15-16 aged mice (Mus musculus which divided into 4 groups (each group consisted of 13 mice, that was control, lactate calcium, swimming and lactate calcium and swimming. Treatment was given 90 days. This study showed a significant difference of the mean of the pos#est osteoblast between control and experimental groups (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between lactate calcium and swimming groups (P>0.05. Enhancement of osteoblast mean in combination group was greater than the other experimental groups. There was a significant difference of the mean of the pos#est  osteoclast between control and experimental groups (P<0.05, without significant difference between lactate calcium,   swimming groups and combination of lactate calcium and swimming group (P>0.05.  Conclusion: either lactate calcium or swimming decreases osteoclast and increases osteoblast of the mice but the osteoblast enhancement will be bigger when they are given together at once

  3. Effect of oligofructose-enriched inulin on bone metabolism in girls with low calcium intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Corrêa de Souza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present clinical study, the effect of oligofructose-enriched inulin was studied on bone metabolism in girls from 9 to 12 years old, with low habitual calcium intakes, who attended public schools. Two calcium-enriched formulations, supplemented with oligofructose-enriched inulin (test drink or without (standard drink were made. Sixty pre-pubertal girls were randomized into a double-blind and crossover design, divided into three groups and received one daily portion of either the standard drink (group 1 or test drink (group 2 during 11 weeks, followed by a three-week washout period. Group control did not receive any supplementation. Biochemical evaluations of serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone - iPTH - and bone alkaline phosphatase - BAP - were performed at baseline and after 4, 8 and 11 weeks of each intervention period. In group 1, a significant increase in serum calcium and BAP and a reduction of iPTH were observed after consumption of the test drink.No presente ensaio clínico, o efeito de oligofrutose enriquecida com inulina foi estudado no metabolismo ósseo de meninas de 9 a 12 anos com baixa ingestão habitual de cálcio, matriculadas em escolas públicas. Duas formulações foram suplementadas ou não (bebida padrão com oligofrutose enriquecida com inulina (bebida teste. Sessenta meninas pré-púberes foram aleatorizadas em estudo duplo cego crossover e divididas em três grupos e receberam uma porção diária da bebida padrão (grupo 1 ou teste (grupo 2 durante 11 semanas, seguidos por um período de intervalo de três semanas. O grupo controle não recebeu nenhuma suplementação. As avaliações bioquímicas de cálcio sérico, paratormônio intacto - PTHi e fosfatase alcalina fração óssea - FAO foram executadas ao início e após 4, 8 e 11 semanas de cada período de intervenção. No grupo 1, um aumento significante no cálcio sérico e FAO e uma redução no PTHi foram observadas após o consumo da bebida teste.

  4. Recent nutritional trends of calcium and vitamin D in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Ohta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake may play an important role on bone health. The recent national nutritional survey in Japan revealed the gradual decrease in calcium intake to around 480 mg/day. In addition, the patients with low level of vitamin D become too large in proportion. The present perspective proposes to increase calcium intake in Asian population.

  5. Blood pressure in relation to dietary calcium intake, alcohol consumption, blood lead, and blood cadmium in female nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizent, A; Jurasovie, J; Telisman, S

    2001-01-01

    The interrelationship of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, alcohol consumption, blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), age, and body mass index (BMI) to blood pressure was examined in 267 peasant women 40-85 years of age. They were residents of two rural areas in Croatia and differed with regard to dietary Ca intake: 100 women with low Ca intake (approximately 450 mg/day) and 167 women with relatively high Ca intake (approximately 940 mg/day). All of the women were nonsmokers and consumed very little or no alcohol. Median and range BPb values were 74 (29-251) microg/L in women with low Ca intake and 59 (21-263) microg/L in women with high Ca intake (p 0.10). Results of multiple regression showed a significant (p women with low Ca intake), and marginally with BCd, and alcohol consumption (multiple r = 0.38, p women with different Ca intake were subdivided into consumers and nonconsumers of alcohol, BPb was related positively to alcohol consumption and inversely to Ca intake. The highest BPb was found in the subgroup of alcohol consumers with low Ca intake, and the lowest BPb in the subgroup of nonconsumers with high Ca intake: 78 (42-251) microg/L and 51 (22-192) microg/L, respectively (p < 10(-8)). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the former subgroup as compared to the latter: 95 (72-130) mm Hg and 90 (60-120) mm Hg, respectively (p < 0.05). This cannot be explained by age, BMI, or BCd, which were comparable in the two subgroups. The results indicate that alcohol consumption and low Ca intake can increase BPb, which may significantly contribute to an increase in diastolic blood pressure in female nonsmokers even at relatively low-level Pb exposure.

  6. Calcium intake and osteoporosis O consumo de cálcio e a osteoporose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeu Antonio Rossi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by the reduction of bone mass and damage of the microarchitecture of bone tissue, with a consequent increase of bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. In women, osteoporosis is associated with menopause, as the reduction of estrogens accelerates bone loss. Apart from the hormonal component, this illness can have other causes, amongst them: mechanical, genetic and nutritional. One of the nutritional components of great importance is calcium. About 99% of the corporeal calcium content is found in the skeleton, conferring rigidity and being a readily available source for the maintenance of the normal levels of plasma calcium concentration. Therefore, calcium is the most studied nutrient in the area of bone health and it is considered important for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Some studies have shown a positive relation between calcium supplementation and reduction of bone loss in postmenopausal women. However, some doubts concerning this effect still persist. The objective of this work is to revise the relation between calcium intake and bone health, focusing on osteoporosis prevention and/or treatment in women.   A osteoporose é caracterizada pela redução de massa óssea e prejuízo da microarquitetura do tecido ósseo, com um conseqüente aumento da fragilidade óssea e susceptibilidade à fratura. Nas mulheres, a osteoporose está associada à menopausa, uma vez que a diminuição de estrógenos acelera a perda óssea. Além do componente hormonal, essa doença pode apresentar outras causas, dentre elas: mecânicas, genéticas e nutricionais. Um dos componentes nutricionais de grande importância é o cálcio. Cerca de 99% do conteúdo de cálcio corpóreo se encontra no esqueleto, conferindo rigidez, e representando uma fonte prontamente disponível para a manutenção dos níveis normais de sua concentração plasmática. Por essa razão, o cálcio é o nutriente mais estudado na

  7. Calcium Dobesilate Prevents Diabetic Kidney Disease by Decreasing Bim and Inhibiting Apoptosis of Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tian; Wu, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Qian; Shang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Zhong-Wen; Liao, Lin; Dong, Jian-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Apoptosis of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) plays a vital role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Calcium dobesilate is a vascular protective compound used for treatment of diabetic retinopathy and chronic venous insufficiency. The aim of this study was to determine whether calcium dobesilate can protect PTECs from glucose-induced apoptosis and the potential mechanism of this effect. It is indicated that high glucose promoted abnormal apoptosis of HK2 cells, which was inhibited by treatment of calcium dobesilate, while Bim expression decreased in response to calcium dobesilate in high-glucose-treated HK2 cells. These findings confirmed the therapeutic effects of calcium dobesilate on DKD and emphasized the importance of it as a potentially crucial drug in treatment of DKD.

  8. Antidepressants may lead to a decrease in niacin and NAD in patients with poor dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Margaretha; Swanepoel, Annie; Bipath, Priyesh

    2015-03-01

    The term niacin is the generic name for the two compounds nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, the major dietary precursors for two important coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphorylated form, NADP. Niacin is important for the maintenance of cellular integrity and energy production and is involved in more than 500 intracellular reactions. Deficiencies of niacin may contribute to neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Patients who develop nutritional deficiencies as a result of poor dietary intake, especially inadequate intake of proteins and vitamins, could potentially suffer from niacin deficiency and NAD depletion. However, de novo synthesis of niacin and NAD in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism may compensate for impaired dietary intake. The rate of synthesis of NAD and niacin from tryptophan oxidation depends on the induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma. Niacin synthesis is not limited by a decrease in tryptophan and excessive IDO activity may therefore lead to a decline in tryptophan levels. Antidepressants have an anti-inflammatory effect, including reduction of interferon-gamma and therefore inhibition of IDO, the rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway. In theory, this could account for increased serotonin as more tryptophan becomes available for serotonin synthesis. However, the downside may be that less NAD and niacin are synthesised downstream, which could exacerbate common psychiatric problems. It is our hypothesis that patients with poor dietary intake, who are treated with antidepressants, are at risk of developing niacin/NAD deficiency with possible development of associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. We therefore propose that niacin supplementation be considered in patients with inadequate diets who are treated with antidepressants. We believe that if this does not happen, a subclinical niacin deficiency may result

  9. Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to risk of endometrial cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Marjorie L; Bandera, Elisa V; Moore, Dirk F; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2008-04-01

    In response to a recent ecologic study of UV exposure and endometrial cancer incidence, we present the epidemiologic evidence on the relation between intake of vitamin D and its metabolically related nutrient, calcium, and the occurrence of endometrial cancer. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of vitamin D and calcium in relation to endometrial cancer, including peer-reviewed manuscripts published up to May 2007. Random and fixed effects summary estimates were computed. Pooled analyses of the three case-control studies of dietary vitamin D and endometrial cancer uncovered heterogeneous results that were not significant in random or fixed effects analyses. Cut-points for the highest vitamin D intakes ranged from >244 to >476 IU/day. Qualitatively similar findings were observed for dietary calcium. Only two studies provided estimates for calcium supplements (random effects OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99; fixed effects OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.93, for top vs. bottom category, p for heterogeneity=0.25). The limited epidemiological evidence suggests no relation between endometrial cancer in the ranges of dietary vitamin D examined, and suggests a possible inverse association for calcium from supplements. Prospective studies, ideally including plasma 25(OH) D to estimate vitamin D input from diet and sun exposure, are needed to further explore these hypotheses.

  10. Chewing gum decreases energy intake at lunch following a controlled breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Kresge, Daniel L

    2017-11-01

    The impact of chewing gum on fasting appetite or meal intake has not been studied. We tested the hypothesis that chewing gum would decrease lunch intake after a controlled breakfast, and reduce hunger in fasting and fed states. Seventeen males and sixteen females (21.4 ± 6.3y, BMI 23.8 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum a total of 1 h on the test day (GC), and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). The 1 h of gum chewing included 20 min while fasting, and two 20-min sessions between breakfast and lunch. Subjects rated their appetite and mood on visual analog scales. After completing the fasting measures, subjects consumed a breakfast shake containing 30% of their measured resting energy expenditure. Three hours later they consumed an ad libitum lunch with water. Fasting ratings of hunger were lower in GC than NG (t = 2.66, p = 0.01). Subjects consumed significantly less pasta (41 g, 68 kcals, t = 2.32, p = 0.03) during GC than NG. In conclusion, gum chewing decreased fasting hunger ratings and lunch energy consumed. Chewing gum may be a useful tool impacting energy balance in this population. Longer studies, especially in other populations, will be required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turn to calcium-fortified (or "calcium-set") tofu, soy milk, tempeh, soy yogurt, and cooked soybeans (edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. You can get decent ...

  12. Permissive role of calcium on regulatory volume decrease in freshly isolated mouse cholangiocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Seung; Choi, Yong Jin; Siegrist, Vicki J; Ko, Yoo-Seung; Cho, Won Kyoo

    2007-11-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) pathways are important in cell volume regulation in many cells, but its role in volume regulatory processes in cholangiocytes is unclear. Thus, we have investigated the role of Ca2+ in regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in cholangiocytes using freshly isolated bile duct cell clusters (BDCCs) from normal mouse. No significant increase in [Ca2+]i was observed during RVD, while ionomycin and ATP showed significant increases. Confocal imaging also showed no significant changes in the levels or distributions of intracellular Ca2+ during RVD. Cell volume study by quantitative videomicroscopy indicated that removal and chelation of extracellular Ca2+ by ethylene glycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or administration of nifedipine did not affect RVD but verapamil significantly inhibited the RVD. Moreover, Ca2+ agonists or inhibitors of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores had no significant effect on RVD. However, 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) showed significant decreases in [Ca2+]i and significantly inhibited RVD, which was reversed with coadministration of valinomycin, suggesting that BAPTA-AM-induced inhibition is due to potassium conductance or other cellular processes requiring permissive [Ca2+](i. These findings indicate that an increase in [Ca2+]i or extracellular Ca2+ is not required for RVD but Ca2+ has a permissive role in RVD of mouse cholangiocytes.

  13. Dairy consumption and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer in a prospective cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, Anette; Thoresen, Magne; Engeset, Dagrun; Lund, Eiliv

    2010-11-01

    To study the association between consumption of dairy products and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer risk according to menopausal status. In a population-based prospective cohort study of 64,904 Norwegian women followed from 1996/1999 through 2006, we examined total dairy consumption and consumption of various dairy products in relation to pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. We also examined breast cancer in relation to calcium intake and to milk consumption during childhood and performed additional analyses corrected for measurement errors in the dietary data. In total, 218 premenopausal and 1,189 postmenopausal incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up. Total dairy, adult, and childhood milk consumption was not associated with either pre- or postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Premenopausal women with the highest consumption of white cheese had half the risk of breast cancer compared to those with the lowest consumption (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.87). Total calcium intake tended to be inversely related to premenopausal (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.39-1.08) and postmenopausal breast cancer (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.70-1.04). Correcting for measurement errors did not alter the results substantially, nor did exclusion of early cancer cases. Dairy consumption is not strongly related to breast cancer risk in this prospective study. A non-significant negative association between calcium intake and breast cancer risk was seen, particularly among premenopausal women.

  14. Presenilin 1 mutation decreases both calcium and contractile responses in cerebral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussay, Xavier; Morel, Jean-Luc; Biendon, Nathalie; Rotureau, Lolita; Legeron, François-Pierre; Boutonnet, Marie-Charlotte; Cho, Yoon H; Macrez, Nathalie

    2017-10-01

    Mutations or upregulation in presenilin 1 (PS1) gene are found in familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease or sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease, respectively. PS1 has been essentially studied in neurons and its mutation was shown to alter intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signals. Here, we showed that PS1 is expressed in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of mouse cerebral arteries, and we assessed the effects of the deletion of exon 9 of PS1 (PS1dE9) on Ca(2+) signals and contractile responses of vascular SMC. Agonist-induced contraction of cerebral vessels was significantly decreased in PS1dE9 both in vivo and ex vivo. Spontaneous activity of Ca(2+) sparks through ryanodine-sensitive channels (RyR) was unchanged, whereas the RyR-mediated Ca(2+)-release activated by caffeine was shorter in PS1dE9 SMC when compared with control. Moreover, PS1dE9 mutation decreased the caffeine-activated capacitive Ca(2+) entry, and inhibitors of SERCA pumps reversed the effects of PS1dE9 on Ca(2+) signals. PS1dE9 mutation also leads to the increased expression of SERCA3, phospholamban, and RyR3. These results show that PS1 plays a crucial role in the cerebrovascular system and the vascular reactivity is decreased through altered Ca(2+) signals in PS1dE9 mutant mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary calcium decreases plasma cholesterol level only in female but not in male hamster fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ka Ying; Liang, Yin Tong; Chen, Jing Nan; Jiang, Yue; Kwan, Kin Ming; Peng, Cheng; Jiao, Rui; Zuo, Yuan Yuan; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen Yu

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary calcium on plasma lipoprotein profile in castrated and ovariectomized hamsters. Male, castrated, female and ovariectomized hamsters (n=36 each group) were randomly divided into three sub-groups (n=12) and fed one of the three diets containing 0, 2, and 8 g calcium per kg diet for a period of six weeks. Changes in plasma lipoprotein profile were monitored at the end of week 0, 3 and 6. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), triacylglycerols (TG) and TC/HDL-C were decreased only in intact female and ovariectomized hamsters. In contrast, three levels of dietary calcium had no effect on lipoprotein profiles in both intact male and castrated hamsters. Beneficial modification of lipoprotein profile by dietary calcium was gender-dependent at least in hamsters. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The decreased of Streptococcus Mutans growth after topical application of phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Faradina Araf

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP paste is a topical application substance that consisted of a series of milk derivative peptide as a result of phosphorylation and has an antibacterial activity. The objective of this research was to find out the difference of Streptococcus mutans growth before and after CPP-ACP paste given topically to child's teeth. The method of the research was a quasi-experiment. Research samples were 10 students of MI Al Falah Islamic Boarding School, Jatinangor, West Jawa Indonesia and collected with purposive sampling technique. This research used dental plaque from child's teeth before and after applicated by CPP-ACP paste. The plaque was cultivated in selective media Tryptone Yeast Cysteine Sucrose Bacitracin (TYCSB with repeated twice. Streptococcus mutans colony in TYCSB were counted by Stuart colony counter and statistically analyzed based on paired t-test. The results showed the average of Streptococcus mutans growth before applicated CPP-ACP paste was 57.05, whereas after applicated CPP-ACP paste for 1 days was 9.4; for 3 days was 2.85, and for 14 days was 1.7 colony. The research concluded that there was a decrease of Streptococcus mutans growth in isolate plaque after CPP-ACP paste topically given to child's teeth.

  17. Parent calcium-rich-food practices/perceptions are associated with calcium intake among parents and their early adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Degeneffe, Dennis; Ghosh, Koel; Bruhn, Christine; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Auld, Garry; Ballejos, Miriam; Boushey, Carol; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Wong, SiewSun; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2012-02-01

    The study aimed to (i) segment parents of early adolescents into subgroups according to their Ca-rich-food (CRF) practices and perceptions regarding early adolescent CRF intake and (ii) determine whether Ca intake of parents and early adolescents differed by subgroup. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 509 parents and their early adolescent children completed a questionnaire in 2006-2007 to assess parent CRF practices and perceptions and to estimate parent and child Ca intakes. Self-administered questionnaires were completed in community settings or homes across nine US states. Parents self-reporting as Asian, Hispanic or non-Hispanic White with a child aged 10-13 years were recruited through youth or parent events. Three parent CRF practice/perception segments were identified, including 'Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers' (49 %), 'Water Regulars' (30 %) and 'Sweet-Drink-Permissive Parents' (23 %). Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers were somewhat older and more likely to be non-Hispanic White than other groups. Ca intakes from all food sources, milk/dairy foods and milk only, and milk intakes, were higher among early adolescent children of Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers compared with early adolescents of parents in other segments. Soda pop intakes were highest for early adolescents with parents in the Water Regulars group than other groups. Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers scored higher on culture/tradition, health benefits and ease of use/convenience subscales and lower on a dairy/milk intolerance subscale and were more likely to report eating family dinners daily than parents in the other groups. Parent education programmes should address CRF practices/perceptions tailored to parent group to improve Ca intake of early adolescent children.

  18. Development and Testing of a Mobile Phone App for Self-Monitoring of Calcium Intake in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Ilona; Garland, Suzanne; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis

    2017-03-07

    Interventions to prevent osteoporosis by increasing dairy intake or physical activity in young women have been limited to increasing osteoporosis knowledge and awareness. However, findings have shown that this does not always lead to a change in behaviors. Self-monitoring using mobile devices in behavioral interventions has yielded significant and positive outcomes. Yet, to our knowledge, mobile self-monitoring has not been used as an intervention strategy to increase calcium intake, particularly in young women, for better bone health outcomes. As development and testing of mobile app-based interventions requires a sequence of steps, our study focused on testing the acceptability and usability of Calci-app, a dietary app to self-monitor calcium consumption, before it is used in a behavioral change intervention in young women aged 18-25 years. Calci-app development followed 4 steps: (1) conceptualization, (2) development and pretesting, (3) pilot testing, and (4) mixed methods evaluation. We present the development process of Calci-app and evaluation of the acceptability and usability of the app in young women. Overall, 78% (31/40) of study participants completed the 5-day food record with high compliance levels (defined as more than 3 days of full or partial completion). There was a significant reduction in the proportion of participants completing all meal entries over the 5 days (P=.01). Participants generally found Calci-app easy and convenient to use, but it was time-consuming and they expressed a lack of motivation to use the app. We present a detailed description of the development process of Calci-app and an evaluation of its usability and acceptability to self-monitor dietary calcium intake. The findings from this preliminary study demonstrated acceptable use of Calci-app to self-monitor calcium consumption. However, for regular and long-term use the self-monitoring function in Calci-app could be expanded to allow participants to view their total daily

  19. A premeal snack of raisins decreases mealtime food intake more than grapes in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Mollard, Rebecca; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-04-01

    The effect of a premeal snack of grapes, raisins, or a mix of almonds and raisins, compared with a water control, on food intake (FI) was examined in 8- to 11-year-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children. Children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum (Experiment 1: 13 boys, 13 girls) or fixed-calorie (150 kcal; Experiment 2: 13 boys, 13 girls) treatments, followed by an ad libitum pizza meal 30 min later. Appetite was measured throughout the study, and FI was measured at 30 min. The ad libitum consumption (Experiment 1) of raisins reduced pizza intake (p snack (15%). Cumulative energy intake (in kcal: snack + pizza) was lower after water and raisins than after either grapes or the mixed snack (p snack (Experiment 2), raisins reduced pizza intake, compared with water (∼11%, p = 0.005), and resulted in a cumulative intake similar to water; however, both grapes and the mixed snack resulted in higher cumulative intakes (p snacks (p snack (p snack of raisins, but not grapes or a mix of raisins and almonds, reduces meal-time energy intake and does not lead to increased cumulative energy intake in children.

  20. Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J; Bell, E A; Thorwart, M L

    1999-10-01

    Previous research showed that decreasing the energy density (kJ/g) of foods by adding water to them can lead to reductions in energy intake. Few studies have examined how water consumed as a beverage affects food intake. This study examined the effects of water, both served with a food and incorporated into a food, on satiety. In a within-subjects design, 24 lean women consumed breakfast, lunch, and dinner in our laboratory 1 d/wk for 4 wk. Subjects received 1 of 3 isoenergetic (1128 kJ) preloads 17 min before lunch on 3 d and no preload on 1 d. The preloads consisted of 1) chicken rice casserole, 2) chicken rice casserole served with a glass of water (356 g), and 3) chicken rice soup. The soup contained the same ingredients (type and amount) as the casserole that was served with water. Decreasing the energy density of and increasing the volume of the preload by adding water to it significantly increased fullness and reduced hunger and subsequent energy intake at lunch. The equivalent amount of water served as a beverage with a food did not affect satiety. Energy intake at lunch was 1209 +/- 125 kJ after the soup compared with 1657 +/- 148 and 1639 +/- 148 kJ after the casserole with and without water, respectively. Subjects did not compensate at dinner for this reduction in lunch intake. Consuming foods with a high water content more effectively reduced subsequent energy intake than did drinking water with food.

  1. Gut peptide GLP-1 and its analogue, Exendin-4, decrease alcohol intake and reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita H Shirazi

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1 is a gut- and neuro-peptide with an important role in the regulation of food intake and glucose metabolism. Interestingly, GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R are expressed in key mesolimbic reward areas (including the ventral tegmental area, VTA, innervated by hindbrain GLP-1 neurons. Recently GLP-1 has emerged as a potential regulator of food reward behavior, an effect driven by the mesolimbic GLP-1Rs. Its role in other reward behaviors remains largely unexplored. Since a considerable overlap has been suggested for circuitry controlling reward behavior derived from food and alcohol we hypothesized that GLP-1 and GLP-1Rs could regulate alcohol intake and alcohol reward. We sought to determine whether GLP-1 or its clinically safe stable analogue, Exendin-4, reduce alcohol intake and reward. To determine the potential role of the endogenous GLP-1 in alcohol intake we evaluated whether GLP-1R antagonist, Exendin 9-39, can increase alcohol intake. Furthermore, we set out to evaluate whether VTA GLP-1R activation is sufficient to reduce alcohol intake. Male Wistar rats injected peripherally with GLP-1 or Exendin-4 reduced their alcohol intake in an intermittent access two bottle free choice drinking model. Importantly, a contribution of endogenously released GLP-1 is highlighted by our observation that blockade of GLP-1 receptors alone resulted in an increased alcohol intake. Furthermore, GLP-1 injection reduced alcohol reward in the alcohol conditioned place preference test in mice. To evaluate the neuroanatomical substrate linking GLP-1 with alcohol intake/reward, we selectively microinjected GLP-1 or Exendin 4 into the VTA. This direct stimulation of the VTA GLP-1 receptors potently reduced alcohol intake. Our findings implicate GLP-1R signaling as a novel modulator of alcohol intake and reward. We show for the first time that VTA GLP-1R stimulation leads to reduced alcohol intake. Considering that GLP-1 analogues are already

  2. Feed intake, growth, and body and carcass attributes of feedlot steers supplemented with two levels of calcium nitrate or urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, R S; Miller, J; Oelbrandt, N; Li, L; Luijben, J P M; Robinson, D L; Nolan, J V; Perdok, H B

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate supplementation has been shown to be effective in reducing enteric methane emission from ruminants, but there have been few large-scale studies assessing the effects of level of nitrate supplementation on feed intake, animal growth, or carcass and meat quality attributes of beef cattle. A feedlot study was conducted to assess the effects of supplementing 0.25 or 0.45% NPN in dietary DM as either urea (Ur) or calcium nitrate (CaN) on DMI, ADG, G:F, and carcass attributes of feedlot steers ( = 383). The levels of NPN inclusion were selected as those at which nitrate has previously achieved measurable mitigation of enteric methane. The higher level of NPN inclusion reduced ADG as did replacement of Ur with CaN ( nitrate-supplemented cattle to have a slower rate of eating (g DMI/min) than Ur-supplemented cattle. When adjusted for BW, neither NPN source nor inclusion level affected cross-sectional area of the LM or fatness measured on the live animal. Similarly, there were no significant main effects of treatments on dressing percentage or fat depth or muscling attributes of the carcass after adjustment for HCW ( > 0.05). Analysis of composited meat samples showed no detectable nitrates or nitrosamines in raw or cooked meat, and the level of nitrate detected in meat from nitrate-supplemented cattle was no higher than for Ur-fed cattle ( > 0.05). We conclude that increasing NPN inclusion from 0.25 to 0.45% NPN in dietary DM and replacing Ur with CaN decreased ADG in feedlot cattle without improving G:F.

  3. Calcium intakes in individuals on diets for the management of cows' milk allergy: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, M; Gibney, M J

    1993-09-01

    Three hundred and twenty-three individuals with self-reported food allergy were recruited by media advertisements. Questionnaire information was collected on all respondents. Chocolate (57%), milk (47%), wheat (36%) and food additives (35%) were the most frequently implicated foods. The most frequently reported symptoms were itching (43%), skin rash (43%) and tiredness (43%). Food avoidance was the most common form of food allergy diagnosis (33%) with only 8% of respondents reporting food challenge in food allergy diagnosis. Self-diagnosis was reported by 34% of respondents with 29% and 24% reporting diagnosis by a general practitioner or a homeopath, respectively. Twenty-four per cent of respondents 'always' avoided and a further 57% 'nearly always' avoided the implicated food(s). A group of 38 adults with self-reported 'milk allergy' was selected for further study. Dietary assessments, using the dietary history method, were carried out on this subgroup and on age-, sex- and occupation-matched controls. The results of the dietary assessments revealed that the 'milk allergy' group had significantly higher intakes of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron and folic acid (P allergy' group took calcium-containing supplements. Even after calcium supplementation, the mean calcium intake of those who completely avoided milk was unacceptably low (441 mg/d).

  4. Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) intake decreases oxidative stress in obese diabetic (db/db) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Chew, Boon P; Atienza, Liezl M

    2017-07-15

    Red raspberry fruit intake was investigated on obese diabetic (db/db) mice for 8weeks. Animals fed isocaloric diets (5.3% freeze-dried raspberry, or control) were assessed for obesity-diabetes-disease risk biomarkers. Results showed that raspberry intake improved antioxidant status and lessened plasma interleukin (IL)-6 (0.3-fold of control, p0.05). Plasma levels of total cholesterol (T-CHL), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-CHL), and resistin were higher in the raspberry group. Overall, the enhanced detoxifying cell defenses exerted by raspberry intake might be due to its polyphenolics and fibre. This study demonstrates in vivo that raspberry intake, at a dose that can be achieved by human consumption, might protect against diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary calcium intake and higher body mass index in Mexican adults aged 20 to 59 years old: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Efraín Flores-Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although energy balance is the main factor that regulates body weight, recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism can modify the energy balance and help regulate body weight. Objective. To evaluate the association between the calcium intake in the diet and high body mass index in Mexican adults in the 20-59 age group. Material and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study was conducted based on the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutritional Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Food intake questionnaires applied to 16,494 adults were analyzed. After removing biologically implausible values or incomplete information, we arrived at a final sample of 15,662 adults grouped according to their body mass index. Linear regression was used to assess association between daily dietary calcium intake and body mass index. Results. There was an inverse association between dietary calcium consumption and a high body mass index. The mean calcium intake in subjects with normal body mass index was 903.9 mg/day versus 832.0 mg/day in obese subjects (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. The study corroborates existing evidence of an inverse association between the dietary calcium intake and a high body mass index.

  6. Increased physical activity not decreased energy intake is associated with inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Janine; Hagman, Jennifer; Pan, Zhaoxing; MacLean, Paul

    2013-01-01

    There is a dearth of data regarding changes in dietary intake and physical activity over time that lead to inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN). Without such data, more effective nutritional therapies for patients cannot be devised. This study was undertaken to describe changes in diet and physical activity that precede inpatient medical hospitalization for AN in female adolescents. This data can be used to understand factors contributing to medical instability in AN, and may advance rodent models of AN to investigate novel weight restoration strategies. It was hypothesized that hospitalization for AN would be associated with progressive energy restriction and increased physical activity over time. 20 females, 11-19 years (14.3±1.8 years), with restricting type AN, completed retrospective, self-report questionnaires to assess dietary intake and physical activity over the 6 month period prior to inpatient admission (food frequency questionnaire, Pediatric physical activity recall) and 1 week prior (24 hour food recall, modifiable activity questionnaire). Physical activity increased acutely prior to inpatient admission without any change in energy or macronutrient intake. However, there were significant changes in reported micronutrient intake causing inadequate intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin D, and pantothenic acid at 1 week versus high, potentially harmful, intake of Vitamin A over 6 months prior to admission. Subject report of significantly increased physical activity, not decreased energy intake, were associated with medical hospitalization for AN. Physical activity and Vitamin A and D intake should be carefully monitored following initial AN diagnosis, as markers of disease progression as to potentially minimize the risk of medical instability.

  7. Increased physical activity not decreased energy intake is associated with inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa in adolescent females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Higgins

    Full Text Available There is a dearth of data regarding changes in dietary intake and physical activity over time that lead to inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN. Without such data, more effective nutritional therapies for patients cannot be devised. This study was undertaken to describe changes in diet and physical activity that precede inpatient medical hospitalization for AN in female adolescents. This data can be used to understand factors contributing to medical instability in AN, and may advance rodent models of AN to investigate novel weight restoration strategies. It was hypothesized that hospitalization for AN would be associated with progressive energy restriction and increased physical activity over time. 20 females, 11-19 years (14.3±1.8 years, with restricting type AN, completed retrospective, self-report questionnaires to assess dietary intake and physical activity over the 6 month period prior to inpatient admission (food frequency questionnaire, Pediatric physical activity recall and 1 week prior (24 hour food recall, modifiable activity questionnaire. Physical activity increased acutely prior to inpatient admission without any change in energy or macronutrient intake. However, there were significant changes in reported micronutrient intake causing inadequate intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin D, and pantothenic acid at 1 week versus high, potentially harmful, intake of Vitamin A over 6 months prior to admission. Subject report of significantly increased physical activity, not decreased energy intake, were associated with medical hospitalization for AN. Physical activity and Vitamin A and D intake should be carefully monitored following initial AN diagnosis, as markers of disease progression as to potentially minimize the risk of medical instability.

  8. Magnesium intake decreases Type 2 diabetes risk through the improvement of insulin resistance and inflammation: the Hisayama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, A; Doi, Y; Ninomiya, T; Mukai, N; Hirakawa, Y; Hata, J; Ozawa, M; Uchida, K; Shirota, T; Kitazono, T; Kiyohara, Y

    2013-12-01

    Early studies have shown that magnesium intake decreases the risk of Type 2 diabetes, but the results are still inconsistent. We prospectively examined the association between magnesium intake and incidence of Type 2 diabetes in a general Japanese population. A total of 1999 subjects without diabetes aged 40-79 years who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test were followed up prospectively for a mean of 15.6 years. During the follow-up, 417 subjects developed Type 2 diabetes. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of Type 2 diabetes significantly decreased with increasing magnesium intake quartile levels (≤ 148.5, 148.6-171.5, 171.6-195.5 and ≥ 195.6 mg/day, P for trend = 0.01). In multivariate analyses, after adjusting for comprehensive risk factors and other dietary factors, the hazard ratio of Type 2 diabetes was 0.67 (95% CI 0.49-0.92; P = 0.01) in the third quartile and 0.63 (95% CI 0.44-0.90; P = 0.01) in the highest quartile compared with the first quartile. In addition, the risk of Type 2 diabetes was 14% lower (P = 0.04) for a 1-sd increment of log-transformed magnesium intake in the multivariate-adjusted model. In stratified analysis, there were statistically significant interactions between magnesium intake and levels of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein or alcohol intake on the risk of Type 2 diabetes (all P magnesium intake was a significant protective factor for the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in the general Japanese population, especially among subjects with insulin resistance, low-grade inflammation and a drinking habit. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  9. High dietary niacin intake is associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Lee C; Petersen, Martin R

    2011-02-01

    Experimental studies suggest that B vitamins such as niacin, folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 may protect against DNA damage induced by ionising radiation (IR). However, to date, data from IR-exposed human populations are not available. We examined the intakes of these B vitamins and their food sources in relation to the frequency of chromosome translocations as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, in eighty-two male airline pilots. Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semi-quantitative FFQ. Translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridisation whole-chromosome painting. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95 % CI, adjusted for age and occupational and lifestyle factors. We observed a significant inverse association between translocation frequency and dietary intake of niacin (P = 0·02): adjusted rate ratio for subjects in the highest tertile compared with the lowest tertile was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·83). Translocation frequency was not associated with total niacin intake from food and supplements as well as dietary or total intake of folate, riboflavin or vitamin B6 or B12. However, the adjusted rate ratios were significant for subjects with ≥ median compared with < median intake of whole grains (P = 0·03) and red and processed meat (P = 0·01): 0·69 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·96) and 1·56 (95 % CI 1·13, 2·16), respectively. Our data suggest that a high intake of niacin from food or a diet high in whole grains but low in red and processed meat may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons.

  10. Reducing mineral usage in feedlot diets for Nellore cattle: II. Impacts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc contents on intake, performance, and liver and bone status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, L F; Sathler, D F T; Silva, B C; Zanetti, D; Valadares Filho, S C; Alhadas, H M; Detmann, E; Santos, S A; Mariz, L D S; Chizzotti, M L

    2017-04-01

    Weaned Nellore bulls ( = 36; 274 ± 34 kg) were used in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate intake, fecal excretion, and performance with different concentrations of minerals. Experimental diets were formulated with 2 concentrations of Ca and P (macromineral factor; diet supplying 100% of Ca and P according to BR-CORTE () [CaP+] or diet without limestone and dicalcium phosphate [CaP-]) and 2 concentrations of microminerals (micromineral factor; diet with supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn+] or diet without supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn-]). The factor CaP- was formulated without the addition of limestone and dicalcium phosphate, and the factor CuMnZn- was formulated without inorganic supplementation of microminerals (premix). The diets were isonitrogenous (13.3% CP). Intake was individually monitored every day. Indigestible NDF was used as an internal marker for digestibility estimates. The bulls were slaughtered (84 or 147 d on feed), and then carcass characteristics were measured and liver and rib samples were collected. Feed, feces, rib bones, and liver samples were analyzed for DM, ash, CP, ether extract (EE), Ca, P, Zn, Mn, and Cu. There were no significant interactions ( ≥ 0.06) between macro- and micromineral supplementation for any variables in the study. Calcium, P, and micromineral concentrations did not affect ( ≥ 0.20) intake of DM, OM, NDF, EE, CP, TDN, and nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC). Calcium and P intake were affected ( < 0.01) by macromineral factor. Animals fed without Ca and P supplementation consumed less of these minerals. Dry matter and nutrient fecal excretion (OM, NDF, EE, CP, and NFC) were similar ( ≥ 0.23) among all factors. Performance and carcass characteristics were similar ( ≥ 0.09) among diets. The content of ash in rib bones was not affected by diets ( ≥ 0.06). Plasma P and phosphatase alkaline concentrations were similar (

  11. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  12. Ability of GLP-1 to decrease food intake is dependent on nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronveaux, Charlotte C; de Lartigue, Guillaume; Raybould, Helen E

    2014-08-01

    Gut-derived glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) acts in the postprandial period to stimulate insulin secretion and inhibit gastrointestinal motor and secretory function; whether endogenous peripheral GLP-1 inhibits food intake is less clear. We hypothesized that GLP-1 inhibits food intake in the fed, but not fasted, state. There is evidence that GLP-1 acts via stimulation of vagal afferent neurons (VAN); we further hypothesized that the satiating effects of endogenous GLP-1 in the postprandial period is determined either by a change in GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expression or localization to different cellular compartments in VAN. Food intake was recorded following administration of GLP-1 (50μg/kg or 100μg/kg) or saline (IP) in Wistar rats fasted for 18h or fasted then re-fed with 3g chow. GLP-1R protein expression and localization on VAN were determined by immunocytochemistry and immunoblots in animals fasted for 18h or fasted then re-fed for 40min. GLP-1R mRNA level was detected in animals fasted for 18h or fasted and re-fed ad libitum for 2h. GLP-1 (100μg/kg) significantly reduced 40min food intake by 38% in re-fed but not fasted rats (p<0.05). GLP-1R mRNA or protein levels in VAN were unchanged in re-fed compared to fasted rats. However, GLP-1R localization to the plasma membrane was significantly increased in VAN by feeding. Feeding changes the ability of peripheral GLP-1 to inhibit food intake. GLP-1Rs are trafficked to the plasma membrane in response to a meal. GLP-1 may play a role in regulating food intake in the postprandial period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Painful nerve injury decreases resting cytosolic calcium concentrations in sensory neurons of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, Andreas; Lirk, Philipp; Stucky, Cheryl; Abram, Stephen E.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2005-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is difficult to treat and poorly understood at the cellular level. Although cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca]c) critically regulates neuronal function, the effects of peripheral nerve injury on resting sensory neuronal [Ca]c are unknown. Resting [Ca]c was determined by microfluorometry in

  14. Dietary magnesium and calcium intake and risk of depression in the general population: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingrong; Lv, Jing; Wang, Weijing; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2017-03-01

    Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) intake and the risk of depression. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore these associations and to investigate the possible dose-response relationship between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression. MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan fang databases and Databases of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals were searched for eligible publications up to September 2016. Pooled relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effects model. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's test and the funnel plot. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline functions. A total of 17 epidemiological studies from 12 articles were included in the present meta-analysis. Among these studies, 11 studies evaluated the association between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression and 6 studies evaluated the association between dietary Ca intake and risk of depression. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled relative risks of depression were 0.81 (95% confidence interval = [0.70, 0.92]) for Mg and 0.66 (95% confidence interval = [0.42, 1.02]) for Ca. Dietary Mg intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of depression among studies conducted in Asia (relative risk  = 0.57; 95% confidence interval = [0.44, 0.74]) and in studies adjusting for energy intake (relative risk  = 0.73; 95% confidence interval = [0.58, 0.92]). For dose-response analysis, evidence of a nonlinear relationship was found between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression, and the largest risk reductions were observed for 320 mg/day. This meta-analysis indicated that moderate Mg intake may be inversely associated with the risk of depression, which

  15. Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Peters, J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake. Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and

  16. Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, Van Mark; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, Dina; Peters, Jelmer; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake. Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and

  17. Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Donohoe, Jessica E

    2011-08-01

    We investigated whether eating lunch mindfully, in contrast to eating with distractions or no particular focus, reduces later snack intake and if this is related to a measure of meal memory. The design was between-subjects with three conditions. Twenty-nine female undergraduate students either ate a fixed lunch while (1) focusing on the sensory characteristics of the food as they ate (food focus group), (2) reading a newspaper article about food (food thoughts control group) or (3) in the absence of any secondary task (neutral control group). Cookie intake later that afternoon was measured as well as rated vividness of memory of the lunch. Participants ate significantly fewer cookies in the food focus group than in both the food thoughts control group or the neutral control group. Rated appetite before the snack session was lower in the food focus group than in the other two groups and rated vividness of lunch memory was higher. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with snack intake. These results suggest that enhancing meal memory by paying attention to food while eating can reduce later intake and are consistent with the suggestion that memory plays an important role in appetite control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an

  19. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Christensen, Lisa B; Heitmann, Berit L

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g/d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same tooth) and ≥1 inter-proximal site with pocket depth ≥5 mm. Since vitamin D influences Ca absorption, models were stratified by lower and higher (periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, smoking, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, number of teeth, daily brushing, regular visits to the dentist and chronic illness, irrespective of vitamin D intake levels. Intake of vitamin D alone was not associated severe with periodontitis. Intakes of Ca, casein and whey protein were inversely associated with periodontitis. Consumption of foods rich in Ca, casein and whey (e.g. dairy foods) should be promoted, as they may contribute to the prevention of periodontitis. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm these associations.

  20. Dairy products and total calcium intake at 13 years of age and its association with obesity at 21 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabujo, Tiago; Ramos, Elisabete; Lopes, Carla

    2018-01-25

    Dairy products and specifically calcium have been suggested to play a role in obesity development but more longitudinal evidence is still needed. The objective of this study was to assess the association between dairy products and total calcium intake at age 13 and body mass index at age 21. This longitudinal study included 2159 individuals from the Epidemiological Health Investigation of Teenagers cohort (EPITeen), Porto, Portugal, evaluated at ages 13 and 21. Assessment consisted of anthropometrics measurements and structured questionnaires namely a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to appraise food consumption in the past 12 months. Linear regression models were run in 941 individuals with complete information of confounders: gender, follow-up period, parents' education, physical activity, energy, and total calcium intake. Negative association was found on total calcium intake at age 13 with BMI at age 21 (model 0: β = -0.059 (95% CI: -0.113, -0.004) and model 1: -0.057 (95% CI: -0.113, -0.002)), however, no statistically significant association was found when adjusting for energy intake (model 2: β = -0.031 (95% CI: -0.110, 0.047). There were no associations between milk, yogurt, and cheese consumption at age 13 and BMI at age 21 when adjusting for confounders. This study did not support an independent effect of dairy products or total calcium intake in adolescence on later early adulthood adiposity.

  1. Peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 contribute to decreased food intake after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, M S; Jørgensen, Nils B; Bojsen-Møller, K N

    2016-01-01

    increased secretion of the other, probably explaining the absent effect on food intake on these experimental days. Combined blockade of GLP-1 and PYY actions increased food intake after RYGB, supporting that these hormones have a role in decreased food intake postoperatively.International Journal of Obesity...

  2. Greater Calcium Intake is Associated with Better Bone Health Measured by Quantitative Ultrasound of the Phalanges in Pediatric Patients Treated with Anticonvulsant Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Vera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate and compare the effects of chronic antiepileptic therapy on bone health in pediatric patients using quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges (QUS and controlling for potential confounding factors, particularly nutrient intake. The amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS was measured in 33 epileptic children and 32 healthy children aged 6.5 ± 3.1 and 6.3 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD years, respectively. There were no significant differences in the demographics such as age, weight and height between epileptic children and the control group children. None of the children in the epileptic or the treatment group were found to have a vitamin D deficiency. There were no significant differences in laboratory tests between groups. Lower QUS figures were found in the epileptic children (p = 0.001. After further adjustment for potential confounders such age, height, weight, calcium intake, vitamin D intake, physical activity and sex, the differences remained significant (p < 0.001. After further classification of the participants based on the tertile of calcium intake, no significant differences were found between patients and healthy controls in the greatest tertile of calcium intake (p = 0.217. We conclude that anticonvulsant therapy using valproate may lead to low bone mass in children and that an adequate intake of calcium might counteract such deleterious effects.

  3. Dairy food, calcium and vitamin D intake in pregnancy, and wheeze and eczema in infants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyake, Y; Sasaki, S; Tanaka, K; Hirota, Y

    2010-01-01

    The present prospective study examined the association between maternal consumption of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D during pregnancy and the risk of wheeze and eczema in the infants aged 16-24 months...

  4. A 51-item calcium-focused food frequency questionnaire is a reliable tool to assess dietary calcium intake in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Angel M; Weiler, Hope A; Wall, Michelle; Goltzman, David; Whiting, Susan J; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Morin, Suzanne N

    2017-07-01

    Given the lack in a valid biomarker to assess dietary calcium intake (dCai), reproducible estimation of usual dCai is crucial for better understanding of its interaction with health outcomes in specific populations. This study tested the hypothesis that a calcium-focused food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) may be used to estimate dCai of women ≥50 years residing in a multicultural environment (Montreal, Canada). One hundred and eight women (age, 63.1±7.7 years; 98% postmenopausal) completed the FFQ twice and 4 nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls (24HRs) over 1 month. Medians of dCai were compared by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Reproducibility and relative validity of the FFQ were assessed by Spearman correlation (rs) and Cohen's weighted kappa (κw). Agreement was further assessed by cross-classification by quartiles, Bland-Altman plot, and sensitivity and specificity analyses. The median (interquartile range) dCai estimated by the FFQ and 24HRs were 723 (524-1033) mg/d and 854 (666-1068) mg/d, respectively (P<.001). The FFQs had a strong correlation (rs=0.72, P<.001) and moderate agreement (κw=0.55). The FFQ and 24HRs were moderately correlated (rs=0.65, P<.001). Cross-classification showed moderate agreement (κw=0.42), with 85% of the participants classified into identical or contiguous quartiles and 2.8% into extreme opposite quartiles. According to the Bland-Altman plot, the FFQ underestimated dCai with a bias of 99 mg/d (95% limits of agreement, -677 to +480 mg/d). Sensitivity and specificity of identifying intakes <1000 mg/d were 90% and 57%, respectively. This FFQ is a useful tool to discriminate dCai <600 and ≥1000 mg/d in postmenopausal women and to rank dCai in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The decreased of Streptococcus Mutans growth after topical application of phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste

    OpenAIRE

    Tika Faradina Araf; Meirina Gartika; Warta Dewi

    2011-01-01

    Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste is a topical application substance that consisted of a series of milk derivative peptide as a result of phosphorylation and has an antibacterial activity. The objective of this research was to find out the difference of Streptococcus mutans growth before and after CPP-ACP paste given topically to child's teeth. The method of the research was a quasi-experiment. Research samples were 10 students of MI Al Falah Islamic Boarding S...

  6. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have ...

  7. Low calcium intake is related to increased risk of tooth loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    (30-60 y) with information on dietary Ca intake and number of teeth and a subset of 511 participants with information on tooth loss from 1987-88 to 1993-94. Ca intake less than the recommendations, estimated by a 7-d food record or a diet history interview in 1982-83, was more frequent among females...... (55%) than males (45%; P education, smoking, alcohol and sucrose consumption, subjective...

  8. Effect of anionic salts in concentrate mixture and calcium intake on some blood and urine minerals, acid-base balance and feed intake of dry pregnant cows on grass silage based feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAURIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Ayrshire and eight Friesian cows were randomly assigned to one of four prepartum diets in a 2 x 2 factorially designed experiment to determine the effect of anionic diet and calcium (Ca intake on Ca metabolism, acid-base status and feed intake of grass silage based diets during the dry period. Four diets provided either 34 g or 74 g total dietary Ca/day, and were either anionic or cationic. Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB, calculated as milliequivalents [(Na+ + K+ - (Cl- + S2-], was -247 mEq/kg dry matter (DM in the low DCAB group and +34 mEq/kg DM in the high DCAB group. DCAB was formulated using NH4Cl, (NH42SO4 and MgCl2 as anionic salts. Cows received grass silage (5.2 kg DM, hay (0.9 kg DM and concentrate mixture (1.6 kg DM until calving. Blood and urine samples were collected 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before the expected calving date, at calving, the day after calving and 1 week following calving. The results indicate that the reduction of cation-anion balance induced mild metabolic acidosis and increased the ability of the cow to maintain blood Ca concentration. However, DCAB should be higher since urinary pH decreased markedly (< 6 and so remarkable changes in some blood electrolyte concentrations were noticed.;

  9. Combined therapy with lanthanum carbonate and calcium carbonate for hyperphosphatemia decreases serum FGF-23 level independently of calcium and PTH (COLC Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Negi, Shigeo

    2012-03-01

    Increased blood levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) are associated with increased mortality. We evaluated the effect of combined therapy with lanthanum carbonate (LaC), a new phosphate binder and calcium carbonate (CaC) on serum levels of phosphate and FGF-23. This was a single-arm, open-label, multicenter study. Hemodialysis patients with a serum phosphate level >6.0 mg/dL despite CaC therapy were also given LaC for 16 weeks at a dose up to 2250 mg/day. CaC was given at a fixed dose throughout the 16-week period. Of 42 patients enrolled, 36 completed the 16-week study. The serum phosphate level showed a significant decrease from 6.9 ± 1.4 mg/dL at week 0 to 5.5 + 1.2 mg/dL at week 16 (-20.0%, P calcium and the serum parathyroid hormone level showed no significant changes. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.442, P = 0.007) was demonstrated between the percent reduction of serum FGF-23 and that of serum phosphate. Both serum phosphate and FGF-23 levels were significantly decreased by treatment with LaC plus CaC.

  10. Dietary folate and vitamin B12 intake before diagnosis decreases gastric cancer mortality risk among susceptible MTHFR 677TT carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Portillo, Marcia V; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F; Pérez-Pérez, Guillermo I; Chen, Jia; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Chihu-Amparan, Lilia; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2010-02-01

    To assess gastric cancer survival in relation to dietary intake of methyl donors and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C>T (MTHFR 677C>T) polymorphism. A prospective cohort of 257 incidental, histologically confirmed gastric cancer cases was assembled in January 2004 and followed until June 2006. Patients were recruited from the main oncology and/or gastroenterology units in Mexico City and were queried regarding their sociodemographic information, clinical history, and dietary habits 3 y before the onset of their symptoms. The intake of methyl donors was estimated with a food-frequency questionnaire and the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Cox's multivariate regression models were used to estimate the mortality risk of gastric cancer. MTHFR 677TT carriers with low folate and vitamin B12 intakes had the lowest survival rate in cases of gastric cancer. High intakes of folate and vitamin B12 before diagnosis was associated with decreased gastric cancer mortality risk in susceptible MTHFR 677TT carriers (mortality risk for folate 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.46, P for trend=0.001; mortality risk for vitamin B12 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.08-0.66, P for trend=0.008). Folate and related B vitamins may be used as an intervention strategy to improve the survival outcome of gastric cancer. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-fat (41%) butter consumption decreases total energy and lipid intake in diabetic patients under acute conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, G; Rossi, F; Bellisle, F; Casassus, P; Fiquet, P; Chappuis, A S; Desplanque, N; Laffitte, A

    1995-10-01

    Decreasing fat intake in subjects at risk of cardiovascular diseases and particularly diabetics is a major issue. To investigate whether low-fat (41%) butter (LFB) is of any benefit compared to regular butter (RB), 97 hospitalized diabetics (41 insulin-dependent) were studied on four consecutive days. Breakfast (bread, butter and drink) was served at 0830 hrs, on successive mornings. LFB and RB were presented ad libitum, on alternate days. Satiety was assessed at 10 and 12 h, using line rating scales. At 1230 hrs lunch was served, with large servings corresponding to 130% of the recommended lunch intake, so that carry-over effects from the breakfast manipulation could be measured. At breakfast, LFB was consumed in higher amounts, 27 vs. 21 g, F(1,96) = 33.24, p F(1,96) = 158.3, p = 0.0001. Hunger at 10 h but not at 12 h was affected by breakfast conditions. Lunch intake was comparable following LFB and RB breakfasts. In conclusion, LFB utilization under acute conditions seems to benefit diabetics by reducing caloric and fat intake.

  12. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  13. Is Controlling Phosphorus by Decreasing Dietary Protein Intake Beneficial or Harmful in Individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinaberger, Christian S.; Greenland, Sander; Kopple, Joel D.; Van Wyck, David; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    Background Dietary restrictions to control serum phosphorus, recommended routinely to individuals with chronic kidney disease, are usually associated with a reduction in protein intake. This may lead to protein-energy wasting and poor survival. We hypothesized that decline in serum phosphorus with concomitant decline in protein intake is associated with increased death risk. Methods In a 3-year (7/2001–6/2004) cohort of 30,075 prevalent maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, we examined changes in serum phosphorus and in normalized protein nitrogen appearance (nPNA), a surrogate of dietary protein intake, during the first 6 months and subsequent mortality. Four groups of MHD patients were defined based on the direction of the changes in serum phosphorus and nPNA. Results Baseline phosphorus had a J-shaped association with mortality, whereas higher baseline nPNA was linearly associated with greater survival. Compared to MHD patients whose serum phosphorus and nPNA both rose over 6 months, those whose serum phosphorus decreased but nPNA increased had the greatest survival with a case-mix adjusted death risk ratio (RR) of 0.90 (95% confidence limits: 0.86, 0.95, pphosphorus increased but nPNA decreased or those whose phosphorus and nPNA both decreased had worse mortality with RR of 1.11 (1.05,1.17) and 1.06 (1.01,1.12), respectively (P phosphorus by restricting dietary protein intake may outweigh its benefit and lead to increased mortality. Additional studies including randomized controlled trials need to examine whether non-dietary control of phosphorus or restricting non-protein sources of phosphorus is safer and more effective. PMID:19064510

  14. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin. In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat, HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P, or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment. Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging, plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  15. Urine 24-Hour Sodium Excretion Decreased between 1953 and 2014 in Japan, but Estimated Intake Still Exceeds the WHO Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uechi, Ken; Sugimoto, Minami; Kobayashi, Satomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Background: Accurate monitoring of sodium intake is necessary for evaluating strategies used to reduce sodium intake. However, no repeat survey has been conducted in representative populations in Japan to examine trends in sodium intake with the use of 24-h urinary sodium excretion, a standard evaluation method for sodium intake monitoring.Objective: The objective of this study was to examine potential trends in sodium intake by examining previous reports of 24-h urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations.Methods: We systematically searched for reports of 24-h urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations (mean age range: 18-69 y). We searched PubMed and Web of Science for English-language articles and hand-searched 7 Japanese scientific journals for Japanese-language articles. Trends in urinary sodium excretion were examined with the use of weighted linear regression and random-effects meta-regression analyses, with adjustment or stratification to address study characteristics (population mean age, percentage of men, and sample size) and study assessment for completeness of urine collection.Results: We identified 68 reports of urinary sodium excretion from 53 articles published from 1953 through 2014 that showed high rates of urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations (weighted mean: 4900 mg/d). The rate of urinary sodium excretion significantly decreased between 1953 and 2014, by 4350 mg/d (P < 0.001); however, the rate of reduction in urinary sodium excretion was variable and decreased with time (P-linear trend <0.001 and P-quadratic trend <0.001). In the random-effects meta-regression analysis of studies that assessed completeness of urine collection with creatinine excretion, no significant relation between urinary sodium excretion and year was observed from 1978 to 2014 (β = -16, P = 0.40).Conclusion: Despite a decrease in urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations between 1953 and

  16. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g....../d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same...... study of DANHES 2007-2008. RESULTS: Intakes of Ca within recommendations (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.58, 0.99), whey ≥9.6 g/d (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) and casein ≥32 g/d (OR=0.75 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) were associated with lower likelihood of severe periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education...

  17. [Calcium pros and cons significance and risk of phosphorus supplementation. The risk of dietary phosphorus intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Akiko; Nomura, Kengo; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus (Pi) is an important determinant of Pi balance in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a reduced GFR. High dietary Pi burden may promote vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Recently, Ohnishi and Razzaque suggest that phosphate toxicity accelerates the mammalian aging process and that reducing the phosphate burden can delay the aging (FASEB J 24, 3562, 2010) . Dietary Pi is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives. Accurate information on the Pi content of foods is needed to achieve a low Pi intake and effectively manage CKD and the aging. In this review, we discuss the risk of dietary Pi intake in CKD and the aging.

  18. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, William W; Dridi, Sami; Shouse, Stephanie A; Wu, Hexirui; Hawley, Aubree; Lee, Sun-Ok; Gu, Xuan; Baum, Jamie I

    2017-06-08

    A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa) and lean control (Fa/fa) rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy) or moderate-protein (20% energy) diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8), lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10), obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8), and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10). At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake (p weight (p muscle lipid deposition compared to L20 and L40 diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA expression compared to O20 (p weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  19. Fatty fish and fish omega-3 fatty acid intakes decrease the breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Keun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it is believed that fish ω-3 fatty acids may decrease breast cancer risk, epidemiological evidence has been inconclusive. This study examined the association between fish and fish ω-3 fatty acids intake with the risk of breast cancer in a case-control study of Korean women. Methods We recruited 358 incident breast cancer patients and 360 controls with no history of malignant neoplasm from the National Cancer Center Hospital between July 2007 and April 2008. The study participants were given a 103-item food intake frequency questionnaire to determine their dietary consumption of fish (fatty and lean fish and ω-3 fatty acids derived from fish (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Results Using a multivariate logistic regression model, high intake of fatty fish was associated with a reduced risk for breast cancer in both pre- and postmenopausal women (OR [95% CI] for highest vs. lowest intake quartiles, p for trend: 0.19 [0.08 to 0.45], p p = 0.005 for postmenopausal women. Similarly, reductions in breast cancer risk were observed among postmenopausal subjects who consumed more than 0.101 g of EPA (OR [95% CI]: 0.38 [0.15 to 0.96] and 0.213 g of DHA (OR [95% CI]: 0.32 [0.13 to 0.82] from fish per day compared to the reference group who consumed less than 0.014 g of EPA and 0.037 g of DHA per day. Among premenopausal women, there was a significant reduction in breast cancer risk for the highest intake quartiles of ω-3 fatty acids (ORs [95% CI]: 0.46 [0.22 to 0.96], compared to the reference group who consumed the lowest quartile of intake. Conclusion These results suggest that high consumption of fatty fish is associated with a reduced risk for breast cancer, and that the intake of ω-3 fatty acids from fish is inversely associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk.

  20. Moderately Decreased Dietary Salt Intake Suppresses the Progression of Renal Insufficiency in Rats with 5/6 Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Burkert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Up to now, an appropriate salt intake in renal insufficiency has not been clearly determined. We hypothesize that even a moderate decrease in salt intake may affect functional and morphologic response of the rat remnant kidney after 5/6 nephrectomy. Methods. Subtotal nephrectomy was performed in 77 inbred 12 week-old-female AVN Wistar rats. The two groups of rats were fed either a standard or a low salt diet. Median of salt intake was 14.6 and 10.4 mg/100 g/24 h in the two groups. Results. Ten weeks after ablation, the remnant kidney parenchyma wet weight was 0.66 ± 0.16 g/100 g of body weight and 0.56 ± 0.11 g/100 g of body weight (P<0.01 in rats with a standard and low salt diet, respectively. In these two groups, systolic blood pressure was 151 ± 29 versus 126 ± 21 mmHg (P<0.05, serum creatinine levels were 164 ± 84 versus 106 ± 29 µmol/L (P<0.001, proteinuria was 84 ± 37 versus 83 ± 40 mg/100 g/24 h (N.S., and the glomerular injury score was 2.06 ± 0.49 versus 1.43 ± 0.62 (P<0.01, respectively. Conclusion. Moderately decreased salt intake slowed down the development of ablation nephropathy in AVN inbred strain of rats.

  1. QT interval prolongation and decreased heart rate variability in cirrhotic patients: relevance of hepatic venous pressure gradient and serum calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovesi, Simonetta; Prata Pizzala, Daniela M; Pozzi, Massimo; Ratti, Laura; Milanese, Maria; Pieruzzi, Federico; Vincenti, Antonio; Stella, Andrea; Mancia, Giuseppe; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2009-05-14

    A prolongation of QT interval has been shown in patients with cirrhosis and it is considered as part of the definition of the so-called 'cirrhotic cardiomyopathy'. The aim of the present study was to assess the determinants of QT interval prolongation in cirrhotic patients. Forty-eight male patients with different stages of liver disease were divided into three subgroups according to the Child-Pugh classification. All patients underwent a 24-h ECG Holter recording. The 24-h mean of QT intervals corrected for heart rate (termed QTc) and the slope of the regression line QT/RR were calculated. HRV (heart rate variability), plasma calcium and potassium concentration and HVPG (hepatic venous pressure gradient) were measured. QTc was progressively prolonged from Child A to Child C patients (P=0.001). A significant correlation between QTc and HVPG was found (P=0.003). Patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis presented QTc prolongation more frequently than patients with post-viral cirrhosis (Pheart rate decreases. The plasma calcium concentration was inversely correlated with QTc (Pdisease, especially of alcoholic aetiology, who have greater HVPG and lower calcium plasma levels, have an altered ventricular repolarization and a reduced vagal activity to the heart, which may predispose to life-threatening arrhythmias.

  2. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  3. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, SG; Thompson, DR; Barton, BA; Franko, DL; Daniels, [No Value; Obarzanek, E; Schreiber, GB; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Design Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal

  4. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  5. An isocaloric increase of eating episodes in the morning contributes to decrease energy intake at lunch in lean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allirot, Xavier; Saulais, Laure; Seyssel, Kevin; Graeppi-Dulac, Julia; Roth, Hubert; Charrié, Anne; Drai, Jocelyne; Goudable, Joelle; Blond, Emilie; Disse, Emmanuel; Laville, Martine

    2013-02-17

    The effects of increasing eating frequency on human health are unclear. This study used an integrated approach to assess the short-term consequences on appetite and metabolism. Twenty normal-weight men participated in: (i) two sessions consisting of a breakfast consumed in one eating episode at T0 (F1), or in four isocaloric eating episodes at T0, T60, T120, and T180 min (F4), and followed by an ecological ad libitum buffet meal (T240) designed in an experimental restaurant. Intakes were assessed for the whole buffet meal and for each temporal quarter of the meal. (ii) two sessions consisting of the same two breakfasts F1 and F4 in a Clinical Investigation Centre. Blood sampling was performed to study the kinetics of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose, insulin, triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Substrate oxidation was measured by indirect calorimetry. During each of the 4 sessions, participants rated their appetite throughout the experiment. After F4, at T240 min, GLP-1 concentration was higher (P=0.006) while ghrelin concentration and hunger ratings were lower (Penergy (-88±61 kcal, P=0.08) at the buffet after F4, explained by a decrease in lipid intake (P=0.04). Marked differences in consumption were observed during the last temporal quarter of the meal for total energy and lipid intake (P=0.03). Mixed models highlighted differences between F1 and F4 for the kinetics of glucose, insulin and NEFA (Peating frequency on appetite in lean men considering subjective, physiological and behavioral data. However, the loss of the inter-prandial fast was associated with an inhibition of lipolysis, reflected by NEFA profiles, and a decrease in energy expenditure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intracerebroventricular administration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits food intake by decreasing gene expression of NPY and AgRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zi-Peng; Wang, Feng; Xiang, Xue-Song; Cao, Rui; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Gao, Shuang-Bin

    2007-05-18

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been investigated for its beneficial effects on disease prevention and treatment, and now obesity is one of the most perspective researching highlights. In a variety of experimental models, the results of studies on the effects of CLA on food intakes are somewhat inconsistent. Our experiment was conducted to extend these observations to hypothalamus and other regions within the central nervous system so that the mechanism of the actions of CLA might be more easily elucidated. In the experiment, a permanent cannula was inserted into the lateral ventricle of each rat. For the experiment, animals received intracerebroventricular injections of either 150nmol (n=16) CLA, or LA as non-conjugated control, or normal saline as vehicle. Hypothalamus and blood samples were collected at the 2nd, 4th, 8th, and 14th day. The results show that CLA in cerebral ventricle can inhibit food intake of experimented rats and this inhibition is related with the decreased expression of neuropeptides Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP). The circulating leptin level was also increased by this tentative treatment (2.94+/-0.71 versus 1.18+/-0.18ng/ml). However, the glucose metabolism was not affected by ICV CLA. It is concluded that CLA in brain can inhibit the appetite of rats through the mechanism of decreasing the expression of NPY and AgRP.

  7. Age-dependent decreases of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc in the cardiac valves of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menetti, Federico; Tohno, Setsuko; Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Azuma, Cho; Moriwake, Yumi; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Minami, Takeshi; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Oishi, Takao; Hayashi, Motoharu

    2005-09-01

    To elucidate compositional changes of the cardiac valves in monkey with aging, the authors investigated age-related changes of elements in the four cardiac valves of rhesus and Japanese monkeys and the relationships among elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The four cardiac valves of the aortic, pulmonary, mitral, and tricuspid valves were resected from 19 rhesus and 11 Japanese monkeys, ranging in age from 10 d to 33 yr. The element contents were determined by ICP-AES. It was found that the Ca, P, S, and Zn contents were high in the four cardiac valves of the monkeys below 1 yr and thereafter decreased significantly with aging, except for Ca in the mitral valve, for which no significant correlation was found between age and Ca content. The Ca and P contents did not increase in the four cardiac valves at old age. This result revealed that calcification scarcely occurred in the four cardiac valves at old age. With regard to the relationships among elements, it was found that there were significant direct correlations among the Ca, P, S, and Zn contents in all of the four cardiac valves of the monkeys, with two exceptions between P and Zn contents in both the aortic and pulmonary valves. Therefore, as Ca decreased in the four cardiac valves, P, S, and Zn decreased simultaneously in the same cardiac valves.

  8. Dairy product consumption, calcium intakes, and metabolic syndrome-related factors over 5 years in the STANISLAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Anastasia; Herbeth, Bernard; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Fumeron, Fréderic; Billod, Stéphanie; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2013-03-01

    We assessed the associations of total dairy products; milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese; cheese; and calcium with 5-y changes in components of the metabolic syndrome. Two hundred eighty-eight men and 300 women 28 to 60 y of age from the suivi temporaire annuel non invasif de la santé des lorrains assurés sociaux (STANISLAS) cohort completed at baseline a 3-d dietary record. Statistics were performed using multivariate regression analysis. In men, no relation was found between the four dietary indices and components of the metabolic syndrome measured at baseline. Conversely, the consumption of milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese at entry was inversely associated with 5-y changes in glucose levels (P ≤ 0.05, P ≤ 0.01 for sex interaction) and positively with 5-y changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P ≤ 0.05). Higher calcium intakes were significantly related to a lower 5-y increase of the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in men (P ≤ 0.01, P ≤ 0.05 for sex interaction). In addition, changes in diastolic blood pressure were inversely associated with the consumption of milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese only in men with a normal BMI (P ≤ 0.05 for BMI interaction). In women, unlike men, associations were shown for some components measured at baseline: total dairy positively related to BMI and waist circumference; total dairy, milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese, and calcium were positively related to triacylglycerols and negatively to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, no significant association was found for any 5-y-changes. In men only, a higher consumption of dairy products was associated with positive changes in the metabolic profile in a 5-y period; a higher calcium consumption was associated with a lower 5-y increase of the BMI and waist circumference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intake of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract Decreases IL-1 and TNF-α Levels in Dyslipidemic Wistar Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in consumption behavior to instant food cause various health problems, such as obesity, dislipidemia, and atherosclerosis. A study was conducted to investigate Moringa oleifera extract as an anti-inflammation product that decreases the levels of biochemical markers IL-1 and TNF-a. This experiment was done with randomized pre- and posttest control-group design, employing 40 Wistar rats separated into five groups: control group 0% M. oleifera leaf extract (P0, treatment group 1 with 10% M. oleifera leaf extract (P1, treatment group 2 with 15% M. oleifera leaf extract (P2, treatment group 3 with 20% M. oleifera leaf extract (P3, and treatment group 4 with 25% M. oleifera leaf extract (P4. This research observed that intake of 20% M. oleifera leaf extract results in the highest significant decrease of 15.42% of IL-1 level (134.64 ± 1.98 to 113.87 ± 4.30 pg/mL and decrease of 45.63% of TNF-α level (28.62 ± 1.25 to 15.56 ± 7.20 pg/mL. Therefore, it can be concluded that intake of M. oleifera leaf extract by Wistar rat has anti-inflammatory effects on chronic dyslipidemia through decrease of IL-1 and TNF-α levels and histopathology profile. Further research is required to determine whether the application of M. oleifera leaf extract (daun kelor in humans will have similar anti-inflammation effects.

  10. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra R. Keast

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008. Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of <1, 1 to <2, or 2+ dairy servings, and yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  11. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R.; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Albertson, Ann M.; Gugger, Carolyn K.; Holschuh, Norton M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children. PMID:25742042

  12. Associations between yogurt, dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and obesity among U.S. children aged 8-18 years: NHANES, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Albertson, Ann M; Gugger, Carolyn K; Holschuh, Norton M

    2015-03-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8-18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  13. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna P Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES and (b association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90, from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis; no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05. Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01 as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937 and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825 did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  14. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prerna P.; Patel, Pinal A.; Zulf, M. Mughal; Yagnik, Bhrugu; Kajale, Neha; Mandlik, Rubina; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Phanse, Supriya; Patwardhan, Vivek; Joshi, Priscilla; Patel, Ashish; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a) prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES) and (b) association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90), from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India). Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall) and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd). Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis); no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01) as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937) and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825) did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe fluorosis. PMID

  15. People with the major alleles of ATP2B1 rs17249754 increases the risk of hypertension in high ratio of sodium and potassium, and low calcium intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, J W; Kim, B C; Liu, M; Park, S

    2017-12-01

    It is important to understand what genetic risk factors lead to hypertension and how genotype-specific dietary and lifestyle modification can mitigate the risk of developing hypertension. The ATP2B1 rs17249754 gene, which encodes a calcium pump expressed in vascular smooth muscle was identified as having variants that conferred higher or lower risk of hypertension-with the major allele carriers being increased at risk. However, the effects of dietary intakes on risk of hypertension among carriers of the different alleles have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we evaluated ATP2B1 rs17249754 and its interaction with dietary intakes of sodium (Na), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) on the risk of developing hypertension using the Ansan/Ansung (n=8842) and City-Rural (n=5512) cohorts from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Carriers of the major allele of ATP2B1 rs17249754 were at greater risk of developing hypertension and high Na intake and low Ca increased the risk more in major allele than among minor allele carriers. High potassium intake was more protective against hypertension in the subjects expressing minor alleles and a low Na/K intake ratio was the most consistently beneficial to the subjects expressing the minor allele. When controlling for Na and K, low Ca intake was associated with a substantially higher risk for high systolic blood pressure in the major allele carriers compared with minor allele, suggesting good calcium status is especially important for the major allele carriers. In conclusion, people with the major allele of ATP2B1 rs17249754 are susceptible to hypertension especially in low intake of Ca and high ratio of Na and K.

  16. Adequate calcium intake during long periods improves bone mineral density in healthy children. Data from the Childhood Obesity Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Zaragoza-Jordana, Marta; Ferré, Natàlia; Luque, Veronica; Grote, Veit; Koletzko, Berthold; Verduci, Elvira; Vecchi, Fiammetta; Escribano, Joaquin

    2017-03-16

    Bone mineralization can be influenced by genetic factors, hormonal status, nutrition, physical activity and body composition. The association of higher calcium (Ca) intake or Ca supplementation with better bone mineral density (BMD) remains controversial. Furthermore, it has been speculated that maintaining long-term adequate Ca intake rather than having a brief supplementation period is more effective. The aim of the study was to prospectively analyse the influence of adequate Ca intake on BMD at 7 years of age in European children. Data from the Childhood Obesity Project were analysed in a prospective longitudinal cohort trial. Dietary intake was recorded using 3-day food records at 4, 5 and 6 years of age. The probability of adequate intake (PA) of Ca was calculated following the American Institute of Medicine guidelines for individual assessments, with FAO, WHO and United Nations University joint expert consultation dietary recommendations. Children were categorised as having high Ca PA (PA >95%) or not (PA BMD were measured in the Spanish subsample by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Internal BMD z-scores were calculated; BMD below -1 z-score were considered to indicate osteopenia, and BMD z-scores below -2, "low bone mineral density for age". BMD was measured in 179 children. Ca intake at 6 years was positively correlated with LS BMD at 7 years (R = 0.205, p = 0.030). A Ca increase of 100 mg/day explained 19.4% (p = 0.011) of the LS BMD z-score variation, modifying it by 0.089 (0.021, 0.157) units. Children with Ca PA >95% at 5 and 6 or from 4 to 6 years of age showed higher BMD z-scores at the LS and WB levels than children with Ca PA BMD, respectively). Ca PA >95% maintained over 2 years explained 26.3% of the LS BMD z-score variation (p 95% maintained over 3 years explained 24.9% of the LS BMD z-score variation, increasing it by 0.773 (0.282, 1.264). The effects of Ca adequacy on WB BMD were similar. Children with PA >95% over 2 years had an

  17. Short-term sleep loss decreases physical activity under free-living conditions but does not increase food intake under time-deprived laboratory conditions in healthy men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmid, Sebastian M; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; Benedict, Christian; Lehnert, Hendrik; Born, Jan; Schultes, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    .... We aimed to test the hypothesis that acute sleep loss decreases physical activity while increasing food intake, thereby shifting 2 crucial behavioral components of energy homeostasis toward weight gain...

  18. Statin Intake Is Associated With Decreased Insulin Sensitivity During Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Carvalho, George; Sato, Tamaki; Hatzakorzian, Roupen; Lattermann, Ralph; Codere-Maruyama, Takumi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Schricker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgical trauma impairs intraoperative insulin sensitivity and is associated with postoperative adverse events. Recently, preprocedural statin therapy is recommended for patients with coronary artery disease. However, statin therapy is reported to increase insulin resistance and the risk of new-onset diabetes. Thus, we investigated the association between preoperative statin therapy and intraoperative insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic, dyslipidemic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this prospective, nonrandomized trial, patients taking lipophilic statins were assigned to the statin group and hypercholesterolemic patients not receiving any statins were allocated to the control group. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic clamp technique during surgery. The mean, SD of blood glucose, and the coefficient of variation (CV) after surgery were calculated for each patient. The association between statin use and intraoperative insulin sensitivity was tested by multiple regression analysis. RESULTS We studied 120 patients. In both groups, insulin sensitivity gradually decreased during surgery with values being on average ∼20% lower in the statin than in the control group. In the statin group, the mean blood glucose in the intensive care unit was higher than in the control group (153 ± 20 vs. 140 ± 20 mg/dL; P statin group (SD, P statin use was independently associated with intraoperative insulin sensitivity (β = −0.16; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Preoperative use of lipophilic statins is associated with increased insulin resistance during cardiac surgery in nondiabetic, dyslipidemic patients. PMID:22829524

  19. Still Eating Despite Decreased Olfactory Pleasure-The Influence of Odor Liking and Wanting on Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Uta; Triscoli, Chantal; Croy, Ilona

    2016-07-01

    Typically, the subjective pleasantness of an odor decreases after it has been repeatedly smelled. This study investigates how the pleasantness ("liking") and the wish to be further exposed to the same odor ("wanting") are affected by variety on a longer time scale, and how they relate to actual food intake. Twenty-five participants rated a coconut odor presented 120 times for its liking and wanting before being offered coconut sweets. The amount eaten was assessed. Individual patterns of change were described by fitting 3 different models to the ratings. To study effects of variety on odor evaluation, the ratings were compared with a previous study where coconut was 1 of 3 odors presented in an alternating way. Initially, both liking and wanting the odors were high, but decreased over repetitions in 75% of the subjects. About 40% of all subjects showed an exponential change of ratings, 40% a step-like change, and 20% a linear change. Food intake was not related to the pattern of change in the ratings. Moreover, decreased olfactory pleasure did not seem to affect eating behavior. However, participants who rated the coconut odor higher at the beginning ate twice as many sweets as the others. Odor variety did not affect the experienced pleasure of smelling (liking), but did affect the motivation to experience the same smell again (wanting). This has not been reported for food or touch stimulation and may be specific for the perception of odors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Calcium antagonists decrease capillary wall damage in aging hypertensive rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, E; De Jong, G I; Apró, E; Keuker, J I; Luiten, P G

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hypertension during aging is a serious threat to the cerebral vasculature. The larger brain arteries can react to hypertension with an abnormal wall thickening, a loss of elasticity and a narrowed lumen. However, little is known about the hypertension-induced alterations of cerebral capillaries. The present study describes ultrastructural alterations of the cerebrocortical capillary wall, such as thickening and collagen accumulation in the basement membrane of aging spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. The ratio of cortical capillaries with such vascular pathology occurred significantly more frequently in hypertensive animals. Nimodipine and nifedipine are potential drugs to decrease blood pressure in hypertension but their beneficial effects in experimental studies reach beyond the control of blood pressure. Nimodipine and nifedipine can alleviate ischemia-related symptoms and improve cognition. These drugs differ in that nifedipine, but not nimodipine reduces blood pressure at the here-used concentration while both drugs can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Here we show that chronic treatment of aging hypertensive stroke-prone rats with nimodipine or nifedipine could preserve microvascular integrity in the cerebral cortex.

  1. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. French

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa and lean control (Fa/fa rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy or moderate-protein (20% energy diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8, lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10, obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8, and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10. At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake (p < 0.05 compared to O20. O40 rats had lower liver weight (p < 0.05 compared to O20. However, O40 rats had higher orexin (p < 0.05 levels compared to L20, L40 and O20. Rats in the L40 and O40 groups had less liver and muscle lipid deposition compared to L20 and L40 diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ mRNA expression compared to O20 (p < 0.05, with no difference in 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1, protein kinase B (Akt or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  2. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  3. Decreased blood antioxidant capacity and increased lipid peroxidation in young cigarette smokers compared to nonsmokers: Impact of dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloomer Richard J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood of cigarette smokers routinely displays decreased antioxidant capacity and increased oxidized lipids compared to nonsmokers. This is thought to be due to both chronic exposure to cigarette smoke in addition to low intake of dietary antioxidants, and is a routine finding in veteran smokers. No study to date has determined the independent and combined impact of dietary intake and cigarette smoking on blood antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in a sample of young, novice smokers. Methods We compared resting plasma antioxidant reducing capacity (ARC; expressed in uric acid equivalents, serum trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, whole blood total glutathione, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, and plasma oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL between 15 young (24 ± 4 years, novice smokers (pack-year history: 3 ± 2 and 13 nonsmokers of similar age (24 ± 5 years. Detailed dietary records were maintained during a seven-day period for analysis of total energy, macro- and micronutrient intake. Results ARC (0.0676 ± 0.0352 vs. 0.1257 ± 0.0542 mmol·L-1; mean ± SD, p = 0.019, TEAC (0.721 ± 0.120 vs. 0.765 ± 0.130 mmol·L-1, p = 0.24 and glutathione (835 ± 143 vs. 898 ± 168 μmol·L-1, p = 0.28 were lower in smokers compared to nonsmokers, with only the former being statistically significant. MDA (0.919 ± 0.32 vs. 0.647 ± 0.16 μmol·L-1, p = 0.05 and oxLDL were both higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers (229 ± 94 vs. 110 ± 62 ng·mL-1, p = 0.12, although only the MDA comparison was of statistical significance. Interestingly, these findings existed despite no differences in dietary intake, including antioxidant micronutrient consumption, between both smokers and nonsmokers. Conclusion These data, with specificity to young, novice cigarette smokers, underscore the importance of smoking abstinence. Future studies with larger sample sizes, inclusive of smokers of different ages and smoking histories, are

  4. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile dermatomyositis, and systemic vasculitis: relationship to disease duration, cumulative corticosteroid dose, calcium intake, and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsufyani, Khayriah A; Ortiz-Alvarez, Olivia; Cabral, David A; Tucker, Lori B; Petty, Ross E; Nadel, Helen; Malleson, Peter N

    2005-04-01

    To describe the frequency of abnormal bone mineralization in a population of children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE), juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), and systemic vasculitis; and to investigate the relationship of bone mineral density (BMD) to cumulative corticosteroid dose, disease duration, Tanner stage, calcium intake, and exercise in these patients. A retrospective chart review of children attending the pediatric rheumatology clinic at British Columbia's Children's Hospital was conducted to obtain demographic data (sex, ethnicity, disease duration, cumulative corticosteroid dose, and mean daily corticosteroid dose). All patients had at least one BMD measurement by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at lumbar spine, hip, and total body. BMD was expressed as g/cm2 and Z scores; an abnormal Z score was defined as calcium intake was calculated. Physical activity was scored using a validated 7 day physical activities questionnaire. A total of 36 patients were studied. Twenty-five patients had SLE, 7 had JDM, and 4 had systemic vasculitis. Fourteen subjects were Caucasian, 13 Asian, 6 East Indian, and 3 Canadian First Nations. An abnormal Z score at one or more sites was found in 10/25 (40%) with JSLE, and in 3/11 (27%) JDM/vasculitis patients. The mean Z scores (+/- SD) for lumbar spine were -1.02 (+/- 1.2), for hip -0.88 (+/- 1.3), and for total body -0.77 (+/- 1.5). Compared to children with normal bone densities, those with lower bone density tended to be younger (13.5 +/- 2.2 vs 15.5 +/- 1.7 yrs), received higher corticosteroid dosages at the time of the study (0.78 +/- 0.6 vs 0.35 +/- 0.2 mg/kg), and were more often prepubertal (OR for total body scores 5, 95% CI 0.7-46). Decreased bone density is common in children with SLE and other systemic rheumatic diseases. Age, corticosteroid dose, and pubertal stage all appear to have some influence on bone mass in these children.

  5. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  6. Dietary Intake of Fiber, Fruit and Vegetables Decreases the Risk of Incident Kidney Stones in Women: A Women's Health Initiative Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, MD; Hsi, RS; Chi, T; Shara, N.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Kahn, AJ; Wang, H.; Hou, L; Stoller, ML

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Results Mean age of the women was 64±7 years, 85% were white and 2,937 (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone in a median followup of 8 years. In women with no history of kidney stones higher total dietary fiber (6% to 26% decreased risk, p < 0.001), greater fruit intake (12% to 25% decreased risk, p < 0.001) and greater vegetable intake (9% to 22% decreased risk, p=0.002) were associated with a decreased risk of incident kidney...

  7. The effect of prolonged breast-feeding on the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis in population with insufficient calcium intake and vitamin D level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, B H; Chon, S J; Choi, Y S; Cho, S; Lee, B S; Seo, S K

    2016-09-01

    Breast-feeding affects bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis, and prolonged breast-feeding may influence the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, particularly in highly susceptible populations. The study determined that breast-feeding may be a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in people with low calcium intakes and vitamin D deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether breast-feeding is a risk factor in the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in highly susceptible population. The study was performed using data from the 2010 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and it included 1231 postmenopausal women who were aged between 45 and 70 years. Osteoporosis was defined using the World Health Organization's T-score criteria, namely, a T-score of ≤-2.5 at the femoral neck or the lumbar spine. The patients' ages, body mass indexes, daily calcium intakes, serum vitamin D levels, exercise levels, smoking histories, and reproductive factors relating to menarche, menopause, delivery, breast-feeding, hormone treatment, and oral contraceptive use were evaluated. Comparisons between the osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis groups were undertaken using Student's t test and the chi-square test, and logistic regression models were built. A significant increase in the risk of osteoporosis was apparent in postmenopausal women with prolonged breast-feeding histories (≥24 months) (model 1: odds ratio [OR] = 2.489; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.111 to 5.578, p = 0.027; model 2: OR = 2.503; 95 % CI = 1.118 to 5.602, p = 0.026; model 3: OR = 2.825; 95 % CI = 1.056 to 7.56, p = 0.039), particularly in those with inadequate serum vitamin D levels and calcium intakes (Breast-feeding seems to increase the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis; however, its impact may not be definitive in women with sufficient vitamin D levels and calcium intakes

  8. A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Lotta; Lind, Torbjörn; Karlsland Åkeson, Pia; Sandström, Ann-Kristin; Hernell, Olle; Öhlund, Inger

    2017-06-30

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients with a range of biological effects of public health relevance. This study aimed to validate a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) against a three-day food record (3D record), assessing the intake of vitamin D and calcium in Swedish children during wintertime. In a double-blinded, randomized food-based intervention study on the effect of feeding different daily doses of vitamin D supplement to 5-7-year-old children (n = 85), 79 (93%) participants completed SFFQ1 at baseline and SFFQ2 after the intervention, and 72 were informed to fill in a 3D record. The 28 (39%) children who completed the 3D record were included in this validation study. The baseline level of serum-25 hydroxy vitamin D [S-25(OH)D] was used as a biomarker. The correlation between all three instruments were moderate to strong. SFFQ2 and the 3D record correlated moderately to S-25(OH)D. Bland-Altman analysis showed that SFFQ2 overestimated vitamin D intake by on average 0.6 μg/day, (limits of agreement (LOA) 5.7 and -4.6 μg/day), whereas the intake of calcium was underestimated by on average 29 mg/day, (LOA 808 and -865 mg/day). Finally, the validity coefficient calculated for vitamin D using the method of triad was high (0.75). In conclusion, this SFFQ, assessed by a dietician, is a valid tool to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake in groups of young children.

  9. Assessment of intake of calcium and vitamin D and sun exposure in the context of osteoporosis risk in a study conducted on perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kopiczko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The results of many epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease and develops mainly in women during menopause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diet with particular emphasis on calcium and vitamin D intake and sun exposure in premenopausal women in terms of risk of osteoporosis. Material and methods : The study involved 300 women aged 45-55 years from Warsaw. The method used was a questionnaire assessing the frequency of consumption from the last three months. Exposure to the sun evaluated using a questionnaire prepared in cooperation with the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw. For the purpose of the project, profiles of attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis were developed. Results : Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D among the majority of women surveyed was confirmed. The highest percentage of women represented profile VIII: attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis, characterized by insufficient exposure to sunlight and a diet deficient in both calcium and vitamin D. Conclusions: In the diets of women surveyed significant deficiencies of calcium and vitamin D were found, which confirms previous reports on the lack of nutritional support for normal women’s bone mineralization. Among the surveyed women the majority reported insufficient exposure to sunlight as a source of vitamin D additional to food. There is a need for health education of these women in the prevention of osteoporosis and especially paying attention to the proper intake of calcium and more vitamin D in their diet. At the same time, adequate exposure to the sun is vital as it is the main source of vitamin D for the body coming not from the food consumed.

  10. Decreased comfort food intake and allostatic load in adolescents carrying the A3669G variant of the glucocorticoid receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Danitsa Marcos; Reis, Roberta Sena; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Machado, Tania Diniz; Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Bortoluzzi, Andressa; Toazza, Rudineia; Pérez, Juliano Adams; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Agranonik, Marilyn; Minuzzi, Luciano; Levitan, Robert D; Buchweitz, Augusto; Franco, Alexandre Rosa; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2017-09-01

    The A3669G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene NR3C1 is associated with altered tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs modulate the food reward circuitry and are implicated in increased intake of palatable foods, which can lead to the metabolic syndrome and obesity. We hypothesized that presence of the G variant of the A3669G SNP would affect preferences for palatable foods and alter metabolic, behavioural, and neural outcomes. One hundred thirty-one adolescents were genotyped for the A3669G polymorphism, underwent anthropometric assessment and nutritional evaluations, and completed behavioural measures. A subsample of 74 subjects was followed for 5 years and performed a brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm to verify brain activity in response to food cues. Sugar and total energy consumption were lower in A3669G G allele variant carriers. On follow-up, this group also had reduced serum insulin concentrations, increased insulin sensitivity, and lower anxiety scores. Because of our unbalanced sample sizes (31/37 participants non-G allele carriers/total), our imaging data analysis failed to find whole brain-corrected significant results in between-group t-tests. These results highlight that a genetic variation in the GR gene is associated, at the cellular level, with significant reduction in GC sensitivity, which, at cognitive and behavioural levels, translates to altered food intake and emotional stress response. This genetic variant might play a major role in decreasing risk for metabolic and psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the efficacy and external validity of interventions promoting calcium or dairy intake in young adults: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouf, Anika S; Grech, Amanda; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-06-29

    Calcium and dairy products have a role in the prevention of chronic diseases and attainment of peak bone mass, during adolescence to young adulthood. However, intakes are often suboptimal and interventions to improve consumption of food sources are needed. This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy and external validity of interventions promoting calcium or dairy foods among young adults. Eight databases were searched from inception to identify relevant studies. Inclusion criteria included those aged 18 to 35 years in an intervention promoting calcium or dairy food intake. The mean age of the participants was 19.9 ± 1.4 years. Of the 16 studies that met the selection criteria, five studies were included in the meta-analyses for calcium (pooled effect size 0.35, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.67) and three studies for dairy (pooled effect size 0.31, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.50). The quality of the body of evidence was determined using the GRADE system, and was of overall low quality with high risk of bias. Our review suggests young adults respond favorably to interventions but the effect size is small.

  12. Cálcio dietético: estratégias para otimizar o consumo Dietary calcium: strategies to optimize intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle A. P. Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O cálcio é um nutriente essencial necessário em diversas funções biológicas. Estudos têm demonstrado a associação entre o baixo consumo de cálcio e doenças crônicas, entre elas osteoporose, câncer de colón, hipertensão arterial e obesidade. Entretanto, grande parte da população brasileira apresenta consumo de cálcio abaixo do recomendado. Este artigo objetiva revisar os fatores endógenos (idade e estado hormonal e exógenos (fitatos, oxalatos, sódio, compostos bioativos e vitamina D que influenciam a absorção do cálcio, bem como as principais metodologias utilizadas para avaliar a absorção e biodisponibilidade desse nutriente. Discorre-se sobre os possíveis fatores para o baixo consumo de cálcio: 1 Hábito alimentar - substituição de leite por bebidas com baixo teor de cálcio como o refrigerante, refeições realizadas fora de casa e a não realização de refeições como o café da manhã; 2 Alto custo dos alimentos fontes de cálcio. Além disso, este artigo discute as estratégias para otimizar o consumo do cálcio, que incluem: 1 Aumentar o conhecimento sobre a importância do consumo de cálcio para a saúde e as principais fontes alimentares desse nutriente; 2 Aumentar a disponibilidade de alimentos fortificados com cálcio; 3 Uso de suplementos em grupos específicos - quando e como administrar os sais de cálcio.Calcium is an essential nutrient required for numerous biological functions. Studies have demonstrated an association between low calcium intake and chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis, colon cancer, hypertension, and obesity. However, most Brazilians do not meet the adequate intake for calcium. This review focuses on the endogenous (age, hormonal state and exogenous (phytate, oxalate, sodium, bioactive compounds and vitamin D factors that can influence calcium absorption. The main methods used for evaluating calcium absorption and bioavailability. The potential factors for the low calcium intake

  13. Estimated intake and food sources of vitamin A, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium, iron, and zinc for Guamanian children aged 9 to 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobocik, Rebecca S; Richer, Jennifer J

    2002-09-01

    This study describes the nutrient intake and food sources of select vitamins and minerals for children on Guam. Food records (n = 954) from public school students aged nine to twelve of all regions on Guam were analyzed for nutrient content and compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). Individual foods were condensed into 194 food aggregates and food lists representing 84% to 91% of the major vitamins and minerals in the diet of the children were developed by frequency analysis. Median intake of calcium, vitamin E, folate were less than 50% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and mean intake of these nutrients was 60% RDA or less. Mean and median vitamin A intake was 107% and 76% RDA, respectively. Both mean and median intake of Vitamin C, iron and zinc were present at levels above 100% RDA. Rice, meat, fruit drink from powder, milk, and fortified cereals are foods that provide substantial contributions to the vitamin and mineral content of the diets. Traditional, nutrient dense foods, such as fish, yams, papaya, and mango had minor contributions because of low frequently of consumption. Information from this study can be used to develop specific diet assessment instruments and culturally appropriate nutrition education.

  14. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate PTHrP secretion and milk calcium transport with calcium availability. To test this idea genetically, we bred BLG-Cre mice with CaSR-floxed mice to ablate the CaSR specifically from mammary epithelial cells only at the onset of lactation (CaSR-cKO mice). Loss of the CaSR in the lactating mammary gland did not disrupt alveolar differentiation or milk production. However, it did increase the secretion of PTHrP into milk and decreased the transport of calcium from the circulation into milk. CaSR-cKO mice did not show accelerated bone resorption, but they did have a decrease in bone formation. Loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in hypercalcemia, decreased PTH secretion, and increased renal calcium excretion in lactating mothers. Finally, loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in decreased calcium accrual by suckling neonates, likely due to the combination of increased milk PTHrP and decreased milk calcium. These results demonstrate that the mammary gland CaSR coordinates maternal bone and calcium metabolism, calcium transport into milk, and neonatal calcium accrual during lactation. PMID:23782944

  15. Urinary calcium excretion in non-lactating dairy cows in relation to intake of fat-coated rice bran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Tereso, J.; Derks, M.; Laar, van H.; Mulder, K.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    At calving, many older cows fail to compensate the sudden demand of calcium by an adequate activation of intestinal absorption. This results in a variable degree of hypocalcaemia. Reducing intestinal availability of calcium during the close-up period can prevent milk fever. Fat-coated rice bran

  16. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Steenfeldt, S.; Bootwalla, S.M.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler

  17. Intake and performance of feedlot cattle fed diets based on high and low Brix sugar cane with or without calcium oxide and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate low and high Brix diets, treated or not with 5 g of calcium oxide per kg of natural matter, and corn silage on intake, digestibility and performance of beef cattle. Forty cattle with initial body weight (BW of 350 kg were used: five composed the control group, 30 were distributed into random blocks (control and the other five were distributed in a 5 × 5 incomplete Latin square, with the objective of determining digestibility. The 30 animals evaluated for performance were slaughtered and empty body weight (EPW, carcass dressing and meat cuts were determined. The diet with corn silage (CS presented the best intake of the other ingredients and the best weight gain, except for neutral detergent fiber intake in g/kg of BW. Only carcass dressing, in relation to BW and EBW, was not affected by the treatments, and the others were greater for animals fed diets with sugar cane silage. Animals fed diets with high brix sugar cane silage and treated high brix sugar cane silage presented lower intake of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (g/kg of BW in relation to diets with low and high brix sugar cane silage, respectively. Animals fed diets with corn silage presented higher digestibility, except for crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Animals subjected to diets with corn silage presented low excretion of nitrogen compounds and higher microbial crude protein synthesis. Animals fed sugar cane silage present greater intake, performance and digestibility. The use of lime during 15 or 20º Brix sugar cane ensilage does not alter intake, digestibility or performance of beef cattle.

  18. Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity and relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and struvite in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Catherine M F; Hawthorne, Amanda; Colyer, Alison; Stevenson, Abigail E

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that daily fluid intake influences urinary dilution, and consequently the risk of urolithiasis in human subjects and dogs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dietary moisture on urinary parameters in healthy adult cats by comparing nutritionally standardised diets, varying only in moisture content. A total of six cats were fed a complete dry food (6.3 % moisture) hydrated to 25.4, 53.2 and 73.3 % moisture for 3 weeks in a randomised block cross-over design. Urinary specific gravity (SG), urine volume, water drunk and total fluid intake were measured daily; relative supersaturation (RSS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite was calculated using the SUPERSAT computer program. Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet produced urine with a significantly lower SG (P cats fed the diet with 73.3 % moisture and significantly lower than the 6.3 % moisture diet (CaOx RSS 2.29 (sem 0.21)). The effect of diet on struvite RSS was less clear, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Total fluid intake was significantly increased (P Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet had a higher total daily fluid intake resulting in a more dilute urine with a lower risk of CaOx when compared with the lower-moisture diets.

  19. Reduction in dietary trans fat intake is associated with decreased LDL particle number in a primary prevention population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garshick, M; Mochari-Greenberger, H; Mosca, L

    2014-01-01

    Increased trans fat intake has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the effect of trans fat on traditional lipids is known, it's association with LDL particle number (LDL-P), a novel marker of CVD risk, has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between trans fat intake and LDL-P over 1-year among individuals participating in a lifestyle intervention trial. Family members (N = 400, 33% male, mean age 48 ± 13) of patients hospitalized with CVD who participated in a 1-year randomized controlled primary prevention lifestyle intervention trial and had complete dietary data and LDL-P measures at baseline and 1-year. Change in trans fat as a percentage of total diet and mean absolute change in LDL-P at 1-year was assessed using multivariate adjusted linear regression models. At baseline, there was a significant positive correlation between dietary trans fat intake and LDL-P (Beta = 37, p = 0.04). For every 1 percent change in trans fat intake there was a 27 nmol/L change in LDL-P (Beta = 27, p = 0.04) over 1-year which was independent of baseline predictors and confounders (age, sex, smoking, statin use, waist size and physical activity; Beta = 30, p = 0.03). A reduction in trans fat intake over 1-year was significantly associated with a reduction in LDL-P independent of potential confounders. Healthcare providers should reinforce the beneficial impact of a healthy diet, and in particular modifications in trans fat intake on improving lipid profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intake of dairy products, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in childhood and age at menarche in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and phosphorus (P with menarcheal age were also examined. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes. RESULTS: The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.03-5.05], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.39-7.42], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12-5.27] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.44-7.87 after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1. Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche.

  1. Calcium intake and the associations with faecal fat and energy excretion, and lipid profile in a free-living population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2017-01-01

    registration (days 1–7), a 5-d faeces collection (days 3–7), a 2-d urine collection (days 5–7), and anthropometric measurements and a fasting blood sample (day 8) were collected. Analyses showed that dietary Ca intake (g/10 MJ per d) was positively associated with excretion of faecal fat (P = 0·004) and energy...... (P = 0·031) when adjusted for BMI, age, sex and intake of Ca-containing supplements. However, after adjustment for intake of fibre, the effect of Ca intake disappeared. Nevertheless, total cholesterol (CHOL) and LDL-CHOL concentrations were associated negatively with Ca intake (β −0·62 (95 % CI −0...

  2. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Daily consumption of a synbiotic yogurt decreases energy intake but does not improve gastrointestinal transit time: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulk, Hilary M F; Blonski, Diane C; Murch, Lauren A; Duncan, Alison M; Wright, Amanda J

    2013-06-20

    Probiotic and synbiotic products are widely marketed to healthy individuals, although potential benefits for these individuals are rarely studied. This study investigated the effect of daily consumption of a synbiotic yogurt on gastrointestinal (GI) function in a sample of healthy adults. In a randomized crossover double-blind study, 65 healthy adults consumed 200 g/day of yogurt with (synbiotic) or without (control) added probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12, Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Lactobacillus casei CRL431) and 4 g inulin for two 15-day treatment periods, each preceded by a 6-week washout period. GI transit time (GTT), duration of colour (DOC), GI symptoms and dietary intake were assessed and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, including PRE-treatment GTT as a covariate. Participants were grouped as short GTT (STT, n = 50, ≤32.7 h) or long GTT (LTT, n = 15, >32.7 h) based on their PRE-treatment GTT assessment. POST-treatment GTT and DOC were not different between synbiotic and control, and did not change from PRE-treatment, within the STT or LTT groups. There were no changes in GI symptom ratings, indicating that both yogurts were well tolerated. In STT, energy, fat and protein intakes were decreased from baseline with synbiotic (p = 0.055, p = 0.059 and p = 0.005, respectively) and dietary fibre intake was higher POST-treatment with synbiotic versus control (p = 0.0002). In LTT, decreases in energy and fat intakes with synbiotic were not significant (p = 0.14 and p = 0.18, respectively) and there were no differences in dietary fibre intake. Consuming 200 g/day of synbiotic yogurt did not significantly alter GTT in healthy adults, but was well tolerated and helped to reduce overall energy intake.

  4. Effect of a combination GOS/FOS® prebiotic mixture and interaction with calcium intake on mineral absorption and bone parameters in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Gabriel; Coronel, Magalí Zeni; Pellegrini, Gretel; Mandalunis, Patricia; Rio, María Ester; de Portela, María Luz Pita Martín; Zeni, Susana Noemí

    2015-09-01

    Increasing calcium intake is the most effective strategy for avoiding Ca deficit. However, if intake remains inadequate, improving Ca absorption becomes an important tool to optimize Ca homeostasis and bone health. The effect of a mixture of GOS/FOS(®) 9:1 added to a normal- or low-Ca diets on Ca absorption and bone mineralization, density and structure was investigated, in a model of growing rats. Several colonic parameters to help support the findings were also evaluated. Weanling Wistar rats received one of the four experimental AIN-93G diets: C5: 0.5% Ca; C3: 0.3% Ca; P5: 0.5% Ca + 5.3% GOS/FOS(®); P3: 0.3% Ca + 5.3% GOS/FOS(®) until 50 days (T = 50). At T = 50, lactobacillus and cecum weights were higher, whereas cecum pH was lower in P5 and P3 versus C5 and C3 (p bone mineral content, trabecular bone mineral density, tibia length, bone volume, osteoblast surface, stiffness and elastic modulus were higher in P5 and P3 versus C5 and C3 (p bone mineralization, density and structure due to an increase in Ca, P and Mg absorptions. Thus, this prebiotic mixture may help to improve bone development in a period of high calcium requirements.

  5. Piperine, a component of black pepper, decreases eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in non-chemosensory 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeo Cho; Kim, Sung-Hee; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Hye Jeong; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of black pepper and its constituent, piperine, on odorant-induced signal transduction in non-chemosensory cells. An ethanol extract of black pepper decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells with no toxicity. Phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) was down-regulated by the black pepper extract. The concentration (133.8 mg/g) and retention time (5.5 min) of piperine in the ethanol extract were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. Pretreatment with piperine decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in 3T3-L1 cells. Piperine also decreased the phosphorylation of CREB, which is up-regulated by eugenol. These results suggest that piperine inhibits the eugenol-induced signal transduction pathway through modulation of cAMP and calcium levels and phosphorylation of CREB in non-chemosensory cells.

  6. Decreased gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity is associated with decreased fertility and dysregulation of food intake in the female GPR-4 transgenic rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, Francisca; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Weiner, Richard I.; Dallman, Mary F.; El Majdoubi, Mohammed

    2005-01-01

    Expression of a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase in GnRH neurons in the GPR-4 transgenic rat resulted in decreased LH levels and pulse frequency and diminished fertility. We have characterized changes in fertility, adiposity, and reproductive and metabolic hormones with age. Although LH levels were

  7. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1/GDF15 decreases food intake, body weight and improves glucose tolerance in mice on normal & obesogenic diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Macia

    Full Text Available Food intake and body weight are controlled by a variety of central and peripheral factors, but the exact mechanisms behind these processes are still not fully understood. Here we show that that macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15, known to have anorexigenic effects particularly in cancer, provides protection against the development of obesity. Both under a normal chow diet and an obesogenic diet, the transgenic overexpression of MIC-1/GDF15 in mice leads to decreased body weight and fat mass. This lean phenotype was associated with decreased spontaneous but not fasting-induced food intake, on a background of unaltered energy expenditure and reduced physical activity. Importantly, the overexpression of MIC-1/GDF15 improved glucose tolerance, both under normal and high fat-fed conditions. Altogether, this work shows that the molecule MIC-1/GDF15 might be beneficial for the treatment of obesity as well as perturbations in glucose homeostasis.

  8. PF-05231023, a long-acting FGF21 analogue, decreases body weight by reduction of food intake in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W Clayton; Zhou, Yingjiang; Talukdar, Saswata; Musante, Cynthia J

    2016-08-01

    PF-05231023, a long-acting FGF21 analogue, is a promising potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of obesity and associated comorbidities. Previous studies have shown the potential of FGF21 and FGF21-like compounds to decrease body weight in mice, non-human primates, and humans; the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. In particular, there have been conflicting reports on the degree to which FGF21-induced weight loss in non-human primates is attributable to a decrease in food intake versus an increase in energy expenditure. Here, we present a semi-mechanistic mathematical model of energy balance and body composition developed from similar work in mice. This model links PF-05231023 administration and washout to changes in food intake, which in turn drives changes in body weight. The model is calibrated to and compared with recently published data from cynomolgus macaques treated with PF-05231023, demonstrating its accuracy in describing pharmacotherapy-induced weight loss in these animals. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that PF-05231023 decreases body weight in cynomolgus macaques solely by a reduction in food intake, with no direct effect on energy expenditure.

  9. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anke M; Kremer, Stefanie; van Stipriaan, Willeke L; Noort, Martijn W J; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2015-10-01

    Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of consuming reduced-sodium lunches on 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. A single-blind randomized controlled pretest-posttest design with two parallel treatment groups was used. Participants chose foods in an experimental real-life canteen setting at the Restaurant of the Future in Wageningen, the Netherlands, from May 16 until July 1, 2011. After a run-in period with regular foods for both groups, the intervention group (n=36) consumed foods with 29% to 61% sodium reduction (some were partially flavor compensated). The control group (n=38) continued consuming regular foods. Outcomes for assessment of acceptance were the amount of foods consumed, energy and sodium intake, remembered food liking, and intensity of sensory aspects. Influence on daily dietary sodium intake was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Between and within-subject comparisons were assessed by analysis of covariance. Energy intake and amount consumed of each food category per lunch remained similar for both groups. Compared with the control group, the intervention group's sodium intake per lunch was significantly reduced by -1,093 mg (adjusted difference) (95% CI -1,285 to -901), equivalent to 43 mmol sodium. Remembered food liking, taste intensity, and saltiness were scored similarly for almost all of the reduced-sodium foods compared with the regular foods. After consuming reduced-sodium lunches, compared with the control group, intervention participants' 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was significantly lower by -40 mEq (adjusted difference) (95% CI -63 to -16) than after consuming regular lunches, and this reflects a decreased daily sodium intake of 1 g. Comparing the two treatment groups, consumption of reduced

  10. Cost effectiveness of a government supported policy strategy to decrease sodium intake: global analysis across 183 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali M; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Powles, John; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-10

     To quantify the cost effectiveness of a government policy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce sodium intake in 183 countries worldwide.  Global modeling study.  183 countries.  Full adult population in each country.  A "soft regulation" national policy that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education to reduce population sodium intake, modeled on the recent successful UK program. To account for heterogeneity in efficacy across countries, a range of scenarios were evaluated, including 10%, 30%, 0.5 g/day, and 1.5 g/day sodium reductions achieved over 10 years. We characterized global sodium intakes, blood pressure levels, effects of sodium on blood pressure and of blood pressure on cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease rates in 2010, each by age and sex, in 183 countries. Country specific costs of a sodium reduction policy were estimated using the World Health Organization Noncommunicable Disease Costing Tool. Country specific impacts on mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were modeled using comparative risk assessment. We only evaluated program costs, without incorporating potential healthcare savings from prevented events, to provide conservative estimates of cost effectiveness MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:  Cost effectiveness ratio, evaluated as purchasing power parity adjusted international dollars (equivalent to the country specific purchasing power of US$) per DALY saved over 10 years.  Worldwide, a 10% reduction in sodium consumption over 10 years within each country was projected to avert approximately 5.8 million DALYs/year related to cardiovascular diseases, at a population weighted mean cost of I$1.13 per capita over the 10 year intervention. The population weighted mean cost effectiveness ratio was approximately I$204/DALY. Across nine world regions, estimated cost effectiveness of sodium reduction was best in South Asia (I$116/DALY); across the world

  11. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. PMID:28230782

  12. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-02-21

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71-2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331-4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73-782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0-74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D.

  13. Feed intake, growth, and body and carcass attributes of feedlot steers supplemented with two levels of calcium nitrate or urea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegarty, R.S.; Miller, J.; Oelbrandt, N.; Li, L.; Luijben, J.P.M.; Robinson, D.L.; Nolan, J.V.; Perdok, H.B.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate supplementation has been shown to be effective in reducing enteric methane emission from ruminants, but there have been few large-scale studies assessing the effects of level of nitrate supplementation on feed intake, animal growth, or carcass and meat quality attributes of beef cattle. A

  14. Dietary inulin intake and age can significantly affect intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats: a stable isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudray, Charles; Rambeau, Mathieu; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Tressol, Jean Claude; Demigne, Christian; Gueux, Elyett; Mazur, Andrzej; Rayssiguier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Background previous studies have shown that non-digestible inulin-type fructan intake can increase intestinal mineral absorption in both humans and animals. However, this stimulatory effect on intestinal absorption may depend on experimental conditions such as duration of fermentable fiber intake, mineral diet levels and animals' physiological status, in particular their age. Objectives the aim of this study was to determine the effect of inulin intake on Ca and Mg absorption in rats at different age stages. Methods eighty male Wistar rats of four different ages (2, 5, 10 and 20 months) were randomized into either a control group or a group receiving 3.75% inulin in their diet for 4 days and then 7.5% inulin for three weeks. The animals were fed fresh food and water ad libitum for the duration of the experiment. Intestinal absorption of Ca and Mg was determined by fecal monitoring using stable isotopic tracers. Ca and Mg status was also assessed. Results absorption of Ca and Mg was significantly lower in the aged rats (10 and 20 mo) than in the young and adult rat groups. As expected, inulin intake increased Ca and Mg absorption in all four rat groups. However, inulin had a numerically greater effect on Ca absorption in aged rats than in younger rats whereas its effect on Mg absorption remained similar across all four rat age groups. Conclusion the extent of the stimulatory effect of inulin on absorption of Ca may differ according to animal ages. Further studies are required to explore this effect over longer inulin intake periods, and to confirm these results in humans. PMID:16253138

  15. Decreased food intake rather than zinc deficiency is associated with changes in plasma leptin, metabolic rate, and activity levels in zinc deficient rats( small star, filled).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetke, Lisa M.; Frederich, Robert C.; Oz, Helieh S.; McClain, Craig J.

    2002-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that the reduced food intake and poor weight gain in zinc deficient rats is due to: increased plasma leptin concentration, increased physical activity and/or increased metabolic rate. Weanling rats were assigned to three groups: controls fed ad libitum (C), zinc deficient (ZD), and pair-fed controls (PF), and tested in a metabolic chamber and activity monitor at baseline and weekly for four weeks. At the end of the study, all groups were compared for differences in plasma leptin concentrations. ZD and PF animals had markedly reduced food intake and weight gain. ZD had reduced stereotypic and locomotor activity compared to PF animals and both groups demonstrated an abolished peri-nocturnal activity spike and were much less active than controls. This was associated with a reduced total metabolic rate by day 30: ZD (0.73 +/- 0.07 kcal/hr, p = 0.0001) and PF (0.83 +/- 0.06 kcal/hr, p = 0.0001) groups vs. controls (1.82 +/- 0.09 kcal/hr). Plasma leptin concentrations in ZD (1.55 +/- 0.06 &mgr;g/L) were lower than controls (2.01 +/- 0.18 &mgr;g/L, p rats were associated with decreased food intake rather than zinc deficiency. The reduced food intake and poor weight gain observed in zinc deficient rats could not be explained by elevated leptin concentrations, hypermetabolism, or increased activity. Low serum leptin concentrations, hypometabolism, and decreased activity are more likely the result of the anorexia of zinc deficiency.

  16. Nontargeted LC-MSn Profiling of Compounds in Ileal Fluids That Decrease after Raspberry Intake Identifies Consistent Alterations in Bile Acid Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J; Allwood, J William; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Brown, Emma M; Ternan, Nigel; Verrall, Susan; Stewart, Derek; Lawther, Roger; O'Connor, Gloria; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R

    2016-10-28

    Ileostomy studies provide a unique insight into the digestion of foods, allowing identification of physiologically relevant dietary phytochemicals and their metabolites that are important to gut health. We previously reported an increase of components, including novel triterpenoids, in ileal fluids of 11 ileostomates following consumption of raspberries using nontargeted LC-MSn techniques in combination with data deconvolution software. The current study focused on components that consistently decreased postsupplementation. After data deconvolution, 32 components were identified that met exclusion parameters of m/z signals and which decreased significantly in ileal fluids from eight of 11 participants post-raspberry supplementation. Two-thirds of these components were identified putatively from their MS properties. Consistent decreases were observed in components that possibly reflected "washing out" of presupplementation intake of common foods/drinks including (poly)phenol metabolites. Metabolites associated with fat metabolism such as hydroxylated fatty acids and cholate-type bile acids were specifically reduced. However, more directed re-examination of the data revealed that although some cholates were consistently reduced, the more polar glyco- and tauro-linked bile acid derivatives increased consistently, by as much as 100-fold over presupplementation levels. The possible reasons for these substantial alterations in bile acid composition in ileal fluids in response to raspberry intake are discussed.

  17. Acute effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of calcium and bone metabolism in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Heini J; Ketola, Maarit E; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E

    2009-11-01

    Both K and Ca supplementation may have beneficial effects on bone through separate mechanisms. K in the form of citrate or bicarbonate affects bone by neutralising the acid load caused by a high protein intake or a low intake of alkalising foods, i.e. fruits and vegetables. Ca is known to decrease serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) concentration and bone resorption. We compared the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of Ca and bone metabolism in young women. Twelve healthy women aged 22-30 years were randomised into four controlled 24 h study sessions, each subject serving as her own control. At the beginning of each session, subjects received a single dose of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, potassium citrate or a placebo in randomised order. The diet during each session was identical, containing 300 mg Ca. Both the calcium carbonate and calcium citrate supplement contained 1000 mg Ca; the potassium citrate supplement contained 2250 mg K. Markers of Ca and bone metabolism were followed. Potassium citrate decreased the bone resorption marker (N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) and increased Ca retention relative to the control session. Both Ca supplements decreased S-PTH concentration. Ca supplements also decreased bone resorption relative to the control session, but this was significant only for calcium carbonate. No differences in bone formation marker (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) were seen among the study sessions. The results suggest that potassium citrate has a positive effect on the resorption marker despite low Ca intake. Both Ca supplements were absorbed well and decreased S-PTH efficiently.

  18. Populus euphratica displays apoplastic sodium accumulation, osmotic adjustment by decreases in calcium and soluble carbohydrates, and develops leaf succulence under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottow, Eric A; Brinker, Monika; Teichmann, Thomas; Fritz, Eberhard; Kaiser, Werner; Brosché, Mikael; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Jiang, Xiangning; Polle, Andrea

    2005-12-01

    Populus euphratica Olivier is known to exist in saline and arid environments. In this study we investigated the physiological mechanisms enabling this species to cope with stress caused by salinity. Acclimation to increasing Na+ concentrations required adjustments of the osmotic pressure of leaves, which were achieved by accumulation of Na+ and compensatory decreases in calcium and soluble carbohydrates. The counterbalance of Na+/Ca2+ was also observed in mature leaves from field-grown P. euphratica trees exposed to an environmental gradient of increasing salinity. X-ray microanalysis showed that a primary strategy to protect the cytosol against sodium toxicity was apoplastic but not vacuolar salt accumulation. The ability to cope with salinity also included maintenance of cytosolic potassium concentrations and development of leaf succulence due to an increase in cell number and cell volume leading to sodium dilution. Decreases in apoplastic and vacuolar Ca2+ combined with suppression of calcineurin B-like protein transcripts suggest that Na+ adaptation required suppression of calcium-related signaling pathways. Significant increases in galactinol synthase and alternative oxidase after salt shock and salt adaptation point to shifts in carbohydrate metabolism and suppression of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria under salt stress.

  19. Populus euphratica Displays Apoplastic Sodium Accumulation, Osmotic Adjustment by Decreases in Calcium and Soluble Carbohydrates, and Develops Leaf Succulence under Salt Stress1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottow, Eric A.; Brinker, Monika; Teichmann, Thomas; Fritz, Eberhard; Kaiser, Werner; Brosché, Mikael; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Jiang, Xiangning; Polle, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Populus euphratica Olivier is known to exist in saline and arid environments. In this study we investigated the physiological mechanisms enabling this species to cope with stress caused by salinity. Acclimation to increasing Na+ concentrations required adjustments of the osmotic pressure of leaves, which were achieved by accumulation of Na+ and compensatory decreases in calcium and soluble carbohydrates. The counterbalance of Na+/Ca2+ was also observed in mature leaves from field-grown P. euphratica trees exposed to an environmental gradient of increasing salinity. X-ray microanalysis showed that a primary strategy to protect the cytosol against sodium toxicity was apoplastic but not vacuolar salt accumulation. The ability to cope with salinity also included maintenance of cytosolic potassium concentrations and development of leaf succulence due to an increase in cell number and cell volume leading to sodium dilution. Decreases in apoplastic and vacuolar Ca2+ combined with suppression of calcineurin B-like protein transcripts suggest that Na+ adaptation required suppression of calcium-related signaling pathways. Significant increases in galactinol synthase and alternative oxidase after salt shock and salt adaptation point to shifts in carbohydrate metabolism and suppression of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria under salt stress. PMID:16299175

  20. Plant Calcium Content: Ready to Remodel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lou Guerinot

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available By identifying the relationship between calcium location in the plant cell and nutrient bioavailability, the plant characteristics leading to maximal calcium absorption by humans can be identified. Knowledge of plant cellular and molecular targets controlling calcium location in plants is emerging. These insights should allow for better strategies for increasing the nutritional content of foods. In particular, the use of preparation-free elemental imaging technologies such as synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF microscopy in plant biology may allow researchers to understand the relationship between subcellular location and nutrient bioavailability. These approaches may lead to better strategies for altering the location of calcium within the plant to maximize its absorption from fruits and vegetables. These modified foods could be part of a diet for children and adults identified as at-risk for low calcium intake or absorption with the ultimate goal of decreasing the incidence and severity of inadequate bone mineralization.

  1. Plant Calcium Content: Ready to Remodel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Hirschi, Kendal D.

    2012-01-01

    By identifying the relationship between calcium location in the plant cell and nutrient bioavailability, the plant characteristics leading to maximal calcium absorption by humans can be identified. Knowledge of plant cellular and molecular targets controlling calcium location in plants is emerging. These insights should allow for better strategies for increasing the nutritional content of foods. In particular, the use of preparation-free elemental imaging technologies such as synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microscopy in plant biology may allow researchers to understand the relationship between subcellular location and nutrient bioavailability. These approaches may lead to better strategies for altering the location of calcium within the plant to maximize its absorption from fruits and vegetables. These modified foods could be part of a diet for children and adults identified as at-risk for low calcium intake or absorption with the ultimate goal of decreasing the incidence and severity of inadequate bone mineralization. PMID:23016135

  2. Dietary Zinc and Incident Calcium Kidney Stones in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasian, Gregory E; Ross, Michelle E; Song, Lihai; Grundmeier, Robert W; Massey, James; Denburg, Michelle R; Copelovitch, Lawrence; Warner, Steven; Chi, Thomas; Killilea, David W; Stoller, Marshall L; Furth, Susan L

    2017-05-01

    We determined the association between dietary zinc intake and incident calcium kidney stones in adolescents. We also examined the relationship between dietary zinc intake and urinary zinc excretion between cases and controls. We conducted a nested case-control study within a large pediatric health care system. Three 24-hour dietary recalls and spot urine chemistry analyses were obtained for 30 participants 12 to 18 years old with a first idiopathic calcium based kidney stone and 30 healthy controls matched for age, sex, race and month of enrollment. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between daily zinc intake and incident calcium kidney stones, adjusting for dietary phytate, protein, calcium, sodium and oxalate. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between dietary and urine zinc, adjusting for urine creatinine and dietary phytate and calcium. Cases had lower daily zinc intake (8.1 mg) than controls (10 mg, p = 0.029). Daily zinc intake of boys and girls with calcium stones was 2 mg and 1.2 mg less, respectively, than the daily intake recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Odds of incident stones were reduced by 13% for every 1 mg increase in daily zinc intake (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-0.99). There was an estimated 4.5 μg/dl increase in urine zinc for every 1 mg increase in dietary zinc (p = 0.009), with weak evidence of a smaller increase in urine zinc in cases than in controls (interaction p = 0.08). Decreased dietary zinc intake was independently associated with incident calcium nephrolithiasis in this population of adolescents. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective estrogen receptor modulator promotes weight loss in ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by decreasing food intake and increasing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Elinor L; Shearin, Jean; Koegler, Frank H; Cameron, Judy L

    2012-04-01

    The effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on body weight in postmenopausal women is controversial, with studies reporting an increase, a decrease, and no change in body weight. To examine estrogen receptor actions on body weight, we investigated the effects of treatment with a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) on body weight, food intake, and activity and metabolic rate in a nonhuman primate model. Eighteen ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys were treated with a nonsteroidal SERM (GSK232802A, 5 mg/kg po) for 3 mo. GSK232802A decreased lutenizing hormone (P weight loss (4.6 ± 1.0%, P Physical activity increased during the 3rd mo of treatment (P = 0.04). Baseline activity level and the change in activity due to treatment were correlated, with the most sedentary individuals exhibiting increased physical activity during the 1st mo of treatment (P = 0.02). Metabolic rate did not change (P = 0.58). These results indicate that GSK232802A treatment reduces body weight and adiposity in ovariectomized nonhuman primates by suppressing food intake and increasing activity, particularly in the most sedentary individuals. These findings suggest that SERM treatment may counteract weight gain in postmenopausal women.

  4. Statin, calcium channel blocker and Beta blocker therapy may decrease the incidence of tuberculosis infection in elderly Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Yueh; Lin, Kun-Der; Hsu, Wei-Hao; Chang, Hsiu-Ling; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2015-05-18

    It is well known that diabetes mellitus impairs immunity and therefore is an independent risk factor for tuberculosis. However, the influence of associated metabolic factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and gout has yet to be confirmed. This study aimed to investigate whether the strong association between tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus is independent from the influence of hypertension and dyslipidemia, and its treatment in elderly Taiwanese patients. A total of 27,958 patients aged more than 65 years were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NIHRD) in 1997 and were followed from 1998 to 2009. The demographic characteristics between the patients with and without diabetes were analyzed using the χ2 test. A total of 13,981 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in this study. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the independent effects of diabetes on the risk of tuberculosis. After adjusting for age, sex, other co-morbidities and medications, calcium channel blocker, beta blocker and statin users had a lower independent association, with risk ratios of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.58-0.98), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58-0.91) and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.60-0.97), respectively. Calcium channel blocker, beta blocker and statin therapy may decrease the incidence of tuberculosis infection in elderly Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Statin, Calcium Channel Blocker and Beta Blocker Therapy May Decrease the Incidence of Tuberculosis Infection in Elderly Taiwanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yueh Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well known that diabetes mellitus impairs immunity and therefore is an independent risk factor for tuberculosis. However, the influence of associated metabolic factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and gout has yet to be confirmed. This study aimed to investigate whether the strong association between tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus is independent from the influence of hypertension and dyslipidemia, and its treatment in elderly Taiwanese patients. Methods: A total of 27,958 patients aged more than 65 years were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NIHRD in 1997 and were followed from 1998 to 2009. The demographic characteristics between the patients with and without diabetes were analyzed using the χ2 test. A total of 13,981 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in this study. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the independent effects of diabetes on the risk of tuberculosis. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, other co-morbidities and medications, calcium channel blocker, beta blocker and statin users had a lower independent association, with risk ratios of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.58–0.98, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58–0.91 and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.60–0.97, respectively. Conclusion: Calcium channel blocker, beta blocker and statin therapy may decrease the incidence of tuberculosis infection in elderly Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Raspberry ketone fails to reduce adiposity beyond decreasing food intake in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Bradley M; Diamond, Stephanie A; Banh, Taylor; Hsiao, Yung-Hsuan; Cole, Rachel M; Li, Jinhui; Simons, Christopher T; Bruno, Richard S; Belury, Martha A; Vodovotz, Yael

    2017-04-19

    As the incidence of obesity continues to increase, identifying novel nutritional therapies to enhance weight loss are needed. Raspberry ketone (RK; 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one) is a bioactive phytochemical that is marketed as a weight loss supplement in the United States, yet there is scant scientific evidence demonstrating that RK promotes weight loss. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of RK on accumulation of adipose mass, hepatic lipid storage, and levels of plasma adiponectin in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Mice were individually housed and fed a HF control diet (45% kcal from fat) for two weeks to induce weight gain, then assigned to HF control, high-dose (1.74% wt/wt) raspberry ketone (HRK), low-dose (0.25% wt/wt) raspberry ketone (LRK), or a pair-fed group (PF) fed similar food intake to LRK mice. Following five weeks of feeding, mice fed LRK and HRK diets showed reduced food intake and body weight compared to mice maintained on control diet. When normalized to body weight, mice fed HRK diet exhibited decreased inguinal fat mass and increased liver mass compared to the control group. Hepatic steatosis was lowest in mice fed HRK diet, whereas LRK diet did not have an effect when compared to the PF group. Plasma adiponectin concentration was unaffected by RK and pair-feeding. Our findings demonstrate that RK supplementation has limited benefit to adipose loss beyond reducing energy intake in mice fed a high-fat diet. The present study supports the need for appropriate study design when validating weight-loss supplements.

  7. Long-Term Low Intake of Dietary Calcium and Fracture Risk in Older Adults With Plant-Based Diet: A Longitudinal Study From the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Aiping; Li, Keji; Guo, Meihan; He, Jingjing; Li, He; Shen, Xin; Song, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate long-term associations between low dietary calcium intake and fracture risk in older adults with plant-based diet. Data of self-reported first fracture events of any type from 6210 Chinese men and women, aged 50 years or older and free from fracture at baseline, in a subcohort based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), were analyzed. Diet was repeatedly assessed by a combination of three consecutive 24-hour individual dietary recalls and a weighing and measuring of household food inventory in each round. The older men and women habitually ingested mean (SD) of 415 (147) mg/d and 373 (140) mg/d of calcium from plant-based diet, respectively. During a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 127 men (4.34%) and 232 women (7.06%) experienced first fracture events. The crude rates were 4.88, 2.55, and 6.83 per 1000 person-years at risk for men, and 6.72, 7.10, and 11.0 per 1000 person-years at risk for women in the lowest, third, and highest quintile of dietary calcium intake. In nonlinear regressions, an increased risk of fracture was associated with dietary calcium intake more than 778 mg/d (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-4.41) or lower than 275 mg/d (1.74, 95% CI 1.00-3.01) for men and more than 651 mg/d for women (1.54, 95% CI 1.00-2.38). A nonsignificant trend of increase in fracture risk was found below 248 mg/d (1.00, 95% CI 0.67-1.50) in women using restricted cubic spline Cox regression. A relatively low fracture risk is observed in men with dietary calcium intakes of 275 to 780 mg/d and in women with intakes of 250 to 650 mg/d, and higher intakes may have no further benefit for fracture prevention. The patterns of dietary calcium with fracture risk are U-shaped in men and possibly in women. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. Plant stanols dose-dependently decrease LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but not cholesterol-standardized fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations, at intakes up to 9 g/d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Ronald P; de Jong, Arienne; Lütjohann, Dieter; Haenen, Guido Rmm; Plat, Jogchum

    2010-07-01

    It is unclear whether plant stanols lower serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations and cholesterol-standardized fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations dose-dependently when consumption exceeds the recommended daily intakes of 2.0-3.0 g. The objective was to study the relation between plant stanols provided as plant stanol esters on changes in serum concentrations of LDL cholesterol and fat-soluble antioxidants. Healthy subjects (n = 93) with slightly elevated serum total cholesterol concentrations (5.0-8.0 mmol/L) received, after a 3-wk run-in period, control products (n = 22) or products (margarine and soy-based yogurt) providing 3 g (n = 24), 6 g (n = 22), or 9 g (n = 25) plant stanols provided as fatty acid esters for 4 wk. Serum LDL cholesterol decreased dose-dependently. Compared with control, decreases in the 3-g group were 0.32 mmol/L (7.4%; P = 0.005 after adjustment for multiple comparisons). An intake of 6 g plant stanols caused an additional decrease of 0.18 mmol/L (4.5%; P = 0.100 compared with the 3-g group). In the 9-g group, a further decrease of 0.22 mmol/L (5.4%) was observed (P = 0.048 compared with the 6-g group). Serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations were lowered by 17.4% in the 9-g group compared with the control group. No effects on cholesterol-standardized beta-carotene concentrations were observed. Even the change of -0.01 mumol/mmol cholesterol (or -9.2%; P = 0.341) in the 3-g group compared with the control group was not statistically significant because of the large variation in response. Serum HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, cholesterol-standardized alpha-tocopherol and lutein concentrations, and plasma markers reflecting liver and renal function were not affected. Daily consumption of plant stanols up to 9 g reduces serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations linearly up to 17.4%. For cholesterol-standardized fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations, such a relation could not be ascertained.

  9. The effects of dieting on food and nutrient intake of lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelady, Cheryl A; Stephenson, Kimberly G; Kuppler, Kerri M; Williams, John P

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this report was to identify and evaluate dietary changes in women who were participating in a study on the effects of weight loss in overweight lactating women on the growth of their infants. Women were randomly assigned at 4 weeks postpartum to either restrict energy intake by 500 kcal/day (diet and exercise group) or to maintain usual dietary intake (control group) for 10 weeks. The diet and exercise group significantly decreased fats, sweetened drinks, sweets and desserts, snack foods, and energy intake. Micronutrient intake decreased in the diet and exercise group; however, mean intakes were not significantly different from those of the control group except for calcium and vitamin D. Both groups consumed less than 76% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamins E and C at the end of the study. Mean intake of all other nutrients was adequate in both groups. These results suggest that overweight lactating women can restrict their energy intake by 500 kcal per day by decreasing consumption of foods high in fat and simple sugars. However, they must be advised to increase their intakes of foods high in calcium and vitamin D. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables should also be recommended to all lactating women, as well as multivitamin and calcium supplements to those who do not consume adequate amounts of these foods.

  10. Central Administration of Ghrelin and Agouti-Related Protein (83–132) Increases Food Intake and Decreases Spontaneous Locomotor Activity in Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang-Christensen, Mads; Vrang, Niels; Ortmann, Sylvia; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Horvath, Tamas L; Tschöp, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    .... ghrelin stimulates food intake and promotes adiposity after peripheral or central administration, likely by activating hypothalamic neurons expressing the orexigenic neuropeptides neuropeptide Y (NPY...

  11. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. Calcium intake in the diet (milk, cheese, yogurt) is low. Vitamin D levels are ...

  12. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, W.L. van; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective: To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of

  13. Higher protein intake is not associated with decreased kidney function in pre-diabetic older adults following a one-year intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Ritz, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about detrimental renal effects of a high-protein intake have been raised due to an induced glomerular hyperfiltration, since this may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. The aim of this sub-study was to assess the effect of a higher intake of protein on kidney function in pre...

  14. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Temme, E.H.M.; Koeman, F.; Noort, M.W.J.; Kremer, S.; Janssen, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without

  15. Decreases in high-fat and/or high added sugar food group intake occur when a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed within a lifestyle intervention: a secondary cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshani, Vaishali Deepak; Sheikh, Vaishali Keshani; Raynor, Hollie Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, intake of currently consumed foods can decrease, foods naturally low in fat and/or added sugar may increase, or fat- or sugar-modified foods may increase. Objective Examine food group intake change and its relation to reductions in energy and fat intake, and weight during a lifestyle intervention. Design Secondary cohort analysis. Participants One hundred sixty-nine participants (52.0 ± 8.6 years, 34.9 ± 4.5 kg/m2, 92% white, 97.6% non-Hispanic, and 56.8% female) with complete data at 0 and 6 months collected in a research setting. Main Outcome Measures From 3, 24-hr phone dietary recalls, 165 food groups from NDSR software were coded into 25 larger food groups assessing intake of higher fat and/or added sugar food groups vs. naturally lower fat and/or added sugar food groups and into 17 larger food groups assessing intake of non-modified vs. fat- and/or sugar-modified food groups. Statistical Analyses Performed Repeated measures analyses of covariance (intervention group: covariate) assessed changes from 0 to 6 months. Hierarchical regressions examined changes in food group intake and changes in energy intake, percent energy from fat intake, and weight from 0 to 6 months. Results Significant reductions (p < 0.05) in intake of high-fat and/or high-added sugar food groups (Higher Fat Dairy, Higher Fat Eggs, Higher Fat Fats, Higher Fat Fruit, Higher Fat Meat, Non-Modified Higher Fat Fats Oils and Sweets, Non-Modified Higher Fat Sugar Sweetened Fats Oils and Sweets, Non-Modified Regular Fat Dairy, Non-Modified Regular Fat Sugar Sweetened Dairy) occurred. Decreases in Higher Fat Meat were significantly (p < 0.05) related to decreases in energy intake, percent energy from fat intake, and weight. Conclusion When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, reductions in high-fat and/or high-added sugar food groups occur. Targeting reductions in high-fat meats may improve outcomes. PMID:27436530

  16. The inclusion of functional foods enriched in fibre, calcium, iodine, fat-soluble vitamins and n-3 fatty acids in a conventional diet improves the nutrient profile according to the Spanish reference intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Cuervo, Marta; de Las Heras, Arantza Ruiz; Santiago, Susana; Martínez, J Alfredo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2011-03-01

    The growing interest in maintaining good health status through optimal nutrition has boosted the launch of a number of functional foods on the market. The objective of the present study was to theoretically evaluate the nutritional relevance of incorporating selected enriched foods in the diet. A 28 d dietary plan, designed to be balanced under the recommended macronutrients criteria, was used as a basal diet. Some conventional foods were exchanged with foods enriched in fibre, calcium, iodine, vitamins A, D, E or n-3 fatty acids. Nutritional composition of basal and modified diets was derived and compared to the Spanish recommended intakes (RI). The basal diet covered the recommendations for fibre and calcium with mean intake of 28 g and 1241 mg, respectively. The current intake of salt, if iodized, or bread elaborated with this salt, allowed reaching the daily intake of iodine every day, with a mean supply of 216 μg/d and 278 μg/d, respectively. The deficient supply of vitamin E in the basal diet (mean = 8 mg/d) was covered by including enriched margarine and dairy products (mean = 15 mg/d). The low n-3 fatty acids intake in the basal diet (1·1 g/d) increased up to 1·9 g/d after the use of enriched margarine, butter and biscuits and soya drink instead of milk. In order to improve the accomplishment of the RI iodine, vitamin E and n-3 fatty acids, interesting strategies dealing with the incorporation of enriched foods in the diet were successfully initiated.

  17. Effects of calcium-fortified ice cream on markers of bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, L; van der Hee, R M; Berry, M; Watson, C; Miret, S; Wilkinson, J; Bradburn, M; Eastell, R

    2011-10-01

    Premenopausal women with low calcium intakes consumed calcium-fortified ice cream daily for 28 days. Bone markers, NTX, CTX and PTH decreased significantly by 7 days, with some evidence of a calcium dose-dependent effect. Bone marker responses were observed within 1 h of consuming ice cream. Body weight remained constant over 28 days. Dietary calcium is important for lifelong bone health. Milk is a good source of bioavailable calcium, but consumption has declined among young adults. The aims were to determine whether calcium-fortified ice cream, a palatable source of calcium, produces significant, sustainable changes in bone turnover markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in premenopausal women with calcium intake below recommended UK levels. Eighty women, ages 20-39 years (calcium intake ice cream containing 96, 244, 459 or 676 mg calcium daily for 28 days. Urinary NTX/Cr, serum CTX, PINP, 1,25D and PTH were measured (baseline, days 1, 7 and 28). Acute changes in CTX and PTH were measured over 5 h (n = 29 women). There were significant mean decreases by 7 days in NTX/Cr, CTX, PTH and 1,25D and increases in PINP (one sample t tests), with a significant dose-dependent effect on CTX analysis of covariance. Only CTX remained suppressed at 28 days. Serum CTX and PTH decreased within 1 h. Body weight did not change significantly between baseline and 28 days. Daily consumption of calcium-fortified ice cream by premenopausal women may significantly reduce levels of the bone resorption marker serum CTX, without stimulating weight gain. The ice cream could be incorporated into the diet to replace low-calcium snacks and thus help individuals with habitually low calcium intakes to meet recommended intakes. The 244 mg calcium preparation would provide more than a quarter of the UK daily recommended nutrient intake for premenopausal women.

  18. Higher Protein Intake Is Not Associated with Decreased Kidney Function in Pre-Diabetic Older Adults Following a One-Year Intervention—A Preview Sub-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grith Møller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about detrimental renal effects of a high-protein intake have been raised due to an induced glomerular hyperfiltration, since this may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. The aim of this sub-study was to assess the effect of a higher intake of protein on kidney function in pre-diabetic men and women, aged 55 years and older. Analyses were based on baseline and one-year data in a sub-group of 310 participants included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World. Protein intake was estimated from four-day dietary records and 24-hour urinary urea excretion. We used linear regression to assess the association between protein intake after one year of intervention and kidney function markers: creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR, urinary urea/creatinine ratio (UCR, serum creatinine, and serum urea before and after adjustments for potential confounders. A higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in UCR (p = 0.03 and serum urea (p = 0.05 after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, eGFR, ACR, or serum creatinine. We found no indication of impaired kidney function after one year with a higher protein intake in pre-diabetic older adults.

  19. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. Objective: In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. Design: Data from adults (≥19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. Results: Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. Conclusions: Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc

  20. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40 were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day. The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages at a temperature of 24°±2ºC, light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours, and deionized water available ad libitum. On the 8th week of the experiment, food consumption was measured and 24-hour urine and 4-day feces were collected to determine calcium balance [Balance=Ca intake-(Urinary Ca+Fecal Ca]. RESULTS: Animals with adequate calcium intake presented higher balances and rates of calcium absorption and retention (p<0.05 than those with inadequate calcium intake, regardless of caffeine intake (p<0.05. Caffeine intake did not affect urinary calcium excretion but increased balance (p<0.05 in the groups with adequate calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Adequate calcium intake attenuated the negative effects of estrogen deficiency and improved calcium balance even in the presence of caffeine.

  1. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0) Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K.; Parry, Celeste; Baird, Mark; Stevenson, Sacha; Carlin, Kevin; Daniels, Risa; Smith, Cynthia R.; Jones, Richard; Wells, Randall S.; Ridgway, Sam; Jensen, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A) and lower (n = 19, Group B) mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B’s diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively). When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg), C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g); nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans’ movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26200116

  2. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo

    OpenAIRE

    Vendl, C; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, M; Leggett, K.; Hummel, J; Kreuzer, M; Munn, A

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested...

  3. Is bone equally responsive to calcium and vitamins D intake from food vs. supplements? Use of 41Ca tracer kinetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Few interventions directly compare equivalent calcium and vitamin D from dairy vs. supplements on the same bone outcomes. The radioisotope calcium-41 (41Ca) holds promise as a tracer method to directly measure changes in bone resorption with differing dietary interventions. Objective: U...

  4. Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or total sugar, lower intakes of cereals, fish, meat, protein, PUFA, starch and dietary fibre, and a lower diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity.

  5. Ingestão do cálcio na obesidade de mulheres atendidas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde Calcium intake in obese women treated at Sistema Único de Saúde, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria Candido Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a associação entre consumo de cálcio e obesidade em uma amostra de mulheres obesas ou eutróficas. MÉTODOS: Por meio de inquéritos alimentares, estimou-se a ingestão de cálcio de 177 mulheres hipertensas e/ou diabéticas mediante recordatórios de 24h e frequência de consumo alimentar. Estudo caso-controle teve o grupo-estudo composto por 102 mulheres obesas e o grupo-controle por 75 mulheres eutróficas. Os dados de ingestão foram comparados às recomendações dietéticas e às porções de alimentos de origem animal, recomendados pela pirâmide alimentar brasileira, que são fontes de cálcio. Na análise estatística dos dois grupos segundo faixa etária, utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação linear simples de Pearson com nível de significância de até 5% de probabilidade de erro experimental. RESULTADOS: A ingestão quantitativa de cálcio foi semelhante entre os grupos e igualmente insuficiente para atingir as recomendações nutricionais. A análise da frequência de consumo de fontes de cálcio revelou que os dois grupos apresentavam consumo inferior a três porções/dia, merecendo destaque o grande número que referiu "raramente" consumir tais alimentos. CONCLUSÃO: Não foi observada nessa população a associação entre obesidade e ingestão de cálcio. Seu consumo foi insuficiente para atingir as quantidades recomendadas, um achado relevante. Considerando a idade das mulheres estudadas e o diagnóstico de hipertensão e diabetes, é evidente a necessidade de atividades de educação nutricional para estimular o consumo de fontes alimentares de cálcio com o intuito de auxiliar no controle da hipertensão e de prevenir agravos importantes, como a obesidade e a osteoporose.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between calcium intake and obesity in a sample of obese and normal weight women. METHODS: The 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire were used to

  6. Low lactase activity in a small-bowel biopsy specimen : Should dietary lactose intake be restricted in children with small intestinal mucosal damage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, HA; Vonk, RJ; Gonera-de Jong, GBC; Priebe, MG; Antoine, JM; Stellaard, F; Sauer, PJJ

    Objective. Small intestinal mucosal damage can result in decreased lactase activity (LA). When LA is low in a small-bowel biopsy (SBB) specimen, a reduction of dietary lactose intake is usually advised. This is often done by reducing dietary dairy products, which also reduces the intake of calcium,

  7. Calcium ionophore A23187 specifically decreases the secretion of beta-secretase cleaved amyloid precursor protein during apoptosis in primary rat cortical cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, K; Benedikz, Eirikur; Fastbom, J

    2001-01-01

    - and gamma-secretase cleavage. Alternatively, APP may be cleaved within the A beta region by alpha-secretase, preventing A beta formation. Here we investigated APP processing and secretion in primary neurons, using either colchicine or the calcium ionophore A23187 to induce apoptosis. Cell viability...... beta sAPP) did not change. In addition, caspase inhibition restored cell viability to control levels. Exposure to colchicine did not change the amount of either secreted beta-sAPP or total sAPP and caspase inhibition was only partially able to restore cell viability. We conclude that calcium...

  8. Variation in intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and potassium in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welch, A. A.; Fransen, H.; Jenab, M.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Tumino, R.; Agnoli, C.; Ericson, U.; Johansson, I.; Ferrari, P.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Lentjes, M.; Key, T.; Touvier, M.; Niravong, M.; Larranaga, N.; Rodriguez, L.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Tjonneland, A.; Bjerregaard, L.; Vasilopoulou, E.; Dilis, V.; Linseisen, J.; Noethlings, U.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background/objectives: Adequate mineral intake is important for the maintenance of bone health, cellular function and general metabolism, and possibly in the aetiology of cancer and other chronic diseases. This study aimed at investigating variation in intakes of selected minerals across 10 European

  9. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0 Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A and lower (n = 19, Group B mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001 and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001. Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively. When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg, C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g; nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  10. Decreases in High-Fat and/or High-Added-Sugar Food Group Intake Occur when a Hypocaloric, Low-Fat Diet Is Prescribed Within a Lifestyle Intervention: A Secondary Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Vaishali Keshani; Raynor, Hollie A

    2016-10-01

    When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, intake of currently consumed foods can decrease, foods naturally low in fat and/or added sugar may increase, or fat- or sugar-modified foods may increase. To examine food group intake change and its relation to reductions in energy and fat intake and weight during a lifestyle intervention. Secondary cohort analysis. One hundred sixty-nine participants (aged 52.0±8.6 years, body mass index 34.9±4.5, 92% white, 97.6% non-Hispanic, and 56.8% women) with complete data at 0 and 6 months collected in a research setting. From three 24-hour telephone dietary recalls, 165 food groups from Nutrition Data System for Research software were coded into 25 larger food groups assessing intake of higher-fat and/or added-sugar food groups vs naturally lower-fat and/or added-sugar food groups and into 17 larger food groups assessing intake of nonmodified vs fat- and/or sugar-modified food groups. Repeated measures analyses of covariance (intervention group: covariate) assessed changes from 0 to 6 months. Hierarchical regressions examined changes in food group intake and changes in energy intake, percent energy from fat intake, and weight from 0 to 6 months. Significant reductions (Pfat and/or high-added-sugar food groups (Higher-Fat Dairy; Higher-Fat Eggs; Higher-Fat Fats; Higher-Fat Fruit; Higher-Fat Meat; Nonmodified Higher-Fat Fats, Oils, and Sweets; Nonmodified Higher-Fat Sugar-Sweetened Fats, Oils, and Sweets; Nonmodified Regular-Fat Dairy; and Nonmodified Regular-Fat Sugar-Sweetened Dairy) occurred. Decreases in the Higher-Fat Meat group were significantly (Pfat intake, and weight. When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, reductions in high-fat and/or high-added-sugar food groups occur. Targeting reductions in high-fat meats may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Central administration of ghrelin and agouti-related protein (83-132) increases food intake and decreases spontaneous locomotor activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang-Christensen, Mads; Vrang, Niels; Ortmann, Sylvia; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Horvath, Tamas L; Tschöp, Matthias

    2004-10-01

    Ghrelin was recently identified as an endogenous ligand of the GH secretagogue receptor. The novel peptide hormone is produced by gastric A-like cells, and circulating levels rise before feeding, suggestive of ghrelin as an endogenous hunger factor. ghrelin stimulates food intake and promotes adiposity after peripheral or central administration, likely by activating hypothalamic neurons expressing the orexigenic neuropeptides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP). To examine whether ghrelin-induced feeding resembles NPY and AGRP [AGRP fragment (83-132)] induced orexia, we compared the short- and long-term orexigenic capacity of the three peptides. A single intracerebroventricular injection of ghrelin (0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 microg) increased food intake in a dose-dependent manner. A prolonged and uncompensated increase in feeding was seen after the highest dose of ghrelin. The prolonged effects on feeding (+72 h) closely resembled those of AGRP (83-132) but not NPY. Surprisingly, ghrelin injections reduced overall locomotor activity by 20% during the first 24-h observation period. AGRP (83-132) had similar effects on locomotor behavior, whereas NPY had no effect. In summary, ghrelin causes long-term increases of food intake and, like AGRP, plays a previously unknown role as a suppressor of spontaneous physical activity. Expanding the current model of food intake control to include mechanisms regulating physical activity may promote our understanding of two major etiological factors causing obesity.

  12. Both Longer Oral Sensory Exposure to and Higher Intensity of Saltiness Decrease Ad Libitum Food Intake in Healthy Normal-Weight Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    Orosensory exposure to sweetness has been shown to be important in satiation, whereas the effect of exposure to a salty taste on satiation is not known. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of orosensory exposure time to and intensity of saltiness in soup on ad libitum intake. The

  13. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián, Cristina; Mouratidou, Theodora; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Valtueña, Jara; González-Gross, Marcela; Ferrari, Marika; Gottrand, Frederic; Manios, Yannis; de la O, Alejandro; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnár, Dénes; Kafatos, Antonios; Sjöström, Michael; Kersting, Mathilde; Gunter, Marc J; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Huybrechts, Inge

    2017-06-01

    To investigate dietary sources of Ca and vitamin D (VitD) intakes, and the associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, among European adolescents. Linear regression mixed models were used to examine sex-specific associations of Ca and VitD intakes with parental education, family affluence (FAS), physical activity and television (TV) watching while controlling for age, Tanner stage, energy intake and diet quality. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA)Cross-Sectional Study. Adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years (n 1804). Milk and cheese were the main sources of Ca (23 and 19 % contribution to overall Ca intake, respectively). Fish products were the main VitD source (30 % contribution to overall VitD intake). Ca intake was positively associated with maternal education (β=56·41; 95 % CI 1·98, 110·82) and negatively associated with TV viewing in boys (β=-0·43; 95 % CI -0·79, -0·07); however, the significance of these associations disappeared when adjusting for diet quality. In girls, Ca intake was positively associated with mother's (β=73·08; 95 % CI 34·41, 111·74) and father's education (β=43·29; 95 % CI 5·44, 81·14) and FAS (β=37·45; 95 % CI 2·25, 72·65). This association between Ca intake and mother's education remained significant after further adjustment for diet quality (β=41·66; 95 % CI 0·94, 82·38). Girls with high-educated mothers had higher Ca intake. Low-educated families with poor diet quality may be targeted when strategizing health promotion programmes to enhance dietary Ca.

  14. Meta-analysis: low-dose intake of vitamin E combined with other vitamins or minerals may decrease all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Pan, Zhenyu; Li, Hui; Li, Fenglan; Song, Yanyan; Qiu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin E alone or combined with other vitamins or minerals can prevent oxidative stress and slow oxidative injury-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A comprehensive search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed. Relative risk was used as an effect measure to compare the intervention and control groups. A total of 33 trials were included in the meta-analysis. Neither vitamin E intake alone (RR=1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.04; p=0.77) nor vitamin E intake combined with other agents (RR=0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.06; p=0.55) was correlated with all-cause mortality. Subgroup analyses revealed that low-dose vitamin E supplementation combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in all-cause mortality (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.98; p=0.01), and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality rates among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99; p=0.02). Neither vitamin E intake alone nor combined with other agents is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. But a low dose (vitamin E combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in all-cause mortality, and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in the mortality rate among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases.

  15. Dietary calcium and blood lead levels in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostial, K; Dekanić, D; Telisman, S; Blanusa, M; Duvancić, S; Prpić-Majić, D; Pongracić, J

    1991-03-01

    Nutritional factors are known to influence metabolism and toxicity of several metals in animal experiments, but relevant human data are scarce and inconclusive. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that dietary calcium influences lead metabolism in humans. Blood lead concentrations were used as indicators of lead exposure and metabolism. Two groups of peasant women living in similar conditions in two different regions in Yugoslavia (100 in each) were chosen as subjects for this purpose. In region A, the dietary calcium intake was about 940 mg, and in region B about two times lower, i.e., 450 mg/day. The average blood lead concentration was significantly lower in women from region A (69 micrograms/L) than from region B (83 micrograms/L). Our results support the assumption that adequate calcium intake might be one of the preventive measures for decreasing lead absorption. This new evidence, sought for some time by nutritionists and toxicologists, needs further international confirmation.

  16. Acceptance of minerals and other compounds by calcium-deprived rats: 24-h tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, S E; Tordoff, M G

    1996-07-01

    We measured 24-h spontaneous intake of four to eight concentrations of 31 different solutions by groups of rats fed control or low-calcium diets. Relative to controls, those fed low-calcium diet had increased acceptance of one or more concentrations of sodium chloride, sodium acetate, and sodium bicarbonate, but not sodium gluconate. Differences in palatability between these sodium salts were unimportant because the rats fed low-calcium diet consumed more sodium chloride even if this was made less acceptable by adulteration with citric acid. The possibility that calcium-deprived rats have an enhanced general cation or mineral appetite was supported by findings of increased acceptance of one or more concentrations of nine of ten chloride minerals tested (aluminum chloride, ammonium chloride, ferric chloride, ferrous chloride, magnesium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, strontium chloride, zinc chloride). However, there were no differences in acceptance of any concentration of cesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, or lead acetate. Moreover, calcium-deprived rats drank more hydrochloric acid and malic acid than did controls. Thus the effect of calcium deficiency on intake was not confined to minerals. Acidity or bitterness did not appear important because there was no difference between the groups in intake of sulfuric acid, citric acid, or quinine hydrochloride. Consistent with the exacerbating effects of phosphates on calcium deprivation, deprived rats had decreased intakes of phosphates (sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate). However, they also had decreased intakes of sucrose and saccharin. It is clear that calcium deprivation does not induce a general increase in acceptance of all taste solutions, but there appears to be no simple explanation for what these animals consume.

  17. Induced Ablation of Ghrelin Cells in Adult Mice Does Not Decrease Food Intake, Body Weight, or Response to High Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Matthew R.; Brown, Michael S.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Zhao, Tong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Injection of the peptide hormone ghrelin stimulates food intake in mice and humans. However, mice born without ghrelin demonstrate no significant loss of appetite. This paradox suggests either that compensation develops in mice born without ghrelin or that ghrelin is not essential for appetite control. To distinguish these possibilities, we generated transgenic mice (Ghrl-DTR) that express the diphtheria toxin receptor in ghrelin-secreting cells. Injection of diphtheria toxin in adulthood ablated ghrelin cells and reduced plasma ghrelin by 80-95%. Ghrelin cell-ablated mice exhibited no loss of appetite or body weight and no resistance to a high fat diet. To stimulate food intake in mice by ghrelin injection, we had to raise plasma levels many-fold above normal. Like germline ghrelin-deficient mice, the ghrelin cell-ablated mice developed profound hypoglycemia when subjected to prolonged calorie restriction, confirming that ghrelin acts to maintain blood glucose under famine conditions. PMID:24836560

  18. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Temme, Elisabeth H M; Koeman, Fari T; Noort, Martijn W J; Kremer, Stefanie; Janssen, Anke M

    2011-12-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without flavor compensation (KCl and yeast extract), on bread consumption and sodium intake compensation by choice of sandwich fillings. A total of 116 participants (age: 21 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed a buffet-style breakfast on weekdays for 4 wk. Participants received either regular bread (control group: n = 39), bread whose salt content was gradually lowered each week by 0, 31, 52, and 67% (reduced group: n = 38), or bread whose salt content was also gradually lowered each week but which was also flavor compensated (compensated group: n = 39). A reduction of up to 52% of salt in bread did not lead to lower consumption of bread compared to the control (P = 0.57), whereas less bread was consumed when salt was reduced by 67% (P = 0.006). When bread was flavor compensated, however, a reduction of 67% did not lead to lower consumption (P = 0.69). Salt reduction in bread (with and without flavor compensation) did not induce sodium intake compensation (P = 0.31). In conclusion, a salt reduction of up to 52% in bread or even up to 67% in flavor-compensated bread neither affected bread consumption nor choice of sandwich fillings.

  19. Peripheral injections of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonist S38151 decrease food intake and body weight in rodent obesity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Zuana, Odile; Audinot, Valérie; Levenez, Viviane; Ktorza, Alain; Presse, Françoise; Nahon, Jean-Louis; Boutin, Jean A

    2012-01-01

    The compound S38151 is a nanomolar antagonist that acts at the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH(1)). S38151 is more stable than its purely peptide counterpart, essentially because of the blockade of its N-terminus. Therefore, its action on various models of obesity was studied. Acute intra-cerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of S38151 in wild-type rats counteracted the effect of the stable precursor of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), NEI-MCH, in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.5 to 50 nmol/kg). In genetically obese Zucker fa/fa rats, daily i.c.v. administration of S38151 induced dose-dependent (5, 10, and 20 nmol/kg) inhibition of food intake, water intake, and body weight gain, as well as increased motility (maximal effect observed at 20 nmol/kg). In Zucker fa/fa rats, intraperitoneal injection of S38151 (30 mg/kg) induced complete inhibition of food consumption within 1 h. Daily intraperitoneal injection of S38151 (10 and 30 mg/kg) into genetically obese ob/ob mice or diet-induced obese mice is able to limit body weight gain. Furthermore, S38151 administration (10 and 30 mg/kg) does not affect food intake, water intake, or body weight gain in MCHR1-deleted mice, demonstrating that its effects are linked to its interaction with MCH(1). These results validate MCH(1) as a target of interest in obesity. S38151 cannot progress to the clinical phase because it is still too poorly stable in vivo.

  20. Conservation of body calcium by increased dietary intake of potassium: A potential measure to reduce the osteoporosis process during prolonged exposure to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechay, Bohdan R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1988 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, it was proposed that the loss of skeletal calcium upon prolonged exposure to microgravity could be explained, in part, by a renal maladjustment characterized by an increased urinary excretion of calcium. It was theorized that because the conservation of body fluids and electrolytes depends upon the energy of adenosine triphosphate and enzymes that control the use of its energy for renal ion transport, an induction of renal sodium and potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na + K ATPase) by oral loading with potassium would increase the reabsorption of sodium directly and that of calcium indirectly, leading to improved hydration and to reduced calcium loss. Preliminary studies showed the following. Rats drinking water containing 0.2 M potassium chloride for six to 13 days excreted in urine 22 muEq of calcium and 135 muEq of sodium per 100 grams of body weight per day. The corresponding values for control rats drinking tap water were 43 muEq and 269 muEq respectively. Renal Na + K ATPase activity in potassium loaded rats was higher than in controls. Thus, oral potassium loading resulted in increased Na + K ATPase activity and diminished urinary excretion of calcium and of sodium as predicted by the hypothesis. An extension of these studies to humans has the potential of resulting in development of harmless, non-invasive, drug-free, convenient measures to reduce bone loss and other electrolyte and fluid problems in space travelers exposed to prolonged periods of microgravity.

  1. Sources of vitamin D and calcium in the diets of preschool children in the UK and the theoretical effect of food fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, V L; Northstone, K; Hopkins, D; Emmett, P M

    2015-12-01

    Dietary intakes of vitamin D are very low in the UK. Dietary calcium is also necessary to promote bone health. The fortification of foods with vitamin D could be a safe and effective way of increasing intake. Diets of preschool children, 755 at 18 months and 3.5 years, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were assessed using dietary records completed by parents. Energy, vitamin D and calcium intakes were calculated. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for being in the highest/lowest quartile of intake. Intakes were recalculated to test different fortification regimes. Vitamin D intakes were low; all children were below the UK and US dietary recommendations. Calcium intakes decreased between the two ages as a result of reduced milk consumption. Children in the lowest quartile for vitamin D intake at 18 months were twice as likely to remain in that quartile at 3.5 years (odds ratio = 2.35; 95% confidence interval = 1.56-3.55). The majority of foods provide no vitamin D with fat spreads and milk as the main sources. The contribution from breakfast cereals increased, from 6% to 12%, as a result of the increased consumption of fortified cereals. Dairy foods provided the highest contribution to calcium at 18 months but were less important at 3.5 years. Theoretical intakes from different fortification regimens suggest that milk fortified at 2 μg 100 g(-1) vitamin D would provide most children with adequate but not excessive intakes. Dietary vitamin D intakes were very low and calcium intakes were mostly adequate. Fortification of milk with vitamin D could be a good way to boost intakes. © 2014 Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Dietetic Association.

  2. ASUPAN KALSIUM DAN VITAMIN D PADA ANAK INDONESIA USIA 2 – 12 TAHUN [Calcium and Vitamin D Intake of Indonesian Children 2-12 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Valentina*

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food consumption is playing an important role for nutritional status of children 2-12 years old. During growth and development phase, body needs macro and micro nutrients even more than later phase. The process can not be catched up at later stage therefore it is very important to pay attention to food consumption during this phase. This study used secondary data of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS 2011-2012 which was covered recapitulation profile data of 300 children age 2-12 years old representative of 48 districts in Indonesia. The study showed that Indonesian children consuming less calcium and vitamin D-rich foods than the recommended daily allowance (RDA. It does not reflects on the result of anthropometry data, vitamin D on the blood and bone mass density since the dietary recall 24 hours shows only food consumption in that specific day while nutritional status shows a result of longer process. However, vitamin D in blood has a significant correlation with bone mass density of tibia bone (p<0.05. Deficiency of calcium and mainly vitamin D is a new finding at this time. Therefore, the study showed that fortification of calcium and vitamin min D in food become important to improve nutritional status of Indonesian children. 20% of RDA per serving size twice a day is recommended as well for fortification level of Calcium and Vitamin D.

  3. The effect of cation-anion difference on calcium requirement, feed intake, body weight gain, and blood gasses and mineral concentrations of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J A; Akay, V; Franklin, S T; Aaron, D K

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of two diets with different cation-anion differences on Ca requirements in the growing calf. Holstein calves (n = 48, 24 males) were blocked at 56 to 70 d after birth (80+/-10 kg of body weight) according to sex and birth date and assigned randomly in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments containing cation-anion differences as meq (Na + K) - (Cl + S)/kg of diet dry matter and Ca content of 1) 0 and 0.35%, 2) 0 and 0.50%, 3) 0 and 0.65%, 4) 200 and 0.35%, 5) 200 and 0.50%, and 6) 200 and 0.65%. Feed intake and average daily gain did not differ among treatment groups. Plasma pH and Ca were unaffected by dietary Ca content or dietary cation-anion difference. Plasma Cl and P decreased linearly with increasing Ca content in the diet. Plasma HCO3 increased linearly with increased dietary Ca content. Plasma HCO3 and partial pressure of CO2 were higher in calves fed the 200 compared with calves fed the 0 cation-anion difference diets. Plasma Cl was, however, lower in calves fed the 200 compared with calves fed the 0 meq diets. An interaction of Ca content and dietary cation-anion difference was detected for plasma P content. Urinary pH increased linearly with increasing dietary Ca content. Calves fed the 200 meq dietary cation-anion difference had higher urinary pH values than those fed the 0 meq diet. Urinary P excretion was not altered by dietary cation-anion difference or Ca content of the diet. Calves fed the 0 meq diet had higher urinary cocnentrations of Ca and Cl when compared with those fed the 200 meq diet. Bone ash, P, Ca, Mg, and K content of the 10th rib were not affected by dietary treatments. Breaking strength of the seventh and ninth ribs increased quadratically with increasing dietary Ca content. Dietary cation-anion difference had no effect on the breaking strength of the seventh and ninth ribs. Varying the dietary cation-anion difference from 0 to 200 meq/kg of dietary dry matter had no effect on Ca

  4. The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: A randomized clinical trial in obese Mexican women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health problem in many poor countries where micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent. A partial meal replacement may be an effective strategy to decrease obesity and increase micronutrient intake in such populations. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a partial meal replacement with and without inulin on weight reduction, blood lipids and micronutrients intake in obese Mexican women. Methods In a randomized controlled clinical trial 144 women (18–50 y with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, were allocated into one of the following treatments during 3 months: 1 Two doses/d of a partial meal replacement (PMR, 2 Two doses/d of PMR with inulin (PMR + I , 3 Two doses/d of 5 g of inulin (INU and 4 Control group (CON. All groups received a low calorie diet (LCD. Weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured every 2 weeks and body composition, lipids and glucose concentration and nutrient intake were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results All groups significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference. Differences between groups were only observed in BMI and weight adjusted changes: At 45 days PMR group lost more weight than INU and CON groups by 0.9 and 1.2Kg, respectively. At 60 days, PMR + I and PMR groups lost more weight than in INU by 0.7 and 1Kg, respectively. Subjects in PMR, PMR + I and INU significantly decreased triglycerides. Energy intake was reduced in all groups. Fiber intake increased in PMR + I and INU groups. Some minerals and vitamins intakes were higher in PMR and PMR + I compared with INU and CON groups. Conclusion Inclusion of PMR with and without inulin to a LCD had no additional effect on weight reduction than a LCD alone but reduced triglycerides and improved intake of micronutrients during caloric restriction. PMR could be a good alternative for obese populations with micronutrient deficiencies. ClinicalTrials.Gov ID

  5. The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: a randomized clinical trial in obese Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alma Rosa; Caamaño, María del Carmen; Garcia-Padilla, Sandra; García, Olga Patricia; Duarte, Miguel Angel; Rosado, Jorge L

    2012-06-18

    Obesity is a major public health problem in many poor countries where micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent. A partial meal replacement may be an effective strategy to decrease obesity and increase micronutrient intake in such populations. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a partial meal replacement with and without inulin on weight reduction, blood lipids and micronutrients intake in obese Mexican women. In a randomized controlled clinical trial 144 women (18-50 y) with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m², were allocated into one of the following treatments during 3 months: 1) Two doses/d of a partial meal replacement (PMR), 2) Two doses/d of PMR with inulin (PMR + I) , 3) Two doses/d of 5 g of inulin (INU) and 4) Control group (CON). All groups received a low calorie diet (LCD). Weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured every 2 weeks and body composition, lipids and glucose concentration and nutrient intake were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. All groups significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference. Differences between groups were only observed in BMI and weight adjusted changes: At 45 days PMR group lost more weight than INU and CON groups by 0.9 and 1.2Kg, respectively. At 60 days, PMR + I and PMR groups lost more weight than in INU by 0.7 and 1Kg, respectively. Subjects in PMR, PMR + I and INU significantly decreased triglycerides. Energy intake was reduced in all groups. Fiber intake increased in PMR + I and INU groups. Some minerals and vitamins intakes were higher in PMR and PMR + I compared with INU and CON groups. Inclusion of PMR with and without inulin to a LCD had no additional effect on weight reduction than a LCD alone but reduced triglycerides and improved intake of micronutrients during caloric restriction. PMR could be a good alternative for obese populations with micronutrient deficiencies.

  6. The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: A randomized clinical trial in obese Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major public health problem in many poor countries where micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent. A partial meal replacement may be an effective strategy to decrease obesity and increase micronutrient intake in such populations. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a partial meal replacement with and without inulin on weight reduction, blood lipids and micronutrients intake in obese Mexican women. Methods In a randomized controlled clinical trial 144 women (18–50 y) with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, were allocated into one of the following treatments during 3 months: 1) Two doses/d of a partial meal replacement (PMR), 2) Two doses/d of PMR with inulin (PMR + I) , 3) Two doses/d of 5 g of inulin (INU) and 4) Control group (CON). All groups received a low calorie diet (LCD). Weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured every 2 weeks and body composition, lipids and glucose concentration and nutrient intake were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results All groups significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference. Differences between groups were only observed in BMI and weight adjusted changes: At 45 days PMR group lost more weight than INU and CON groups by 0.9 and 1.2Kg, respectively. At 60 days, PMR + I and PMR groups lost more weight than in INU by 0.7 and 1Kg, respectively. Subjects in PMR, PMR + I and INU significantly decreased triglycerides. Energy intake was reduced in all groups. Fiber intake increased in PMR + I and INU groups. Some minerals and vitamins intakes were higher in PMR and PMR + I compared with INU and CON groups. Conclusion Inclusion of PMR with and without inulin to a LCD had no additional effect on weight reduction than a LCD alone but reduced triglycerides and improved intake of micronutrients during caloric restriction. PMR could be a good alternative for obese populations with micronutrient deficiencies. ClinicalTrials.Gov ID NCT01505023 PMID

  7. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  8. mRNA GPR162 changes are associated with decreased food intake in rat, and its human genetic variants with impairments in glucose homeostasis in two Swedish cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Vanni; Sreedharan, Smitha; Carlini, Valeria P; Jacobsson, Josefin A; Haitina, Tatjana; Hammer, Joanna; Stephansson, Olga; Crona, Filip; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Risérus, Ulf; Lannfelt, Lars; Marcus, Claude; Heilig, Markus; de Barioglio, Susana R; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a class of integral membrane proteins mediating intercellular interactions of fundamental physiological importance for survival including regulation of food intake, blood pressure, and hormonal sensing signaling, among other roles. Homeostatic alterations in the physiological status of GPCRs are often associated with underlying causes of disease, and to date, several orphan GPCRs are still uncharacterized. Findings from our previous study demonstrate that the Rhodopsin family protein GPR162 is widely expressed in GABAergic as well as other neurons within the mouse hippocampus, whereas extensive expression is observed in hypothalamus, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area, regions strictly interconnected and involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and hedonic feeding. In this study, we provide a further anatomical characterization of GPR162 in mouse brain via in situ hybridization as well as detailed mRNA expression in a panel of rat tissues complementing a specie-specific mapping of the receptor. We also provide an attempt to demonstrate a functional implication of GPR162 in food intake-related behavior via antisense knockdown studies. Furthermore, we performed human genetic studies in which for the first time, variants of the GPR162 gene were associated with impairments in glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Aromatase inhibitors and calcium absorption in early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaarwerk, Amye; Burkard, Mark E; Wisinski, Kari B; Shafer, Martin M; Davis, Lisa A; Gogineni, Jyothi; Crone, Elizabeth; Hansen, Karen E

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the effect of aromatase inhibitors (AI) on intestinal calcium absorption, measured using the gold-standard dual stable calcium isotope method. In this pilot study, we recruited 10 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who planned to initiate AI therapy; women receiving chemotherapy were excluded. Women completed two 24 h inpatient calcium absorption study visits, the first prior to AI therapy and the second at least 6 weeks following onset of AI therapy. We calculated total fractional calcium absorption (TFCA) using the dose-corrected fractional recovery of two stable isotopes from 24 h urine collections. Ten postmenopausal women (mean±SD age, 66±7 years; 25(OH)D 40±7 ng/mL, and total calcium intake of 1,714±640 mg/day) exhibited no change in TFCA related to AI therapy (0.155±0.042 prior to and 0.160±0.064 following AI therapy, p=1.0). Subjects exhibited a surprisingly small decline in serum estradiol levels with AI therapy that was not statistically significant. However, there was a significant correlation between duration of AI therapy and the decline in serum estradiol levels (r=-0.65, p=0.040). In this pilot study, AI therapy did not decrease TFCA. Women with early stage breast cancer exhibited an unexpectedly low TFCA, most likely due to their high calcium intake. The null effect of AI therapy on TFCA might relate to the brief duration of AI therapy, the minimal effect of AI therapy on estradiol levels, subjects' high calcium intake or excellent vitamin D status.

  10. Dolomite supplementation improves bone metabolism through modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Nagasawa, Sakae; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Yagasaki, Hiroshi; Ito, Michio

    2005-01-01

    Dolomite, a mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg (CO3)2), is used as a food supplement that supplies calcium and magnesium. However, the effect of magnesium supplementation on bone metabolism in patients with osteoporosis is a matter of controversy. We examined the effects of daily supplementation with dolomite on calcium metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Dolomite was administered daily to OVX rats for 9 weeks. The same amount of magnesium chloride as that supplied by the dolomite was given to OVX rats as a positive control. Histological examination revealed that ovariectomy decreased trabecular bone and increased adipose tissues in the femoral metaphysis. Dolomite or magnesium supplementation failed to improve these bone histological features. Calcium content in the femora was decreased in OVX rats. Neither calcium nor magnesium content in the femora in OVX rats was significantly increased by dolomite or magnesium administration. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was significantly increased in OVX rats, and was not affected by the magnesium supplementation. Serum concentrations of magnesium were increased, and those of calcium were decreased, in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. However, there was a tendency toward decreased parathyroid hormone secretion and increased calcitonin secretion in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and osteocalcin levels were significantly increased in the supplemented OVX rats. These results suggest that increased magnesium intake improves calcium metabolism in favor of increasing bone formation, through the modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion.

  11. A Closer look at calcium absorption and the benefits and risks of dietary versus supplemental calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Anna; Camacho, Pauline

    2013-11-01

    To perform a thorough search of the literature on calcium research and specifically address the topic of calcium absorption. PubMed and Ovid were the main engines used for primary literature searches; textbooks, review articles, and book chapters are examples of the other sources used for supplemental information. Regarding calcium absorption, it seems apparent that the absorption efficiency of all calcium salts, regardless of solubility, is fairly equivalent and not significantly less than the absorption efficiency of dietary calcium. However, dietary calcium has been shown to have greater impact in bone building than supplemental calcium. This is likely due to improved absorption with meals and the tendency of people to intake smaller amounts more frequently, which is more ideal for the body's method of absorption. In addition, the cardiovascular risks of excessive calcium intake appear to be more closely related to calcium supplements than dietary calcium; this relationship continues to be controversial in the literature. We conclude that further studies are needed for direct comparison of supplemental and dietary calcium to fully establish if one is superior to the other with regard to improving bone density. We also propose further studies on the cardiovascular risk of long-term increased calcium intake and on physician estimates of patients' daily calcium intake to better pinpoint those patients who require calcium supplementation.

  12. Effect of anionic salts in concentrate mixture on some blood and urine minerals, acid-base balance and feed intake of dry pregnant cows on grass silage based feeding with high calcium intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAURIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of anionic salts in a concentrate mixture on some blood and urine minerals, acid-base balance and intake of Ayrshire cows fed a grass silage based diet. Eighteen nonlactating, pregnant Ayrshire cows were divided randomly into two groups according to their expected calving date. Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB, calculated as milliequivalents [(Na+ + K+ - (Cl- + S2-] of the two diets was +410 mEq/kg of dietary dry matter (DM in the high DCAB group and +81 mEq/kg of the dietary DM in the low DCAB group, respectively. The DCAB was formulated using NH4Cl, (NH42SO4 and MgCl2 as anionic salts. Cows received grass silage (5.2 kg DM, hay (0.8 kg DM and a concentrate mixture (1.7 kg DM until calving. Both diets were supplemented with 100 g CaCO3 to achieve a high Ca intake (82 g Ca/d. Blood and urine samples were collected 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before the expected calving date, at calving, the day after calving and 1 week following calving. Current data indicated that it may be difficult to formulate a diet with a negative DCAB, if the K content of grass silage is over 30 g/kg DM. As a result, no increase in blood Ca2+ and a relatively high urinary pH were observed. Furthermore, it may advantageous to increase Mg intakes above current Finnish recommendations when dietary Ca concentrations are high, since 28% of experimental cows experienced hypomagnaesemia at parturition.;

  13. Pasta supplemented with isolated lupin protein fractions reduces body weight gain and food intake of rats and decreases plasma glucose concentration upon glucose overload trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Caramanico, Rosita; Rossi, Filippo; Morlacchini, Mauro; Duranti, Marcello

    2014-02-01

    The supplementation of foods with biologically active compounds can be a powerful approach for improving diet and well being. In this study we separately included in pasta matrices a concentrate of γ-conglutin, a glucose-lowering protein from Lupinus albus seeds, an isolate of the other main lupin storage proteins and ovalbumin, at a ratio corresponding to 125 mg of pure protein in 100 g of pasta. With these products we fed rats made hyperglycaemic, for 3 weeks. Among the most relevant changes measured in body and blood parameters were: (i) a significant reduction in food intake of rats fed γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta and a significant limitation in the body weight increase in rats fed α, β and δ-conglutin isolate supplemented pasta, while the food conversion indices were unchanged; (ii) a reduction in glycaemia upon glucose overload trial, especially in the γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta fed animals, at a dose of 45 mg per kg body weight. The correlations among the measured parameters are discussed. Overall, the results evidence the potentiality of supplementing traditional foods with exogenous nutraceutical seed proteins to control body weight gain and glycaemia.

  14. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  15. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  16. Feed supplemented with 3 different antibiotics improved food intake and decreased the activation of the humoral immune response in healthy weaned pigs but had differing effects on intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, P; Merialdi, G; Scandurra, S; Messori, S; Bardasi, L; Nisi, I; Russo, D; Casini, L; Trevisi, P

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 3 antibiotics used for pulmonary pathologies added in the feed of weaned pigs on growth performance, commensal microbiota, and immune response. At weaning, a total of 72 pigs were randomly assigned by BW and litter to 1 of the following diets: control (typical weaning diet), control + 400 mg of tilmicosin/kg, control + 600 mg of amoxicillin/kg, and control + 300 mg of doxycycline/kg. Individually penned pigs were slaughtered after 3 wk (12 pigs/treatment) or 4 wk (6 pigs/treatment). During the fourth week, all pigs received the control diet to test the residual effect of the antimicrobial supplementation. The antibiotic supplementation increased growth and feed intake during the first week (P feed ratio tended to improve during the first week (P = 0.076) by the antibiotics compared with the control. Among the antibiotic treatments, no difference was observed in ADG and feed intake, which were also unchanged by the diet in the fourth week. The fecal enterobacteria counts were increased by amoxicillin on d 14 and 21 (P change the mucosal histomorphometry of the small intestine. For tilmicosin, the observed positive action on piglet performance and feed intake can originate by the decreased costs of immune activation determined by the action on intestinal microbiota. For amoxicillin and doxycycline, the observation on intestinal and fecal microbiota seems to be not sufficient to explain their growth-promoting effect.

  17. The relation between dietary protein, calcium and bone health in women: results from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikert, Cornelia; Walter, Dietmar; Hoffmann, Kurt; Kroke, Anja; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner

    2005-01-01

    The role of dietary protein in bone health is controversial. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between protein intake, dietary calcium, and bone structure measured by broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA). Our analysis includes 8,178 female study participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Potsdam Study. Ultrasound bone measurements were performed on the right os calcis, and BUA was determined. Dietary intake was assessed by a standardized food frequency questionnaire. We applied linear regression models to estimate the association between dietary protein and BUA. After multivariate adjustment, high intake of animal protein was associated with decreased BUA values (beta = -0.03; p = 0.010) whereas high vegetable protein intake was related to an increased BUA (beta = 0.11; p = 0.007). The effect of dietary animal protein on BUA was modified by calcium intake. High consumption of protein from animal origin may be unfavourable, whereas a higher vegetable protein intake may be beneficial for bone health. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that high calcium intake combined with adequate protein intake based on a high ratio of vegetable to animal protein may be protective against osteoporosis. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z Y; Yin, Z Y; Lin, X Y; Yan, Z G; Wang, Z H

    2015-10-01

    Multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (n = 16) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow. Treatments were as follows: (i) feeding low-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet A), (ii) feeding low-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium (Diet B), (iii) feeding high-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet C) and (iv) feeding high-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium. This experiment consisted 30 days. The milk and blood samples were collected in the last day of the trail. Intakes were recorded in the last 2 days of the trail. Supplementation of fatty acid calcium decreased significantly dry matter intake (DMI) (p < 0.01). Addition fatty acid calcium decreased milk protein percentage (p < 0.01) and milk SNF percentage (p < 0.01), but increased MUN (p < 0.05). Supplemented fatty acid decreased concentration of blood BHBA (p < 0.05), but increased TG, NEFA, glucagon, GLP-1, CCK, leptin, ApoA-IV, serotonin and MSH concentration in blood, the CCK concentration and feed intake showed a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  20. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  1. Intake of fish oil, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins B-6 and E for 1 year decreases plasma C-reactive protein and reduces coronary heart disease risk factors in male patients in a cardiac rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Fonollá, Juristo; Marti, José Luis; Jiménez, Jesús; Boza, Julio J; López-Huertas, Eduardo

    2007-02-01

    Certain nutrients have been shown to be effective in preventing coronary heart disease. We hypothesized that a daily intake of low amounts of a number of these nutrients would exert beneficial effects on risk factors and clinical variables in patients that suffered from myocardial infarction (MI) and were following a cardiac rehabilitation program. Forty male MI patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. The supplemented group consumed 500 mL/d of a fortified dairy product containing eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins A, B-6, D, and E. The control group consumed 500 mL/d of semi-skimmed milk with added vitamins A and D. The patients received supervised exercise training, lifestyle and dietary recommendations, and they were instructed to consume the products in addition to their regular diet. Blood extractions and clinical examinations were performed after 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, folic acid, vitamin B-6, and vitamin E increased after supplementation (Pprotein concentrations decreased in the supplemented group (P<0.05), and plasma total homocysteine decreased in both groups. There were no changes in heart rate, blood pressure, or cardiac electrocardiographic parameters in either group. Therapeutic lifestyle changes, effected through a CR program comprising regular exercise and the intake of a combination of dietary nutrients, reduced a variety of risk factors in MI patients, which supports the rationale for nutritional programs in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

  2. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Spiegel, David M

    2017-06-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balance have important implications in patients with chronic kidney disease, where negative balance may increase risk of osteoporosis and fracture and positive balance may increase risk of vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Here, we examine the state of current knowledge about calcium balance in adults throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease and discuss recommendations for clinical strategies to maintain balance as well as future research needs in this area. Recent calcium balance studies in adult patients with chronic kidney disease show that neutral calcium balance is achieved with calcium intake near the recommended daily allowance. Increases in calcium through diet or supplements cause high positive calcium balance, which may put patients at risk for vascular calcification. However, heterogeneity in calcium balance exists among these patients. Given the available calcium balance data in this population, it appears clinically prudent to aim for recommended calcium intakes around 1000 mg/day to achieve neutral calcium balance and avoid adverse effects of either negative or positive calcium balance. Assessment of patients' dietary calcium intake could further equip clinicians to make individualized recommendations for meeting recommended intakes.

  3. Treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism by high calcium diet is associated with enhanced resistance artery relaxation in experimental renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolma, Pasi; Kööbi, Peeter; Kalliovalkama, Jarkko; Saha, Heikki; Fan, Meng; Jokihaara, Jarkko; Moilanen, Eeva; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Pörsti, Ilkka

    2003-12-01

    Vasorelaxation is impaired in renal failure (RF) and hypertension. A high calcium diet enhances vasodilatation and reduces blood pressure in experimental hypertension. Oral calcium salts are used as phosphate binders in RF. However, the effect of increased calcium intake on arterial tone in RF is unknown. We investigated the influence of an 8-week high calcium diet (0.3 vs 3.0%) on resistance artery tone in 5/6 nephrectomized (NTX) rats. Calcium was supplemented as carbonate salt, blood pressure measured by tail-cuff, urine collected in metabolic cages, and samples taken for blood chemistry and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Functional studies of isolated third-order branches of the mesenteric artery in vitro were performed using the Mulvany multimyograph. Plasma urea was elevated 1.6-fold and systolic blood pressure by 10 mmHg after NTX, while increased calcium intake was without effect on these variables. Plasma PTH and phosphate were raised following NTX, and suppressed by high calcium diet. Vasorelaxations induced by K(+) channel agonists 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and levcromakalim were impaired after NTX. Vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine was also reduced following NTX, and experiments with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, diclofenac and charybdotoxin + apamin suggested that the K(+) channel-mediated component of endothelium-dependent relaxation was deficient after NTX. Increased calcium intake corrected all impairments of vasodilatation in NTX rats. Deficient vasorelaxation via K(+) channels was normalized by high calcium diet in experimental RF. This effect was independent of the degree of renal impairment and blood pressure, but was associated with improved calcium metabolism: plasma levels of PTH and phosphate were decreased and ionized calcium was increased.

  4. Effects of Adding Chymosin to Milk on Calcium Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif

    2014-01-01

    either chymosin or similar placebo was added. Compared with placebo, chymosin did not affect 24-h urinary calcium, calcium/creatinine ratio, plasma parathyroid hormone, calcitonin or ionized calcium levels. However, during the first 4 h after intake of milk with chymosin, urinary calcium-creatinine ratio...

  5. Dietary sugar intake was associated with increased body fatness but decreased cardiovascular mortality in Chinese elderly: an 11-year prospective study of Mr and Ms OS of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z-M; Tse, L A; Chan, D; Wong, C; Wong, S Y S

    2017-11-30

    Epidemiological studies suggest that sugar intake contributes to weight gain and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, this association is largely undefined in the elderly population. Our aim was to investigate the effect of sugar consumption on the subsequent changes in body fatness and CVD mortality in Chinese elderly. A total of 2000 men and 2000 women aged ⩾65 years were recruited from 2001 to 2003. Dietary sugar intake was estimated based on a validated 329-item food frequency questionnaire and a local sugar database. Adiposity was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up after 4 years. Mortality was ascertained by local death registry until March 2014. Multivariable linear and Cox regression were conducted to evaluate the association of sugar consumption on the changes in body fatness and CVD mortality. A total of 174 CVD deaths were documented within the total 37 999 person-years' follow-up. Significant positive association between sugar intake and increase in body fatness at follow-up after 4 years was found in men but not in women. After adjustment for potential confounders, men who consumed 1% increase in added sugar had an increase in whole body fat by 0.043 kg (P=0.006), central fat by 0.029 kg (P=0.016) and peripheral fat by 0.026 kg (P=0.006). However, in both genders, after an average of 11.1-year follow-up, compared with the lowest quintile, the highest intakes of added sugar were associated with significantly lowered CVD mortality by 74.9% (hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.251(0.070, 0.899)) in a dose-response manner (P trend =0.011). This association was attenuated to non-significance by further adjustment of the change in body fatness (P trend =0.055). Thus higher sugar intake of the Chinese elderly was associated with increased adiposity in men but decreased CVD mortality. The current World Health Organization recommendation for the elderly should be reviewed

  6. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  7. Gastric bypass in rats does not decrease appetitive behavior towards sweet or fatty fluids despite blunting preferential intake of sugar and fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Clare M; Bohnenkamp, Ryan A; Blonde, Ginger D; Letourneau, Chanel; Corteville, Caroline; Bueter, Marco; Lutz, Thomas A; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2015-04-01

    After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, patients report consuming fewer fatty and dessert-like foods, and rats display blunted sugar and fat preferences. Here we used a progressive ratio (PR) task in our rat model to explicitly test whether RYGB decreases the willingness of rats to work for very small amounts of preferred sugar- and/or fat-containing fluids. In each of two studies, two groups of rats - one maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD) and standard chow (CHOW) and one given CHOW alone - were trained while water-deprived to work for water or either Ensure or 1.0M sucrose on increasingly difficult operant schedules. When tested before surgery while nondeprived, HFD rats had lower PR breakpoints (number of operant responses in the last reinforced ratio) for sucrose, but not for Ensure, than CHOW rats. After surgery, at no time did rats given RYGB show lower breakpoints than SHAM rats for Ensure, sucrose, or when 5% Intralipid served postoperatively as the reinforcer. Nevertheless, RYGB rats showed blunted preferences for these caloric fluids versus water in 2-bottle preference tests. Importantly, although the Intralipid and sucrose preferences of RYGB rats decreased further over time, subsequent breakpoints for them were not significantly impacted. Collectively, these data suggest that the observed lower preferences for normally palatable fluids after RYGB in rats may reflect a learned adjustment to altered postingestive feedback rather than a dampening of the reinforcing taste characteristics of such stimuli as measured by the PR task in which postingestive stimulation is negligible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Trends in energy and nutrient intake by adolescents in public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 2003-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Thais Meirelles de; Veiga, Gloria Valeria da; Sichieri, Rosely; Pereira, Rosângela Alves

    2016-08-29

    The study analyzed variations in energy and nutrient intake by adolescents enrolled in public schools, examined in two school-based cross-sectional surveys, in 2003 and 2008. Food consumption was assessed with three food records. Weight was classified according to World Health Organization criteria. A total of 433 adolescents were studied in 2003 and 510 in 2008. Prevalence of excess weight was 17% in 2003 and 22% in 2008 (p > 0.05). There was a reduction in the intake of saturated fats and vitamin A in boys. Girls showed an increase in the intake of energy, carbohydrates, and calcium and a reduction in protein and iron. Both boys and girls reduced their intake of vitamin E and lipids and increased their sodium. Adolescents with excess weight showed an increase in calcium intake and a decrease in saturated fat and vitamin A. The nutritional quality of the adolescents' diet declined over the course of the five years.

  9. Increase vs. decrease of calcium uptake by isolated heart cells induced by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ vs. HOCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminishi, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Yanagishita, T.; Kako, K.J.

    1989-03-01

    Adult rat heart myocytes were labeled rapidly with exogenous (45Ca2+). Addition of 2.5 mM H2O2 to the heart cell suspension raised the content of rapidly exchangeable intracellular Ca2+ twofold, whereas addition of 1-30 mM HOCl decreased the Ca2+ content. The H2O2-induced increase in Ca2+ content was dependent on the medium Na+, pH, and temperature but was not significantly affected by addition of verapamil, diltiazem, amiloride, or 3-aminobenzamide. The (3H)ouabain binding to myocytes was suppressed by H2O2, whereas the Ca2+ efflux from myocytes was not influenced. An uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, reduced Ca2+ content, implying that the H2O2-induced change in Ca2+ content was not directly related to ATP depletion. On the other hand, the H2O2-induced Ca2+ accumulation in myocytes was prevented by deferoxamine or o-phenanthroline. These results suggest that H2O2 inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase, resulting in an increase in intracellular Na+ concentration and stimulation of sarcolemmal Na+-Ca2+ exchange activity, which caused a transient net Ca2+ influx into myocytes. By contrast, HOCl decreased the Ca2+ content of the rapidly exchangeable pool below control levels and this action of HOCl was antagonized by 1,4-dithiothreitol. HOCl accelerated Ca2+ efflux from myocytes. Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-ATPase of the isolated sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) fraction were highly sensitive to the action of HOCl. Ca2+ uptake by intracellular sites, studied with myocytes permeabilized with digitonin, was inhibited by both H2O2 and HOCl. Thus these results suggest that HOCl inhibits the SR Ca2+ pump, resulting in the observed acceleration of Ca2+ efflux from and decline in Ca2+ content of myocytes.

  10. Calcium in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis: EMAS clinical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Antonio; Chedraui, Peter; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Lopes, Patrice; Mishra, Gita; Mueck, Alfred; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Rees, Margaret; Lambrinoudaki, Irene

    2018-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a highly prevalent disease. Prevention through lifestyle measures includes an adequate calcium intake. Despite the guidance provided by scientific societies and governmental bodies worldwide, many issues remain unresolved. To provide evidence regarding the impact of calcium intake on the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and critically appraise current guidelines. Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. The recommended daily intake of calcium varies between 700 and 1200mg of elemental calcium, depending on the endorsing source. Although calcium can be derived either from the diet or supplements, the former source is preferred. Intake below the recommended amount may increase fragility fracture risk; however, there is no consistent evidence that calcium supplementation at, or above, recommended levels reduces risk. The addition of vitamin D may minimally reduce fractures, mainly among institutionalised people. Excessive intake of calcium, defined as higher than 2000mg/day, can be potentially harmful. Some studies demonstrated harm even at lower dosages. An increased risk for cardiovascular events, urolithiasis and even fractures has been found in association with excessive calcium intake, but this issue remains unresolved. In conclusion, an adequate intake of calcium is recommended for general bone health. Excessive calcium intake seems of no benefit, and could possibly be harmful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prolonged flaxseed flour intake decreased the thickness of the aorta and modulates some modifiable risk factors related to cardiovascular disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Ludmila Ferreira Medeiros de França; Vicente, Gabriela Câmara; Brant, Lívia Hipólito Cardozo; Mafra, Denise; Chagas, Maurício Alves; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2014-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major public health problem. Different risk factors have been recognized as the main causes of the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed is a source of dietary fiber, lignans, and alpha-linolenic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prolonged supplementation with flaxseed flour as preventive therapy on cardiovascular risk parameters in healthy Wistar rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into two groups after giving birth and during lactation period: the control group was fed with diet based on casein and the flaxseed group was fed with diet based on casein containing 25% of flaxseed flour. At weaning, 10 male offspring from each group continued to receive the same diets from their mothers during 250 days. The body weight, visceral fat mass, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, glucose and thickness of the aorta were analyzed. The body weight, visceral fat mass, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, glucose and thickness of the aorta values were statistically lower when compared to control group. The data suggest that flaxseed flour supplementation in healthy wistar rats for a prolonged period may decrease the thickness of the aorta and may be used as a preventive measure in modulating some modifiable risk factors related to cardiovascular disease. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium dobesilate for prevention of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarey, Mostafa; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Najafi, Houshang

    2014-01-01

    Calcium dobesilate is an antioxidant drug and this study is aimed to investigate the effects of calcium dobesilate on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. This experimental study was conducted on 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into the following 5 groups: control, sham, gentamicin (100 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal), gentamicin and calcium dobesilate (50 mg/kg body weight), gentamicin and calcium dobesilate (50 mg/kg body weight). Treatment was provided once a day in a 7-day period. At the end of the 7th day, plasma and urine samples were taken and the concentrations of creatinine, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, and osmolarity were measured in both samples. The level of oxidative stress in the left kidney tissue samples was also assessed by measuring malondialdehyde and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Calcium dobesilate intake with both doses led to a significant decrease in the elevated concentration of creatinine, urea nitrogen, and fractional excretion of sodium by gentamicin, and an increase in creatinine clearance and absolute excretion of potassium as compared to the gentamicin group. Furthermore, calcium dobesilate decreased tissue malondialdehyde and increased tissue ferric reducing antioxidant power at both doses, in comparison to those in the gentamicin group. Calcium dobesilate is capable of protecting rats against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. This protective effect of calcium dobesilate is probably dependent on its antioxidant properties.

  13. The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Soo Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiative, and many other studies included in the meta-analysis obtained data from calcium-replete subjects and it is not clear whether the same risk profile would be observed in populations with low calcium intakes. Dietary calcium intake varies widely throughout the world and it is especially low in East Asia, although the risk of cardiovascular events is less prominent in this region. Therefore, clarification is necessary regarding the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events following calcium supplementation and whether this relationship can be generalized to populations with low calcium intakes. Additionally, the skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are greater in subjects with low calcium intakes and, therefore, the risk-benefit ratio of calcium supplementation is likely to differ based on the dietary calcium intake and risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases of various populations. Further studies investigating the risk-benefit profiles of calcium supplementation in various populations are required to develop population-specific guidelines for individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, and risk profiles around the world.

  14. Consequences of a plant-based diet with low dairy consumption on intake of bone-relevant nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G

    2009-05-01

    This study examines the extent to which a plant-based dietary intervention that discourages consumption of dairy products and meat influences bone-relevant nutrients. A randomized controlled study design was used to evaluate the Coronary Health Improvement Project. The Project is a heart disease prevention intervention administered in an intensive 40-hour educational course delivered over a 4-week period. Participants were evaluated at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months. After 6 weeks, participants in the intervention group compared with the control group experienced significant increases in magnesium and daily intake of fruit, vegetables, and grains but significant decreases in dairy servings per day and calcium and vitamin D from food. After 6 months, those in the intervention group showed significant increases in daily intake of fruit, vegetables, and grains and significant decreases in dairy servings per day, daily meat consumption, and protein, phosphorous, calcium, total calcium, and vitamin D from food. Serum calcium levels are the primary determinant of parathyroid hormone (PTH) release, and within 6 weeks, the intervention group's PTH levels were elevated from baseline and significantly different from the control group's PTH levels. At 6 months, urinary type I collagen N-telopeptide (NTx) levels were significantly greater in the intervention group compared with the control group. The Coronary Health Improvement Project increases the intake of important food items but decreases calcium and vitamin D consumption. There is also some evidence of an increase in NTx biomarkers, consistent with increased bone resorption.

  15. Effects of cholecalciferol supplementation and optimized calcium intakes on vitamin D status, muscle strength and bone health: a one-year pilot randomized controlled trial in adults with severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Foidart-Desalle, Marguerite; Ledoux, Didier; Remy, Christophe; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Damas, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne

    2015-03-01

    Burn patients are at risk of hypovitaminosis D and osteopenia or sarcopenia. Vitamin D pleiotropic effects may influence bone and muscle health. The aim of this pilot study was to assess effects of a cholecalciferol (VD3) supplementation and an optimized calcium (Ca) regimen on vitamin D (VD) status, bone and muscle health during sequelar stage of burn injury. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Fifteen adults with thermal burns dating from 2 to 5 years were randomized into two groups. For 12 months, they either received a quarterly IM injection of 200,000IU VD3 and daily oral Ca (Group D) or placebo (Group P). VD status and bone remodeling markers were assessed every 3 months. Knee muscle strength and bone mineral density were, respectively, assessed using isokinetic dynamometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry at initiation (M0) and completion (M12) of the protocol. Of all the patients, 66% presented with VD deficiency and 53% (with 3 men health was observed in both groups while Group D significantly improved quadriceps strength when tested at high velocity. This VD3 supplementation was safe and efficient to correct hypovitaminosis D in burn adults. When combined with optimized Ca intakes, it demonstrated positive effects on muscle health but not on bone health. A high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and osteopenia in these patients, as well as their wide range of muscle performances, seem to be worrying when considering rehabilitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary activity in adolescent girls – The Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hergenroeder Albert

    2008-08-01

    .11↓ minutes, 95% CI = 11.74–12.48, p = 0.05 and total daily sedentary activity minutes (mean difference between I and C = 16.99↓ minutes, 95% CI = 16.49–17.50, p = 0.04. Conclusion A well designed and implemented school based health and physical activity intervention can result in a positive influence upon increasing physical activity levels and decreasing sedentary activity. Future interventions should consider a more structured intervention component to obtain significant changes in WBPA.

  17. Low levels of vitamin D in professional basketball players after wintertime: relationship with dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium Bajos niveles de vitamina D en jugadores profesionales de baloncesto después del invierno: relación con la ingesta oral de vitamina D y calcio

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bescós García; F. A. Rodríguez Guisado

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Although vitamin D deficiency has a high worldwide prevalence among the general population, very little is known about vitamin status in athletes. Aim: To investigate serum vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels after wintertime in male elite basketball players, and to relate these levels to the dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Methods: Subjects were 21 players from the same professional Spanish team. Blood samples to assess 25(OH)D levels were collected after wintertime during the ...

  18. Controlled high meat diets do not affect calcium retention or indices of bone status in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughead, Zamzam K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Lykken, Glenn I; Hunt, Janet R

    2003-04-01

    Calcium balance is decreased by an increased intake of purified proteins, although the effects of common dietary sources of protein (like meat) on calcium economy remain controversial. We compared the effects of several weeks of controlled high and low meat diets on body calcium retention, using sensitive radiotracer and whole body scintillation counting methodology. Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 15) consumed diets with similar calcium content (approximately 600 mg), but either low or high in meat (12 vs. 20% of energy as protein) for 8 wk each, in a randomized crossover design. After 4 wk of equilibration of each diet, calcium retention was measured by extrinsically labeling the 2-d menu with (47)Ca, followed by whole body scintillation counting for 28 d. Urinary and blood indicators of bone metabolism were also determined for each diet. Calcium retention was not different during the high and low meat dietary periods (d 28, mean +/- pooled SD: 17.1 and 15.6%, +/-0.6%, respectively; P = 0.09). An initially higher renal acid excretion in subjects consuming the high meat compared with the low meat diet decreased significantly with time. The diets did not affect urinary calcium loss or indicators of bone metabolism. In conclusion, under controlled conditions, a high meat compared with a low meat diet for 8 wk did not affect calcium retention or biomarkers of bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. Calcium retention is not reduced when subjects consume a high protein diet from common dietary sources such as meat.

  19. Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and acidified coproducts on dry matter intake, serum calcium, and performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, D J; Block, E; Weber, D; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2014-02-01

    Two products designed to deliver supplemental anions were evaluated for their effects on DMI, total serum Ca, and performance of transition dairy cows relative to a control diet that did not contain supplemental anions. Diets differed in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and anion source. Treatments were diets including a control (CON; DCAD +17.7 meq/100 g DM; n = 13), Bio-Chlor (BC; DCAD +2.5 meq/100 g DM; n = 14), and SoyChlor (SC, DCAD +0.4 meq/100 g DM; n = 15). Treatments began 21 d before expected calving dates and continued through parturition (mean treatment length 20.98 d); on calving, all animals received the same diet. Milk yield was measured through 21 d in milk, and milk samples were collected daily between 5 and 21 d in milk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. Prepartum DMI was 9.0, 8.5, and 7.5 ± 0.6 kg/d for CON, BC, and SC treatments, respectively, and tended to be lower for SC than CON (P = 0.07). Postpartum DMI and milk yields were similar among treatments. Milk protein, lactose, and urea nitrogen concentrations were highest for SC and lowest for BC, with CON being intermediate. Plasma glucose, measured on d 5, 10, and 21 postpartum, tended to be different among treatments (P = 0.06; 66.7, 57.1, and 63.8 ± 3.1 mg/dL for CON, BC, and SC, respectively). Serum total Ca concentrations did not differ among dietary treatments and only tended to change over time; values were not indicative of clinical hypocalcemia. With limited sample size, no significant effects of treatment were detected for incidence of postpartum health disorders or plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. Although DMI tended to be depressed in the prepartum period by SC, this intake depression was not accompanied by negative effects on performance or health in the postpartum period. Results suggest that cows were not adequately stressed to cause hypocalcemia or that DCAD values near 0 were insufficient to improve postpartum health and performance

  20. A importância do consumo dietético de cálcio e vitamina D no crescimento The importance for growth of dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline L. Bueno

    2008-10-01

    (genetic and metabolic and extrinsic factors (environmental factors such as diet, health, hygiene, housing and access to health services. Among the nutritional factors are vitamin and oligoelement deficiencies which may be associated with malnutrition or caused by insufficient absorption. Since calcium is one of the main mineral components of bone tissue, it is essential for adequate bone formation and, considering that vitamin D plays an important role in calcium metabolism, a diet with insufficient quantities of these nutrients can impact on the formation of the skeleton and on the process of growth and development. CONCLUSIONS: In children and adolescents, low intake or low absorption of calcium and vitamin D may limit their statural growth, and it is necessary to supply sufficient quantities of both during the critical growth phases.

  1. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if

  2. EFEKTIVITAS KAPORIT PADA PROSES KLORINASI TERHADAP PENURUNAN BAKTERI Coliform DARI LIMBAH CAIR RUMAH SAKIT X SAMARINDA (The Effectiveness of Calcium Hypochlorite to Chlorination Process in Decreasing the Amount of Coliform Bacteria in the Wastewater of X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Busyairi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kaporit pada limbah cair rumah sakit digunakan sebagai desinfektan, tetapi, penggunaan kaporit dengan dosis yang tidak tepat akan menyebabkan pembentukan senyawa Trihalomethane (THMs yang beracun dan bersifat karsinogenik. Pada limbah cair rumah sakit X Samarinda, diperoleh nilai MPN Coliform sebesar >160.000 MPN / 100 mL dengan residu klor sebesar 0 ppm. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan dosis optimum dari penggunaan kaporit menggunakan titik Breakpoint Chlorination (BPC dan pengaruhnya terhadap penurunan Coliform. Analisis dilakukan dengan titrasi iodometri dan menghitung jumlah bakteri Coliform memakai metode Most Probable Number (MPN. Penentuan dosis kaporit berdasarkan dosis optimum pada titik BPC dimaksudkan agar dapat menjaga residu klor dari penambahan dosis yang semakin meningkat. Hasil penelitian mempengarui rerata kadar bahan organik pada sampel limbah cair sebesar 137,26 ppm, sehingga dosis kaporit yang dibubuhkan dimulai dari 130-165 ppm. Titik BPC terjadi pada pembubuhan klor aktif 160 ppm untuk kedua waktu kontak yaitu 30 dan 40 menit. Pada titik BPC, waktu kontak 30 menit diperoleh rerata persentase penurunan nilai Coliform yaitu 98,21% sebesar 2.899 MPN / 100 mL dengan residu klor sebesar 88 ppm. Pada waktu kontak 40 menit diperoleh persentase penurunan bakteri Coliform hingga 98,83%, yaitu dari >160.000/100 mL menjadi 1.866/100 mL dengan residu klor 97,5 ppm. ABSTRACT Calcium hypochlorite of hospital wastewater serves as disinfectant, however, inappropriate dose of it will lead to the formation of Trihalomethane (THMs which is toxic and carcinogenic. The value of MPN Coliform of wastewater in X hospital Samarinda is >160.000 MPN / 100 mL with residual chlorine 0 ppm. This research aims at determining the optimum dose of calcium hypochlorite usage by using Breakpoint Chlorination curve and its effect to Coliform decrease. Further, the analysis is done by employing iodometric titration and the amount of Coliform

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals (ID 646, 1224, 1238, 1339

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims....... The claimed effects are “lactose intolerance”, “decrease lactose malabsorption symptoms” and “lactose digestion”. The target population is assumed to be lactose intolerant individuals. The Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake...... in lactose intolerant individuals. The Panel considers that decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals is a beneficial physiological effect for lactose intolerant individuals. Symptoms of lactose intolerance, which may develop one to three hours after...

  4. High fat diet disrupts endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Bäck, Susanne; Sulima, Agnieszka; Rice, Kenner C; Harvey, Brandon K

    2017-11-01

    Disruption to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis has been implicated in obesity, however, the ability to longitudinally monitor ER calcium fluctuations has been challenging with prior methodologies. We recently described the development of a Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-based reporter protein responsive to ER calcium depletion (GLuc-SERCaMP) and investigated the effect of a high fat diet on ER calcium homeostasis. A GLuc-based reporter cell line was treated with palmitate, a free fatty acid. Rats intrahepatically injected with GLuc-SERCaMP reporter were fed a cafeteria diet or high fat diet. The liver and plasma were examined for established markers of steatosis and compared to plasma levels of SERCaMP activity. Palmitate induced GLuc-SERCaMP release in vitro, indicating ER calcium depletion. Consumption of a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets correlated with alterations to hepatic ER calcium homeostasis in rats, shown by increased GLuc-SERCaMP release. Access to ad lib high fat pellets also led to a corresponding decrease in microsomal calcium ATPase activity and an increase in markers of hepatic steatosis. In addition to GLuc-SERCaMP, we have also identified endogenous proteins (endogenous SERCaMPs) with a similar response to ER calcium depletion. We demonstrated the release of an endogenous SERCaMP, thought to be a liver esterase, during access to a high fat diet. Attenuation of both GLuc-SERCaMP and endogenous SERCaMP was observed during dantrolene administration. Here we describe the use of a reporter for in vitro and in vivo models of high fat diet. Our results support the theory that dietary fat intake correlates with a decrease in ER calcium levels in the liver and suggest a high fat diet alters the ER proteome. Lay summary: ER calcium dysregulation was observed in rats fed a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets, with fluctuations in sensor release correlating with fat intake. Attenuation of sensor release, as well as food intake was observed during

  5. Calcium supplementation and prevention of preeclampsia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Dall'asta, Andrea; Gizzo, Salvatore; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Piantelli, Giovanni; Jasonni, Valerio Maria; Modena, Alberto Bacchi

    2012-12-01

    Since the early 1980s, epidemiological evidence has suggested a connection between low calcium intake and preeclampsia The purpose of this meta-analysis is to summarize current evidence regarding calcium supplementation during pregnancy in predicting preeclampsia and associated maternal-fetal complications. Literature revision of all RCT (random allocation of calcium versus placebo) available in MEDLINE/PUBMED up to 2/29/2012 regarding calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing preeclampsia. We used the Mantel-Haenszel's Method for four subgroup of patients: Adequate calcium intake; Low calcium intake; Low risk of preeclampsia; High risk of preeclampsia. We considered p prevention of preeclampsia, (2) other/adverse/long-term effects of calcium supplementation in pregnancy. Preeclampsia is likely to be a multifactorial disease. However, inadequate calcium intake represents a factor associated with an increased incidence of hypertensive disease. The results of our meta-analysis demonstrate that the additional intake of calcium during pregnancy is an effective measure to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia, especially in populations at high risk of preeclampsia due to ethnicity, gender, age, high BMI and in those with low baseline calcium intake.

  6. Decrease of Estradiol and Several Lifestyle Factors, but Not Helicobacter pylori Infection, Are Significant Risks for Osteopenia in Japanese Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinda, Daisuke; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Iino, Chikara; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Fukuda, Shinsaku

    2017-01-01

    The primary cause of osteoporosis in women is increased bone resorption and decreased bone density associated with reduced estrogen secretion. Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and osteoporosis regardless of estrogen levels. This study examined the relationship between H. pylori infection and osteopenia together with estrogen levels, calcium intake, and several lifestyle factors. This study included 473 healthy women who underwent a general health examination. Multivariate analysis was performed, with age, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, drinking habit, exercise habit, schooling duration, estradiol levels, birth history, calcium intake, schooling duration, smoking habit, drinking habit, exercise habit, and H. pylori infection as independent variables and the presence of osteopenia as a dependent variable. The adjusted OR for osteopenia with H. pylori infection was 0.95 (95% CI 0.55-1.63, p = 0.84). In contrast, osteopenia was significantly associated with age, low BMI, lesser schooling period, low estradiol levels, and low calcium intake. H. pylori infection was not a significant risk for osteopenia by the multivariate analysis, which included the primary confounding factors. Significant factors, such as estradiol and calcium intake, should be assessed together to study the association of H. pylori infection and osteopenia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Low Bone Mineral Mass Is Associated with Decreased Bone Formation and Diet in Females with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Kathleen J.; Barrish, Judy O.; Neul, Jeffrey L.; Glaze, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize biomarkers of bone turnover and their relation with bone mineral mass in a cross-sectional cohort of females with Rett syndrome (RTT) and to examine the role of dietary, biochemical, hormonal, and inflammatory factors on bone mineral mass and bone biomarkers in this disorder. Methods Total body bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary nutrient intakes were determined from 3-day food records. Biomarkers of bone turnover, bone metabolites, vitamin D metabolites, hormones, and inflammatory markers were measured by standard clinical laboratory methods. Results Serum osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and C-telopeptide showed significant inverse relations with age in the RTT cohort. Mean osteocalcin concentrations were significantly lower and mean bone alkaline phosphatase concentrations were significantly higher for individual age groups in the RTT cohort than mean values for their respective age ranges in the reference population. Significant inverse associations were identified between urinary calcium losses, expressed as calcium:creatinine ratios, and total body BMC and BMD z-scores. Dietary protein, calcium, and phosphorus intakes, expressed as a proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes for age and gender, showed significant positive associations with total body BMD z-scores. Conclusion This study suggests decreased bone formation rather than increased bone resorption may explain in part the deficits in bone mineral mass in RTT and that attention to the adequacy of dietary protein, calcium and phosphorus intakes may offer an opportunity to improve bone health in RTT. PMID:25144778

  8. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case-control study in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, Aleksander; Augustyniak, Malgorzata; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta

    2013-10-04

    An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease's incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on the risk of developing of colorectal cancer, and to evaluate dose dependent effect and to investigate possible effect modification. A hospital based case-control study of 1556 patients (703 histologically confirmed colon and rectal incident cases and 853 hospital-based controls) was performed between 2000-2012 in Krakow, Poland. The 148-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary habits and level of nutrients intake was used. Data regarding possible covariates was also collected. After adjustment for age, gender, education, consumption of fruits, raw and cooked vegetables, fish, and alcohol, as well as for intake of fiber, vitamin C, dietary iron, lifetime recreational physical activity, BMI, smoking status, and taking mineral supplements, an increase in the consumption of calcium was associated with the decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98 for every 100 mg Ca/day increase). Subjects consumed >1000 mg/day showed 46% decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). The effect of dietary calcium was modified by dietary fiber (p for interaction =0.015). Finally, consistent decrease of colon cancer risk was observed across increasing levels of dietary calcium and fiber intake. These relationships were not proved for rectal cancer. The study confirmed the effect of high doses of dietary calcium against the risk of colon cancer development. This relationship was observed across different levels of dietary fiber, and the

  9. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case–control study in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease’s incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on the risk of developing of colorectal cancer, and to evaluate dose dependent effect and to investigate possible effect modification. Methods A hospital based case–control study of 1556 patients (703 histologically confirmed colon and rectal incident cases and 853 hospital-based controls) was performed between 2000–2012 in Krakow, Poland. The 148-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary habits and level of nutrients intake was used. Data regarding possible covariates was also collected. Results After adjustment for age, gender, education, consumption of fruits, raw and cooked vegetables, fish, and alcohol, as well as for intake of fiber, vitamin C, dietary iron, lifetime recreational physical activity, BMI, smoking status, and taking mineral supplements, an increase in the consumption of calcium was associated with the decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98 for every 100 mg Ca/day increase). Subjects consumed >1000 mg/day showed 46% decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). The effect of dietary calcium was modified by dietary fiber (p for interaction =0.015). Finally, consistent decrease of colon cancer risk was observed across increasing levels of dietary calcium and fiber intake. These relationships were not proved for rectal cancer. Conclusions The study confirmed the effect of high doses of dietary calcium against the risk of colon cancer development. This relationship was observed across

  10. Importance of citrate and the calcium : citrate ratio in patients with calcium renal lithiasis and severe lithogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; Garrido-Gomez, Juan; Poyatos-Andujar, Antonio; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

    2013-04-01

    Different studies have shown the importance of citrate in the formation of calcium stones. It has further been shown that the states of metabolic acidosis result in an increase in bone resorption and lower urinary citrate levels. Increasing the intake of citrate in these patients can reduce the lithogenic risk and improve bone mineral density (BMD), contributing to control of both diseases. The study shows the importance of citrate in patients with calcium stones and BMD loss. The deficit in citrate excretion is associated with a decrease in bone mineralization and increased β-crosslaps. A calcium : citrate ratio >0.25 in patients with calcium stones and loss of mineral density may predict severe lithogenic activity. To analyse the importance of urinary citrate and the urinary calcium : citrate ratio in patients with calcium renal lithiasis and severe lithogenesis compared with a control group of patients without lithiasis. A cross-sectional study of 115 patients in eastern Andalusia, Spain was conducted. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A: 56 patients aged 25-60 years without calcium renal lithiasis; Group B: 59 patients aged 25-60 years, presenting with calcium renal lithiasis and severe lithogenesis. The citrate levels and the calcium : citrate ratio in the patients' urine and the relationship of these two factors to lithiasic activity were analysed and compared. In Group B, 32.2% of the patients presented with hypocitraturia, compared with 14.3% of the patients in Group A (P = 0.02). The urinary citrate levels were lower in Group B than in Group A (P = 0.001) and the calcium : citrate ratio was higher in Group B than in Group A (P = 0.005). The results suggest that a patient urinary calcium : citrate ratio > 0.25 indicates severe lithogenesis (with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 57%). After linear regression analysis, we found that the urinary citrate level is an independent factor associated with the changes in bone densitometry T

  11. Dietary Intake according to Gender and Education: A Twenty-Year Trend in a Swiss Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Rousi, Eirini; Paccaud, Fred; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia; Guessous, Idris

    2015-11-18

    We assessed trends in dietary intake according to gender and education using repeated cross-sectional, population-based surveys conducted between 1993 and 2012 in Geneva, Switzerland (17,263 participants, 52.0 ± 10.6 years, 48% male). In 1993-1999, higher educated men had higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), carotene and vitamin D intakes than lower educated men, and the differences decreased in 2006-2012. In 1993-1999, higher educated women had higher fiber, iron, carotene, vitamin D and alcohol intakes than lower educated women, and the differences decreased in 2006-2012. Total energy, polyunsaturated fatty acids, retinol and alcohol intakes decreased, while mono/disaccharides, MUFA and carotene intake increased in both genders. Lower educated men had stronger decreases in saturated fatty acid (SFA) and calcium intakes than higher educated men: multivariate-adjusted slope and 95% confidence interval -0.11 (-0.15; -0.06) vs. -0.03 (-0.08; 0.02) g/day/year for SFA and -5.2 (-7.8; -2.7) vs. -1.03 (-3.8; 1.8) mg/day/year for calcium, p for interaction educated women had a greater decrease in iron intake than lower educated women: -0.03 (-0.04; -0.02) vs. -0.01 (-0.02; 0.00) mg/day/year, p for interaction = 0.002. We conclude that, in Switzerland, dietary intake evolved similarly between 1993 and 2012 in both educational groups. Educational differences present in 1993 persisted in 2012.

  12. Interactions of genotype, housing and dietary calcium in layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... Castillo, C., Cuca, M., Pro, A., González, M. & Morales, E., 2004. Biological and economic optimum level of calcium in white leghorn laying hens. Poult. Sci. 83, 868-872. Cheng, T.K. & Coon, C.N., 1990. Effect of calcium source, particle size, limestone solubility in vitro and calcium intake level on layer bone ...

  13. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, van W.L.; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of

  14. The effect of different diets on urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Roswitha; Hesse, Albrecht

    2002-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of defined diet modifications on urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation. Ten healthy male volunteers consumed a self-selected diet (SD) for 14 days, and three different standard diets for a period of 5 days each. Whereas the western-type diet (WD) is representative of the usual dietary habits, the normal mixed diet (ND) and the ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet (VD) were calculated according to the requirements. The risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation, calculated as relative supersaturation (EQUIL2) from urine composition, was highest during ingestion of diets SD and WD. The intake of diet ND resulted in a significant decrease in relative supersaturation with calcium oxalate by 58% (p<0.05) compared with diet WD, due to a significant decline in urinary calcium and uric acid excretion and a significant increase in urinary volume, pH-value and citrate excretion. In spite of an increase in urinary pH, citrate and magnesium excretion and a decline in calcium excretion, no further significant decrease in the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation was observed on diet VD, due to a significant increase in urinary oxalate by 30% (p<0.05) on average. The change of usual dietary habits for a normal mixed diet significantly reduces the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation. With a vegetarian diet a similar decline in urinary supersaturation with calcium oxalate can be achieved compared to a normal mixed diet. Since urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly, a vegetarian diet without adequate intake of calcium may not be recommended to patients with mild hyperoxaluria.

  15. Dietary calcium and bone density in adolescent girls and young women in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Ando, S.; Charles, P.; Charzewska, J.; Rotily, M.; Väänänen, K.; Erp-Baart, A.M.J. van; Heikkinen, J.; Thomsen, J.; Maggiolini, M.; Deloraine, A.; Chabros, E.; Juvin, R.; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between dietary calcium intake and radial bone density among young women, over the whole range of intake and at different levels of calcium intake. The study design was a cross-sectional, observational multicenter investigation in six

  16. Effects of a low-fat vegan diet and a Step II diet on macro- and micronutrient intakes in overweight postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R; Lanou, Amy J

    2004-09-01

    This study investigated the nutrient intake of overweight postmenopausal women assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a Step II diet. Fifty-nine overweight (body mass index, 26 to 44 kg/m2) postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a self-selected low-fat vegan or a National Cholesterol Education Program Step II diet in a 14-wk controlled trial on weight loss and metabolism. Nutrient intake, which was measured per 1000 kcal, was the main outcome measure. Statistical analyses included within-group and between-group t tests examining changes associated with each diet. Consumption of a low-fat vegan diet was associated with greater decreases in fat, saturated fat, protein, and cholesterol intakes and greater increases in carbohydrate, fiber, beta-carotene, and total vitamin A intakes than was a Step II diet. The low-fat vegan group also increased thiamin, vitamin B6, and magnesium intakes more than the Step II group, and both groups increased folic acid, vitamin C, and potassium intakes. If considering only food sources of micronutrients, the low-fat vegan group decreased vitamin D, vitamin B12, calcium, selenium, phosphorous, and zinc intakes compared with baseline. However, with incidental supplements included, decreases were evident only in phosphorous and selenium intakes. No micronutrient decreases were found in the Step II group. Individuals on a low-fat vegan or Step II diet should take steps to meet the recommended intakes of vitamin D, vitamin K, folic acid, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Individuals on a low-fat vegan diet should also ensure adequate intakes of vitamin B12, phosphorous, and selenium.

  17. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  18. Osteoporosis, calcium and physical activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, A. D.; Houston, C S

    1987-01-01

    Sales of calcium supplements have increased dramatically since 1983, as middle-aged women seek to prevent or treat bone loss due to osteoporosis. However, epidemiologic studies have failed to support the hypothesis that larger amounts of calcium are associated with increased bone density or a decreased incidence of fractures. The authors examine the evidence from controlled trials on the effects of calcium supplementation and physical activity on bone loss and find that weight-bearing activit...

  19. Dietary fiber intake increases the risk of zinc deficiency in healthy and diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meika; Karra, Michelle; Picone, Tegan; Chu, Anna; Hancock, Dale P; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2012-11-01

    Phytic acid is a major determinant of zinc bioavailability. Little is known about phytic acid intakes or indices of zinc bioavailability in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), a condition that predisposes to zinc deficiency. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to measure and explore the relationships among phytic acid intake, zinc bioavailability, and molecular markers of zinc homeostasis in 20 women with DM compared to 20 healthy women. The phytate/zinc, (calcium)(phytate)/zinc, and (calcium + magnesium)(phytate)/zinc molar ratios were used to indicate zinc bioavailability. Plasma zinc concentrations and zinc transporter (ZnT1, ZnT8, and Zip1) gene expression in mononuclear cells were measured. Participants with DM consumed 1,194 ± 824 mg/day (mean ± SD) phytic acid, an amount similar to the intake of healthy women (1,316 ± 708 mg/day). Bread products and breakfast cereals contributed more than 40 % of the phytic acid intake in each group. A positive relationship was observed in all participants between phytic acid and dietary fiber (r = 0.6, P dietary fiber and the (calcium)(phytate)/zinc ratio (r = 0.5, P diabetic women consume phytic acid in amounts that are likely to decrease the bioavailability of dietary zinc. Recommendations to consume greater amounts of dietary fiber, much of which is associated with phytate, increase the risk of zinc deficiency.

  20. Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia due to Impaired Renal Tubular Calcium Excretion in a Type 2 Diabetic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihao Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The case we presented here was a 73-year-old gentleman, who was admitted to endocrinology department due to recurrent fatigue for 1 year. He had medical histories of type 2 diabetes for 18 years and developed CKD 4 years ago. He also suffered from dilated cardiomyopathy, and coronary heart disease, moderate sleep apnea syndrome, primary hypothyroidism, and gout. His treatment regimen was complicated which included Caltrate D and compound α-keto acid (1200 mg calcium/d. Laboratory examination revealed that his serum calcium level elevated, 24-hour urine calcium output decreased, PTH level was suppressed, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D was in normal low range. No other specific abnormalities were found in serum bone turnover markers, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and bone scintigraphy. The diagnosis was suggested to be hypocalciuric hypercalcemia but was different from familial or acquired hypocalciuric hypercalcemia which were featured by elevated PTH level. The patient was asked to restrict calcium intake and to take diuretics; then his serum calcium level gradually lowered. In brief, patients with CKD could present with hypocalciuric hypercalcemia due to impaired renal calcium excretion. In this case, calcium restriction should be applied for treatment.

  1. Hypercalcemia Associated with Calcium Supplement Use: Prevalence and Characteristics in Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ingestion of large amounts of milk and antacids to treat peptic ulcer disease was a common cause of hypercalcemia in the past (the “milk-alkali syndrome”. The current popularity of calcium and supplements has given rise to a similar problem. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of hypercalcemia induced by calcium intake (“calcium supplement syndrome”; or CSS in hospitalized patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective; electronic health record (EHR-based review of patients with hypercalcemia over a 3-year period. Diagnosis of CSS was based on the presence of hypercalcemia; a normal parathyroid hormone (PTH level; renal insufficiency; metabolic alkalosis; a history of calcium intake; and documented improvement with treatment. Results: Of the 72 patients with non-PTH mediated hypercalcemia; 15 (20.8% satisfied all the criteria for the diagnosis of CSS. Calcium; vitamin D; and multivitamin ingestion were significantly associated with the diagnosis (p values < 0.0001; 0.014; and 0.045 respectively; while the presence of hypertension; diabetes; and renal insufficiency showed a trend towards statistical significance. All patients received intravenous fluids; and six (40% received calcium-lowering drugs. The calcium level at discharge was normal 12 (80% of patients. The mean serum creatinine and bicarbonate levels decreased from 2.4 and 35 mg/dL on admission respectively; to 1.6 mg/dL and 25.6 mg/dL at discharge respectively. Conclusion: The widespread use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation can manifest as hypercalcemia and worsening of kidney function in susceptible individuals. Awareness among health care professionals can lead to proper patient education regarding these health risks.

  2. The calcium and vitamin D controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    or subanalyses while maintaining balancing. Though large clinical RCTs currently evaluate the effects of higher vitamin D doses (equivalent to 50–83 μg/d) there is no current research effort regarding the calcium controversy. In the absence of such studies it is not possible to provide clinicians with evidence......Areas of the world where vitamin D levels are low for months of the year and intakes of calcium are high have a high prevalence of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. This suggests a public health message of avoiding calcium supplements and increasing vitamin D intake. No message could be more...... welcome as vitamin D can be given as a bolus while calcium must be taken daily and may be poorly tolerated. This approach is based on no evidence from intervention studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that vitamin D given with calcium elicits a small reduction in fracture risk and deaths...

  3. Extracellular and Intracellular Regulation of Calcium Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bronner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An organism with an internal skeleton must accumulate calcium while maintaining body fluids at a well-regulated, constant calcium concentration. Neither calcium absorption nor excretion plays a significant regulatory role. Instead, isoionic calcium uptake and release by bone surfaces causes plasma calcium to be well regulated. Very rapid shape changes of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, in response to hormonal signals, modulate the available bone surfaces so that plasma calcium can increase when more low-affinity bone calcium binding sites are made available and can decrease when more high-affinity binding sites are exposed. The intracellular free calcium concentration of body cells is also regulated, but because cells are bathed by fluids with vastly higher calcium concentration, their major regulatory mechanism is severe entry restriction. All cells have a calcium-sensing receptor that modulates cell function via its response to extracellular calcium. In duodenal cells, the apical calcium entry structure functions as both transporter and a vitamin D–responsive channel. The channel upregulates calcium entry, with intracellular transport mediated by the mobile, vitamin D–dependent buffer, calbindin D9K, which binds and transports more than 90% of the transcellular calcium flux. Fixed intracellular calcium binding sites can, like the body's skeleton, take up and release calcium that has entered the cell, but the principal regulatory tool of the cell is restricted entry.

  4. Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadieh, Hala; Arabi, Asma

    2011-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health disorder associated with an increased risk of fracture. Nutrition is among the modifiable factors that influence the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Calcium and vitamin D play important roles in improving bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fracture. Other vitamins appear to play a role in bone health as well. In this review, the findings of studies that related the intake and/or the status of vitamins other than vitamin D to bone health in animals and humans are summarized. Studies of vitamin A showed inconsistent results. Excessive, as well as insufficient, levels of retinol intake may be associated with compromised bone health. Deficiencies in vitamin B, along with the consequent elevated homocysteine level, are associated with bone loss, decreased bone strength, and increased risk of fracture. Deficiencies in vitamins C, E, and K are also associated with compromised bone health; this effect may be modified by smoking, estrogen use or hormonal therapy after menopause, calcium intake, and vitamin D. These findings highlight the importance of adequate nutrition in preserving bone mass and reducing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  5. High dietary selenium intake is associated with less insulin resistance in the Newfoundland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbo; Lin, Meiju; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Du, Jianling; Vikram, Chandurkar; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2017-01-01

    As an essential nutrient, Selenium (Se) is involved in many metabolic activities including mimicking insulin function. Data on Se in various biological samples and insulin resistance are contradictory, moreover there is no large study available regarding the relationship of dietary Se intake with insulin resistance in the general population. To investigate the association between dietary Se intake and variation of insulin resistance in a large population based study, a total of 2420 subjects without diabetes from the CODING (Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland Population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary Se intake was evaluated from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were used for the measurement of glucose and insulin. Insulin resistance was determined with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Body composition was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Analysis of covariance showed that high HOMA-IR groups in both males and females had the lowest dietary Se intake (μg/kg/day) (p < 0.01), being 18% and 11% lower than low HOMA-IR groups respectively. Insulin resistance decreased with the increase of dietary Se intake in females but not in males after controlling for age, total calorie intake, physical activity level, serum calcium, serum magnesium, and body fat percentage (p < 0.01). Partial correlation analysis showed that dietary Se intake was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR after adjusting for the Se confounding factors in subjects whose dietary Se intake was below 1.6 μg/kg/day (r = -0.121 for males and -0.153 for females, p < 0.05). However, the negative correlation was no longer significant when dietary Se intake was above 1.6 μg/kg/day. Our findings suggest that higher dietary Se intake is beneficially correlated with lower insulin resistance when total dietary Se intake was below 1.6 μg/kg/day. Above this cutoff, this beneficial effect disappears.

  6. Changing from regular-fat to low-fat dairy foods reduces saturated fat intake but not energy intake in 4-13-y-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Golley, Rebecca K

    2011-05-01

    Dairy foods are nutrient rich but also a source of saturated fat in the diets of children. We assessed effects on dietary intakes and health outcomes of changing dairy foods consumed by children from regular- to reduced-fat varieties. This study was a 24-wk cluster randomized controlled trial in 93 families with 4-13-y-olds who were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods (n = 76 children) or reducing screen time (n = 69 children). Study outcomes, which were measured at weeks 0, 12 (end of the intervention), and 24, included saturated fat, energy, and nutrient intakes; pentadecanoic acid and blood lipid concentrations; body mass index z score; and waist circumference. Multilevel analyses were used with adjustment for child- and family-level covariates. There were no group differences in overall dairy intakes (-45 g dairy; 95% CI: -141, 51 g dairy; P = 0.356). Saturated fat intakes were 3.3 percentage points lower (P fat dairy foods decreased from 88% to 14% of dairy intake in the intervention group. Calcium, magnesium, and carbohydrate (percentage of energy) intakes were higher in the intervention group than in the comparison group; retinol intakes were lower in the intervention group than in the comparison group; and overall vitamin A intakes were similar between groups. Advice to parents to change to reduced-fat products was effective in reducing children's saturated fat intakes but did not alter energy intakes or measures of adiposity. This trial was registered in the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000453280.

  7. 21 CFR 101.72 - Health claims: calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... osteoporosis. 101.72 Section 101.72 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....72 Health claims: calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis. (a) Relationship between calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis. An inadequate intake of calcium or calcium and vitamin D contributes to low peak...

  8. Dietary intake and nutritional risk among free-living elderly people in Palma de Mallorca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, J A; Colomer, M; Moñino, M; Bonnin, T; Llompart, I; Pons, A

    2005-01-01

    To describe the dietary intake of free-living, non-institutionalised, elderly people of Palma de Mallorca, and to evaluate their nutritional status and risk of undernutrition. Anthropometric and dietary survey (3-day food record), and risk of undernutrition (MNA-SF) were assessed in 230 (89 men and 141 women) free-living elderly people (average age 72.7 +/- 5.9 years) in Palma de Mallorca. Prevalence of undernutrition (1% in men and 5% in women), overweight (56% in men and 39% in women) and obesity (17% in men and 21% in women) were found. Mean daily energy intake (+/- SD) was 5.7 +/- 1.5 MJ in men and 5.3 +/- 1.3 MJ among women. The contribution of macronutrients to the total energy intake was different from the Recommended Intake for the elderly, since it was too derived from proteins, fats, SFA and sugars, but in only small amounts was derived from complex carbohydrates. Animal protein intake was two-thirds the total protein intake. Dietary fibre was low. Cholesterol/SFA ratio showed dietary risk of atherogenic potential. High percentages of elderly persons showed inadequate intake of calcium, magnesium, zinc, folic acid, vitamin D, and vitamin E. An increase in dietary complex carbohydrate and fibre, a decrease in fats, especially SFA, and a balanced intake of animal/vegetable proteins and fats are recommended. Dietary supplementation, especially with calcium, vitamin C and E, and occasionally vitamin D, may be useful to improve nutritional and health status of free-living elderly people in Palma de Mallorca.

  9. [Calcium/protein relation of women on the climacteric].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, Regina das Neves Girão; Aldrighi, José Mendes; Marucci, Maria de Fátima Nunes

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the calcium/protein relation of the diet of climacteric women. In a transversal study the diet was evaluated of 154 women 35-65 years old and matriculated in the Health Clinic of the Climateric Woman of Health Center of Public Health College of the São Paulo University. The food intake of calcium and protein was investigated by "24 hours recall" method. The evaluation of calcium/protein relation was made according to Massey and Heaney (1998), that is 20/1 (mg/g). The mean of intake of calcium was 624.9 mg, the mean of intake of protein was 86.7 g and the calcium/protein relation was 7/1 (624.9 mg/86.7 g). The studied population presents inadequated consumation of the calcium and protein nutrients. It could result in serious risk for health.

  10. Effect of heat treatment and mineral and vitamin supplementation on the nutritive use of protein and calcium from lentils (Lens culinaris M.) in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porres, Jesús M; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Urbano, Gloria

    2003-05-01

    The effects of heat treatment, supplementation of a mineral and vitamin premix, and 4% olive oil on the bioavailability of protein and calcium from Lens culinaris M., var vulgaris, cultivar. magda-20 were studied in growing rats. Nutrition assessment was based on chemical analysis of lentil protein, energy, total and available starch, lipid and calcium composition, and the digestive and metabolic use of nitrogen and calcium by rats. Lentils used for the present study had crude protein and calcium contents of 25.5% and 0.07%, respectively. Heating lentils to 120 degrees C at 1 atm for 30 min decreased trypsin inhibitor activity, phytate, and tannin content by 76%, 8%, and 12%, respectively, but did not improve dietary intake or digestive use of protein compared with untreated raw control lentils. Mineral, vitamin, and olive oil supplementation of raw or autoclaved lentils significantly improved daily food intake and nutritive use of nitrogen and calcium. The best results were obtained for the rats fed with a diet of raw lentils supplemented with a premix of minerals and vitamins. There was a direct correlation between calcium balance and weight gain in animals (r = 0.89) and between the calcium balance and nitrogen balance (r = 0.86).

  11. Impact of the Bolsa Família Program on energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes: Study of the Northeast and Southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara SPERANDIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on the energy and nutrient intakes of beneficiaries from the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Methods: The study used data from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamento Famíliar, which assessed individual food intake on two nonconsecutive days of individuals aged more than 10 years. Based the personal information booklet, food intake values were transformed into nutritional values (energy and nutrients. Analysis of the impact measure was preceded by propensity score matching, a technique that matches some socioeconomic characteristics of beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries. Once the score was calculated, the impact of the Bolsa Família Program was estimated by nearest neighbor matching. Results: The program increased energy and macronutrient intakes and decreased calcium and vitamin A, D, E, and C intakes of adolescent beneficiaries in both regions. Adult beneficiaries from the Southeast region increased their fiber, iron, and selenium intakes, and those from the Northeast region decreased their energy, lipid, added sugar, sodium, zinc, vitamin E, and pyridoxine intakes. Conclusion: The results show a positive impact of the program on the energy and macronutrient intakes, and a negative impact on the intakes of most study micronutrients, especially in adolescents, which reinforce the importance of implementing intersectoral actions to improve the nutritional quality of the Bolsa Família Program beneficiaries' diet.

  12. Dietary habits and cardiovascular risk in the Spanish population: the DRECE study (II) micronutrient intake. Dieta y Riesgo de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares en España.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Pomar, M D; Rubio-Herrera, M A; Gutiérrez-Fuentes, J A; Gómez-Gerique, J A; Gómez-de-la-Cámara, A; Pascual, O; Gárate, I; Montero, R; Campiña, S

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the dietary micronutrient intake in the adult Spanish population participating in the DRECE study. The cross-sectional study was performed in two stages in 1991 and 1996 in 43 primary care clinics. One thousand two hundred people 'with cardiovascular risk' and 600 'without risk' answered a food frequency questionnaire. Significant increases in vitamin C, retinol, lycopenes, beta-cryptoxanthin and vitamin E intakes were found. Vitamin A, alpha-carotenoid and lutein intakes decreased. Vitamin B(12), B(6) and folic acid intakes increased in people with cardiovascular risk, whereas only the last two increased in the control group. Nearly 100% of the people consumed the recommended dietary allowances for vitamins B(12) and B(6) and >70% for folic acid. Calcium, iron, and zinc intake increased in both groups, but magnesium and selenium intake increased only in people at risk. Vitamin A, B(1) and zinc intakes have decreased, and >50% of the people do not consume the recommended dietary allowance. Antioxidant vitamins and vitamin B(12), B(6) and folic acid intakes seem to be adequate in the adult Spanish population, no significant differences appear regarding their cardiovascular risk status. Vitamin A, B(1) and zinc intakes are not appropriate. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Klemmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.

  14. Kit (W-sh) Mutation Prevents Cancellous Bone Loss during Calcium Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotinun, Sutada; Suwanwela, Jaijam; Poolthong, Suchit; Baron, Roland

    2017-10-14

    Calcium is essential for normal bone growth and development. Inadequate calcium intake increases the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Kit ligand/c-Kit signaling plays an important role in regulating bone homeostasis. Mice with c-Kit mutations are osteopenic. The present study aimed to investigate whether impairment of or reduction in c-Kit signaling affects bone turnover during calcium deprivation. Three-week-old male WBB6F1/J-Kit (W) /Kit (W-v) /J (W/W (v) ) mice with c-Kit point mutation, Kit (W-sh) /HNihrJaeBsmJ (W (sh) /W (sh) ) mice with an inversion mutation in the regulatory elements upstream of the c-Kit promoter region, and their wild-type controls (WT) were fed either a normal (0.6% calcium) or a low calcium diet (0.02% calcium) for 3 weeks. μCT analysis indicated that both mutants fed normal calcium diet had significantly decreased cortical thickness and cancellous bone volume compared to WT. The low calcium diet resulted in a comparable reduction in cortical bone volume and cortical thickness in the W/W (v) and W (sh) /W (sh) mice, and their corresponding controls. As expected, the low calcium diet induced cancellous bone loss in the W/W (v) mice. In contrast, W (sh) /W (sh) cancellous bone did not respond to this diet. This c-Kit mutation prevented cancellous bone loss by antagonizing the low calcium diet-induced increase in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers in the W (sh) /W (sh) mice. Gene expression profiling showed that calcium deficiency increased Osx, Ocn, Alp, type I collagen, c-Fms, M-CSF, and RANKL/OPG mRNA expression in controls; however, the W (sh) mutation suppressed these effects. Our findings indicate that although calcium restriction increased bone turnover, leading to osteopenia, the decreased c-Kit expression levels in the W (sh) /W (sh) mice prevented the low calcium diet-induced increase in cancellous bone turnover and bone loss but not the cortical bone loss.

  15. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  16. [The treatment of vertebral osteoporosis. Use of sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate in combination with calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, P J

    1990-01-15

    The ideal curative treatment of osteoporosis must be capable of raising the trabecular bone mass to its former level, since only a substantial increase in bone mass can reduce the fracture rate of the spine. Fluoride is an effective activator of osteoblasts and thus increases axial bone mass and decreases the vertebral fracture rate. The drawbacks of the formerly used sodium fluoride such as gastrolesivity and its in compatibility with concomitant calcium intake were overcome by using sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) as the source of fluoride. MFP is well tolerated gastrointestinally and can be used concomitantly with calcium-containing medicaments or with calcium-rich alimentation. Fluoride treatment has proved to be an effective measure against continued progression of osteoporosis, and possible risks present no difficulties. The benefits of this therapy certainly outweigh possible adverse effects.

  17. OPG Treatment Prevents Bone Loss During Lactation But Does Not Affect Milk Production or Maternal Calcium Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeshirpour, Laleh; Dumitru, Cristina; Dann, Pamela; Sterpka, John; VanHouten, Joshua; Kim, Wonnam; Kostenuik, Paul; Wysolmerski, John

    2015-08-01

    Lactation is associated with increased bone turnover and rapid bone loss, which liberates skeletal calcium used for milk production. Previous studies suggested that an increase in the skeletal expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells ligand (RANKL) coupled with a decrease in osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels likely triggered bone loss during lactation. In this study, we treated lactating mice with recombinant OPG to determine whether bone loss during lactation was dependent on RANKL signaling and whether resorption of the maternal skeleton was required to support milk production. OPG treatment lowered bone resorption rates and completely prevented bone loss during lactation but, surprisingly, did not decrease osteoclast numbers. In contrast, OPG was quite effective at lowering osteoblast numbers and inhibiting bone formation in lactating mice. Furthermore, treatment with OPG during lactation prevented the usual anabolic response associated with reversal of lactational bone loss after weaning. Preventing bone loss had no appreciable effect on milk production, milk calcium levels, or maternal calcium homeostasis when mice were on a standard diet. However, when dietary calcium was restricted, treatment with OPG caused maternal hypocalcemia, maternal death, and decreased milk production. These studies demonstrate that RANKL signaling is a requirement for bone loss during lactation, and suggest that osteoclast activity may be required to increase osteoblast numbers during lactation in preparation for the recovery of bone mass after weaning. These data also demonstrate that maternal bone loss is not absolutely required to supply calcium for milk production unless dietary calcium intake is inadequate.

  18. Calcium from plant sources is beneficial to lowering the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung-Moo; Heo, Jumi; Park, Yongsoon

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis, which has become a serious public health concern, is influenced by diet, especially calcium intake. Dairy products are a good source of calcium, but plant calcium may also be important in populations that do not consume a large amount of milk. The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that calcium from vegetable sources is associated with osteoporosis risk and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Korean women with osteoporosis and age-matched controls (N = 144). The results of multivariate-adjusted regression analyses indicated that the intake of calcium, plant calcium, potassium, vitamin A, carotene, vitamin B(1), niacin, vitamin E, vitamin C, and vegetables was associated with significantly reduced risk of osteoporosis after adjusting for age, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, and energy intake. In addition, intake of vegetables alone, as well as calcium, plant calcium, potassium, and antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene), which are abundant in vegetables, was significantly and positively associated with bone mineral density. However, in this population of low-dairy consumers, intake of calcium from meat and dairy products was not related to risk of osteoporosis and bone mineral density. Our results suggest that high dietary intake of calcium, especially plant calcium, reduces the risk of osteoporosis and increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal Korean women. Vegetables may be an important source of calcium and may also provide vitamins and minerals that exert additional beneficial effects on the bone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  20. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  1. Role of VMH ketone bodies in adjusting caloric intake to increased dietary fat content in DIO and DR rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Miziorko, Henry M; Levin, Barry E

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential role of astrocyte-derived ketone bodies in regulating the early changes in caloric intake of diet induced-obese (DIO) versus diet-resistant (DR) rats fed a 31.5% fat high-energy (HE) diet. After 3 days on chow or HE diet, DR and DIO rats were assessed for their ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) ketone bodies levels and neuronal ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) sensing using microdialysis coupled to continuous food intake monitoring and calcium imaging in dissociated neurons, respectively. DIO rats ate more than DR rats over 3 days of HE diet intake. On day 3 of HE diet intake, DR rats reduced their caloric intake while DIO rats remained hyperphagic. Local VMH astrocyte ketone bodies production was similar between DR and DIO rats during the first 6 h after dark onset feeding but inhibiting VMH ketone body production in DR rats on day 3 transiently returned their intake of HE diet to the level of DIO rats consuming HE diet. In addition, dissociated VMN neurons from DIO and DR rats were equally sensitive to the largely excitatory effects of β-hydroxybutyrate. Thus while DR rats respond to increased VMH ketone levels by decreasing their intake after 3 days of HE diet, this is not the case of DIO rats. These data suggest that DIO inherent leptin resistance prevents ketone bodies inhibitory action on food intake.

  2. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razif Shahril

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG or control group (CG according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students.

  3. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources. Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individual battery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5% eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feed experiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, protein intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Results of the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. The use of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was that the use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestone or mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  4. Calcium orthophosphates in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2013-06-01

    Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, remains a major public health problem in the most communities even though the prevalence of disease has decreased since the introduction of fluorides for dental care. Therefore, biomaterials to fill dental defects appear to be necessary to fulfill customers' needs regarding the properties and the processing of the products. Bioceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used for these purposes, as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Calcium orthophosphates belong to bioceramics but they have some specific advantages over other types of bioceramics due to a chemical similarity to the inorganic part of both human and mammalian bones and teeth. Therefore, calcium orthophosphates (both alone and as components of various formulations) are used in dentistry as both dental fillers and implantable scaffolds. This review provides brief information on calcium orthophosphates and describes in details current state-of-the-art on their applications in dentistry and dentistry-related fields. Among the recognized dental specialties, calcium orthophosphates are most frequently used in periodontics; however, the majority of the publications on calcium orthophosphates in dentistry are devoted to unspecified "dental" fields.

  5. Paclitaxel induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through different calcium--regulating mechanisms depending on external calcium conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhi; Avila, Andrew; Gollahon, Lauren

    2014-02-17

    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an "Enhanced Calcium Efflux" mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel's stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis.

  6. Acute effects of different phosphorus sources on calcium and bone metabolism in young women: a whole-foods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, H J; Vaihia, K P; Kärkkäinen, M U M; Niemistö, M J; Lamberg-Allardt, C J E

    2007-04-01

    The recommended dietary phosphorus intake is exceeded in the typical Western diet. However, few studies have been conducted on the bioavailability and metabolic consequences of dietary phosphorus from different food sources. In this study, acute effects of dietary phosphorus from three different food sources and a phosphate supplement on calcium and bone metabolism were investigated. Sixteen healthy women aged 20-30 years were randomized to five controlled 24-hour study sessions, each subject serving as her own control. At the control session, calcium intake was ca. 250 mg and phosphorus intake ca. 500 mg. During the other four sessions, phosphorus intake was about 1,500 mg, 1,000 mg of which was obtained from meat, cheese, whole grains, or a phosphate supplement, respectively. The foods served were exactly the same during the phosphorus sessions and the control session; only phosphorus sources varied. Markers of calcium and bone metabolism were followed. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to compare the study sessions. Only the phosphate supplement increased serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) concentration compared with the control session (P = 0.031). Relative to the control session, meat increased markers of both bone formation (P = 0.045) and bone resorption (P = 0.049). Cheese decreased S-PTH (P = 0.0001) and bone resorption (P = 0.008). These data suggest that the metabolic response was different for different foods.

  7. The selection and prevalence of natural and fortified calcium food sources in the diets of adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M

    2011-01-01

    To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology from 1997 to 2008. Subjects randomly assigned to a high-calcium (HC) diet supplying 1,500 mg calcium/d, or their usual diet (UC). Dietary intake was assessed from 3-day food records and calcium intakes categorized by food source. Food group composites, representing calcium-fortified and dairy food categories, were examined for their relative nutrient contributions. Student t tests were used to evaluate differences in selected nutrient intakes between the 2 study groups. Dairy food contributed 68% of the total mean 1,494 mg calcium/d in the HC group, and calcium-fortified food contributed 304 mg calcium. In the UC group, dairy food contributed 69% of the total mean 765 mg calcium/d and calcium-fortified food contributed 50 mg calcium. Nutrient profiles of the dairy composites differed significantly from the calcium-fortified composites (P source of calcium selected by these adolescent girls; calcium-fortified food augmented calcium intakes. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adverse effect of high added sugar consumption on dietary intake in American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Mitchell, Diane

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effect of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)-recommended added sugar intake levels on nutrient and food group consumption by preschoolers. This was a cross-sectional study of 2- to 5-year-olds in the United States Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII), 1994 to 1996, and 1998 (n = 5437). Main food sources of added sugar were established. For five categories (25%), mean nutrient and food group consumption and proportion of children not meeting the DRI were ascertained. The nonparametric test for trend indicated significance of changes. Analysis was stratified by age (2- to 3-year-olds versus 4- to 5-year-olds), and survey design corrected to maintain the nationally representative character of the data. The majority of children consumed less than 25% of energy from added sugar; the main sources were fruit and or soft drinks and desserts. Increasing added sugar consumption was paralleled by decreasing nutrient and food group intakes and increasing proportions of children with intakes below the DRI. Calcium intake was insufficient in large proportions of children consuming 16% or more from added sugar. In preschoolers, the new DRI for added sugar are reason for concern. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of the DRI on diet quality, body weight, and health status in young children.

  9. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  10. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  11. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources.Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individualbattery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5%eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feedexperiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Eachexperimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, proteinintake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Resultsof the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. Theuse of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake,egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was thatthe use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestoneor mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  12. Hypolipidemic Activity of a Natural Mineral Water Rich in Calcium, Magnesium, and Bicarbonate in Hyperlipidemic Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Aslanabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study compared the effects of a mineral water rich in calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and sulfate and a marketed mineral water with a composition similar to that of urban water on the lipid profile of dyslipidemic adults. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 32 adults received one liter of "rich mineral water" daily for one month, and 37 adults drank the same amount of normal mineral water for the same period. Changes in lipid profiles were compared separately in each studied group at the end of one month. Results: Results showed that mean cholesterol and low density lipoprotein LDL levels were significantly decreased in both studied groups after one month of drinking mineral water (P0.05. Conclusion: A one-month intake of mineral water rich in calcium, magnesium bicarbonate, and sulfate decreased cholesterol and LDL levels but not TG or HDL levels in dyslipidemic adults.

  13. Vitamin B12 Conjugation of Peptide-YY3–36 Decreases Food Intake Compared to Native Peptide-YY3–36 Upon Subcutaneous Administration in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kelly E.; Elfers, Clinton T.; Burke, Rachael M.; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Holz, George G.; Blevins, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to peptide-based therapies include rapid clearance, ready degradation by hydrolysis/proteolysis, and poor intestinal uptake and/or a need for blood brain barrier transport. This work evaluates the efficacy of conjugation of vitamin B12 (B12) on sc administered peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)3–36 function. In the current experiments, a B12-PYY3–36 conjugate was tested against native PYY3–36, and an inactive conjugate B12-PYYC36 (null control) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments demonstrated similar agonism for the neuropeptide Y2 receptor by the B12-PYY3–36 conjugate (EC50 26.5 nM) compared with native PYY3–36 (EC50 16.0 nM), with the null control having an EC50 of 1.8 μM. In vivo experiments were performed in young adult male Sprague Dawley rats (9 wk). Daily treatments were delivered sc in five 1-hour pulses, each pulse delivering 5–10 nmol/kg, by implanted microinfusion pumps. Increases in hindbrain Fos expression were comparable 90 minutes after B12-PYY3–36 or PYY3–36 injection relative to saline or B12-PYYC36. Food intake was reduced during a 5-day treatment for both B12-PYY3–36- (24%, P = .001) and PYY3–36-(13%, P = .008) treated groups relative to baseline. In addition, reduction of food intake after the three dark cycle treatment pulses was more consistent with B12-PYY3–36 treatment (−26%, −29%, −27%) compared with the PYY3–36 treatment (−3%, −21%, −16%), and B12-PYY3–36 generated a significantly longer inhibition of food intake vs PYY3–36 treatment after the first two pulses (P = .041 and P = .036, respectively). These findings demonstrate a stronger, more consistent, and longer inhibition of food intake after the pulses of B12-PYY3–36 conjugate compared with the native PYY3–36. PMID:25658456

  14. Nutritional intake of long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: evidence for bone health interventional opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylavsky, Frances A; Smith, Karen; Surprise, Harriet; Garland, Sarah; Yan, Xiaowei; McCammon, Elizabeth; Hudson, Melissa M; Pui, Ching-Hon; Kaste, Sue C

    2010-12-15

    Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are vulnerable to exaggeration of the aging process including decreased bone mineral density (BMD). As little is known about their dietary or nutrient intake that may affect their long-term bone health, we examined nutrient intake in long-term survivors of childhood ALL. Survivors (n = 164) of childhood ALL who had completed treatment for at least 5 years and were in continuous remission, completed a 110-item food questionnaire that reflected dietary intake over the previous year. The analyzed cohort comprised 34 females and 38 males younger than 19 years and 45 females and 47 males at least 19 years. Reported nutrient intake and food selection were compared with age-specific Recommended Dietary Allowance and USDA Pyramid Food Guide. Body mass index was compared to the general US population, adjusted for age, gender, Tanner stage and race. Less than 30% of participants met recommended dietary intakes for vitamin D, calcium, potassium, or magnesium regardless of age. Mean daily caloric intake was 2,204 kcal (51% from carbohydrates) for younger and 2,160 kcal (49% from carbohydrates) for older participants. Energy intake from sweets was 70% higher than recommended. Participants 19 years more likely to be overweight (odds ratio 1.95, 95% CI 1.11-3.32, P < 0.002). Survivors of childhood ALL need careful dietary intervention to optimize long-term health.

  15. Sources of dietary calcium in patients attending an osteoporosis clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Horn G

    2012-01-01

    Gemma HornSurgical Department, Perth Royal Infirmary, Perth, ScotlandIntroduction: Osteoporosis is a common disease that affects both women and men but is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Reviews suggest that dietary-derived calcium is vital in maintaining adequate calcium balance. Sources of dietary calcium intake among adult patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were reviewed.Method: Two hundred and ninety-one patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were given an eleven-item fo...

  16. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: Importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most passerines depend on the intake of calcium-rich material in addition to their normal food for proper eggshell formation and skeletal growth. A large proportion of Great Tits (Pants major) in forests on nutrient-poor soils in the Netherlands produce eggs with defective shells as a result of

  17. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-04-07

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreased Libido

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as those taken for prostate cancer) Excessive alcohol use or recreational drug use Excessive fatigue Systemic illness (such as chronic lung, heart, kidney and liver failure, cancer) Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) Depression Relationship problems What is the treatment for decreased libido? ...

  19. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  20. Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%. Height, weight, fat mass (FM, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2 (overall obesity; WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І and waist hip ratio (WHR ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П. The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P0.05. Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.

  1. Diuretics and disorders of calcium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieff, Marvin; Bushinsky, David A

    2011-11-01

    Diuretics commonly are administered in disorders of sodium balance. Loop diuretics inhibit the Na-K-2Cl transporter and also increase calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of hypercalcemia. Thiazide diuretics block the thiazide-sensitive NaCl transporter in the distal convoluted tubule, and can decrease calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of nephrolithiasis. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease bicarbonate absorption and the resultant metabolic acidosis can increase calcium excretion. Their use can promote nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. This review will address the use of diuretics on disorders of calcium homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ramjet Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique) 14. ABSTRACT Intake design for supersonic engines, in common...exhaust velocity to free stream velocity, with exhaust velocity calculated by assuming the captured air is expanded isentropicaly back to ambient ...2.1 [23] with the actual value probably determined by engine mass flow demand and therefore dependent on ambient temperature. The lowest

  3. Calcium balance in mature male rats with unloaded hindlimbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidi, Meena; Evans, Juliann; Wolinsky, Ira; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium balances, regulated by the calcium endocrine system, are negative during spaceflight but have not been reported in flight simulation models using fully mature small animals. METHODS: We conducted two calcium (Ca) balance studies in 6-mo-old male rats exposed to a model that unloads the hindlimbs (HU) for 4 wk. Control (C) and HU rats were fed diets with 0.5% Ca in the first and 0.1% Ca in the second study. Housing in metabolic cages enabled daily food and water intake measurements as well as collections of urine and fecal specimens. At necropsy, blood was obtained for measures of Ca-regulating hormones. RESULTS: Both C and HU rats adjusted to housing and diets with decreases in body weight and negative Ca balances during the first week of each experiment. Thereafter, averages of Ca balances were more negative in the unloaded rats than controls: -8.1 vs. -1.6 mg x d(-1) in rats fed 0.5% (p Parathyroid hormone (PTH) was suppressed and 1,25-D increased in HU rats fed 0.5% Ca. C rats fed 0.1% Ca had increased PTH and 1,25-D was the same as in the HU group. CONCLUSION: After adaptation, Ca balances were more negative in mature male rats with unloaded hindlimbs than controls, an effect from increased secretion and loss of endogenous fecal Ca associated with increased 1,25-D in Ca-replete and Ca-restricted rats.

  4. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  5. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    Calcium is one of the several elements that can be found in milk distributed between the micellar and the serum milk phase. Calcium is important from a nutritional point of view, but its contribution to the functional and structural properties of dairy products has only recently been...... acknowledgement. The presence of calcium in a dynamic equilibrium between the serum and the micellar milk phase make the distribution susceptible to certain physicochemical conditions and to technological treatments of milk resulting in fluctuations in pH and temperature and also sensitive to addition of calcium...... salts. The perturbation of calcium equilibria by these factors will affect the final properties of acid, calcium and rennet milk gels. By decreasing the pH from 6.0 to 5.2 (acid gels), the calcium equilibrium was significantly affected by temperature (4, 20, 30, 40 oC), and different combinations...

  6. Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Preparation of Low-fat Spreads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with lower bone mineral density [4]. Nutritionally sufficient levels of calcium in the diet are strongly related to the intake of dairy products, which are the richest sources of highly bioavailable calcium [5]. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the effects of calcium chloride on sensory, morphological ...

  7. Use of a Mobile Application for Self-Monitoring Dietary Intake: Feasibility Test and an Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Eun; Song, Sihan; Ahn, Jeong Sun; Kim, Yoonhee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2017-07-13

    Given the increasing social and economic burden of chronic disease and the need for efficient approaches to prevent and treat chronic disease, emphasis on the use of information and communication technology (ICT)-based health care has emerged. We aimed to test the feasibility of a mobile application, Diet-A, and examine whether Diet-A could be used to monitor dietary intake among adolescents. In a three-month pre-post intervention study, 9 male and 24 female high school students aged 16-18 years consented and participated in this study. Participants were instructed to record all foods and beverages consumed using voice or text mode input. Nutrient intake was measured using 24-h recalls pre- and post-intervention. We compared nutrient intake data assessed by Diet-A application with those assessed by 24-h recalls. Participants tended to underreport intakes of nutrients compared to those assessed by two 24-h recalls. There were significant decreases in sodium ( p = 0.04) and calcium ( p = 0.03) intake between pre- and post-intervention. Of participants who completed questionnaires of feasibility ( n = 24), 61.9% reported that they were satisfied using the application to monitor their food intake, and 47.7% liked getting personal information about their dietary intake from the application. However, more than 70% of participants answered that it was burdensome to use the application or that they had trouble remembering to record their food intake. The mobile application Diet-A offers the opportunity to monitor dietary intake through real-time feedback. However, use of Diet-A may not provide accurate information on the food intake of adolescents, partly because of the recording burden.

  8. Effect of potassium and calcium loading on healthy subjects under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the acute responses to the electrolyte challenges under hypokinesia and physical exercise (PE) of different intensities with fluid and salt supplementation (FSS). The studies were performed on 12 physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesia (decreased number of steps per day) with a set of PE with FSS. The volunteers were divided into two equal groups. The first group was subjected to a set of intensive PE and the second group was submitted to a set of moderate PE. Both groups of subjects consumed daily water and salt supplements that aimed to increase the body hydration level. For simulation of the hypokinetic effect all subjects were kept under an average of 3000 steps per day. Functional tests with a potassium chloride (KCl) and calcium lactate (Cal) load were performed during the hypokinetic period of 364 days and the 60-day prehypokinetic period that served as control, while both groups of subjects consumed daily calcium and potassium supplements. The concentration of electrolyte and hormone levels in the blood and their excretion rate in urine were determined. Renal excretion of calcium and potassium and the blood concentration thereof increased markedly in both groups of subjects. With the potassium chloride load tests the increased potassium excretion was accompanied by higher aldosterone and insulin blood levels, and with the calcium lactate load tests the increased calcium excretion was accompanied by a decreased parathyroid content in the blood. FSS and PE, regardless of intensity, failed to attenuate calcium and potassium losses. Additional intake of KCl and Cal also failed to normalize potassium and calcium abnormalities. It was concluded that during the KCl and Cal loading tests, the increased losses of potassium and calcium in the hypokinetic subjects were due to the inability of their bodies to retain these electrolytes, and that electrolyte abnormalities could

  9. Food labeling: health claims; calcium and osteoporosis, and calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its labeling regulation authorizing a health claim on the relationship between calcium and a reduced risk of osteoporosis to include vitamin D so that, in addition to the claim for calcium and osteoporosis, an additional claim can be made for calcium and vitamin D and osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement that the claim list sex, race, and age as specific risk factors for the development of osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement that the claim does not state or imply that the risk of osteoporosis is equally applicable to the general U.S. population, and that the claim identify the populations at particular risk for the development of osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement that the claim identify the mechanism by which calcium reduces the risk of osteoporosis and instead make it optional; eliminate the requirement that the claim include a statement that a total dietary intake greater than 200 percent of the recommended daily intake (2,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium) has no further benefit to bone health when the food contains 400 mg or more of calcium per reference amount customarily consumed or per total daily recommended supplement intake; and allow reference for the need of physical activity in either of the health claims to be optional rather then required. This final rule is, in part, in response to a health claim petition submitted by The Beverage Institute for Health and Wellness, LLC.

  10. Multitrophic effects of calcium availability on invasive alien plants, birds, and bird prey items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince D' Amico; Greg Shriver; Jake Bowman; Meg Ballard; Whitney Wiest; Liz Tymkiw; Melissa. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Acid rain alters forest soil calcium concentrations in two ways: (1) hydrogen ions displace exchangeable calcium adsorbed to soil surfaces, and (2) aluminum is released to soil water by acid rain and displaces adsorbed calcium. This increases the absorption of aluminum by plant roots, and decreases the absorption of calcium, causing calcium to be more readily leached...

  11. Changes in nutrients and food groups intake following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gary D; Norris, Amber; Fernandez, Adolfo

    2014-11-01

    Serial changes in dietary intake, including specific food groups and nutrients during the first year following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are of interest due to surgically induced alterations in meal size, food intolerances present after surgery, and potential nutrient deficiencies. To help improve the nutritional health of surgical patients, this study's purpose was to examine changes in macro- and micronutrients, food groups, and selected foods during 12 months of follow-up in post-RYGB individuals. RYGB patients (n = 17) completed 4-day food records at baseline (prior to surgery) and then at 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery. Mean daily intake was determined at each time for energy intake, macro- and micronutrients, food groups, and selected foods in targeted food groups. A dramatic decrease in mean (± SEM) daily energy intake occurred--2,150 ± 165 kcal at baseline vs. 649 ± 40 kcal at 3 weeks; energy intake continually increased to a high of 1,307 ± 129 kcal by 12 months. More than 50 % of patients had low intake of vitamins D, E, C, folate, and calcium, magnesium, and potassium at 12 months. Servings from vegetables, grains, fats, and sweetened beverages were lower, whereas, meats, dairy, fruits, and sweets showed only small, transient changes following surgery. The reduction in energy intake following RYGB is from selected food groups and not solely a reduction in portion sizes across the diet. The lower intake of micronutrients indicates potential risk for deficiencies unless supplements are used. These findings can help in the clinical management of surgical patients to improve nutritional health.

  12. CRMP-2 peptide mediated decrease of high and low voltage-activated calcium channels, attenuation of nociceptor excitability, and anti-nociception in a model of AIDS therapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piekarz Andrew D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquity of protein-protein interactions in biological signaling offers ample opportunities for therapeutic intervention. We previously identified a peptide, designated CBD3, that suppressed inflammatory and neuropathic behavioral hypersensitivity in rodents by inhibiting the ability of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2 to bind to N-type voltage-activated calcium channels (CaV2.2 [Brittain et al. Nature Medicine 17:822–829 (2011]. Results and discussion Here, we utilized SPOTScan analysis to identify an optimized variation of the CBD3 peptide (CBD3A6K that bound with greater affinity to Ca2+ channels. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that the CBD3A6K peptide was more stable and less prone to the unfolding observed with the parent CBD3 peptide. This mutant peptide, conjugated to the cell penetrating motif of the HIV transduction domain protein TAT, exhibited greater anti-nociception in a rodent model of AIDS therapy-induced peripheral neuropathy when compared to the parent TAT-CBD3 peptide. Remarkably, intraperitoneal administration of TAT-CBD3A6K produced none of the minor side effects (i.e. tail kinking, body contortion observed with the parent peptide. Interestingly, excitability of dissociated small diameter sensory neurons isolated from rats was also reduced by TAT-CBD3A6K peptide suggesting that suppression of excitability may be due to inhibition of T- and R-type Ca2+ channels. TAT-CBD3A6K had no effect on depolarization-evoked calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP release compared to vehicle control. Conclusions Collectively, these results establish TAT-CBD3A6K as a peptide therapeutic with greater efficacy in an AIDS therapy-induced model of peripheral neuropathy than its parent peptide, TAT-CBD3. Structural modifications of the CBD3 scaffold peptide may result in peptides with selectivity against a particular subset of voltage-gated calcium channels resulting in a multipharmacology of

  13. Demonstration of uniformity of calcium absorption in adult dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J K; Alexander, L G; Morris, P J; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2015-10-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to understand quantitative aspects of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) absorption in adult dogs and cats. 34 studies in dogs and 14 studies in cats met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Intake and faecal excretion values of Ca and P were subjected to a modified Lucas test and subsequent regression analyses. According to the current scientific consensus, Ca true digestibility (absorption) should increase at low Ca intake and decrease at high Ca intake. If true, this should result in a nonlinear relationship between the percentage of Ca excreted and dietary Ca intake. The present meta-analysis showed a highly significant linear relationship (p dogs and cats at maintenance will not efficiently alter quantitative Ca absorption percentage according to the amount ingested. If the latter is true, a dietary Ca supply differing greatly from the recommended dietary intake might impair the health of cats and dogs when fed long term. The data plots for P intake and faecal excretion were less uniform suggesting other factors not just dietary intake influence faecal P excretion. In adult cats, the dietary Ca:P ratio strongly influenced the true digestibility of P, whereas this effect was less marked in adult dogs. Faecal P excretion was significantly correlated to faecal Ca excretion in both species (p < 0.0001), and surprisingly, the level of P intake did not appear to be an important determinant of true digestibility of P. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Calcium dobesilate: pharmacology and future approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, T; Ruiz, E

    1998-09-01

    1. Calcium dobesilate (2,5-dihydroxybenzene sulfonate) is a drug commonly used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy and chronic venous insufficiency. 2. The pharmacology of calcium dobesilate reveals its ability to decrease capillary permeability, as well as platelet aggregation and blood viscosity. 3. Furthermore, recent data show that calcium dobesilate increases endothelium-dependent relaxation owing to an increase in nitric oxide synthesis.

  15. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...

  16. Intake of dairy products in relation to periodontitis in older danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Christensen, Lisa B; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided...... milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist...

  17. A step towards cinacalcet testing for the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism: comparison with the standardized intravenous calcium loading. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleux, A; Vuillermet, P; Basuyau, J P; Ménard, J F; Lefebvre, H; Kuhn, J M; Prévost, G

    2015-05-01

    A calcium load to suppress parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion can help to perform the diagnosis in some case of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) with atypical presentation. A similar test with calcimimetic, which avoids hypercalcaemia, would be of interest. Our proof of concept study was conducted to compare firstly the results of a single-dose cinacalcet testing with those of the standardized short-time calcium load in healthy control (HC) and secondly the results of the single-dose cinacalcet testing in HC and in PHPT. Twelve HCs received in a random order, at a 2-week interval, either 0·33 mmol/kg calcium gluconate intravenously for 3 h, or a single oral dose of 30 mg or 60 mg cinacalcet. Twelve PHPTs received 30 mg cinacalcet and twelve other PHPTs 60 mg cinacalcet orally. Calcaemia and serum PTH levels were measured basally and then hourly for 6 h. In HC, plasma calcium did not significantly change after cinacalcet intake, whereas calcaemia rose up to 3·47 ± 0·05 mmol/l (mean ± SEM) at the end of the calcium load. PTH dropped from basal level to a similar extend (≥80%) with 60 mg cinacalcet and calcium load, whereas the decrease was significantly lesser (P standardized calcium load test; PHPT patients have a lower response to 60 mg cinacalcet than HC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  19. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  20. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  1. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  2. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  3. Peptides and Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  4. Fast food consumption in Iranian adults; dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Golzarand, Mahdieh; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-06-01

    Although fast food consumption has drastically increased in Iran in recent years; there is a paucity of data in relation to the association between fast food consumption, dietary intake, and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aims to determine fast food consumption status among young and middle-aged Iranian adults, and to assess its impact on dietary intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on 1944 young and middle-aged adults (840 men and 1104 women), who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). We collected dietary data by using a validated 168 item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Total fast food consumption was calculated by summing up weekly consumption of the most commonly consumed fast foods in Iran. Mean consumption of fast food was 161g/week (95% CI: 147-175) for young adults and 108 g/week (95% CI: 101-115) for middle-aged adults. Mean dietary intakes of energy, fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, meat, and soft drinks increased significantly (P dietary energy density and protein intake increased significantly (P dietary intakes of fiber, folate, calcium, and fruits significantly decreased across fast food tertiles (P dietary intake and some of the CVD risk factors in Iranian adults.

  5. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health.

  6. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  7. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods. The objective ...

  8. Associations of Coffee, Tea, and Caffeine Intake with Coronary Artery Calcification and Cardiovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P Elliott; Zhao, Di; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Michos, Erin D; Averill, Michelle; Sandfort, Veit; Burke, Gregory L; Polak, Joseph F; Lima, Joao A C; Post, Wendy S; Blumenthal, Roger S; Guallar, Eliseo; Martin, Seth S

    2017-02-01

    Coffee and tea are 2 of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. The association of coffee and tea intake with coronary artery calcium and major adverse cardiovascular events remains uncertain. We examined 6508 ethnically diverse participants with available coffee and tea data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Intake for each was classified as never, occasional (coffee drinkers, regular coffee intake (≥1 cup per day) was not statistically associated with coronary artery calcium progression or cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval 0.78-1.20). Caffeine intake was marginally inversely associated with coronary artery calcium progression. Moderate tea drinkers had slower progression of coronary artery calcium and reduced risk for cardiovascular events. Future research is needed to understand the potentially protective nature of moderate tea intake. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The Role of Nutrition in the Changes in Bone and Calcium Metabolism During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    On Earth, the primary purpose of the skeleton is provide structural support for the body. In space, the support function of the skeleton is reduced since, without gravity, structures have only mass and no weight. The adaptation to space flight is manifested by shifts in mineral distribution, altered bone turnover, and regional mineral deficits in weight-bearing bones. The shifts in mineral distribution appear to be related to the cephalic fluid shift. The redistribution of mineral from one bone to another or to and from areas in the same bone in response to alterations in gravitational loads is more likely to affect skeletal function than quantitative whole body losses and gains. The changes in bone turnover appear dependent upon changes in body weight with weight loss tending to increase bone resorption as well as decrease bone formation. During bedrest, the bone response to unloading varies depending upon the routine activity level of the subjects with more active subjects showing a greater suppression of bone formation in the iliac crest with inactivity. Changes in body composition during space flight are predicted by bedrest studies on Earth which show loss of lean body mass and increase tn body fat in adult males after one month. In ambulatory studies on Earth, exercising adult males of the same age, height, g weight, body mass index, and shoe size show significantly higher whole body mineral and lean body mass. than non-exercising subjects. Nutritional preference appears to change with activity level. Diet histories in exercisers and nonexercisers who maintain identical body weights show no differences in nutrients except for slightly higher carbohydrate intake in the exercisers. The absence of differences in dietary calcium in men with higher total body calcium is noteworthy. In this situation, the increased bone mineral content was facilitated by the calcium endocrine system. This regulatory system can be by-passed by raising dietary calcium. Increased

  10. Calcium absorption from fortified ice cream formulations compared with calcium absorption from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hee, Regine M; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Rietveld, Anton G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Quail, Patricia J; Berry, Mark J; Dainty, Jack R; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-05-01

    Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%+/-8%, 28%+/-5%, and 31%+/-9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium.

  11. Changes in total body calcium and diet of breeding house sparrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, D.G.; Ankney, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    We collected House Sparrows Passer domesticus around London, Ontario, estimated their total body calcium masses, food habits and egg production to test for the effects of endogenous calcium levels on control of clutch size. Before egg production began, calcium levels increased significantly and remained high through the end of egg laying, and then declined significantly after egg laying. We found no evidence that clutch size was related to endogenous calcium levels. Upon first ovulation, House Sparrows greatly increased consumption of calciferous materials such as snail shells, bird eggshells and calciferous grit. Their diet returned to normal after the final egg was ovulated. Daily calcium intake was sufficient to meet eggshell calcium needs.

  12. Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements.

  13. Nomenclature, characteristics, and dietary intakes of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization has recommended a reduction in free sugars intake throughout one's life span to decrease the burden of noncommunicable diseases, including caries and obesity. The author defines sugars' nomenclature, describes sugars' roles in food, and identifies current sugars intake. The oral health care practitioner can identify added sugars intake and provide guidance to patients to decrease their intake of added sugars while improving nutrient intake and reducing caries risk. Intake of added sugars increases the burden of chronic diseases in the United States. The oral health care practitioner is in a position to provide dietary guidance to patients to reduce both oral and systemic diseases. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts demonstrate energy and dietary intake deficiencies during periods of intense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulou, Eleni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Kambas, Antonios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Michalopoulou, Maria; Tournis, Symeon; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2011-11-01

    This study determined dietary intake and energy balance of elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts during their preseason training. Forty rhythmic gymnasts and 40 sedentary age-matched females (10-12 yrs) participated in the study. Anthropometric profile and skeletal ages were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed to estimate daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, and resting metabolic rate. Groups demonstrated comparable height, bone age, pubertal development, resting metabolic rate. Gymnasts had lower body mass, BMI, body fat than age-matched controls. Although groups demonstrated comparable daily energy intake, gymnasts exhibited a higher daily energy expenditure resulting in a daily energy deficit. Gymnasts also had higher carbohydrate intake but lower fat and calcium intake. Both groups were below the recommended dietary allowances for fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin intake. Gymnasts may need to raise their daily energy intake to avoid the energy deficit during periods of intense training.

  15. Effect of nutrient calcium on the cell wall composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of calcium in the nutrient medium on kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst), grown in a solution culture, was investigated. Calcium had no effect on the lignin content of leaf material, but decreased the lignin content per unit stem cell wall. Calcium appeared to have no significant effect on either the ...

  16. Increased calcium absorption from synthetic stable amorphous calcium carbonate: double-blind randomized crossover clinical trial in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, Nachum; Shaltiel, Galit; Daniely, Michal; Meiron, Oren E; Shechter, Assaf; Abrams, Steven A; Niv, Eva; Shapira, Yami; Sagi, Amir

    2014-10-01

    Calcium supplementation is a widely recognized strategy for achieving adequate calcium intake. We designed this blinded, randomized, crossover interventional trial to compare the bioavailability of a new stable synthetic amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) with that of crystalline calcium carbonate (CCC) using the dual stable isotope technique. The study was conducted in the Unit of Clinical Nutrition, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. The study population included 15 early postmenopausal women aged 54.9 ± 2.8 (mean ± SD) years with no history of major medical illness or metabolic bone disorder, excess calcium intake, or vitamin D deficiency. Standardized breakfast was followed by randomly provided CCC or ACC capsules containing 192 mg elemental calcium labeled with 44Ca at intervals of at least 3 weeks. After swallowing the capsules, intravenous CaCl2 labeled with 42Ca on was administered on each occasion. Fractional calcium absorption (FCA) of ACC and CCC was calculated from the 24-hour urine collection following calcium administration. The results indicated that FCA of ACC was doubled (± 0.96 SD) on average compared to that of CCC (p calcium supplementation. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium.

  18. Nutritional aspects of calcium and vitamin D from infancy to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggese, G; Igli Baroncelli, G

    1995-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient for normal growth and development. Growing individuals must be in positive calcium balance to satisfy their calcium needs. Calcium requirements are higher during infancy and adolescence than childhood and adulthood. The achievement of a higher calcium balance in infancy and adolescence is likely due to the increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration occurring during these periods. The main determinants of calcium balance in infancy are dietary calcium intake and vitamin D. In normal circumstances, breast milk and formulas supply sufficient amounts of calcium. In the post-natal life, the major sources of vitamin D are sunlight exposure and supplemented formulas; in fact, the amount of vitamin D in breast milk, cow's milk, and common foods is poor. Although sunlight exposure should be able to maintain adequate vitamin D stores, a supplement with 400 IU/day of vitamin D from birth to the second year of life is recommended to assure the prophylaxis of rickets in all breast-fed infants. A dose of 400 IU/day of vitamin D is safe and appropriate. During childhood and adolescence, currently recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for calcium might be augmented, as suggested by calcium balance studies. The higher amount of calcium intake may lead to achieve maximal peak bone mass. The main source of vitamin D in children and adolescents is the casual sunlight exposure; therefore, a sistematical vitamin D supplementation is not usually needed. The major sources of calcium are milk and dairy products. However, if calcium intake is reduced, an additional calcium intake to reach the RDA may be provided by calcium supplements.

  19. Store-operated calcium entry is essential for glial calcium signalling in CNS white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, M; Lewis, A; Butt, A M

    2017-02-28

    'Calcium signalling' is the ubiquitous response of glial cells to multiple extracellular stimuli. The primary mechanism of glial calcium signalling is by release of calcium from intracellular stores of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Replenishment of ER Ca(2+) stores relies on store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). However, despite the importance of calcium signalling in glial cells, little is known about their mechanisms of SOCE. Here, we investigated SOCE in glia of the mouse optic nerve, a typical CNS white matter tract that comprises bundles of myelinated axons and the oligodendrocytes and astrocytes that support them. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we identified Orai1 channels, both Stim1 and Stim2, and the transient receptor potential M3 channel (TRPM3) as the primary channels for SOCE in the optic nerve, and their expression in both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes was demonstrated by immunolabelling of optic nerve sections and cultures. The functional importance of SOCE was demonstrated by fluo-4 calcium imaging on isolated intact optic nerves and optic nerve cultures. Removal of extracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]o) resulted in a marked depletion of glial cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)]i), which recovered rapidly on restoration of [Ca(2+)]o via SOCE. 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2APB) significantly decreased SOCE and severely attenuated ATP-mediated calcium signalling. The results provide evidence that Orai/Stim and TRPM3 are important components of the 'calcium toolkit' that underpins SOCE and the sustainability of calcium signalling in white matter glia.

  20. Multicomponent supplement containing Chlorella decreases arterial stiffness in healthy young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Takeshi; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Kono, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella, a unicellular green alga, contains various antioxidants and other nutrients such as amino acids and fiber. Previous studies have reported that supplementation with multiple antioxidants reduces arterial stiffness, a well-established cardiovascular risk factor. We investigated the effects of Chlorella intake on arterial stiffness using a single-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study design. Fourteen young men took placebo or Chlorella tablets for four weeks, with a 12-week washout period between trials, in a randomized order. Before and after each trial, blood pressure, heart rate, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, an index of arterial stiffness, were measured. Treatment compliance was comparable between the two groups. There were no differences in blood pressure and heart rate before and after supplementation in both the placebo and Chlorella groups. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity decreased after Chlorella intake (before vs after intake; 11.6 ± 0.2 vs 11.1 ± 0.1 m/s, p = 0.01), but not after placebo intake (11.4 ± 0.2 vs 11.4 ± 0.2 m/s, p = 0.98). Multicomponent analysis of the Chlorella-containing tablet detected nutrients that can reduce arterial stiffness, such as antioxidant vitamins, arginine, potassium, calcium, and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that intake of a Chlorella-containing multicomponent supplement can decrease arterial stiffness. PMID:24249971

  1. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal ...

  2. The association of calcium supplementation and incident cardiovascular events in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many US adults use calcium supplements to address inadequate dietary intake and improve bone health. However, recent reports have suggested that use of calcium supplements may elevate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In this study, we examined associations between baseline calcium supplement use a...

  3. Effects of a reduced nitrogen diet on calcitriol levels and calcium metabolism in growing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscher, Alexandra; Huber, Korinna

    2010-07-01

    For monogastric animals, changes in dietary protein content modulate calcium (Ca) metabolism by changing parathyroid hormone and calcitriol concentrations. However, the effects of dietary nitrogen (N) restriction on Ca metabolism are not known in ruminants. Since ruminants express endogenous recycling mechanisms very efficiently to save N, it is known that these recycling mechanisms protect ruminants against N depletion in times of dietary N restriction. Therefore, consequences on Ca metabolism induced by reduction of dietary N supply as observed in monogastric animals should not occur in ruminants. Due to this specific metabolic feature, a reduction of dietary N intake can be used to diminish environmental N pollution. The aim of the present study was to determine the consequences of a reduced N intake on Ca homeostasis and respective regulatory hormone concentrations in ruminants. Growing goats fed with a reduced N diet showed a decrease in ionised calcium (Ca2+) and total Ca concentrations while bone resorption marker carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen increased in plasma. Unexpectedly, despite hypocalcemia, concentrations of calcitriol were decreased in the animals of the N reduction group whereas calcidiol levels were not affected. From this data, it can be concluded that the Ca metabolism of growing goats can be modulated by changes of dietary N content like in monogastric animals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration....... Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary